Sample records for albite

  1. In situ viscosity measurements of albite melt under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Funakoshi, K I; Terasaki, H


    The viscosities of albite (NaAlSi sub 3 O sub 8) melt under high pressures have been measured using an x-ray radiography falling sphere method with synchrotron radiation. This method has enabled us to determine the precise sinking velocity directly. Recent experiments of albite melt showed the presence of a viscosity minimum around 5 GPa (Poe et al 1997 Science 276 1245, Mori et al 2000 Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 175 87). We present the results for albite melt up to 5.2 GPa at 1600 and 1700 deg. C. The viscosity minimum is clearly observed to be around 4.5 GPa, and it might be explained not by the change of the compression mechanism in albite melt but by change of the phase itself.

  2. Radioluminescence and thermoluminescence of albite at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldspar as an archaeological and geological natural material for dating and retrospective dosimetry is receiving more and more attention because of its useful luminescence properties. In this study, the 25-280 K thermoluminescence (TL) and radioluminescence (RL) spectra in albite, which is a component of the two main feldspar series, the alkali feldspar (Na, K)AlSi3O8 and the plagioclases (NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8) have been presented for aliquots along (001) and (010) crystallographic orientations. There are four main emission bands that are considered to arise from complexes of intrinsic defects linked in larger complexes with impurities such as Na+, Mn2+ or Fe3+ ions. The consequence of their association is to produce different luminescence efficiencies that produce wavelength sensitive TL curves. Radioluminescence data at low temperature for albites is distorted by contributions from the TL sites, even when the RL is run in a cooling cycle. This indicates the potential for a far more general problem for analysis of low temperature RL in insulating materials. - Highlights: → TL and RL spectra in albite were presented for different orientations. → There are 4 emission bands that are considered to arise from complexes of intrinsic. → RL data at low temperature for albite is distorted by contributions from TL sites. → This indicates the potential problem for analysis of low temperature RL.

  3. Radioluminescence and thermoluminescence of albite at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, N., E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey); Garcia-Guinea, J. [Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Kibar, R.; Cetin, A.; Ayvacikli, M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey); Townsend, P.D. [Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, England (United Kingdom)


    Feldspar as an archaeological and geological natural material for dating and retrospective dosimetry is receiving more and more attention because of its useful luminescence properties. In this study, the 25-280 K thermoluminescence (TL) and radioluminescence (RL) spectra in albite, which is a component of the two main feldspar series, the alkali feldspar (Na, K)AlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8} and the plagioclases (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}-CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}) have been presented for aliquots along (001) and (010) crystallographic orientations. There are four main emission bands that are considered to arise from complexes of intrinsic defects linked in larger complexes with impurities such as Na{sup +}, Mn{sup 2+} or Fe{sup 3+} ions. The consequence of their association is to produce different luminescence efficiencies that produce wavelength sensitive TL curves. Radioluminescence data at low temperature for albites is distorted by contributions from the TL sites, even when the RL is run in a cooling cycle. This indicates the potential for a far more general problem for analysis of low temperature RL in insulating materials. - Highlights: > TL and RL spectra in albite were presented for different orientations. > There are 4 emission bands that are considered to arise from complexes of intrinsic. > RL data at low temperature for albite is distorted by contributions from TL sites. > This indicates the potential problem for analysis of low temperature RL.

  4. Experimental studies of interaction between water and albite melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Qiang; (孙樯); XIE; Hongsen; (谢鸿森); ZHENG; Haifei; (郑海飞); GUO; Jie; (郭捷); DING; Dongye,(丁东业)


    On the basis of FTIR and Raman spectra studies on hydrous albite glasses, it is found that there exist two water solubility mechanisms in albite melts simultaneously. On the one hand, water interacts with Al -O°-Al to produce the Q3 Al-OH, leading to depolymerization, and this results in the appearance of 4500 cm(1 in FTIR spectra and 900 cm(1 in Raman spectra. On the other hand, the exchange of H+ in water with Na+ in albite melt as charge-balancing cation occurs at the same time. In the initial stage, the production of Al -OH is the dominant solubility mechanism, at the stage of higher water contents, the exchange of H+ with Na+ becomes the important dissolution mechanism. The dissolution of water into albite melt can be expressed as H2O+ 3NaAlSi3O8 = 2NaAl(OH)Si3O7.5 +HAlSi3O8 +NaOH.

  5. Crystal structure refinement of reedmergnerite, the boron analog of albite (United States)

    Clark, J.R.; Appleman, D.E.


    Ordering of boron in a feldspar crystallographic site T1(0) has been found in reedmergnerite, which has silicon-oxygen and sodium-oxygen distances comparable to those in isostructural low albite. If a simple ionic model is assumed, calculated bond strengths yield a considerable charge imbalance in reedmergnerite, an indication of the inadequacy of the model with respect to these complex structures and of the speculative nature of conclusions based on such a model.

  6. Electrical conductivity of albite melts at high pressures (United States)

    Ni, H.; Keppler, H.


    High electrical conductivity observed from magnetotelluric/geomagnetic depth sounding is probably associated with the presence of silicate melts. We investigated electrical conductivity of albite melts, both anhydrous and hydrous with 2.0-5.4 wt% H2O, at 300-1500°C and 0.9-1.8 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. Anhydrous glass was synthesized by fusing oxides and carbonates in 1-bar furnace, and hydrous glasses were prepared by fusing the mixture of glass powder and water in a TZM vessel. A glass cylinder was enclosed between a platinum rod as inner electrode and a Pt-Rh capsule as outer electrode. Platinum wires were used to connect both electrodes to a Solartron 1260 impedance analyzer for conductivity measurements at 3M to 3 HZ. A type-S thermocouple, which was separated from the conductivity circuit, was used to monitor temperature. Furthermore, a Mo foil was employed to reduce the interference from heating circuit. Experimental results demonstrate that the electrical conductivity of albite melt follows an Arrhenius relationship in both glass (1100°C) region. In both cases, electrical conductivity increases with water content but decreases with pressure. In the glass region, electrical conductivity can be modelled as logσ = 3.5734 + 0.25534C - (4264+160.43P)/T, where σ is conductivity in S/m, C is water content in wt%, P is pressure in GPa, and T is temperature in K. The above expression implies an activation energy of 82 kJ/mol and an activation volume of 3.1 cc/mol. In the liquid region, electrical conductivity can be modelled as logσ = 2.6906 + 0.065915C - (2339+371.97P)/T, which implies an activation energy of 45 kJ/mol and an activation volume of 7.1 cc/mol. The dominating conduction mechanism in albite melts is suggested to be the motion of sodium cation.

  7. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement

  8. A thermochemical calculation of the pyroxene saturation surface in the system diopside-albite-anorthite (United States)

    Hon, R.; Henry, D. J.; Navrotsky, A.; Weill, D. F.


    The pyroxene saturation surface in the system diopside-albite-anorthite may be calculated to + or - 10 C from thermochemical data over most of its composition range. The thermochemical data used are the experimentally determined enthalpies of mixing of the ternary liquids and the enthalpy of fusion of diopside. These are combined with a mixing model for the configurational entropy in the melt and the activity of CaMgSi2O6 in the clinopyroxene, which is less than unity due to departures from CaMgSi2O6 stoichiometry. The two-lattice melt model appears to work satisfactorily throughout the pyroxene primary phase field but probably needs modification at more anorthite-rich compositions.

  9. Geomorphological stability of Permo-Triassic albitized profiles - case study of the Montseny-Guilleries High (NE Iberia) (United States)

    Parcerisa, D.; Casas, L.; Franke, C.; Gomez-Gras, D.; Lacasa, G.; Nunez, J. A.; Thiry, M.


    Massif paleoalteration profiles (≥ 200 m) occur in the upper parts of the Montseny-Guilleries High (NE Catalan Coastal Ranges). The profiles consist of hard albitized-chloritized-hematized facies in the lower part and softer kaolinized-hematized facies in the upper part of the section. Preliminary paleomagnetic data show Triassic ages for both, the albitized and the kaolinized parts, and point to a surficial formation altered under oxidising conditions. Similar paleoalteration profiles have already been described and dated to Triassic ages elsewhere in Europe [Schmitt, 1992; Ricordel et al., 2007; Parcerisa et al., 2009]. These Permian-Triassic alterations are following a succession of different mineral transformations from the top to the base of the profile: 1) Red facies are defined by an increase in the amount and size of haematite crystals leading to the red colour of the rocks. The increase on haematite content is pervasively affecting the whole rock and is accompanied by the kaolinitization of the feldspars. 2) Pink facies: here, the granite shows an uniform pink colouration, which is mainly due to the albitization of the primary Ca-bearing plagioclases, accompanied by a precipitation of minute haematite, sericite, and calcite crystals inside the albite. Additionally primary biotite is fully chloritized. The pink granites are much more resistant to the present-day weathering than the "unaltered" facies at the base of the profile. 3) Spotted facies is characterized by a partial alteration of the rock, which caused a pink-screened aspect to the rock. The alteration developed along the fractures and is less well developed or absent in the non-fractured zones. In the pink-screened facies, the plagioclases are partially albitized and contain numerous hematite inclusions. Biotites are usually almost entirely chloritized. 4) Unaltered facies: These granites are coloured white to greyish, containing plagioclase and K-feldspar that do not show any trace of

  10. The combined effect of temperature and pH on albite dissolution rate under far-from-equilibrium conditions (United States)

    Gruber, Chen; Kutuzov, Ilya; Ganor, Jiwchar


    Two of the most studied aspects of albite dissolution kinetics are the effects of temperature and pH. Previous studies quantified the effect of pH on albite dissolution rate under constant temperature. These studies suggested that the effect of pH on dissolution rate can be attributed to three independent dissolution mechanisms that are dominant in different pH region: acidic - proton-promoted, neutral - water-promoted and alkaline - hydroxide-promoted. Based on experimental results, those studies developed a rate law to predict albite dissolution rate as a function of pH, assuming that the effect of pH is temperature independent. The effect of temperature was attributed either to the temperature dependency of the rate under constant pH or that of the rate law coefficients. Nevertheless no unified rate law that combines both effects was suggested. When applying the effects of temperature and pH assuming they are independent of each other in order to predict the dissolution rate at pH of about 5 and various temperatures, the predicted rate overestimate the rate by 0.5-1 order of magnitude. The current study develops and suggests the use of new rate law that is based on two fast adsorption reactions of protons and hydroxides on two different surface sites. The new rate law considers the effect of surface coverage of protons and hydroxides that is temperature dependent. The new rate law successfully describes the variation of albite dissolution rate (about 8 orders of magnitude) under wide temperature (3.6-300 °C) and pH (1.20-12.40) ranges. Under slightly acidic conditions (pH 5-7) the new rate law predicts a minimum rate zone that was not observed before. In order to confirm whether this minimum rate zone does exist, three SPBE (single-point-batch-experiment) of albite dissolution were conducted at pH 5 and temperatures of 3.6, 25 and 50 °C. The SPBE experiments confirm the existence of minimum rate zone predicted by the independent new rate law. The new rate law

  11. Structural relaxation of vitreous albite near Tg and implications for transport properties of the supercooled liquid at high pressure (United States)

    Gaudio, S. J.; Lesher, C. E.


    We estimate the glass transition temperature, Tg, for vitreous/amorphous albite between 0 and 7.7 GPa by tracking the progress of densification following high-temperature annealing experiments with run durations equal to 5τ (when τ=100 s). Tg decreases by 54 K/GPa up to 2.6 GPa, and thereafter shows a weak negative pressure dependence. This behavior mimics the negative pressure dependence of viscosity of albite liquid shown by [1]; however, we do not find a change in the sign of ∂Tg/∂P at least up to 7.7 GPa as reported in some isothermal ∂η/∂P, and ∂DO/∂P data sets. Our high field (21.8 T) 27Al MAS NMR measurements of recovered glasses rapidly quenched from super-Tg conditions possess trace amounts of high coordinated Al at 2.6 GPa and only ˜17% by 5.5 GPa. This suggests that the decrease in Tg (and viscosity at low temperature) results dominantly from topological rearrangement of the supercooled melt structure and not changes to Al or Si coordination number and connectivity of the network. In fact, at Tg from 0 to 8 GPa, the XNBO, or network connectivity, is unchanged [2] and at 7.7 GPa, we find the proportion of high coordinated Al is still ˜35%. Convergence in the timescales of relaxation at Tg(P) and the onset of Na mobility to 6 GPa documented by high-pressure electrical conductivity measurements [3] implies that the fragility of albite melt increases with pressure up to ˜4-5 GPa, without changing the effective polymerization of the melt. In contrast, fragility appears to decrease with pressure in partially depolymerized silicate melts. Such differences in fragility can be used for extrapolation of activation energy based models for viscous flow to high pressure. [1] Kushiro, 1978, EPSL, 41; Brearley et al., 1986, GCA, 50; Brearley and Montana, 1989, GCA, 53; Poe et al., 1997, Science, 276; Suzuki et al., 2002, Phys. Chem. Miner., 29; Funakoshi et al., 2002, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter., 14; Behrens and Schulze, 2003, Am. Min., 88. [2] Lee et

  12. Radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration haloes in albite: implications for alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization and element mobilization (United States)

    Pal, D. C.; Chaudhuri, T.


    Uraninite, besides occurring in other modes, occurs as inclusions in albite in feldspathic schist in the Bagjata uranium deposits, Singhbhum shear zone, India. The feldspathic schist, considered the product of Na-metasomatism, witnessed multiple hydrothermal events, the signatures of which are preserved in the alteration halo in albite surrounding uraninite. Here we report radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration halo in albite and its various geological implications. Microscopic observation and SRIM/TRIM simulations reveal that the dimension of the alteration halo is dependent collectively on the zone of maximum cumulative α dose that albite was subjected to and by the extent of dissolution of uraninite during alteration. In well-preserved alteration haloes, from uraninite to the unaltered part of albite, the alteration minerals are systematically distributed in different zones; zone-1: K-feldspar; zone-2: chlorite; zone-3: LREE-phase/pyrite/U-Y-silicate. Based on textures of alteration minerals in the alteration microdomain, we propose a generalized Na+➔K+➔H+ alteration sequence, which is in agreement with the regional-scale alteration pattern. Integrating distribution of ore and alteration minerals in the alteration zone and their geochemistry, we further propose multiple events of U, REE, and sulfide mineralization/mobilization in the Bagjata deposit. The alteration process also involved interaction of the hydrothermal fluid with uraninite inclusions resulting in resorption of uraninite, redistribution of elements, including U and Pb, and resetting of isotopic clock. Thus, our study demonstrates that alteration halo is a miniature scale-model of the regional hydrothermal alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization/mobilization. This study further demonstrates that albite is vulnerable to radiation damage and damage-controlled fluid-assisted alteration, which may redistribute metals, including actinides, from radioactive minerals

  13. Partitioning of F Between Aqueous Fluids and Albite Granite Melt and Its Petrogenetic and Metallogenetic SignifiCance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小林; 朱金初; 等


    The fluid/melt partitioning experiments on fluorine were carried out in the system albite-H2O-HF at P=100MPa,770℃≤T≤800℃and wt 2%-6% conditions.The concentrations of fluorine in quenched glasses(melt) were determined by electron microprobe and those of flusorine in the coexisting aqueous fluid were calculated by the method of mass balance The result shows that the fluorine was concentrated in graniteic melt relative to the coexisting fluid.The partition coefficient DF(wtFF1/wtFMt)ranges from 0.35to 0.89,It increases with increasing fluorine content in the system,this means that there is not just one single value of partition coefficicent for fluorine in the granitic melt-fluid system.The partitioning behavior of fluorine in this system depends critically on fluorine and proton(H+) concentrations.Our data suggest that F-rich granitic melts exist in nature and that fluorine may not be an important complexing agent of metal elements in F-bearing fluids.

  14. Preliminary notes about the processes of uranium albitization at Lagoa Real (Bahia) and its comparation with the Russian and Sweden processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description and interpretation of the development of the processes of albitization in Russia, Sweden and Brazil, is presented. Based on the comparison of similar characteristics, interpreted and suggested, in the light of present knowledge, it is proposed to set a place in time and space for the uranium mineralization at Lagoa Real. A zoning of the Sn, Cu, Ba, Pb and Zn with respect to the uranium mineralization is suggested. (Author)

  15. Cretaceous ongonites (topaz-bearing albite-rich microleucogranites) from Ongon Khairkhan, Central Mongolia: Products of extreme magmatic fractionation and pervasive metasomatic fluid: rock interaction (United States)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Kontak, Daniel J.; Gerel, Ochir; Gregory Shellnutt, J.; Fayek, Mostafa


    Ongonites were defined at their type locality at Ongon Khairkhan, central Mongolia, as pristine magmatic topaz-bearing albite-quartz-keratophyres with up to 4 wt. % F and containing phenocrysts of albite, K-feldspar, quartz and rare mica and topaz hosted in a groundmass composed of the same minerals. However, detailed petrographic and SEM-EDS studies indicate that these rocks underwent considerable subsolidus exchange with deuteric fluids, as evidenced by the presence of albitic plagioclase (Ab~ 100) and end-member orthoclase (Or~ 100), secondary Li-Fe-rich mica (zinnwaldite) enriched in rare metals (Sn, W, Ta, Nb), pitted feldspars containing fluid inclusions, and disseminated fluorite. The ~ 120 Ma old dyke rocks, emplaced at a high structural level in the crust, are strongly peraluminous leucogranites characterized by high Al and alkalis that are also enriched in Rb, Cs, Ga and Ta, depleted in Mg, Ca, Zr, Ba, Sr and Eu, and have anomalous K/Rb, Rb/Sr, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios compared to the average continental crust. However, the suite has Nd isotopic ratios (ɛNd(120) ~- 1) similar to those of contemporaneous A-type granites of the Mongolian-Transbaikalian igneous province of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The inferred primary δ18O (~+ 6 to + 7‰) and Pb isotopic values are consistent with a granitic parent magma and interaction with orthomagmatic fluids. The ongonites and constituent minerals record (1) an extensive and protracted crystal fractionation history, in part due to the presence of volatiles (particularly F) which depressed the solidus temperature of the felsic rocks and extended its duration of crystallization and (2) subsolidus exchange with fluids which includes late flux of heated meteoric water as indicated by modified whole rock δ18O values (+ 0.5 to +2.7‰). The interaction of the ongonites with internally derived orthomagmatic fluids is considered to result in enrichment and/or redistribution of several incompatible elements, but not to

  16. 40Ar-39Ar Dating of Albite and Phlogopite from Porphyry Iron Deposits in the Ningwu Basin in East-Central China and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jinjie; MAO Jingwen


    40Ar-39Ar dating of albite from the Meishan and Taocun iron deposits yields plateau ages of 122.90±0.16 Ma and 124.89±0.30 Ma, and isochron ages of 122.60±0.16 Ma and 124.90±0.29 Ma, respectively. Phlogopite from the Zhongshan-Gushan ore field has a plateau age of 126.7±0.17 Ma and an isochron age of 127.21±1.63 Ma. Analysis of regional geodynamic evolution of the middle-lower Yangtze River region suggests that the porphyry iron deposits were formed as a result of large-scale lithosphere delamination and strong sinistral strike-slip movement of the TanchengLujiang fault zone. The copper, molybdenum and gold deposit system in the middle-lower Yangtze River region was formed during the stress transition period of the eastern China continent.

  17. Hydrothermal Alteration Zoning and Kinetic Process of Mineral-Water Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣华; 胡书敏; 苏艳丰


    This study reports the kinetic experimental results of albite in water and in KCl solution at 22 MPa in the temperature range of 25 to 400(C. Kinetic experiments have been carried out in an open flow-through reaction system (packed bed reactor). Albite dissolution is always incongruent in water at most temperatures, but becomes congruent at 300(C (close to the critical point 374(C). At temperatures from 25 to 300(C, the incongruent dissolution of albite is reflected by the fact that sodium and aluminum are easily dissolved into water; from 300 to 400(C it is reflected by silicon being more easily dissolved in water than Al and Na. Maximum albite dissolution rates in the flow hydrothermal systems have been repeatedly observed at 300(C, independent of flow rates.The kinetic experiments of albite dissolution in a KCl aqueous solution (0.1 mol KCl) indicate that the dissolution rate of albite increases with increasing temperature. Maximum silicon release rates of albite have been observed at 400(C, while maximum aluminum release rates of albite at 374(C. The reaction rates of albite also depend on the potassium concentration in the aqueous solution.These results can be used to interpret the mechanism for forming hydrothermal alteration. The kinetic experiments of mineral-aqueous solutions interactions in the hydrothermal system from 25 to 400(C and at 22 MPa indicate that the formation of the feldspar-mica-kaolinite zoning occurring in some ore deposits may depend not only on the mineral stability but also on the kinetics of feldspar hydration, which is affected by the water property variation when crossing the critical point.

  18. 某蚀变花岗岩型铌钽矿床中钠长石化和天河石化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A Nb-, Ta-, rare metal deposit has been discovered in a albitization-, amazonitization-granite by using amazonite as an indicator. The ore-bearing dyke, early Yanshanian in age, occurs in a Late Jurassic metamorphic sandstone and breccia. Three stages of albite can be distinguished, showing regular variation in composition, optical property and structure with respective to different generations. Two generations of amazonite are noticed and studies are made on their composition and structure by using optical and X-ray diffraction methods. Amazonite is readily recognizable in the field by its colonr. Its occurrence with albitization can be used as a prospecting indicator for Nb, Ta and other rare metals.

  19. A note on incipient spilitisation of central Indian basin basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Iyer, S.D.

    Rocks dredged in the vicinity of the 79 degrees E fracture zone, in the Central Indian Basin, are sub-alkaline basalts, which are regarded as precursors to spilites. The minerals identified are mainly albitic plagioclase, augite, olivine, and less...

  20. Thermo-optical properties of optically stimulated luminescence in feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Johnsen, O.


    Optically stimulated luminescence processes in feldspars are subject to competing thermal enhancement and quenching processes: this article describes the thermal enhancement effects for orthoclase, albite and plagioclase feldspars. It is demonstrated that certain lattice vibrational modes can...

  1. Kinetics of Hydrothermal Reactions of Minerals in Near-critical and Supercritical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This work presents new experimental results on the kinetics of mineral dissolution in near-critical and supercritical water in a temperature range (T) from 25 to 400° C and a constant pressure of 23 MPa. Kinetic experiments were carried out by using a flow reactor (packed bed reactor) of an open system. The dissolution rates of albite and magnetite were measured under these experimental conditions. Na, Al and Si release rates for albite dissolution in water were measured as a function of the temperature and flow velocity in the reaction system. The maximum release rates of Na, Al and Si of albite dissolution in the hydrothermal flow systems under different flow velocities were always obtained at 300° C, that is to say, the maximum albite dissolution rates in the flow systems, regardless of different flow rates, were repeatedly measured at 300° C. Results indicate a wide fluctuation in albite dissolution rates occurring close to the critical point of water. The dissolution rates increased when the temperatures increased from 25 to 300° C and decreased when the temperatures increase from 300 to 400° C. At some flow velocities, the dissolution rates rose as the temperature surpassed 374° C. Albite dissolution was incongruent in water at most temperatures. It was only at 300° C that albite dissolution was congruent. The albite dissolution from 25 to 300° C (at 23 MPa) will change from incongruent to congruent, whereas from subcritical 300 to 400° C (at 23 MPa), the dissolution will change from congruent to incongruent. The release ratio of Al/Si (or Na/Si) is positive at T300° C. The dissolution rates of magnetite in water increased with increasing T until T at the critical point of water or around it. The authors believe that this is caused by the wide fluctuations in water properties under the conditions from the near-critical to supercritical state.

  2. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim


    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  3. Uruguay geology contributions no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedimentary facies: the metasiltites and mela sandstones develop granoblastic textures. The present lepidoblastic textures in flexured bands of seri cite and/or chlorite, a fine qranoblastic matrix made by quartz-feldespaths. The carbonates develop mosaic textures with big crystals of calcites and dolomite, generally elongated following metamorphic foliation (seri cite/chlorite). The quartzites develop qranoblastic textures, with few minerals. Volcanics facies: the basic volcanics presents doleritic intersect al textural, that exist saussuritized plagioclase and albitic diabasa with diopside-augite beaches. Usually the pyroxenes develop poiquilitic textural. Present amphiboles of the acti note series and frequently sphene. Others basic rocks are microlitio porfiric, in intersect al or fluidal matrix, with albite microliters in epi dote-chlorite-acti note criploerislalline ground.The stability relationships of the diferents types of basic metavulcanites show low metamorphic facies, with temperatures under 530-550 grades C, being the most Irequenl association: albite+actinote+chlorite+epidote+opaques- opaques.The clastic faciest are integrated by monogenic breccia with elements of varied vulcanites and porfiric rnicrolitic texture. The matrix is made of line quartz and epidote aggregate. The basic volcanism present hyalo-porfiric textures with saussuritized plagiodase pheno crystals, and quartz in a micro lo criptocrystalline ground. Were also defined rocks with porfiric texture in a piromeritic ground as well as rocks with vacuolar microlitic texture.The clastic facies are made by breccias with sharp elements, with rare cement, integrated by pyroclastic products, The volcanics rocks present retrometamorphism of the phenocrystals and devitrification. The plagioclase are traslormated in fine aggregates of albite epidote. The regional metamorphism minerals are represented by the para genesis: quartz+albite+chlorite+epidote+(seri cite-actinole), subfacies quartz albite


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

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    Full Text Available In this study, Kütahya region’s perlite with high alkali oxide content, at the present time not being assessed in the ceramic industry, was used in stoneware glazes replacing albite, orthoclase and ulexite in the starting batches. New glaze recipes were composed by adding perlite to the standard glaze composition consisting of quartz, kaolin, ulexite, albite and orthoclase. The effects of such a compositional modification on the optical parameters and melting properties of the relevant glazes fired at 1160 °C were investigated. The chemical (XRF and mineralogical analysis (XRD of fluxes were also determined.

  5. U–Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high‐pressure/ low‐temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori : tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.


    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U–Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite–Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds in

  6. Report on the vitrification and devitrification of Hanford, Washington soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study as focused principally on the effects of melting or vitrification and recrystallization or devitrification on soil from the Hanford Reservation in Washington State. The fusion properties of soil are important because the containment of nuclear material in in-situ vitrified soil is a possible requirement. An understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the soil is important in determinaing how the soil can contain the nuclear material. The soil itself is composed of a plagioclastic feldspar, quartz, and hematite. The feldspar is made up of albite and anorthite. When the soil is heated, the first mineral to melt is the albite between 11000C and 12000C. The mineral anorthite melts above 13100C and hematite below 17000C. The quartz does not melt until the temperature exceeds 17150C. The albite in the glass is sodium aluminosilicate. When the albite melts, microscopic spheres of non-crystalline, low-melting sodium silicate form. This indicates that the aluminosilicate matrix decomposes when heated. When crystals, which were previously fused, are heated: crystals begin to reform above 9000C. The minerals which crystallize are feldspar and magnetite, an iron oxide. Recrystallization should begin at a temperature 2500C below the liquidus point. The leaching of sodium, copper, calcium, and aluminum decreased with increasing fusion temperature, while the leaching of iron and barium increased with increasing fusion temperature

  7. Susceptibility of Granite Rock to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees C and 250 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.; Gill, S., Ecker, L., Butcher, T., Warren, J.


    Granite rock comprising anorthoclase-type albite and quartz as its major phases and biotite mica as the minor one was exposed to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2})/water at 250 C and 13.78 MPa pressure for 104 hours. For comparison purpose, four other rocks, albite, hornblende, diorite, and quartz, also were exposed. During the exposure of granite, ionic carbonic acid, known as the wet carbonation reactant, preferentially reacted with anorthoclase-type albite and biotite, rather than with quartz. The susceptibility of biotite to wet carbonation was higher than that of anorthoclase-type albite. All the carbonation by-products of anorthoclase-type albite were amorphous phases including Na- and K-carbonates, a kaolinite clay-like compound, and silicon dioxide, while wet carbonation converted biotite into potassium aluminum silicate, siderite, and magnesite in crystalline phases and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Three of these reaction by-products, Na- and K-carbonates and HF, were highly soluble in water. Correspondingly, the carbonated top surface layer, about 1.27 mm thick as carbonation depth, developed porous microstructure with numerous large voids, some of which have a size of {>=} 10 {mu}m, reflecting the erosion of granite by the leaching of these water-soluble reaction by-products. Comparing with this carbonation depth, its depth of other minerals was considerable lower, particularly, for hornblende and diorite with 0.07 and 0.02 mm, while no carbonate compound was detected in quartz. The major factor governing these low carbonation depths in these rocks was the formation of water-insensitive scale-like carbonate by-products such as calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), and magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). Their formation within the superficial layer of these minerals served as protective barrier layer that inhibits and retards further carbonation of fresh underlying minerals, even if the exposure time was extended. Thus, the coverage by this barrier layer

  8. Kinetic Modeling of Diagenesis of Eogene Lacustrine Sandstone Reservoirs in the Jianghan Basin, Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪师军; 卿海若; 唐建武; 周美夫; 李泽琴


    In the Tuoshi oilfield, located in the Cenozoic Jianghan Basin of southeastern China, there have been found hydrocarbon reservoirs hosted in lacustrine sandstones of the Eogene Xingouzui Formation. The main diagenetic features identified in these sandstones include the dissolution of detrital K-feldspar and albite grains, the precipitation of quartz as overgrowths and/or cements, and the precipitation and/or transformation of clay minerals. These diagenetic features were interpreted to have occurred in early, intermediate and late stages, based on the burial depth. The kinetics of fluid-mineral reactions and the concentrations of aqueous species at each stage of diagenesis were simulated numerically for these lacustrine sandstones, using a quasi-stationary state approximation that incorporates simultaneous chemical reactions in a time-space continuum. During the early diagenetic stage, pore fluid was weakly acidic, which resulted in dissolution of K-feldspar and albite and, therefore, led to the release of K + , Na + , Al3 + and SiO2(aq) into the diagenetic fluid. The increased K+ , Na + , Al3+ and SiO2(aq) concentrations in the diagenetic fluid caused the precipitation of quartz, kaolinite and illite. At the beginning of the intermediate diagenetic stage the concentration of H + was built up due to the decomposition of organic matter, which was responsible for further dissolution of K-feldspar and albite and precipitation of quartz, kaolinite, and illite. During the late diagenetic stage, the pore fluid was weakly alkaline, K-feldspar became stable and was precipitated with quartz and clay minerals.When the burial depth was greater than 3000 m, the pore fluids became supersaturated with respect to albite, but undersaturated with respect to quartz, resulting in the precipitation of albite and the dissolution of quartz. The diagenetic reactions forecasted in the numerical modeling closely matched the diagenetic features identified by petrographic examination, and

  9. Origin of alternate amphibole and quartz rich bands in amphibole bearing quartzite from North Khetri Copper Belt, Rajasthan, India (United States)

    Paul, J.; Baidya, A. S.; Pal, D. D. C.


    North Khetri Copper Belt (NKCB), located in the northern part of Western Indian shield, is one of most important copper repositories in India. Mineralization is hosted by quartzite containing abundant amphibole in the form of alternation of amphibole ± albite and quartz ± albite bands. In a succession near Chandmari mine of NKCB, this thick banded unit is laterally extended over few hundreds of meters. Band thickness varies from few millimetres to tens of centimetres. Such banding (commonly appearing as gneissic banding) of amphibole ± albite is unlikely to be generated in a quartzo-feldspathic rock metamorphosed at lower amphibolite facies. Amphibole, under microscope, shows pleochroism in shades of green. Their grains are inclusion free and do not show any orientation. From major oxide analysis, their average composition is found to be Ca2Mg2.5Fe2+1.5Fe3+0.5Al1.5Si7O22(OH)2. Forming Fe-Mg rich amphibole in a quartzo-feldspathic unit is again challenging its metamorphic origin. Also, amphibole of same composition found in the form of veins within the host rock. All these observations inferring that the amphibole is probably of hydrothermal origin. Albite in host rock can supply Si, Al and O. If a fluid containing Fe, Mg and Ca intrudes into the host rock, the amphibole of desirable composition may form. However, such alternating banding of amphibole ± albite and quartz ± albite is enigmatic. It is possible that the banded nature is inherited from an existing banded rock with different mineralogy and mineral solubility, e.g. alternation of impure/siliceous carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Presence of carbonate, mainly dolomite, has been reported early and also observed in field. When a hydrothermal fluid, containing some Fe, had invaded this unit, it reacted with carbonate units and replaced the carbonate by amphibole. This will result in amphibole of expected composition and will also mimic the inherited banded nature in original succession. Reaction will

  10. Utilization of plastic detectors in autoradiographic studies of radioactive minerals from the Lagoa Real uranium Province, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short account on an autoradiographic technique using plastic detectors, it's methodology, application and results is presented. With this technique the distribution of radioactive minerals in rocks can be studied in detail. As radioactive source for this study, samples mineralized in uraninite and/or pitchblende were used. The utilized detectors were the CR-39 (a polymer plate) and films of celulose nitrate: CA-80-15 and CN-85. The mineralization is associated to mafics (amphibole, pyroxene, biotite, garnet, etc.) and to plagioclase (albite or albite-oligoclase), occurring as small inclusions and also in microfractures, cleavages and grain boundaries, mainly among plagioclase crystals which occur close to or practically touching mafic minerals. (Author)

  11. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins (United States)

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, R.G.; Evans, K.V.; Kunk, M.J.; Pillers, R.M.


    The Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) ore deposits of the Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, have previously been classified as Besshi-type VMS, sedex, and IOCG deposits within an intact stratigraphic section. New studies indicate that, across the district, mineralization was introduced into the country rocks as a series of structurally controlled vein and alteration systems. Quartz-rich and biotite-rich veins (and alteration zones) and minor albite and siderite veinlets maintain consistent order and sulfide mineral associations across the district. Both early and late quartz veins contain chalcopyrite and pyrite, whereas intermediate-stage tourmaline-biotite veins host the cobaltite. Barren early and late albite and late carbonate (generally siderite) form veins or are included in the quartz veins. REE minerals, principally monazite, allanite, and xenotime, are associated with both tourmaline-biotite and late quartz veins. The veins are in mineralized intervals along axial planar cleavage, intrafolial foliation, and shears.

  12. Iron-rich fragments in the Yamansu iron deposit, Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints on metallogenesis (United States)

    Li, Hou-Min; Ding, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Zhao-Chong; Li, Li-Xing; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tong


    Volcanic rock-hosted iron deposits are among the important iron ores in China. However, the nature of primary magma and petrogenesis associated with these iron ores remains controversial. Here, we report iron-rich fragments (IRF) from the Yamansu iron deposit in Eastern Tianshan Mountains, NW China, which occurs in association with volcanic breccia, submarine volcanic breccia and ignimbrite. The IRF is composed of five types including oligoclase-iron oxide type (OIO), oligoclase-albite-iron oxide type (OAIO), albite-iron oxide type (AIO), albite-K-feldspar-iron oxide type (AKIO) and K-feldspar-iron oxide type (KIO). These fragments display typical volcanic fabric features, such as porphyritic texture, hyalopilitic texture of the groundmass and vesicles filled by minerals to form amygdales. The feldspar phenocrysts of IRF are dominantly albite. The groundmass of IRF consists of magnetite and feldspar. The magnetite is distributed in between the feldspar laths, and together display hyalopilitic texture which could be observed only in volcanic rocks. The vesicles are filled with magnetite, feldspar, chlorite and calcite from the margin to the interior. The IRF has high Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Na and K contents and low Mg content. The average total Fe is 26 wt.%. The magnetite is mostly titanium-vanadium magnetite, with the TiO2 content ranging up to 4.86 wt.% and V2O3 content up to 3.20 wt.%. The IRF probably came from iron-rich melts and represent the products of the Fenner magma evolution. The basaltic magma evolved into the Fe-Na-rich residual melts by crystallization under low oxygen fugacity condition in a closed magma chamber after intruding into the shallow crust. The Fe-Na-rich residual melts were emplaced in hypabyssal environments or erupted generating the orebodies or providing the material source for the generation of the high-grade iron ores which were subsequently enriched by the late-stage hydrothermal fluids.

  13. A-thermal elastic behavior of silicate glasses. (United States)

    Rabia, Mohammed Kamel; Degioanni, Simon; Martinet, Christine; Le Brusq, Jacques; Champagnon, Bernard; Vouagner, Dominique


    Depending on the composition of silicate glasses, their elastic moduli can increase or decrease as function of the temperature. Studying the Brillouin frequency shift of these glasses versus temperature allows the a-thermal composition corresponding to an intermediate glass to be determined. In an intermediate glass, the elastic moduli are independent of the temperature over a large temperature range. For sodium alumino-silicate glasses, the a-thermal composition is close to the albite glass (NaAlSi3O8). The structural origin of this property is studied by in situ high temperature Raman scattering. The structure of the intermediate albite glass and of silica are compared at different temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C. When the temperature increases, it is shown that the high frequency shift of the main band at 440 cm(-1) in silica is a consequence of the cristobalite-like alpha-beta transformation of 6-membered rings. This effect is stronger in silica than bond elongation (anharmonic effects). As a consequence, the elastic moduli of silica increase as the temperature increases. In the albite glass, the substitution of 25% of Si(4+) ions by Al(3+) and Na(+) ions decreases the proportion of SiO2 6-membered rings responsible for the silica anomaly. The effects of the silica anomaly balance the anharmonicity in albite glass and give rise to an intermediate a-thermal glass. Different networks, formers or modifiers, can be added to produce different a-thermal glasses with useful mechanical or chemical properties. PMID:26815634

  14. Geochemistry of the Late Neoproterozoic Hadb adh Dayheen ring complex, Central Arabian Shield: Implications for the origin of rare-metal-bearing post-orogenic A-type granites (United States)

    Moghazi, A. M.; Harbi, H. M.; Ali, K. A.


    The Hadb adh Dayheen ring complex (HDRC), Central Arabian Shield, is an alkaline to peralkaline A-type granite complex. It consists of an inner core of monzogranite followed outward by porphyritic alkali feldspar granite (hornblende biotite granite and aegirine riebeckite granite). Field and textural observations indicate that the different granite types were separated from magma reservoir, at different stages, and emplaced at higher levels along pre-existing fractures. The geochemical characteristics indicate that their magma was most plausibly originated by partial melting of juvenile lower crust following collision between East and West Gondwana at the final stage of the Arabian Shield evolution. The alkali feldspar granites have high abundances of albite and fluorite and wide variation of HFSE and REE that indicate interaction with hydrothermal F-rich fluids. Although there are many geochemical, mineralogical and textural evidence of secondary metasomatic alteration superimposed on the granitic rocks, they show textural features such as the arrangement of albite inclusions along growth planes in quartz (snowball texture) and aegirine that indicate early magmatic crystallization of albite. Also, the strong linear positive correlation of Ta vs. Nb and Zr vs. Hf emphasize that the behavior and enrichment of Ta and Nb are largely controlled by magmatic processes. The events that can explain the evolution of these rocks are: (1) during magmatic evolution, F dissolved in the magma and lowered the crystallization temperature causing REE and HFSE to form complexes and thus behave as incompatible elements, (2) prolonged crystallization of the major mineral phases (quartz and feldspar) formed a late-stage magmatic fluid enriched in volatiles (H 2O, F) and trace elements, (3) accessory minerals crystallized from such a phase in the interstices between the major mineral phases, and (4) post-magmatic re-equilibration and formation of secondary albite (Na-metasomatism) has

  15. Changes in the species composition of the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet under the impact of biological preparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites (United States)

    Pusenkova, L. I.; Il'yasova, E. Yu.; Lastochkina, O. V.; Maksimov, I. V.; Leonova, S. A.


    The species structure of the mycobiota in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet in ontogenesis was studied. The treatment of the plants with biopreparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites (Phytosporin-M, Vitaplan, and Albit) were shown to create conditions for the colonization of the plant rhizosphere and phyllosphere by bacteria-antagonists displacing phytopathogenic microorganisms and stimulating plant growth, which induces the transformation of the microbial cenosis.

  16. Metasomatism of ferroan granites in the northern Aravalli orogen, NW India: geochemical and isotopic constraints, and its metallogenic significance (United States)

    Kaur, Parampreet; Chaudhri, Naveen; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Raczek, Ingrid; Okrusch, Martin; Skora, Susanne; Koepke, Jürgen


    The late Palaeoproterozoic (1.72-1.70 Ga) ferroan granites of the Khetri complex, northern Aravalli orogen, NW India, were extensively metasomatised ~900 Ma after their emplacement, at around 850-830 Ma by low-temperature (ca. 400 °C) meteoric fluids that attained metamorphic character after exchanging oxygen with the surrounding metamorphic rocks. Albitisation is the dominant metasomatic process that was accompanied by Mg and Ca metasomatism. A two-stage metasomatic model is applicable to all the altered ferroan intrusives. The stage I is represented by a metasomatic reaction interface that developed as a result of transformation of the original microcline-oligoclase (An12-14) granite to microcline-albite (An1-3) granite, and this stage is rarely preserved. In contrast, the stage II metasomatic reaction front, where the microcline-bearing albite granite has been transformed to microcline-free albite granite, is readily recognisable in the field and present in most of the intrusives. Some of them lack an obvious reaction interface due to the presence of stage II albite granites only. When studied in isolation, these intrusives were incorrectly classified and their tectonic setting was misinterpreted. Furthermore, our results show that the mafic mineralogy of metasomatised granites has a significant impact on the characterisation of such rocks in the magmatic classification and discrimination diagrams. Nevertheless, the stage I metasomatised granites can be appropriately characterised in these diagrams, whereas the characterisation of the stage II granites will lead to erroneous interpretations. The close spatial association of these high heat producing ferroan granites with iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), U and REE mineralisation in the region indicates a genetic link between the metasomatism and the mineralisation. World-class IOCG, U and REE deposits are associated with metasomatised ferroan granites, suggesting that such a relationship may act as a critical

  17. Mineral Surface after Reaction with Aqueous Solution at High Temperatures and Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This work presents new experimental results on surface chemistry of reacting minerals and interface kinetics between mineral and aqueous solutions. These experiments were carried out using a flow reactor (packed bed reactor) of an open system as well as a continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR. The authors measured reaction rates of such minerals as zeolite, albite and carbonate (rhodochrosite, dolomite) in various solutions, and tested corresponding mineral surface by using SEM, XPS, SIMS, etc. This paper mainly presents the experimental results of zeolite dissolution in water and in low pH solutions at room temperature, and dolomite dissolution at elevated temperatures. The results show that the release rates of Si, Al and Na of zeolite are different in most cases. The incongruent dissolution of zeolite is related to surface chemical modifications. The Na, Al and Si release rates for dissolution of albite and zeolite in water and various solutions were measured as a function of temperature, flow velocity, pH and solution composition in the reaction system. In most cases, dissolutions of both albite and zeolite are incongruent. Dissolution of dolomite is also incongruent in most cases and varied with T, pH, and nature of aqueous solutions. For dolomite dissolution, the release rates of Mg are less than those of Ca at high temperatures as T increases from 25 to 300° C. SIMS study indicates that the contents of Al, Na and Si in the leached layer of zeolite or albite surface, change with the distance from the surface, exhibiting a non-linear behaviour within a thickness range of 1000%. The distributions of Ca, Mg, Mn, H and Cl in the leached surface layer of carbonate have a non-linear behaviour too.

  18. Clay mineralogy of the Boda Claystone Formation (Mecsek Mts., SW Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Németh Tibor


    Full Text Available Boda Claystone Formation (BCF is the host rock of the planned site for high level nuclear waste repository inHungary. Samples representing the dominant rock types of BCF were studied: albitic claystone, claystone with high illite content, and analcime bearing claystone. Clay minerals in these three rock types were characterized by Xray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermal analysis (DTA-TG, and the results were discussed from the point of view of the radionuclide sorption properties being studied in the future. Mineral compositions of bulk BCF samples vary in wide ranges. In the albitic sample, besides the dominant illite, few percent of chlorite represents the layer silicates in the clay fraction. Illite is the dominating phase in the illitic sample, with a few percent of chlorite. HRTEM study revealed that the thickness of illite particles rarely reaches 10 layers, usually are of 5-6 TOT layer thick. Illite crystals are generally thicker in the albitic sample than in the illitic one. The significant difference between the clay mineral characterisitics of the analcimous and the other two samples is that the former contains regularly interstratified chlorite/smectite beside the dominant illite.

  19. Influence of feldspar containing lithium in the sintering of triaxial ceramics; Sinterizacao de uma massa ceramica triaxial com feldspato contendo litio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Camila Felippe de; Strecker, Kurt, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil)


    In this work, the properties of a ceramic material based on a triaxial mass composed of clay, quartz and 15 to 30% feldspar, albite or spodumene, has been investigated. Specimen were prepared by uniaxial pressing under 28.5MPa and sintering at temperatures of 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C, for 1h. The samples were characterized by their linear shrinkage, apparent porosity, apparent density and flexural strength, as well as analysis of the microstructure. The best results were obtained for samples prepared with 30% spodumene and sintered at 1200 deg C, with a shrinkage of 6.4%, density of 2.01g/cm{sup 3}, porosity of 14.3% and flexural strength of 13.4MPa, while samples prepared with albite exhibited shrinkage of 5.8%, density of 1.9g/cm{sup 3}, porosity of 18.9% and strength of 9.8MPa. Therefore, by the substitution of albite by spodumene in the ceramic triaxial mass, lower sintering temperatures may be employed, thus reducing production costs by the lesser energy consumption. (author)(.

  20. Characterization of some clay deposits in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatai Olufemi ARAMIDE


    Full Text Available Clay minerals are the most important industrial minerals whose application is dependent on its structure and chemical composition. Mineralogical, chemical compositions, phase constitutions, and microstructural morphology of certain clay minerals from three different deposits in south western Nigeria were investigated using state-of-the-art equipment. These were done with the intention of determining the appropriate application for the clay minerals. It was observed that the major phases in the clay samples from the three different deposits are kaolinite, microcline, muscovite/illite, plagioclase/albite and quartz. These phases were observed in varied percentages. It was concluded that sample A (Ifon clay which contains very low kaolinite (5.63%; could not use for making high temperature caliber refractories. But due to its high content of feldspar, it could be processed for the production of feldspar for glass and iron making industries. Sample B is considered to be appropriate for the production the refractory composite due to its most appropriate content of both kaolinite (23.74% kaolinite and feldspars (26.12% microcline and 11.28% plagioclase/albite which is necessary for producing mullite fibers in ceramic matrix at a temperature of around 1400oC. Sample C (Iseyin clay, which contains very low feldspars (3.00% microcline and 3.08% plagioclase/albite and high content of kaolinite was considered suitable for further processing for making high temperature caliber refractories.

  1. Emerald mineralization and metasomatism of amphibolite, khaltaro granitic pegmatite - Hydrothermal vein system, Haramosh Mountains, Northern Pakistan (United States)

    Laurs, B.M.; Dilles, J.H.; Snee, L.W.


    Emerald mineralization is found within 0.1- to 1-m-thick hydrothermal veins and granitic pegmatites cutting amphibolite within the Nanga Parbat - Haramosh massif, in northern Pakistan. The amphibolite forms a sill-like body within garnet-mica schist, and both are part of a regional layered gneiss unit of Proterozoic (?) age. The 40Ar/39Ar data for muscovite from a pegmatite yield a plateau age of 9.13 ?? 0.04 Ma. Muscovite from mica schist and hornblende from amphibolite yield disturbed spectra with interpreted ages of 9 to 10 Ma and more than 225 Ma, respectively, which indicate that peak Tertiary metamorphism reached 325 to 550??C prior to 10 Ma. Pegmatites were emplaced after peak metamorphism during this interval and are older than pegmatites farther south in the massif. At Khaltaro, simply zoned albite-rich miarolitic pegmatites and hydrothermal veins containing various proportions of quartz, albite, tourmaline, muscovite, and beryl are associated with a 1- to 3-m-thick heterogeneous leucogranite sill, that is locally albitized. The pegmatites likely crystallized at 650 to 600??C at pressures of less than 2 kbar. Crystals of emerald form within thin (0.20, 0.54-0.89 wt%), to pale blue beryl (emerald results from introduction of HF-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluids into the amphibolite, which caused hydrogen ion metasomatism and released Cr and Fe into the pegmatite-vein system.

  2. Effects of fluid-assisted diffusion on texture strength in a mylonitised metagabbro (United States)

    Gardner, Joseph; Wheeler, John; Mariani, Elisabetta


    Most rocks are polyphase materials yet many studies of rock texture tend to isolate the behaviour of individual phases. Characterisation of interaction between phases can yield useful information about the deformation behaviour of real rocks. Our work focuses on a broadly two phase mixture of albite and clinozoisite in mylonitised metagabbros, and how these two phases may have interacted to create, maintain and/or weaken the variable strength CPOs observed in each phase. Intriguingly, the rocks have deformed primarily by diffusion-accommodated processes, which are traditionally thought to weaken or destroy an existing CPO. Our data suggest that diffusion can preserve strong textures. Plagioclase in metamorphosed gabbros from a km-scale extensional shear zone in the NW Italian Alps (Gressoney Shear Zone) has undergone (to a first order) breakdown to albite (Ab) + clinozoiste (Cz) at greenschist facies. Grain size reduction via nucleation of product grains, plus the effects of Zener pinning, lead to an average grain size of parent grains and subsequently modified by fluid assisted diffusion plus grain boundary sliding. Albite precipitates in pressure shadows and fractures show it was the more mobile phase and deformed by pressure solution. Clinozoisite grains are new so their strong CPOs cannot have been inherited; instead they are thought to have behaved as rigid bodies and rotated into parallelism due to their relatively high aspect ratios (generally ~3-4). The Cz grains form strain caps around Cpx porphyroclasts showing they were (largely) insoluble during pressure solution. Albite grain morphology becomes more interstitial closest to porphyroclasts suggesting local high stresses around the clasts drove dissolution. Precipitate that fills pressure shadows may thus be locally derived. Pressure shadows have tails that streak through the matrix as single phase albitic layers; grain size in these layers is commonly >100 μm, which suggests grain growth elsewhere in

  3. Origen de arcillas alumínicas en horizontes de alteración de materiales graníticos del borde sur de la sierra de Guadarrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Patino, M. T.


    Full Text Available Three weathering profiles of granitic rocks and two arkoses in the NW of Madrid Province have been studied. Rocks are granodiorites and adamellites with albites showing variable degrees of sericitization, and no-weathered potassic feldspars. Clay fraction in the weathered horizons from these rocks displays high content in beidellite, and minor amounts of illite and 7 Ǻ-halloysite. On the other hand, beidellite, illite and well crystallized kaolinite are clay minerals in the arkosic rocks. Microfabric characteristics from SEM studies show abundant weathered albites with clean surfaces and formation of beidellite in all areas of the samples. Moreover, spatial relations between albite and beidellite are not observed. In pedochemical weathering of albite, sodium from this mineral should be exchanged with protons from soil solution with very quick kinetics. This initial alkalinization produces an increase in the silica solubility released from albite network. In these environments, a continued contact between weathering solution and albite causes a silica and alumina enrichment and beidellite or 7 Ǻ-halloysite precipitation. Microclimatic variations in weathering environment may cause fluctuations in silica and alumina activities with resultant pH changes. So, when silica activities are high, beidellite neoformation is favoured; on the contrary, 7 Ǻ-halloysite is precipitated.Se han estudiado tres perfiles de alteración de rocas graníticas y dos muestras de arcosas en la zona NO de la provincia de Madrid. Las rocas, clasificadas como granodioritas y adamellitas, presentan albitas con sericitización variable, y escasos feldespatos potásicos muy poco alterados. La fracción arcilla de los horizontes de alteración de estas rocas presenta un alto contenido en beidellita, así como porcentajes menores de ilita y haloisita-7Ǻ. Por otra parte, los minerales de la arcilla presentes en las arcosas son ilita, beidellita y caolinita bien

  4. Hydrothermal alteration and magnetic properties of rocks in the Carolina de Michilla stratabound copper district, northern Chile (United States)

    Townley, Brian; Roperch, Pierrick; Oliveros, Verónica; Tassara, Andres; Arriagada, César


    In the Carolina de Michilla district, northern Chile, stratabound copper mineralization is hosted by Jurassic volcanic rocks along the trace of the Atacama fault system. In this study, we present the overall effects of hydrothermal alteration on the magnetic properties of rocks in this district. Two types of metasomatic alteration associations occur, one of regional extent and the other of local hydrothermal alteration associated with copper mineralization (e.g., Lince Estefanía Susana). Regional alteration is interpreted as a low-grade “propylitic association” characterized by an epidote chlorite smectite titanite albite quartz calcite association. The local hydrothermal alteration is characterized broadly by a quartz albite epidote chlorite calcite mineral assemblage. The most pervasive alteration mineral is albite, followed by epidote and, locally, actinolite. These minerals contrast sharply against host rock minerals such as chlorite, calcite, zeolite, prehnite, and pumpellyite, but alteration is constrained to mineralized bodies as narrow and low contrast alteration halos that go outwards from actinolite albite to epidote albite, to epidote chlorite, and finally to chlorite. Hydrothermal alteration minerals, compared to regional alteration minerals, show iron-rich epidotes, a lower chlorite content of the chlorite smectite series, and a nearly total albite replacement of plagioclase in the mineralized zones. Opaque minerals associated with regional alteration are magnetite and maghemite, and those associated to hydrothermal alteration are magnetite, hematite, and copper sulphides. We present paleomagnetic results from nine sites in the Michilla district and from drill cores from two mines. Local effects of hydrothermal alteration on the original magnetic mineralogy indicate similar characteristics and mineralogy, except for an increase of hematite that is spatially associated with the Cu sulphide breccias with low magnetic susceptibilities. Results

  5. Elasticity of plagioclase feldspars (United States)

    Brown, J. Michael; Angel, Ross J.; Ross, Nancy L.


    Elastic properties are reported for eight plagioclase feldspars that span compositions from albite (NaSi3AlO8) to anorthite (CaSi2Al2O8). Surface acoustic wave velocities measured using Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering and compliance sums from high-pressure X-ray compression studies accurately determine all 21 components of the elasticity tensor for these triclinic minerals. The overall pattern of elasticity and the changes in individual elastic components with composition can be rationalized on the basis of the evolution of crystal structures and chemistry across this solid-solution join. All plagioclase feldspars have high elastic anisotropy; a* (the direction perpendicular to the b and c axes) is the softest direction by a factor of 3 in albite. From albite to anorthite the stiffness of this direction undergoes the greatest change, increasing twofold. Small discontinuities in the elastic components, inferred to occur between the three plagioclase phases with distinct symmetry (C1>¯, I1>¯, and P1>¯), appear consistent with the nature of the underlying conformation of the framework-linked tetrahedra and the associated structural changes. Measured body wave velocities of plagioclase-rich rocks, reported over the last five decades, are consistent with calculated Hill-averaged velocities using the current moduli. This confirms long-standing speculation that previously reported elastic moduli for plagioclase feldspars are systematically in error. The current results provide greater assurance that the seismic structure of the middle and lower crusts can be accurately estimated on the basis of specified mineral modes, chemistry, and fabric.

  6. Clay mineralogy of the Boda Claystone Formation (Mecsek Mts., SW Hungary) (United States)

    Németh, Tibor; Máthé, Zoltán; Pekker, Péter; Dódony, István; Kovács-Kis, Viktória; Sipos, Péter; Cora, Ildikó; Kovács, Ivett


    Boda Claystone Formation (BCF) is the host rock of the planned site for high level nuclear waste repository inHungary. Samples representing the dominant rock types of BCF were studied: albitic claystone, claystone with high illite content, and analcime bearing claystone. Clay minerals in these three rock types were characterized by Xray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal analysis (DTA-TG), and the results were discussed from the point of view of the radionuclide sorption properties being studied in the future. Mineral compositions of bulk BCF samples vary in wide ranges. In the albitic sample, besides the dominant illite, few percent of chlorite represents the layer silicates in the clay fraction. Illite is the dominating phase in the illitic sample, with a few percent of chlorite. HRTEM study revealed that the thickness of illite particles rarely reaches 10 layers, usually are of 5-6 TOT layer thick. Illite crystals are generally thicker in the albitic sample than in the illitic one. The significant difference between the clay mineral characterisitics of the analcimous and the other two samples is that the former contains regularly interstratified chlorite/smectite beside the dominant illite. Based on the structural and chemical data two illite type minerals are present in the BCF samples: 1M polytype containing octahedral Fe and Mg besides Al, 2M polytype illite generally is free of Fe andMg. Close association of very thin illite plates and nanosized hematite crystals is typical textural feature for BCF. The goal of this study is to provide solid mineralogical basis for further studies focusing on radionuclide sorption properties.

  7. Geochemical and Mineralogical Characteristics of Pleistocene Lignites and Associated Sediments of Marathousa Coal Field,Central Peloponnese,Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The mineralogy and geochemistry data are presented for thirty-seven shales,four concretions,two carbonate sediments and seven lignites from the Marathousa coal field of the Megalopolis Basin in Greece.The argillaceous rocks consist of chlorite,illite,kaolinte,albite,quartz.opal-A,calcite and dolomite;the concretions of aragonite,gypsum and pyrite;and the carbonate rocks of calcite,quartz and illite.The mineral matter in the lignites consists of gypsum,quartz,albite,chlorite,illite,opal-A,dolomite,pyrite,and rarely calcite and kaolinite Athree-factor model explains the total variaition of major and trace elements in the argillaceous sediments.The first factor is an aluminosilicate factor and involves the following elements:Al,Si,Mg,Na,K,Ti,Mn,Nb,Y,Rb,Zn,Cu,Ni,Cr,Nband V,associated with chlorite,albite and illite.The second factor involves the elements Ca,Sr,Ba,Znand Sc and is related to carbonate lithology and mainly the carbonate concretions with gypsum.The third factor involves Fe and Ce with a weak association with Mn.The diagenesis of the Marathousa sediments and lignites was not very advanced as indicated by (a) the total thickness of the sequence (500m),(b) the presence of biogenic silica(opal-A) and (c) the age of the deposit(Pleistocene).FOr these reasons the rpresence of chlorite,illite and kaolinite in the sediments and lignite is due not to diagenetic reactions but to weathering of the flysch and metamorphic rocks at the edges of the Megalopolis Basin and transport of the weathering products(illite,chlorite,kaolinite)into the basin of deposition.The diagenetic minerals of the Marathousa sequence include pyrite,gypsum,dolomite and aragonite.

  8. Geologic relationships and mineralization of peralkaline/alkaline granite-syenite of the Zargat Na'am ring complex, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gehad M. Saleh


    The Zargat Na'am ring complex crops out 90 km NW of Shalatin City in the Southeastern Desert of Egypt. The ring complex forms a prominent ridge standing high above the surrounding mafic-ultramafic hills. It is cut by two sets of joints and faults which strike predominantly NNW-SSE and E-W,and is injected by dikes, porphyritic alkaline syenites, and felsite porphyries. It consists of alkali syenites, alkali quartz syenites, and peralkaline arfvedsonite-bearing granitic and pegmatitic dikes and sills.The complex is characterized locally by extreme enrichments in REEs, wolframite and rare, high field strength metals (HFSM), such as Zr and Nb. The highest concentrations ( 1.5 wt% Zr, 0.25 wt% Nb,0.6 wt% ∑REEs) occur in aegirine-albite aplites that formed around arfvedsonite pegmatites. Quartzhosted melt inclusions in arfvedsonite granite and pegmatite provide unequivocal evidence that the peralkaline compositions and rare metal enrichments are primary magmatic features. Glass inclusions in quartz crystals also have high concentrations of incompatible trace elements including Nb (750 × 10-6), Zr (2500 × 10-6) and REEs (1450 × 10-6). The REEs, Nb and Zr compositions of the aegirine-albite aplites plot along the same linear enrichment trends as the melt inclusions, and Y/Ho ratios mostly display unfractionated, near-chondritic values. The chemical and textural features of the aegirine-albite aplites are apparently resultant from rapid crystallization after volatile loss from a residual peralkaline granitic melt similar in composition to the melt inclusions.

  9. 花岗岩类长石相成分换算及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the data on plagioclase number of granitoids and whole.rock chemical analysis the author has proposed that the percentage of molecules of albite in the coexisting plagioclase and alkali-feldspar can be converted directly by petro-chemical approach. Then, the result is substituted into the formula of J. A. Whitney and J. C. Stormer, Jr. (1975, 1977) in order to work out the temperature during crystallization of the coexisting feldspars, which may represent the diagenetic temperature of host granitoids. Diagenetic temperature values computed by this method as described in the present paper are more accurate than thoes obtained by other geothermometries.

  10. Diagenesis of Oligocene continental sandstones in salt-walled mini-basins-Sivas Basin, Turkey (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude


    The recent discovery of Oligo-Miocene salt-walled continental mini-basins in the Sivas Basin (central Anatolia, Turkey) provides the opportunity to unravel the influence of halokinesis on the diagenesis of continental mini-basin infilling. In this study, petrographic and geochemical analyses are used to define the diagenetic sequences recorded by two mini-basins filled mainly by fluvial clastic sediments of the upper Oligocene Karayün Formation. The initial diagenetic features are those commonly encountered in arid to semi-arid continental environments, i.e. clay infiltration, hematite precipitation and vadose calcite cement. Other early cements were strongly controlled by sandstone detrital composition in the presence of saline/alkaline pore water. In feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses, near-surface alterations were characterized by the precipitation of analcime (up to 10%), albite and quartz overgrowths (< 1%). These events were followed by extensive calcite cementation (up to 30%) during shallow burial diagenesis which prevented further mesogenetic alteration phenomena such as compaction. In feldsarenites, early diagenesis differs by (i) the absence of analcime, (ii) better developed albite cements, (iii) thin smectite-illite coatings forming pore linings and (iv) patchy calcite cementation (< 5%). The limited development of calcite cement allowed mesogenetic alterations to occur, such as late quartz overgrowths, albitization of feldspar grains and chemical compaction. All these phases are responsible for the low porosity of feldsarenites (< 2%). The greater abundance of carbonate cement in feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses is related to a greater proportion of detrital limestone in these sandstones. Early precipitation of analcime, albite, smectite-illite and quartz was likely triggered by the alteration of reactive grains by near-surface saline/alkaline brines originating from the dissolution of adjacent diapiric structures. Mini

  11. Thermodynamic conditions of framework grain dissolution of clastic rocks and its application in Kela 2 gas field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI; Xingyun; YU; Bingsong; CHEN; Junyuan; CHEN; Xiaolin


    Feldspar and clastic debris are the most important constituent framework grains of sedimentary clastic rocks and their chemical dissolution plays an essential role in the formation and evolution of the secondary pore in the reservoir rocks. On the basis of thermodynamic phase equilibrium, this study investigates the chemical equilibrium relationships between fluid and various plagioclase and K-feldspar in diagenesis of the sediments, particularly, the impact of temperature and fluid compositions (pH, activity of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and so on) on precipitation and dissolution equilibria of feldspars. Feldspar is extremely easily dissolved in the acid pore water with a low salinity when temperature decreases. The dissolution of anorthite end-member of plagioclase is related to the Ca content of the mineral and the fluid, higher Ca either in the mineral or in the fluid, easier dissolution of the feldspar. Moreover, the dissolution of albite end-member of plagioclase is related to Na of both the mineral and fluid, lower Na out of both the mineral and fluid, easier dissolution of the mineral. Similarly, lower-K fluid is more powerful to dissolve K-feldspar than the higher. The anorthite component of plagioclase is most easily dissolved in ground water-rock system, the albite is the secondary, and K-feldspar is the most stable. Selective dissolution of plagioclase occurs in diagenesis because of the plagioclase solid solution that is mainly composed of albite and anorthite end-members, Ca-rich part of which is preferentially dissolved by the pore water, in contrast to the Na-rich parts. Based on investigation of reservoir quality, secondary pore, dissolution structures of feldspar, clay minerals and ground water chemistry of the Kela 2 gas field of Kuqa Depression in the Tarim basin of Western China, we discovered that the secondary pore is very well developed in the highest quality section of the reservoir, and the plagioclase of which was obviously selectively dissolved, in

  12. Durability of the Solid Oxide Cells for Co-Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide under High Current Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Youkun

    microns thick Ni-YSZ electrode. The nanoparticles are similar to the bulk YSZ in crystal structure and composition. The zirconia nanoparticles were probably formed by direct structure decomposing of YSZ under strong cathodic polarizations, rather than by a complete reduction to metallic Zr......-electrolysis of steam and CO2. Two types of Ni-YSZ supported cells, the LSM cell and LSCF cell, respectively with a LSM-YSZ or a LSCF-CGO oxygen electrode were tested using a setup with albite glass as sealing material, and using the gasses as received or in an setup using a glass with less known impurities...

  13. Favourable environments for uranium occurences in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the present knowledge of Brazilian Precambrian geology, an attempt is made to divide Precambrian rocks into different regions according to their favourability criteria for uranium concentrations. Paleozoic and Mesozoic occurrences are also mentioned. They are mainly associated with large sedimentary basins. Brazilian uranium occurrences can be grouped into the following environments: (1) Metaconglomerates; (2) Metasomatic rocks (associated with albitization); (3) Vein type; (4) Sandstone type and (5) Intrusive alkalic rock. Upper Proterozoicas folding regions related to mobile belts and large Precambrian unconformities are good targets for uranium exploration in Brazil. (Author)

  14. Mineralogical study on volcanic ash of the eruption on September 27, 2014 at Ontake volcano, central Japan: correlation with porphyry copper systems (United States)

    Minami, Yusuke; Imura, Takumi; Hayashi, Shintaro; Ohba, Tsukasa


    The volcanic ash of the eruption on September 27, 2014 at Ontake volcano consists mostly of altered rock fragments. The ash contains partly altered volcanic rock fragments consisting of primary igneous minerals (plagioclase, orthopyroxene, titanomagnetite, and feldspars) and volcanic glass accompanied by alteration minerals to some extents, and contains no juvenile fragments. These features indicate that the eruption was a non-juvenile hydrothermal eruption that was derived from the hydrothermal system developed under the crater. The major minerals derived from hydrothermal alteration zones are silica mineral, kaolin-group mineral, smectite, pyrophyllite, muscovite, alunite, anhydrite, gypsum, pyrite, K-feldspar, albite, and rutile. Minor chlorite, biotite, and garnet are accompanied. Five types of alteration mineral associations are identified from observations on individual ash particles: silica-pyrite, silica-pyrite ± alunite ± kaolin, silica-pyrophyllite-pyrite, silica-muscovite ± chlorite, and silica-K-feldspar ± albite ± garnet ± biotite. The associations indicate development of advanced argillic, sericite, and potassic alteration zones under the crater. Occurrence of anhydrite veinlet and the set of alteration zones indicate hydrothermal alteration zones similar to late-stage porphyry copper systems. Comparing the mineral associations with the geologic model of the late-stage porphyry copper systems, the source depths of mineral associations are estimated to range from near surface to >2 km. The depths of advanced argillic alteration, sericite, and potassic zones are 0 to ~2, ~1.5 to ~2, and >2 km, respectively.

  15. Uraniferous mineralizations in the Kuusamo Schist Belt, northeastern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kouveraara Co-Cu-Au mineralization was found in 1982 with the aid of a geophysical ground survey. This survey was connected with research on the Kouvervaara uranium mineralization in the Early Proterozoic Kuusamo Schist Belt, located just south of the Arctic Circle. In further work, using the Kouvervaara sulphide mineralization as a reference, six Co and Au bearing sulphide mineralizations were discovered, with the help of low altitude aerial geophysical techniques. The Co-Au mineralizations, hosted by the Sericite Quartzite Formation, occur within the hydrothermally altered zones. These zones consist of chloritization, carbonatization, sulphidization, sericitization and albitization, the latter being the most extensive. Excluding the Juomasuo mineralization, uranium is only a trace element in these mineralizations. Other characteristic trace elements are molybdenum and tungsten. The Sivakkaharju and Konttiaho Co-Au-U-Mo mineralizations were found by radiometric ground surveys carried out in 1985 and 1986. These hydrothermal mineralizations occur within brecciated quartz-albite-carbonate rocks and are good manifestations of the positive correlation between uranium and gold in the Kuusamo area. Compared with the other sulphide mineralizations, the Au, U, and Mo contents are remarkably high. Genetically, the mineralizations in the Kuusamo area are associated with deep seated fracture and fault zones, controlled by ancient intracontinental hot spot activity and continental rifting. (author). 31 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Slovenec


    Full Text Available The samples of partly or completely altered basaltic extrusive rocks from Mt. Medvednica ophiolite mélange were analysed by the optical microscopy and by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. The chemical composition of minerals from different paragenetic assembleges were determinated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and the measured microdomains were documented by back-scattered electrons (BSE imagery. The most widespread alteration processes that affected analysed rocks are albitization, chloritization, epidotization, prehnitization, pumpellyitization, zeolitization and titanitization. Subordinate processes that include formation of limonite, calcite, zoisite, siderite, hematite, Mn-oxydes, pyrite and SiO2-phases were not constrained in this paper. Albitization is fairly dominant alteration process in all rock and its progradation throughout a plagioclase grain is clearly documented by BSE microphotographs and microprobe chemical analysis. Prehnite and laumontite are sporadic alteration products of plagioclases. The chemical components released during the alterations of plagioclases and/or clinopyroxenes along with components from circulating and percolating heated see water and fluids enable formation of chlorites, epidote and pumpellyite. Chlorites and pumpellyite formed also by devitrification of volcanic glass in vitric rim of pillow lavas. Small patches of leucoxene, that is abundant in all samples, represent dense aggregates of titanite nanocrystals replacing ilmenite and/or Ti-magnetite. Epidote-bearing paragenesis in the analyzed rocks record comparatively the highest alterations grade that correspond to the middle grade of greenschist facies metamorphism typical of upper sequence of a see floor crust (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. The mineral composition and the ore types of the uranium-vanadium deposit Srednaya Padma (Onega region, Russian Federation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposit Srednaya Padma is the largest and best prospected of the uranium-vanadium deposits of the Onega region. There are abnormally high concentrations of gold, palladium, platinum, copper and molybdenum in the ores. The ore mineralization is located in the albite-mica-carbonate metasomatites upon the proterozoic aleorolites and schists. The ores are generally composed of albite, dolomite and micas. The main vanadium mineral is vanadian flogopite, the main uranium mineral is pitchblende. The proportions of the ore and ore-forming minerals are determined. The noble metal mineralization (which associates with selenides of lead, silver and bismuth) and the copper-molybdenum mineralization (represented by chalcopyrite and molybdenite) are spread extremely irregularly in the orebodies. The ores can be classified as carbonaceous by their compositions. Four mineral ore types, with regard to the mineralization composition of the ore, are determined: pitchblende-flogopite, noble metal-pitchblende-flogopite, sulphide-flogopite and hypergene. The ores are classified in three technological ore types (uranium-vanadium; uranium-vanadium with Au, Pd, Pt; vanadium with Cu, Mo) and two technological ore sorts (by the acid inventory in processing). The correlation between the composition of the ore and the technological processing parameters are determined. The specifics of the various ore types distribution in the orebodies are discovered. A comparison with the other U-V deposits of the Onega region is made. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of a rare ultramafic lamprophyre in the Tandilia belt basement, Río de la Plata Craton, Argentina (United States)

    Dristas, Jorge A.; Martínez, Juan Cruz; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Pimentel, Marcio M.


    A metre-thick ultramafic lamprophyre dyke intrudes the basement of the Tandilia belt at the Sierra Alta de Vela, Argentina. A petrological and geochemical study of this rock and associated small dykes indicates a predominantly calc-alkaline trend. Phlogopite K-Ar dating of the ultramafic lamprophyre gave a minimum age of 1928 ± 54 Ma as a late event of the Transamazonian Orogeny, which is well represented in the basement of the Tandilia belt. An electron microprobe study indicates the presence of phlogopite, albite, chromite and Cr-rich phenocrysts and Cr-free microphenocrysts of diopside as primary minerals. Subsequent to deformation at the contacts with the wall rock, metasomatism generated strongly zoned amphibole (edenite, pargasite, Mg-hastingite and tremolite compositions) and andradite as well as chlorite, sericite, albite, apatite and calcite. The central zone of the lamprophyre is almost undeformed and exhibits some ocellar texture. Geochemical and isotopic signatures of the lamprophyre suggest that its magma source may have previously undergone incompatible element enrichment of the mantle source, representing the original precursor magma for the calc-alkaline dyke series of the Sierra Alta de Vela.

  19. Metamorphism, metasomatism and mineralization at Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium deposits cumulatively in the 100,000 tonne U3 O8 range occur within ductile shear zones transecting Archean basement gneisses of the Sao Francisco Craton, at the Lagoa Real region of south-central Bahia, Brasil. The gneisses, dated at 2.6-3.0Ga, are at amphibolite and granulite facies and overlie to the west, the Proterozoic Espinhaco metasedimentary sequence along a thrust fault. Petrography and mineral chemistry show that in the zones of alteration/mineralization, the original K-feldspar + quartz + albite/oligoclase + hastingsite assemblage, is replaced by albite + aegirine - angite + andradite + hematite assemblages, with or without uraninite. This information along with oxygen isotope, whole rock geochemistry and fluid inclusion studies indicate that the alteration process involves removal of Si, K, Rb, Ba and addition of Na under oxidizing conditions. V, Pb and Sr were introduced along with U via interaction with saline SO2 - rich, isotopically light fluids under varying water/rock ratios and at temperatures of 500 - 5500C. 87Sr/86Sr systematics suggest that it is unlikely that Sr, and by extension uranium, were introduced by fluids originating from the basement gneisses. Geological constraints and the general alteration pattern are consistent with the release of the mineralizing fluids in response to the overloading of the basement rocks onto the Sedimentary Espinhaco via a thrust mechanism. (Author)

  20. Mineralogy and phase transition of oil sands coke ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemun Jang; Thomas H. Etsell [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering


    Coke obtained from Syncrude and Suncor was investigated to characterize the metals and minerals by ashing it at various temperatures. Samples were collected by high temperature ashing at 100{sup o}C intervals from 400 to 1200{sup o}C. Samples were also obtained from low temperature ashing (LTA) which gives little effect on the mineral assemblage compared to HTA samples. X-ray diffraction patterns of Suncor and Syncrude coke ash were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to characterize the mineral phases in the sample and their thermal transition behavior. In Suncor ash, kaolinite, illite, gypsum, anhydrite, microcline, anorthite, hematite, sillimanite and quartz were dominant phases in ash from the LTA temperature up to 700{sup o}C, and mullite, cristobalite, hercynite, albite, anorthite, pseudobrookite and other iron-titanium oxides were dominant mineral phases from 700 to 1200{sup o}C. In Syncrude ash, illite, anhydrite, quartz, anorthite, microcline, sillimanite and hematite were dominant up to 700{sup o}C, and hercynite, anorthite, albite, pseudobrookite and other iron-titanium oxides were dominant up to 1200{sup o}C. The higher quantities of Ca, K and Na, and the lower quantities of V, Fe and Ni in Syncrude ash resulted in higher amorphocity and the different mineral phases. 32 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Fenitization of metabasic rocks by ferrocarbonatites at Haast River, New Zealand (United States)

    Cooper, Alan F.; Palin, J. Michael; Collins, Alice K.


    Dolomite-ankerite-siderite ferrocarbonatite dykes of the Alpine Dyke swarm, Westland, New Zealand, intrude greenschist facies metabasites and produce carbonate-albite-muscovite-hematite-Nb-rutile and cancrinite-aegirine-carbonate fenites. The protolith foliation and metamorphic segregations are retained during fenitization despite complete mineralogical reconstitution. Quartz veins in metabasite are reconstituted to albite-aegirine-arfvedsonite/riebeckite assemblages. Geochemically the metabasites have been enriched in Na, C, Sr, Ba, Nb, Th and middle REE, and depleted in Fe, Ca, Mg, V, Cr, Ni, Zr and Hf, light- and heavy-REE. Si and Al show variable behaviour, with Si being consistently depleted in the generation of cancrinite fenite. The process approximates to an equal volume replacement. Field relationships of these dykes suggest that the carbonatites are the sole source of alkaline fenitizing fluids and that ferrocarbonatite magma was, therefore, considerably more sodic than the observed crystalline composition. Sr isotope ratios of fenite and carbonatite minerals indicate they have been partially modified by interaction with carbonatite-derived and schist-derived fluids respectively, and that fenitization, therefore, represents a two-way fluid infiltration. Carbonate minerals in fenite and carbonatite have been subsequently partially recrystallized during oxidation, highlighting the complex emplacement history involving carbonatite crystallization, fenitization and late-stage hydrothermal/carbothermal processes.

  2. Fluid-induced Blueschist Preservation on Syros, Cyclades, Southern Greece (United States)

    Kleine, B. I.; Huet, B.; Skelton, A. D. L.


    Local examples of preservation of high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) mineral assemblages within retrograde metamorphosed greenschist are recorded from the Cyclades, Greece. Several models have been proposed to explain the preservation of HP-LT rocks in these areas. On Sifnos, a capping effect of impermeable marble units below the preserved blueschists caused diversion of the upward, cross-layer infiltration of retrograde fluids [1]. On Tinos, blueschist preservation occurred due to retrograde fluid flow channelization along lithological contacts with high flux rates [2]. HP-LT minerals were preserved in regions adjacent to these contacts where fluid fluxes were smaller. We propose a different mechanism of blueschist preservation based on observations from a costal section near Fabrika on Syros. At this locality a high strain zone cuts through a retrograde greenschist. Along the fault a dark blue halo occurs within the greenschist. Whole rock analyses along a profile from the fault into the greenschist show that only the areas directly adjacent to the deformation zone show chemical evidence of metasomatism, whereas the areas further away are chemically similar to greenschist. Point counting of 1000 evenly spaced points in thin sections of the profile shows a clear blueschist to greenschist transition with a blueschist mineral assemblage (glaucophane+phengite+calcite) nearer to the metasomatic zone and a typical greenschist mineral assemblage (epidote+chlorite+albite) farther away. We propose the following model to explain preservation of HP-LT mineral assemblage in this locality. During retrograde metamorphism a water-rich fluid infiltrated the blueschist rock from below. This occurred close to the brittle-ductile transition. This fluid caused a reaction front to propagate into the overlying blueschist at which its mineral assemblage glaucophane+phengite+calcite was replaced by the greenschist mineral assemblage epidote+albite+chlorite. Upwards-flowing fluid

  3. Metamorphic evolution of the high-pressure metamorphic rocks from the Kemer area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey): Implications for the accretionary continental growth and closure of the Intra-Pontide Ocean (United States)

    Aygül, M.; Topuz, G.; Satır, M.


    The northwestern part of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey, corresponds to the so-called Intra-Pontide suture, separating the Rhodope-Strandja zone to the north and Sakarya zone to the south. This suture zone is marked by the exposures of high-pressure metamorphics, oceanic accretionary complexes and ophiolites, which are widely covered by Eocene to Miocene volcanics and volcano-clastics, and crosscut by Eocene to Miocene granites. The Kemer area is one of the key-areas where high-pressure metamorphics and an ophiolitic mélange were widely exposed. This contribution deals with the metamorphic evolution of the Kemer high-pressure rocks, and their implications for the geodynamic evolution. The Kemer high-pressure rocks comprise predominantly micaschist, calcschist, marble and minor metabasite and serpentinite. The micaschists contain mineral assemblages involving garnet, phengite (3,30-3,44 c.p.f.u.), paragonite, epidote, chlorite, albite and titanite, and the metabasites consists of garnet, barrosite, albite, chlorite, epidote, albite and titanite. The equilibrium conditions are poorly constrained as 550 ± 50 °C temperature and >8-10 kbar pressure by Fe-Mg partitioning between garnet and phengite, and phengite-barometry, respectively. Timing of the high-pressure metamorphism is constrained as 84-64 Ma by Rb-Sr phengite-whole rock dating on four samples. Although the obtained age values display a wide scatter, they are consistent with geochronological data from the neighboring high-pressure areas: 86 ± 2 Ma from the Şarköy blueschists (Topuz et al. 2008) and 65-69 Ma from the Çamlıca garnet-micaschists (Okay and Satır, 2000). These data in conjunction with those from the literature suggest that Late Cretaceous represent a time of substantional accretionary continental growth related to the northward subduction of the Intra-Pontide Ocean. The closure of the Intra-Pontide Ocean is constrained between Late Cretaceous and Eocene, because Eocene volcanics and volcano

  4. Rare earth element geochemistry and petrogenesis of miles (IIE) silicate inclusions (United States)

    Hsu, Weibiao


    An ion probe study of rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of silicate inclusions in the Miles IIE iron meteorite was carried out. Individual mineral phases among inclusions have distinct REE patterns and abundances. Most silicate grains have homogeneous REE abundances but show considerable intergrain variations between inclusions. A few pyroxene grains display normal igneous REE zoning. Phosphates (whitlockite and apatite) are highly enriched in REEs (50 to 2000 × CI) with a relatively light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched REE pattern. They usually occurred near the interfaces between inclusions and Fe host. In Miles, albitic glasses exhibit two distinctive REE patterns: a highly fractionated LREE-enriched (CI normalized La/Sm ˜15) pattern with a large positive Eu anomaly and a relatively heavy rare earth element (HREE)-enriched pattern (CI-normalized Lu/Gd ˜4) with a positive Eu anomaly and a negative Yb anomaly. The glass is generally depleted in REEs relative to CI chondrites. The bulk REE abundances for each inclusion, calculated from modal abundances, vary widely, from relatively depleted in REEs (0.1 to 3 × CI) with a fractionated HREE-enriched pattern to highly enriched in REEs (10 to 100 × CI) with a relatively LREE-enriched pattern. The estimated whole rock REE abundances for Miles are at ˜ 10 × CI with a relatively LREE-enriched pattern. This implies that Miles silicates could represent the product of a low degree (˜10%) partial melting of a chondritic source. Phenocrysts of pyroxene in pyroxene-glassy inclusions were not in equilibrium with coexisting albitic glass and they could have crystallized from a parental melt with REEs of ˜ 10 × CI. Albitic glass appears to have formed by remelting of preexisting feldspar + pyroxene + tridymite assemblage. Yb anomaly played an important role in differentiation processes of Miles silicate inclusions; however, its origin remains unsolved. The REE data from this study suggest that Miles, like

  5. Eclogite-High-Pressure Granulite Belt in Northern Edge of the Archean North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The discovery of retrograded eclogites and high-pressure basic granulites in the joining region of Hebei-Shanxi-Inner Mongolia (HSIM) abandon the old thoughts that Archean granulites in the North China craton are of middle or low pressure facies and promote the reconsideration of Early Precambrian cratonization tectonic process, and reveal the geological fact that the scale, rigid behavior and geological structure of Archean cratonic blocks have strong similarities to the present fundamental plate tectonics, which suggest new tectonic mechanism to understand the early continental evolution of the North China craton. (1) The retrograded eclogites and high-pressure granulites constitute a ENE-NE-striking structure-rock zone termed as the Sanggan structural belt. (2) The retrograded eclogites are closely associated with high-pressure granulites. We can call this belt a transitional eclogite-granulite facies metamorphic belt. Petrographically three metamorphic stages, at least, in the retrograded eclogite can be distinguished. ① The main mineral assemblage is composed of garnet+clinopyroxene+quartz+rutile. The mineral inclusions in garnet are fine-grained quartz, rutile and small inclusions of fine-grained second stage mineral aggregate. This aggregate consists of hypersthene+albite, and has the typical texture of small hypersthene core surrounded by albite micro-grained grains. ② The second mineral assemblage is represented by corona of garnet and symplectite of clinopyroxene. The corona of garnet is composed of hypersthene+plagioclase+clinopyroxene+a minor amount of quartz and magnetite. The symplectite of clinopyroxene is composed of hypersthene + albite+clinopyroxene. The secondary mineral assemblage along boundaries between quartz and garnet (or clinopyroxene) is fine-grained aggregate of hypersthene and clinopyroxene. ③ The third retrograded metamorphic minerals are mainly amphiboles replacing pyroxenes and plagioclases replacing garnets. The estimated

  6. Numerical Simulation of Plagioclase Growth During Magma Storage and Ascent (United States)

    Melnik, O. E.; Gorokhova, N. V.; Plechov, P.


    A mathematical model of plagioclase growth from a magmatic melt is developed. Plagioclase is one of the main rock-forming minerals. Plagioclase is composed of molecules of two types: anorthite and albite. Crystallization occurs as a result of component (albite and anorthite) diffusion to the boundary of the growing crystal and opposite diffusion of residual melt components. The model is based on multicomponent diffusion equations with the real dependencies between crystal and melt compositions, pressure and temperature. Mass conservation is applied as a boundary condition on a crystal-melt interface. Crystal growth rate depends on local magma undercooling in the vicinity of the crystal. We assume that the growth is in 1D and that the crystal is located in a cell with symmetry (no mass flux) conditions on the cell boundaries. Diffusion of components within the crystal is negligibly slow. Based on this model variation of plagioclase composition with respect of monotonic cooling or pressure drop is studied. It is shown that due to interplay between diffusion of melt components to crystal-melt interface and crystal growth rate crystal composition can vary in a non-monotonic way in response to linear decrease in temperature. A condition of presence of plagioclase zonation is obtained as a result of parametric studies. A growth of rims on plagioclase crystals related to magma ascent during dome building eruptions on Bezymianny volcano (Kamchatka) is simulated. Bezymianny Volcano supplies material to the Earth surface about every half a year. Eruptions of 2000, 2006 and 2007 were selected to determine the magma ascent conditions as the most typical for the last activity cycle. The role of initial conditions, crystal growth rate, the ratio between anorthite and albite diffusion rates and ascent conditions on the rim composition is investigated. The ascent conditions of magma for Bezymianny Volcano eruptions were reconstructed. Simulations suggest ascent from a pressure of

  7. LCT pegmatites from the Wodgina pegmatite district, Western Australia (United States)

    Richter, Lisa; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard


    The lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone and Mt. Cassiterite open pits are located within the Wodgina pegmatite district, about 130 km south of Port Hedland, Western Australia. The albite-spodumene and albite-type pegmatites of the Wodgina pegmatite district are currently mined for tin, tantalum and niobium. The pegmatites are hosted within the Archean East-Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrane linked to the fertile Numbana monzogranite that forms part of the Yule Granitoid Complex. Granitic melt intruded into metasedimentary rocks (~2.8 Ga) and formed a series of pegmatite sheets, dikes and irregular structures. These pegmatites are characterized by a high melt fractionation that led to the formation of pegmatitic minerals, containing high concentrations of rare elements, such as Ta, Nb, Li, Rb and Cs. The pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone sheet open pit, which were investigated within this study, comprises four internal zones consisting of six mineral assemblages, dominated by quartz, albite and white mica, with K-feldspar and spodumene as major or minor constituents. Distribution patterns of cassiterite and Ta-Nb-Sn-oxide minerals (ixiolite/wodginite, tantalite/columbite and microlite) can be observed within the four different pegmatite zones. The contact zones are enriched in cassiterite, ixiolite and microlite; border zones reveal high concentrations of cassiterite, ixiolite and tantalite; the intermediate units are characterized by a moderate enrichment of the ore minerals; whereby core zones host almost no significant contents of the minerals mentioned above. Distribution of Ta-Nb-Sn-oxides within the zones and Mn/(Mn+Fe) and Ta/(Ta+Nb) ratios are indicators for melt fractionation, and change from the core zones to the outermost contact zones, as well as from north to south. Electron microprobe analyses on white mica show the existence of fractionation trends from more primitive white mica of the core zones (zinnwaldite) to higher

  8. Genesis of jadeite-quartz rocks in the Yorii area of the Kanto Mountains, Japan (United States)

    Fukuyama, Mayuko; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Horie, Kenji; Lee, Der-Chuen


    This paper reports the results of U-Pb dating and REE (rare earth element) analysis of zircons separated from jadeite-quartz rocks within serpentinite mélanges in the Yorii area of the Kanto Mountains, Japan. These rocks contain jadeite, albite, and quartz, with minor aegirine-augite, zircon, monazite, thorite, allanite, and titanite. Mineral textures provide evidence of a jadeite + quartz = albite reaction during formation of these jadeite-quartz rocks. Zircon crystals separated from the jadeite-quartz rocks can be split into two distinct types, here named Types I and II, based on their morphology and REE concentrations. Type I zircons are prismatic and have fluid, jadeite, quartz, and albite inclusions. Those show positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies and HREE (heavy rare earth element) enriched chondrite normalized REE patterns and have higher REE concentrations than those generally found in magmatic zircons. Type I zircons would have precipitated from a fluid. Mineralogical observation provides that Type I zircon crystallized at the same timing of the formation of the jadeite-quartz rocks. Type II zircons are porous and have REE patterns indicative of a hydrothermal zircon. Both types of zircons are fluid-related. Type I zircons yield U-Pb ages of 162.2 ± 0.6 Ma, with an MSWD (mean square weighted deviation) of 1.4. At this time, Japan was still a part of the eastern margin of the Asian continent, with the subduction of the oceanic paleo-Pacific Plate leading to the formation of the Jurassic Mino-Tanba-Chichibu accretionary complex in Japan. The age data indicate that the jadeite-quartz rocks formed in a deep subduction zone environment at the same time as the formation of the Jurassic accretionary complex in a shallower near-trench subduction zone environment. The jadeite-quartz rocks contain high concentrations of Zr and Nb, with low LILE (large ion lithophile elements) concentrations, suggesting that the HFSE (high field strength elements) can be

  9. Geochemical characterization and comparative study of plagiogranites from the South portuguese and Ossa-Morena Zones (SW Iberian Massif, Spain); Caracterizacion geoquimica y estudio comparativo de plagiogranitos de las Zonas Surportuguesa y Ossa-Morena (SO del Macizo Iberico, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, F.; Diez-Montes, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, T.


    Plagiogranites and albitic rocks belonging to contrasted magmatic associations of different ages and geo dynamic environments outcrop in Ossa-Morena (OMZ) and Sur portuguese (SPZ) Zones. OMZ plagiogranites are related with Cambrian-Ordovician rifting and represent a part of the felsic members of a bimodal magmatic suite and show oceanic plagiogranites affinities. SPZ plagiogranites are related with a Carboniferous volcano-plutonic calc-alkaline suite related with Variscan Orogeny. Both plagiogranites show many similar petrological and geochemical characteristics but display some different immobile elements ratios as La/Nb, Th/Nb, Th/La that are unaltered by metamorphism, magmatic differentiation and alteration processes and prove differences in their sources. SPZ plagiogranites show a more compositional homogeneity than OMZ ones. This is interpreted as a proof of cogenetic origin for SPZ plagiogranites and heterogeneous origin for OMZ plagiogranites, derived from the mix of different sources (astenospheric, lithospheric and crustal). (Author) 23 refs.

  10. Crystallization, flow and thermal histories of lunar and terrestrial compositions (United States)

    Uhlmann, D. R.


    Contents: a kinetic treatment of glass formation; effects of nucleating heterogeneities on glass formation; glass formation under continuous cooling conditions; crystallization statistics; kinetics of crystal nucleation; diffusion controlled crystal growth; crystallization of lunar compositions; crystallization between solidus and liquidus; crystallization on reheating a glass; temperature distributions during crystallization; crystallization of anorthite and anorthite-albite compositions; effect of oxidation state on viscosity; diffusive creep and viscous flow; high temperature flow behavior of glass-forming liquids, a free volume interpretation; viscous flow behavior of lunar compositions; thermal history of orange soil material; breccias formation by viscous sintering; viscous sintering; thermal histories of breccias; solute partitioning and thermal history of lunar rocks; heat flow in impact melts; and thermal histories of olivines.

  11. Le volcanisme cambrien du Maroc central : implications géodynamiquesThe Central Morocco Cambrian volcanism: geodynamic implications (United States)

    Ouali, Houssa; Briand, Bernard; Bouchardon, Jean-Luc; Capiez, Paul


    In southeastern Central Morocco, the Bou-Acila volcanic complex is considered of Cambrian age. In spite of low-grade metamorphic effect, initial volcanic texture and mineralogy can be recognized and volcanic rocks are dominated by dolerites and porphyric dolerites. The initial mineralogy is composed of plagioclases, pyroxenes and dark minerals. A secondary mineral assemblage is composed of albite, epidote, chlorite and calcite. According to their immobile elements compositions, the southeastern central Morocco metavolcanites are of within-plate continental tholeiites. This volcanism and those recognized in many other areas in Morocco confirm a Cambrian extensive episode within the Gondwana supercontinent. To cite this article: H. Ouali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).To cite this article: H. Ouali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  12. Analysis by Sem, EDS and XRD of mineral and soil belonging to a Colonial oven from Jalenton Chiapas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) have been applied in the study of ancient materials. The results from the study of several samples belonging to a colonial oven are present in this work. There were found sets of slides, acicular and tubular shapes as well as porous surfaces and rose-like structures. EDS revealed high concentrations of O, C, Pb, Ca, Fe and Al, and minor quantities of Si, Zn, Mg, Na, S, K, Ti and Ni. Were identified the crystalline phases such as calcite, aragonite, albite; as well some phases associated with iron and lead compounds like: iron oxides, magnetite, hematite, goethite, kirschtanite, lead oxides, litargite, wititte, and cerusite. According to the obtained results that it is considered a kiln of oxygenated mineral to lead smelting. (Author)

  13. Analysis by Sem, EDS and XRD of mineral and soil belonging to a Colonial oven from Jalenton Chiapas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D.; Carapia M, L.; Rodriguez L, V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Salazar, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52045 (Mexico); Torres, L.; Lee, T. [Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Ciudad Universitaria C.P. 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Franco, F. [Departamento de Materiales. Area de Materiales. UAM Azcapotzalco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    Analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) have been applied in the study of ancient materials. The results from the study of several samples belonging to a colonial oven are present in this work. There were found sets of slides, acicular and tubular shapes as well as porous surfaces and rose-likestructures. EDS revealed high concentrations of O, C, Pb, Ca, Fe and Al, and minor quantities of Si, Zn, Mg, Na, S, K, Ti and Ni. Were identified the crystalline phases such as calcite, aragonite, albite; as well some phases associated with iron and lead compounds like: iron oxides, magnetite, hematite, goethite, kirschtanite, lead oxides, litargite, wititte, and cerusite. According to the obtained results that it is considered a kiln of oxygenated mineral to lead smelting. (Author)

  14. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of archaeologicam building materials from Seyitomer Hoyuk Kutahya, Turkey. (United States)

    Bilgen, Nejat; Olgun, Asim

    This paper focuses on the spectroscopic and thermal analysis of the archaeological samples of mortar and plaster from middle Bronze Age and Achaemenid period in Seyitömer Höyük. The composition of the samples was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The results showed that human used different types of raw materials in the preperation of the mortar and plaster in the Middle Bronze Age and Achaemenid period. The material used in middle Bronze Age contains muscovite whereas the material in Achaemenid period contains albite. Although, the chemical composition of the mortar and plaster used in the period were similar, the calcium content of the plaster is relatively higher than the one of the mortar indicating people's awareness of the binding properties of calcite.

  15. Physicochemical study of ceramics from Pre classic of Cuicuilco 'C' Mexico, methodology to define origin of raw material; Estudio fisico-quimico de ceramica del Preclasico de Cuicuilco 'C' Mexico. Metodologia para definir procedencia de materia prima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo S, A.; Sanchez P, S. [Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia INAH, Periferico Sur y Zapote s/n, Col. Isidro Fabela, Delegacion Tlalpan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Perez C, M.A. [Proyecto Arqueologico de Cuicuilco, DEA-INAH, Lic. Verdad 3, Col. Centro (Mexico); Jimenez D, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas de la UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar F, M.; Zorrilla C, C.; Arenas A, J.A. [IFUNAM, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    Cuicuilco has been considered one of the most important centers during the Formative Period (1000 - 0 b. C.) in the south of Mexico Basin, mainly, due its dimensions. Because of the Xitle volcano eruption, its occupation decreases around 200 b. C. This paper presents the results of a multidisciplinary investigation about ceramic material from Cuicuilco 'C', located in the south of Mexico City, and sediments from different places near to it. The analysis was done by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X- Ray Diffraction (XRD). Its results show the presence of Si, O, Fe and Al as majority elements, and crystalline phases as albite, hematite, quartz, maghemite and cristobalite. Chemical elements identified at ceramic samples has been submitted to an statistical analysis in order to be compared with the results of analyzed sediments, to determinate the raw material origin. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Majer


    Full Text Available Metharyolites of Vranica mountain are roks of emphasized porphyritic texture containing phenocrysts of quartz, K.feldspar and very rarely albite. The groundmass is microcrystallinic, characterized by finegrained phengite, biotite and area consisting of granophyric intergrowths of quartz and feldspar. Accessory minerals are ilmenite, rutila, apatite, zircon and chlorite. Metarhyolites are peraulminous rocks (PI=1.-4.1 having dominantly potassium character (K2O/Na2O=1,3-13,8. Incompatible elements are enriched relative to the normalizing chondrite composition, pointing to the crustal origin of metarhyolite magma. Although phengites typically occur in high pressure rocks, it seems that phengites of metarhyolites of Vranica mountain belong to the seldom group of phengites occurring in the low to medium pressure rocks (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Dacite – siltstone peperite from Trlično at Rogatec, Eastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kralj


    Full Text Available Dacitic glassy lava flow at Trlično is surrounded by a dacite – siltstone peperite and peperitic breccia that underwent alteration, recognised in two, only a few metres thick zones. In the higher-temperature alteration zone, albite extensively replaces volcanic glass and primary plagioclases. The siltstone components are altered to microcrystalline quartz, iron oxides and interlayered illite/smectite clay minerals. This zone developed upon thermalmetamorphosis related to the transfer of heat from the cooling lava. In the lower temperature alteration zone, analcime occurs as the replacement of volcanic glass and pore- and fissure-filling, while the primary plagioclases and poorly lithified siltstone remained fairly unchanged. This zone developed under hydrothermal conditions related to the heating, circulation and reactions of pore waters in the sediment surrounding the lava flow.

  18. Origin of peak and retrograde assemblages during Grenvillian orogeny from garnet-staurolite bearing mica schist of Bhilwara Supergroup, NW India: constraints from pseudosection modelling (United States)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Saha, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Saheli


    Fractionation of components due to formation of garnet porphyroblasts during prograde metamorphism, have been constrained from pseudosection analyses. Such fractionation process leads to changes in the effective bulk composition within the rock, which can be modelled with well-preserved growth zonation patterns in garnet porphyroblasts. On the contrary, textures and mineralogy in metamorphic rocks can be far more complex with different textural domains within a single rock preserving assemblages formed along different segments of the P-T paths or during different metamorphic events. Examples of such textures include pseudomorphs, reaction rims or coronae, symplectites formed by breakdown of both cores and rims of porphyroblasts. Apart from pressure and temperature, availability of fluids during metamorphic reactions plays important roles in defining mineral assemblages and textures. In this study we have constrained formation of garnet porphyroblasts and paragonite-albite-sillimanite-quartz-staurolite bearing domains within the mica schist from the Rajpura-Dariba sequence of the Bhilwara Supergroup in NW India. The mica schist is inter-layered with calc-silicates and quartzite and together the units form a NE-SW trending Grenvillian orogenic belt in southern part of Bhilwara Supergroup sequence. Within the mica schist, three distinct textural domains have been observed: (i) muscovite-biotite-quartz-feldspar bearing matrix foliation, (ii) garnet porphyroblasts within the matrix foliation, (iii) staurolite-paragonite-albite-staurolite-sillimanite-quartz bearing domains. Paragonite, albite and sillimanite occur exclusively in the pseudomorph domains. Garnet porphyroblasts show variation in compositions from cores (Spessartine0.14 Grossular0.10 Pyrope0.12 Almandine0.72) to rims (Spessartine0.09Grossular0.15Pyrope0.12Almandine0.75). The average XMg contents of staurolite and matrix biotite are 0.21 and 0.57 respectively. Pseudosections have been constructed from the

  19. The mechanism of myrmekite formation deduced from steady-diffusion modeling based on petrography: Case study of the Okueyama granitic body, Kyushu, Japan (United States)

    Yuguchi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Tadao


    Myrmekite is an intergrowth texture consisting of vermicular quartz and albitic plagioclase (Ab 93An 7 in this study), typically occurring between K-feldspar and plagioclase. It occurs ubiquitously in both metamorphic and granitic rocks; however, its genesis has been an enigma. This paper describes myrmekite's petrography and discusses its genesis from the Okueyama granitic body (OKG), which is a young (14 Ma) granite in Southwest Japan with no evidence of deformation after solidification. The genesis of a newly observed texture, the 'reaction rim', will be also discussed in relation to myrmekite. The reaction rim is an albite layer (Ab 95An 5) with no vermicular quartz between K-feldspar and plagioclase, and it occasionally makes a composite texture with myrmekite. Both myrmekite and the reaction rim are accompanied by a diffusive boundary layer (Olg-layer) with a mean composition of oligoclase (Ab 75An 25) in the rim of neighboring plagioclase rim. The overall reactions in an open system for the formation of myrmekite and that for the reaction rim are derived based on the following two models: 1) one based on the assumption of conservation of solid volume with arbitrarily specified closure components, and 2) the other based on the assumption of closure of AlO 3/2 together with an arbitrarily specified volume factor. Steady diffusion modeling in an open system based on the overall reaction thus derived defines the stability field of myrmekite and of the reaction rim in terms of the ratios of phenomenological coefficients ( L-ratios). The steady diffusion models for the above two models have essentially the same features. Myrmekite is stable for large values (> 10) of LAlAl/ LCaCa, for moderate values of LAlAl/ LSiSi, and for only small values (vs. LAlAl/ LNaNa, and its dependence on LAlAl/ LSiSi is stronger than that of myrmekite. The reaction rim is stable only for large values of LAlAl/ LCaCa, which is consistent with the case of myrmekite. Exchange cycles for

  20. Time-temperature evolution of microtextures and contained fluids in a plutonic alkali feldspar during heating (United States)

    Parsons, Ian; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Lee, James K. W.; Ivanic, Tim; Golla-Schindler, Ute


    Microtextural changes brought about by heating alkali feldspar crystals from the Shap granite, northern England, at atmospheric pressure, have been studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. A typical unheated phenocryst from Shap is composed of about 70 vol% of tweed orthoclase with strain-controlled coherent or semicoherent micro- and crypto-perthitic albite lamellae, with maximum lamellar thicknesses 700°C, and after >48 h at 700°C, all such regions were essentially compositionally homogeneous, as indicated by X-ray analyses at fine scale in the transmission electron microscope. Changes in lamellar thickness with time at different T point to an activation energy of ~350 kJmol-1. A lamella which homogenised after 6,800 h at 600°C, therefore, would have required only 0.6 s to do so in the melting interval at 1,100°C. Subgrains in patch perthite homogenised more slowly than coherent lamellae and chemical gradients in patches persisted for >5,000 h at 700°C. Homogenisation T is in agreement with experimentally determined solvi for coherent ordered intergrowths, when a 50-100°C increase in T for An1 is applied. Homogenisation of lamellae appears to proceed in an unexpected manner: two smooth interfaces, microstructurally sharp, advance from the original interfaces toward the mid-line of each twinned, semicoherent lamella. In places, the homogenisation interfaces have shapes reflecting the local arrangements of nanotunnels or pull-aparts. Analyses confirm that the change in alkali composition is also relatively sharp at these interfaces. Si-Al disordering is far slower than alkali homogenisation so that tweed texture in orthoclase, tartan twinning in irregular microcline, and Albite twins in albite lamellae and patches persisted in all our experiments, including 5,478 h at 700°C, 148 h at 1,000°C and 5 h at 1,100°C, even though the ensemble in each case was chemically homogeneous. Nanotunnels and pull-aparts were modified after only 50 min

  1. Micro-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopic studies of ceramic shards excavated from ancient Stratonikeia city at Eskihisar village in West-South Turkey (United States)

    Bahçeli, Semiha; Güleç, Gamze; Erdoğan, Hasan; Söğüt, Bilal


    In this study, micro-Raman and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) were used to characterize the mineralogical structures of pigments of four ceramic fragments in which one of them belongs to Hellenistic period (1st - IVth century BC) and other three ceramic shards belong to Early Rome (IVth century BC- 1st century AD) excavated from Stratonikeia ancient city. In the results of investigations on these four ceramic fragments, the various phases were identified: quartz, kaolinite, albit (or Na-feldspar), calcite, anastase, hematite and magnetite. Furthermore, the obtained findings indicate that firing temperature is about 800-850 °C for all the shards.

  2. Can we recognize magmatic fluid inclusions in fossil sytems based on room-temperature phase relations and microthermometric bahavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, R. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, VA (USA))


    If the density and composition of magmatic fluid and how these properties vary as the system evolves are known, the room temperature phase relations and microthermometric behavior of fluid inclusions which have trapped these magmatic fluids are considered to be predictable. Using available experimental and theoretical data for the model system albite-H2O-NaCl, the salinity of the aqueous phase exsolving from melts crystallizing at various depths (pressures) in the crust were calculated. Consequently, the results of the analysis of the characteristics of fluid inclusions trapped during crystallization of a silicic melt indicated that great care should be exercised in the selection of fluid inclusions to investigate magmatic fluids. Furthermore, late hydrothermal inclusions and similar magmatic inclusions are considered to be distinguishable from one another based on mode of occurrence, presence of tiny opaque daughter phases in magmatic inclusions, and relative ages. 5 figs.

  3. 某地钽铌钨铍矿化花岗岩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The tantalum-, niobium-, tungsten-, beryllium-mineralized granite described in this paper is identified as albitizied fine-grained muscovite granite and occurs as a small discordant taeolity with a bulging central part, dipping and finning out outwards.A crust of quartz-pegmatoid, several tens of centimeters thick, dsvelopes in its apices. Major rock-forming minerals are plagioclase, mierocline, albite, muscovite and quartz. Partsehinite, fluorite and topaz are characteristically abundant among accessory minerals. Rare element and base metal minerals include wolframite,scbeellte, microlite, raanganese-rich columbite, berly, phenacite, xenotirae, monazite,cassitcrite, raolybdenite, bisrauthinite, etc. Niobium and beryllium mineralizations are uniformly present throughout the rock body, but tantalum is feund richer in upper parts than in lower parts. It is tentatively suggested that this is a differentiationmctasomatic deposit of fracture-filling type originated during late magmatic stage.

  4. Morro do Rocio - an unequilibrated H5 chondrite (United States)

    Fredriksson, K.; Wlotzka, F.


    The results of an intensive study of apparently anomalous features of the Morro do Rocio (MDR) chondrite are reported. The examination was undertaken because of the detection of what appeared to be tridymite spherules. Chemical, petrological and mineralogical analyses were performed. The analyses indicated that the features thought to anomalous were in reality artifacts taken out of context. Some olivines and pyroxenes with Fe/Mg ratios which deviated from an equilibrated structure were observed, along with free SiO2 close to the olivine. K-feldspar was found to have separated from the albitic-diopsidic residual glass (or melt). The scale of the observed anomalies was finer than the scale usually used in examining chondrites, implying that chondrites will normally display some anomalies if examined on a fine enough scale.

  5. Mass change calculations of hydrothermal alterations within the volcanogenic metasediments hosted Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Halilar area, NW Turkey (United States)

    Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Abdelnasser, Amr; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa


    The Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization that is formed in the volcanogenic metasediments of Bagcagiz Formation at Balikesir province, NW Turkey, represents locally vein-type deposit as well as restricted to fault gouge zone directed NE-SW along with the lower boundary of Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granitic intrusion in the study area. Furthermore, This granite is traversed by numerous mineralized sheeted vein systems, which locally transgress into the surrounding metasediments. Therefore, this mineralization closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within brecciation, and quartz stockwork veining. The ore mineral assemblage includes chalcopyrite, galena, and some sphalerite with covellite and goethite formed during three phases of mineralization (pre-ore, main ore, and supergene) within an abundant gangue of quartz and calcite. The geologic and field relationships, petrographic and mineralogical studies reveal two alteration zones occurred with the Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization along the contact between the Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granite; pervasive phyllic alteration (quartz, sericite, and pyrite), and selective propylitic alteration (albite, calcite, epidote, sericite and/or chlorite). This work, by using the mass balance calculations, reports the mass/volume changes (gain and loss) of the chemical components of the hydrothermal alteration zones associated with Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Balikesir area (Turkey). It revealed that the phyllic alteration has enrichments of Si, Fe, K, Ba, and LOI with depletion of Mg, Ca, and Na reflect sericitization of alkali feldspar and destruction of ferromagnesian minerals. This zone has high Cu and Pb with Zn contents represents the main mineralized zone. On the other hand, the propylitic zone is characterized by addition of Ca, Na, K, Ti, P, and Ba with LOI and Cu (lower content) referring to the replacement of plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals by albite, calcite, epidote, and sericite

  6. Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Bacon, Diana H.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.


    This article develops a novel multiscale modeling approach to analyze CO2 reservoirs using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s STOMP-CO2-R code that is interfaced with the ABAQUS® finite element package. The STOMP-CO2-R/ABAQUS® sequentially coupled simulator accounts for the reactive transport of CO2 causing mineral composition changes that modify the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks and seals. Formation rocks’ elastic properties that vary during CO2 injection and govern the poroelastic behavior of rocks are modeled by an Eshelby-Mori-Tanka approach (EMTA) implemented in ABAQUS® via user-subroutines. The computational tool incorporates the change in rock permeability due to both geochemistry and geomechanics. A three-dimensional (3D) STOMP-CO2-R model for a model CO2 reservoir containing a vertical fault is built to analyze a formation containing a realistic geochemical reaction network with 5 minerals: albite, anorthite, calcite, kaolinite and quartz. A 3D ABAQUS® model that maps the above STOMP-CO2-R model is built for the analysis using STOMP-CO2-R/ABAQUS®. The results show that the changes in volume fraction of minerals include dissolution of anorthite, precipitation of calcite and kaolinite, with little change in the albite volume fraction. After a long period of CO2 injection the mineralogical and geomechanical changes significantly reduced the permeability and elastic modulus of the reservoir (between the base and caprock) in front of the fault leading to a reduction of the pressure margin to fracture at and beyond the injection location. The impact of reactive transport of CO2 on the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks and seals are studied in terms of mineral composition changes that directly affect the rock stiffness, stress and strain distributions as well as the pressure margin to fracture.

  7. Thermoluminescence response of the poly mineral fraction from hibiscus sabdariffa L foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Guzman, S. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Brown, F. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.m [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)


    Food processed by ionizing irradiation is a safe technology and has been recognized by the FAO/Who Codes Alimentarius Commission. It is an excellent method to prevent food spoilage and food borne diseases by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and slowing down ripening. The widespread use of food irradiation treatments that include spices, dry vegetables, grains and fruits make relevant the developing of methods for identification and analyses of foodstuffs processed by irradiation. The present work focuses on the thermoluminescence property of Mexican Roselle flower previously irradiated for detection purposes. The poly mineral content of irradiated commercial Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was extracted and analyzed by thermoluminescence (Tl). The X-ray diffraction analyses showed that quartz and albite composition for the poly mineral fraction. Different grain sizes; 10, 53, 74 and 149 {mu}m, were selected for the Tl analyses. The Tl glow curves depended on the grain sizes. The glow curves depicted two peaks around 92 and 120 C. The first peak was ascribed to quartz and the broad part of the glow curves (120-250 C) seems to correspond to the albite. Because the complex structure of the Tl glow curves from poly minerals the kinetic parameters were calculated by a fitting process using a deconvolution method based on a non-linear least-squares Levenberg-Ma quart. The values of the activation energy were found to be at 0.79-1.05 eV and 0.79-1.04 for 53 {mu}m and 250 {mu}m, respectively. The Tl properties of the samples were determined including dose response, reproducibly, fading and UV light bleaching. (Author)

  8. Effects of fluid-assisted diffusion on texture strength in a mylonitised metagabbro (United States)

    Gardner, Joseph; Wheeler, John; Mariani, Elisabetta


    Most rocks are polyphase materials yet many studies of rock texture tend to isolate the behaviour of individual phases. Characterisation of interaction between phases can yield useful information about the deformation behaviour of real rocks. Our work focuses on a broadly two phase mixture of albite and clinozoisite in mylonitised metagabbros, and how these two phases may have interacted to create, maintain and/or weaken the variable strength CPOs observed in each phase. Intriguingly, the rocks have deformed primarily by diffusion-accommodated processes, which are traditionally thought to weaken or destroy an existing CPO. Our data suggest that diffusion can preserve strong textures. Plagioclase in metamorphosed gabbros from a km-scale extensional shear zone in the NW Italian Alps (Gressoney Shear Zone) has undergone (to a first order) breakdown to albite (Ab) + clinozoiste (Cz) at greenschist facies. Grain size reduction via nucleation of product grains, plus the effects of Zener pinning, lead to an average grain size of 100 μm, which suggests grain growth elsewhere in the matrix was indeed inhibited by the presence of a second phase. Discrete CPO bands vary in size. Variations in grain and grain boundary characteristics between domains are being quantified to investigate whether the way an inherited orientation relates to L-S sample geometry may have had any control over degree of dissolution (implied from grain morphology) within domains. Whether volume fraction of Cz in (what remains of) each domain has influenced dissolution will also be characterised by quantifying grain shape, orientation and distribution of phases in individual domains.

  9. Porphyry Cu-Au and associated polymetallic Fe-Cu-Au deposits in the Beiya Area, western Yunnan Province, south China (United States)

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Xiao, Q.-B.; Peters, S.G.


    The Alkaline porphyries in the Beiya area are located east of the Jinshajiang suture, as part of a Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. The main rock types include quartz-albite porphyry, quartz-K-feldspar porphyry and biotite-K-feldspar porphyry. These porphyries are characterised by high alkalinity [(K2O + Na2O)% > 10%], high silica (SiO2% > 65%), high Sr (> 400??ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.706)] ratio and were intruded at 65.5??Ma, between 25.5 to 32.5??Ma, and about 3.8??Ma, respectively. There are five main types of mineral deposits in the Beiya area: (1) porphyry Cu-Au deposits, (2) magmatic Fe-Au deposits, (3) sedimentary polymetallic deposits, (4) polymetallic skarn deposits, and (5) palaeoplacers associated with karsts. The porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic skarn deposits are associated with quartz-albite porphyry bodies. The Fe-Au and polymetallic sedimentary deposits are part of an ore-forming system that produced considerable Au in the Beiya area, and are characterised by low concentrations of La, Ti, and Co, and high concentrations of Y, Yb, and Sc. The Cenozoic porphyries in western Yunnan display increased alkalinity away from the Triassic Jinshajiang suture. Distribution of both the porphyries and sedimentary deposits in the Beiya area are interpreted to be related to partial melting in a disjointed region between upper mantle lithosphere of the Yangtze Plate and Gondwana continent, and lie within a shear zone between buried Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle lithosphere, caused by the subduction and collision of India and Asia. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Visible/near-infrared spectra of experimentally shocked plagioclase feldspars (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Hörz, Friedrich


    High shock pressures cause structural changes in plagioclase feldspars such as mechanical fracturing and disaggregation of the crystal lattice at submicron scales, the formation of diaplectic glass (maskelynite), and genuine melting. Past studies of visible/near-infrared spectra of shocked feldspars demonstrated few spectral variations with pressure except for a decrease in the depth of the absorption feature near 1250-1300 nm and an overall decrease in reflectance. New visible/near-infrared spectra (400-2500 nm) of experimentally shocked (17-56 GPa) albite- and anorthite-rich rock powders demonstrate similar trends, including the loss of minor hydrated mineral bands near 1410, 1930, 2250, and 2350 nm. However, the most interesting new observations are increases in reflectance at intermediate pressures, followed by subsequent decreases in reflectance at higher pressures. The amount of internal scattering and overall sample reflectance is controlled by the relative proportions of micro-fractures, submicron grains, diaplectic glass, and melts formed during shock metamorphism. We interpret the observed reflectance increases at intermediate pressures to result from progressively larger proportions of submicron feldspar grains and diaplectic glass. The ensuing decreases in reflectance occur after diaplectic glass formation is complete and the proportion of genuine melt inclusions increases. The pressure regimes over which these reflectance variations occur differ between albite and anorthite, consistent with thermal infrared spectra of these samples and previous studies of shocked feldspars. These types of spectral variations associated with different peak shock pressures should be considered during interpretation and modeling of visible/near-infrared remotely sensed spectra of planetary and asteroidal surfaces.

  11. Geochemical modeling of groundwater in southern plain area of Pengyang County, Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-yue LI


    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution mechanism of hydrochemical field and to promote unpredictable benefits to the living standards of local people and to the local economy in the southern plain area of Pengyang County, Ningxia, China. Based on the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions in Pengyang County, the chemical evolution characters of groundwater in the plain area were analyzed. PHREEQC geochemical modeling software was used to perform a hydrochemical modeling for water-rock interaction and to analyze quantitatively the evolution processes and the forming mechanism of the local groundwater. Geochemical modeling results showed that along path ①, Na+ adsorption played the leading role in the precipitation process and its amount was the largest, up to 6.08 mmol/L, cation exchange was obvious on path ①, while on simulated path ② albite took up the largest amount of dissolution, reaching 9.06 mmol/L, the cation exchange was not obvious along path ②. Some conclusions were summarized according to the modeling results that along the groundwater flow path, calcite and dolomite in the whole simulation showed oversaturated status with a precipitation trend, while the fluorite and gypsum throughout the simulated path were not saturated and showed a dissolution trend. Total dissolved solids (TDS increased and water quality become worse along the flow path. Dissolution reactions of albite, CO2 and halite, exchange adsorption reaction of Na+ as well as precipitation action of sodium montmorillonite and calcite are the primary hydrogeochemical reactions which resulted in changes of hydrochemical ingredients.

  12. Thermoluminescence response of the poly mineral fraction from hibiscus sabdariffa L foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food processed by ionizing irradiation is a safe technology and has been recognized by the FAO/Who Codes Alimentarius Commission. It is an excellent method to prevent food spoilage and food borne diseases by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and slowing down ripening. The widespread use of food irradiation treatments that include spices, dry vegetables, grains and fruits make relevant the developing of methods for identification and analyses of foodstuffs processed by irradiation. The present work focuses on the thermoluminescence property of Mexican Roselle flower previously irradiated for detection purposes. The poly mineral content of irradiated commercial Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was extracted and analyzed by thermoluminescence (Tl). The X-ray diffraction analyses showed that quartz and albite composition for the poly mineral fraction. Different grain sizes; 10, 53, 74 and 149 μm, were selected for the Tl analyses. The Tl glow curves depended on the grain sizes. The glow curves depicted two peaks around 92 and 120 C. The first peak was ascribed to quartz and the broad part of the glow curves (120-250 C) seems to correspond to the albite. Because the complex structure of the Tl glow curves from poly minerals the kinetic parameters were calculated by a fitting process using a deconvolution method based on a non-linear least-squares Levenberg-Ma quart. The values of the activation energy were found to be at 0.79-1.05 eV and 0.79-1.04 for 53 μm and 250 μm, respectively. The Tl properties of the samples were determined including dose response, reproducibly, fading and UV light bleaching. (Author)

  13. Further description of the petrology of the Topopah Spring member of the paintbrush tuff in drill holes UE25A-1 and USW-G1 and of the lithic-rich tuff in USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the Lithic-rich tuff and two Tertiary volcanic units that occur in cores from drill holes UE25a-1 and USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Recently they have been suggested as possibly suitable for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive waste. Earlier petrologic characterization of these units is augmented here. The Topopah Spring Member (approximately 350 m thick) has two compound cooling units. The upper, thinner unit is densely welded to vitrophyric. The lower unit ranges from nonwelded to vitrophyric, and its nonwelded base is extensively zeolitized to clinoptilolite and mordenite. Heulandite occurs as fracture fill in the overlying vitrophyric part, but zeolites are absent above that vitrophyre. Here primary devitrification plus vapor-phase crystallization dominate the mineralogy. Vapor-phase effects are especially prominent between the two vitrophyres in both cores and include numerous large lithophysal cavities throughout most of this moderately to densely welded tuff. The Lithic-rich tuff extends from 1203 to 1506 m in the USW-G1 drill core. It is nonwelded to partly welded but is well indurated due to pervasive intergrowths of authigenic minerals. These phases are analcime, albite, alkali feldspar, sericite, chlorite and quartz. The transition from analcime to secondary albite corresponds to Iijima's zeolite Zone IV boundary, and this boundary appears in USW-G1 at 1326 m. However, analcime remains as a prominent phase through most of the Lithic-rich tuff. Further work is necessary to assess the suitability of either of these horizons for a waste repository. In the Topopah Spring Member, both mechanical and hydrologic properties of thick lithophysal zone must be studied, as well as the complete sequence of fracture fill. For both units, zeolite and clay mineral stabilities need to be investigated

  14. Chemical evolution of saline waters in the Jordan-Dead Sea transform and in adjoining areas (United States)

    Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Geyer, Stefan; Flexer, Akiva


    The Ca Mg relationship in groundwaters strongly points to the overall dolomitization and local albitization. The Mg/Ca ratios reveal two trends by which saline waters develop: increase of Mg/Ca ratio by evaporation and decreasing Mg/Ca ratios due to dolomitization and albitization. Br/Cl vs. Na/Cl ratios demonstrate that albitization does not play a major role which leaves dolomitization to be the main source for decreasing Mg/Ca ratios in saline waters. In the eastern and southern Region of Lake Kinneret, salinization occurs by mixing with a Ca/Mg molar ratio 1 dominates, which developed by the albitization of plagioclase in abundant mafic volcanics and the dolomitization of limestones. The most saline groundwater of the Tabgha-, Fuliya-, and Tiberias clusters could be regional derivatives of at least two mother brines: in diluted form one is represented by Ha’On water, the other is a Na-rich brine of the Zemah type. Additionally, a deep-seated Ca-dominant brine may ascend along the fractures on the western side of Lake Kinneret, which is absent on the eastern side. Groundwaters of the Lower Jordan Valley are chemically different on both sides of the Jordan River, indicating that the exchange of water is insignificant. All saline waters from the Dead Sea and its surroundings represent a complex mixture of brines, and precipitation and local dissolution of halite and gypsum. Many wells of the Arava/Araba Valley pump groundwater from the Upper Cretaceous limestone aquifer, the origin of the water is actually from the Lower Cretaceous Kurnub Group sandstones. Groundwater drawn from the Quaternary alluvial fill either originates from Kurnub Group sandstones (Eilat 108, Yaalon 117) or from altered limestones of the Judea Group. The origin of these waters is from floods flowing through wadis incised into calcareous formations of the Judea Group. On the other hand, as a result of step-faulting, hydraulic contact is locally established between the Kurnub- and the Judea

  15. The blueschits from the Kopina Mt., West Sudetes, Poland - what do they tell us about accretion of the Variscides? (United States)

    Majka, Jarosław; Mazur, Stanisław; Kośmińska, Karolina; Dudek, Krzysztof


    Blueschists are tracers of sutures, thus marking fossil subduction zones at convergent plate boundaries and providing important constraints on plate tectonic reconstructions. Their occurrences are scarce in the Variscan belt owing to a strong collisional overprint but just because of that each locality deserves particular attention. The Variscan blueschists must have formed during the early stage of the Variscan Orogeny and may represent a vestige of missing marginal basins fringing the Rheic Ocean at the onset of subduction. The studied rocks from the Kopina Mt. consist mainly of garnet, glaucophane, clinozoisite-epidote, chlorite-I, titanite, hematite and quartz. The original high-pressure assemblage is overprinted by later, lower pressure paragenesis, which comprises mostly Ca-amphiboles, chlorite-II, albite and K-feldspar. The latter occurs in polymineral inclusions in other phases together with albite and chlorite that are interpreted as phengite breakdown products. Garnet shows chemical compositional variation from Alm54Prp3Grs30Sps13 in the cores to Alm66Prp4Grs29Sps1 in the rims. The almandine zoning is bowl-shaped, whereas spessartine profiles show bell-shaped trends. The grossular and pyrope contents are generally constant throughout the grain. Rather gradual changes in the chemical zoning suggest a progressive, one-step garnet growth pattern. Glaucophane, although commonly well preserved, in some cases disintegrates to the albite-chlorite assemblage. The pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions were estimated using the phase equilibrium modelling in the NCKFMMnASHTO system using the PerpleX software. The compositional isopleths cross cut in the stability field of Grt+Gln+Ep+Chl+Pheng+Ttn+Hem+Q. P-T estimates indicate that the peak conditions occur at c. 14-17 kbar and 470-500°C, which corresponds to quite a low geothermal gradient in the range of 8-10°C/km. The P-T conditions estimated lie on a low temperature geotherm that is typical for a relatively

  16. Mineralogy of silicate inclusions of the Colomera IIE iron and crystallization of Cr-diopside and alkali feldspar from a partial melt (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Hsu, Weibiao; Huss, Gary R.


    We studied the mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and compositions of 48 interior silicate inclusions and a large K-rich surface inclusion from the Colomera IIE iron meteorite. Common minerals in the interior silicate inclusions are Cr diopside and Na plagioclase (albite). They are often enclosed by or coexist with albitic glasses with excess silica and minor Fe-Mg components. This mineral assemblage is similar to the "andesitic" material found in the Caddo County IAB iron meteorite for which a partial melt origin has been proposed. The fairly uniform compositions of Cr diopside (Ca 44Mg 46Fe 10) and Na plagioclase (Or 2.5Ab 90.0An 7.5 to Or 3.5Ab 96.1An 0.4) in Colomera interior inclusions and the angular boundaries between minerals and metal suggest that diopside and plagioclase partially crystallized under near-equilibrium conditions from a common melt before emplacement into molten metal. The melt-crystal assemblage has been called "crystal mush." The bulk compositions of the individual composite inclusions form an array between the most diopside-rich inclusion and plagioclase. This is consistent only with a simple mechanical mixing relationship, not a magmatic evolution series. We propose a model in which partly molten metal and crystal mush were mixed together by impact on the IIE parent body. Other models involving impact melting of the chondritic source material followed by growth of diopside and plagioclase do not easily explain near equilibrium growth of diopside and Na plagioclase, followed by rapid cooling. In the K-rich surface inclusion, K feldspar, orthopyroxene, and olivine were found together with diopside for the first time. K feldspar (sanidine, Or 92.7Ab 7.2An 0.1 to Or 87.3Ab 11.0An 1.7) occurs in an irregular veinlike region in contact with large orthopyroxene crystals of nearly uniform composition (Ca 1.3Mg 80.5Fe 17.8 to Ca 3.1Mg 78.1Fe 18.9) and intruding into a relict olivine with deformed-oval shape. Silica and subrounded Cr diopside are

  17. Archean high-Mg monzodiorite-syenite, epidote skarn, and biotite-sericite gold lodes in the Granny Smith-Wallaby district, Australia: U-Pb and Re-Os chronometry of two intrusion-related hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; Hall, Gregory C.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Stein, Holly J.; Creaser, Robert A.; Mason, Douglas R.


    The Granny Smith (37 t Au production) and Wallaby deposits (38 t out of a 180 t Au resource) are located northeast of Kalgoorlie, in 2.7 Ga greenstones of the Eastern Goldfields Province, the youngest orogenic belt of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. At Granny Smith, a zoned monzodiorite-granodiorite stock, dated by a concordant titanite-zircon U-Pb age of 2,665 ± 3 Ma, cuts across east-dipping thrust faults. The stock is fractured but not displaced and sets a minimum age for large-scale (1 km) thrust faulting (D2), regional folding (D1), and dynamothermal metamorphism in the mining district. The local gold-pyrite mineralization, controlled by fractured fault zones, is younger than 2,665 ± 3 Ma. In augite-hornblende monzodiorite, alteration progressed from a hematite-stained alkali feldspar-quartz-calcite assemblage and quartz-molybdenite-pyrite veins to a late reduced sericite-dolomite-albite assemblage. Gold-related monazite and xenotime define a U-Pb age of 2,660 ± 5 Ma, and molybdenite from veins a Re-Os isochron age of 2,661 ± 6 Ma, indicating that mineralization took place shortly after the emplacement of the main stock, perhaps coincident with the intrusion of late alkali granite dikes. At Wallaby, a NE-trending swarm of porphyry dikes comprising augite monzonite, monzodiorite, and minor kersantite intrudes folded and thrust-faulted molasse. The conglomerate and the dikes are overprinted by barren (1,600-m-long replacement pipe, which is intruded by a younger ring dike of syenite porphyry pervasively altered to muscovite + calcite + pyrite. Skarn and syenite are cut by pink biotite-calcite veins, containing magnetite + pyrite and subeconomic gold-silver mineralization (Au/Ag = 0.2). The veins are associated with red biotite-sericite-calcite-albite alteration in adjacent monzonite dikes. Structural relations and the concordant titanite U-Pb age of the skarn constrain intrusion-related mineralization to 2,662 ± 3 Ma. The main-stage gold-pyrite ore

  18. Late Paleozoic onset of subduction and exhumation at the western margin of Gondwana (Chilenia Terrane): Counterclockwise P-T paths and timing of metamorphism of deep-seated garnet-mica schist and amphibolite of Punta Sirena, Coastal Accretionary Complex, central Chile (34° S) (United States)

    Hyppolito, T.; García-Casco, A.; Juliani, C.; Meira, V. T.; Hall, C.


    In this study, the Paleozoic albite-epidote-amphibolite occurring as meter-sized intercalations within garnet-mica schist at Punta Sirena beach (Pichilemu region, central Chile) is characterized for the first time. These rocks constitute an unusual exposure of subduction-related rocks within the Paleozoic Coastal Accretionary Complex of central Chile. Whereas high pressure (HP) greenschist and cofacial metasediments are the predominant rocks forming the regional metamorphic basement, the garnet-mica schist and amphibolite yield higher P-T conditions (albite-epidote amphibolite facies) and an older metamorphic age. Combining detailed mineral chemistry and textural information, P-T calculations and Ar-Ar ages, including previously published material from the Paleozoic Accretionary Complex of central Chile, we show that the garnet-mica schist and associated amphibolite (locally retrograded to greenschist) are vestiges of the earliest subducted material now forming exotic bodies within the younger HP units of the paleo-accretionary wedge. These rocks are interpreted as having been formed during the onset of subduction at the southwestern margin of Gondwana. However, we show that the garnet-mica schist formed at a slightly greater depth (ca. 40 km) than the amphibolite (ca. 30 km) along the same hot-subduction gradient developed during the onset of subduction. Both lithotypes reached their peak-P conditions at ca. 335-330 Ma and underwent near-isobaric cooling followed by cooling and decompression (i.e., counterclockwise P-T paths). The forced return flow of the garnet-mica schist from the subduction channel started at ca. 320 Ma and triggered the exhumation of fragments of shallower accreted oceanic crust (amphibolite). Cores of phengite (garnet-mica schist) and amphibole (amphibolite) grains have similar chemical compositions in both the S1 and S2 domains, indicating rotation of these grains during the transposition of the burial-related (prograde peak-T) foliation S1

  19. Nanoscale transient porosity controls large-scale metamorphic fluid flow (United States)

    Plümper, Oliver; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn


    The reaction of fluids with rocks is fundamental for Earth's dynamics as they facilitate heat/mass transfer and induce volume changes, weaknesses and instabilities in rock masses that localize deformation enabling tectonic responses to plate motion. During these fluid-rock interactions it is the ability of a rock to transmit fluid, its permeability, that controls the rates of metamorphic reactions. However, although some geological environments (e.g., sediments) are open to fluids, the majority of solid rocks (e.g., granites, elcogites, peridotites, etc.) are nearly impermeable. Surprisingly though, even in rocks that are nominally impermeable widespread fluid-rock interactions are observed leading to the question: How can fluids migrate through vast amounts of nominally impermeable rocks? Here we investigate one of the most wide-spread fluid-mediated metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust, the albitization of feldspatic rocks. We show that fluid flow and element mobilization during albitization is controlled by an interaction between grain boundary diffusion and reaction front migration through an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation process. Using a combination of focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)-assisted nanotomography combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the porosity is dictated by pore channels with a pore diameter ranging between 10 to 100 nm. Three-dimensional visualization of the feldspar pore network reveals that the pore channels must have been connected during the replacement reaction. Analysis of the pore aspect ratios suggests that a Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability associated to surface energy minimization caused the disconnection of the pore channels. Fluid transport in nanometer-sized objects with at least one characteristic dimension below 100 nm enables the occurrence of physical phenomena that are impossible at bigger length scales. Thus, on the basis of our microstructural

  20. Hydrofracturing of Sediment and Hydrated MORB's during Subduction of Ocean Crust (United States)

    Nabelek, P. I.


    Dehydration accompanying metamorphism of sediment and hydrated mafic ocean crust during ocean plate subduction can potentially lead to fracturing and intraplate tremors. As rocks are buried, they lose porosity and permeability and eventually pass into the lithostatic pressure regime where the porosity and permeability are thought to be very small. Pore fluid pressure generation stemming from metamorphic reactions was modeled using the program SUTRAMET (Nabelek et al., 2014), which is a modified version of the program SUTRA (Voss & Provost, 2002). The program allows modeling of metamorphic reactions at high pressures and temperatures and incorporates transient porosity and permeability changes due to overpressure and changing volumes of metamorphic assemblages. Permeabilities (k) of 10-18 and 10-20 m2 within the brittle regime were modeled. The model assumes continuous subduction with fluids generated at horizons where specific P-T conditions for reactions exist. Temperature gradient was assumed to be 10°C/km and the vertical component of subduction velocity to be at 0.85 cm/y. The model reactions in sediment (Campito Formation of western California as a proxy) and average MORB were generated by the program Theriak-Domino (de Capitani and Petrakakis, 2010). The initial sediment mineralogy includes albite, K-feldspar, phengite, chlorite, and lawsonite. The final mineralogy for the 10°C/km gradient is quartz, phengite, garnet, and pyroxene with jadeite and acmite components. The initial mineralogy of MORB includes chlorite, amphibole, pumpelyite, albite and quartz and the final eclogite mineralogy includes garnet, cpx, kyanite and quartz. Calculations show that at k = 10-18 m2, pore fluid pressure can reach 450 MPa. Pore pressure is reduced by negative ∆V of mineral assemblages stemming from reactions; nevertheless, for the garnet-forming reaction, pore pressure is about 110 MPa. Assuming a tensile strength of 15 MPa and fracture aperture given by rock

  1. Compositional characteristics and Existing Forms of Major,Trace and Rare—earth Elements in Cassiterite,Dupangling Tin Ore Field,Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干国梁; 陈志雄


    Trace elements in cassiterite,including Ta,W,Fe,Mn,Ti,Zr,V,Sc,Si,Al,In,Ga,Ge,Be,Bi,Ag,Sb,As,Cu,Pb,Zn,Co and REE,have been studied by many workers (Shan Zhenhua etal.,1998;Huang Zhou Tianren et al.,1987;Wu Qingsheng et al.,1988;Hu Zening,1988,Li Zhong-qing 1988 Mingzhei et al.,1988;Wang Lihua et al.,1988;Liu Kanghuai,1990).Up to now,however,most of the previous studies are concerned with trace-element variations in cassiterites of different occurrences and colors from different types of ore deposits,Data concerning the modes of occurrence of these trace elements are rare,except for the contention that Nb-Ta,Fe2+-Mn-Fe3+ and W-Fe3+ may substitute isomorphously for Sn as pointed out by Zhou Tianren et al.(1987) and Moller et al.(1988).In this paper we are concerned with the compositional characteristics as well as the modes of occurrence of trace elements in cassiterites from quartz veins and greisens in the Dupangling tin field,Guangxi,based on multivariate statistical analyses.Tin mineralization in the Dupangling area is found associated with the medium-to fine-grained protolithionite-albite granite(γ52b) and its outer contacts.Cassiterite occurs,with wolframite,both in quartz veins in the contact and in greisens within the granite.1) Spatially,greisens become dominant over quartz veins in the contact andin greisens with the granite.1)Spatialy,gresens become dominant over quartz veins in going from the contact to the interior of the granite and with increasing depth.The greisens are of various shapes.The vein-shaped and the sheet-shaped greisens at the top of the granie are rich in quartz and the chambered greiens always constitute rich ores and contain abundant topaz or mica.Genetically,Sn,W mineralizations associated with the protolithionite-albite granite(γ52b) are considered to have been formed from fluid melt derived from the ore-forming magma responsible for the granite(γ52b).

  2. Stable isotope systematics and fluid inclusion studies in the Cu-Au Visconde deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: implications for fluid source generation (United States)

    da Costa Silva, Antonia Railine; Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre; Lafon, Jean-Michel; Craveiro, Gustavo Souza; Ferreira, Valderez Pinto


    The Cu-Au Visconde deposit is located in the Carajás Mineral Province (CMP), northern Brazil, near the contact between the ca. 2.76 Ga metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Itacaiunas Supergroup rocks and the ~3.0 Ga granitic-gneissic basement. It is hosted by mylonitized Archean rocks, mainly metadacites, the Serra Dourada granite, and gabbros/diorites, which have been successively altered by sodic, sodic-calcic-magnesian, potassic, and calcic-magnesian hydrothermal processes, producing diverse mineralogical associations (albite-scapolite; albite-actinolite-scapolite-epidote; K-feldspar-biotite; chlorite-actinolite-epidote-calcite, etc.). Chalcopyrite is the dominant ore mineral and occurs principally in breccias and veins/veinlets. The aqueous fluids responsible for the alteration/mineralization were initially hot (>460 °C) and very saline (up to 58 wt.% equivalent (equiv.) NaCl), but as the system evolved, they experienced successive dilution processes. Mineral oxygen and hydrogen isotope data show that 18O-rich ( to +9.4 ‰) fluids prevailed in the earlier alteration (including magnetitites) and reached temperatures as high as 410-355 °C. Metamorphic/formation waters, most likely derived from the Carajás Basin rocks, appear to have contributed a major component to the fluid composition, although some magmatic input cannot be discounted. In turn, the later alterations and the mineralization involved cooler (<230 °C), 18O-depleted ( to +3.7 ‰) and less saline (7-30 wt.% equiv. NaCl) fluids, indicating the influx of meteoric water. Fluid dilution and cooling might have caused abundant precipitation of sulfides, especially as breccia cement. Ore δ 34 S values (+0.5 to +3.4 ‰) suggest a magmatic source for sulfur (from sulfide dissolution in pre-existing igneous rocks). The chalcopyrite Pb-Pb ages (2.73 ± 0.15 and 2.74 ± 0.10 Ga) indicate that the Visconde mineralization is Neoarchean, rather than Paleoproterozoic as previously considered. If so, the

  3. Petrology and textural evolution of granites associated with tin and rare-metals mineralization at the Pitinga mine, Amazonas, Brazil (United States)

    Lenharo, Sara Lais Rahal; Pollard, Peter J.; Born, Helmut


    The Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes at the Pitinga mine were emplaced into acid volcanic rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Iricoumé Group, and host major tin, rare-metal (Zr, Nb, Ta, Y, REE) and cryolite mineralization. The igneous complexes are elongate NE-SW and each is composed of three major facies that, in order of emplacement, include porphyritic and equigranular rapakivi granite and biotite granite in both igneous complexes, followed by topaz granite in the Água Boa igneous complex (ABIC) and albite granite in the Madeira igneous complex (MIC). Rapakivi, porphyritic and granophyric textures observed in the granites are interpreted to reflect multiple stages of crystallization at different pressures (depths). Decompression during ascent shifted the magmas into the plagioclase stability field, causing partial resorption of quartz, with subsequent growth at lower pressure. Fluid saturation and separation probably occurred after final emplacement at shallow levels. Temperature and pressure estimates based on phase relations and zircon concentrations range from a maximum of 930 °C and 5 kbar for the rapakivi granites to below 650 °C and 1 kbar for the peralkaline albite granite. This suggests initial crystallization of early intrusive phases at around 15 km depth, with final emplacement of more volatile-rich crystal-mush at a depth of 0.5-1 km. Accessory minerals, including zircon, thorite, monazite, columbite-tantalite, cassiterite, bastnaesite and xenotime are present in almost all facies of the Água Boa and Madeira igneous complexes, attesting to the highly evolved character of the magmas. The presence of magnetite and/or primary cassiterite indicate crystallization under oxidizing conditions above the NNO buffer. The evolutionary sequence and Nd isotope characteristics ( TDM=2.2-2.4 Ga) of the Pitinga granites are similar to those of other Proterozoic rapakivi granites. However, petrographic, geochemical and Nd isotopic data ( ɛNd initial=-2.1 to +0

  4. Formation of parting in quartz (United States)

    Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Eske Sørensen, Bjørn


    This paper presents hydrothermal quartz with macroscopic planar parting from the Mesoproterozoic Modum complex in southern Norway. Similar macroscopic parting in hydrothermal quartz with macroscopic planar structures has only been described from two localities in the world; Madagascar (Flörke et al., 1981) and Southern California (Murdoch et al., 1938). The study area consists of well foliated and banded sillimanite- garnet- amphibolite- mica gneiss that is cut at high angle by hydrothermal veins containing albite, chlinoclore, hornblende, hydroxyl apatite and quartz. The rim of the veins is generally made up of almost pure end-member euhedral albite. Then there is vugs with euhedral hornblende (10-25cm long) and euhedral hydroxyl apatite with size ranging from mm scale to several cm. Some places the quartz encloses apatite and hornblende. The quartz is anhedral, inequigranular with undulose extinction bordering sub grain rotation. It has large planar penetrative parting faces with pearly luster; however this is not consistent throughout the outcrop and some places the penetrative faces disappears and the quartz has a conchoidal fracture. The planar faces continue throughout the specimens with a few mm spacing. Thin sections oriented perpendicular to the most pronounced planar structure show lamellas that extinguishes at small angles (2 degrees) to each other. EBSD mapping of the planar faces shows two orientations {0-111} and {1-101}, corresponding to the r- and z-faces respectively, separated by irregular boundaries. The misorientation between these two crystallographic orientations on the parting is a 60 degree rotation on [0 0 1] in correspondence to the dauphiné twin law. Investigations conducted on thin sections cut orthogonal to the parting shows that the parting cuts and offsets the dauphiné twins, indicating a late genesis of the parting. However some internal stress induced movement of the twins are visible. SEM-CL documents three generations of quartz

  5. Shear-hosted base metal mineralisation at the Dana Peaks, Murchison Mountains, Fiordland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darran Suite dioritic, tonalitic and granodioritic plutonic rocks and schistose Loch Burn Formation volcaniclastic rocks in the central Murchison Mountains at the Dana Peaks have been affected by widespread biotite-sericite-chlorite-albite-quartz-pyrite ± carbonate ± epidote/clinozoisite ± titanite/rutile ± actinolite alteration. More intense, paler coloured sericite-albite-quartz-pyrite ± carbonate alteration is concentrated along orange weathered shear zones. Alteration assemblages are transitional between those commonly referred to as propylitic, potassic and phyllic. Altered rocks contain anomalous concentrations of copper, lead, zinc and silver over an area of c. 2.56 km. Metal concentrations 2-5 times those typical of Darran Suite plutonic rocks and the Loch Burn Formation are commonly associated with more extensive weak to moderate intensity alteration. Higher metal grades up to c. 0.5% copper, 1% zinc, 1.3% lead and 30 ppm silver are concentrated in or adjacent to the 1-5 m wide, more intensely altered shear zones which contain entrained lenses of pyritised country rock, breccias and quartz ± K-feldspar ± chlorite ± carbonate ± hematite ± tourmaline veins. Some mineralised rocks also contain traces of tungsten (2-7 ppm), arsenic (<5-35 ppm) and tellurium (0.2-5.4 ppm). Most samples lack detectable molybdenum (<3 ppm), gold (<0.004 ppm) or bismuth (<0.2 ppm), with atypical higher values (40, 0.03 and 50 ppm, respectively) generally restricted to the most intensely altered and/or deformed rocks. The mineralised rocks show a close spatial and temporal relationship with several narrow ductile shear zones that probably developed in the Early Cretaceous between c. 128 and 110 Ma. Mineralised shear zones form minor splays off larger shear zones that are part of a major intra-arc fault system, active along or near the boundary between inboard and outboard parts of the Median Batholith at this time. Traces of similar lead mineralisation are present at the

  6. Nature, origin and evolution of the granitoid-hosted early Proterozoic copper-molybdenum mineralization at Malanjkhand, Central India (United States)

    Sarkar, S. C.; Kabiraj, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Pal, A. B.


    At Malanjkhand, Central India, lode-type copper (-molybdenum) mineralization occurs within calcalkaline tonalite-granodiorite plutonic rocks of early Proterozoic age. The bulk of the mineralization occurs in sheeted quartz-sulfide veins, and K-silicate alteration assemblages, defined by alkali feldspar (K-feldspar≫albite)+dusty hematite in feldspar±biotite±muscovite, are prominent within the ore zone and the adjacent host rock. Weak propylitic alteration, defined by albite+biotite+epidote/zoisite, surrounds the K-silicate alteration zone. The mineralized zone is approximately 2 km in strike length, has a maximum thickness of 200 m and dips 65° 75°, along which low-grade mineralization has been traced up to a depth of about 1 km. The ore reserve has been conservatively estimated to be 92 million tonnes with an average Cu-content of 1.30%. Supergene oxidation, accompanied by limited copper enrichment, is observed down to a depth of 100 m or more from the surface. Primary ores consist essentially of chalcopyrite and pyrite with minor magnetite and molybdenite. δ34S (‰) values in pyrite and chalcopyrite (-0.38 to +2.90) fall within the range characteristic of granitoid-hosted copper deposits. δ18O (‰) values for vein quartz (+6.99 to +8.80) suggest exclusive involvement of juvenile water. Annealed fabrics are common in the ore. The sequence of events that led to the present state of hypogene mineralization is suggested to be as follows: fracturing of the host rock, emplacement of barren vein quartz, pronounced wall-rock alteration accompanied by disseminated mineralization and the ultimate stage of intense silicification accompanied by copper mineralization. Fragments of vein quartz and altered wall rocks and striae in the ore suggest post-mineralization deformation. The recrystallization fabric, particularly in chalcopyrite and sphalerite, is a product of dynamic recrystallization associated with the post-mineralization shearing. The petrology of the host

  7. Infiltration of dilute groundwaters and resulting groundwater compositions at repository depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study has been to simulate the hydrochemical evolution of dilute water, typical of melt-water in a glaciation scenario, infiltrating into bedrock. The focus is on the alkali and alkaline earth cation compositions because these might affect the performance of bentonite buffer. A geochemical model of batch reactions between dilute water and rock minerals has been constructed. Two approaches to simulating these hydrogeochemical reactions have been implemented using the PHREEQC program. The first approach has simulated the dissolution reactions of various aluminosilicate minerals in terms of the rates of each reaction. The potential for continued dissolution is governed by the calculated state of thermodynamic equilibrium for each mineral phase, but the progress of dissolution is calculated using empirical kinetics expressions. The second approach has assumed that local equilibria are achieved rapidly between water and reactive minerals so that hydrochemical evolution is governed by equilibria with different assemblages of minerals. Sequential equilibria with various permutations of mineral assemblages have simulated how the resulting groundwater compositions, specifically the pH and the [Ca2++Mg2+]/[Na+] ratio, depend on the selected mineral assemblages. The equilibrating secondary minerals for both modelling approaches are calcite, chalcedony, kaolinite, illite and chlorite, plus montmorillonite in the local equilibrium model. The minerals selected for kinetic dissolution reactions are albite, anorthite, K-feldspar and biotite. The minerals selected for dissolution-only equilibration are laumontite, saponite, prehnite, albite, anorthite and K-feldspar. Model runs were constructed to represent various combinations of these minerals in three stages of local equilibrium. The main conclusions to be drawn from this modelling study are: (i) The realistic and most likely scenarios for hydrogeochemical evolution would result in divalent cation

  8. Theoretical prediction for several important equilibrium Ge isotope fractionation factors (United States)

    Tang, M.; Li, X.; Liu, Y.


    As a newly emerging field, the stable isotope geochemistry of germanium (Ge) needs basic equilibrium fractionation factors to explore its unknown world. In this study, the Ge isotope fractionations between systems including the aqueous Ge(OH)4 and GeO(OH)3- which are the dominant Ge species in seawater, the Ge-bearing organic complexes (e.g. Ge-catechol, Ge-oxalic acid and Ge-citric acid), the quartz- (or opal- ), albite-, K-feldspar- and olivine- like mineral structures are studied. It is the first time that some geologically important equilibrium Ge isotope fractionation factors are reported. Surprisingly, up to 5 per mil large isotopic fractionations between these Ge isotope systems are found at 25 degree. These results suggest a potentially broad application for the Ge isotope geochemistry. Our theoretical calculations are based on the Urey model (or Bigeleisen-Mayer equation) and high level quantum chemistry calculations. The B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level quantum chemistry method and the explicit solvent model ("water droplet" method) are used. Many different conformers are also used for the aqueous complexes in order to reduce the possible errors coming from the differences of configurations in solution. The accuracy of our calculation of the Ge isotopic fractionations is estimated about 0.2 per mil. Our results show quartz-like or opal-like structure can enrich most heavy Ge isotopes. Relative to quartz (or opal), some Ge isotopic fractionations are (at 25 C): quartz-organic Ge = 4-5,quartz-Ge(OH)4 =0.9,quartz-GeO(OH)3- =1.5,quartz-albite=0.6,quartz-K-feldspar=0.4 and quartz-olivine=3.9 per mil. The large fractionations between inorganic Ge complexes and organic Ge ones could be used to distinguish the possible bio-involving processes. Our results suggest a good explanation to the experimental observations of Siebert et al. (2006) and Rouxel et al. (2006) and provide important constraints to the study of Ge cycle in ocean.

  9. Alkali element enrichments on the BABBs at the IODP Expedition 333 Site C0012 in the northern Shikoku Basin (United States)

    Haraguchi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Fujinaga, K.


    The Shikoku Basin is a back arc basin located westside of the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) arc, spreading was from 25 to 15 Ma. The drilling of the DSDP, ODP and IODP recovered the backarc basin basalt (BABB) of the Shikoku Basin. Site C0012, south of the Kii Peninsula, was operated during the IODP Exp 333, and BABB was recovered 100m thickness under the 520m of sediment. This BABB is divided into upper aphyric pillow (Unit 1) and lower massive flow (Unit 2) divided at the 560 mbsf, and show variable degree of alteration, clay mineral and zeolite depositions. SiO2 and MgO contents of these basalts are 47-55 and 5-8 wt%. These basalts show wide variation of enrichment of alkali elements, 2.3-7.5 and 0.4-4.2 wt% of Na2O and K2O. Na2O+K2O contents show 3.2-8.0 wt%, and 2 wt% higher trends than other BABBs in the Shikoku Basin at the same SiO2 contents. Na2O and K2O show proportional and anti-proportional trends with increasing LOI. Therefore, both alkali element enrichments in these rocks are caused by secondary mineralization, and host phase of Na2O is hydrous and that of K2O is anhydrous minerals. Secondary mineral phases was mainly identified by XRD. The identified host phases of Na are analcime and thomsonite. Analcime is observed in rocks of more than 4 wt% of Na2O. Chlorite and smectite are identified to clay minerals. This mineral assemblage indicates the high-temperature zeolite facies alteration. The host phases of K are mainly identified into K-feldspar. We assume that secondary mineralization of K-fd is associated with low-temperature albitization. Compared to the lithostratigraphy, the Na enrichment is prominent in the Unit 1 and upper 20 m of the Unit 2, and the K enrichment is prominent in lower part of the Unit 2. We consider that the Na enrichment associated with zeolite depositions occurred under high water/rock ratio with active hydrothermal circulation because of high water permeability of pillow lava, and K enrichment associated with albitization occurred

  10. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur coal, Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan, China: Evidence for a volcanic ash component and influence by submarine exhalation (United States)

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, Xudong


    The mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur (SHOS) coal of Late Permian age from the Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, a sequential chemical extraction procedure, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The M9 Coal from the Yanshan Coalfield is a SHOS coal that has a total sulfur content of 10.12%-11.30% and an organic sulfur content of 8.77%-10.30%. The minerals in the coal consist mainly of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, albite, muscovite, illite, pyrite, and trace amounts of kaolinite, plagioclase, akermanite, rutile, and dawsonite. As compared with ordinary worldwide (bituminous coals and anthracite) and Chinese coals, the M9 Coal is remarkably enriched in B (268????g/g), F (841????g/g), V (567????g/g), Cr (329????g/g), Ni (73.9????g/g), Mo (204????g/g), and U (153????g/g). In addition, elements including Se (25.2????g/g), Zr (262????g/g), Nb (20.1????g/g), Cd (2.07????g/g), and Tl (2.03????g/g) are also enriched in the coal. Occurrence of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, muscovite, and illite in the M9 Coal is evidence that there is a volcanic ash component in the coal that was derived from acid volcanic ashes fallen into the swamp during peat accumulation. Occurrence of albite and dawsonite in the coal and strong enrichment of some elements, including F, S, V, Cr, Ni, Mo and U, are attributed to the influence by submarine exhalation which invaded along with seawater into the anoxic peat swamp. Abundances of lithophile elements, including rare earth elements, Nb, Y, Zr, and TiO2, indicate that the silicate minerals in the coal were derived from the northern Vietnam Upland to the south of the basin. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ar diffusion in hydrous silicic melts: implications for volatile diffusion mechanisms and fractionation (United States)

    Behrens, Harald; Zhang, Youxue


    The effect of dissolved water on the diffusivity of Ar in glasses and melts of rhyolitic and albitic compositions was investigated experimentally at pressures up to 1500 MPa and water contents of 0.1-5 wt%. The data for water-poor rhyolitic composition at 500 MPa can be described in the whole temperature range of 480-1102°C by a simple Arrhenius relationship DAr=2.14×10 -6 m 2/s exp(-18 883/ T). A 4.0 wt% increase in water content increases the Ar diffusivity by approximately one order of magnitude in both rhyolitic and albitic melts at 1000°C. In contrast to viscosity and total water diffusion, an exponential dependence of Ar diffusivity on water content was observed for the rhyolitic composition in the whole range of water contents. For water-poor rhyolite, Ar diffusivity depends on pressure with an apparent activation volume of 13-15 cm 3/mol at pressures up to 800 MPa. For water-rich rhyolite (˜5 wt% water), there is no significant pressure effect at 1000°C in the range 500-1500 MPa. Combining our data with previous data from Carroll [M.R. Carroll, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 103 (1991) 156-168], Ar diffusivity (in 10 -12 m 2/s) in rhyolitic melts can be expressed as: D Ar= exp[( 14.627- 17 913/T- 2.569P/T)+( 35 936/T+ 27.42P/T)X water] where T is in K, P in MPa, and Xwater is the mol fraction of water on a single oxygen basis. Except for two outlier points, error of estimates is ≤0.455 in terms of ln D for all data, covering a wide range of temperatures (480-1200°C), pressures (0.1-1500 MPa), and water contents (0.1-5 wt%). The new Ar diffusion data support the assumption that molecular H 2O diffusivity exponentially increases with water content [Y. Zhang, H. Behrens, Chem. Geol. 169 (2000) 243-262].

  12. Thermoluminescent dependence with the particle size in ionized foods by radiation; Dependencia termoluminiscente con el tamano de particula en alimentos ionizados por radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuffer Z, C.A


    The influence of the particle size of poly minerals in the signals of the thermally stimulated luminescence (TL) is analysed. The poly minerals were extracted of Mexican spices such as Origanum vulgare L. (origanum) and Capsicum annum (Chilli guajillo), these underwent to an homogenization process to obtain four different particle sizes corresponding to 149, 74, 53 and 10 {mu} m, and later on to expose them to gamma radiation in an interval of 0.5- 45 kGy in the Gamma beam 651 PT of {sup 60} Co irradiator of the Nuclear Sciences Institute, UNAM. The glow curves show a maximum of TL intensity for Capsicum annum to dose of 0.5- 10 kGy with particle size selected by means of a mesh of opening of 53 {mu} m, while for Origanum vulgare L., the more intense emission is observed with 149 {mu} m. In the interval of dose 12- 45 kGy the maximum in intensity emission it was presented in 53 {mu} m in both cases. For the case of 10 {mu} m, the TL emissions were of smaller intensity, and were achieved glow curves in a clear, defined way and an overlapping that allows to center the maximum of TL emission, in a defined temperature 126 C for Origanum vulgare L., and 166 C for Capsicum annum. The behavior before described is related with the composition of the samples. For Capsicum annum it was found Quartz (60%), Albite (30%) and Ortosa (10%), while Origanum vulgare stops L., Quartz (50%), Calcite (20%), Albite (20%) and Clay (10%). The homogenization of the samples is an important factor because exists high probability of avoiding as much as possible rests of organic matter traces that can contribute to the total signal of the glow curves. Likewise the defects that pollute from a natural way to each one of the minerals found in the samples, they play an outstanding role in the TL emissions. Although to the interacting the gamma radiation with the poly minerals of different particle sizes, there is a certain energy transfer that will be translated in the absorbed dose and this it

  13. 中低温热液近矿围岩蚀变的地球化学模型(以某矿区为例)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Detailed geological studies and systematic examinations in terms of petrology,petrochemistry, mineralogy and minor clement distribution with respect to a number of typical profiles together with some available experimental data, have improved our understanding of the general regularity regarding meso- and epi-hydrothermalal terations of Si-, Al-, K-, Na- rich wallrocks as is referred to as the “geochemical model of alteration evolution” in this paper. General trend and broad similarities are recognizable in the process of hydrothermal alterations. It is clear that the continued variation in ionic eoncentration of hydrothermal solutions act as the fundamental control determining the development of alteration. As a resuit, differentiation and evolution of the hydrothermal solutions have taken place in response to this variation from the inner parts outwards as well as from the lower parts upwards. Temporally, mineralization is to a first approximation contemporancous with, or somewhat later than, alteration. Spatially, it is reflected by the zonal arrangement of alterations in the following sequence: silicification,petnssie alterations(♀),illitization(or sericitization),montmorilloitization,kaolinization,chloritization-albitization(or propylitization),and etc.Preliminary attempts have been made to apply this“model”to iron and ecpper depositions.

  14. Reaction-path calculations of groundwater chemistry and mineral formation at Rainier Mesa, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction-patch calculations of groundwater chemistry and mineral formation at Rainier Mesa, Nevada, have been done using a model of volcanic-glass dissolution by water that is initially saturated with CO2. In the reaction-path calculation, rate processes control the availability of species through dissolution of volcanic glass, and equilibrium processes distribute the species between the aqueous phase and mineral phases in equilibrium at each step in the reaction path. The EQ3/6 chemical-equilibrium programs were used for the calculation. Formation constants were estimated for three zeolites (clinoptilolite, mordenite, and heulandite), so they could be considered as possible mineral precipitates. The first stage of mineral evolution, from volcanic glass to a cristobalite, smectite clay, and zeolite mixture, was modeled quite well. Predicted aqueous-phase compositions and precipitates agree with observations at Rainier Mesa and other Nevada Test Site areas. Further mineral evolution, to quartz, clay, analcime, and albite mixtures, was also modeled. Decreasing aqueous silica activity from the first stage, where cristobalite precipitates, to later stages, where quartz is present, was the controlling variable in the mineral evolution. 30 references, 20 figures, 4 tables

  15. Insights on Structural, Petrographical, Mineralogical and Geochemical Approach on the Grahamstown Kaolin Deposit Genesis in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakaba Madi


    Full Text Available The town of Grahamstown is known on the geological and mineralogical point of view mainly because of its kaolin deposit, which derived from the intense weathering of the Dwyka tillite of the Karoo Supergroup. The weathering is favoured by the occurrence of brittle structures and breccias of granites that contains considerable amount of feldspar. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of structural control in the weathering process leading to the formation of kaolin, to check the petrographical data by comparing breccias found in the fresh tillite and those in the kaolin, to highlight the mineralogical composition in some samples. The methods used in this study include: a comprehensive literature review, field observations, fault and fracture measurements to produce a general orientation, microscopic study, XRD and XRF analysis. Muscovite, albite, orthoclase, plagioclase, smectite, illite and quartz are some of the minerals present; smectization and illitization precede kaolinization in the Grahamstown area from k-feldspar and feldspar by leaching of elements such as K, Na and Ca and concentration of Al that later combines with Si to produce kaolin. A fresh tillite has higher intensity in peak diffraction analysis than a less and more weathered rock at a certain angle 2 theta. It is concluded that the primary source rock that is the parent rock in the genesis of kaolin is the Dwyka tillite, this tillite comprises breccias of granite and quartzite having microfractures that contribute to the alteration of feldspathic materials into kaolin.

  16. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiza Abdul Razak


    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  17. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer. (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina


    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  18. Biogenic characteristics of Mesozoic cherts in southern Tibet and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊国; 周永章; 李红中


    The Xialu chert, which contains abundant biological information, were investigated by major element analysis, micro-Raman, SEM and EPMA. The results show that SiO2 content of chert is 84.12%-93.08%, averaging 89.84%. The close packed structures of low degree crystallinity of quartz indicate the hydrothermal origin. SiO2 of modern hot springs exhibit loose silica pellets and nodular, beaded structures. Under polarization microscope, the presence of biological skeleton structures indicate that biological activities are involved in the hydrothermal deposition, which correspond to the geochemical characteristics:w(SiO2)/w(K2O+Na2O), w(SiO2)/w(Al2O3) and w(SiO2)/w(MgO), with average values of 295.29, 68.88 and 284.45, respectively. SiO2 is enriched in the organism (radiolarian) centers, the degree order of SiO2 within the biologic structures is much higher than that of outside. The impurity minerals albites are formed earlier than the original deposition. Kaolinites, feldspars and mixture of organic materials display lower degree of crystallinities and accumulate as vermicular aggregates.

  19. Determination of the mineral stability field of evolving groundwater in the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater and surrounding areas (United States)

    Loh, Yvonne Sena Akosua; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Addai, Millicent Obeng; Asiedu, Daniel Kwadwo


    Conventional graphical techniques, mass balance geochemical modelling, and multivariate statistical methods were jointly applied to hydrogeochemical data of groundwater from the fractured rock aquifer system, and surface water in the Bosumtwi and surrounding areas to reveal evolutionary trends and the characteristics of evolving groundwater in the area. Four clusters distinguished from the Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) comprised three main groundwater associations and one surface water group (lake water). Although both water resources are of low mineralization (TDS < 1000 mg/l), it was observed that the groundwater from the upper catchment with hydrochemical facies dominated by Nasbnd Mgsbnd HCO3-, evolves to Casbnd Mgsbnd and mixed cations HCO3- water types at the lower reaches. The lake water on the other hand is Nasbnd HCO3- water type. Results from principal component analyses (PCA) and other geochemical interpretations distinguished three sources of variations in the hydrochemistry. Saturation indices of possible reactive mineral phases show groundwater undersaturation relative to albite, anorthite, aragonite, barite, calcite, chlorite, chrysotile, dolomite, gypsum, k-felspar and talc, and supersaturation with respect to gibbsite, kaolinite, Ca-montmorillonite and k-mica in the area. The PCA and other geochemical interpretation identify weathering of feldspars and carbonate mineral dissolution as predominantly influencing the hydrochemistry of the groundwater. Hydrolysis of the aluminosilicates causes the groundwater to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. In addition to dissolution of silicates, the chemical composition of the lake water has been influenced by evaporation and consequent carbonate saturation.

  20. Uranium occurrences of the Thunder Bay-Nipigon-Marathon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1981, 1982 and 1983 field seasons an inventory of all known uranium occurrences in the North Central Region of Ontario was undertaken. Three major categories of uranium occurrences were identified: uranium associated with the rocks of the Quetico Subprovince; uranium associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity; and uranium associated with alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age. Occurrences associated with the Quetico Belt are in white, albite-quartz-muscovite pegmatites. Occurrences associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity are usually of high gradee (up to 12% U3O8), nearly always hematized and are related to fault or shear zones proximal to the unconformity. Although of high grade, many of the unconformity related occurrences are very narrow (<1 m). Alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age are an important source of uranium but possible metallurgical problems might downgrade their potential. The Quetico Subprovince is anomalously high in background uranium, and therefore contains important source rocks for uranium. Areas that have the highest potential for uranium deposits in the North Central Region are the Nipigon Basin area, and the areas underlain by the Gunflint and Rove Formations. All the high grade vein-type uranium deposits related to the unconformity are found within the Nipigon Basin. 126 refs

  1. Using presence of calcite cap rock in shales to predict occurrence of reservoirs composed of leached secondary porosity in the geopressured zone. Annual report, June 1, 1980-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, W.R.; Magara, K.; Milliken, K.L.; Richmann, D.L.


    The distribution of high-resistivity shale in the Frio Formation between hydropressured and geopressured strata has been mapped along the Texas Gulf Coast. Two high-resistivity intervals more than 1000 ft thick have been mapped, one in Brazoria and Galveston Counties and the other in Kenedy County. They coincide with Frio delta systems and may be related to extraordinary quantities of CO/sub 2/ produced by deltaic sediments rich in woody and herbaceous matter. Beyond being calcareous, the nature of the high-resistivity interval is enigmatic and its relationship to deep secondary porosity problematic. Most of the contained carbonate is microscopically and isotopically skeletal in origin, revealing no evidence of diagenetic modification. Minor rhombs of iron-bearing carbonate tens of microns in size were identified. Detrital feldspar compositions are being established to test subsequent changes in feldspar composition resulting from progressive burial and albitization. Hydrolysis reactions for authigenic minerals and reactions between key pairs of minerals have been written. Thermodynamic functions for complex phyllosilicates at temperatures up to 200/sup 0/C have been calculated. From thermodynamic calculations it was predicted that ferroan calcite would be the favored authigenic carbonate in shales.

  2. Chemical treatment of kaolin. Case study of kaolin from the Tamazert– Jijel mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chouafa


    Full Text Available The Tamazert-Jijel kaolin deposit is located in eastern Algeria, It was formed during a process of hydro-thermal alteration of feldspars rich in potassium. Kaolin, obtained at the mine, mainly contains varying amounts of impurities such as iron oxide (Fe2O3 and anatase (TiO2. These components negatively affect the quality of the commercial product. This research was performed to improve the quality of kaolin to be used in the paper industry with the goal of reducing the impurities of iron and titanium oxides. Different sized fractions of the original sample were analyzed by XRD. The results obtained showed that the mineralogical composition is: quartz, muscovite, kaolinite, dolomite, albite and orthoclase. Kaolin, like all clays, has a thin dissemination of minerals throughout it. After processing kaolin, the particle size fraction of less than 45μm, corresponding to the liberation mesh size, was retained for purification by chemical treatment with different acids of different concentrations (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, heated to boiling point temperatures. The kaolin samples treated with the various acids above were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by XRD. The results obtained from the sample treated with hydrochloric acid show that the iron oxide content of acid is reduced by 1.65% to 0.88%. Meanwhile, the brightness of the sample reached 90% under the effect of the treatment with hydrochloric acid at concentration of 2 mole/dm3.

  3. Diagenetic Reactions in Reservoir Strata and Geochemical Properties of Pore Fluid and Its Origin in Songlian Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼章华; 蔡希源; 等


    The reservoirs of the SOngliao Basin are composed of typical unstable sandstones,with high percentages of volcanic fragments and feldspar,In the course of sedimentation and burying,a series of physical and chemical reactions took place between minerals and pore water and water-rock reactions and ion exchange caused changes in ion assemblage of pore water,Hydration-hydrolysis,dissolution and the albitization of feldspar made many ions free from their framework and inter into the pore water,and induced the precipitation of a large amount of authigenic minerals such as smectite and chlorite,During the diagenesis of sandstone.diagenetic reactions involved several stages with increasing depth,and so did the precipitation of authigenic minerals and the transformaiton of minerals.The migration of ions is related with the precipitation,transformation and dissolution of authigenic minerals.Thus,to deepen our study on sandstone diagenesis is an important link for the analysis of ion migration in the evolution of pore water ,the origin and evolution of pore water could be tracked in terms of the geochemistry of fluid inclusions in authigenic minerals.And the isotopic composition of the authigenic mineral calcite can provide its genetic information.

  4. Mineralization Zoning in Yindongzi—Daxigou Barite—Siderite,Silver—Polymetallic Deposits in the Qinling Orogen,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维萱; 胡瑞忠; 等


    The Yindongzi-Daxigou strata-bound barite-siderite,silver-polymetallic deposits discovered in the Qinling orogen are hosted within flysch facies in a deep-water fault-controlled basin on the passive northern margin of the Qinling microplate.The orebodies occur in a series of hydrothermal depositonal rocks.Mineralization zoning is characterized by Fe-Ba←Ba-Cu←Pb-Ab→Cu-Ag→Pb→Au.This is obviously a gradational transition mineralization from ventproximal mineralization to more distal mineralization.In this gradational transition between Chefanggou and Yindongzi,vent-proximal mineralization consists of silver-polymetallic orebodies(Pb-Ag),which is the center of hydrothermal mineralization.The Chefanggou Ba-Cu ore district in the west and the Yindongzi Cu-Ag ore district in the east represent vent lateral mineralization.Distal mineralization in the west is represented by the Daxigou Fe-Ba ore district while distal mineralization in te east is represented by the Pb ore district.Thick massive,laminated barren albite chert and jasperite,sometimes with minor silver-ploymetallic mineralization of commercial importance,and pyritization in rocks feature more distal mineralization.Geochemical anomalies of Au-As associations are found in ankerite phyllite and muddy sandstone.Actually,Au deposits are dominantly controlled by the late brittle-ductile shear zone.

  5. Mineralization Zoning in Yindongzi-Daxigou Barite-Siderite, Silver-Polymetallic Deposits in the Qinling Orogen, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维萱; 胡瑞忠; 黄转莹


    The Yindongzi-Daxigou strata-bound barite-siderite, silver-polymetallic deposits discovered in the Qinling orogen are hosted within flysch facies in a deep-water fault-controlled basin on the passive northern margin of the Qinling microplate. The orebodies occur in a series of hydrothermal depositional rocks. Mineralization zoning is characterized by Fe-Ba←Ba-Cu←Pb-Ag→Cu-Ag→Pb→Au. This is obviously a gradational transition mineralization from ventproximal mineralization to more distal mineralization. In this gradational transition between Chefanggou and Yindongzi, vent-proximal mineralization consists of silver-polymetallic orebodies (Pb-Ag), which is the center of hydrothermal mineralization. The Chefanggou Ba-Cu ore district in the west and the Yindongzi Cu-Ag ore district in the east represent vent lateral mineralization. Distal mineralization in the west is represented by the Daxigou Fe-Ba ore district while distal mineralization in the east is represented by the Pb ore district. Thick massive, laminated barren albite chert and jasperite, sometimes with minor silver-ploymetallic mineralization of commercial importance, and pyritization in rocks feature more distal mineralization. Geochemical anomalies of Au-As associations are found in ankerite phyllite and muddy sandstone.Actually, Au deposits are dominantly controlled by the late brittle-ductile shear zone.

  6. Use of a cranium-vessel determined by means of compound analysis; Uso de una vasija-craneo determinada por medio de analisis de compuesto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboreiro, I.; Pijoan, C.M.; Mansilla, J. [Direccion de Antropologia Fisica, INAH, Gandhi s/n, Polanco, 11560 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Bosch, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    Many human remains as bones, skin, teeth and others, were used in pre-hispanic cultures as tools or ritual objects. A human cranial vault filed in the Direccion de Antropologia Fisica presented particular and interesting cultural modifications. There are twelve drills used to restore by sewing the crane, in this way the piece resembles a pot. It has been established that it comes from North Mexico where such restoration work has been reported (Aveleyra, 1956) for containers made of vegetables (guaje). As the utilization of this kind of archaeological remain is unknown, the study of dust samples from the inside and the outside of the crane should provide hints on the products stored into it. In this study we present the X-ray diffraction results which show that the outer dusts are mainly constituted by albite, andesite and quartz, whereas in the inside the substances were mainly aluminosilicates and magnesium compounds. Hence, most probably, this crane was not used as a conventional container and it is linked to the concoction of magnesium and aluminosilicates containing products. This conclusion has to be correlated to that even nowadays, in both alternative and conventional medicine. (Author) 7 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Clay minerals in uraniferous deposit of Imouraren (Tim Mersoi basin, Niger): implications on genesis of deposit and on ore treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigerian uraniferous deposits are located in carboniferous and Jurassic formations of Tim Mersoi basin. AREVA is shareholder of 3 mine sites in this area: SOMAIR and COMINAK, both in exploitation since 1960's and IMOURAREN, 80 km further South, whose exploitation is planned for 2015. Mineralization of Imouraren deposit is included in the fluvial formation of Tchirezrine 2 (Jurassic), composed of channels and flood plains. Facies of channel in-fillings range from coarse sandstones to siltstones, while overflow facies are composed of analcimolites. Secondary mineralogy was acquired during 2 stages: 1- diagenesis, with formation of clay minerals, analcime, secondary quartz and albites, and 2- stage of fluids circulations, which induced alteration of detrital and diagenetic minerals, formation of new phases and uranium deposition. A mineralogical zoning, at the scale of deposit resulted from this alteration. The heterogeneity of Tchirezrine 2, at the level of both facies and mineralogy, is also evidenced during ore treatment, as ore reacts differently depending on its source, with sometimes problems of U recovery. Ore treatment tests showed that analcimes and chlorites were both penalizing minerals, because of 1- the sequestration of U-bearing minerals into analcimes, 2- their dissolution which trends to move away from U solubilization conditions (pH and Eh) and to form numerous sulfates, and 3- problems of percolation. A detection method of analcime-rich ores, based on infrared spectroscopy, was developed in order to optimize ore blending and so to reduce negative effects during ore treatment process. (author)

  8. Development of refractory ceramic using waste of petrochemical catalysts; Desenvolvimento de ceramica refrataria utilizando residuos de catalisadores petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso, M.A.; Mymrine, V. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), PR (Brazil)


    The manufacturing of catalytic catalysts by the company FCC SA. for the Brazilian petrochemical industry is 25,000 tons per annum, which after going through the cracking process cannot undergo regeneration any longer, being wasted with humidity near 70%. To increase the economical and environmental efficiency of the use of this rejected catalyst, without preliminary drying, a method of using it as main raw material in composition like kaolin was developed, as well as in ash and glass for the manufacturing of common (regular) and refractory ceramic. The mixture of these components were burnt at temperatures of 1100 deg C, 1200°C, 1250°C and 1300°C. The ceramics with 30% and 40% in weight of wasted catalyst, sintered in 1250 deg C or 1300 deg C have flexion of 10,8 - 12,9 MPa. After burning the mixtures, the chemical interaction of the initial components was determined by the methods of RXD, MEV and EDS, synthesizing new minerals like Diopside Ca(Mg,Al)(Si,Al){sub 2}O{sub 6}, Nepheline (K,Na)AlSiO{sub 4}, Lazurite Na{sub 8}[Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}[SO{sub 4},S]{sub 2}, Magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Albite Na Al Si{sub 3}O{sub 8} and high content of vitreous amorphous phase. (author)

  9. A Preliminary Study on the Evolutionary Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements (REE)in Granitoid Rocks and Their Formation Mechanisms in Xianghualing Region,Hunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜绍华; 邱瑞照


    Recognized in the Xianghualing region,South Hunan are three major types of granitoids,i.e.,biotite granite,zinnwaldite-albite granite and xianghuagite,which evolved form the same granitic magma,but were formed at different stages.These granitoid rocks constitute a complete magmatic evolutionary series.With the evolution of magma,REE contents and negative Eu anomalies tend to decrease progressively,and LREE become more and more enriched relative to HREE .The facts mentioned above show that the tendency of REE evolution in granitoid rocks in the region studied is different from that in other regions.Evidence indicates that the granitic magma system became more and more depleted in Si(K+Na),but richer and richer in Al,Li,F and H2O+ during the process of its evolution,re-sulting in relatively weak acidity and strong alkalinity .It may be the most important factor leading to a specific REE evolutionary trend for the granitoid rocks in this region.In addition,the changing oxidation-reduction environments at different evolutionary stages of this magma system may be anoth-er important factor which should be taken into consideration.

  10. Crystal dissolution kinetics and Gibbs free energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettge, Andreas [Department of Earth Science and the Department of Chemistry, Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)]. E-mail:


    The dependence of dissolution rates on the difference of Gibbs free energy is of critical importance for our understanding of crystal dissolution, reactive flow models and their applications to a variety of environmentally related problems. Here, we review experimental data generated with mineral powders and single crystals to develop a better understanding of apparent inconsistencies between otherwise internally consistent data sets. Additional information from direct surface observations and measurements with vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) of albite dissolution at 25, 150 and 185 deg. C may shed new light on this old but unsolved question. Our discussion is based on the importance of etch pit development, its {delta}G dependence, and the pits' role as a source for steps and step movement in the dissolution process. Results indicate that reaction history may be of critical importance in determining the overall reaction mechanism and its rate. Different rates are observed for systems having otherwise identical {delta}G {sub r} acquired from increasing versus decreasing disequilibrium positions. In this context, we finally discuss the validity of the common application of transition state theory (TST) to elementary and overall reactions governing the dissolution process. In this discussion of crystal dissolution, we contrast TST applications with a stochastic, many-body treatment that has led to the development of a stepwave model. This discussion also focuses on the controversy caused by the rivalry between surface adsorption models and a probabilistic model that seeks to incorporate the full three-dimensional crystal structure.

  11. Thermoluminescent characteristics of oregano and paprika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Teuffer Z, C. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece)


    The poly minerals from oregano and paprika were selected according to different sizes, i.e 10, 53, 74, 149 {mu}m, and they were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation in the range of doses 0.5-45 kGy. The glow curves from these spices show an abroad TL band, centered around 150 C and by XRD analysis shows a mono mineral composition mainly quartz and feldspar, including albite, ortose and clay. The fading behavior was related to the quartz, feldspar and calcite TL properties and shown the stability of the traps associated to the defects generated by irradiation in the samples. The tendency of the TL integrated was increased with the grain size for oregano and can be related to the different energy values associated to the activation energy of the traps in the monominerals. The glow curve TL from poly minerals was analyzed and it is possible to use the dosimetric property of the poly minerals from spices for detect irradiated foodstuffs. (Author)

  12. U-Th-Pb age in hydrothermal monazite applied in geochronological tin mineralization from Greisen zone of the Palanqueta granitic system, Bom Futuro deposit, Rondonia, Brazil; Datacao U-Th-Pb de monazita hidrotermal e sua aplicacao na geocronologia da mineralizacao de estanho em zonas de Greisen do sistema granitico Palanqueta, deposito do Bom Futuro, RO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Valmir da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geociencias]. E-mail:; Teixeira, Luciana Miyahara [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini [Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    The ages of hydrothermal events responsible for tin mineralization in the granitic systems from the Rondonia Tin Province are poorly defined so far. Available K-Ar dating in Li-micas of greisens and veins yielded values around 965 Ma, younger than the late mineralized granites ages, around 990 Ma. Electron microprobe U, Th and Pb dating of hydrothermal monazite from the greisen zones of the Palanqueta plutonic system, Bom Futuro tin deposit, yielded an age of 997{+-}48 Ma. Considering that: the K-Ar method is influenced by increasing temperature; critical temperature of Ar retention in micas is 300 deg C; and fluid inclusions and ae {sup 18}O studies indicate, respectively, trapping temperature above 300 deg C and cassiterite crystallization temperature above 400 deg C, we suggest that the K-Ar dating in micas from Rondonia tin deposits are indicative of cooling and closure of the hydrothermal systems. Therefore, ages obtained from U-Th-Pb data in hydrothermal monazite from greisen can be considered a good reference for the tin ore formation in the Bom Futuro deposit, associated with late to post-magmatic processes, and coeval with the end of crystallization of albite granite in the Palanqueta granitic system. (author)

  13. Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in the Weathered Crusts from the Granitic Rocks in Sulawesi Island, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adi Maulana; Kotaro Yonezu; Koichiro Watanabe


    We report for the first time the geochemistry of rare earth elements (REE) in the weath-ered crusts of I-type and calc-alkaline to high-K (shoshonitic) granitic rocks at Mamasa and Palu re-gion, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. The weathered crusts can be divided into horizon A (lateritic profile) and B (weathered horizon). Quartz, albite, kaolinite, halloysite and montmorrilonite prevail in the weathered crust. Both weathered profiles show that the total REE increased from the parent rocks to the horizon B but significantly decrease toward the upper part (horizon A). LREE are enriched toward the upper part of the profile as shown by La/YbN value. However, HREE concentrations are high in horizon B1 in Palu profile. The total REE content of the weathered crust are relatively elevated com-pared to the parent rocks, particularly in the lower part of horizon B in Mamasa profile and in horizon B2 in Palu profile. This suggests that REE-bearing accessory minerals may be resistant against weath-ering and may remain as residual phase in the weathered crusts. The normalized isocon diagram shows that the mass balance of major and REE components between each horizon in Mamasa and Palu weathering profile are different. The positive Ce anomaly in the horizon A of Mamasa profile indicated that Ce is rapidly precipitated during weathering and retain at the upper soil horizon.

  14. Metallogenetic modeling for uranium exploration in rocks of the Abaira-Jussiape Anticlinal nucleus, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia; Modelagem metalogenetica para prospeccao de uranio nas rochas do nucleo da Anticlinal Abaira-Jussiape, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Jocilene dos Santos; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; Barbosa, Johildo Salomao Figueiredo [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPGG/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Abram, Maisa Bastos; Martins, Adriano Alberto Marques, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Superintendencia Regional de Salvador. Servico Geologico do Brasil


    The NNW-SSE-trending Abaira-Jussiape Anticlinal is an antiformal culmination of folding and shearing in the Paramirim Corridor of the Western Chapada Diamantina. In its core paleoproterozoic, mylonitized Caraguatai Suite, tonalites-granodiorites, alkali-feldspar granites, syenites to quartz-syenites and Jussiape Suite granites crop out. Compressional and distensional stresses mark the structural geology of the area. The compressional structures are related to two distinct deformation phases, named D1a and D1b. The main compressional phase is ductile D1a, which is related to the nucleation of dextral to dextral-reverse shearing zones. Deformation and syn-D1a recrystallization involving plagioclase and the K-feldspar suggest deformation temperature conditions above 550 deg C. The following phase D2 is of ductilebrittle nature and culminates in reverse shearing zones. The distensional structures correspond to the D3 phase and are represented by frontal shear zones with normal movement. The petrographic study helped identify a pre-D1a hydrothermal alteration process related to albitization and potassification, syn-D1 oxidation process, and hydration and saussuritization related to phases D2 and D3. The integration of lithological, petrographic, structural and geophysical data by means of the logic Fuzzy, plus the existing information regarding structural and lithologic controls of the known uranium mineralization in the Paramirim Corridor, led us to identify two promising areas for radioactive element exploration in the nucleus of Abaira-Jussiape Anticlinal. (author)

  15. Geology and Mineralogy of Uranium Deposits from Mount Isa, Australia: Implications for Albitite Uranium Deposit Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson


    Full Text Available New geological, bulk chemical and mineralogical (QEMSCAN and FEG-EPMA data are presented for albitite-type uranium deposits of the Mount Isa region of Queensland, Australia. Early albitisation of interbedded metabasalt and metasiltstone predated intense deformation along D2 high strain (mylonite zones. The early sodic alteration paragenetic stage includes albite, riebeckite, aegirine, apatite, zircon and magnetite. This paragenetic stage was overprinted by potassic microveins, containing K-feldspar, biotite, coffinite, brannerite, rare uraninite, ilmenite and rutile. An unusual U-Zr phase has also been identified which exhibits continuous solid solution with a uranium silicate possibly coffinite or nenadkevite. Calcite, epidote and sulphide veinlets represent the latest stage of mineralisation. This transition from ductile deformation and sodic alteration to vein-controlled uranium is mirrored in other examples of the deposit type. The association of uranium with F-rich minerals and a suite of high field strength elements; phosphorous and zirconium is interpreted to be indicative of a magmatic rather than metamorphic or basinal fluid source. No large intrusions of appropriate age outcrop near the deposits; but we suggest a relationship with B- and Be-rich pegmatites and quartz-tourmaline veins.

  16. Aqueous Chemistry of Typical Geothermal Springs with Deep Faults in Xinyi and Fengshun in Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoping Lu; Runfang Liu


    This paper investigated aqueous chemistry for two geothermal spring groups responsive and sensitive to flow fluctuations induced by earthquakes. Quake monitorings are favored for their be-ing in residential areas with well-preserved natural flow systems in Xinyi City’s Xijiang Hot Springs and Fengshun County’s Shihu Hot Spring. The hot springs are typical in temperatures and flow rates in southern China’s Guangdong Province. Physical and chemical conditions deep down in the heat sources are important constraints on earthquake, fluid flow, reactive solute transport and heat transfer, but re-main challenging to address via field observations and numerical experiments. In this paper, we made daily and annual observations on flow rates, temperature, and/or aqueous chemistry. We employed strontium isotopes as tracers for the water sources, equilibrium phase diagram for K-feldspar and albite stability, and Na-K-Mg diagram for heat reservoir temperatures. The abundant sulfite content in Xi-jiang Hot Springs is discussed. Our main finding are that the deep fault springs are characterized by low reduction-oxidation potential at around-200–-150 mV and relatively large daily flow variations. The re-sults provide scientific background features on the field sites regarding earthquake monitoring and pre-dictions and geothermal reservoir.

  17. Hydrogeochemical tracing of mineral water in Jingyu County, Northeast China. (United States)

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili


    The east Jilin Province in China, Jingyu County has been explored as a potential for enriching mineral water. In order to assess the water quality and quantity, it is of crucial importance to investigate the origin of the mineral water and its flow paths. In this study, eighteen mineral springs were sampled in May and September of 2012, May and September of 2013, and May 2014 and the environment, evolvement, and reaction mechanism of mineral water formation were analysed by hydrochemical data analysis, geochemical modelling and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the investigated mineral water was rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, total iron, silicate, and strontium, and mineral water ages ranged from 11.0 to more than 61.0 years. The U-shape contours of the mineral ages indicate a local and discrete recharge. The mineral compositions of the rocks were olivine, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, albite, and anorthite and were under-saturated in the mineral water. The origin of mineral water was from the hydrolysis of basalt minerals under a neutral to slightly alkaline and CO2-rich environment. PMID:26040975

  18. A survey of lunar rock types and comparison of the crusts of earth and moon (United States)

    Wood, J. A.


    The principal known types of lunar rocks are briefly reviewed, and their chemical relationships discussed. In the suite of low-KREEP highland rocks, Fe/(Fe + Mg) in the normative mafic minerals increases and the albite content of normative plagio-clase decreases as the total amount of normative plagioclase increases, the opposite of the trend predicted by the Bowen reaction principle. The distribution of compositions of rocks from terrestrial layered mafic intrusives is substantially different: here the analyses fall in several discrete clusters (anorthositic rocks, norites, granophyres and ferrogabbros, ultramafics), and the chemical trends noted above are not reproduced. It is suggested that the observed trends in lunar highland rocks could be produced by crystal fractionation in a deep global surface magma system if (1) plagiociase tended to float, upon crystallization, and (2) the magma was kept agitated and well mixed (probably by thermal convection) until crystallization was far advanced and relatively little residual liquid was left. After the crustal system solidified, but before extensive cooling had developed a thick, strong lithosphere, mantle convection was able to draw portions of the lunar anorthositic crust down into the mantle.

  19. A room-temperature phase transition in maximum microcline - Heat capacity measurements (United States)

    Openshaw, R.E.; Hemingway, B.S.; Robie, R.A.; Krupka, K.M.


    The thermal hysteresis in heat capacity measurements recently reported (Openshaw et al., 1976) for a maximum microcline prepared from Amelia albite by fused-salt ion-exchange is described in detail. The hysteresis is characterized by two limiting and reproducible curves which differ by 1% of the measured heat capacities. The lower curve, denoted curve B, represents the values obtained before the sample had been cooled below 300 K. Measurements made immediately after cooling the sample below 250 K followed a second parallel curve, curve A, to at least 370 K. Values intermediate to the two limiting curves were also obtained. The transitions from the B to the A curve were rapid and observed to occur three times. The time required to complete the transition from the A to the B curve increased from 39 h to 102 h in the two times it was observed to occur. The hysteresis is interpreted as evidence of a phase change in microcline at 300??10 K The heat effect associated with the phase change has not been evaluated. ?? 1979 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Regional, environmentally sound integrated protection of sorghum from the diseases in Samara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii Matvienko


    Full Text Available In the forest of the Samara region to major diseases of sorghum are striped bacterial blotch, Fusarium root rot and blight. Biological efficiency of chemical system products and Grands Prestige was 22-62 against root rots, bacteriosis 17-40% of bioproduct fitosporin-M and the growth regulator Albite respectively 6-32 and 4-21%. Against Alternaria effectiveness Prestige was 9-22%, fitosporin - 13-34%. By the phase of full ripeness when the intensity of bacteriosis 45-75% of plant height is reduced by 13, their weight - 11, the mass of grains per plant - 28, the number of grains per panicle - 20, the mass of 1000 seeds - 11%. Under the influence of pre-sowing seed treatment chemicals and Prestige Grands increased yield of grain sorghum grain at 4-12, sugar - by 5-9%. In experiments with irrigation at sowing in the average weather conditions for the years 2012-2013. biological grain yield increased in grain sorghum 13-20, sugar - by 28-32%. Important factors of stability of sorghum grain to the fungal infection of the genera Fusarium and Alternaria in the field include the presence on the seeds of the protective film. It may be noted that a significantly higher prevalence of grain grain sorghum, compared with diabetes, due to the fact that the seeds of grain sorghum naked and sweet sorghum filmy. This feature is important to consider in the selection of resistant varieties to this disease.

  1. Determination of the mineral stability field of evolving groundwater in the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater and surrounding areas (United States)

    Loh, Yvonne Sena Akosua; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Addai, Millicent Obeng; Asiedu, Daniel Kwadwo


    Conventional graphical techniques, mass balance geochemical modelling, and multivariate statistical methods were jointly applied to hydrogeochemical data of groundwater from the fractured rock aquifer system, and surface water in the Bosumtwi and surrounding areas to reveal evolutionary trends and the characteristics of evolving groundwater in the area. Four clusters distinguished from the Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) comprised three main groundwater associations and one surface water group (lake water). Although both water resources are of low mineralization (TDS water types at the lower reaches. The lake water on the other hand is Nasbnd HCO3- water type. Results from principal component analyses (PCA) and other geochemical interpretations distinguished three sources of variations in the hydrochemistry. Saturation indices of possible reactive mineral phases show groundwater undersaturation relative to albite, anorthite, aragonite, barite, calcite, chlorite, chrysotile, dolomite, gypsum, k-felspar and talc, and supersaturation with respect to gibbsite, kaolinite, Ca-montmorillonite and k-mica in the area. The PCA and other geochemical interpretation identify weathering of feldspars and carbonate mineral dissolution as predominantly influencing the hydrochemistry of the groundwater. Hydrolysis of the aluminosilicates causes the groundwater to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. In addition to dissolution of silicates, the chemical composition of the lake water has been influenced by evaporation and consequent carbonate saturation.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪东良; 侯丹丹; 王竞秀


    三官塘铁矿位于安徽省马鞍山市,地处宁芜火山岩盆地中段,矿床成因类型为玢岩铁矿--中高温热液充填型矿床。文章通过对其成矿地质特征的分析研究认为:岩浆沿基底断裂上侵,在结晶末期发生了钠长石化、磁铁矿化等作用形成了早期的含矿热液,沿岩石裂隙和矿物颗粒间隙向岩体顶部运移,形成以浸染状为主的现今三官塘铁矿。%The Sanguantang Iron ore deposit in Ma‘anshan City, Anhui Province, in the middle part of Ningwu volcano-sedimentary basin. The Mineral genesis is porphyrite iron ore--medium-high temperature hydrothermal deposits. this paper found that Iron mineralization is control ed by diorite-porphyrite, the Magma intrusion along the basement fault,the ore-forming hydrothermal solution of the early stage migrates mainly in the form of Albite, magnetite etc In the crystal ization stage,Going to Top of the Rock Along the rock fissure and mineral particles clearance,formation main Disseminated of present-day Sanguantang Iron.

  3. Jadeitite formed during subduction: Zircon geochronology constraints from two different tectonic events on the Guatemala Suture Zone (United States)

    Flores, K. E.; Martens, U.; Harlow, G. E.; Brueckner, H. K.


    Jadeitite is a rare rock type associated with high-pressure—low-temperature blocks from serpentinite matrix mélange. Evolving models of formation involve precipitation from subduction zone aqueous fluids in veins cutting the overlying mantle wedge or metasomatism of channel blocks emplaced into it [1]. Age determination of the mélanges is based on dating included rocks for "peak metamorphism" or constituent minerals, such as micas by Ar-Ar, which may only provide exhumation constraints. New SHRIMP-RG 238U-206Pb dates from metasomatic/solution-precipitate zircons in jadeitites and mica-albite rocks from Guatemala combined with other recently reported dates show (a) older mean ages that are a clear evidence for jadeitite crystallization 10-30 Ma prior to peak subduction zone metamorphism (e.g., crystallization of eclogite), and (b) a second group of younger mean ages slightly younger or similar to exhumation ages given by Ar-Ar dates from micas. These age relationships are also observed at other jadeitite localities, such as Sym-Keu ultramafic complex in the Polar Urals (Russia) and the serpentinite mélanges of the Río San Juan complex (Dominican Republic). The data argue for formation of jadeitite in the non-subducting mantle wedge during active subduction. Thus, jadeitite provides a record of fluid introduction into the mantle wedge during subduction rather than during exhumation. Reference: [1] Tsujimori & Harlow 2012, Eur. J. Mineral. 24, 371-390.

  4. Groundwater in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of published chemical analyses of ground waters found in granitic rocks from a variety of locations shows that their compositions fall into two distinct classes. Ground waters from shallow wells and springs have a high bicarbonate/chloride ratio resulting from the neutralization of carbonic acid (dissolved CO2) by weathering reactions. The sodium, potassium, and silica released by weathering reactions drive the solutions away from equilibrium with the dominant minerals in the granites (i.e., quartz, muscovite, potassium feldspar, and albite). On the other hand, ground waters from deep wells and excavations are rich in chloride relative to bicarbonate. Their Na, K, H, and silica activities indicate that they are nearly equilibrated with the granite minerals suggesting a very long residence time in the host rock. These observations furnish the basis for a powerful tool to aid in selecting sites for radioactive waste disposal in granitic rocks. When water-bearing fractures are encountered in these rocks, a chemical analysis of the solutions contained within the fracture can determine whether the water came from the surface, i.e., is bicarbonate rich and not equilibrated, or whether it is some sort of connate water that has resided in the rock for a long period, i.e., chloride rich and equilibrated. This technique should allow immediate recognition of fracture systems in granitic radioactive waste repositories that would allow radionuclides to escape to the surface

  5. Processes and sources during late Variscan Dioritic-Tonalitic magmatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietranik, A.; Waight, Tod Earle


    resorption between An-rich cores and more albitic rims.The range of Sr isotopic compositions recorded in plagioclase is 0.7069-0.7091, greater than that of the whole-rocks. No change in isotopic composition is observed across resorbed core-rim boundaries, as would be expected if the resorption was caused...... by magma mixing. Two samples are close to Sr isotopic equilibrium between plagioclase and the whole-rock. Three samples are isotopically heterogeneous and exhibit the largest variations in Sr isotope ratios within high-An plagioclase cores, associated with only slight resorption and almost no change......The Gesiniec Intrusion (Strzelin Massif, East Sudetes) (~307-290 Ma) is composed predominantly of dioritic to tonalitic rocks with 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7069 to 0.7080 and eNd=-3.1 to -4.2, emplaced as post-collisional magmas following the Variscan orogeny. In situ Sr isotope and trace...

  6. Geochemical features of the geothermal fluids from the Mapamyum non-volcanic geothermal system (Western Tibet, China) (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Xiaohong; Shen, Licheng; Wu, Kunyu; Huang, Mingzhi; Xiao, Qiong


    Mapamyum geothermal field (MGF) in western Tibet is one of largest geothermal areas characterized by the occurrence of hydrothermal explosions on the Tibetan Plateau. The geochemical properties of hydrothermal water in the MGF system were investigated to trace the origin of the solutes and to determine the equilibrium temperatures of the feeding reservoir. The study results show that the geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in the MGF system is mainly of the Na-HCO3 type. The chemical components of hydrothermal waters are mainly derived from the minerals in the host rocks (e.g., K-feldspar, albite, Ca-montmorillonite, and Mg-montmorillonite). The hydrothermal waters are slightly supersaturated or undersaturated with respect to aragonite, calcite, dolomite, chalcedony and quartz (saturation indices close to 0), but are highly undersaturated with respect to gypsum and anhydrite (saturation indices acts as the water source of the geothermal waters. An ~ 220 °C equilibrated reservoir temperature of hydrothermal spring waters was calculated via both the Na-K-Mg ternary diagrams and the cationic chemical geothermometers. The logpCO2 of hydrothermal waters in the MGF system ranges from - 2.59 to - 0.57 and δ13C of the total dissolved inorganic carbon ranges from - 5.53‰ to - 0.94‰, suggesting that the carrier CO2 in hydrothermal water are mainly of a magmatic or metamorphic CO2 origin.

  7. Properties of ceramics prepared using dry discharged waste to energy bottom ash dust. (United States)

    Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Vandeperre, Luc; Grimes, Sue; Themelis, Nicolas; Koralewska, Ralf; Cheeseman, Chris


    The fine dust of incinerator bottom ash generated from dry discharge systems can be transformed into an inert material suitable for the production of hard, dense ceramics. Processing involves the addition of glass, ball milling and calcining to remove volatile components from the incinerator bottom ash. This transforms the major crystalline phases present in fine incinerator bottom ash dust from quartz (SiO(2)), calcite (CaCO(3)), gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), to the pyroxene group minerals diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6)), clinoenstatite (MgSi(2)O(6)), wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) together with some albite (NaAlSi(3)O(8)) and andradite (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)). Processed powders show minimal leaching and can be pressed and sintered to form dense (>2.5 g cm(-3)), hard ceramics that exhibit low firing shrinkage (ceramic tiles that have potential for use in a range of industrial applications.

  8. Minerals of a soil developed in the meteoritic crater of Carancas, Peru, and evidences of phase changes on the impact event (United States)

    Loayza, María L. Cerón; Cabrejos, Jorge A. Bravo


    We report studies about the phase transformations in the soil of the Carancas meteoritic crater located in an inhabited area near the town of Carancas, in the Region of Puno, about 1,300 km southeast of Lima, Peru. The studies by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffractometry and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy (at RT and 77 K) reveal that the sample consists mainly of quartz, albite and impactites such as coesite and stishovite (SiO2) that have experienced phase metamorphism or alterations, related to high pressures and temperatures, forming their corresponding polymorphs. The occurrence of these phases, with high content of SiO2, in the soil of the crater strengthens the hypothesis of its origin by metamorphism induced by impact; we observed also a magnetic sextet on the Mössbauer pattern, assigned to the Fe3 + in hematite, and three paramagnetic doublets, two of them associated with structural Fe3 + and Fe2 + cations, respectively, in illite and/or montmorillonite, and a third one due to an unidentified Fe3 + site.

  9. Propagation of a hyperalkaline plume into the geological barrier surrounding a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coupled geochemical transport model (MPATH) which includes chemical reaction kinetics is used to evaluate the alteration of Swiss argillaceous sediments in a high-pH environment and to predict the spatial propagation of the hyperalkaline plume with time. The calculations predict dissolution of quartz, clay minerals and chlorite, and precipitation of zeolite minerals such as analcime and natrolite as well as he feldspars K-feldspar and albite. In addition, Portland cement-hydrates such as calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates, ettringite and friedel-salt are also predicted to form, depending on the composition of the inlet fluid and the host rock. The dissolution of clay minerals reduces the pH of the hyperalkaline plume to levels between approximately 8 and 10, depending on the composition of the inlet fluid and the host rock. For pure advective transport through porous medium, neglecting changes in porosity and permeability, the migration velocity of the high-pH front is calculated to be approximately one to two orders of magnitude less than that of the infiltrating groundwater. However, due to precipitation of secondary phases, in the present model concept a rapid decrease in porosity of the marl occurs several meters from the repository. At the interface between the marl host rock and cement the porosity increases as a consequence of the low silica concentration of the cement pore fluid. (author) 10 figs., 7 tabs., refs

  10. Raman microscopy of hand stencils rock art from the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China (United States)

    Hernanz, Antonio; Chang, Jinlong; Iriarte, Mercedes; Gavira-Vallejo, Jose M.; de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo; Bueno-Ramírez, Primitiva; Maroto-Valiente, Angel


    A series of rock art pictographs in the form of hand stencils discovered in two sites of the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (China) has been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for the first time. These studies have made possible to characterise the materials present. The minerals α-quartz, phlogopite, albite and microcline have been identified in the granitic rocks supporting the paintings. Calcite and dolomite micro-particles detected on the rock surface have been attributed to desert dust. Accretions of gypsum, anhydrite and whewellite have also been identified on the rock surface. Haematite is the pigment used in the red pictographs, whereas well-crystallised graphite has been used in the black ones. The use of crystalline graphite instead of amorphous carbon (charcoal, soot or bone black) as a black pigment in rock art is an interesting novelty. Overlapped hands are proposed as a new type of hand stencils to make an unusual pictorial symbol in rock art that has been found in these sites.

  11. Bohemian circular structure, Czechoslovakia: Search for the impact evidence (United States)

    Rajlich, Petr


    Test of the impact hypothesis for the origin of the circular, 260-km-diameter structure of the Bohemian Massif led to the discovery of glasses and breccias in the Upper Proterozoic sequence that can be compared to autogeneous breccias of larger craters. The black recrystallized glass contains small exsolution crystals of albite-oligoclase and biotite, regularly dispersed in the matrix recrystallized to quartz. The occurrence of these rocks is limited to a 1-sq-km area. It is directly underlain by the breccia of the pelitic and silty rocks cemented by the melted matrix, found on several tens of square kilometers. The melt has the same chemistry as rock fragments in major and in trace elements. It is slightly impoverished in water. The proportion of melted rocks to fragments varies from 1:5 to 10:1. The mineralogy of melt viens is the function of later, mostly contact metamorphism. On the contact of granitic plutons it abounds on sillimanite, cordierite, and small bullets of ilmenite. Immediately on the contact with syenodiorites it contains garnets. The metamorphism of the impact rock melt seems the most probable explanation of the mineralogy and the dry total fusion of rocks accompanied by the strong fragmentation. Other aspects of this investigation are discussed.

  12. The geomicrobiology of bauxite deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiluo Hao; Kwunlun Leung; Rucheng Wang; Weidong Sun; Yiliang Li


    Bauxite deposits are studied because of their economic value and because they play an important role in the study of paleoclimate and paleogeography of continents. They provide a rare record of the weathering and evolution of continental surfaces. Geomicrobiological analysis makes it possible to verify that microorganisms have played a critical role during the formation of bauxite with the possibility already intimated in previous studies. Ambient temperature, abundance of water, organic carbon and bioavailable iron and other metal substrates provide a suitable environment for microbes to inhabit. Thiobacillus, Leptospirilum, Thermophilic bacteria and Heterotrophs have been shown to be able to oxidize ferrous iron and to reduce sulfate-generating sulfuric acid, which can accelerate the weathering of aluminosilicates and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. Microorganisms referred to the genus Bacillus can mediate the release of alkaline metals. Although the dissimilatory iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in bauxites have not yet been identified, some recorded authigenic carbonates and "bacteriopyrites" that appear to be unique in morphology and grain size might record microbial activity. Typical bauxite minerals such as gibbsite, kaolinite, covellite, galena, pyrite, zircon, calcium ptagioclase, orthoclase, and albite have been investigated as part of an analysis of microbial mediation. The paleoecologyof such bauxitic microorganisms inhabiting continental (sub) surfaces, revealed through geomicrobiological analysis, will add a further dimension to paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies.

  13. Characterization of rock samples localized in some sites of the Mexican Pacific coast; Caracterizacion de muestras de rocas localizadas en algunos sitios de la costa del Pacifico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Torre, J. de la; Falcon, T.; Segovia, N. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa C.P. 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    Geophysical studies in zones of high seismicity have showed differences in the content of radioactive material that is used in the study of the geochemical behavior of the subsoil. In an emanometric mapping of radon in soil realized in the Mexican Pacific coast were finding distinct levels in zones with different lithology. With the finality to know the mineralization types in two zones of study which are localized in the Guerrero coast and they belonging to terrains named Guerrero and Xolapa it was determined the mineralogic characteristics in two types of rocks. The identification of the rocks was realized by X-ray diffraction and was determined the elemental chemical composition using a scanning electron microscope. It was indicated in the results obtained that in the two types of rocks were found minerals such as: quartz, albite, microcline anortite, ferroactinolite and biotite. However, it was found differences between them by the presence of their mineralogic compounds because in the rock belonging to Xolapa terrain were presented whereas in the rock localized in the Guerrero terrain were presented sodic and potassic feldspars. The analysis by the Elemental Chemical Composition technique (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) corroborated the results obtained by the X-ray diffraction technique. (Author)

  14. An unusual radiation dose dependent EPR line at g{sub eff} = 2.54 in feldspars: possible evidence of Fe{sup 3+}O{sup 2-} {r_reversible} Fe{sup 2+}O{sup -} and exchange coupled Fe{sup 3+}-Fe{sup 2+}-nO{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, M D [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, 380 009 (India); Nagar, Y C [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, 380 009 (India); Bhushan, B [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Mishra, K P [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Balaram, V [Geochemistry Division, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, 500 007 (India); Singhvi, A K [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, 380 009 (India)


    We report electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) results on natural feldspar grains extracted from sediment samples of three widely different source regions. The XRD analysis indicated that the samples had albite, microcline and Ca/Ba-orthoclase as the major constituents. The EPR spectrum of all the samples exhibited an intense line around g{sub eff} = 4.3. This is characteristic of Fe{sup 3+} with a zero field splitting that is significantly larger than the microwave quantum. More interesting was the presence of a strong EPR signal in the region of g{sub eff} = 2.54-2.7. On irradiation with gamma rays the position of the line shifted to higher magnetic field. The possible origin of this line and its unusual behavior with dose is explained as being due to the interaction of a hopping 'hole' on oxygen with iron centers. The possibilities considered include (1) the valence fluctuation of an Fe{sup 3+} center at a tetrahedral site (2) oscillation of FeO{sub 4}{sup -} between two resonant forms, Fe{sup 2+}O{sup -} and Fe{sup 3+}O{sup 2-}, and (3) exchange coupling between Fe{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 2+} and O{sup -}. The concentration of the latter is dose dependent and, consequently, it results in the observed dose dependent line shift.

  15. Emplacement age and tectonic implications of the Xilinhot A-type granite in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Guanghai; MIAO Laicheng; ZHANG Fuqing; JIAN Ping; FAN Weiming; LIU Dunyi


    A new rock type of granite, approximate 45 km2 in area and located about 10 km south of Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, was found in the Sunitezuoqi (or called Suzuoqi)-Xilinhot tectonic belt and identified as an A-type mia- rolitic intrusion. The pluton has miarolitic structure and is composed chiefly of perthite, quartz, euhedral albite and potassium feldspar. Various types of textures occur in the pluton, such as perthitie, graphic and myrmekite textures. Only quartz is found in miarolitic cavity. This A-type granite with seagull-shaped REE patterns and obvious negative Eu anomaly (δEu = 0.24-0.28) is high in SiO2 (76%-77%), K and Na (Na2O + K2O = 7.75%-8.15%) and low in Ca (CaO = 0.20%-0.22%), Fe and Mg. Both petrographical observations and chemical compositions indicate that it is an A-type granite. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb analyses indicate that this A-type granite was emplaced at 276 ( 2 Ma and coeval with the same type of granites in the adjacent areas. Therefore, it suggests that this pluton was likely formed in a post-orogenic extensional setting and probably related to break-off of subducted slabs in Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which indicate that the Sunitezuoqi-Xilinhot belt was tectonically evolved into post-orogenic stage since early Permian.

  16. Silicate-salt(sulfate) liquid immiscibility: a study of melt inclusions in minerals of the Mushugai-Khuduk carbonatite-bearing complex ( southern Mongolia )%硅酸盐-盐(硫酸盐)流体不混溶:蒙古南部Mushugai-Khuduk含火成碳酸岩杂岩体矿物中的熔体包裹体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irina A.Andreeva; Vyacheslav I.Kovalenko; Vladimir B.Naumov


    Crystalline and melt inclusions were studied in garnet, diopside, potassium feldspar, and sphene from the garnet syenite porphyry of the carbonatite-bearing complex Mushugai-Khuduk, southern Mongolia. Phlogopite, clinopyroxene, albite, potassium feldspar, sphene, wollastonite, magnetite, Ca and Sr sulfates, fluorite, and apatite were identified among the crystalline inclusions.The melt inclusions were homogenized at 1010 ~ 1080℃ and analyzed on an electron microprobe. Silicate, salt, and combined silicatesalt melt inclusions were found. Silicate melts show considerable variations in SiO2 concentration (56 to 66wt% ), high Na2O + K2O(up to 17wt% ), and elevated Zr, F, and Cl contents. In terms of bulk rock chemistry, the silicate melts are alkali syenites. During thermometric experiments, salt melt inclusions quenched into homogeneous glasses of predominantly sulfate compositions containing no more than 1.3wt% SiO2. These melts are enriched in alkalis, Ba, Sr, P, F, and Cl. The investigation of the silicate and salt melt inclusions in minerals of the garnet syenite porphyries indicate that these rocks were formed under influence of the processes of crystallization differentiation and magma separation into immiscible silicate and salt (sulfate)liquids.

  17. Towards a Model for Albitite-Type Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Wilde


    Full Text Available Albitite-type uranium deposits are widely distributed, usually of low grade (<1% U3O8, but are often large and collectively contain over 1 million tonnes of U3O8. Uranium is hosted in a wide range of metamorphic lithologies, whose only common characteristic is that they have been extensively mylonitised. Ore minerals are disseminated and rarely in megascopic veins, within and adjacent to albitised mylonites. Grain size is uniformly fine, generally less than 50 microns. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that spatial association between uranium and various Ti-bearing phases is common. Gangue minerals include albite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite, and sodic pyroxene and amphibole. The ore rarely contains economic metals apart from uranium, phosphorous at Itataia being an exception. There is widespread evidence of hydrothermal zirconium mobility and hydrothermal zircon and other Zr phases are frequent and in some cases abundant gangue minerals. Positive correlations are noted between uranium and various high field strength elements. The group remains poorly described and understood, but a link to iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG deposits and/or carbonatite and/or alkaline magmatism is plausible.

  18. Process optimization of reaction of acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing and sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Silica is the major component of the acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing. The waterglass solution can be prepared by the reaction of the residue with sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. Compared to the high temperature reaction method, this process is environmental friendly and low cost. In this paper, the reaction process of the residue and the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution is optimized. The optimum reaction process parameters are as follows: the usage of sodium hydroxide is 26.4 g/100 g acid leaching residue, the reaction temperature is 90℃, the reaction time is 1 h, and the ratio of the liquid/solid is 2.0. The significance sequence of the process parameters to the alkali leaching reaction effect is the usage of sodium hydroxide > the ratio of the liquid/solid > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the leaching ratio of SiO2 is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the modulus of the sodium silicate is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. Under the optimum conditions, the leaching ratio of the SiO2 is 77.5%, and the modulus of the sodium silicate is 3.15. The XRD analysis result indicates that the major components of the alkali leaching residue are serpentine, talc, quartz and some albite.

  19. Sludge granulation and efficiency of phase separator in UASB reactor treating combined industrial effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah Yasar; Nasir Ahmad; Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry; Aamir Amanat Ali Khan


    Sludge granulation and the effect of gas-liquid-solid separator (GLSS) design on the efficiency of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and upflow anaerobic sludge filter (UASF) reactors, operating at HRTs ranging from 3 to 12 h was investigated. VSS/TS ratio gradually increased in both the reactors with increasing sludge age (from 0.5 to more than 0.7 for UASB reactor and 0.012 to 0.043 for UASF reactor). X-Ray diffraction analysis of the UASF sludge showed the presence of expanding clays revealing its additional absorption capability. Fuoraphyllite and albite precipitation related to excellular polymers of the microbial shell structure, showed the extended growth of microorganisms during sludge granulation. A gradual decrease (82%-69%) in COD removal with decreasing HRT was apparent in UASF reactor. In case of UASB reactor, this decrease was marginal because addition of GLSS device significantly improved (14%-20%) the overall efficiency of the UASB reactor. GLSS enhanced the efficiency of the UASB reactor by increasing the settleability of suspended particles and accelerating the coagulation of colloidal particles due to the velocity gradient.

  20. Experimental determination of chlorite dissolution rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current concepts of the geological disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the UK envisage the construction of a mined facility (incorporating cementitious engineered barriers) in chlorite-bearing rocks. To model accurately the fluid-rock reactions within the disturbed zone surrounding a repository requires functions that describe mineral dissolution kinetics under pH conditions that vary from near neutral to highly alkaline. Therefore, an experimental study to determine the dissolution rates of Fe-rich chlorite has been undertaken as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Program. Four experiments have been carried out at 25 C and four at 70 C, both sets using a range of NaCl/NaOH solutions of differing pH (of nominal pH 9.0, 10.3, 11.6 and 13.0 [at 25 C]). Dissolution rates have been calculated and were found to increase with increasing pH and temperature. However, increased pH resulted in non-stoichiometric dissolution possibly due to preferential dissolution of part of the chlorite structure relative to another, or reprecipitation of some elements as thin hydroxide or oxyhydroxide surface coatings on the chlorite. These results also show that chlorite dissolution is appreciably slower than that of albite and quartz at both 25 and 70 C, but slightly faster than that of muscovite at 70 C

  1. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Tae-Jin; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Huh, Dae-Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)


    The reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of these heterogeneities and distributions of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but for the development of the petroleums. Methods and principles of the reservoir geochemistry, which are applicable to the petroleum exploration and development, are reviewed in the study. In addition, a case study was carried out on the gas, condensate, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir, taken from the Haenam, Pohang areas and the Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Mineral geothermometers were studied to estimate the thermal history in sedimentary basins and successfully applied to the Korean onshore and offshore basins. The opal silica-to-quartz transformation was investigated in the Pohang basin as a geothermometer. In Korean basins, the smectite-to-illite changes indicate that smectite and illite can act as the geothermometer to estimate the thermal history of the basins. The albitization reaction was also considered as a temperature indicator. Naturally fractured reservoir is an important source of oil and gas throughout the world. The properties of matrix and fracture are the key parameters in predicting the performances of naturally fractured reservoirs. A new laboratory equipment has been designed and constructed by pressure pulse method to determine the properties, which are (1) the porosity of matrix, (2) the permeability of matrix, (3) the effective width of the fractures, and the permeability of the fractures. (author). 97 refs.

  2. Assessment of Suspended Sediments Concentration in Surface Waters, Using Modis Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobasheri M. Reza


    Full Text Available Remote sensing from air-borne and space-borne sensors have proved to be a useful method for Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC estimation as it provides an instantaneous and synoptic view of suspended sediments that would otherwise be unavailable. The reason for the success of remote sensing in such surveys is the strong positive relationship that exists between SSC and remotely sensed water leaving radiance. To find an algorithm relating SSC to spectral radiance over Bahmansheer River Estuary at the North-West of Persian Gulf, a three-month field expedition (April to June 2003 was conducted while the MODIS sensor on board Terra simultaneously flew over the scene. Fifty seven samples in fifteen trips were collected. The collected samples were analyzed by measuring concentration, diameters of the sediment particles and by determining the sediment constituents. Total concentration ranged between 30 and 500 mg, the range of particle diameter was from less than a micrometer to more than 20 micrometers and finally it was found that the sediment was composed of Quartz, Kaolinite, Orthoclase, Chlorite, Calcite, Gypsum, Muscovite, Halite, Anhydrite, Apatite, Biotite and a low amount of Albite. It is found that the spectral characteristics of these compositions are partly responsible for the reflected and/or scattered energy in different bands while the correlation between larger suspended particle concentration and spectral radiance was profound.

  3. A Petrographic and Mineralogical Study of Volcanic Rocks from the Mayaxueshan Area, North Qilian Fold Belt, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐达伟; 萧炎宏


    The Ordovician volcanic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have been pervasively altered or metamorphosedand contain abundant secondary minerals such as albite, chlorite, epidote, prehnite, pumpellyite, actinolite, titanite, quartz,and/or calcite. They were denoted as spilites or spilitic rocks in terms of their petrographic features and mineral assem-blages. The metamorphic grades of the volcanic rocks are equivalent to that of the intercalated metaclastic rocks. Thisindicates that both the spilitic volcanic rocks and metaclastic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have formed as a result ofCaledonian regional metamorphism. We suggest that the previously denoted spilitic rocks or altered volcanic rocks shouldbe re-denoted as metabasalts or metabasaltic rocks. The metamorphic grade of the volcanic rocks increases with their age:prehnite-pumpellyite facies for the upper part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, prehnite-pumpellyite to lowergreenschist facies for the lower part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, and lower greenschist facies for the LowerOrdovician volcanic rocks. The P-T conditions are estimated as T = 240 - 290C and P = 1.5 - 4.5 kbar for the lower partof the Middle Ordovician rocks, and T = ~ 300~C for the Lower Ordovician rocks. The variations of mineral assemblagesoccurring at different domains of the volcanic rocks were controlled by the variations of the effective bulk composition inthose domains during metamorphism. The geochemical characteristics of Mg-Al chromite in the Mayaxueshan volcanicrocks are consistent with an origin of island arc environment.

  4. Fluid geochemistry of the Acqui Terme-Visone geothermal area (Piemonte, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, L.; Bonaria, V.; Ottonello, G.; Zuccolini, M.V. [University of Genova (Italy). Dip. per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sur Risorse; Guidi, M. [Istituto di Geocronologia e Geochimica Isotopica, CNR, Pisa (Italy); Hunziker, J.C. [Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Mineralogie et Petrographie


    The main geothermal reservoir of Acqui Terme-Visone hosts Na-Cl waters, which are in chemical equilibrium at 120-130{sup o}C with typical hydrothermal minerals including quartz, albite, K-feldspar, illite. chlorite (or smectite), anhydrite, calcite and an unspecified Ca-Al-silicate. In the Acqui Terme-Visone area, these geothermal waters ascend along zones of high vertical permeability and discharge at the surface almost undiluted or mixed with cold, shallow waters. To the SW of Acqui Terme, other ascending geothermal waters, either undiluted or mixed with low-salinity waters, enter relatively shallow secondary reservoirs, where they reequilibrate at 65-70{sup o}C. Both chemical and isotopic data indicate that bacterial SO{sub 4} reduction affects all these waters, especially those discharged by the secondary reservoirs. Therefore, geothermal waters must get in contact with oil, acquiring the relatively oxidized organic substances needed by SO{sub 4} -reducing bacteria. This oil-water interaction process deserves further investigations, for potential economic implications. (Author)

  5. A test of the 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique on some terrestrial materials (United States)

    Lanphere, M.A.; Brent, Dalrymple G.


    40Ar/39Ar age spectra were determined for 10 terrestrial rock and mineral samples whose geologic history is known from independent evidence. The spectra for six mineral and whole rock samples, including biotite, feldspar, hornblende, muscovite, and granodiorite, that have experienced post-crystallization heating did not reveal the age of crystallization in any obvious way. Minima in the spectra, however, give reasonable maximum ages for reheating and high-temperature maxima can be interpreted as minimum crystallization ages. High-temperature ages of microcline and albite that have not been reheated are approximately 10% younger than the known crystallization age. Apparently there are no domains in these feldspars that have retained radiogenic 40Ar quantitatively. Spectra from two diabase samples that contain significant quantities of excess argon might mistakenly be interpreted as spectra from reheated samples and do not give the age of emplacement. The 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique may be a potentially valuable tool for the study of geologic areas with complex histories, but the interpretation of age spectra from terrestrial samples seems to be more difficult than suggested by some previous studies. ?? 1971.

  6. Analysis of deterioration of rocky material which conform the sculptured serpents of the Tenayuca pyramid; Analisis del deterioro del material petreo que conforman las serpientes esculpidas de la piramide de Tenayuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Martinez C, G. [INAH, 04000 Coyoacan (Mexico); Rodriguez L, V. [BUAP, A.P. J-48, 72520 Puebla (Mexico)


    This work presents the results about the characterization of rocky materials samples proceeding from heads of snakes that adorn the pyramid of Tenayuca, Mexico. Analysis of these samples, that show deterioration presence was performance through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Several morphological structures such as granular, tubular, acicular growths and fibers were observed, some of they could be associate to salt migration. It was possible to identify different crystalline phases associated with albite (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}), anorthite [(Ca,Na)(Si,Al){sub 4}O{sub 8}], ferroactinolite [(Ca,Na,K){sub 2} Fe{sub 5}Si{sub 8}O{sub 22}(OH){sub 2}], gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} 2H{sub 2}O), quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and thenardite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). (Author) 10 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  7. Paleoproterozoic volcanic centers of the São Félix do Xingu region, Amazonian craton, Brazil: Hydrothermal alteration and metallogenetic potential (United States)

    da Cruz, Raquel Souza; Fernandes, Carlos Marcello Dias; Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre; Juliani, Caetano; Monteiro, Lena Virgínia Soares; Lagler, Bruno; Misas, Carlos Mario Echeverri


    Geological, petrographic, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies revealed hydrothermalized lithotypes evidenced by overprinted zones of potassic, propylitic, sericitic, and intermediate argillic alterations types, with pervasive and fracture-controlled styles, in Paleoproterozoic volcano-plutonic units of the São Félix do Xingu region, Amazonian craton, northern Brazil. The Sobreiro Formation presents propylitic (epidote + chlorite + carbonate + clinozoisite + sericite + quartz ± albite ± hematite ± pyrite), sericitic (sericite + quartz + carbonate), and potassic (potassic feldspar + hematite) alterations. The prehnite-pumpellyite pair that is common in geothermal fields also occurs in this unit. The Santa Rosa Formation shows mainly potassic (biotite + microcline ± magnetite), sericitic (sericite + quartz + carbonate ± chlorite ± gold), and intermediate argillic (montmorillonite + kaolinite/halloysite + illite) alterations. These findings strongly suggest the involvement of magma-sourced and meteoric fluids and draw attention to the metallogenetic potential of these volcanic units for Paleoproterozoic epithermal and rare and base metal porphyry-type mineralizations, similar to those already identified in other portions of the Amazonian craton.

  8. Impact of depositional facies on the distribution of diagenetic alterations in the Devonian shoreface sandstone reservoirs, Southern Ghadamis Basin, Libya (United States)

    Khalifa, Muftah Ahmid; Morad, Sadoon


    The middle Devonian, shoreface quartz arenites (present-day burial depths 2833-2786 m) are important oil and gas reservoirs in the Ghadamis Basin, western Libya. This integrated petrographic and geochemical study aims to unravel the impact of depositional facies on distribution of diagenetic alterations and, consequently, related reservoir quality and heterogeneity of the sandstones. Eogenetic alterations include the formation of kaolinite, pseudomatrix, and pyrite. The mesogenetic alterations include cementation by quartz overgrowths, Fe-dolomite/ankerite, and illite, transformation of kaolinite to dickite, illitization of smectite, intergranular quartz dissolution, and stylolitization, and albitization of feldspar. The higher energy of deposition of the coarser-grained upper shoreface sandstones combined with less extensive chemical compaction and smaller amounts of quartz overgrowths account for their better primary reservoir quality compared to the finer-grained, middle-lower shoreface sandstones. The formation of kaolin in the upper and middle shoreface sandstones is attributed to a greater flux of meteoric water. More abundant quartz overgrowths in the middle and lower shoreface is attributed to a greater extent of stylolitization, which was promoted by more abundant illitic clays. This study demonstrated that linking the distribution of diagenetic alterations to depositional facies of shoreface sandstones leads to a better understanding of the impact of these alterations on the spatial and temporal variation in quality and heterogeneity of the reservoirs.

  9. Compositional controls on spinel clouding and garnet formation in plagioclase of olivine metagabbros, Adirondack Mountains, New York (United States)

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.


    Olivine metagabbros from the Adirondacks usually contain both clear and spinel-clouded plagioclase, as well as garnet. The latter occurs primarily as the outer rim of coronas surrounding olivine and pyroxene, and less commonly as lamellae or isolated grains within plagioclase. The formation of garnet and metamorphic spinel is dependent upon the anorthite content of the plagioclase. Plagioclase more sodic than An38??2 does not exhibit spinel clouding, and garnet rarely occurs in contact with plagioclase more albitic than An36??4. As a result of these compositional controls, the distribution of spinel and garnet mimics and visually enhances original igneous zoning in plagioclase. Most features of the arrangement of clear (unclouded) plagioclase, including the shells or moats of clear plagioclase which frequently occur inside the garnet rims of coronas, can be explained on the basis of igneous zoning. The form and distribution of the clear zones may also be affected by the metamorphic reactions which have produced the coronas, and by redistribution of plagioclase in response to local volume changes during metamorphism. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Zircon syenite pegmatites in the Finero peridotite (Ivrea zone): evidence for a syenite from a mantle source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, V.; Frenzel, G. (Mineralogisch-Petrographisches Inst., Univ. Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Kober, B. (Lab. fuer Geochronologie, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Michard, A. (Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, 54 - Vandoeuvre (France)); Puchelt, H. (Inst. fuer Petrographie und Geochemie, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)); Schneider, W. (Inst. fuer Geologie und Palaeontologie, Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.))


    Zircon syenite pegmatite dikes in the phlogopite peridotite of Finero are rich in volatiles, incompatible elements and in rare earths with (La/Yb){sub N} ratios in the range of 14-15. The main mineral constituents in the alkaline dikes (Na>K) are albite and magnesium-rich biotites whereas nepheline, cancrinite, sodalite, zircon and apatite are minor or accessory. With their initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of 0.70371 the non-contaminated syenite pegmatites originate from partial melts of the upper mantle. The magma is derived from a depleted mantle source with isotopic signatures ({epsilon}Nd(T)=5.7 and 5.1) of ocean island basalts (OIB). The ascent of the syenite pegmatites and the marginal uplift of the granulitic crust in the northern Ivrea zone may be correlated with the intrusion of alkaline melts at depth. The Triassic zircon age of 225+-13 Ma is interpreted as the time of the dikes' emplacement. From geochemistry and setting it is concluded, that the syenites are related to a rift magmatic stage at the early Mesozoic in the southern Alps. (orig.).

  11. Crystal chemical control of clinopyroxene-melt partitioning in the Di-Ab-An system: implications for elemental fractionations in the depleted mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, C. C.; Shaw, H. F.; Ryerson, F. J.; Williams, Q.; Gill, J.


    The partitioning of fifteen trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Yb, Hf, Ta, Pb and Th) between clinopyroxene and synthetic melt has been studied in two compositions along an isotherm in the diopside-albite-anorthite ternary at 1 bar pressure. The two compositions correspond to ~ Di65An35 and ~ Di55Ab45 and produce clinopyroxenes distinct in chemistry while melt compositions range from 49 wt % SiO2 to 61 wt. % SiO2. The partition coefficients of high field strength elements (HFSE) increase by factors of 2 to 8 in Di-An experiments relative to Di-Ab experiments while other elements show very little change (+/- 20%) between compositions. The change in HFSE partitioning correlates with increases in tetrahedral Al2O3 (IVAl) content of clinopyroxenes in the anorthite-bearing experiments. Changes in DTa/DNb also correlate with IVA1 based on a survey of previously published determinations.

  12. Relationships among Preparative Technique,Phase Composition and Bending Strength of Bauxite Porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Qiang; WU Xiu-Lan; HE Xuan-Meng; ZHU Zhen-Feng


    Bauxite porcelain can be sintered to make its bending strength reach 179Mpa by using sintered bauxite,clay and potash feldspar and albite as the main raw materials in oxidation atmosphere under the normal pressure.XRD,SEM and so on are utilized to study the relationships between factors like the composition of ingot,reduction particle size and heat insulating time at sintering temperature and the phase composition,microstructure and bending strength of ceramic body.The results show that the main phases in bauxite porcelain are corundum,mullite and glass,and the mullite is composed of two parts:primary mullite formed by clay conversion and secondary mullite whiskers precipitating from high temperature melt.The bending strength of ceramic body can be improved by enhancing the content of sintered bauxite in the formula:the smaller the particle size of the ceramic body is,the higher the bending strength will be.The high-temperature heat insulating technique is beneficial to the precipitation of certain quantitative secondary mullite whiskers so as to remarkably improve the strength of glass phase and ceramic body.

  13. Hydrothermal alteration studies of gabbros from Northern Central Indian Ridge and their geodynamic implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dwijesh Ray; Catherine Mevel; Ranadip Banerjee


    Mylonitic gabbro and altered gabbro were recovered from off-axis high and corner high locations at ridge-transform intersection, adjacent to Vityaz transform fault of the slow spreading (32–35mm/yr, full spreading) Northern Central Indian Ridge. Both the varieties show signatures of extensive alteration caused due to interaction with sea water. Mylonitic gabbro represents high temperature metamorphism (∼700–800° C) and comprised of hornblende mineral which exhibits well defined foliation/gneissic appearance along with dynamically recrystallised plagioclase grains frequently intercalated with magnetite-ilmenite. Altered gabbro from corner high generally includes low temperature greenschist grade (∼300° C) mineralogical assemblages: chlorite, albite, quartz and locally magnesio hornblende. Crystal plastic deformation resulted in mylonite formation and often porphyroclasts of plagioclase and clinopyroxene grains, while altered gabbro locally exhibits cataclastic texture. Presence of Vityaz transform fault and adjacent megamullion at the weakly magmatic ridge-transform intersection and off-axis high locations prompted the present scenario very much conducive for hydrothermal circulation and further facilitate the exhumation of present suite of gabbro.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小苏; 陈倩


    Ceramic glazed tile was prepared by low temperature biscuit fire and high temperature glost fire using cinder from a ceramic factory' coal gasifier as the ceramic raw material. The phase composition and microstructure of ceramic glazed tile were analyzed by testing strength, water absorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of Albite and Black Talc to strength of ceramic body were discussed. When the content of cinder was 50%, the strength of ceramic tile was more than 35Mpa.%以煤气发生炉的煤渣为主要原料,辅以钠长石和黑滑石等其他原料,经低温素烧、高温釉烧的二次烧结工艺在辊道窑烧制成陶瓷釉面砖.测试其强度和吸水率,并采用X射线衍射(XRD)仪和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)分析了煤渣陶瓷釉面砖的物相组成及微观结构,探讨了配方中钠长石和黑滑石含量对陶瓷坯体强度的影响,制备出的陶瓷釉面砖强度大于35Mpa,且煤渣利用量可达50%.

  15. Mineralogical-geochemical characteristics of the neogene sediments at the coal mine of Zhivojno in the Pelagonija depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study gives a first-time detailed analysis of the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Neogene sediments found at the coal mine of Zhivojno in the Pelagonija depression based on tested samples of cores recovered in the investigation of the coal series from this region. For the determination of the mineralogical composition we used the x-ray diffraction method while for the determination of the detailed geochemical characteristics we tested the presence of trace elements with the ICP-MS method. The presence of the following main mineral stages was recorded: muscovite/illite, chlorite, quartz, albite, orthoclase and epidote. The presence of these rare elements ranges from (in ppm): Mn (1684); Sr (250); Ba (598); Zn (121); Pb (36); Cr (34); Co (22); Ni (39); Cd (0.65); Cu (55); As (9.7); Li (32); V (121); Mo (2.1); Sb (1.2); Be (3); Bi (1); Ge (0.38); Sn (2.97); Ag (3.3); Ti (1.41); Rb (157); Cs (8.5); Th (15.9); U (3.93)

  16. Magnetite-apatite mineralization in Khanlogh iron deposit, northwest of Neyshaboor, NE Iran (United States)

    Najafzadeh Tehrani, Parvin; Asghar Calagari, Ali; Velasco Roldan, Francisco; Simmonds, Vartan; Siahcheshm, Kamal


    fluids. The high fluorine content of the apatite at Khanlogh may testify to the presence of Ti-fluoride complex in the fluids. Formation of apatite crystals was concurrent with development of titanium lamellae in magnetite. The apatite possesses high REE content which is possibly associated with monazite inclusions. The SEM studies better show these inclusions are occasionally present at the margin of apatite crystals and veins. Based upon field relations, microscopic examinations, and the results of XRD analyses, sodic (albite), propylitic (epidote, chlorite, calcite), and argillic (montmorillonite) alterations are developed in the study area. The principal minerals in these alteration zones are albite, epidote, sericite, chlorite, quartz, calcite, and montmorllonite. Mineralogy, alteration, geochemistry, structure, and texture of the ores at Khanlogh indicate that the magnetite and apatite were chiefly formed by hydrothermal solutions which were enriched in iron mainly transported by F- and Cl- rich fluids. Reference Hou,,T., Zhaochong, Z., Timothy, K., (2011). Gushan magnetite-apatite deposit in the Ningwu basin, Lower Yangtze River Valley, SE China: Hydrothermal or Kiruna-type? Ore geology review, 43, 333-346. Purtov, V.K., Kotelnikova, A.L. (1993). Solubility of titanium in chloride and fluoride hydrothermal solution. International Geology Review 35, 274 -287.

  17. Ore-controlling Structure Characteristic and the Sources of Ore Forming Material in the Jinchangyu Gold Deposit, Hebei Province%河北金厂峪金矿控矿构造特征与成矿物质来源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋扬; 王瑞江; 胡建中; 谭应佳; 石成龙; 王涛


    Jinchangyu Gold Mine is one of the largest gold deposits on the northern margin of North China Plate and occurs in the Late Archean greenstone fold belt. Two kinds of ores have been recognized: gold-bearing albite vein and gold-bearing quartz vein. tudies of ore-controlling structures show that the Jinchangyu anticlinorium and related NNE trending compressed schistosity zone, both of which resulted from two-stage regional foldings, are the main ore-controlling structure of Jinchangyu Gold Mine. In the course of schistosity and alteration, Fe2 O3, CaO, and MgO were clearly brought out from amphibolite in surrounding rocks. Albite dykes and quartz vein penetrate along the surfaces of extruding schistosity, both of which are roughly same in width, gold grade, occurrence and material source. They are probably the products of the same mineralization at different mineralization stages. Characteristics of rare earth elements, sulfur and lead isotopes show that the mineralization was related to deep magmatism and the strata remelted due to the magmatism provided part of mineralized materials. Therefore, it is concluded that the Jinchangyu Gold Mine is a magmatic and thermal-fluid-type deposit with mineralized materials collectively from remelting mantle, lower crust and partial surrounding rocks (i. e. Archaeozoic greenstone belt) under the influence of Yanshanian intracontinental orogeny during the early Mesozoic.%金厂峪金矿是我国华北板块北缘大型金矿床之一,矿床产在晚太古宙褶皱绿岩带中,矿石类型主要包括含金钠长石脉和含金石英脉两种.控矿构造研究表明,在两期区域性褶皱作用下,形成的金厂峪复背斜及与之相关的北北东向挤压片理化带是金厂峪金矿的主要控矿构造.在片理化和蚀变过程中围岩斜长角闪岩的Fe2O3、CaO、MgO等成分被明显带出,钠长石脉和石英脉沿挤压片理面贯入,二者宽度、金品位、产状、物质来源基本一致,是同一成

  18. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the Late Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab granitoids, Central Eastern Dessert, Egypt: Implications for the origin of rare metal post-orogenic A-type granites (United States)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Farahat, Esam S.; Ahmed, Awaad F.; Mohamed, Haroun A.


    The Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab pluton is a part of the Arabian Nubian shield (ANS) continental crust and located in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt. It constitutes multiphase granitic pluton intruded into granodiorite and metagabbro-diorite rocks with sharp and nonreactive contacts. Based on field observations, colors, structural variations and petrographic investigations, this granitic outcrop consists of an inner core of two-mica granite (TMG) followed outward by garnet bearing muscovite granite (GBMG) and albite granite (AG). Petrographical study indicated that medium to coarse-grained TMG is dominated by K-feldspar (Or88-98), quartz, plagioclase (albite, An0-7), muscovite and biotite with hypidiomorphic texture. With exception the appearance of garnet and the disappearance of biotite the GBMG resembles the TGM, while AG is leucocratic without any mafic mineral. The main accessories are zircon, Nb and Ta-bearing rutile, columbite, ilmenorutile, ilmenite, magnetite and apatite. This mineralogical similarity and the existence of columbite group minerals (CGM) in all granitoids, indicates a cogenetic relationship. Microprobe analyses reveal that, besides the CGM, rutile and ilmenite are the main repository phases for Nb-Ta-Ti. Columbite-(Mn) exists as individual subhedral crystals (up to 100μm in size) or intimate intergrowth with Nb-bearing rutile and/or ilmenite. The CGM are represented mostly by columbite-(Mn) with Ta/(Ta+Nb) and Mn/(Mn+Fe) ratio ranging from 0.02-0.08 and 0.4-0.9, respectively suggesting extreme degree of magmatic fractionation. Rutile contains significant amounts of Ta (up to 4 wt.% Ta2O5) and Nb (up to 22 wt.% Nb2O5). Biotites are phlogopite-annite in composition (Ann47-60Phlog40-53,on average) and are enriched with AlIV that characterize peraluminous granites. Garnets contain 60-69 mol.% spessartine and 28-36 mol.% almandine where, the ratio of spessartine and almandine together exceeds 95 mole percent, similar to garnet occur

  19. Ages and sources of components of Zn-Pb, Cu, precious metal, and platinum group element deposits in the goodsprings district, clark county, Nevada (United States)

    Vikre, P.; Browne, Q.J.; Fleck, R.; Hofstra, A.; Wooden, J.


    ore breccias and relatively low S and Pb isotope values (??34S values vary from 0-??4%; 206Pb/204Pb replaced breccia clasts and margins of fissures in Paleozoic limestones and dolomites near porphyritic intrusions. Gold ?? silver deposits occur along contacts and within small-volume stocks and dikes of feldspar porphyry, one textural variety of porphyritic intrusions. Lead isotope compositions of copper ?? precious metal-PGE, gold ?? silver, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits are similar to those of Mojave crust plutons, indicating derivation of Pb from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement or from Late Proterozoic siliciclastic sedimentary rocks derived from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement. Four texturally and modally distinctive porphyritic intrusions are exposed largely in the central part of the district: feldspar quartz porphyry, plagioclase quartz porphyry, feldspar biotite quartz porphyry, and feldspar porphyry. Intrusions consist of 64 to 70 percent SiO2 and variable K2O/Na2O (0.14-5.33) that reflect proportions of K-feldspar and albite phenocrysts and megacrysts as well as partial alteration to K-mica; quartz and biotite phenocrysts are present in several subtypes. Albite may have formed during emplacement of magma in brine-saturated basinal strata, whereas hydrothermal alteration of matrix, phenocrystic, and megacrystic feldspar and biotite to K-mica, pyrite, and other hydrothermal minerals occurred during and after intrusion emplacement. Small volumes of garnet-diopside-quartz and retrograde epidote-mica-amphibole skarn have replaced carbonate rocks adjacent to one intrusion subtype (feldspar-quartz porphyry), but alteration of carbonate rocks at intrusion contacts elsewhere is inconsp. Uranium-lead ages of igneous zircons vary inconsistently from ?? 180 to 230

  20. Grain-scale pressure variations recorded in orthopyroxene from the diamond grade ultra-high pressure Svartberget peridotite body, Western Gneiss Region, Norway (United States)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.


    to recent findings of plagioclase rims around kyanite (Tajčmanová et al., 2014). Plagioclase formed as rims around kyanite during decompression at high temperature (>800 ° C). Conventional phase diagrams for this chemical system predict increasing albite content at higher pressure. However, the anorthite endmember is the high density phase compared to albite. Observed anorthite content in the plagioclase rim is highest next to the kyanite and decreases toward the low pressure matrix. This is consistent with a mechanically feasible model proposed by Tajčmanová et al. (2014). It is proposed here that low-pressure Al-cores of orthopyroxene are preserved remnants of the original low-pressure spinel-peridotite body. In veins, cracks, and along rims of orthopyroxene, an injected overpressured metasomatic agent infiltrated the rocks conform the previously published model of Vrijmoed et al. (2009). This result is also consistent with the large scale observation that crosscutting pyroxenite veins in the Svartberget body contain the highest pressure (micro-diamond) and highest density assemblages (garnetite veins). References: Tajčmanová, L., Podladchikov, Y., Powell, R., Moulas, E., Vrijmoed, J. C. & Connolly, J. A. D. (2014). Grain scale pressure variations and chemical equilibrium in high-grade metamorphic rocks. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, (in press). Vrijmoed, J. C., Podladchikov, Y. Y., Andersen, T. B. & Hartz, E. H. (2009). An alternative model for ultra-high pressure in the Svartberget Fe-Ti garnet-peridotite, Western Gneiss Region, Norway. European Journal of Mineralogy 21, 1119-1133

  1. Caracterización hidroquímica y análisis de los estados de equilibrio termodinámico en aguas termominerales de Alhama de Murcia (Murcia, Espana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla Benítez, A.


    Full Text Available The principal physico-chemical characteristics of sorne thermomineral waters of Alhama de Murcia detrital aquifer are studied. The waters show a temperature between 26-41 °C and they are calcium-magnesium chloride-sulphate type. The origin of ions has a direct relationship with the dissolution of evaporitic sulphate-chloride salts, carbonatic and silica rocks, agricultural contamination processes and possibly ore-deposits. Mixing processes with cold waters possibly also occur. By SOLMINEQ.88 program the thermodinamic equilibrium conditions in surface are studied; the samples are saturated in quartz, chalcedony and albite. A great part of the waters are also saturated in calcite, aragonite, dolomite, gypsum, barite and magnesite. Finally, the waters are undersaturated in cristobalite, anhydrite and fluorite. Conventional chemical geothermometers yield a broad range of temperatures. Both, calcite-dolomite and anhydrite-fluorite geothermometers was applied to two samples with anomalous results. The saturation index modeling, at a series of growing temperatures, shows an approach equilibrium with quartz, chalcedony, albite, sanidine, gipsum, anhydrite, gibbsite and halloisite between 80-110 °C. A spread in the apparent equilibration temperatures deduced from two metodology, should be a consequence of dilution by surface waters, effects of re-equilibration of minerals with waters and CO2 loss. Temperature and chemical composition of the waters shows a thermal anomaly directly related with the tectonic activity in the area.Se estudian las principales características físico-químicas de algunas aguas termominerales del acuífero detrítico de Alhama de Murcia cuya temperatura está comprendida entre 26 y 41 °C y son de facies clorurada-sulfatada cálcico-magnésica. El origen de los iones encontrados está relacionado con la disolución de materiales evaporíticos, sales sulfatadas y cloruradas, carbonatados y silicatados, procesos de

  2. Inverse Geochemical Reaction Path Modelling and the Impact of Climate Change on Hydrologic Structure in Snowmelt-Dominated Catchments in the Southwestern USA (United States)

    Driscoll, J. M.; Meixner, T.; Molotch, N. P.; Sickman, J. O.; Williams, M. W.; McIntosh, J. C.; Brooks, P. D.


    Snowmelt from alpine catchments provides 70-80% of the American Southwest's water resources. Climate change threatens to alter the timing and duration of snowmelt in high elevation catchments, which may also impact the quantity and the quality of these water resources. Modelling of these systems provides a robust theoretical framework to process the information extracted from the sparse physical measurement available in these sites due to their remote locations. Mass-balance inverse geochemical models (via PHREEQC, developed by the USGS) were applied to two snowmelt-dominated catchments; Green Lake 4 (GL4) in the Rockies and Emerald Lake (EMD) in the Sierra Nevada. Both catchments primarily consist of granite and granodiorite with a similar bulk geochemistry. The inputs for the models were the initial (snowpack) and final (catchment output) hydrochemistry and a catchment-specific suite of mineral weathering reactions. Models were run for wet and dry snow years, for early and late time periods (defined hydrologically as 1/2 of the total volume for the year). Multiple model solutions were reduced to a representative suite of reactions by choosing the model solution with the fewest phases and least overall phase change. The dominant weathering reactions (those which contributed the most solutes) were plagioclase for GL4 and albite for EMD. Results for GL4 show overall more plagioclase weathering during the dry year (214.2g) than wet year (89.9g). Both wet and dry years show more weathering in the early time periods (63% and 56%, respectively). These results show that the snowpack and outlet are chemically more similar during wet years than dry years. A possible hypothesis to explain this difference is a change in contribution from subsurface storage; during the wet year the saturated catchment reduces contact with surface materials that would result in mineral weathering reactions by some combination of reduced infiltration and decreased subsurface transit time. By

  3. Facies metamórficas y edades relativas de las rocas del extremo oriental del Brazo Huemul, provincia de Neuquén Metamorphic facies and relative ages of rocks on the eastern part of Brazo Huemul, Neuquén province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Gargiulo


    exposed in the study area are mainly of tonalitic composition and have been correlated with the Subcordilleran Patagonian Batholith because they are crosscut by two different types of dikes. One group of dikes shows an albite - chlorite - epidote - cummingtonite/ grunerite - hornblende mineral assemblage as a consequence of a thermal metamorphic event transitional between albite - epidote hornfels facies and hornblende hornfels conditions. This process has been attributed to the emplacement of the Cordilleran Patagonian Batholith of Cretaceous age. Because of this, the hornfels dikes were correlated with Montes de Oca Formation. The other group of dikes shows a chlorite + pumpellyite + laumontite + chlorite/esmectite + iron oxides assemblage indicating metamorphism in zeolite facies of high temperature or, sometimes shows propilitic alteration and these dikes have been correlated with the Ventana Formation. The differences between these two types of dikes allow the discussion of the relative age of the tonalitic rocks that host them. In this paper it is proposed that this tonalitic body is of Low to Middle Jurassic age.

  4. ⁵³Mn-⁵³Cr and ²⁶Al-²⁶Mg ages of a feldspathic lithology in polymict ureilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne [Planetary Science Institute. Tucson, AZ (United States); Hutcheon, Ian D. [Glenn T. Seaborg Institute. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kita, Noriko T. [Dept. of Geoscience. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Huss, Gary R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL (United States); Cohen, Barbara Anne [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Keil, Klaus


    We report 53Mn–53Cr and 26Al–26Mg isotopic data, obtained by in-situ SIMS analysis, for feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites DaG 319 and DaG 165. The analyzed clasts belong to the “albitic lithology,” the most abundant population of indigenous feldspathic materials in polymict ureilites, and are highly fractionated igneous assemblages of albitic plagioclase, Fe-rich pyroxenes, phosphates, ilmenite, silica, and Fe(Mn, K, P, Ti)-enriched glass. Glass in DaG 165 clast 19 has extremely high and variable 55Mn/52Cr ratios (500–58,000) and shows correlated 53Cr excesses up to ~ 1500‰, clearly indicating the presence of live 53Mn at the time of formation. The slope of the well-correlated isochron defined by glass and pyroxenes from this clast corresponds to (53Mn/55Mn) = (2.84 ± 0.10) × 10-6 (2σ). Data for less 55Mn/52Cr-enriched glasses from DaG 319 clast B1, as well as phosphates from several other clasts, are consistent with this isochron. The 53Mn/55Mn ratio obtained from the isochron implies that these clasts are 0.70 ± 0.18 Ma younger than the D'Orbigny angrite, corresponding to the absolute age of 4563.72 ± 0.22 Ma. Plagioclase in DaG 319 clast B1 has a fairly constant 27Al/24Mg ratio of ~ 900 and shows resolvable 26Mg excesses of ~ 2‰. The slope of the isochron defined by pyroxene and plagioclase in this clast is (3.0 ± 1.1) × 10-7 (2σ), corresponding to a time difference of 5.4 (-0.3/+0.5) Ma after CAI (assuming the canonical initial 26Al/27Al ratio of 5 × 10-5) and an age 0.5 (-0.3/+0.5) Ma younger than D'Orbigny. Its absolute age (relative to D'Orbigny) is 4563.9 (+ 0.4/-0.5) Ma, in agreement with the 53Mn–53Cr age from clast 19. These data provide the first

  5. Northwest Africa 6693: A new type of FeO-rich, low-Δ17O, poikilitic cumulate achondrite (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.; Rubin, Alan E.; Isa, Junko; Brittenham, Steve; Ahn, Insu; Choi, Byeon-Gak


    Northwest Africa 6693 is a new type of achondrite, with a unique combination of oxygen-isotopic composition (low Δ17O: -1.08‰; also δ17O = 1.19‰) and FeO-rich, low mg bulk composition. A mode (in vol%) shows 70% pyroxene, 16% olivine and 13% feldspar, along with 0.6% Cr-spinel, and 0.4% NiFe metal (awaruite). Its coarse-poikilitic texture, with pigeonite oikocrysts up to 14 mm, as well as the subchondritic MgO/SiO2 of the rock's bulk composition, indicate origin as an igneous cumulate. The cumulus phases included pigeonite and olivine, and the parent magma was probably also saturated with feldspar, which occurs mainly as anhedral, yet optically continuous, grains intergrown with the pyroxene. The mafic silicates are uniformly ferroan: pigeonite near En57Wo3.2 and olivine near Fo49. The feldspar is uniformly albitic, near Ab92, except for a single tiny grain of Ab57Or43. However, the albite features diverse K/Ca (Or/An) ratios: ranging from consistently ˜0.46 in one end of the oblong NWA 6693 stone, to 5.2 in an olivine-rich enclave that consists mostly of micrographic olivine-feldspar intergrowth. Also, siderophile and incompatible element data show heterogeneity among samples from different regions of this large cumulate. The rock was probably neither an orthocumulate nor an adcumulate, and the proportion of "trapped liquid" probably varied from place to place. After initial crystallization, a shock event caused very minor brecciation, and pervasively mobilized linear-arcuate trails of microinclusions (minute oxides, mostly) and bubbles. A minor proportion of additional melt was formed within, and/or infiltrated into, the rock and formed discrete overgrowth mantles, recognizable based on unusual scarcity of microinclusions, on some pyroxenes. Final cooling, based on mineral-equilibration temperatures, occurred at a moderate rate by intrusive-igneous standards. Olivine, metal, and sulfide phases are all very Ni-rich (e.g., olivine NiO averages 0.77 wt


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪芳; 唐茂; 刘耘


    This study provided a number of theoretical equilibrium isotope fractionations between several Ge species, including quartz- (or opal-), albite-, K-feldspar- and olivine-like structures, as well as the dominant Ge(OH)4 and GeO(OH)3- species in aqueous solutions. They are basic parameters for exploring the unknown application of Ge isotope in the field of geochemistry. Our method is based on the Urey model (or the Bigeleisen-Mayer equation) and quantum chemistry calculation. We estimated that the accuracy of the parameters could be around 0.3‰, with the calculations made at B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level. Solvent effect was handled using explicit solvent model ("water droplet" method), and the minerals were simulated by cluster model. Our results showed that quartz- or opal-like structure can enrich most heavy Ge isotopes, and at 25℃, the fractionations are around Δquartz-Ge(OH)4=0.9‰, ΔGe(OH)4-GeO(OH)3-=0.3‰ (in seawaters), Δquartz-albite=0.6‰, Δquartz-K-feldspar=0.4‰, Δolivine-Ge(OH)4=-1.2‰ and Δquartz-olivine=2.1‰. These data could give better explanations to the experimental observations of Siebert et al. (2006) and Rouxel et al. (2006), suggesting that our theoretical prediction is accurate and important for real geochemical problems.%本研究基于Urey模型(或称Bigeleisen和Mayer公式),结合量子化学计算的方法,在B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p)理论水平下,计算了Ge在类似石英(包括蛋白石)、钠长石、钾长石、橄榄石结构以及水溶液(包括海水)中Ge(OH)4和GeO(OH)3-之间的Ge同位素平衡分馏系数.其中,溶液效应用"水滴法"处理,矿物结构用簇合物方法模拟.结果显示这些基本分馏参数的精度约±0.3‰;类石英(或蛋白石)结构最可能富集重Ge同位素,在25 ℃,几个Ge同位素分馏系数分别约为:Δ石英-Ge(OH)4=0.9‰、ΔGe(OH)4-GeO(OH)3-=0.3‰(海水中)、Δ石英-钠长石=0.6‰、Δ石英-钾长石=0.4‰、Δ橄榄石-Ge(OH)4=-1.2‰.类石英与类橄榄

  7. Apatite at Olympic Dam, South Australia: A petrogenetic tool (United States)

    Krneta, Sasha; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ehrig, Kathy; Kontonikas-Charos, Alkis


    The > 10,000 million tonne Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, (eastern Gawler Craton, South Australia) is one of the largest orebodies in the World. The deposit is hosted within the Olympic Dam Breccia Complex, placed at the centre of, and resulting from multiple brecciation and Fe-metasomatism of the Roxby Downs Granite (RDG). The latter is part of a larger batholith emplaced at ~ 1.6 Ga. Apatite petrography and chemistry were studied in non-mineralised RDG and coeval granitoids and dolerites, as well as in mineralised RDG from deep (> 2 km) and distal (2.7 km to NE) locations. In both latter cases, although the mineralisation corresponds to the same, early chalcopyrite-pyrite-magnetite ± hematite stage identified in the outer and deeper zones of the deposit itself, the character of granite alteration differs: sericite-chlorite alteration with all feldspar replaced in the deep location; and red-stained K-feldspar on top of prevailing albitization in the distal location. Close-to end-member fluorapatite is a key accessory mineral in all igneous rocks and a common product of early hydrothermal alteration within mineralised granite. Variations in habit, morphology and textures correlate with chemical trends expressed as evolving Cl/F ratios, and concentrations of REE + Y (hereafter REY), Sr, Mn, S, Si and Na. Magmatic apatite is unzoned in the dolerite but features core to REY-enriched rim zonation in the granitoids. Increases in Cl- and Sr-contents correlate with rock basicity. Calculation of Cl in the vapour phase relative to melt at the apatite saturation temperature for zoned apatite in the RDG shows higher values for grains with inclusion-rich cores associated with mafic enclaves, concordant with assimilation of exotic material during magma crystallisation. Hydrothermal alteration of magmatic apatite is most varied in the dolerite where interaction with fluids is expressed as subtle changes in Cl- versus F- and REY-enrichment, and most importantly, S-enrichment in


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏辉; 张金亮; 董紫睿; 李德勇; 任伟伟; 罗忠琴


    Upper Cretaceous sandstones in the middle of Changling Depression of Songliao Basin mainly belong to lithic arkose, which experienced mechanical compaction,carbonate cementation, clay mineral cementation, silicate cementation, silicic cementation, dissolution of unstable components and local metasomatism. A variety of pore types in studied region include intergranular pores,intragranular pores,moldic pores,as well as a negligible amount of micro-pores and oversized pores. Among the pores,the intergranular pores are dominant. Two stages of oil inclusions in the Hua 5 (the first Member of Nenjiang Formation) were recognized. Hydrocarbon injection of the first period has low maturity,while the second B period possesses little hydrocarbon injection. Based on the diagenetic events, the diagenetic stages of the studied area are diversified from the early eodiagenesis B to the mesodiagenesis B,with the principal diagenetic stage being the mesodi-agenesis A. The classification of diagenetic facies in the area is discussed on the basis of sedimentary facies and diagenesis. Diagenetic facies can be classified into five types: they are compaction diagenetic facies, carbonate-cementation facies, unstable components dissolution facies, siliceous cementation facies and albite diagenetic facies. The unstable components dissolution facies and al-bite diagenetic facies constitute the favorable diagenetic facies in the studied region.%松辽盆地长岭凹陷中部上白垩统储层砂岩主要类型为岩屑长石砂岩,经历的成岩作用主要有以机械压实为主的压实作用,碳酸盐、粘土矿物、硅酸盐及硅质胶结为主的胶结作用,以长石、岩屑等不稳定组分溶解为主的溶蚀作用和局部发育的交代作用.研究区储层孔隙类型以粒间孔隙、粒内溶孔和铸模孔为主,其中粒间孔隙最为发育.储层砂岩成岩演化阶段处于早成岩B期—中成岩B期,主要为中成岩A期.结合沉积相和成岩作用特征,

  9. Calculation of the 13C NMR shieldings of the C0 2 complexes of aluminosilicates (United States)

    Tossell, J. A.


    complexation are much smaller. Complexation with CO 2 greatly increases the electric field gradient at the bridging oxygen of H 3AlOAlH 3-2, raising it to a value similar to that found for SiOSi linkages. Comparison of these results with the experimental 13C NMR spectra support the formation of CO 2-like complexes at SiOSi bridges in albite glasses and CO 3-like complexes at SiOAl and AlOAl bridges in albite and nepheline glasses. Changes in the calculated shieldings as Na + ions are added to the complexes suggest that some of the observed complexes may be similar in their CO 2-aluminosilicate interactions, but different with respect to the positions of the charge-compensating Na + ions.

  10. Variations in the chemical and stable isotope composition of carbon and sulfur species during organic-rich sediment alteration: An experimental and theoretical study of hydrothermal activity at guaymas basin, gulf of california (United States)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Seyfried, W.E.; Shanks, Wayne C.


    Organic-rich diatomaceous ooze was reacted with seawater and a Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid of seawater chlorinity at 325-400??C, 400-500 bars, and fluid/sediment mass ratios of 1.56-2.35 to constrain factors regulating the abundance and stable isotope composition of C and S species during hydrothermal alteration of sediment from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Alteration of inorganic and organic sedimentary components resulted in extensive exchange reactions, the release of abundant H2S, CO2, CH4, and Corganic, to solution, and recrystallization of the sediment to an assemblage containing albitic plagioclase, quartz, pyrrhotite, and calcite. The ??34Scdt values of dissolved H2S varied from -10.9 to +4.3??? during seawater-sediment interaction at 325 and 400??C and from -16.5 to -9.0??? during Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid-sediment interaction at 325 and 375??C. In the absence of seawater SO4, H2S is derived from both the transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite and S released during the degradation of organic matter. In the presence of seawater SO4, reduction of SO4 contributes directly to H2S production. Sedimentary organic matter acts as the reducing agent during pyrite and SO4 reduction. Requisite acidity for the reduction of SO4 is provided by Mg fixation during early-stage sediment alteration and by albite and calcite formation in Mg-free solutions. Organically derived CH4 was characterized by ??13Cpdb values ranging between -20.8 and -23.1???, whereas ??13Cpdb values for dissolved Corganic ranged between -14.8 and -17.7%. Mass balance calculations indicate that ??13C values for organically derived CO2 were ??? - 14.8%. Residual solid sedimentary organic C showed small (??? 0.7???) depletions in 13C relative to the starting sediment. The experimental results are consistent with the isotopic and chemical composition of natural hydrothermal fluids and minerals at Guaymas Basin and permit us to better constrain sources and sinks for C and S species in subseafloor hydrothermal systems

  11. Plagioclase deformation in upper-greenschist facies meta-pegmatite mylonites from the Austroalpine Matsch Unit (Eastern Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Eberlei, Tobias; Habler, Gerlinde; Abart, Rainer; Grasemann, Bernhard


    Feldspars are common rock forming minerals as they are stable over a wide range of bulk rock compositions and metamorphic conditions within the Earth's crust. The deformation mechanisms of feldspar play an important role in rheological models for the crust and therefore have received considerable attention in studies on natural rocks and in experimental studies. The interaction of frictional and viscous deformation mechanisms and the onset of crystal plastic deformation in feldspars occur over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. In this work, we present new microstructural, textural and mineral chemical data of plagioclase from Permian metapegmatites within the Austroalpine Matsch Unit in Southern Tyrol (Italy). These crystalline basement rocks were deformed and metamorphosed at conditions close to the greenschist/amphibolites facies transition at 480±26°C during the Cretaceous (Habler et al., 2009). The investigated samples have been collected from meter-scale shear zones which typically occur at boundaries of lithological subunits. The southern tectonic boundary of this unit is commonly referred to as the "Vinschgau Shear Zone" (Schmid & Haas, 1989). We applied the Electron Backscatter Diffraction method to investigate the grain- and subgrain-boundaries and the nature of effective deformation mechanisms in plagioclase. Large albite porphyroclasts in the mylonitic Permian metapegmatites show grain internal traces of dissolution surfaces and the formation of new, strain-free grains with straight grain boundary segments and partly 120° grain boundary triple junctions in dilatant sites. The aggregates of new grains neither have a lattice preferred orientation nor a crystallographic orientation relation with the adjacent clast, and are characterized by the lack of grain internal deformation, suggesting that these are new precipitates rather than clast-fragments or recrystallized subgrains. Furthermore, the porphyroclasts show cracks and kinks, associated

  12. Petrogenesis of pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Chun; Yang, Huai-Jen


    The pillow basalts from Baolai in southwestern Taiwan have been inferred to bear Dupal signautres based on their Th/Ce ratio, linking the Baolai basalts to the South China Sea (SCS) seamounts that are characterized by Dupal Pb isotope signatures (Smith and Lewis, 2007). In this study, thirty-two Baolai basalt samples were analyzed for abundances of major and trace elements as well as Pb and Nd isotope ratios to verify their Dupal characters and to constrain their petrogenesis significance. The Baolai basalts contain 4-10 % L.O.I.. Three stages of alteration are inferred from plots of L.O.I. abundance versus concentrations major oxides as well as mineral textures and compositions. The first alteration stage was characterized by albitization that converted Ca-rich plagioclase to albite. The second alteration stage was dominated by chloritization of olivine and augite, resulting in increases in L.O.I. abundance. The last alteration stage is represented by formation of secondary calcite in vesicles and cracks. These alteration processes reflect interaction with seawater and apparently did not affect the magmatic Pb isotope composition for the low Pb concentration in seawater. Relative to the North Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL), the Baolai pillow basalts have higher 208Pb/204Pb ratios at a given 206Pb/204Pb value, showing Dupal anomaly. For their relatively higher 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb ratios, the Baolai basalts are distinct from majority of the Cenozoic basalts in the Hainan-Leizhou peninsula, the Indochina peninsula, and the SCS seamounts, for which derivation from the Hainan mantle plume has been recently proposed (Wang et al., 2013). In contrast, the Baolai basalts and the Cenozoic basalts from eastern Guangdong at southeastern China have similar Pb and Nd isotope compositions, indicating derivation from similar mantle sources. However, the Baolai basalts have lower abundance ratios of Zr/Hf (40.3-45.6 versus 46.5-50.5), La/Yb (12

  13. Experimental constraints on the relative stabilities of the two systems monazite-(Ce) - allanite-(Ce) - fluorapatite and xenotime-(Y) - (Y,HREE)-rich epidote - (Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite, in high Ca and Na-Ca environments under P-T conditions of 200-1000 MPa and 450-750 °C (United States)

    Budzyń, Bartosz; Harlov, Daniel E.; Kozub-Budzyń, Gabriela A.; Majka, Jarosław


    The relative stabilities of phases within the two systems monazite-(Ce) - fluorapatite - allanite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) - (Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite - (Y,HREE)-rich epidote have been tested experimentally as a function of pressure and temperature in systems roughly replicating granitic to pelitic composition with high and moderate bulk CaO/Na2O ratios over a wide range of P-T conditions from 200 to 1000 MPa and 450 to 750 °C via four sets of experiments. These included (1) monazite-(Ce), labradorite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, SiO2, CaF2, and 2 M Ca(OH)2; (2) monazite-(Ce), albite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, SiO2, CaF2, Na2Si2O5, and H2O; (3) xenotime-(Y), labradorite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, garnet, SiO2, CaF2, and 2 M Ca(OH)2; and (4) xenotime-(Y), albite, sanidine, biotite, muscovite, garnet, SiO2, CaF2, Na2Si2O5, and H2O. Monazite-(Ce) breakdown was documented in experimental sets (1) and (2). In experimental set (1), the Ca high activity (estimated bulk CaO/Na2O ratio of 13.3) promoted the formation of REE-rich epidote, allanite-(Ce), REE-rich fluorapatite, and fluorcalciobritholite at the expense of monazite-(Ce). In contrast, a bulk CaO/Na2O ratio of ~1.0 in runs in set (2) prevented the formation of REE-rich epidote and allanite-(Ce). The reacted monazite-(Ce) was partially replaced by REE-rich fluorapatite-fluorcalciobritholite in all runs, REE-rich steacyite in experiments at 450 °C, 200-1000 MPa, and 550 °C, 200-600 MPa, and minor cheralite in runs at 650-750 °C, 200-1000 MPa. The experimental results support previous natural observations and thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibria, which demonstrate that an increased CaO bulk content expands the stability field of allanite-(Ce) relative to monazite-(Ce) at higher temperatures indicating that the relative stabilities of monazite-(Ce) and allanite-(Ce) depend on the bulk CaO/Na2O ratio. The experiments also provide new insights into the re-equilibration of monazite-(Ce) via fluid

  14. The mechanisms of water diffusion in polymerized silicate melts (United States)

    Behrens, Harald; Nowak, M.


    Diffusion of water was experimentally investigated for melts of albitic (Ab) and quartz-orthoclasic (Qz29Or71, in wt %) compositions with water contents in the range of 0 to 8.5 wt % at temperatures of 1100 to 1200 °C and at pressures of 1.0 and 5.0 kbar. Apparent chemical diffusion coefficients of water ( D water) were determined from concentration-distance profiles measured by FTIR microspectroscopy. Under the same P- T condition and water content the diffusivity of water in albitic, quartz-orthoclasic and haplogranitic (Qz28Ab38 Or34, Nowak and Behrens, this issue) melts is identical within experimental error. Comparison to data published in literature indicates that anhydrous composition only has little influence on the mobility of water in polymerized melts but that the degree of polymerization has a large effect. For instance, Dwater is almost identical for haplogranitic and rhyolitic melts with 0.5-3.5 wt % water at 850 °C but it is two orders of magnitude higher in basaltic than in haplogranitic melts with 0.2-0.5 wt % water at 1300 °C. Based on the new water diffusivity data, recently published in situ near-infrared spectroscopic data (Nowak 1995; Nowak and Behrens 1995), and viscosity data (Schulze et al. 1996) for hydrous haplogranitic melts current models for water diffusion in silicate melts are critically reviewed. The NIR spectroscopy has indicated isolated OH groups, pairs of OH groups and H2O molecules as hydrous species in polymerized silicate melts. A significant contribution of isolated OH groups to the transport of water is excluded for water contents above 10 ppm by comparison of viscosity and water diffusion data and by inspection of concentration profiles from trace water diffusion. Spectroscopic measurements have indicated that the interconversion of H2O molecules and OH pairs is relatively fast in silicate glasses and melts even at low temperature and it is inferred that this reaction is an active step for migration of water. However

  15. Radiometric, SEM and XRD investigation of black sands at Chituc placer deposit North of the City of Navodari, Romania (United States)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Gomoiu, Claudia; Margineanu, Romul M.; Costea, Constantin; Dumitras, Delia; Ion, Adriana


    The black sand of the Chituc marine sandbank situated northern of the city of Navodari (Romania), displayed anomalous high ambient dose rates. Field measurements performed during 2013 Summer campaign recorded in some places dose rate up to 200 nSv/h, significantly overpassing the average value of 44 ± 20 nSv/h recorded along the entire Southern sector of Romanian Black Sea shore. Here, the sand presented a black-brownish hue, different by the usual white yellowish colour. Gamma ray spectrometry performed on both Slanic-Prahove Underground Low Background Laboratory and Gological Institute Radiometric Facilities showed with clarity the dominance of 228-Ac radioisotope in the 50 microns fraction together with the 226-Ra and traces of 40-K. No significant amount of anthropogenic 137-Cs were identified. The other granulometric fractions, i.e. 315, 200 as well 100 microns presented a significant lower level of radioactivity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) data attested the presence of monazite, zircon, magnetite, ilmenite, andradite, quartz, aragonite and albite in different proportions, the monazite and zircon being preponderant in the 50 microns, the most radioactive fraction. Based on both radiometric and XRD determinations we come to the conclusion that the evidenced radioactivity could be attributed to both uranium and thorium series in the zircon and monazite fractions and to a lesser extent in the garnet fraction. By its position with respect to Danube Delta, the Chituc marine sandbank could be regarded as a placer where heavy minerals discharged in the Black Sea by the Danube River and transported southward by the Great Black Sea Rim are deposited by gravity separation during sedimentary processes. The implications of the Chituc levee radioactive anomaly for any further human activity are analysed and discussed. Acknowledgement: Work done within the BS ERA NET 041 project in the frame of BS-ERA.NET Pilot Joint CAll 2010-2011.

  16. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Heath, Jason E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert


    In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration, interfacial processes at the supercritical fluid-mineral interface will strongly affect core- and reservoir-scale hydrologic properties. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that water films will form on mineral surfaces in supercritical CO2, but will be thinner than those that form in vadose zone environments at any given matric potential. The theoretical model presented here allows assessment of water saturation as a function of matric potential, a critical step for evaluating relative permeabilities the CO2 sequestration environment. The experimental water adsorption studies, using Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy methods, confirm the major conclusions of the adsorption/condensation model. Additional data provided by the FTIR study is that CO2 intercalation into clays, if it occurs, does not involve carbonate or bicarbonate formation, or significant restriction of CO2 mobility. We have shown that the water film that forms in supercritical CO2 is reactive with common rock-forming minerals, including albite, orthoclase, labradorite, and muscovite. The experimental data indicate that reactivity is a function of water film thickness; at an activity of water of 0.9, the greatest extent of reaction in scCO2 occurred in areas (step edges, surface pits) where capillary condensation thickened the water films. This suggests that dissolution/precipitation reactions may occur preferentially in small pores and pore throats, where it may have a disproportionately large effect on rock hydrologic properties. Finally, a theoretical model is presented here that describes the formation and movement of CO2 ganglia in porous media, allowing assessment of the effect of pore size and structural heterogeneity on capillary trapping efficiency. The model results also suggest possible engineering approaches for optimizing trapping capacity and for

  17. Geochemistry and geochronology of the blueschist in the Heilongjiang Complex and its implications in the late Paleozoic tectonics of eastern NE China (United States)

    Ge, Mao-hui; Zhang, Jin-jiang; Liu, Kai; Ling, Yi-yun; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jia-min


    The Paleozoic to early Mesozoic tectonic framework and evolution of Northeast China, especially the Jiamusi block and its related structural belts, are highly debated. In this paper, geochemical, geochronological and isotopic analyses were carried out on the blueschist in the Heilongjiang Complex to address these issues. The Heilongjiang Complex defines the suture belt between the Jiamusi block and the Songliao block in NE China, and the blueschist is a major composition for this complex, coexisting with mafic-ultramafic rocks, greenschist, quartzite and mica schist. The blueschist has a mineral association of sodic amphibole, epidote, chlorite, phengite, albite and quartz with accessory phases of apatite, titanite, zircon and ilmenite. Together with the lithological association, the major and trace element compositions present that the protoliths of the blueschist can be divided into the alkaline and tholeiitic basalts and have OIB affinities, formed in an ocean island setting, indicated by the (La/Yb) N values of 3.57 - 11.54, and the (La/Sm) N values of 0.69 - 3.64. The high and positive εNd (t) values of + 3.7 to + 9.0, and relative enrichment in Nb (vs. Th) and Ta (vs. U) show that both the alkaline and tholeiitic basalts may be derived from the asthenospheric mantle with insignificant crustal contamination. Magmatic zircons from the blueschist in Yilan area yield a 206Pb/238U age of 281 ± 3 Ma, interpreted as its protolithic age. The youngest ages of ~ 200 Ma of the detrital zircons in the associated mica schist from Mudanjiang area place constraints on the timing of metamorphism for the blueschist. These indicate that a big ocean existed between the Jiamusi and Songliao blocks at least since the early Permian, and the blueschist formed since the late Triassic to late Jurassic by the subduction of this ocean. Such an ocean during the Permian - Jurassic is difficult to be interpreted by the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean.

  18. Intensive low-temperature tectono-hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous rare-metal granite: a case study from the Dlhá dolina valley (Gemericum, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breiter Karel


    Full Text Available A unique case of low-temperature metamorphic (hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous, highly evolved rare-metal S-type granite is described. The hidden Dlhá dolina granite pluton of Permian age (Western Carpathians, eastern Slovakia is composed of barren biotite granite, mineralized Li-mica granite and albitite. Based on whole-rock chemical data and evaluation of compositional variations of rock-forming and accessory minerals (Rb-P-enriched K-feldspar and albite; biotite, zinnwaldite and di-octahedral micas; Hf-(Sc-rich zircon, fluorapatite, topaz, schorlitic tourmaline, the following evolutionary scenario is proposed: (1 Intrusion of evolved peraluminous melt enriched in Li, B, P, F, Sn, Nb, Ta, and W took place followed by intrusion of a large body of biotite granites into Paleozoic metapelites and metarhyolite tuffs; (2 The highly evolved melt differentiated in situ forming tourmaline-bearing Li-biotite granite at the bottom, topaz-zinnwaldite granite in the middle, and quartz albitite to albitite at the top of the cupola. The main part of the Sn, Nb, and Ta crystallized from the melt as disseminated cassiterite and Nb-Ta oxide minerals within the albitite, while disseminated wolframite appears mainly within the topaz-zinnwaldite granite. The fluid separated from the last portion of crystallized magma caused small scale greisenization of the albitite; (3 Alpine (Cretaceous thrusting strongly tectonized and mylonitized the upper part of the pluton. Hydrothermal low-temperature fluids enriched in Ca, Mg, and CO2 unfiltered mechanically damaged granite. This fluid-driven overprint caused formation of carbonate veinlets, alteration and release of phosphorus from crystal lattice of feldspars and Li from micas, precipitating secondary Sr-enriched apatite and Mg-rich micas. Consequently, all bulk-rock and mineral markers were reset and now represent the P-T conditions of the Alpine overprint.

  19. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R. (eds.)


    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.

  20. Subsolidus alkali metasomatism in the metamorphosed Ordovician acid volcanics and volcaniclastics of the Gelnica Group (Gemeric Superunit, Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Šimurková


    Full Text Available The Early Paleozoic Gelnica Group (Gemeric Superunit, Western Carpathians is composed of low-grade metamorphosed flysch-like sedimentary complexes alternated with volcanogenic complexes built up mostly by acid volcaniclastic rocks. Volcaniclastic rocks and small rhyolite bodies Ordovician in age underwent subsolidus alkali metasomatism locally overprinted by multiple stages of younger metamorphic and hydrothermal alterations. The observed variability in chemical compositions indicates that the most of acid volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks experienced potassic or sodium metasomatic alteration, the unaltered or Mg-metasomatised rocks occur less frequently. The dominating K-metasomatism is related mainly to the K-feldspar, partly also biotite and muscovite/sericite formation at the expense of matrix or original feldspar phenocrysts. The Na-metasomatism is connected with albite formation. The highest concentrations of alkalies (up to 13.52 wt. % K2O and 7.08 wt. % Na2O respectively have been found in rocks originally represented by glassy dacites. The elements like Al, Ti and Zr remain immobile in alkaline metasomatic processes in contrast to Rb or metals. Based on the results from areas with analogical geological structure and evolution, especially the Bergslagen area in Sweden, we suppose that alkali metasomatism in the Gelnica Group is a product of hydrothermal system caused by the infiltration and circulation of sea water. The areas with K-, Na- or Mg-metasomatism represent different parts of the original hydrothermal system, where the K-metasomatism was probably its lower temperature section. This hydrothermal system probably mobilised some metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn for the formation of stratiform sulfide and oxide mineralizations or served as the metal pre-concentrator for younger siderite-sulfide vein deposits.

  1. Physicochemical impacts of dust particles on alpine glacier meltwater at the Laohugou Glacier basin in western Qilian Mountains, China. (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Chen, Jizu; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Cui, Xiaoqing; Du, Zhiheng; Kang, Shichang


    This work discusses the temporal variation of various physicochemical species in the meltwater runoff of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (4260 ma.s.l.) in central Asia, and their correlation with dust particles, based on a two-year field observation in summer 2012 and 2013, mainly focusing on dust concentration and size distribution, meltwater chemistry, particles SEM-EDX analysis in the meltwater, and MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields around the Qilian Mountains in central Asia. We find that, the volume-size distribution of dust particles in the meltwater is mainly composed of three parts, which includes fine aerosol particles (with diameter of 0~3.0 μm, mainly PM 2.5), atmospheric dust (with diameter of 3.0~20 μm), and local dust particles (20~100 μm), respectively. Comparison of dust particles in the snowpack and meltwater runoff indicates that, large part of dust particles in the meltwater may have originated from atmospheric dust deposition to the snow and ice on the glacier, and transported into the meltwater runoff. Moreover, temporal variation of dust and major ions (especially crustal species) is very similar with each other, showing great influence of dust particles to the chemical constituents of the glacier meltwater. SPM and TDS implied significant influences of dust to the physical characteristics of the glacier meltwater. Results showed that, accelerated glacier melting may affect physicochemical characteristics of the meltwater at an alpine basin under global warming. MODIS atmospheric optical depth (AOD) fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, showed great influence of regional dust transportation over western Qilian Mountains in springtime. SEM-EDX analysis shows that dust particles in the glacier meltwater contain Si-, Al-, Ca-, K-, and Fe-rich materials, such as quartz, albite, aluminate, and fly ash, similar to that deposited in snowpack. These results showed great and even currently underestimated influences of atmospheric dust

  2. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima's zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff

  3. Luminescence characterization of a sodium rich feldspar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correcher, V.; Sanchez M, L. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J. [MNCN-CSIC, c/ J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Rivera, T. [CICATA-IPN, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This paper reports on the radioluminescence (RL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of a sodium rich feldspar ((Na,K)[AlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}]) with a mean molecular composition of orthoclase (Or) and albite (Ab) of Or{sub 1}Ab{sub 99}. Despite the complexity of the luminescence signals of the sample, it is possible to determine six different emission bands at about 300, 380, 420, 460, 550 and 680 nm. The 300 nm emission can be associated to structural defects related to the recombination process in which the Na{sup +} ion diffusion-limited is involved. The UV-blue emission band at (i) 380 nm is characteristic of mineral phases containing SiO{sub 4} tetrahedral and could be related to intrinsic defects in the lattice, (ii) the 420 nm band could be associated to the presence of Cu (II) ions placed next to the hole traps or the recombination on a centre formed from a hole-oxygen atom adjacent to two Al atoms (Al-O-Al) and (iii) the 460 nm waveband could be due to the presence of Ti{sup 4+}. The green and red emissions are respectively associated to the presence of Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The ratio between the relative intensities, peaked at 290 (the more intense waveband) and 550 nm is about 10:1 in both TL and RL; this fact indicates that the efficiency of recombination centres does no changes regardless on the type of the process. (Author)

  4. Effect of petrophysical properties and deformation on vertical zoning of metasomatic rocks in U-bearing volcanic structures: A case of the Strel'tsovka caldera, Transbaikal region (United States)

    Petrov, V. A.; Andreeva, O. V.; Poluektov, V. V.


    The development of vertical zoning of wall-rock metasomatic alteration is considered with the Mesozoic Strel'tsovka caldera as an example. This caldera hosts Russia's largest uranium ore field. Metasomatic rocks with the participation of various phyllosilicates, carbonates, albite, and zeolites are widespread in the ore field. In the eastern block of the caldera, where the main uranium reserves are accommodated, hydromica metasomatic alteration gives way to beresitization with depth. Argillic alteration, which is typical of the western block, is replaced with hydromica and beresite alteration only at a significant depth. Postore argillic alteration is superposed on beresitized rocks in the lower part of the section. Two styles of vertical metasomatic zoning are caused by different modes of deformation in the western and eastern parts of the caldera. Variations of the most important petrophysical properties of host rocks—density, apparent porosity, velocities of P- and S-waves, dynamic Young's modulus, and Poisson coefficient—have been determined by sonic testing of samples taken from different depths. It is suggested that downward migration of the brittle-ductile transition zone could have been a factor controlling facies diversity of metasomatic rocks. Such a migration was caused by a new phase of tectonothermal impact accompanied by an increase in the strain rate or by emplacement of a new portion of heated fluid. Transient subsidence of the brittle-ductile boundary increases the depth of the hydrodynamically open zone related to the Earth's surface and accelerates percolation of cold meteoric water to a greater depth. As a result, the temperature of the hydrothermal solution falls down, increasing the vertical extent of argillic alteration. High-grade uranium mineralization is also localized more deeply than elsewhere.

  5. Integrating petrography, mineralogy and hydrochemistry to constrain the influence and distribution of groundwater contributions to baseflow in poorly productive aquifers: insights from Gortinlieve catchment, Co. Donegal, NW Ireland. (United States)

    Caulfield, John; Chelliah, Merlyn; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Flynn, Raymond


    Identifying groundwater contributions to baseflow forms an essential part of surface water body characterisation. The Gortinlieve catchment (5 km(2)) comprises a headwater stream network of the Carrigans River, itself a tributary of the River Foyle, NW Ireland. The bedrock comprises poorly productive metasediments that are characterised by fracture porosity. We present the findings of a multi-disciplinary study that integrates new hydrochemical and mineralogical investigations with existing hydraulic, geophysical and structural data to identify the scales of groundwater flow and the nature of groundwater/bedrock interaction (chemical denudation). At the catchment scale, the development of deep weathering profiles is controlled by NE-SW regional scale fracture zones associated with mountain building during the Grampian orogeny. In-situ chemical denudation of mineral phases is controlled by micro- to meso-scale fractures related to Alpine compression during Palaeocene to Oligocene times. The alteration of primary muscovite, chlorite (clinochlore) and albite along the surfaces of these small-scale fractures has resulted in the precipitation of illite, montmorillonite and illite-montmorillonite clay admixtures. The interconnected but discontinuous nature of these small-scale structures highlights the role of larger scale faults and fissures in the supply and transportation of weathering solutions to/from the sites of mineral weathering. The dissolution of primarily mineral phases releases the major ions Mg, Ca and HCO3 that are shown to subsequently form the chemical makeup of groundwaters. Borehole groundwater and stream baseflow hydrochemical data are used to constrain the depths of groundwater flow pathways influencing the chemistry of surface waters throughout the stream profile. The results show that it is predominantly the lower part of the catchment, which receives inputs from catchment/regional scale groundwater flow, that is found to contribute to the

  6. Hydrochemistry and geothermometrical modeling of low-temperature Panticosa geothermal system (Spain) (United States)

    Asta, Maria P.; Gimeno, Maria J.; Auqué, Luis F.; Gómez, Javier; Acero, Patricia; Lapuente, Pilar


    The chemical characteristics of the low-temperature geothermal system of Panticosa (Spain) were investigated in order to determine the water temperature at the reservoir and to identify the main geochemical processes that affect the water composition during the ascent of the thermal waters. In general, the studied waters are similar to other geothermal systems in the Pyrenees, belonging to the group of granite-related alkaline thermal waters (high pH, low total dissolved solids, very low magnesium concentration, and sodium as the dominant cation). According to the alkaline pH of these waters, they have a very low CO2 partial pressure, bicarbonate is the dominant anion and silica is partially ionized as H3SiO4-. The unusually active acid-base pairs (HCO3-/CO32 - and, mainly, H4SiO4/H3SiO4-) act as homogeneous pH buffers and contribute to the total alkalinity in these alkaline waters. On the basis of the study of the conservative elements, a mixing process between a hot and a cold end-member has been identified. Additionally, in order to determinate the water temperature at the reservoir, several geothermometric techniques have been applied, including both geothermometrical modeling and classical geothermometrical calculations. The geothermometrical modeling seems to indicate that thermal waters re-equilibrate with respect to calcite and kaolinite during their ascent to the surface. Modeling results suggest that these thermal waters would be in equilibrium with respect to albite, K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, kaolinite and zoisite at a similar temperature of 90 ± 20 °C in the reservoir, which is in good agreement with the results obtained by applying the classical geothermometers.

  7. Hydrothermal alteration in an exhumed crustal fault zone: geochemical mobility in the Caleta Coloso Fault, Atacama Fault System, Northern Chile (United States)

    Arancibia, G.; Fujita, K.; Hoshino, K.; Mitchell, T. M.; Cembrano, J. M.; Gomila, R.; Morata, D.; Faulkner, D. R.; Rempe, M.


    Fault zones must be considered as complex and heterogeneous systems, with areas of high permeability that alternate with very low permeability bands. Strike-slip fault zones play an important role in fluid migration in the crust, and exhumed faults can provide insights into the interrelationships of deformation mechanisms, fluid-rock interactions and bulk chemical redistributions. We determined the mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry of the damage zone and fault core of the Caleta Coloso Fault, a complex major crustal scale strike-slip fault in Northern Chile, in order to constrain the physical and chemical conditions of fluids that lead to strong hydrothermal alteration. Caleta Coloso Fault consists of variably altered protocataclasites, cataclasites and discrete bands of ultracataclasite derived from a protolith of Jurassic tonalite. Hydrothermal alteration associated with fault-related fluid flow is characterized by a very low-grade association composed by chlorite, epidote, albite, quartz and calcite. Chlorite thermometry indicates T-values in the range of 284 to 352 °C (average temperature of 323 °C) and no differences in mineral composition or T-values were observed among different cataclastic rock types. Mass balance and volume change calculations document that the major chemical mobility was observed in protocataclasite, whereas cataclasite and ultracataclasite show smaller changes. This suggests that fluid flow and chemical alteration post-dated the faulting, when the protocataclasite was relatively permeable and the cataclasite and ultracataclasite acted as a barrier for fluid flow having a very low permeability due to extreme grain size reduction during cataclasis.

  8. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements of the hydrothermal alterations within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey (United States)

    Doner, Zeynep; Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Kumral, Mustafa


    This work reports the geochemical characteristics and behavior of the rare earth elements (REE) of the hydrothermal alteration of the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit located in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Biga peninsula (Locally Balikesir province), NW Turkey. The Cu-Mo-Au mineralization at this deposit hosted in the hornfels rocks and related to the silicic to intermediate intrusion of Eybek pluton. It locally formed with brecciated zones and quartz vein stockworks, as well as the brittle fracture zones associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. Three main alteration zones with gradual boundaries formed in the mine area in the hornfels rock that represents the host rock, along that contact the Eybek pluton; potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration zones. The potassic alteration zone that formed at the center having high amount of Cu-sulfide minerals contains biotite, muscovite, and sericite with less amount of K-feldspar and associated with tourmalinization alteration. The propylitic alteration surrounds the potassic alteration having high amount of Mo and Au and contains chlorite, albite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. The phyllic alteration zone also surrounds the potassic alteration containing quartz, sericite and pyrite minerals. Based on the REE characteristics and content and when we correlate the Alteration index (AI) with the light REEs and heavy REEs of each alteration zone, it concluded that the light REEs decrease and heavy REEs increase during the alteration processes. The relationships between K2O index with Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr* reveals a positive correlation in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones and a negative correlation in the propylitic alteration zone. This refers to the hydrothermal solution which is responsible for the studied porphyry deposits and associated potassic and phyllic alterations has a positive Eu and Sr anomaly as well as these elements were added to the altered rock from the hydrothermal solution. Keywords: Rare

  9. 深处岩浆分异与某地花岗伟晶岩的形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Two stages of intrusion have been recognized for Paleozoic pegmatites in this district. The pegmatites occur as several thousands of dikes, with 84 per cent of them distributed within three “thickly concentrated areas”. Similar horizontal zoning, i.e.,from the parental granite outwards the pegmatites vary from type K through type Na to type Li, is observed within these “thickly concentrated areas”, which consist of pegmatites of different stages. Temporally, the pegmatites also evolve in the same sequence of types K-Na-Li, with a series of mineralized dikes produced during this process. The occurrence of this phenomenan is not accidental but a strong indication of deepseated magmatic differentiation. In nature, not all granitic magmatism can bring about pegatite emplacement,nor all the pegmatite dikes are of the same petrological character. These differences indicate that deep-seated magmatic differentiation must be controlled by some factors.It's development is believed to be dependent largely on the amounts of both parental and residual magmas and on the extent to which the pressure at their source region has been lowered by the intrusion of granite. The constant movement of the crust results in the continuous upward migration of differentiated magma, so as to promote the differentiation to a greater extent, thereby providing new source materials for subsequent intrusive activity. Such a continuous movement of opposites leads to the formation of a complete series of pegmatites, i.e., from biotite-microcline pegmatite to lepidolite-albite pegmatite, giving rise to the “thickly concentrated areas” as well as a series of mineralized veins.

  10. Nanomineralogy as a new dimension in understanding elusive geochemical processes in soils: The case of low-solubility-index elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Michael; Hochella, Michael F.


    Nanomineralogy is a new dimension in understanding chemical processes in soils. These processes are revealed at the nanoscale within the structures and compositions of phases that heretofore were not even known to exist in the soils in which they are found. The discovery and understanding of soil chemistry in this way is best accessible via a combination of focused ion beam technology (for sample preparation) and high resolution, analytical transmission electron microscopy (for phase identification). We have used this scientific framework and these techniques to decipher past and present chemical processes in a soil in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada that has been impacted by both smelter contamination (acidification) and subsequent remediation within the past century. In this study, we use these methods to investigate mobilization and sequestration of the relatively immobile elements Al, Ti and Zr. In a micrometer-thick alteration layer on an albite grain, a first generation of clay minerals represents weathering of the underlying mineral prior to the acidification of the soils. Complex assemblages of Ti- and Zr-bearing nanophases occur on the surfaces of Fe-(hydr)oxide crystals and are the result of the dissolution of silicates and oxides and the mobilization of Ti- and Zr-bearing colloids under acidic conditions. These phases include anatase (TiO2), kleberite (Fe3+Ti6O11(OH)5) Ti4O7, baddelyite (ZrO2), a structural analogue to kelyshite (NaZr[Si2O6(OH)]) and authigenic zircon (ZrSiO4). Subsequent remediation of the acidic soils has resulted in the sequestration of Al and in the neoformation of the clay minerals kaolinite, smectite and illite. These complex mineral assemblages form a porous layer that controls the interaction of the underlying mineral with the environment.

  11. Water management of the uranium production facility in Brazil (Caetite, BA): potential impacts over groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium unit of Caetite - in charge of all the 'yellow cake' produced in Brazil - is located in the semi-arid Northeast region at Bahia State. The geological uranium content of the ore is 3000 ppm, which is mainly associated with albite (NaAlSi8O8), and its extraction is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process. This process has a low water demand, which is supplied by a network of wells, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. The managing of liquid mining wastes formed by drainage waters from mine pit and solid waste piles is not enough to avoid unwarranted releases in the environment, which turn necessary the waste treatment through passing them into the industrial plant in order to reduce radionuclide concentrations. The groundwater is Na-HCO3 type water and relative high concentration of Cl are observed in some groundwater. It seems that levels of uranium in groundwaters are mainly a consequence of the complexation of the metal by carbonates (or other anions) and not by any sort of the contamination of these waters by the drainage accumulated in the open pit. The speciation modelling allows identifying some areas where the replenishment of the aquifer is more active, but in general the recharge is a fast process run by direct infiltration. The stable isotope data (δ2H and δ18O) showed that evaporation plays a role during the infiltration, causing the groundwater salinization. These data discard the possibility that groundwater salinization was caused by discharge of deeper saline groundwater through faults associated to a regional groundwater flow system. The presence of an active shallow groundwater flow system offers better possibility for sustainable use of the groundwater resources in this semi-arid region of Brazil. (author)

  12. Geochemistry of lamprophyres associated with uranium mineralization, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two brecciated shear zones (NNW-SSE) are found crosscutting cataclastic rocks. The cataclastic rocks (3.0 km2) occupy the core of the granitic pluton and enclose a roof pendant of mafic-ultramafic rocks. The NNW-SSE-extending lamprophyre dykes vary in thickness from 0.5 m to 1 m and up to 800 m long, cutting the cataclastic rocks and are composed mainly of plagioclases, amphiboles, relics of pyroxenes and K-feldspar phenocrysts embedded in fine-grained groundmass. They are characterized as being peraluminous, calc-alkaline in composition (chemical trap) and enriched in calcite, sulfide and P2O5.The lamprophyres were affected by hydrothermal alteration (chlorite-carbonate alteration) while the cataclastic rocks were affected by diagenetic alteration (K-feldspar-albite alteration).Uranium mineralization is the product of hydrothermal events and has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), involving primary uranium minerals (U3O8) and secondary uranium minerals (uranophane and beta-uranophane, kasolite, torbernite, autonite and meta-autonite) in addition to U-bearing minerals (astrocyanite, betafite and fergusonite).The presence of different mineral parageneses associated with clay minerals indicates that the lamprophyres were subjected to acidic and alkaline mineralizing solutions. Moreover, the U-Zr/U, U-Ce/U values show negative correlations, confirming U-enrichment in both cataclastic rocks and shear zones while the Th-eU/eTh, Th-Zr/Th and Th-Ce/Th values show negative correlations, indicating that the U-bearing solutions are rich in Th in the cataclastic rocks only.

  13. Microtectonic-assisted P-T determination on low-grade Alpine metamorphic rocks from the "Tisia Mega-Unit" of the Slavonian Mountains in Croatia (United States)

    Balen, Dražen; Lihter, Iva; Massonne, Hans-Joachim


    The internal structure of the Tisia (Tisza) Mega-Unit in the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system encompasses large Alpine nappe systems brought to its present-day position by complex regional-scale movements. The Slavonian Mountains are part of the Bihor nappe system which is below the Codru and above the Mecsek nappe systems. The low-grade metamorphic schist unit of the Slavonian Mountains includes numerous rocks which were previously related to Precambrian and/or Lower Paleozoic orogeneses. However, recent studies (e.g. Balen, 2014, European Geosciences Union General Assembly, EGU 2014-6122) show that the metapelites of this unit should be attributed to the Alpine orogeny and the poorly known P-T conditions, which they experienced, should be refined. Although metapelites can be sensitive to changes of metamorphic conditions and, therefore, be suitable for the P-T estimation of metamorphic event(s), the extraction of mineral assemblages, being in equilibrium, and associated microtectonic data for particular low-grade metamorphic rocks is not straightforward. On the contrary, due to lack of suitable minerals and complex mictotectonic features, one can be faced with a severe problem concerning (dis)equilibrium. To avoid this, the observation scale in the research was set to the sub-mm level taking into account microtectonic positions of minerals. The investigated samples from the Slavonian Mountains are fine-grained schists consisting of chlorite (15-30 vol. %), white mica (15-25 vol. %), quartz (10-25 vol. %), feldspars (albite 10-15 vol. %; some K-feldspar), biotite (Financial support by the Croatian Science Foundation (IP-2014-09-9541) and T. Theye's help during microprobe work is greatly acknowledged.

  14. Delineating Spatial Patterns in the Yellowstone Hydrothermal System using Geothermometry (United States)

    King, J.; Hurwitz, S.; Lowenstern, J. B.


    Yellowstone National Park is unmatched with regard to its quantity of active hydrothermal features. Origins of thermal waters in its geyser basins have been traced to mixing of a deep parent water with meteoric waters in shallow local reservoirs (Fournier, 1989). A mineral-solution equilibrium model was developed to calculate water-rock chemical re-equilibration temperatures in these shallow reservoirs. We use the GeoT program, which uses water composition data as input to calculate saturation indices of selected minerals; the "best-clustering" minerals are then statistically determined to infer reservoir temperatures (Spycher et al., 2013). We develop the method using water composition data from Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB), for which both chemical and isotopic geothermometers predict a reservoir water temperature of 205°C ± 10°C (Lowenstern et al., 2012), and minerals found in drill cores in Yellowstone's geyser basins. We test the model for sensitivity to major element composition, pH, Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC) and selected minerals to optimize model parameters. Calculated temperatures are most accurate at pH values below 9.0, and closely match the equilibrium saturation indices of quartz, stilbite, microcline, and albite. The model is optimized with a TIC concentration that is consistent with the mass of diffuse CO2 flux in HLGB (Lowenstern et al., 2012). We then use water compositions from other thermal basins in Yellowstone in search of spatial variations in reservoir temperatures. We then compare the calculated temperatures with various SiO2 and cation geothermometers.

  15. Influence of moisture content on shearing strength of unsaturated undisturbed quaternary system middle pleistocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟祖良; 刘元雪; 刘新荣; 李小勇; 王睢


    The unsaturated undisturbed quaternary system middle pleistocene loess, a typical unsaturated soil, often occurs in the implementation of western development strategy. To obtain the shearing strength characteristics of this unsaturated undisturbed loess, based on the analysis of mineral composition, the triaxial shear test of undisturbed quaternary system middle pleistocene loess under different moisture contents is conducted with the specialized triaxial instrument for unsaturated soil. The test results show that the mainly mineral composition of undisturbed quaternary system middle pleistocene loess is quartz and albite. Under the same confining pressure, the matric suction increases with the decrease of moisture content. The smaller the moisture content, the larger the matric suction; the higher the moisture content, the lower the matric suction. Under the same moisture content, the matric suction increases with the confining pressure and reaches a maximum when the confining pressure is 100 kPa, and then decreases with the increase of confining pressure. This phenomenon is closely related to the grain contact tightness of soil mass under high confining pressure. According to the triaxial test of loess, the sample of loess experiences 4 stages from loading to failure: 1) compaction stage; 2) compression stage; 3) microcrack developing stage; 4) shear failure stage. The test sample is of brittle failure (weak softening) under low moisture content and confining pressure. With the decrease of matric suction and the increase of consolidated confining pressure, the stress−strain curve changes from softening type to ideal plastic type. In the shearing strength parameters of unsaturated undisturbed loess, the influence of moisture content on internal friction angle is small, but that on cohesive force is obvious. Therefore, the shearing strength of unsaturated undisturbed loess is higher than that of saturated undisturbed loess and varies with the moisture content.

  16. Petrography and geochemical study of Nezam-Abad area, Southwest of Shazand, Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Jafari


    Full Text Available Nezam-Abad area is located in southwest of Shazand (Arak which is a part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Major intrusive rocks of Nezam-Abad are quartz diorite and minor amount of granodiorite. Leucogranitic, pegmatite dykes and quartz-tourmaline veins were intruded the quartz diorite. Quartz diorites are mainly composed of plagioclase, hornblende, biotite, quartz and pyroxene as major minerals. Major minerals of leucogranite are microcline, orthoclase, albite, quartz, biotite and muscovite. Accessory minerals consist of apatite, zircon, sphene, epidote, allanite, tourmaline and opaque. The presence of hydrous minerals like hornblende and biotite in these rocks indicate that the corresponding magma initially contained >3 wt% H2O (wet magma. The occurrences of garnet and andalusite minerals suggest assimilation process. Primary textures in these rocks are granular, granophyre, and poikilitic. Secondary textures are perthite, myrmekite, sericitization, chloritization and kaolinitization. Later hydrothermal activities and tectonic strains are factors for presence of perthite texture in leucogranite. K amount for sericitization of feldspars come from the K-feldspars and chloritization of biotite. Transformation of biotite to muscovite indicates the act of K rich fluid in later stages. On the basis of chemical analysis on the intrusive rocks, it is shown that the magma was calc-alkaline, metaluminous-peraluminous and medium-K to high-K. Study of major elements in Harker diagrams indicates Al2O3, FeO, Fe2O3 and CaO decrease with increasing of SiO2 and K2O and Na2O increase indicating that fractional crystallization may have played an important role in the formation of granitoid rocks from Nezam-Abad.

  17. Environmental effect and genetic influence: a regional cancer predisposition survey in the Zonguldak region of Northwest Turkey (United States)

    Kadir, Selahattin; Önen-Hall, A. Piril; Aydin, S. Nihal; Yakicier, Cengiz; Akarsu, Nurten; Tuncer, Murat


    The Cretaceous-Eocene volcano-sedimentary units of the Zonguldak region of the western Black Sea consist of subalkaline andesite and tuff, and sandstone dominated by smectite, kaolinite, accessory chlorite, illite, mordenite, and analcime associated with feldspar, quartz, opal-CT, amphibole, and calcite. Kaolinization, chloritization, sericitization, albitization, Fe-Ti-oxidation, and the presence of zeolite, epidote, and illite in andesitic rocks and tuffaceous materials developed as a result of the degradation of a glass shards matrix, enclosed feldspar, and clinopyroxene-type phenocrysts, due to alteration processes. The association of feldspar and glass with smectite and kaolinite, and the suborientation of feldspar-edged, subparallel kaolinite plates to fracture axes may exhibit an authigenic smectite or kaolinite. Increased alteration degree upward in which Al, Fe, and Ti are gained, and Si, Na, K, and Ca are depleted, is due to the alteration following possible diagenesis and hydrothermal activities. Micromorphologically, fibrous mordenite in the altered units and the presence of needle-type chrysotile in the residential buildings in which cancer cases lived were detected. In addition, the segregation pattern of cancer susceptibility in the region strongly suggested an environmental effect and a genetic influence on the increased cancer incidence in the region. The most likely diagnosis was Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which is one of the hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, no mutations were observed in the p53 gene, which is the major cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The micromorphology observed in the altered units in which cancer cases were detected may have a role in the expression of an unidentified gene, but does not explain alone the occurrence of cancer as a primary cause in the region.

  18. Physicochemical Conditions of the Formation of Beryl and Aquamarin in Mufushan Granopegmatite Deposit,Hunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆麟; 牛贺才; 等


    The formation of the Mufushan granopegmatite was closely related to the Late Yenshanian multiphase and multistage magmatic activities,More than one generation of beryl and aquamarine occur in different types of pegmatite in the granites.The presence of melt and melt-fluid inclusions strongly indicates a melt-solution character of the pegmatitic magma.Forming temperatures of the different generations of beryl in a Na+-K+,Ca2+-CO32--Cl--SO42- solution ranges from 990℃to 200℃.Aquamarine was formed at 720-180℃.The contents of alkali metals(Na++K+)in th ore-formming solution of aquamarine are lower than those in the beryl,but the contents of alkali earths(Ca) and salinity are higher,The granite was generated by remelting of the basement formation(meta-sedimentary rocks of the Lengjiaxi Group)which also served as the source of ore-forming material.Beryllium in the pegmatite was transported mainly in the form of Na[Be(CO3)2],with part of it being complexed with Cl- and SO42-.During the generation and evolution of the pegmatite,equilibrium might have been reached in the solid-melt-fluid or solid-fluid system.The intergranular solutions may have reacted with the early crystallized minerals,resulting in potash-feldsparization,albitization and muscovitization during which the ore-forming elements were mobilized and transported in favour of ore deposition.

  19. Status of geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution at the Tono in-situ tests site, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Arthur, R.C. [Monitor Scientific, L.L.C., Denver, Colorado (United States)


    Hydrochemical investigation of Tertiary sedimentary rocks at JNC's Tono in-situ tests site indicate the groundwaters are: meteoric in origin, chemically reducing at depths greater than a few tens of meters in the sedimentary rock, relatively old [carbon-14 ages of groundwaters collected from the lower part of the sedimentary sequence range from 13,000 to 15,000 years BP (before present)]. Ca-Na-HCO{sub 3} type solutions near the surface, changing to Na-HCO{sub 3} type groundwaters with increasing depth. The chemical evolution of the groundwaters is modeled assuming local equilibrium for selected mineral-fluid reactions, taking into account the rainwater origin of these solutions. Results suggest it is possible to interpret approximately the 'real' groundwater chemistry (i.e., pH, Eh, total dissolved concentrations of Si, Na, Ca, K, Al, carbonate and sulfate) if the following assumptions are adopted: CO{sub 2} concentration in the gas phase contacting pore solutions in the overlying soil zone=10{sup -1} bar, minerals in the rock zone that control the solubility of respective elements in the groundwater include; chalcedony (Si), albite (Na), kaolinite (Al), calcite (Ca and carbonate), muscovite (K) and pyrite (Eh and sulfate). It is noted, however, that the available field data may not be sufficient to adequately constrain parameters in the groundwater evolution model. In particular, more detailed information characterizing certain site properties (e.g., the actual mineralogy of 'plagioclase', 'clay' and 'zeolite') are needed to improve the model. Alternative conceptual models of key reactions may also be necessary. For this reason, a model that accounts for ion-exchange reactions among clay minerals, and which is based on the results of laboratory experiments, has also been evaluated in the present study. Further improvements of model considering ion-exchange reactions are needed in future, however. (author)

  20. Evidence of Metasomatism in the Lowest Petrographic Types Inferred from A Na(-), K, Rich Rim Around A LEW 86018 (L3.1) Chondrule (United States)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Marhas, Kuljeet Kaur; Simon, Justin I.; Ross, Daniel Kent


    Ordinary chondrites (OCs) represent the most abundant extraterrestrial materials and also record the widest range of alteration of primary, pristine minerals of early Solar system material available for study. Relatively few investigations, however, address: (1) the role of fluid alteration, and (2) the relationship between thermal metamorphism and metasomatism in OCs, issues that have been extensively studied in many other meteorite groups e.g., CV, CO, CR, and enstatite chondrites. Detailed elemental abundances profiles across individual chondrules, and mineralogical studies of Lewis Hills (LEW) 86018 (L3.1), an unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (UOC) of low petrographic type of 3.1 returned from Antarctica, provide evidence of extensive alteration of primary minerals. Some chondrules have Na(-), K(-), rich rims surrounded by nepheline, albite, and sodalite-like Na(-), Cl(-), Al-rich secondary minerals in the near vicinity within the matrices. Although, limited evidences of low temperature (approximately 250 C) fluid-assisted alteration of primary minerals to phyllosilicates, ferroanolivine, magnetite, and scapolite have been reported in the lowest grades (less than 3.2) Semarkona (LL3.00) and Bishunpur (LL3.10), alkali-rich secondary mineralization has previously only been seen in higher grade greater than 3.4 UOCs. This preliminary result suggests highly localized metamorphism in UOCs and widens the range of alteration in UOCs and complicates classification of petrographic type and extent of thermal metamorphism or metasomatism. The work in progress will document the micro-textures, geochemistry (Ba, Ca, REE), and isotopic composition (oxygen, Al(-)- 26 Mg-26) of mineral phases in chondrules and adjoining objects to help us understand the formation scenario and delineate possible modes of metamorphism in UOCs.

  1. Geochemical characteristics of pyrite in Duolanasayi gold deposit, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guodong; XIAO Huiliang; WANG Henian; ZHOU Jiyuan


    The Duolanasayi gold deposit, 60 km NW of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is a mid-large-scale gold deposit controlled by brittle-ductile shearing, and superimposed by albitite veins and late-stage magma hydrothermal solutions. There are four types of pyrite, which are contained in the light metamorphosed rocks (limestone, siltstone), altered-mineralized rocks (chlorite-schist, altered albite-granite, mineralized phyllite), quartz veins and carbonatite veinlets. The pyrite is the most common ore mineral. The Au-barren pyrite is present mainly in a simple form and gold-bearing pyrite is present mainly in a composite form. From the top downwards, the pyrite varies in crystal form from {100} and {210}+{100} to {210}+{100}+{111} to {100}+{111}. Geochemical studies indicate that the molecular contents of pyrite range from Fe1.057S2 to Fe0.941S2. Gold positively correlates with Mn, Sr, Zn, Te, Pb, Ba and Ag. There are four groups of trace elements: Fe-Cu-Sr-Ag, Au-Te-Co, As-Pb-Zn and Mn-V-Ti-Ba-Ni-Cr in pyrite. The REE characteristics show that the total amount of REE (ΣREE) ranges from 32.35×10 -6 to 132.18×10 -6; LREE/HREE, 4.466-9.142; (La/Yb)N, 3.719-11.133; (Eu/Sm)N, 0.553-1.656; (Sm/Nd)N, 0.602-0.717; La/Yb, 6.26-18.75; δEu, 0.628-2.309; δCe, 0.308-0.816. Sulfur isotopic compositions (δ 34S=-2.46‰--7.02‰) suggest that the sulfur associated with gold mineralization was derived from the upper mantle or lower crust.

  2. Process optimization of reaction of acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing and sodium hydroxide aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU GaoXiang; ZHENG ShuiLin; DING Hao


    Silica is the major component of the acid leaching residue of asbestos tailing. The waterglass solution can be prepared by the reaction of the residue with sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. Compared to the high temperature reaction method, this process is environmental friendly and low cost. In this paper, the reaction process of the residue and the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution is optimized. The op-timum reaction process parameters are as follows: the usage of sodium hydroxide is 26.4 g/100 g acid leaching residue, the reaction temperature is 90℃, the reaction time is 1 h, and the ratio of the liq-uid/solid is 2.0. The significance sequence of the process parameters to the alkali leaching reaction effect is the usage of sodium hydroxide > the ratio of the liquid/solid > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the leaching ratio of SiO2 is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. The significance sequence to the modulus of the sodium silicate is the ratio of the liquid/solid > the usage of sodium hydroxide > the reaction time > the reaction temperature. Under the optimum conditions, the leaching ratio of the SiO2 is 77.5%, and the modulus of the sodium silicate is 3.15. The XRD analysis result indicates that the major components of the alkali leaching residue are serpentine, talc, quartz and some albite.

  3. Gold mineralisation near the Main Divide, upper Wilberforce valley, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veins up to 8 m wide fill extensional fractures in Torlesse Terrane metasediments near the Main Divide in the upper Wilberforce valley, Canterbury, New Zealand. The upper Wilberforce veins are part of a prominent 40 km long, NNE-trending swarm of gold-bearing veins formed across the Main Divide during the Late Cenozoic rise of the Southern Alps. The veins occur within, and near, a prominent set of faults which constitute the Main Divide Fault Zone. The veins are irregular in shape due to contrasting host rock properties, and have been only weakly sheared and deformed. Veins cut across greywacke beds and follow irregularly along argillite beds, on the 1-10 m scale. Quartz dominates vein mineralogy, but albite forms up to 45% of some veins, and minor chlorite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, and gold occur sporadically, especially in breccias near vein margins. Fluid inclusions in vein quartz homogenise at 180-253 degrees C, and arsenopyrite composition (28.3-30.8 at.% As) suggest formation temperatures of 250-350 degrees C. Elevated arsenic levels (up to 200 ppm above a background of 10 ppm) in some host greywackes and argellites suggest that hydrothermal activity pervaded host rocks as well as forming veins, but there is no textural evidence for this fluid flow. Late-stage carbonates in faults adjacent to the quartz veins, but which postdate the quartz veins, have δ18O ranging from 11.1 to 25.6 per thousand, and δ13C ranging from -12.5 to -1.1 per thousand. These carbonates were deposited by a mixture of meteoric and crustally isotopically exchanged fluid as a shallow-level manifestation of the same hydrothermal system which deposited the quartz veins. The upper Wilberforce veins structurally and mineralogically resemble some Late Cenozoic gold-bearing vein systems in the Mt Cook area, 100 km to the southwest along the Southern Alps. (author). 52 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Structure and geochemistry of the Rise and Shine Shear Zone mesothermal gold system, Otago Schist, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rise and Shine Shear Zone is a late metamorphic deformation zone developed in biotite zone Textural Zone 4 schist in Central Otago. The shear zone has been hydrothermally altered, with addition of gold associated with replacement of schist minerals by pyrite and arsenopyrite. Hydrothermal alteration of schist during mineralisation involved replacement of titanite by rutile, recrystallisation of metamorphic quartz, muscovite and chlorite, and addition of ankerite. Mineralised schist has abundant microshears that have developed parallel and subparallel to the pervasive schist foliation, and these microshears contain much of the hydrothermal sulfides and gold. Microshears have been deformed locally by upright syn-mineralisation brittle reverse faults and angular folds that have a southerly axial trend. These more brittle deformation zones are confined to the Rise and Shine Shear Zone. Gold-bearing veins and mineralised breccias, made up of quartz, albite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, calcite, and chlorite, fill extensional sites associated with upright fold zones. Calcite delta18OVSMOW from these late-stage mineralised veins ranges from +7 to +15 per mille and δ13CPDB from -5.3 to -6.6 per mille, are similar to many other gold-bearing vein systems in Otago, but are distinctly different from the Macraes deposit. Mineralisation occurred near to the brittle/ductile transition, at 200-400 degrees C. The upper part of the shear zone was truncated by a shallow northeast-dipping normal fault, the Thomsons Gorge Fault, which juxtaposed shear zone rocks against unmineralised Textural Zone 3 chlorite zone rocks in the middle Cretaceous. The Rise and Shine Shear Zone has some structural and geochemical features in common with the Hyde-Macraes Shear Zone, but also some important differences, and is not a simple strike-extension of that structure. (author). 46 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Potentially toxic elements in lignite and its combustion residues from a power plant. (United States)

    Ram, L C; Masto, R E; Srivastava, N K; George, J; Selvi, V A; Das, T B; Pal, S K; Maity, S; Mohanty, D


    The presence of potentially toxic elements in lignite and coal is a matter of global concern during energy extraction from them. Accordingly, Barsingsar lignite from Rajasthan (India), a newly identified and currently exploited commercial source of energy, was evaluated for the presence of these elements and their fate during its combustion. Mobility of these elements in Barsingsar lignite and its ashes from a power plant (Bikaner-Nagaur region of Thar Desert, India) is presented in this paper. Kaolinite, quartz, and gypsum are the main minerals in lignite. Both the fly ash and bottom ash of lignite belong to class-F with SiO₂ > Al₂O₃ > CaO > MgO. Both the ashes contain quartz, mullite, anhydrite, and albite. As, In, and Sr have higher concentration in the feed than the ashes. Compared to the feed lignite, Ba, Co, U, Cu, Cd, and Ni are enriched (10-5 times) in fly ash and Co, Pb, Li, Ga, Cd, and U in bottom ash (9-5 times). Earth crust-normalization pattern showed enrichment of Ga, U, B, Ag, Cd, and Se in the lignite; Li, Ba, Ga, B, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se, in fly ash; and Li, Sr, Ga, U, B, Cu, Ag, Cd, Pb, and Se in bottom ash. Hg, Ag, Zn, Ni, Ba, and Se are possibly associated with pyrite. Leaching test by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) showed that except B all the elements are within the safe limits prescribed by Indian Standards. PMID:25446718

  6. The post-collisional volcanism of northern Tunisia: Petrology and evolution through time (United States)

    Halloul, Néji; Gourgaud, Alain


    The Neogene volcanism of Tunisia is bimodal, comprising both mafic lavas and rhyolites. The rhyolites occur as domes and related breccias, and as dykes in the Nefza area, associated with an albite granite. The rhyolites volcanics are 12.9-8.2 Ma. Mafic lavas occur in the Nefza and Mogods areas, as dykes and sills, and are younger than the felsic lavas at 8.4-5 Ma. The rhyolites exhibit phenocrysts of quartz, plagioclase (An 25-55), alkali feldspar (Or 63-91), biotite, Fe-Ti oxides and rare cordierite and tourmaline. A study of the cordierite shows it to be magmatic in character, in equilibrium with glass and other minerals, and with a large range of compositions (Fe * 34-64). Magmatic cordierite in rhyolites is exceptional and cordierite/liquid partition coefficients were determined for rare earth elements. According to mineralogical and geochemical data, including Sr isotopes, there are two groups of rhyolites. The first group is the cordierite bearing-rhyolites, which have Fe-rich biotite, and is related to localised crustal melting. The second group, which lack cordierite, but has Mg-rich biotite, is related to AFC processes. The mafic magma is represented by moderately Na-alkaline silica undersaturated hawaites and mugearites, with phenocrysts of olivine (Fo 69-85), plagioclase (An 49-67), clinopyroxene (augite) and ulvöspinel. Geochemical data suggest that they are transitional in nature, between calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas, as also found in Algeria and Morocco. These magmas evolved by fractional crystallization and crustal contamination. The magmatic change through time from calk-alkaline to transitional, as also found for Algeria and Morocco at the same point in time, is consistent with a slab breakoff process. The more recent mafic magmas are related to an extensional post-collisional environment.

  7. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy and geochemistry of borehole sections sampled for groundwater chemistry and Eh. Results from boreholes KFR01, KFR08, KFR10, KFR19, KFR7A and KFR105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Grabo (Sweden))


    This report is part of the complementary site investigations for the future expansion of SFR. The report presents the results obtained during a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of fracture minerals in drill cores from borehole section sampled for groundwater chemistry and where downhole Eh measurements have been performed. The groundwater redox system comprises not only the water, but also the bedrock/fracture mineral system in contact with this water. It is thus important to gain knowledge of the solid phases in contact with the groundwater, i.e. the fracture minerals. The samples studied for mineralogy and geochemistry, here reported, were selected to represent the fracture surfaces in contact with the groundwater in the sampled borehole sections and will give input to the hydrogeochemical model (SFR SDM). The mineralogy was determined using SEM-EDS and XRD and the geochemistry of fracture filling material was analysed by ICP-AES and ICP-QMS. The most common fracture minerals in the samples are mixed layer clay (smectite-illite), illite, chlorite, calcite, quartz, adularia and albite. Other minerals identified in the borehole sections include laumontite, pyrite, barite, chalcopyrite, hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, muscovite, REE-carbonate, allanite, biotite, asphaltite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, uranium phosphate, uranium silicate, Y-Ca silicate, monazite, xenotime, harmotome and fluorite. There are no major differences between the fracture mineralogy of the investigated borehole sections from SFR and the fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site investigation area. The four fracture mineral generations distinguished within the Forsmark site investigation are also found at SFR. However, some differences have been observed: 1) Barite and uranium minerals are more common in the SFR fractures, 2) clay minerals like mixed layer illite-smectite and illite dominates in contrast to Forsmark where corrensite is by far the most common clay mineral and, 3

  8. Research on the Characteristics of Thorium Minerals in the Julongan Deposit, Xiangshan Ore Field%相山矿田居隆庵矿床钍矿物特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟艳宁; 范洪海; 孙志富; 陈璋如


    居隆庵矿床是相山矿田中一个大型的铀一钍混合矿床.通过系统的镜下显微特征研究和电子探针分析,查明了主要钍矿物和含钍矿物的种类,分析了钍的赋存状态和蚀交特征.钍的赋存状态有独立钍矿物、类质同象替换铀矿物和类质同象存在于副矿物中.相关的矿化蚀交有碳酸盐化、钠长石化、绢云母化、黄铁矿化、绿泥石亿、水云母化和萤石化.本文还总结了钍(铀)矿物的赋存位置.%Julongan deposit is a large uranium-thorium deposit in the Xiangshan ore field. This study investigated the thorium and thorium-bearing minerals and summarized occurrences and mineral alterations of thorium using microscope and electron microprobe techniques. The results indicated that thorium has several occurrences in the deposit,including independent thorium minerals, isomorphic form existing in uranium minerals, and micro-isomophic form lying in accessory minerals, and that mineralized alterations related with thorium are carbonation, albitization,sericitization, pyritization, chlortization, hydromicazation, and fluoritization; occurrence positions of thorium (uranium) minerals are also generalized. The above results provide materials and references for further study of the thorium minerals and deposits.

  9. Biochemical distributions (amino acids, neutral sugars, and lignin phenols) among size-classes of modern marine sediments from the Washington coast (United States)

    Keil, Richard G.; Tsamakis, Elizabeth; Giddings, J. Calvin; Hedges, John I.


    In order to examine relationships of organic matter source, composition, and diagenesis with particle size and mineralogy in modern marine depositional regimes, sediments from the continental shelf and slope along the Northwest Pacific rim (Washington coast, USA) were sorted into hydrodynamic size fractions (sand: >250, 63-250 μm; silt: 35-63, 17-35, 8-17, 3-8 μm; and clay-sized: 1-3, 0.5-1, fucose and rhamnose. Organic matter in the silt fractions, though degraded, is not as diagenetically altered as in the clay fractions. Enrichment of pollen grains in the silt-size material is reflected by high cinnamic acid to ferulic acid lignin phenol ratios. The highest pollen biochemical signal is observed in the silt fractions of the deepest station (1835 m), where pollen abundances are also highest. Organic matter tightly bound in the silt and sand-sized fractions are enriched in aldoses and show indications of enhanced microbial biomass as reflected by high weight percentages of ribose. Distinct organic debris was composed of relatively unaltered vascular plant remains as reflected by high lignin phenol yields and low acid/aldehyde ratios. Clay-size fractions are enriched in nitrogenous components, as reflected by elevated yields of total and basic amino acids (especially lysine). Silt- and sand-size fractions rich in quartz and albite show slightly higher yields of neutral amino acids. Consistent trends across all size classes and among the different depositional settings illustrates that only a small portion of the organic matter is present as distinct organic debris (e.g. pollen, vascular plant tissues, etc.), but that this debris can be isolated in specific size classes. The data for surface-associated organic matter are consistent with, but not conclusive of, selective partitioning of some organic matter to specific mineral surfaces. The dominant size class-specific trends in organic matter composition are due to changes in both source and diagenetic alteration.

  10. Alteration and petrology of Intrusive Rocks associated with Gold Mineralization at Kuh-E-Zar Gold Deposit, Torbat-e-Heydaryeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mazloumi Bajestani


    Full Text Available Kuh- e -Zar gold deposit located 35 km west of Torbat-e-Heydaryeh, (Khorassan e- Razavi province, East of Iran. This deposit is a specularite-rich Iron oxide type (IOCG. This mine is situated within Khaf-Bardascan volcanic plutonic belt. Based on recent exploration along this belt, several IOCG type system plus Kuh-e-Zar deposit are discovered. In the study area, several type of tuff and lava having acid to intermediate composition are identified (upper Eocene. Oligo-Miocene granite, granodiorite, synogranite and monzonite intruded upper Eocene andesite-dacite-rhyolite. Intrusive rocks are meta-aluminous, medium to high-K series I-type. Based on spider diagram, intrusive rocks show enrichment in LILE = K, Th, Rb and depletion in HFSE = Nb, Sr, Ti. Based geochemistry of igneous rock, they formed in continental margin subduction zone. Propylitic (chlorite alteration is dominated and covers large area. Silicification is restricted only to mineralized zones. Argillic and albitization is found in certain location and cover small areas. The style of mineralization was controlled by the type and geometry of fault zones. Mineralization is found as vein, stockwork and breccias. Hypogene mineral Paragenesis include: specularite-quartz-gold-chlorite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrite ± galena ± barite. Secondary minerals formed due to oxidation are: goethite, limonite, lepidocrucite, Malachite, Azurite, Covelite, Cerucite, hydrocerucite, Pyrolusite and Smitsonite. In a few localities, chalcopyrite and minor pyrite and galena are found. Based on SEM analysis gold is present as electrum. Mineralization appeared in different type such as vein, stockwork and Hydrothermal breccia in strike sleep fault zone which are hidden inside volcano plutonic rocks. The average gold grade is between 3.02 ppm and ore reserve is estimated more than 3 million tons (cut off grade = 0.7 ppm.

  11. Influence of ash composition on the sintering behavior during pressurized combustion and gasification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni-jie JING; Qin-hui WANG; Yu-kun YANG; Le-ming CHENG; Zhong-yang LUO; Ke-fa CEN


    To determine the ash characteristics during fluidized bed combustion and gasification purposes,the investigation of the impacts of chemical composition of Jincheng coal ash on the sintering temperature was conducted.A series of experiments on the sintering behavior at 0.5 MPa was performed using the pressurized pressure-drop technique in the combustion and gasification atmospheres.Meanwhile,the mineral transformations of sintered ash pellets were observed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analyzer to better understand the experimental results.In addition,quantitative XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FE-SEM/EDS) analyses of ash samples were used for clarifying the detailed ash melting mechanism.These results show that the addition of Fe2O3 can obviously reduce the sintering temperatures under gasification atmospheres,and only affect a little the sintering temperature under combustion atmosphere.This may be due to the presence of iron-bearing minerals,which will react with other ash compositions to produce low-melting-point eutectics.The FE-SEM/EDS analyses of ash samples with Fe2O3 additive show consistent results with the XRD measurements.The CaO and Na2O can reduce the sintering temperatures under both the combustion and gasification atmospheres.This can be also contributed to the formation of low-melting-point eutectics,decreasing the sintering temperature.Moreover,the fluxing minerals,such as magnetite,anhydrite,muscovite,albite and nepheline,contribute mostly to the reduction of the sintering temperature while the feldspar minerals,such as anorthite,gehlenite and sanidine,can react with other minerals to produce low-melting-point eutectics,and thereby reduce the sintering temperatures.

  12. Luminescence properties of feldspars from the Northeast region of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, S T; Khoury, H J; Sullasi, H L; Guzzo, P L, E-mail:


    The aim of this study is to investigate the thermoluminescence (TL) and infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) properties of three types of feldspars from the districts of Solonopole and Parelhas located in the Northeast region of Brazil in order to propose a preheat procedure to minimize the anomalous fading effect in these materials. The feldspar samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The XRD analysis showed that the feldspar from Solonopole and one of the samples from the Parelhas district were classified as microcline (K-feldspar). The other sample from Parelhas was classified as albite (Na-feldspar) mixed with low concentration of muscovite and quartz. Studies of the fading effects in TL and IRSL signals for 30 days and preheating effects from 50 to 250{sup 0}C for 10 minutes were carried out with these samples. The results show that preheating at 125{sup 0}C is sufficient to avoid the 30 days fading. The TL and IRSL dose responses for {sup 60}Co gamma radiation were studied in the range of 1 to 400 Gy. The results showed a linear response in the range of 1 to 100 Gy for the two types of Parelhas feldspars and from 50 to 400 Gy for the Solonopole feldspar. The low sensitivity showed by the feldspar from Solonopole is discussed in relation to its mineralogical composition. It is concluded that the TL and IRSL sensitivities are not associated with K- and Na- types of feldspar. The results of this paper will contribute to a standardized moderate annealing treatment for retrospective dosimetry and dating.

  13. Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact on Geomechanical Properties of Faulted Reservoir Rocks and Seals (United States)

    Nguyen, B. N.; Hou, Z.; Bacon, D. H.; White, M. D.


    This presentation develops a multiscale model to analyze CO2 faulted reservoirs using the STOMP-CO2-R code that is interfaced with the ABAQUS® finite element package. The STOMP-CO2-R/ABAQUS® simulator accounts for the reactive transport of CO2 causing mineral composition changes that modify the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks and seals. Rocks' elastic properties that vary during CO2 injection and govern the poroelastic behavior of rocks are modeled by an Eshelby-Mori-Tanka approach implemented in ABAQUS®. A three-dimensional (3D) STOMP-CO2-R model for a reservoir containing an inclined fault is built to analyze a formation containing a reaction network with 5 minerals: albite, anorthite, calcite, kaolinite and quartz. A 3D ABAQUS® finite element mesh that exactly maps the STOMP-CO2-R grid is developed for coupled hydro-geochemical-mechanical analyses. The model contains alternating sandstone and shale layers. The impact of reactive transport of CO2 on the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks and seals are studied in terms of mineral composition changes that affect the rock stiffness, stress and strain distributions, and pressure margin to fracture (PMF). Simulations assuming extensional and compressional stress regimes with and without coupled geochemistry are developed to study the stress regime effect on the risk of hydraulic fracture. The tendency for the fault to slip is examined in terms of stress regime, geomechanical and geochemical-mechanical effects. The results show that the mineralogical changes due to long-term injection of CO2 reduce the permeability and elastic modulus of the reservoir leading to a reduction of the PMF at and beyond the injection location. Hydraulic fracture and fault slip are not predicted to occur. However, accounting for the geomechemical-mechanical effect in the analysis under the extensional stress regime leads to reduction of the PMF at the injection location and at the seal immediately above this location.

  14. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Imam Setiawan


    Full Text Available This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The primary stage of this rock might be represented by the assemblage of glaucophane + epidote + titanite ± paragonite. The assemblage yields 1.7 - 1.0 GPa in assumed temperature of 300 - 550 °C, which is interpreted as maximum pressure limit of prograde stage. The peak P-T condition estimated on the basis of the equilibrium of garnet rim, barroisite, phengite, epidote, and quartz, yields 547 - 690 °C and 1.1 - 1.5 GPa on the albite epidote amphibolite-facies that correspond to the depth of 38 - 50 km. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.5 GPa at 350 °C. It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions (blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of phenocryst feldspar in alkaline basalts from site Hajnacka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current research of the feldspar megacrysts was aimed to obtain a new knowledge about the geochemical properties of these crystals, their classification and by using of oxygen isotopes to get a rough idea about the source region, the origin of their occurrence. The basic chemical composition of the crystals was measured at the University of Vienna by EMP - WDS method in a scale of silicate analysis with extra detection of BaO and SrO. Oxygen isotopes (δ18O) were obtained by ICP-MS, the mass spectrometer at George-Auguste University at Goettingen. SiO2 contents were determined for all samples > 60.0 wt. % Al2O3 content of about 20 wt . % in average. Inter-resting contents were CaO (SrO) - Na2O - K2O (BaO), which also defined classification into the feldspar groups - plagioclase ( albite ) with the transition into the K - feldspar (orthoclase ). There was also a documentation of the substitution between K ↔ Na (± Ca ). Oxygen isotope values for all three samples ranged from 4.8 after 6.2 o/oo - SMOW . These values are within tolerance of +5.5 o/oo δ18O defined in average for mantle materials . On the basis of these data, we can conclude that feldspar crystallized under the chemical composition exchanging of the melt of the source, that means in an environment with a control mechanism of fractional crystallization, while the conservation of the isotopic composition of the crystals rested in limits of the primary magmatic reservoir. (authors)

  16. Leaching kinetics in cyanide media of Ag contained in the industrial mining-metallurgical wastes in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Hernandez⇑; Francisco Patino; Isauro Rivera; Iván Alejandro Reyes; Misrael Uriel Flores; Julio Cesar Juarez; Martín Reyes


    The leaching kinetics in cyanide media of the silver contained in the Dos Carlos waste tailings at the City of Pachuca de Soto, Hidalgo State, Mexico were carried out. The used material contained the following chemical composition: 56 ? 10-6 of Ag, 0.6 ? 10?6 of Au and 70.43% (by weight) of SiO2; 7.032% (by weight) of Al2O3; 2.69% (by weight) of Fe; 0.46% (by weight) of Mn; 3.98% (by weight) of K2O; 3.34%(by weight) of CaO;2.50% (by weight) of Na2O;0.04% (by weight) of Zn;0.026%(by weight) of Pb. The mineralogical phases present were the following:Silica, albite, argentite, berlinite, orthoclase, potassium jarosite, and natrojarosite. In the leaching kinetics in cyanide media, and under the studied conditions, the effect of the CN? concentration on the reaction rate has no effect on the whole process of alkaline cyanidation, of which the reaction order is n ? 0. Temperature has an effect on the cyanidation rate of the reaction, with an activation energy of 47.9 KJ/mol. At the same time, when the particle size decreases there is an increase in the reaction rate, which is inversely proportional to the particle diameter;when increasing the NaOH concentration there is an increase in the reaction rate Kexp, with a reaction order (n) of 0.215 under the studied ranges.

  17. Significance of "stretched" mineral inclusions for reconstructing P- T exhumation history (United States)

    Ashley, Kyle T.; Darling, Robert S.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Law, Richard D.


    Analysis of mineral inclusions in chemically and physically resistant hosts has proven to be valuable for reconstructing the P- T exhumation history of high-grade metamorphic rocks. The occurrence of cristobalite-bearing inclusions in garnets from Gore Mountain, New York, is unexpected because the peak metamorphic conditions reached are well removed (>600 °C too cold) from the stability field of this low-density silica polymorph that typically forms in high temperature volcanic environments. A previous study of samples from this area interpreted polymineralic inclusions consisting of cristobalite, albite and ilmenite as representing crystallized droplets of melt generated during a garnet-in reaction, followed by water loss from the inclusion to explain the reduction in inclusion pressure that drove the transformation of quartz to cristobalite. However, the recent discovery of monomineralic inclusions of cristobalite from the nearby Hooper Mine cannot be explained by this process. For these inclusions, we propose that the volume response to pressure and temperature changes during exhumation to Earth's surface resulted in large tensile stresses within the silica phase that would be sufficient to cause transformation to the low-density (low-pressure) form. Elastic modeling of other common inclusion-host systems suggests that this quartz-to-cristobalite example may not be a unique case. The aluminosilicate polymorph kyanite also has the capacity to retain tensile stresses if exhumed to Earth's surface after being trapped as an inclusion in plagioclase at P- T conditions within the kyanite stability field, with the stresses developed during exhumation sufficient to produce a transformation to andalusite. These results highlight the elastic environment that may arise during exhumation and provide a potential explanation of observed inclusions whose stability fields are well removed from P- T paths followed during exhumation.

  18. Emplacement kinematics of nepheline syenites from the Terrane Boundary Shear Zone of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, west of Khariar, NW Orissa: Evidence from meso- and microstructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Biswal; Harish Ahuja; Himansu Sekhar Sahu


    Nepheline syenite plutons emplaced within the Terrane Boundary Shear Zone of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt west of Khariar in northwestern Orissa are marked by a well-developed magmatic fabric including magmatic foliation, mineral lineations, folds and S-C fabrics. The minerals in the plutons, namely microcline, orthoclase, albite, nepheline, hornblende, biotite and aegirine show, by and large, well-developed crystal faces and lack undulose extinction and dynamic recrystallization, suggesting a magmatic origin. The magmatic fabric of the plutons is concordant with a solid-state strain fabric of the surrounding mylonites that developed due to noncoaxial strain along the Terrane Boundary Shear Zone during thrusting of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt over the Bastar Craton. However, a small fraction of the minerals, more commonly from the periphery of the plutons, is overprinted by a solid state strain fabric similar to that of the host rock. This fabric is manifested by discrete shear fractures, along which the feldspars are deformed into ribbons, have undergone dynamic recrystallization and show undulose extinction and myrmekitic growth. The shear fractures and the magmatic foliations are mutually parallel to the C-fabric of the host mylonites. Coexistence of concordant solid state strain fabric and magmatic fabric has been interpreted as a transitional feature from magmatic state to subsolidus deformation of the plutons, while the nepheline syenite magma was solidifying from a crystal-melt mush state under a noncoaxial strain. This suggests the emplacement of the plutons synkinematic to thrusting along the Terrane Boundary Shear Zone. The isotopic data by earlier workers suggest emplacement of nepheline syenite at 1500 + 3/− 4Ma, lending support for thrusting of the mobile belt over the craton around that time.

  19. Nitrogen distribution between aqueous fluids and silicate melts (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Huang, Ruifang; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Keppler, Hans


    The partitioning of nitrogen between hydrous fluids and haplogranitic, basaltic, or albitic melts was studied at 1-15 kbar, 800-1200 °C, and oxygen fugacities (fO2) ranging from the Fe-FeO buffer to 3log units above the Ni-NiO buffer. The nitrogen contents in quenched glasses were analyzed either by electron microprobe or by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), whereas the nitrogen contents in fluids were determined by mass balance. The results show that the nitrogen content in silicate melt increases with increasing nitrogen content in the coexisting fluid at given temperature, pressure, and fO2. Raman spectra of the silicate glasses suggest that nitrogen species change from molecular N2 in oxidized silicate melt to molecular ammonia (NH3) or the ammonium ion (NH4+) in reduced silicate melt, and the normalized Raman band intensities of the nitrogen species linearly correlate with the measured nitrogen content in silicate melt. Elevated nitrogen contents in silicate melts are observed at reduced conditions and are attributed to the dissolution of NH3/NH4+. Measured fluid/melt partition coefficients for nitrogen (DNfluid/ melt) range from 60 for reduced haplogranitic melts to about 10 000 for oxidized basaltic melts, with fO2 and to a lesser extent melt composition being the most important parameters controlling the partitioning of nitrogen. Pressure appears to have only a minor effect on DNfluid/ melt in the range of conditions studied. Our data imply that degassing of nitrogen from both mid-ocean ridge basalts and arc magmas is very efficient, and predicted nitrogen abundances in volcanic gases match well with observations. Our data also confirm that nitrogen degassing at present magma production rates is insufficient to accumulate the atmosphere. Most of the nitrogen in the atmosphere must have degassed very early in Earth's history and degassing was probably enhanced by the oxidation of the mantle.

  20. Vertical Geochemical Characteristics of Continental Formation Water and Its Water-Rock Interaction in the Middle Area of Western Sichuan Depression%川西坳陷中段陆相地层水纵向变化特征及水-岩相互作用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈忠民; 刘四兵; 吕正祥; 罗小平; 宫亚军


    type of formation water with supplement of Na2SO4 and NaHCO3type is CaCl2 type.From Jurassic to Xujiabe Formation in West Sichuan Depression, the formation water can be divided into 2 chemical zones: Obstructive replacing zone and Lagged zone. The zone affected by atmospheric water was only above 530 m. The formation water concentration decreased with depth as a result of large-scale dehydration of clay minerals in obstructive replacing zone, but the main reasons for HCO3- incensement with depth in this zone is addition of CO2 related to maturation of organic matter. The formation water in lagged zone has a significantly higher Ca2 + content than in obstructive replacing zone, which may be caused by albitization of feldspar. In addition, the dissolution of carbonate minerals may also have supplied some Ca2+ to lagged zone. From T3x4 to T3x2 HCO3- concentration in formation water gradually become smaller, there may be two main reasons for the phenomenon above: First, T3x2 hydrocarbon source rocks had a relatively earlier hydrocarbon generation peak, the amount of CO2 injected into reservoir fluid was relatively smaller compared to T3x4; The other more likely reason was that stronger carbonate mineral dissolution in T3x4 than in T3x2 lead to major changes in HCO3- concentration which was proved by relatively higher Ca2 + concentration in T3 x4.Na- deficit ~ Ca2+ excess relationship showed that most of the Jurassic formation water samples were Na+ excess, indicating that Na+ was from dissolution of sodium-bearing minerals, and Ca2+ excess in formation water was caused by illitization of smectite and carbonate dissolution. Albitization of anorthite in Xujiahe Formation was an important water-rock interaction process, the other diagenetic types occurred in Xujiahe Formation included chloritization, dissolution of carbonate mineral and albite.

  1. Petrology of blueschist and meta-greywacke along the Turkmeni-Ordib fault (Turkmeni area, SE of Anarak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Bayat


    Full Text Available Introduction The occurrence of blueschist metamorphic facies is believed to mark the existence of former subduction zones. This facies is represented in the main constituents of subduction-accretion complexes, where it occurs in separate tectonic sheets, imbricated slices, lenses, or exotic blocks within a serpentinite mélange (Volkova et al., 2011. The evidence of the presence and maturity of Paleo- Tethys oceanic crust in the CEIM (define this in Paleo-Tethys branches, subduction and collision has been studied by various authors (Bagheri, 2007; Zanchi et al., 2009; Bayat and Torabi, 2011; Torabi 2011. Late Paleozoic blueschists have recognized in the western part of the CEIM (e. g. Anarak, Chupanan and Turkmeni in linear trends. Metamorphic rocks of the Turkmeni area (SE of Anarak are composed of blueschist and meta-greywacke and are situated along the Turkmeni-Ordib fault associated with Paleozoic rock units and serpentinized peridotite bodies. Turkmeni blueschist and meta-greywackes have not been studied by previous workers. The Turkmeni blueschists consist of albite, winchite, actinolite and epidote. Granoblastic, nematoblastic and lepidoblastic are main textures in these rocks. Winchite is found in the matrix and around epidote grains. This sodic-calcic amphibole serves as an index mineral in blueschist facies. Actinolite and epidote formed during retrograde metamorphism of blueschists in the greenschist facies. The mineral assemblage of albite, epidote, chlorite and phengite ± garnet is present in meta-greywackes in the Turkmeni blueschists. Veins of garnet, muscovite, quartz and opaque minerals are extensive in these rocks. Epidote and chlorite formed in meta-greywackes by retrograde metamorphism in the greenschist facies. The aim of the present study is to determine the petrological and geochemical characteristics, P-T condition of blueschists and meta-greywackes, as well as the geotectonic setting of primary basaltic rocks of the

  2. Modelización del proceso de episienitización (decuarcificación-albitización: formulación cinética y transporte advectivo en medio continuo

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    Caballero, J. M.


    Full Text Available The development of episyenites from Sierra de Guadarrama has been modelized. The process mainly consists in a coupled process of dequartztification-albitization. The model is based on pure advective mass transport in a continuum medium, where the reactive process is formulated from a kinetic point of view. It is demonstrated the possibility of its formation through the action of low-salinity fluids (2,32 wt % NaCl equiv., partially equilibrated with a biotite monzogranite, linked to isobaric reaction paths across negative geothermal gradients, intersecting the quartz retrograde solubility field, and associated to a quick fluid-resident mobilisation due to the environment tectonic opening. The model explains the albitic nature of the alteration against former models. These predict microcline formation from the gradient relations ∂logKmic/∂T > ∂logKab/∂T (0.05739 and 0.05735 and ∂logKKCl/∂T NaCl/∂T (-0.038 and -0.036. Albite formation arises from the anortite component presence, because ∂logKan/∂T =0,1293 ≻ ∂logKmic/∂T. Non-equilibrium relations are very small, which implies that alteration intensity arises from the circulation of huge fluid volumes. This process feature together the kinetic rate constants result in a small change, spatial and temporal, of the fluid composition, being practically null for its main components (Na, K and, subordinately to these, the pH. The model also shows the necessity of handling geochemical systems as complex as possible. In this way, the proposed aqueous speciation proves that pH evolution along decreasing temperature is not necessarily acid, but inlet fluid pH dependent due to the calculated concentrations show that its behaviour mainly depends as much from Hel as from the NaOH base dissociation.Se modeliza teóricamente la formación de las episienitas de la Sierra de Guadarrama, consistente básicamente en un proceso acoplado de decuarcificaci

  3. Thermodynamic Calculation of lllite Formation and Its Significance on Research of Sandstone Diagenesis%伊利石形成相关反应的热力学计算及其对砂岩成岩作用研究的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文文; 黄思静; 郇金来


    Based on the calculation of chemical thermodynamic conditions to form authigenic illite, the influence of chemical character of the diagenetic fluid has been analyzed. The results show that: (1) The reaction of anorthite conversion to illitization has the lowest Gibbs free energy increment. It is more likely to occur in early diagenetic stage on the action of K+-rich fluid related to the sea water. The reaction of albite or K-feldspar forming illite should require acidic fluid K+/H+ activity ratio, kept in the illite stability field. (2) Kaolin illitization is promoted by a high K+/H+ activity ratio which allows the kinetic barrier to illite nucleation to be removed. This may need K-feldspar to be dissolved by organic origin fluids , and additional proton-consuming by other reactions (e. g. carbonate dissolution) is need to reach critical K+ /H+ activity ratio. But with CO2 as the major dissolution media will lead to precipitation of carbonate minerals. (3)The reaction of K-feldspar and kaolinite to form illite usually requires temperatures to exceed 120℃. Then, the K+/H+ activity ratio controlled by K-feldspar solubility may overcome the kinetic barrier of illite crystallization. This reaction requires diagenetic environment influence by marine fluid in the early diagenesis, which can preserve enough K-feldspar while the feldspar dissolves to form significant amount of kaolinite. (4)External source of Na+ can lead to precipitation of albite when the K-feldspar and kaolinite react and form illite. This reaction will occur at higher temperatures. The solubility and albitization of K-feldspar is controlled by kinetic action of kaolin illitization to consume K+.%计算了各种可能形成伊利石的反应的热力学条件,在此基础上分析了成岩流体的化学性质对伊利石形成的影响.结果表明,(1)钙长石的伊利石化具有最低的吉布斯自由能增量,该反应主要是在同生到埋藏成岩作用的早期阶段,由富钾的海源流

  4. Geological and geochemical characteristics of the Weilasito Sn-Zn deposit, Inner Mongolia%内蒙古赤峰维拉斯托大型锡多金属矿的地质地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝新友; 张志辉; 付旭; 李柏阳; 王艳丽; 焦守涛; 孙雅琳


    The Weilasito Sn-Zn-Cu deposit is located in Keshiketen, Inner Mongolia, at latitude 44°5'5"N,longitude 117°29'53"E. The mineralization styles include granite-type Sn-Zn at the top of the granite, quartz vein type Sn-Zn ore near the granite, Cu-Zn sulfide vein and Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide vein distal from the granite. Based on petrology, geology and geochemistry of elements and chronology, the authors recognized the granite magma revolution, the origin of the deposit and the relations between the mineralization styles. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 139.5±1.2Ma(MSWD=3.3)for the alkali feldspar granite pluton. There are multilevel phenocrysts in the pluton, and the crystallization sequence is albite-quartz-K-feldspar-albite-quartz, topaz, cassiterite, and sphalerite. The granite rich in SiO2 and Rb, Cs, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Bi, Cu, Zn, In etc., poor in Al2O3, TiO2, TFe2O3, CaO and Sr, Ba etc., the An value of the albite is lower than 0.3, similar to data of the granite of Sn-W deposits in the Nanling belt. Late magma experienced magmatic-hydrothermal transitional stage as well as gradual continuous evolution to hydrothermal stage. The Si rich, F rich and S rich fluid phases were separated from the magma to form the droplets (pocket) of quartz, topaz, cassiterite-sphalerite respectively in the granite-type Sn-Zn ore. The fluid inclusions are melt, melt-fluid and liquid respectively. The granite-type Sn-Zn ore formed at the top of pluton at the magma-hydrothermal transitional stage, the quartz vein-type Sn-Zn ore occurs at the outer part and the sulfide-vein Cu-Zn, Pb-Zn-Ag ore of the hydrothermal stage occurs distal from the rock body. All of the ores and the plutons comprise the magmatic hydrothermal tin polymetallic metallogenic system. In Xilin Gol-Chifeng area, there are some Pb-Zn-Ag veins (deposits and/or mineralization) related to the acidic intrusive rocks. There probably exsit large-sized hydrothermal tin (tungsten) polymetallic

  5. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail:; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail:, e-mail:


    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U

  6. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece (United States)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.


    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  7. Quality Aspects of a Marine Aggregate Deposit off the SE Euboea Island, Greece, for its Exploitation - Preliminary Results (United States)

    Anastasatou, Marianthi; Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Stamatakis, Michael; Tsoutsia, Antonia; Poulos, Serafeim; Rousakis, Grigoris; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Petrakis, Stelios; Aspiotis, Konstantinos; Papavlasopoulou, Nafsika; Stamatakis, Giorgos


    % according to a semi-quantitative estimation) with minor trace minerals, such as albite and clay minerals. On the basis of the qualitative characteristics, sediments on the inner continental shelf of SE Euboea can be classified as siliceous and being considered appropriate for potential exploitation, that is related also to its quantitatively characteristics. The relatively shallow depths (research program THALES-MARE (MIS: 375655) that is funded by the Operational Programme ''Education and lifelong learning, 2007-2013'' of the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, Culture and Sports.

  8. Caracterización geoquímica y estudio comparativo de plagiogranitos de las Zonas Surportuguesa y Ossa-Morena (SO del Macizo Ibérico, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellido, F.


    Full Text Available Plagiogranites and albitic rocks belonging to contrasted magmatic associations of different ages and geodynamic environments outcrop in Ossa-Morena (OMZ and Surportuguese (SPZ Zones. OMZ plagiogranites are related with Cambrian-Ordovician rifting and represent a part of the felsic members of a bimodal magmatic suite and show oceanic plagiogranites affinities. SPZ plagiogranites are related with a Carboniferous volcano-plutonic calc-alkaline suite related with Variscan Orogeny. Both plagiogranites show many similar petrological and geochemical characteristics but display some different immobile elements ratios as La/Nb, Th/Nb, Th/La that are unaltered by metamorphism, magmatic differentiation and alteration processes and prove differences in their sources. SPZ plagiogranites show a more compositional homogeneity than OMZ ones. This is interpreted as a proof of cogenetic origin for SPZ plagiogranites and heterogeneous origin for OMZ plagiogranites, derived from the mix of different sources (astenospheric, lithospheric and crustal.

    En la Zona de Ossa-Morena (ZOM y en la Zona Surportuguesa (ZSP se encuentran plagiogranitos pertenecientes a asociaciones magmáticas y ambientes geodinámicos muy contrastados. Los primeros pertenecen a una asociación bimodal máfica-félsica relacionada con el rifting cámbrico-ordovícico y presentan bastantes afinidades con plagiogranitos oceánicos. Los segundos forman parte de una asociación volcánico-plutónica calcoalcalina carbonífera relacionada con la Orogenia Varisca. Ambos plagio-granitos son semejantes en diversos aspectos petrológicos y geoquímicos pero muestran diferencias en algunas relaciones de elementos inmóviles tales como La/Nb, Th/Nb, Th/La poco sensibles a los procesos de evolución magmática, metamorfismo y alteración y que son reflejo de la composición de las fuentes. Los plagiogranitos de la ZSP presentan una mayor homogeneidad composicional que los de la ZOM. Esto se

  9. The Saint Martin de Belleville syncline and its uraniferous permian sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation (these de specialite) is a study of the geology of the St.Martin d.B. syncline and the uranium prospect 'le Cochet' in the Carboniferous Brianconnais Zone of Savoy. Stratigraphy and sedimentology: This syncline presents continental detrital sediments ranging from U.Carboniferous to L.Triassic. In the U.Carboniferous, magmatic activity begins with the Moriaz Layers acid volcanics that are considered as a lateral equivalent of the Stephanian Courchevel Conglomerates. In Permian times, parts of an alluvial fan seem to occupy the north of the study area (gray and green conglomeratic sandstone). Southwards these inter-finger with flood plain sediments (red slate) including a locally oolitic limestone. Volcanic detritus is important in the Permian. Tourmalinite pebbles are frequent and seem to be related to the regional Permian magmatism. Albitization of feldspars is general in the Carboniferous and the Permian. The Permo-triassic typically shows microcline bearing dolomitic sandstones. In the Scythian quartzites orthoclase is the dominant feldspar. The quartzites are overlain by L.Triassic evaporites identified by the sulfur isotope ratio of their gypsum. The morphology of the zircons in the sandstones has been investigated using the typological method of J.P. Pupin. Regional Permian magmatism apparently produces volcanics of the calc-alkalic and tholeiitic series as well as a high level granitic intrusion of anatectic origin. The uranium occurrences are strata-bound on a kilometric and hecto-metric scale. They are developed almost exclusively in the gray variety of the Permian sandstones whose gray and red varieties are always barren. Within this unit, the mineralization impregnates irregularly distributed lenses and pods of coal material. Uranium is accompanied by vanadium occurring as roscoelite. The association U-V, of bio-philic character, reflects the concentration in the sedimentary environment and argues for a quite indirect relation with the

  10. Genesis and formation conditions of deposits in the unique Strel'tsovka Molybdenum-Uranium ore field: New mineralogical, geochemical, and physicochemical evidence (United States)

    Aleshin, A. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Krylova, T. L.


    The ambiguity of genetic interpretations of uranium ore formation at Mo-U deposits of the Strel’tsovka ore field led us to perform additional geochemical, mineralogical, and thermobarogeochemical studies. As a result, it has been established that closely related U and F were progressively gained in the Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks from the older basic volcanics (170 Ma) to the younger silicic igneous rocks (140 Ma). The Early Cretaceous postmagmatic hydrothermal epoch (140-125 Ma) is subdivided into preore, uranium ore, and first and second postore stages. The primary brannerite-pitchblende ore was formed in association with fluorite. At the first postore stage, this assemblage was replaced by a U-Si metagel, which was previously identified as coffinite. The metagel shows a wide compositional variation; its fine structure has been studied. The preore metasomatic alteration and related veined mineralization were formed under the effect of sodium (bicarbonate)-chloride solution at a temperature of 250-200°C. The uranium ore formation began with albitization and hematitization of rocks affected by supercritical fluid at 530-500°C; brannerite and pitchblende precipitated at 350-300°C. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of pitchblende hosted in trachybasalt, trachydacite, and granite demonstrate a pronounced Sm-Nd discontinuity and a statistically significant tetrad effect of W type. These attributes were not established in REE patterns of rhyolites derived from the upper crustal magma chamber. This circumstance and a chronological gap of 5 Ma between silicic volcanism and ore formation do not allow us to suggest that uranium was derived from this magma chamber. According to the proposed model, the evolved silicic Li-F magma was a source of uranium. U4+, together with REE, was fractionated into the fluid phase as complex fluoride compounds. The uranium mineralization was deposited at a temperature barrier. It is suggested that hydromica alteration and the

  11. Bald Friar Metabasalt and Kennett Square Amphibolite: Two Iapetan Ocean Floor Basalts (United States)

    Smith, R.C., II


    The Bald Friar Metabasalt (BFM) and Kennett Square Amphibolite (KSA) are basaltic units found in the Piedmont of southeastern Pennsylvania. The BFM is also recognized in northern Maryland. Both are believed to represent fragments of the floor of the Iapetus Ocean, but are not known occur in direct association with one another. The BFM typically occurs as small fragments having typical stratigraphic thicknesses of 2.5 m, and composed of greenish, fine-grained chlorite-epidote-actinolite-albite metabasalt in ophiolite me??lange. One bed of pillow basalt has been found at the type locality, Bald Friar, Cecil County, Maryland. Even though outcrops of BFM are highly discontinuous, they have a remarkable chemical uniformity over a strike length of 143 km and appear to be equivalent to the Caldwell Group 1b metabasalt of the Thetford, Quebec, area. The BFM is typically associated with ultramafic fragments and may be affiliated with the Baltimore Mafic Complex (BMC), from which a baddeleyite date of 442 +/- 7 Ma (Silurian) has been obtained. The BFM is probably a back arc basin basalt (BABB). Pod and schlieren chromite compositions suggest an island arc environment for the BMC itself. The poorly defined, informal "Conowingo Creek metabasalt" of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, occurs on the north margin of the BMC and appears to be a fore arc boninite. The BFM and associated ultramafic fragments serve as a field-mappable marker for the structural equivalent of the Baie Verte-Brompton line in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Maryland. Steatization of the associated ultramafic fragments has produced zones of extremely low competence that facilitated and localized thrusts of presumed Silurian age and later Alleghanian folding. The KSA typically occurs as much larger bodies having lengths of 3 km and composed of dark, medium-grained hornblende-plagioclase-clinopyroxene gneiss. No ultramafic rocks or me??lange have been recognized with the KSA. In Pennsylvania, the KSA

  12. Petrology of HP/LT metapelitic rocks of an accretionary wedge, the Central Pontides, Turkey: evidence for tectonic stacking and syn-subduction exhumation (United States)

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral; Oberhänsli, Roland


    Cretaceous HP/LT chloritoid-bearing metapelitic rocks crop out widely in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. They are associated with eclogite to blueschist-facies metabasites and represent deep levels of an underplated subduction-accretion complex, which is tectonically overlain by low-grade HP phyllite/metasandstone intercalation along an extensional shear zone. Close to the shear zone, the footwall micaschists consist of quartz, phengite, paragonite, chlorite, rutile with syn-kinematic albite porphyroblast formed by pervasive shearing during exhumation. This type of micaschists is tourmaline-bearing and their retrograde nature suggests high-fluid flux along shear zones. Peak metamorphic assemblages are partly preserved in the chloritoid-micaschist farther away from the shear zone. Three peak metamorphic assemblages are identified and their PT conditions are constrained by pseudosections produced by Theriak-Domino and by Raman spectra of carbonaceous material: 1) garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane with lawsonite pseudomorphs (P: 17.5 ± 1 Kbar, T: 390-450 °C) 2) chloritoid with glaucophane pseudomorphs (P: 16-18 Kbar, T: 475 ± 40 °C) and 3) relatively high-Mg chloritoid (17%) with jadeite pseudomorphs (22-25 Kbar; T: 440 ± 30 °C) in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite, rutile. The last mineral assemblage is interpreted as transformation of the chloritoid + glaucophane assemblage to chloritoid + jadeite paragenesis with increasing pressure. Absence of tourmaline suggests that the chloritoid-micaschist did not interact with B-rich fluids during zero strain exhumation. Peak metamorphic assemblages and PT estimates suggest tectonic stacking within wedge with different depths of burial. 40Ar/39Ar phengite age of a pervasively sheared footwall micaschist is constrained to 100.6 ± 1.3 Ma and that of a chloritoid-micaschist is constrained to 91.8 ± 1.8 Ma suggesting exhumation during on-going subduction. Coupling and exhumation of the

  13. Crystallization conditions and petrogenesis of the lava dome from the ˜900 years BP eruption of Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia (United States)

    Laeger, Kathrin; Halama, Ralf; Hansteen, Thor; Savov, Ivan P.; Murcia, Hugo F.; Cortés, Gloria P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter


    The last known eruption at Cerro Machín Volcano (CMV) in the Central Cordillera of Colombia occurred ˜900 years BP and ended with the formation of a dacitic lava dome. The dome rocks contain both normally and reversely zoned plagioclase (An24-54), unzoned and reversely zoned amphiboles of dominantly tschermakite and pargasite/magnesio-hastingsite composition and olivine xenocrysts (Fo = 85-88) with amphibole/clinopyroxene overgrowth, all suggesting interaction with mafic magma at depth. Plagioclase additionally exhibits complex oscillatory zoning patterns reflecting repeated replenishment, fractionation and changes in intrinsic conditions in the magma reservoir. Unzoned amphiboles and cores of the reversely zoned amphiboles give identical crystallization conditions of 910 ± 30 °C and 360 ± 70 MPa, corresponding to a depth of about 13 ± 2 km, at moderately oxidized conditions (f = +0.5 ± 0.2 ΔNNO). The water content in the melt, calculated based on amphibole chemistry, is 7.1 ± 0.4 wt.%. Rims of the reversely zoned amphiboles are relatively enriched in MgO and yield higher crystallization temperatures (T = 970 ± 25 °C), slightly lower melt H2O contents (6.1 ± 0.7 wt.%) and overlapping pressures (410 ± 100 MPa). We suggest that these rims crystallized following an influx of mafic melt into a resident magma reservoir at mid-crustal depths, further supported by the occurrence of xenocrystic olivine. Crystallization of biotite, albite-rich plagioclase and quartz occurred at comparatively low temperatures (probably rock chemistry of the CMV lava dome dacites is homogenous. They have elevated (La/Nb)N ratios of 3.8-4.5, typical for convergent margin magmas, and display several geochemical characteristics of adakites. Both Sr and Nd isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr ˜0.70497, 143Nd/144Nd ˜0.51267) are among the most radiogenic observed for the Northern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. They are distinct from oceanic crust that has been subducted in the region

  14. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 1: Chemical evolution and water-rock interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, Peter, E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), Gerencia de Geotermia, Av. Reforma 113, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62490 (Mexico); Garcia, Bernardo Martinez; Milland Padron, Carlos M. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur, Activo Integral Bellota-Jujo, Diseno de Explotacion, Cardenas, Tabasco (Mexico)


    The origin and evolution of formation water from Upper Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous mudstone-packstone-dolomite host rocks at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, located onshore in SE-Mexico at a depth from 5200 to 6200 m.b.s.l., have been investigated, using detailed water geochemistry from 12 producer wells and six closed wells, and related host rock mineralogy. Saline waters of Cl-Na type with total dissolved solids from 10 to 23 g/L are chemically distinct from hypersaline Cl-Ca-Na and Cl-Na-Ca type waters with TDS between 181 and 385 g/L. Bromine/Cl and Br/Na ratios suggest the subaerial evaporation of seawater beyond halite precipitation to explain the extreme hypersaline components, while less saline samples were formed by mixing of high salinity end members with surface-derived, low salinity water components. The dissolution of evaporites from adjacent salt domes has little impact on present formation water composition. Geochemical simulations with Harvie-M{phi}ller-Weare and PHRQPITZ thermodynamic data sets suggest secondary fluid enrichment in Ca, HCO{sub 3} and Sr by water-rock interaction. The volumetric mass balance between Ca enrichment and Mg depletion confirms dolomitization as the major alteration process. Potassium/Cl ratios below evaporation trajectory are attributed to minor precipitation of K feldspar and illitization without evidence for albitization at the Jujo-Tecominoacan reservoir. The abundance of secondary dolomite, illite and pyrite in drilling cores from reservoir host rock reconfirms the observed water-rock exchange processes. Sulfate concentrations are controlled by anhydrite solubility as indicated by positive SI-values, although anhydrite deposition is limited throughout the lithological reservoir column. The chemical variety of produced water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil field is related to a sequence of primary and secondary processes, including infiltration of evaporated seawater and original meteoric fluids, the subsequent

  15. Diagenesis and reservoir quality evolution of palaeocene deep-water, marine sandstones, the Shetland-Faroes Basin, British continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansurbeg, H. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Morad, S. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Petroleum Geosciences, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Salem, A. [Faculty of Education at Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta University, Kafr El-Sheikh (Egypt); Marfil, R.; Caja, M.A. [Departmento Petrologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Geologia, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); El-ghali, M.A.K. (Geology Department, Al-Fateh University, P.O. Box 13696, Libya); Nystuen, J.P. [Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1047 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Amorosi, A. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Zamboni 67, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Garcia, D. [Centre SPIN, Department GENERIC, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne 158, Cours Fauriel 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); La Iglesia, A. [Instituto de Geologia Economica (CSIC-UCM), Facultad de Geologia, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    eogenetic kaolinite, smectite and mesogenetic illite and chlorite. Kaolinite has been subjected to mesogenetic replacement by dickite. The K-feldspar and plagioclase grains have been albitized. Dissolution of calcite cement and of framework grain (feldspar, volcanic fragments and mud intraclasts) has resulted in a considerable enhancement of reservoir quality. (author)

  16. Mineralogical controls on surface colonization by sulfur-metabolizing microbial communities (United States)

    Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.


    When characterizing microbial diversity and the microbial ecosystem of the shallow subsurface the mineral matrix is generally assumed to be homogenous and unreactive. We report here experimental evidence that microorganisms colonize rock surfaces according to the rock's chemistry and the organism's metabolic requirements and tolerances. We investigated this phenomenon using laboratory biofilm reactors with both a pure culture of sulfur-oxidizing Thiothrix unzii and a mixed environmental sulfur-metabolizing community from Lower Kane, Cave, WY, USA. Reactors contained rock and mineral chips (calcite, albite, microcline, quartz, chert, Madison Limestone (ML), Madison Dolostone (MD), and basalt) amended with one of the two inoculants. Biomass of attached microorganisms on each mineral surface was quantified. The 16S rRNA of attached microbial communities were compared using Roche FLX and Titanium 454 next generation pyrosequencing. A primary controlling factor on taxonomy of attached microorganisms in both pure and mixed culture experiments was mineral buffering capacity. In mixed culture experiments acid-buffering carbonates were preferentially colonized by neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms (~18% to ~27% of microorganisms), while acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms colonized non-buffering quartz exclusively (~46% of microorganisms). The nutrient content of the rock was a controlling factor on biomass accumulation, with neutrophilic organisms selecting between carbonate surfaces of equivalent buffer capacities according to the availability of phosphate. Dry biomass on ML was 17.8 ± 2.3 mg/cm2 and MD was 20.6 ± 6.8 mg/cm2; while nutrient poor calcite accumulated 2.4 ± 0.3 mg/cm2. Biomass accumulation was minimal on non-buffering nutrient-limited surfaces. These factors are countered by the competitive exclusion of some populations. A pure culture of T. unzii preferentially colonizes carbonates while a very closely related Thiothrix spp is excluded

  17. Geochronology of the Palaeoproterozoic Kautokeino Greenstone Belt, Finnmark, Norway, in its Fennoscandian context (United States)

    Bingen, Bernard; Solli, Arne; Viola, Giulio; Sverre Sandstad, Jan; Torgersen, Espen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Skår, Øyvind; Nasuti, Aziz


    The northeastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield consists of Archaean cratonic blocks alternating with Palaeoproterozoic greenstone belts ranging in age from c. 2500 to 1950 Ma. Traditionally, the greenstones are interpeted as evidence for rifting of the Archaean continent(s) although it remains unclear whether modern-style oceanic lithosphere developed, followed by a Wilson-cycle-type closure during the Svecokarelian orogeny. Existing geological, isotopic and geochronological data show that the exposed basins hosting the greenstones have distinct lithostratigraphies and geological evolutions and are pericontinental rather than oceanic. A diversity of Palaeoproterozoic mafic mantle derived magmatic rocks show a secular increase of Nd value with time, from EpsilonNd =-2 at 2500 Ma (Shalskiy dikes, Onega, Russia) to EpsilonNd =+4.4 at 2090 Ma (Jouttiaapa basalts, Peräpohja, Finland), suggesting that the regional asthenospheric mantle was less depleted than the model MORB-producing depleted mantle before 2090 Ma. In this work, we report new zircon U-Pb geochronological data in 19 samples from Finnmarkvidda, Norway, to constrain the evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic high-strain Kautokeino Greenstone Belt and its relations with the neighbouring felsic Jergul and Ráiseatnu gneiss complexes. The Jergul complex is an Archaean, low heat flow, TTG cratonic bloc of Karelian affinity formed between 2975 ±10 and 2776 ±6 Ma. The Masi formation, at the base of the Kautokeino Greenstone Belt, is a typical Jatulian quartzite unconformably overlying the Archean basement. An albite-magnetite-rich mafic sill, similar to the Haaskalehto intrusion in Finland, provides a minimum age of 2220 ±7 Ma for the deposition of the quartzite. The Likčá and Čáskejas formations represent the main basaltic volcanism. Direct evidence of an oceanic setting or oceanic suture is lacking. A probably synvolcanic gabbro sill gives an age of 2137 ±5 Ma. Published Sm-Nd whole-rock data on

  18. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Late Permian coals from the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing,southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Mineralogy and geochemistry of the four main workable coal seams (No.6, No.7, No.8, and No.11) of Late Permian age from the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, Southwest China, were examined using in- ductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), cold-vapor absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), ion-selective electrode (ISE), scanning electron mi- croscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the main workable No.8 Coal that accounts for about 60% of the total coal reserves in the Songzao Coalfield was not enriched in hazardous trace elements. The No.11 Coal has high concentrations of alkaline elements, Be (9.14 μg/g), Sc (12.9 μg/g), Ti (9508 μg/g), Mn (397 μg/g), Co (23.7 μg/g), Cu (108 μg/g), Zn (123 μg/g), Ga (32 μg/g), Zr (1304 μg/g), Nb (169 μg/g), Hf (32.7 μg/g), Ta (11.4 μg/g), W (24.8 μg/g), Hg (0.28 μg/g), Pb (28.1 μg/g), Th (24.1 μg/g), and rare earth elements (509.62 μg/g). The concentration of Nb and Ta in the No. 11 Coal is higher than the industrial grade, and their potential utilization should be further studied. Besides pyrite, quartz, calcite, and clay minerals, trace minerals including chalcopyrite, marcasite, siderite, albite, mixed-layer clay minerals of illite and smectite, monazite, apatite, anatase, chlorite, and gypsum were found in the No.11 Coal. It should be noted that alabandite of hydrothermal origin and anatase occurring as cement were identi- fied in coal. In addition, the clayey microbands derived from alkaline volcanic ashes were identified in the coal. The dominant compositions of these clayey microbands were mixed-layer clay minerals of illite and smectite, which were interlayered with organic bands. The modes of occurrence of alkaline volcanic ash bands indicate that the volcanic activities were characterized by the multiple eruptions, short time interval and small scale for each eruption

  19. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Late Permian coals from the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing,southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI ShiFeng; ZHOU YiPing; REN DeYi; WANG XiBo; LI Dan; ZHAO Lei


    Mineralogy and geochemistry of the four main workable coal seams (No.6, No.7, No.8, and No.11) of Late Permian age from the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, Southwest China, were examined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF),cold-vapor absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), ion-selective electrode (ISE), scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the main workable No.8 Coal that accounts for about 60% of the total coal reserves in the Songzao Coalfield was not enriched in hazardous trace elements. The No.11 Coal has high concentrations of alkaline elements, Be (9.14 μg/g), SC (12.9 μg/g), Ti (9508 μg/g),Mn (397 μg/g), Co (23.7 μg/g), Cu (108 μg/g), Zn (123 μg/g), Ga (32 μg/g), Zr (1304 μg/g), Nb (169 μg/g), Hf (32.7 μg/g), Ta (11.4 μg/g), W (24.8 μg/g), Hg (0.28 μg/g), Pb (28.1 μg/g), Th (24.1 μg/g), and rare earth elements (509.62 μg/g). The concentration of Nb and Ta in the No. 11 Coal is higher than the industrial grade, and their potential utilization should be further studied. Besides pyrite, quartz, calcite, and clay minerals, trace minerals including chalcopyrite, marcasite, siderite, albite, mixed-layer clay minerals of illite and smectite, monazite, apatite, anatase, chlorite, and gypsum were found in the No.11 Coal. It should be noted that alabandite of hydrothermal origin and anatase occurring as cement were identified in coal. In addition, the clayey microbands derived from alkaline volcanic ashes were identified in the coal. The dominant compositions of these clayey microbands were mixed-layer clay minerals of illite and smectite, which were interlayered with organic bands. The modes of occurrence of alkaline volcanic ash bands indicate that the volcanic activities were characterized by the multiple eruptions,short time interval and small scale for each eruption during

  20. 西安碑林博物馆库房降尘的检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟炜; 金普军; 南普恒


    With the environment scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDAX energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the dust falls of the new and old storehouses of the Beilin (Stele Forest) Museum are tested. The results show that the compositions of the new and old storehouses of the Beilin Museum are rather complicated:the distributions of the main elements are roughly the same;the dust fall in the old storehouses has low proportion of organic compounds, but that in the new storehouses has rather high proportion;the main ingredients of the dust are quartz (SiO2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) and albite (NaAlSi3O8), which bear certain acidity. The characteristics of the compositions of the dust falls in the storehouses show that dust-prooifng processes should be applied to the paper artifacts such as the calligraphy and painting artworks stored in these storehouses to prevent the fungi and acidic materials in the dust from damaging the ifber structures of the paper artifacts.%本文利用了环境电子显微镜/能谱仪(SEM/EDAX),X-射线衍射仪(XRD)等方法对碑林博物馆新旧库房中的降尘进行了检测分析。结果发现:碑林新旧库房中的灰尘成分复杂,主要元素分布特征基本一致;老库房灰尘有机物含量显著下降,新灰尘中则存在着大量的有机物;灰尘中主要物质为石英(SiO 2),碳酸钙(CaCO 3),石膏(CaSO4·2H 2 O)和钠长石(NaAlSi 3 O8),具有一定的酸性。库房降尘的组成结构特点说明对其中保存的字画类文物需要开展必要的防尘处理,以避免灰尘中霉菌和酸性物质对纸张纤维结构的破坏作用。

  1. Fluorapatite in carbonatite-related phosphate deposits: the case of the Matongo carbonatite (Burundi) (United States)

    Decrée, Sophie; Boulvais, Philippe; Tack, Luc; André, Luc; Baele, Jean-Marc


    The Matongo carbonatite intrusive body in the Neoproterozoic Upper Ruvubu alkaline plutonic complex (URAPC) in Burundi is overlain by an economic phosphate ore deposit that is present as breccia lenses. The ore exhibits evidence of supergene enrichment but also preserves textures related to the concentration of fluorapatite in the carbonatitic system. Magmatic fluorapatite is abundant in the ore and commonly occurs as millimeter-sized aggregates. It is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE), which is especially apparent in the final generation of magmatic fluorapatite (up to 1.32 wt% LREE2O3). After an episode of metasomatism (fenitization), which led to the formation of K-feldspar and albite, the fluorapatite-rich rocks were partly brecciated. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions obtained on the calcite forming the breccia matrix (δ18O = 22.1 ‰ and δ13C = -1.5 ‰) are consistent with the involvement of a fluid resulting from the mixing of magmatic-derived fluids with a metamorphic fluid originating from the country rocks. In a subsequent postmagmatic event, the carbonates hosting fluorapatite were dissolved, leading to intense brecciation of the fluorapatite-rich rocks. Secondary carbonate-fluorapatite (less enriched in LREE with 0.07-0.24 wt% LREE2O3 but locally associated with monazite) and coeval siderite constitute the matrix of these breccias. Siderite has δ18O values between 25.4 and 27.7 ‰ and very low δ13C values (from -12.4 to -9.2 ‰), which are consistent with the contribution of organic-derived low δ13C carbon from groundwater. These signatures emphasize supergene alteration. Finally, the remaining voids were filled with a LREE-poor fibrous fluorapatite (0.01 wt% LREE2O3), forming hardened phosphorite, still under supergene conditions. Pyrochlore and vanadiferous magnetite are other minerals accumulated in the eluvial horizons. As a consequence of the supergene processes and fluorapatite accumulation, the phosphate ore, which

  2. Brittle deformation in Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT): A study of pseudotachylyte bearing fractures along Gangavalli Shear Zone (GSZ), Tamil Nadu, India. (United States)

    mohan Behera, Bhuban; Thirukumaran, Venugopal; Biswal, Tapas kumar


    High grade metamorphism and intense deformation have given a well recognition to the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India. TTG-Charnockite and basic granulites constitute the dominant lithoassociation of the area. Dunite-peridotite-anorthosite-shonkinite and syenites are the intrusives. TTG-charnockite-basic granulite have undergone F1 (isoclinal recumbent), F2 (NE-SW) and F3 (NW-SE) folds producing several interference pattern. E-W trending Neoarchean and Palaeoproterozoic Salem-Attur Shear Zone exhibits a low angle ductile thrust as well as some foot print of late stage brittle deformation near Gangavalli area of Tamil Nadu. The thrust causes exhumation of basic granulites to upper crust. Thrusting along the decollement has retrograded the granulite into amphibolite rock. Subsequently, deformation pattern of Gangavalli area has distinctly marked by numerous vertical to sub-vertical fractures mostly dominating along 0-15 and 270-300 degree within charnockite hills that creates a maximum stress (σ1) along NNW and minimum stress (σ3) along ENE. However, emplacement of pseudotachylyte vein along N-S dominating fracture indicates a post deformational seismic event. Extensive fractures produce anastomose vein with varying thickness from few millimeters to 10 centimeters on the outcrop. ICP-AES study results an isochemical composition of pseudotachylyte vein that derived from the host charnockitic rock where it occurs. But still some noticeable variation in FeO-MgO and Na2O-CaO are obtained from different parts within the single vein showing heterogeneity melt. Electron probe micro analysis of thin sections reveals the existence of melt immiscibility during its solidification. Under dry melting condition, albitic rich melts are considered to be the most favorable composition for microlites (e.g. sheaf and acicular micro crystal) re-crystallization. Especially, acicular microlites preserved tachylite texture that suggest its formation before the final coagulation

  3. Copper Metallogenic Conditions and Prospecting Direction of Zoumadi Ore Block of Wuding County%武定县走马地矿段铜矿成矿条件及找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋禹霖; 范柱国; 宋尚鑫


    武定地区区域矿产资源极丰富,矿区经过40多年的勘查,共发现各类矿点百余个,综合研究表明,武定县平地耀左所铜矿床类型以“东川式”铜矿最重要,分布在金钟罩、鸡冠山、油基田、周家箐、走马地、黄龙河、牛德庄等地;次为稀矿山式,主要在蒿枝地,走马地等地。“东川式”铜矿:落雪组底部过渡层,“稀矿山式”铁铜矿:因民组下部,同生断裂旁侧,古火山机构中的火山洼地,火山旋回的中上部,富含Na2O的细碧角斑岩系,硅质岩、萤石岩、钠长岩等喷流岩以及黑云母、绿泥石火山凝灰岩的分布区。%Regional mineral resources of Wuding region are extremely rich, after 40 years of mining exploration, all kinds of hundred mines were found. Comprehensive studies show that, "Dongchuan style" copper mine is the most important mine in Wuding Pingdi-Zuosuo copper deposits, which located in Jinzhongzhao, Jiguanshan, oil-based fields, Zhoujiaqing, Zoumadi, Huanglong River, Niudezhuang etc.;Dilute mine type is the second important, mainly in Artemisia sticks, Zoumadi and other places. "Dongchuan style" copper mine: bottom snow group buffer layer; "dilute mine type" iron-copper: due to the lower part of the public group, contemporaneous faults flanking the ancient volcano volcanic depressions institutions, volcanic cycles in the upper rich Na2O of spilite porphyry system, chert, fluorite rock, rock and other jet albite rock and biotite, chlorite volcanic tuff distribution.

  4. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece (United States)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.


    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  5. Archaeological jade mystery solved using a 119-year-old rock collection specimen (United States)

    Harlow, G. E.; Davies, H. L.; Summerhayes, G. R.; Matisoo-Smith, E.


    In a recent publication (Harlow et al. 2012), a ~3200-year old small stone artefact from an archaeological excavation on Emirau Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea was described and determined to be a piece of jadeite jade (jadeitite). True jadeitite from any part of New Guinea was not previously known, either in an archaeological or geological context, so this object was of considerable interest with respect to its geological source and what that would mean about trade between this source and Emirau Island. Fortuitously, the artefact, presumably a wood-carving gouge, is very unusual with respect to both pyroxene composition and minor mineral constituents. Pyroxene compositions lie essentially along the jadeite-aegirine join: Jd94Ae6 to Jd63Ae36, and without any coexisting omphacite. This contrasts with Jd-Di or Jd-Aug compositional trends commonly observed in jadeitites worldwide. Paragonite and albite occur in veins and cavities with minor titanite, epidote-allanite, and zircon, an assemblage seen in a few jadeitites. Surprisingly, some titanite contains up to 6 wt% Nb2O5 with only trace Ta and a single grain of a Y-Nb phase (interpreted as fergusonite) is present; these are unique for jadeitite. In a historical tribute to C.E.A. Wichmann, a German geologist who taught at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, a previously unpublished description of chlormelanite from the Torare River in extreme northeast Papua, Indonesia was given. The bulk composition essentially matches the pyroxene composition of the jade, so this sample was hypothesized as coming from the source. We were able to arrange a loan from the petrology collection at Utrecht University of the specimen acquired by Wichmann in 1893. In addition we borrowed stone axes from the Natural History Museum - Naturalis in Leiden obtained from natives near what is now Jayapura in eastern-most Papua. Petrography and microprobe analysis of sections of these samples clearly show that (1) Wichmann's 1893

  6. Strain localization in brittle-ductile shear zones: fluid abundant vs fluid limited conditions (an example from Wyangala area, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Spruzeniece


    Full Text Available This study focuses on physiochemical processes occurring in a brittle-ductile shear zone at both fluid-present and fluid-limited conditions. In the studied shear zone (Wyangala, SE Australia, a coarse-grained two feldspar-quartz-biotite granite is transformed into a medium grained orthogneiss at the shear zone margins and a fine-grained quartz-muscovite phyllonite in the central parts. The orthogneiss displays cataclasis of feldspar and crystal-plastic deformation of quartz. Quartz accommodates most of the deformation and is extensively recrystallized showing distinct crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO. Feldspar-to-muscovite, biotite-to-muscovite and albitization reactions occur locally at porphyroclasts' fracture surfaces and margins. However, the bulk rock composition shows very little change in respect to the wall rock composition. In contrast, in the shear zone centre quartz occurs as large, weakly deformed porphyroclasts, in sizes similar to that in the wall rock, suggesting that it has undergone little deformation. Feldspars and biotite are almost completely reacted to muscovite, which is arranged in a fine-grained interconnected matrix. Muscovite-rich layers contain significant amounts of fine-grained intermixed quartz with random CPO. These domains are interpreted to have accommodated most of the strain. Bulk rock chemistry data shows a significant increase in SiO2 and depletion in NaO content compared to the wall rock composition. We suggest that the high and low strain fabrics represent markedly different scenarios and cannot be interpreted as a simple sequential development with respect to strain. We suggest that the fabrics and mineralogical changes in the shear zone centre have formed due to fluid influx probably along an initially brittle fracture. Here, hydration reactions dramatically changed the rheological properties of the rock. In the newly produced muscovite-quartz layers creep cavitation associated with grain

  7. Tectonic record, magmatic history and hydrothermal alteration in the Hercynian Guérande leucogranite, Armorican Massif, France (United States)

    Ballouard, C.; Boulvais, P.; Poujol, M.; Gapais, D.; Yamato, P.; Tartèse, R.; Cuney, M.


    The Guérande peraluminous leucogranite was emplaced at the end of the Carboniferous in the southern part of the Armorican Massif. At the scale of the intrusion, this granite displays structural heterogeneities with a weak deformation in the southwestern part, whereas the northwestern part is marked by the occurrence of S/C and mylonitic extensional fabrics. Quartz veins and pegmatite dykes orientations as well as lineations directions in the granite and its country rocks demonstrate both E-W and N-S stretching. Therefore, during its emplacement in an extensional tectonic regime, the syntectonic Guérande granite has probably experienced some partitioning of the deformation. The southwestern part is characterized by a muscovite-biotite assemblage, the presence of restites and migmatitic enclaves, and a low abundance of quartz veins compared to pegmatite dykes. In contrast, the northwestern part is characterized by a muscovite-tourmaline assemblage, evidence of albitization and gresenization and a larger amount of quartz veins. The southwestern part is thus interpreted as the feeding zone of the intrusion whereas the northwestern part corresponds to its apical zone. The granite samples display continuous compositional evolutions in the range of 69.8-75.3 wt.% SiO2. High initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and low εNd(T) values suggest that the peraluminous Guérande granite (A/CNK > 1.1) was formed by partial melting of metasedimentary formations. Magmatic evolution was controlled primarily by fractional crystallization of K-feldspar, biotite and plagioclase (An20). The samples from the apical zone show evidence of secondary muscovitization. They are also characterized by a high content in incompatible elements such as Cs and Sn, as well as low Nb/Ta and K/Rb ratios. The apical zone of the Guérande granite underwent a pervasive hydrothermal alteration during or soon after its emplacement. U-Th-Pb dating on zircon and monazite revealed that the Guérande granite was emplaced

  8. Relative contributions of crust and mantle to the origin of the Bijli Rhyolite in a palaeoproterozoic bimodal volcanic sequence (Dongargarh Group), central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarajit Sensarma; S Hoernes; Dhruba Mukhopadhyay


    New mineralogical, bulk chemical and oxygen isotope data on the Palaeoproterozoic Bijli Rhyolite, the basal unit of a bimodal volcanic sequence (Dongargarh Group) in central India, and one of the most voluminous silicic volcanic expressions in the Indian Shield, are presented. The Bijli Rhyolite can be recognized as a poorly sorted pyroclastic deposit, and comprises of phenocrystic K-feldspar + albite ± anorthoclase set in fine-grained micro-fragmental matrix of quartz-feldsparsericite- chlorite-iron-oxide ± calcite. The rocks are largely metaluminous with high SiO2, Na2O+ KO, Fe/Mg, Ga/Al, Zr, Ta, Sn, Y, REE and low CaO, Ba, Sr contents; the composition points to an ‘A-type granite’ melt. The rocks show negative Cs-, Sr-, Eu- and Ti- anomalies with incompatible element concentrations 2–3 times more than the upper continental crust (UCC). LREE is high (La/Yb ∼20) and HREE 20-30 times chondritic. 18 Owhole-rock varies between 4.4 and 7.8‰(mean 5.87 ± 1.26‰). The Bijli melt is neither formed by fractionation of a basaltic magma, nor does it represent a fractionated crustal melt. It is shown that the mantle-derived high temperature basaltic komatiitic melts/high Mg basalts triggered crustal melting, and interacted predominantly with deep crust compositionally similar to the Average Archaean Granulite (AAG), and a shallower crustal component with low CaO and Al2O3 to give rise to the hybrid Bijli melts. Geochemical mass balance suggests that ∼30% partial melting of AAG under anhydrous condition, instead of the upper continental crust (UCC) including the Amgaon granitoid gneiss reported from the area, better matches the trace element concentrations in the rocks. The similar Ta/Th of the rhyolites (0.060) and average granulite (0.065) vs. UCC (0.13) also support a deep crustal protolith. Variable contributions of crust and mantle, and action of hydrothermal fluid are attributed for the spread in 18Owhole-rock values. The fast eruption of high

  9. The Bagni di Lucca thermal waters (Tuscany, Italy): an example of Ca-SO 4 waters with high Na/Cl and low Ca/SO 4 ratios (United States)

    Boschetti, Tiziano; Venturelli, Giampiero; Toscani, Lorenzo; Barbieri, Maurizio; Mucchino, Claudio


    The Bagni di Lucca thermal waters (Lucca province, Tuscany, Italy) have been well known since the Middle Age for their alleged curative properties. In the present work, the waters have been analysed for major and trace components and for O, H, S and Sr isotopes. The δ 2H and δ 18O values indicate a meteoric origin of the waters and the tritium content suggests long-term (more than 40 years) circulation at depth. The δ 34S values in dissolved sulphate of the warmest waters (Doccione, Paolina, Bernabò, Demidoff, Cova) indicate interaction with Triassic evaporites; however, the δ 34S values as well as the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios in the waters appear to be a little higher (on average 17.6±0.4‰ and 0.70834±0.00006, respectively) than in Triassic sulphate minerals from the Northern Apennines (16.0±0.5‰ and 0.70778±0.00011). The waters are Ca-sulphate and characterised by high Na/Cl (≌2) and low Ca/SO 4 (≌0.7) mole ratios, high Sr (≤12 mg/L), F (≤4.2 mg/L), As (≤80 μg/L), Cs (≤70 μg/L), Rb (≤107 μg/L) and salinity (up to 3087 mg/L of total dissolved solids), low alkalinity, and pH in the range 6.3-7.5. Assuming equilibrium of the waters with anhydrite and chalcedony, the evaluated temperature and pressure are about 70-75 °C and 200-300 bar; considering the pressure as hydrostatic, the evaluated depth of equilibration approaches that of the metamorphic basement (about 3.0-3.8 km) underlying the carbonate-evaporite formations occurring in the area. Thermodynamic computations indicate that the high Na/Cl ratio and the low Ca/SO 4 ratio in the waters may be due to progressive dissolution of albite, anhydrite, dolomite and carbon dioxide accompanied by calcite precipitation. The linear correlations between the major and trace components, including 2H and 18O, demonstrate that thermal springs undergo dilution by low-salinity shallow waters which are recharged at low elevation.

  10. Geology and geochemistry of the shear-hosted Julie gold deposit, NW Ghana (United States)

    Amponsah, Prince Ofori; Salvi, Stefano; Béziat, Didier; Siebenaller, Luc; Baratoux, Lenka; Jessell, Mark W.


    The Leo Man Craton in West Africa is host to numerous economic gold deposits. If some regions, such as the SW of Ghana, are well known for world-class mineralizations and have been extensively studied, gold occurrences elsewhere in the craton have been discovered only in the last half a century or so, and very little is known about them. The Julie gold deposit, located in the Paleoproterozoic Birimian terrane of NW Ghana, is one such case. This deposit is hosted in a series of granitoid intrusives of TTG composition, and consists of a network of deformed, boudinaged quartz lodes (A-type veins) contained within an early DJ1 E-W trending shear zone with dextral characteristics. A conjugate set of veins (C-type) perpendicular to the A-type veins contains low grade mineralization. The main ore zone defines a lenticular corridor about 20-50 m in width and about 3.5 km along strike, trending E-W and dipping between 30 and 60°N. The corridor is strongly altered, by an assemblage of sericite + quartz + ankerite + calcite + tourmaline + pyrite. This is surrounded by a second alteration assemblage, consisting of albite + sericite + calcite + chlorite + pyrite + rutile, which marks a lateral alteration that fades into the unaltered rock. Mass balance calculations show that during alteration overall mass was conserved and elemental transfer is generally consistent with sulfidation, sericitization and carbonatization of the host TTG. Gold is closely associated with pyrite, which occurs as disseminated grains in the veins and in the host rock, within the mineralized corridor. SEM imagery and LA-ICP-MS analyses of pyrites indicate that in A-type veins gold is associated with bismuth, tellurium, lead and silver, while in C-type veins it is mostly associated with silver. Pyrites in A-type veins contain gold as inclusions and as free gold on its edges and fractures, while pyrites from C-type veins contains mostly free gold. Primary and pseudosecondary fluid inclusions from both

  11. CO2-rich geothermal areas in Iceland as natural analogues for geologic carbon sequestration (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Brown, G. E.; Arnorsson, S.


    -temperature and late stage low-temperature alteration. Imaging results from scanning electron microscopy show that calcite has replaced hydrothermally altered silicate minerals, such as albitic plagioclase. CO2-rich low-temperature fluids are not in equilibrium with correlative high-temperature hydrothermal mineral assemblages, indicating that the kinetics of mineral dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation, along with fluid residence times, are important controls on CO2 alteration and mineral formation at low temperatures. Our results have implications for predicting mineral product formation and trace element release during geologic carbon sequestration into hydrothermally altered basalts.

  12. Geochemical characteristics of the Shujiadian Cu deposit related intrusion in Tongling: Petrogenesis and implications for the formation of porphyry Cu systems in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Cooke, David R.; Zhang, Lejun; Fu, Bin; White, Noel C.


    Porphyry Cu deposits can form in intracontinental or post-collision settings; however, both the genesis of fertile magmas and the mechanism of metal enrichment remain controversial. The Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit is located in the Tongling area of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt. It is hosted by the Shujiadian complex, which mainly consists of quartz diorite porphyry (143.7 ± 1.7 Ma) and pyroxene diorite (139.8 ± 1.6 Ma). They both belong to the calc-alkaline series, with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in high field-strength elements (HFSE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE), and slightly negative Eu anomalies. Both quartz diorite porphyry and pyroxene diorite have geochemical affinities with adakite, and their low MgO (1.5-3.7 wt%), and Ni (3.7-6.9 ppm), Cr (2.0-44 ppm), and Th/Ce contents (0.06-0.11) indicate that the intrusive rocks have some characteristics of adakite-like rocks derived from thickened lower crust and melts from metabasaltic rocks and eclogites. Plagioclases from the quartz diorite porphyry are andesine (An value = 31.8-40.5) and from the pyroxene diorite are felsic albite and oligoclase with large-scale zones and variable An value (An value = 8.9-18.3), Fe and Sr contents, which indicate that mixing of mafic and felsic magma may have occurred in the shallow magma chamber. Compared to the barren quartz diorite porphyry, relatively lower SiO2 contents (49.5-55.2 wt.%), higher εNd(t) values (- 7.4 to - 6.9), εHf(t) values (- 11.0 to - 9.1) compositions, Ti-in-zircon temperatures (714-785 °C), and variations of HREE contents of the mineralization-related pyroxene diorite suggest mixing with high-temperature mafic magma. Calculated Ce4 +/Ce3 + values of pyroxene diorite plot between the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO) and magnetite-hematite buffer (MH), and barren quartz diorite porphyry samples plot below the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO). Geochemical features of

  13. Physical, Chemical and Mineral Properties of the Polonnaruwa Stones (United States)

    Wallis, Jamie; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, Daryl H.; Miyake, Nori; Wallis, M. K.; Hoover, Richard B.; Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Oldroyd, Anthony

    We report on the physical, chemical and mineral properties of a series of stone fragments recovered from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka following a witnessed fireball event on 29 December 2012. The stones exhibit highly porous poikilitic textures comprising of isotropic silica-rich/plagioclase-like hosts. Inclusions range in size and shape from mm-sized to smaller subangular grains frequently more fractured than the surrounding host and include ilmenite, olivine (fayalitic), quartz and accessory zircon. Bulk mineral compositions include accessory cristobalite, hercynite, anorthite, wuestite, albite, anorthoclase and the high pressure olivine polymorph wadsleyite, suggesting previous endurance of a shock pressure of ~20GPa. Further evidence of shock is confirmed by theconversion of all plagioclase to maskelynite. Here the infrared absorption spectra in the region 580 cm-1 to 380 cm-1 due to the Si-O-Si or Si-O-Al absorption band shows a partial shift in the peak at 380 cm-1 towards 480 cm-1 indicating an intermediate position between crystalline and amorphous phase. Host matrix chemical compositions vary between samples, but all are rich in SiO2. Silica-rich melts display a heterogeneous K-enrichment comparable to that reported in a range of nonterrestrial material from rare iron meteorites to LL chondritic breccias and Lunar granites. Bulk chemical compositions of plagioclase-like samples are comparable to reported data e.g. Miller Ranger 05035 (Lunar), while Si-rich samples accord well with mafic and felsic glasses reported in NWA 1664 (Howardite)as well asdata for fusion crust present in a variety of meteoritic samples.Triple oxygen isotope results show Δ17O = .0.335 with δ18O (‰ rel. SMOW) values of 17.816 ± 0.100 and compare well with those of known CI chondrites and are within the range of CI-like (Meta-C) chondrites. Rare earth elemental abundances show a profound Europium anomaly of between 0.7 and 0.9 ppm while CI normalized REE patterns

  14. Geochemical Charactristics and Genesis of Topaz—Bearing Porphyries in Yangbin Area of Taishun County,Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德滋; 刘昌实; 等


    The host rocks of the porphyry tin deposits in the Yangbin area are prince-pally topaz-bearing porphyry dikes about 2 km long and 2-20m wide.Three lithologic types are identified for the dikes:topaz-bearing potassium feldspar granitic porphyry,topaz-bearing monzonitic granitic porphyry and topaz-bearing quartz porphyry.The con-tent of topaz in the rocks ranges from 10 to 20 vol.%.Porphyritic texture is characteristic,with quartz,potassium feldspar and albite as main phenocryst minerals.The phenocryst occupies 10-20vol% of the rocks.The rock groundmass consists of subhedrak topaz,quartz and protolithionite.Topaz has a unit-cell parameter b=8.797(A)°,and F:OH=1.92:0.18, indicating a F-rich variety formed at high temperature .The topaz-bearing porphyries occurring in this area are strongly peraluminous (A/NKC=1.574-12.94),with high ra-tios of F/C1(146-303) and Rb/Sr(5-122).They are rich in incompatible elements (Sn,313×10-6-1042×10-6;W,6×10-6-218×10-6;Nb,27×10-6-54×10-6),but poor in compatible elements (Sr,10×10-6-28×10-6;Ba,58×10-6-73×10-6;V,3×10-6-10×10-6,Cl,150×10-6-226×10-6).The rocks are also characterized by high total REE amount (281.69×10-6-319.76×10-6);with strong Eu depletion (&Eu=0.01-0.03)and low ratio of LREE/HREE(0.78-0.84).In summary ,the authors propose propose an idea of S-type genesis for the topaz-bearing porphyries with tin mineralization,instead of I-type.

  15. Geological Characteristics and Genesis of the Spodumene Deposit in Dangba, Barkam, Sichuan Province%四川省马尔康党坝锂辉石矿床地质特征及成因研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞博; 古城会; 李良波; 罗伟; 李剑


    马尔康党坝锂辉石矿位于松潘-甘孜造山带、巴颜喀拉造山带之马尔康复式向斜之南端.矿区出露三叠系地层,断裂、褶皱构造较发育,岩浆岩以燕山晚期二云二长花岗岩为主,是花岗伟晶岩脉的母岩.锂辉石矿体呈大脉状产出,矿石矿物有锂辉石、钽铌铁矿、锰锂矿等,脉石矿物有石英、微斜长石、钠-更长石.矿石结构为细粒-中粒结构,次为交代结构、熔蚀结构.矿石构造以块状构造为主,次为似斑状、浸染状和条带状构造.围岩蚀变主要为锂云母化、白云母化和黑云母化,成因类型为伟晶岩矿床.%Barkam county Dangba spodumene deposit is located in Songpan-Ganzi orogenic belt, the southern tip of the Barkam of the Bayan Har orogenic belt. The mining area outcrops of Triassic strata. Fractures and fold structures are developed. Magmatic rocks contains mostly the late Yanshanian the dimicaceous adamellite, that is parent rocks of granitic pegmatite veins. The orebodies are the large vein outputs. The ore minerals are spodumene, tantalum-niobium-iron ore, lithium manganese ore, and so on. Gangue minerals are quartz, feldspar, albite-oligoclase. The ore structures have fine-grained-medium-grained structure, and then account structure, corrosion structure. Ore constructed to massive structure based, and then porphyritic, disseminated and banded structure. Wall rocks alteration mainly includes lepidolitization, muscovitization and biotitization. Genetic type is pegmatite deposits.

  16. Management of city aquifers from anthropogenic activities: Example of the Windhoek aquifer, Namibia (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin S.; Schreiber, Ute

    As the city of Windhoek is growing rapidly, it has become increasingly obvious that dangers to the underlying groundwater aquifer have become imminent, and need addressing immediately. Water infiltration and the transportation of contaminants from anthropogenic activities through soils into the bedrock and hence the aquifer involve soil maturity, chemical and microbial processes and the climate of a particular area. The thin immature soil horizon (circa 5-20 cm) over the Windhoek schist implies that most areas of the city are built directly on bedrock, making the aquifer vulnerable. Anthropogenic activities from the use of pesticides for weed control, oil spills, toxic chemical spills, dumping of undesired substances by residents and high fertilizer application rates for lawns can lead to the contamination of groundwater. The result of our study show that the soil composition in Windhoek lacks mature clay minerals and is enriched in micas, quartz and albite. Some areas in the northern and southern industrial areas show contamination in heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. To the west of the city, close to the textile factory, soils are contaminated with ammonium compounds. The hydrochemistry of these pesticides and fertilizers can cause severe pollution to the groundwater if the practice is not carefully monitored. In addition, the rapid expansion of uncontrolled settlements without proper sanitation and reticulation has made the problems much more difficult. The geology of the city of Windhoek consists of the Kuiseb Schist, locally known as the “Windhoek Schist” and amphibolites. The Kuiseb schist possesses pervasive cleavage that renders the underlying lithology to be permeable to percolating water and fluids from the surface into the aquifer. The fissility and fracture density of the schist imply that leakage of surface waters, phenols, septic tank spills and industrial contaminants may reach the aquifer in unusually high rainfall years. Organic fuels and oils

  17. Effects of chemical alteration on fracture mechanical properties in hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Callahan, O. A.; Eichhubl, P.; Olson, J. E.


    Fault and fracture networks often control the distribution of fluids and heat in hydrothermal and epithermal systems, and in related geothermal and mineral resources. Additional chemical influences on conduit evolution are well documented, with dissolution and precipitation of mineral species potentially changing the permeability of fault-facture networks. Less well understood are the impacts of chemical alteration on the mechanical properties governing fracture growth and fracture network geometry. We use double-torsion (DT) load relaxation tests under ambient air conditions to measure the mode-I fracture toughness (KIC) and subcritical fracture growth index (SCI) of variably altered rock samples obtained from outcrop in Dixie Valley, NV. Samples from southern Dixie Valley include 1) weakly altered granite, characterized by minor sericite in plagioclase, albitization and vacuolization of feldspars, and incomplete replacement of biotite with chlorite, and 2) granite from an area of locally intense propylitic alteration with chlorite-calcite-hematite-epidote assemblages. We also evaluated samples of completely silicified gabbro obtained from the Dixie Comstock epithermal gold deposit. In the weakly altered granite KIC and SCI are 1.3 ±0.2 MPam1/2 (n=8) and 59 ±25 (n=29), respectively. In the propylitic assemblage KIC is reduced to 0.6 ±0.1 MPam1/2 (n=11), and the SCI increased to 75 ±36 (n = 33). In both cases, the altered materials have lower fracture toughness and higher SCI than is reported for common geomechanical standards such as Westerly Granite (KIC ~1.7 MPam1/2; SCI ~48). Preliminary analysis of the silicified gabbro shows a significant increase in fracture toughness, 3.6 ±0.4 MPam1/2 (n=2), and SCI, 102 ±45 (n=19), compared to published values for gabbro (2.9 MPam1/2 and SCI = 32). These results suggest that mineralogical and textural changes associated with different alteration assemblages may result in spatially variable rates of fracture

  18. Abiotic degradation rates for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform: Final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.


    This report documents the objectives, technical approach, and progress made through FY 2012 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The project also sought to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. We conducted 114 hydrolysis rate experiments in sealed vessels across a temperature range of 20-93 °C for periods as long as 6 years, and used the Arrhenius equation to estimate activation energies and calculate half-lives for typical Hanford groundwater conditions (temperature of 16 °C and pH of 7.75). We calculated a half-life of 630 years for hydrolysis for CT under these conditions and found that CT hydrolysis was unaffected by contact with sterilized, oxidized minerals or Hanford sediment within the sensitivity of our experiments. In contrast to CT, hydrolysis of CF was generally slower and very sensitive to pH due to the presence of both neutral and base-catalyzed hydrolysis pathways. We calculated a half-life of 3400 years for hydrolysis of CF in homogeneous solution at 16 °C and pH 7.75. Experiments in suspensions of Hanford sediment or smectite, the dominant clay mineral in Hanford sediment, equilibrated to an initial pH of 7.2, yielded calculated half-lives of 1700 years and 190 years, respectively, at 16 °C. Experiments with three other mineral phases at the same pH (muscovite mica, albite feldspar, and kaolinite) showed no change from the homogeneous solution results (i.e., a half-life of 3400 years). The strong influence of Hanford sediment on CF hydrolysis was attributed to the presence of smectite and its ability to adsorb protons, thereby buffering the solution pH at a higher level than would otherwise occur. The project also determined liquid-vapor partition coefficients for CT under the temperatures and pressures encountered in the sealed vessels that

  19. Solid oxide electrolyser cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejgaard Jensen, S.


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) produced at Riso National Laboratory was tested as steam electrolysers under various current densities, operating temperatures and steam partial pressures. At 950 deg. C and a cell voltage of 1.48V the current density was -3.6 A/cm{sup 2} with app. 30% H{sub 2} + 70% H{sub 2}O in the inlet gas and a H{sub 2}O utilization of app. 40%. The tested SOECs were also used for CO{sub 2} electrolysis. Economy studies of CO and H2 production show that especially H{sub 2} production can be competitive in areas with cheap electricity. Assuming the above described initial performance and a lifetime of 10 years it is possible to achieve a production price of 0.7 US dollar/kg H{sub 2} with an electricity price of 1.3 US cent/kWh. The cell voltage was measured as function of time. In test of about two month of duration a long-term degradation was observed. At 850 deg. C, -0.5 A/cm{sup 2} with 50 vol% H{sub 2} the degradation rate was app. 20 mV/1000h. It was shown that the degradation happens at Ni/YSZ-electrode. The long term degradation is probably caused by coarsening of the Ni-particles. After onset of electrolysis operation a transient passivation/reactivation phenomena with duration of several days was observed. It was shown that the phenomenon is attributed to the SiO{sub 2} contamination at the Ni/YSZ electrode-electrolyte interface. The SiO{sub 2} arises from the albite glass sealing (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) that surrounds the electrode. Si may enter the Ni/YSZ electrode via the reaction Si(OH){sub 4}(g) {r_reversible} SiO{sub 2}(l)+H{sub 2}O(g). At the active sites of the Ni/YSZ electrode steam is reduced via the reaction H{sub 2}O - 2e {yields} H{sub 2}+O{sup 2-} . This shifts the equilibrium of the first reaction to form SiO{sub 2}(l) at the active sites. After a certain time the sealing crystallizes and the SiO{sub 2}(l) evaporates from the active sites and the cell reactivates. The passivation is shown to relate to a build up of a

  20. Deep Water Compositions From the Los Angeles Basin and the Origin of Formation Water Salinity (United States)

    Boles, J.; Giles, G.; Lockman, D.


    elevated Ca/Na ratios and K/Na ratios which we attribute to dissolution and albitization of feldspar, mainly plagioclase, at the elevated burial temperatures. As is typical of most formation waters, Mg, Fe, and sulfate ions are highly depleted due to early formed pyrite, Fe-Mg siderite, and dolomite.

  1. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 1: Chemical evolution and water-rock interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin and evolution of formation water from Upper Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous mudstone-packstone-dolomite host rocks at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, located onshore in SE-Mexico at a depth from 5200 to 6200 m.b.s.l., have been investigated, using detailed water geochemistry from 12 producer wells and six closed wells, and related host rock mineralogy. Saline waters of Cl-Na type with total dissolved solids from 10 to 23 g/L are chemically distinct from hypersaline Cl-Ca-Na and Cl-Na-Ca type waters with TDS between 181 and 385 g/L. Bromine/Cl and Br/Na ratios suggest the subaerial evaporation of seawater beyond halite precipitation to explain the extreme hypersaline components, while less saline samples were formed by mixing of high salinity end members with surface-derived, low salinity water components. The dissolution of evaporites from adjacent salt domes has little impact on present formation water composition. Geochemical simulations with Harvie-Mφller-Weare and PHRQPITZ thermodynamic data sets suggest secondary fluid enrichment in Ca, HCO3 and Sr by water-rock interaction. The volumetric mass balance between Ca enrichment and Mg depletion confirms dolomitization as the major alteration process. Potassium/Cl ratios below evaporation trajectory are attributed to minor precipitation of K feldspar and illitization without evidence for albitization at the Jujo-Tecominoacan reservoir. The abundance of secondary dolomite, illite and pyrite in drilling cores from reservoir host rock reconfirms the observed water-rock exchange processes. Sulfate concentrations are controlled by anhydrite solubility as indicated by positive SI-values, although anhydrite deposition is limited throughout the lithological reservoir column. The chemical variety of produced water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil field is related to a sequence of primary and secondary processes, including infiltration of evaporated seawater and original meteoric fluids, the subsequent mixing of

  2. Prediction of Nanoparticle and Colloid Attachment on Unfavorable Mineral Surfaces Using Representative Discrete Heterogeneity. (United States)

    Trauscht, Jacob; Pazmino, Eddy; Johnson, William P


    Despite several decades of research there currently exists no mechanistic theory to predict colloid attachment in porous media under environmental conditions where colloid-collector repulsion exists (unfavorable conditions for attachment). It has long been inferred that nano- to microscale surface heterogeneity (herein called discrete heterogeneity) drives colloid attachment under unfavorable conditions. Incorporating discrete heterogeneity into colloid-collector interaction calculations in particle trajectory simulations predicts colloid attachment under unfavorable conditions. As yet, discrete heterogeneity cannot be independently measured by spectroscopic or other approaches in ways directly relevant to colloid-surface interaction. This, combined with the fact that a given discrete heterogeneity representation will interact differently with differently sized colloids as well as different ionic strengths for a given sized colloid, suggests a strategy to back out representative discrete heterogeneity by a comparison of simulations to experiments performed across a range of colloid size, solution IS, and fluid velocity. This has recently been performed for interaction of carboxylate-modified polystyrene latex (CML) microsphere attachment to soda lime glass at pH 6.7 with NaCl electrolyte. However, extension to other surfaces, pH values, and electrolytes is needed. For this reason, the attachment of CML (0.25, 1.1, and 2.0 μm diameters) from aqueous suspension onto a variety of unfavorable mineral surfaces (soda lime glass, muscovite, and albite) was examined for pH values of 6.7 and 8.0), fluid velocities (1.71 × 10(-3) and 5.94 × 10(-3) m s(-1)), IS (6.0 and 20 mM), and electrolytes (NaCl, CaSO4, and multivalent mixtures). The resulting representative heterogeneities (heterodomain size and surface coverage, where heterodomain refers to nano- to microscale attractive domains) yielded colloid attachment predictions that were compared to predictions from existing

  3. Applicability of flow laws to naturally deformed polyphase rocks (United States)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Heilbronner, Renée; Stünitz, Holger


    Small scale shear zones formed in the Gran Paradiso metagranodiorite under lower amphibolite facies conditions (~550°C/0.8 GPa LeGoff & Ballevre, 1990; Brouwer et al.,2002). Based on detailed microstructural work the deformation mechanisms of the different rheological phases have been identified. Polycrystalline quartz aggregates deform by dislocation creep (gbm recrystallization), whereas the polymineralic matrix deforms by diffusion creep (Kilian et al., 2011). Iso - stress conditions (Sachs-average) are assumed based on a constant recrystallized quartz grain size and the formation of shear-parallel layers. Deformed quartz aggregates show higher rotation angle / lower aspect ratio relations, little coalescence, and only minor pinch and swell structures, which altogether suggest that quartz represents the more viscous phase in a somewhat lower viscous matrix. At high strain quartz is completely recrystallized and forms parallel layers with the matrix and does not boudinage. Experimental flow laws for quartz and feldspar from the literature as well as the theoretically derived flow law for Coble creep with the appropriate parameters can reproduce the observed relation between quartz aggregates and matrix suggesting a strain rate ratio below 2 orders of magnitude. A comparison of data from different granitic rocks deformed between 450° to ~ 600°C suggests that a combination of a quartz creep law and a Coble creep law can be used for extrapolation at medium grade, natural conditions. These results provide an indication for the range of reasonable flow law parameters and viscosity ratios which are useful for modeling purposes. References: Kilian, R., Heilbronner, R., Stünitz, H. Quartz grain size reduction in a granitoid rock and the transition from dislocation to diffusion creep. JSG 33,1265-1284,2011. LeGoff, E., Ballevre, M. Geothermobarometry in albite-garnet orthogneisses - a case-study from the Gran-Paradiso Nappe (Western Alps). Lithos, 25,261-280,1990. F

  4. Formation Water Geochemistry and Its Controlling Factors: Case Study on Shiwu Rifted Sub-basin of Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A common way to trace fluid flow and hydrocarbon accumulation is by studying the geochemistry of formation water. This paper focuses on the spacial distribution of the geochemical features of the formation water in the Shiwu Rifted Basin and its indication of the water-rock interaction processes. The hydrodynamic field controls the spacial distribution of formation water. Due to the penetration of meteoric water, the salinity is below 4,500mg/L at the basin margin and the severely faulted central ridge and increases basin ward to 7,000-10,000mg/L. The vertical change of formation water can be divided into 3 zones, which correspond respectively to the free replacement zone (<1,250m), the obstructed replacement zone (1,250m-1,650m) and thelagged zone (>1,650m) in hydrodynamics. In the free replacement zone, the formation water is NaHCO3-type with its salinity increased to 10,000mg/L. The formation water in the obstructed replacement zone is Na2SO4-type with its salinity decreased to 5,000mg/L-7,000mg/L because of the dehydration of mud rocks. The formation water in the lagged zone is CaCl2-type, but its salinity decreases sharply at a depth of 1,650m and then increases vertically downward to 10,000mg/L. This phenomenon can be best explained by the osmosis effect rather than the dehydration of mud rocks. The relationships between Cl--HCO3- and Na++K+-Ca2+ show that the initial water-rock interaction is the dissolution of NaCl and calcium-bearing carbonate, causing an increase of Na+-K+-Ca2+-Cl- and salinity. The succeeding water-rock interaction is albitization, which leads to a decrease of Na+ and an increase of Ca2+ simultaneously, and generates CaCl2-type fluid. The above analysis shows that the geochemical evolution of formation water is governed by the water-rock interactions, while its spacial distribution is controlled by the hydrological conditions. The water-rock interaction processes are supported by other geological observations, suggesting that

  5. Mineralogical, IR-spectral and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal alteration in a deformed and metamorphosed Jurassic VMS deposit at Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (United States)

    Biel, C.; Subías, I.; Acevedo, R. D.; Yusta, I.; Velasco, F.


    The Arroyo Rojo Zn-Pb-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit is the main deposit of the Fin del Mundo District in the Fuegian Andes, Argentina. This deposit is hosted by a Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanoclastic sequence forming the Lemaire Formation. The latter consists, from the base up, of the following: rhyolitic and dacitic porphyritic rocks, ignimbrite, tuff, and flow. It is underlain by a pre-Jurassic basement and overlain by the hyaloclastic andesites of the Yahgán Formation. The Arroyo Rojo consists of stacked lenticular lenses that are associated with disseminated mineralization in both the footwall and the hanging wall. The internal structure of the ore lenses is marked by the occurrence of massive, semi-massive and banded facies, along with stringer and brecciated zones and minor ore disseminations. The mineral assemblage comprises mainly pyrite and sphalerite, with minor amounts of galena and chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite and bournonite. The ores and the volcanic host rocks have metamorphosed to greenschist facies and were overprinted by a penetrative tectonic foliation, which led to the development of mylonitic, and cataclastic textures, recrystallization and remobilization. Primary depositional characteristics and regional and hydrothermal alteration patterns were preserved despite deformation and metamorphism. Therefore, primary banding was preserved between facies boundaries. In addition, some remnants of magmatic origin are recognizable in preserved phenocrysts and volcaniclastic phenoclasts. Most of the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the host sequence show a rhyolitic to rhyo-dacitic composition. Regional seafloor alteration, characterized by the presence of clinozoisite, Fe-chlorite and titanite, along with quartz and albite, is partially obliterated by hydrothermal alteration. The hydrothermal alteration is stratabound with the following assemblages, which developed from the base to top: (1) Quartz

  6. Secondary electron emission from lunar soil by solar wind type ion impact: Laboratory measurements (United States)

    Dukes, Catherine; Bu, Caixia; Baragiola, Raul A.


    Introduction: The lunar surface potential is determined by time-varying fluxes of electrons and ions from the solar wind, photoelectrons ejected by UV photons, cosmic rays, and micrometeorite impacts. Solar wind ions have a dual role in the charging process, adding positive charge to the lunar regolith upon impact and ejecting negative secondary electrons (SE). Electron emission occurs when the energy from the impacting ion is transferred to the solid, ionizing and damaging the material; electrons with kinetic energy greater than the ionization potential (band gap + electron affinity) are ejected from the solid[1].Experiment: We investigate the energy distribution of secondary electrons ejected from Apollo soils of varying maturity and lunar analogs by 4 keV He+. Soils are placed into a shallow Al cup and compressed. In-situ low-energy oxygen plasma is used to clean atmospheric contaminants from the soil before analysis[2]. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ascertains that the sample surface is clean. Experiments are conducted in a PHI 560 system (mirror electron energy analyzer (CMA) and μ-metal shield. The spectrometer is used to measure SE distributions, as well as for in situ surface characterization. A small negative bias (~5V) with respect to the grounded entrance grid of the CMA may be placed on the sample holder in order to expose the low energy cutoff.To measure SE energy distributions, primary ions rastered over a ~6 x 6 mm2 area are incident on the sample at ~40° relative to the surface normal, while SE emitted with an angle of 42.3°± 3.5° in a cone are analyzed.Results: The energy distribution of SE ejected from 4 keV He ion irradiation of albite with no bias applied shows positive charging of the surface. The general shape and distribution peak (~4 eV) are consistent with spectra for low energy ions on insulating material[1].Acknowledgements: We thank the NASA LASER program for support.References: [1]P. Riccardi, R. Baragiola et al. (2004); Surf

  7. Petrogenesis of Garnet-bearing Rocks in the Grandfather Mountain Window, Blue Ridge Province, Western North Carolina (United States)

    Frushour, A. M.; Abbott, R. N.


    The Grandfather Mountain Window in western North Carolina exposes the lowest structural level in the Blue Ridge Province. Rocks in the window constitute a Late Proterozoic basement-cover sequence. The basement consists mainly of Blowing Rock Gneiss (sic, porphyroblastic schist) and Wilson Creek Gneiss, both overlain unconformably by the Grandfather Mountain Formation. All of these rocks have been pervasively overprinted by greenschist facies metamorphism. The typical greenschist mineral assemblage involves combinations of chlorite, muscovite, biotite, actinolite, epidote, calcite, quartz, albite and K-feldspar. Garnet discovered in basement rock calls into question the metamorphic grade. The average garnet (core-rim) is (Fe1.63-1.71Mn0.64-0.77Ca0.52-0.37Mg0.10-0.12)Al1.98-1.96Si3.06-3.04O12; the average biotite is (K0.96Na0.06Ca0.02)(Fe1.73Mg0.87Mn0.02Ti0.04Al0.23)(Si2.83Al1.17)O10(OH)2; the average muscovite is (K1.03Na0.02Ca0.02)(Al1.57Fe0.26Mg0.16Ti0.01)(Si3.31Al0.69)O10(OH)2. Thermometry involving Fe-Mn-Mg components in these minerals gives 766°C (+/- 91°C) at 13.6 kbars (+/- 1.4 kbar), respectively. There are at least four explanations for garnet in these rocks: (1) Garnet may have been stabilized in the greenschist facies by non-AFM components (esp. Mn), but the compositions are not unusual for metamorphic garnet, biotite and muscovite, and the calculated temperatures are too high for greenschist facies. (2) The garnet may be relict from earlier contact metamorphism, but the garnet is not spatially related to otherwise common metamorphosed (greenschist facies) mafic dikes. (3) The garnet is a product of heating during mylonitization. Finally, and most likely, (4) the garnet may be relict from an earlier episode of regional metamorphism. Samples of porphyroblastic schist and greenstone from the same outcrop give low temperature, greenschist facies conditions.

  8. Function and mechanism of assistant reducers in iron recovery by the direct reduction in tunnel kilns of hematite%赤铁矿石隧道窑直接还原助还原剂的作用及机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何洋; 王化军; 孙体昌; 胡文韬; 李宏静


    Iron enrichment from refractory low-grade hematite was studied by using the method of direct reduction roasting in a tunnel kiln and magnetic separation. This study focused on the function and the mechanism of the assistant reducer NCP. Under the condi- tions of coal as the reducer with a mass fraction of 20% , CCO and NCP as the assistant reducers with mass fractions of 15% and 5% respectively, and roasting at 1 200 ℃for 8 h, a concentrate of the Fe grade of 92.61% with the Fe recovery of 92.38% can be pro- duced. The mechanisms of NCP were also investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that NCP can react with quartz in the raw ore and generate natrosilite and albite, which can destroy the structure of the raw ore and induce a reaction between reducing gas and hematite to create Fe.%对隧道窑直接还原焙烧一磁选法处理低品位难选赤铁矿石进行了探讨,重点研究助还原剂NCP的作用及机理.以煤作还原剂,质量分数为20%,CCO和NCP为助还原剂,质量分数分别为15%和5%,在焙烧温度为1200℃,焙烧时间为8h的条件下,可以得到铁品位92.61%、铁回收率92.38%的铁精矿.利用X射线衍射和扫描电镜对助还原剂NCP的作用机理进行分析.结果表明NCP可以与原矿中石英发生反应,生成硅钠石和钠长石,破坏原矿结构,使还原性气体更易与赤铁矿接触发生还原反应生成金属铁.

  9. Mineralogy and geochemistry of granitoids from Kinnaur region, Himachal Higher Himalaya, India: Implication on the nature of felsic magmatism in the collision tectonics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brajesh Singh; Santosh Kumar; Masao Ban; Kazuo Nakashima


    Felsic magmatism in the southern part of Himachal Higher Himalaya is constituted by Neoproterozoic granite gneiss (GGn), Early Palaeozoic granitoids (EPG) and Tertiary tourmaline-bearing leucogranite (TLg). Magnetic susceptibility values ($\\lt$3 ×10$^{−3}$ SI), molar Al$_2$O$^3$/(CaO+Na$_2$O+K$_2$O) ($\\geq$1.1), mineral assemblage (bt–ms–pl–kf–qtz ± tur ± ap), and the presence of normative corundum relate these granitoids to peraluminous S-type, ilmenite series (reduced type) granites formed in a syncollisional tectonic setting. Plagioclase from GGn (An$_{10}$–An$_{31}$) and EPG (An$_{15}$–An$_{33}$) represents oligoclase to andesine and TLg (An$_2$–An$_{15}$) represents albite to oligoclase, whereas compositional ranges of K-feldspar are more or less similar (Or$_{88}$ to Or$_{95}$ in GGn, Or$_{86}$ to Or$_{97}$ in EPG and Or$_{87}$ to Or$_{94}$ in TLg). Biotites in GGn (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.34–0.45), EPG (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.27–0.47), and TLg (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.25–0.30) are ferribiotites enriched in siderophyllite, which stabilised between FMQ and HM buffers and are characterised by dominant 3Fe$\\rightleftarrows$2Al, 3Mg$\\rightleftarrows$2Al substitutions typical of peraluminous (S-type), reducing felsic melts. Muscovite in GGn (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.58–0.66), EPG (Mg/Mg+Fe$^t$ = 0.31−0.59), and TLg (Mg/Mg+Fet = 0.29–0.42) represent celadonite and paragonite solid solutions, and the tourmaline fromEPG and TLg belongs to the schorl-elbaite series, which are characteristics of peraluminous, Li-poor, biotite-tourmaline granites. Geochemical features reveal that the GGn and EPG precursor melts were most likely derived from melting of biotite-rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources, whereas TLg melt appears to have formed from biotite-muscovite rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources. Major and trace elements modelling suggest that the GGn, EPG and TLg parental melts have experienced low degrees (∼13, ∼17 and ∼13%, respectively) of kf

  10. Mesozoic metamorphism and its tectonic implication along the Solonker suture zone in central Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Wei, Chunjing; Chu, Hang; Chen, Yaping


    The Xing'an-Inner Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XIMOB) exposed in the eastern section of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is generally thought to have resulted from closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. However, disputations still exist on the age and detailed tectonic processes involved in its final amalgamation. The Solonker suture zone in the central Inner Mongolia, once recognized as the major paleo-plate boundary recording the terminal collision of the XIMOB, is characterized by extensive regional low-temperature metamorphism of greenschist to epidote-amphibolite facies with local presence of blueschists, which lacks systematic study. Four metabasite and garnet-mica schist samples were studied for determination of metamorphic P-T evolution using pseudosection and conventional thermobarometry. The two metabasite samples from Wulangou and Daqing Pasture contain actinolite, albite, epidote, chlorite and hornblende (in Daqing Pasture) and are estimated to have peak P-T conditions of 5.2-5.9 kbar/415-450 °C in Wulangou and 7.0-7.9 kbar/470-475 °C in Daqing Pasture. Two garnet-mica schist samples from Shuangjing (or Shuangjing schist) contain garnet porphyroblasts, muscovite, quartz, plagioclase, chlorite with or without potassium feldspar, biotite, and calcite, and are modeled to record prograde P-T vectors respectively of 3.0 kbar/482 °C-3.3 kbar/495 °C and 4.2 kbar/478 °C-4.8 kbar/483 °C, followed by near-isothermal decompression. The zircon U-Pb dating analyses suggest that the metamorphism probably occurred soon afterwards in the Early Mesozoic. The peak P-T conditions for the metabasite and garnet-mica schist samples yield thermal gradients respectively of 18-22 °C/km and 26-33 °C/km, being intermediate and low P/T series, and the metamorphic evolution in these rocks characteristic of clockwise P-T paths may correspond to tectonic thickening and thinning processes. The extensive low-temperature metamorphism of intermediate to low P/T types along the

  11. Varena suite in the crystalline crust of the Southern Lithuania: implication to the genesis and mineralization (United States)

    Kirkliauskaite, Vaida; Motuza, Gediminas; Skipityte, Raminta


    Keywords: Lithuania, Proterozoic, Varena suite, rare earth elements, metasomatosis. Crystalline crust in Southern Lithuania is covered by 200-500 m thick sedimentary cover and is investigated by potential field mapping and drilling. It is composed by amphibolites (metabasalts), biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneisses (metapsammites and porphyry metadacite and metaandesite) of Orosirian period. Each lithology is predominant in alternating bands extended NNE-SSW. Supracrustals are metamorphosed on the level of amphibolite facies and migmatized. Intrusive rocks are represented by coeval rare bodies of gabbro, peridotite and widespread Calymmian granitic plutons. Varena suite comprises olivine, enstatite, diopside, olivine-magnetite, magnetite, apatite-bearing, and presumably also dolomite rocks. They form integrated bodies few sq. km large, concentrated in the ˜300 km2area extended in N-S direction.Bodies of particular rocks from Varena suite fixed in the boreholes are few tenths up to few hundred meters thick, except apatite-bearing rocks, forming decimeter up to meter scale lenses and veins. Rocks of Varena suite are affected by strong metasomatic alteration. Olivine is substituted by serpentine, and phlogopite, pyroxenes with amphibols (hornblende, actinolite, tremolite, rarely richterite). The country rocks (amphibolites, metaporphyres) also affected by alkaline (mainly sodic) metasomatosis manifested by formation of scapolite, albite, clynopyroxene (often sodic), phlogopite, carbonates. The mineralization of REE (up to 2759-3100 ppm of La and Ce respectively), Th, U, P hosted by monazite, apatite, allanite is spatially related to the Varena suite and some metasomatized supracrustals. The views on the genesis of Varena suite are contradicting. By various authors they are regarded as skarns, presuming metasomatic origin, as layered intrusions or products of alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism. In this presentation the genetic model is reviewed based on

  12. Cl-rich hydrous mafic mineral assemblages in the Highiș massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania (United States)

    Bonin, Bernard; Tatu, Mihai


    The Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) Highiș massif (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) displays a bimodal igneous suite of mafic (gabbro, diorite) and A-type felsic (alkali feldspar granite, albite granite, and hybrid granodiorite) rocks. Amphibole is widespread throughout the suite, and yields markedly high chlorine contents. Three groups are identified: Cl-rich potassic hastingsite (2.60-3.40 wt% Cl) within A-type felsic rocks and diorite, mildly Cl-rich pargasite to hornblende (0.80-1.90 wt% Cl) within gabbro, and low F-Cl hornblende within gabbro and hybrid granodiorite. Coexisting biotite is either Cl-rich within diorite, or F-Cl-poor to F-rich within A-type felsic rocks. Chlorine and fluorine are distributed in both mafic phases, according to the F-Fe and Cl-Mg avoidance rules. The low-Ti contents suggest subsolidus compositions. Cl-rich amphibole within diorite and A-type felsic rocks yields a restricted temperature range - from 575 °C down to 400 °C, whereas mildly Cl-rich amphibole within gabbro displays the highest range - from 675 to 360 °C. Temperatures recorded by Cl-rich biotite within diorite range from 590 to 410 °C. Biotite within A-type felsic rocks yields higher temperatures than amphibole: the highest values- from 640 to 540 °C - are recorded in low-F-Cl varieties, whereas the lowest values- from 535 to 500 °C - are displayed by F-rich varieties. All data point to halogen-rich hydrothermal fluids at upper greenschist facies conditions percolating through fractures and shear zones and pervasively permeating the whole Highiș massif, with F precipitating as interstitial fluorite and Cl incorporating into amphibole, during one, or possibly several, hydrothermal episodes that would have occurred during a ~ 150 My-long period of time extending from the Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) to the Albian (Mid-Cretaceous).

  13. Micro-Raman and micro-XRF analysis of glass beads from the Chungde site, Taiwan (United States)

    Liou, Y. S.; Wang, S. C.; Liu, Y. C.


    A large number of ancient glass beads dating back from Late Neolithic Age to early Historical Period (ca. 2300-400 BP) of Taiwan have been uncovered from archaeological sites. These glass beads with variant colors, shapes, and stylistics have long been considered to possess socio-cultural significance. Due to the color and chemical composition of glass bead might be determined by raw materials, fluxing agents, colorants, opacifiers and stabilizers. In addition, ancient glass beads are rare and precious, non-destructive analysis has been employed to decipher about the provenances, manufacturing techniques, and exchange/trade routes. In this work, micro-Raman spectroscopy and micro X-ray fluorescent spectrometer (μ-XRF) were used to examine ten ancient glass beads excavated from the Chungde site, Hualien, Taiwan, dating back to 1500-800 BP, to unravel the mineralogical and chemical compositions. Micro Raman experimental results show that glass and anorthite glass are the main constituents accompanying with trace level of quartz, albite, siderite, ankerite, and amazonite. The Raman Index of Polymerization (Ip) indicate that the sintering temperature of the glass beads is in the range of 1000~1400°C. Furthermore, the chemical compositions are corresponding to the maximum stretching vibration peak wave number (νmax Si-O Stretching) and the maximum bending vibration peak wave number (δmax Si-O Bending), which are essentially consistent with that of the India-Pacific beads. The μ-XRF results indicate the presence of oxides including SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O, CaO, MgO, SnO2, TiO2, CuO, etc., and could be classified to high aluminum of soda-lime glass system. According to ternary phase diagram analysis of CaO-K2O-Na2O and K2O-Al2O3-CaO, the ancient glass beads analyzed could be attributed to the India-Pacific beads, and is in accordance with that of Raman spectra. The combination of these facts leads to the conclusion that glass beads obtained from the Chungde

  14. The Role of Reactivation and Fluid Pressure Cycling in The Development of Late Zeolite-bearing Faults and Fractures From The Adamello Batholith, Italy (United States)

    Dempsey, E. D.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Di Toro, G.


    Interconnected networks of faults and veins filled with zeolites and other minerals are a common feature of many crystalline rocks, including basaltic volcanics, deformed granitic plutons and regions of high grade continental basement. Typically the fracture fills formed late in the tectonic history and at relatively low temperatures (100-200°C) and in many cases appear to represent a final phase of fluid flow and mineralisation developed during the final stages of exhumation. In the northern part of the Adamello pluton in the Italian Alps, a geometrically complex and kinematically diverse set of zeolite bearing faults and veins is well exposed in the deformed tonalites associated with the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ). These features post date all other deformation structures in the pluton, including cooling joints (formed at >550°C), ductile shear zones (550-450°C) and the well-known assemblage of faults, cataclasites and pseudotachylytes (300-250°C) associated with the GLFZ. Three main groups of zeolite-bearing fractures are recognised based on differences in orientation and kinematics of associated shear fracture displacements. These are: i) E-W sinistral reverse thrusts; ii) NNE-SSW sinistral normal faults; and iii) NNW-SSE normal faults. All three groups are associated with the development of white, yellow and red-orange zeolite-rich veins and fault gouge. Individual fault zones are rarely more than a few metres wide and fault offsets are generally small (mostly < 5m). Minor fractures associated with each group display mutually cross-cutting relationships consistent with them all being broadly contemporaneous features. This is confirmed by thin section and XRD analyses which reveal a fairly uniform set of mineral fills (including laumontite ± scolecite ± prehnite ± clinochlore ± stilbite ± stellerite ± quartz ± microcline ± albite). All three fracture groups are hard linked, locally forming spectacular mineralised fracture meshes. These features

  15. Origin and evolution of ore-forming fluids in the Hemushan magnetite-apatite deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China, and their metallogenic significance (United States)

    Luo, Gan; Zhang, Zhiyu; Du, Yangsong; Pang, Zhenshan; Zhang, Yanwen; Jiang, Yongwei


    The Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt in the northern Yangtze Block is one of the most important economic mineral districts in China. The Hemushan deposit is a medium-class Fe deposit located in the southern part of the Ningwu iron ore district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt. The Fe-orebodies are mainly hosted in the contact zone between diorite and Triassic marble. The actinolite-phlogopite-apatite-magnetite ore shows metasomatic/filling textures and disseminated/mesh-vein structures. Based on evidences and petrographic observations, the ore-forming process can be divided into three distinct periods-the early metallogenic period (albite-diopside stage), the middle metallogenic period (magnetite stage and hematite stage), and the late metallogenic period (quartz-pyrite stage and carbonate stage). Fluid inclusion studies show four types of inclusions: type I daughter mineral-bearing three-phase inclusions (L + V + S), type II vapor-rich two-phase inclusions (L + V), type III liquid-rich two phase inclusions (L + V), and minor type IV liquid-phase inclusions (L). Apatites from the magnetite stage contain type I, type II and type III inclusions; anhydrites from the hematite stage mainly contain abundant type II inclusions and relatively less type I inclusions; quartz and calcite from the late metallogenic stage are mainly characterized by type III inclusions. Laser Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry of fluid inclusions show that the ore-forming fluids broadly correspond to unsaturated NaCl-H2O system. From the magnetite stage to the carbonate stage, the ore-forming fluids evolved from moderate-high temperature (average 414 °C), moderate salinity (average 25.01 wt.% NaCl equiv.) conditions to low temperature (average 168 °C), low salinity (average 6.18 wt.% NaCl equiv.) conditions. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic studies indicate that the ore-forming fluid during the early stage of middle metallogenic period was mainly of magmatic

  16. Pore Scale Heterogeneity in the Mineral Distribution and Surface Area of Porous Rocks (United States)

    Lai, Peter; Krevor, Sam


    An important control on rate of interfacial processes between minerals and aqueous solutions such as nucleation of solids, and mineral dissolution and growth is reactive surface area. In geochemical modelling, the continuum hypothesis is based on the assumption that the system can be represented by a sufficiently large number of representative elemental volumes. There has been recent interest in studying the impact of this assumption on reaction-transport coupled systems. In this study, the impact of pore-scale heterogeneity on the distribution of reactive surface area is discussed. 3D images obtained using x-ray micro-tomography were used to characterise the distribution of reactive surface area. The results were compared to independent observations. Mineral identification using x- ray diffraction and fluorescence suggested general agreement with CT analysis. Nitrogen BET surface areas were one to two orders of magnitude higher than measurements from x-ray imagery. Co- registered images of Berea sandstone from x-ray and energy dispersive spectroscopy imagery suggested that quartz, K-feldspar and most clays could be identified. However, minor minerals such as albite and illite did not exhibit enough contrast. In Berea sandstone, mineral surface area fraction was poorly correlated to the mineral volumetric fraction. Clay and feldspar minerals exhibited higher surface area fractions than bulk mineralogy suggested. In contrast, in the Edwards carbonate samples, modal mineral composition correlated with mineral-specific surface area. Berea sandstone revealed a characteristic pore size at which a surface area distribution may be used to quantify heterogeneity. Conversely, the carbonate samples suggested a continuous range of pore sizes across length scales. A comparison with pore network model simulations from the literature was made. First order estimates of mineral specific correlations between geometric area measured in the x-ray images were used to convert the CT

  17. Physical volcanology, geochemistry and basin evolution of the Ediacaran volcano-sedimentary succession in the Bas Draâ inlier (Ouarzazate Supergroup, Western Anti-Atlas, Morocco) (United States)

    Karaoui, Brahim; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Youbi, Nasrrddine


    New geologic mapping, lithofacies and granulometric analysis, and geochemistry from the volcano-sedimentary successions of the central part of the Bas Draâ inlier, Western Anti-Atlas, constrain the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup evolution during the post-collisional stage of the Pan-African orogeny. Volcanosedimentary facies analysis is the key aspect of the present contribution. We distinguished sixteen terrestrial volcanosedimentary lithofacies in the Bas Draâ succession (BDS), which reaches a total thickness of 2000 m. BDS evolution can be grouped into four units (Aouinet Aït Oussa I to IV, AO I-AO IV). The earliest volcanic activity produced rhyolitic ignimbrite sheets (AO I), which had been considered as lava flows by previous workers, and which were presumably related to caldera system(s). During AO II, a complex of high-silica andesitic and rhyolitic lavas formed, punctuated by the explosive eruption of a high-temperature silica-rich magma leading to the formation of parataxitic ignimbrite. AO III consists of basalt and andesite lava fields and small explosive, in parts phreatomagmatic volcanic vents. It is dissected by fluvial systems depositing external non-volcanic and local volcanic debris. BDS evolution terminated with the formation of a large SiO2-rich lava dome complex (AO IV), accompanied by small basalt effusive event. Volcanosedimentary facies analysis infers that the BDS evolved in a continental extensional setting developing in a low topography under humid paleoclimatic conditions. Alteration textures are dominated by a piemontite-calcite-albite-quartz (+ iron oxides) assemblage. Chemical analysis of BDS volcanic and subvolcanic rocks belongs to high-k calc-alkaline and alkali-calcic to alkaline magmatic trend typical for a post-collision setting. Trace elements spidergrams show a pattern typical for subduction-related suites of orogenic belts. REE patterns show moderate enrichment in LREE relative to flat HREE, with strong negative Eu

  18. Precipitation, throughfall, soil solution and streamwater chemistry in a holm-oak ( Quercus ilex) forest (United States)

    Rodà, Ferran; Avila, Anna; Bonilla, David


    Bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil solution at 20 and 40 cm depths, and stream water were monitored for 2-4 years in a holm-oak forest on schists in the Montseny Mountains (NE Spain). Bulk precipitation was mildly acidic, with Ca 2+ and SO 2-4 as dominant ions. Canopy interactions produced a throughfall less acidic than bulk precipitation and enriched in all other ions. Large amounts of K + were leached from the canopy. Magnesium in net throughfall behaved similarly to K +, and it is concluded that leaching makes a major contribution to Mg 2+ enrichment beneath the canopy. Judging from the moderate increase of Na + and Ca 2+ in throughfall, dry deposition rates for both marine and continental aerosols were low in the studied stand, probably because of its sheltered topographic position within a well-vegetated massif, coupled with moderate tree height and low canopy roughness. Soil solution in the mineral soil was less acidic than throughfall. In common with most temperate forests, SO 2-4 was the dominant mobile anion in the soil water, being largely accompanied by Ca 2+. Potassium and NO -3 were depleted within the soil water with respect to throughfall, probably owing to biological uptake and cation exchange, and incorporation of K + into clay lattices. Subsurface flow dominated the hydrology of the small forested catchment studied. Stream water was basic and rich in bicarbonate. Its chemistry revealed fast rates of weathering of sodium- and magnesium-bearing silicates (mainly albite and chlorite, respectively). Soil respiration and silicate hydrolysis resulted in HCO -3 being the dominant mobile anion in stream water. Calcium to chloride ratios were similar in bulk precipitation and in stream water, indicating that Ca 2+ release from weathering has been counteracted by plant uptake. Nutrient uptake by this aggrading forest strongly influences the solution dynamics of K +, NO 3 and Ca 2+. It is concluded that: (1) this forest does not currently receive acidic

  19. Fault-zone structure and weakening processes in basin-scale reverse faults: The Moonlight Fault Zone, South Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Alder, S.; Smith, S. A. F.; Scott, J. M.


    The >200 km long Moonlight Fault Zone (MFZ) in southern New Zealand was an Oligocene basin-bounding normal fault zone that reactivated in the Miocene as a high-angle reverse fault (present dip angle 65°-75°). Regional exhumation in the last c. 5 Ma has resulted in deep exposures of the MFZ that present an opportunity to study the structure and deformation processes that were active in a basin-scale reverse fault at basement depths. Syn-rift sediments are preserved only as thin fault-bound slivers. The hanging wall and footwall of the MFZ are mainly greenschist facies quartzofeldspathic schists that have a steeply-dipping (55°-75°) foliation subparallel to the main fault trace. In more fissile lithologies (e.g. greyschists), hanging-wall deformation occurred by the development of foliation-parallel breccia layers up to a few centimetres thick. Greyschists in the footwall deformed mainly by folding and formation of tabular, foliation-parallel breccias up to 1 m wide. Where the hanging-wall contains more competent lithologies (e.g. greenschist facies metabasite) it is laced with networks of pseudotachylyte that formed parallel to the host rock foliation in a damage zone extending up to 500 m from the main fault trace. The fault core contains an up to 20 m thick sequence of breccias, cataclasites and foliated cataclasites preserving evidence for the progressive development of interconnected networks of (partly authigenic) chlorite and muscovite. Deformation in the fault core occurred by cataclasis of quartz and albite, frictional sliding of chlorite and muscovite grains, and dissolution-precipitation. Combined with published friction and permeability data, our observations suggest that: 1) host rock lithology and anisotropy were the primary controls on the structure of the MFZ at basement depths and 2) high-angle reverse slip was facilitated by the low frictional strength of fault core materials. Restriction of pseudotachylyte networks to the hanging-wall of the

  20. Evolution of fluid-rock interaction in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland: Evidence from Iceland Deep Drilling Project core RN-17B (United States)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Schiffman, Peter; Marks, Naomi; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar


    We describe the lithology and present spatially resolved geochemical analyses of samples from the hydrothermally altered Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) drill core RN-17B. The 9.3 m long RN-17B core was collected from the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system, located on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. The nature of fluids and the location of the Reykjanes geothermal system make it a useful analog for seafloor hydrothermal processes, although there are important differences. The recovery of drill core from the Reykjanes geothermal system, as opposed to drill cuttings, has provided the opportunity to investigate evolving geothermal conditions by utilizing in-situ geochemical techniques in the context of observed paragenetic and spatial relationships of alteration minerals. The RN-17B core was returned from a vertical depth of ~ 2560 m and an in-situ temperature of ~ 345 °C. The primary lithologies are basaltic in composition and include hyaloclastite breccia, fine-grained volcanic sandstone, lithic breccia, and crystalline basalt. Primary igneous phases have been entirely pseudomorphed by calcic plagioclase + magnesium hornblende + chlorite + titanite + albitized plagioclase + vein epidote and sulfides. Despite the extensive hydrothermal metasomatism, original textures including hyaloclastite glass shards, lithic clasts, chilled margins, and shell-fragment molds are superbly preserved. Multi-collector LA-ICP-MS strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) measurements of vein epidote from the core are consistent with seawater as the dominant recharge fluid. Epidote-hosted fluid inclusion homogenization temperature and freezing point depression measurements suggest that the RN-17B core records cooling through the two-phase boundary for seawater over time to current in-situ measured temperatures. Electron microprobe analyses of hydrothermal hornblende and hydrothermal plagioclase confirm that while alteration is of amphibolite-grade, it is in disequilibrium

  1. 新疆西天山智博铁矿床蚀变矿物学、矿物化学特征及矿床成因探讨%Alteration mineralogy, mineral chemistry and genesis of Zhibo iron deposit in western Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宗胜; 张作衡; 王志华; 李凤鸣; 田敬全


    The Zhibo iron deposit is one of the recently-discovered large magnetite deposits in the Awulale iron metal-logenic belt, which is located at the eastern corner of western Tianshan Mountains. The ore bodies are hosted mainly by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Lower Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation. The wall rocks of the Zhibo iron deposit have been strongly altered. Three stages of alteration assemblages and associated mineralization have been recognized: Stage I , dominantly composed of pyroxene + albite + magnetite; Stage II , characterized by amphibole + K-feldspars + epidote + magnetite + pyrite; and Stage HI, dominated by epidote + chlorite + cal-cite + quartz + pyrite + hematite ± chalcopyrite. Electron microprobe analyses indicate that the Zhibo deposit have compositional features of mineral assemblages similar to many other magmatic-hydrothermal iron oxide deposits. Pyroxene consists mainly of diopside (Di = 62.97% ~ 83.56% ) , with minor hedenbergite (Hd = 16.44% ~ 36.45%). Igneous plagioclase (Ab47.57-57.82 An415.51.87 Or0.56-0.68) has been altered into albite (Ab77.89-99.33 An0.46-2.48 Or0.21-20.3)- K-feldspar related to late hydrothermal alteration is superimposed upon the pre-existing associations. Amphiboles are entirely of actinolite composition. Abundant Fe-epidote [Fe/(Fe + Al) = 0.22~ 0.36) and minor chlorite have pervasively replaced early mineral assemblages. In contrast with high titanium (3.08% TiO2) magnetite in volcanic rocks, most magnetite from the ore bodies has lower w(TiO2) (0.23%). A small amount of disseminated magnetite has a ω(V2O5) similar to the magnetite from volcanic rocks, suggesting minor iron movement from the wall rock during the early metasomatism. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the altered minerals indicate that metasomatic replacement played an important role in mineralization. In addition, the Zhibo iron deposit also has some textural features suggestive of an Fe-rich melt origin for the deposit

  2. Pseudoseetion modelling of garnet bluesechist from Rongma Area, central Qiangtang,North Tibet:Implications to the tectonic evlution central Qiangtang%西藏羌塘中部绒马地区石榴蓝闪片岩变质演化过程的视剖面模拟及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焰; 吕永增


    Within Qiangtang basin, northern Tibet, a metamorphic belt divides the Qiangtang basin into the northern and southern blocks and was designated as the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt. Although blueschist and eclogite were distinguished within this belt, the tectonic evolution of this metamorphic belt still remains largely debatable. One interpretation is that the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt marks an in-situ palaeo-Tethyan suture zone between.northern Qiangtang terrane of Cathaysian affinity and southern Qiangtang terrane of Gondwana affinity. The alternative argument suggests that the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt was underthrust southward beneath the Qiangtang terrane along the Jinsha suturezone about 200 km in the north. Therefore, the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt did not mark an in-situ suture zone within Qiangtang terrane. Here we investigate the garnet-bearing blueschists from Rongrna area of central Qiangtang in northern Tibet, where is critical to understanding the tectonic evolution of the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt. The mineral assemblage in these rocks is characterized by porphyroblastic garnet set within a matrix of fine-grained amphibole, white mica, epidote, chlorite, albite and quartz with accessory rutile, titanite and apatire. The Mn content of the garnet porphyroblasts decreases from core to rim, whereas the Fe and Mg contents show an increasing trend, respectively. Fine-grained rhomb-shaped inclusions of paragonite and epidote in association with quartz occurring within the core of the garnet porphyroblasts are interpreted as pseudomorphs after lawsonite. Large grains of epidote with inclusions of Na amphibole, rutile and quartz occur in the matrix in contact with the rims of the garnet grains. In the matrix, we identified two stages of Na amphibole rimmed by Na-Ca amphibole and albite. Retrograde chlorite is rimmed by fine-grained biotite. On the basis of microstructural observations and pseudosection modelling, we

  3. 铌钽矿研究进展和攀西地区铌钽矿成因初探%Advances in study of Nb-Ta ore deposits in Panxi area and tentative discussion on genesis of these ore deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汾连; 赵太平; 陈伟


    Niobium and tantalum ore deposits are mainly hosted in pegmatites, Li-F-rich granites, alkali intrusive rocks, carbonatites and alluvial sandstones. The first two types of ore deposits are dominated by tantalum and the other ore deposits by niobium. Niobium and tantalum are present mainly as independent minerals (such as columbite, tantalite, microlite and pyrochlore) disseminated in the host rocks and occasionally isomorphously in other minerals (such as mica, titanite, aegirine and ilmenite). Two main enrichment mechanisms for Nb-Ta ores are suggested: (1) fractional crystallization from granitic melt rich in F, Na and rare metals; (2) hydrother-mal metasomatism of granite after magmatism. The Nb-Ta ore deposits in Panxi area (Panzhihua-Xichang) are mostly distributed along the fracture belt, and the ore bodies are hosted in alkali pegmatite veins and alkali granites, closely related to adjacent syenites and granites widely spread in this area. The main ore minerals are pyrochlore and fergusenite. Studies show that the metallogenesis might have been an event related to Permian Emeishan mantle plume. The felsic rocks (syenites and granites), probably the parent rocks of the ore deposits, were products of Permian Emeishan mantle plume similar to widespread Emeishan basalts and gabbros. The alkali pegmatite veins (e. g., Luku and Baicao) were formed by fractional crystallization from alkali magma and ore-bearing alkali granites by differentiation of granitic magma. Besides, the hydrothermal metasomatism might have contributed to the concentration of niobium and tantalum, as evidenced by the fact that ore minerals are always present where albitization occurs. It is therefore considered that the formation of Nb-Ta ore deposits in Panxi area resulted from both fractional crystallization and hydrothermal metasomatism.Niobium and tantalum ore deposits are mainly hosted in pegmatites, Li-F-rich granites, alkali intrusive rocks, carbonatites and alluvial sandstones. The

  4. 内蒙古赵井沟大型铌钽矿床地质特征及成因%Geological features and origin of Zhaojinggou Nb-Ta deposit in Wuchuan County, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂凤军; 王丰翔; 赵宇安; 孙艳; 柴华


    Located in the central-eastern section of the Yinshan Precambrian uplift in the western segment of the Inner Mongolian Axis of the Northern China craton,the newly discovered Zhaojinggou deposit is one of the largest Nb-Ta deposits in northern China.During the Hercynian orogeny,intense tectonic and igneous activities resultedin the large-scale granitoid magmatism in Zhaojinggou and its neighboring areas.The Zhaojinggou alkaline feldspar granitoid (AFG) intrusive complex was emplaced in the meta-sedimentary sequence of the Middle Carboniferous Shuanmazhuang Group,controlled by NE-,NNE-and NW-trending fault zones.The AGI complex has an outcrop area of 0.05 km2,and consists mainly of alkaline feldspar granite (AFG),AFG pegmatite and AFG aplite that have no difference in mineral assemblage.Rock-forming minerals are mainly quartz,amazonite and albite associated with minor biotite,muscovite and sericite.Accessory minerals are rutile,apatite,zircon,topaz,fluorite,allanite and columbite.The AFG intrusive complex is petrochemically characterized by relatively high Al2O3,SiO2,Na2O,Rb,Nb,Ta and Hf,obviously low CaO,Fe2O3,FeO,MgO,Sr,Ba,Zr and REE,belonging to silicon-high,sodium-rich rock of calc-alkaline series.Nb-and Tamineralization occurs entirely within the Zhaojinggou AFG intrusive complex as veinlets and disseminated blocks.Nb-and Ta-ores consist of parisite,columbotantalite,cassiterotantalite (ixiolite),monazite,bismuthinite,chevkinite,laplandite,rutile,topaz,apatite,amazonite,Li-Rb-bearing biotite,Li-Rb-bearing muscovite,epidote,fluorspar,hornblende,zircon,quarzt,barite,albite and calcite.As the most important economic Nb-and Taminerals,columbotantalite,cassiterotantalite (ixiolite) and parisite occur in the forms of impregnation,very fine grains,thin films,aggregated fine grains in the AFG intrusive complex.LA-ICP-MS U-Pb isotopic dating of the zircon separates from the AFG intrusive complex has given the ages varying from (277.14 ± 0.82) Ma to (276.6 ± 2.1) Ma

  5. Tectonic evolution of the East Junggar terrane, CAOB (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Wang


    reveal the following evidence: 1) The dioritic gneiss was metamorphosed from 2.52 Ga diorite at approximately 1.88 Ga, the magnetite quartzite interlayered with hornblende-plagioclase gneiss layers has an age of approximately 1.92 Ga, and the inherited zircons from the diorite TH4-6 contain three zircon populations with upper interceptages of approximately 3.06 Ga, 1.98 Ga and 1.89 Ga. These data indicate that the East Junggar terrane has Archean crust that formed at approximately 3.2-3.0 Ga and includes 2.52 Ga diorites and 4.0 Ga zircons and materials. 2) The Taheir tectonic window consists of metamorphic and deformed Ordovician volcanic rocks and granitic porphyries, Ordovician-Silurian granites and undeformed Silurian-Devonian granitic diorite, diorites and rhyolitic porphyries. The Ordovician volcanic rocks and granitic porphyries and Ordovician-Silurian granites in the Taheir tectonic window exhibit distinct features of Andean-type continental arc, such as enrichment in Pb, K and U, depletion in Nb, P and Ti, negative Eu anomalies, high La/Yb, Th/Yb and Ta/Yb values, a high proportion of dacite, rhyolite and andesite of the calc-alkaline series, massive contemporary granitic intrusions, mixtures of the juvenile material and >2.5 Ga crust, and extensive crystallization differentiation. These Ordovician volcanic rocks witnessed a series of tectonic events, including burial associated with the intrusion of 454-449 Ma granitic porphyries, underthrusting and subsidence to a depth in the middle crust associated with the intrusion of 443-432 Ma granites. The formation of albite-hornblende schists, hornblende-albite-quartz leptynites and amphibolites, the transformation from continental to continental island arc at approximately 432 Ma, the exhumation associated with the intrusion of 416-406 Ma diorites with geochemical signatures of continental island arc, and exhumation and erosion between 398 Ma and 390 Ma are also identified. The arc types that are associated with the

  6. Why is Dawsonite Absent in CO2 Charged Reservoirs? Pourquoi la dawsonite est-elle absente des réservoirs chargés en CO2 ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellevang H.


    Full Text Available Growth of the sodiumaluminium-hydroxy carbonate dawsonite (NaAl(OH2CO3 after charging saline aquifers with CO2 has been assumed in a plethora of numerical simulations at different mineralogies, aqueous solutions, pressures and temperatures. It appears however that dawsonite is less abundant than expected in natural CO2 storage analogues if we take into account the thermodynamic stability alone. We have mapped the thermodynamic stability of dawsonite relative to mineral phases like albite, kaolinite and analcime from 37° to 200°C and performed closed-system batch kinetic simulations using a new kinetic expression including a nucleation term based on classical nucleation theory, and a growth term that was based on BCF growth theory. Using this rate equation, we have performed a sensitivity study on dawsonite growth on mineralogy, temperature, CO2 pressure, nucleation rate and its dependencies on temperature and affinity, and on the dawsonite precipitation rate coefficient. Simulations with dawsonite growth disabled showed that the maximum oversaturation reached for dawsonite for seawater-like solutions never exceeded 3-4 times oversaturation. The positive effect on dawsonite growth of increasing the CO2 pressure was mostly neutralized by higher acidity. Decreasing the precipitation rate coefficient by 5 orders of magnitude had a limited effect on the onset of significant growth, but the amount of dawsonite formed at the end of the 1 000 years simulated time was only 37% below the high-rate case. Reducing the nucleation rates had similar effects leading to postponed dawsonite growth. Finally, based on thermodynamic considerations and numerical simulations, we suggest that the potential of dawsonite growth is limited to a medium-temperature window framed by a high thermodynamic stability relative to competing mineral phases at low temperatures, but with rapidly diminishing nucleation and growth rates at lower temperatures constrained by energy

  7. The Itataia phosphate-uranium deposit (Ceará, Brazil) new petrographic, geochemistry and isotope studies (United States)

    Veríssimo, César Ulisses Vieira; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Parente, Clóvis Vaz; Oliveira, Claudinei Gouveia de; Cavalcanti, José Adilson Dias; Nogueira Neto, José de Araújo


    The Itataia phosphate-uranium deposit is located in Santa Quitéria, in central Ceará State, northeastern Brazil. Mineralization has occurred in different stages and involves quartz leaching (episyenitization), brecciation and microcrystalline phase formation of concretionary apatite. The last constitutes the main mineral of Itatiaia uranium ore, namely collophane. Collophanite ore occurs in massive bodies, lenses, breccia zones, veins or episyenite in marble layers, calc-silicate rocks and gneisses of the Itataia Group. There are two accepted theories on the origin of the earliest mineralization phase of Itataia ore: syngenetic (primary) - where the ore is derived from a continental source and then deposited in marine and coastal environments; and epigenetic (secondary) - whereby the fluids are of magmatic, metamorphic and meteoric origin. The characterization of pre- or post-deformational mineralization is controversial, since the features of the ore are interpreted as deformation. This investigation conducted isotopic studies and chemical analyses of minerals in marbles and calc-silicate rocks of the Alcantil and Barrigas Formations (Itataia Group), as well as petrographic and structural studies. Analysis of the thin sections shows at least three phosphate mineral phases associated with uranium mineralizaton: (1) A prismatic fluorapatite phase associated with chess-board albite, arfvedsonite and ferro-eckermannite; (2) a second fluorapatite phase with fibrous radial or colloform habits that replaces calcium carbonate in marble, especially along fractures, with minerals such as quartz, chlorite and zeolite also identified in calc-silicate rocks; and (3) an younger phosphate phase of botryoidal apatite (fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite) related with clay minerals and probably others calcium and aluminum phosphates. Detailed isotopic analysis carried out perpendicularly to the mineralized levels and veins in the marble revealed significant variation in isotopic

  8. The geology of the Morro Velho gold deposit in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil (United States)

    Vial, Diogenes Scipioni; DeWitt, Ed; Lobato, Lydia Maria; Thorman, Charles H.


    The Morro Velho gold deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is hosted by rocks at the base of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt. The deposit occurs within a thick carbonaceous phyllite package, containing intercalations of felsic and intermediate volcaniclastic rocks and dolomites. Considering the temporal and spatial association of the deposit with the Rio das Velhas orogeny, and location in close proximity to a major NNW-trending fault zone, it can be classified as an orogenic gold deposit. Hydrothermal activity was characterized by intense enrichment in alteration zones of carbonates, sulfides, chlorite, white mica±biotite, albite and quartz, as described in other Archean lode-type gold ores. Two types of ore occur in the deposit: dark gray quartz veins and sulfide-rich gold orebodies. The sulfide-rich orebodies range from disseminated concentrations of sulfide minerals to massive sulfide bodies. The sulfide assemblage comprises (by volume), on average, 74% pyrrhotite, 17% arsenopyrite, 8% pyrite and 1% chalcopyrite. The orebodies have a long axis parallel to the local stretching lineation, with continuity down the plunge of fold axis for at least 4.8 km. The group of rocks hosting the Morro Velho gold mineralization is locally referred to as lapa seca. These were isoclinally folded and metamorphosed prior to gold mineralization. The lapa seca and the orebodies it hosts are distributed in five main tight folds related to F1 (the best examples are the X, Main and South orebodies, in level 25), which are disrupted by NE- to E-striking shear zones. Textural features indicate that the sulfide mineralization postdated regional peak metamorphism, and that the massive sulfide ore has subsequently been neither metamorphosed nor deformed. Lead isotope ratios indicate a model age of 2.82 ± 0.05 Ga for both sulfide and gold mineralization. The lapa seca are interpreted as the results of a pre-gold alteration process and may be

  9. Steatite and schist as contenders for the Global Heritage Stone Resource due to their importance in Brazil's natural stone built heritage (United States)

    Gilberto Costa, Antônio


    In Brazil, European natural stones, such as marble and limestone, were used as building material at historically important buildings and monuments, mainly in coastal cities, as well as in contemporary urban centers. However, in the country's central region, these Italian and Portuguese marbles and limestones were scarcely used. Instead, they were substituted for soapstone and several types of schist. As of 1755, the former was employed because of the ease with which it can be worked, essentially in the sculptural art and in the production of ornamental elements. Characterized by the presence of talc, steatite can feature other minerals such as serpentine, chlorite, carbonate, amphiboles, oxides like hematite and magnetite, and sulfites like pyrite, all in broadly variable amounts, which can result in modification of its technological properties (Volumetric Weight, Porosity, Water Absorption, Uniaxial Compression, Abrasion Resistance, Thermal Expansion etc.). In such rocks, talc content will be a decisive factor in their coloration. The higher its talc content is the clearer and softer the stone type will be, which ends up being known as talc stone. In such cases, the rock can display different hues of green, blue and gray. When compared to other rocks, texture patterns containing talc crystals, chlorite and carbonate contribute to low absorption and porosity for steatites. Schists were equally used at historical buildings in the Brazilian inland, especially in constructions in Minas Gerais towns, both in the production of structural elements such as bases, corners, pillars and foundations and in the creation of ornaments. Featuring different compositions, such rocks - which almost always occur interlayered with other ones such as quartzite - display coloration ranging from hues of gray to green to blue. They can be quartz-sericite-albite-chlorite schists featuring great or no amounts of carbonate, magnetite, epidote and tourmaline, sometimes with garnet, such as in

  10. The Western Cycladic Detachment System on Makronisos, Greece (United States)

    Loisl, Johannes; Lindner, Karoline; Huet, Benjamin; Grasemann, Bernhard; Rice, A. Hugh. N.; Soukis, Konstantinos; Schneider, David


    Makronisos, which lies 3 km east of the Attica port of Lavrion, is the northwesternmost part of the Western Cycladic archipelago. The Cyclades and adjacent part of Attica are dominated by Miocene low-angle detachments that developed during top-to-SSW crustal extension, forming the West Cycladic Detachment System. Although extension is well documented on the other Western Cycladic islands and in Attica, the geology of Makronisos is poorly known. The aim of this study is to provide data on the structural, microstructural and metamorphic evolution of Makronisos to resolve its tectonostratigraphic position and its relationships within the Cycladic realm. Most of Makronisos consists of grey, locally graphitic, pelitic schists and yellowish impure marbles, interlayed with blue-grey mylonitic marbles and quartzites, forming large-scale pinch-and-swell structures. Metabasites are present as small bodies along the east side of the island but are thicker and more continuous in the southeast. Petrography shows that metabasites usually contain blue amphiboles, although generally only as relicts after greenschist facies retrogression. Serpentinite has been found at two localities. The structurally highest level of the island consists of white-grey to pale-red ultramylonites up to 40 m thick. These mainly lie on the central ridge of the island, but, due to large-scale upright folding, also crop out along the east and west coasts. In several places, the ultramylonites overlie 1-2 m of foliated ultracataclasites derived from the footwall pelitic schists. Stretching lineations and macroscopic shear-criteria indicate a top-to-SSW shear-sense. Microstructural analyses consistently show the same shear-sense, indicated by shape and crystal preferred orientations, σ- and δ-clasts, mica-fish, rotated veins and SCC' structures. Deformation mechanisms observed in quartz (LT-bulging) and calcite (recrystallization) are evidence for deformation temperatures of c. 300°C. Albite

  11. Episyenites within the Tauern Window metagranitoids: unpredictable? (United States)

    Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Ceccato, Alberto; Fioretti, Anna Maria; Mazzoli, Claudio; Zorzi, Federico; Ferretti, Patrizia


    . This study indicates that there is not a simple way to predict the location and the extent of episyenite alteration from the geometry and fracturing patterns of the network of precursor cataclastic faults. The dominant quartz dissolution during episyenitization was accompanied and/or followed by: (i) pervasive substitution of oligoclase and chlorite/biotite of the metagranodiorite by albite and clay-minerals, respectively, and (ii) limited precipitation of new adularia, anatase, calcite, hematite and zeolite within pores. Isotopic data from calcite filling the episyenite porosity suggest a meteoric source of the fluids (δ18O (SMOW) ˜ -2 o). In contrast, fluids synkinematic with previous episodes of fluid-rock interaction during faulting and ductile shearing had a deeper origin (δ18O (SMOW) ˜ 8-9 o). References Pennacchioni, G., Mancktelow, N.S., 2007. J. Struct. Geol. 29, 1757-1780. Pennacchioni, G., Mancktelow, N.S., 2013. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 125, 1468-1483.

  12. Multistage metasomatism in ultrahigh-pressure mafic rocks from the North Dabie Complex (China) (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Hermann, Jörg; Scambelluri, Marco; Compagnoni, Roberto


    Release of metamorphic fluids within the slab and/or from the slab to the mantle wedge in subduction environments can produce important metasomatic effects. Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metasomatised rocks represent ideal materials to study the element exchange at pressures corresponding to sub-arc depths in subduction zones. We present a petrologic and geochemical study of eclogites (s.l.) from the Dabie Mountains (China). The investigated samples were collected in the North Dabie Complex, where eclogite-facies rocks are significantly overprinted by granulite-facies metamorphism and partial melting. The studied eclogites are included in meta-lherzolitic bodies, which are in turn hosted by leucocratic gneisses. The textural relations among the various rock-forming minerals enabled us to identify several re-crystallisation stages. The peak (UHP) paragenesis consists of garnet, clinopyroxene and rutile. UHP garnet and clinopyroxene display oriented inclusions of polycrystalline rods of rutile + ilmenite and of albite, K-Ba-feldspar and quartz, respectively. Garnet and clinopyroxene are both rimmed by an inclusion free zone that formed after the peak, still at high-pressure conditions. Such optical zoning does not correspond to a difference in major element concentrations between garnet core and rim. This observation provides evidence that the major element composition of garnet was reset during exhumation, thus preventing thermobarometric determination of peak metamorphic conditions. Further decompression is documented by the formation of limited ilmenite + amphibole and granulite-facies coronas consisting of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase and amphibole around garnet. In order to investigate the stability of observed mineral parageneses, a series of reconnaissance piston cylinder synthesis experiments were carried out in an identical bulk composition. The experimental study indicates that the peak metamorphic paragenesis is stable at P˜3.5 GPa and T ≥ 750

  13. Axial Belt Provenance: modern river sands from the core of collision orogens (United States)

    Resentini, A.; Vezzoli, G.; Paparella, P.; Padoan, M.; Andò, S.; Malusà, M.; Garzanti, E.


    Collision orogens have a complex structure, including diverse rock units assembled in various ways by geodynamic processes. Consequently, orogenic detritus embraces a varied range of signatures, and unravelling provenance of clastic wedges accumulated in adjacent foreland basins, foredeeps, or remnant-ocean basins is an arduous task. Dickinson and Suczek (1979) and Dickinson (1985) recognized the intrinsically composite nature of orogenic detritus, but did not attempt to establish clear conceptual and operational distinctions within their broad "Recycled Orogenic Provenance". In the Alpine and Himalayan belts, the bulk of the detritus is produced by focused erosion of the central backbone of the orogen, characterized by high topography and exhumation rates (Garzanti et al., 2004; Najman, 2006). Detritus derived from such axial nappe pile, including slivers of thinned continental-margin lithosphere metamorphosed at depth during early collisional stages, has diagnostic general features, which allows us to define an "Axial Belt Provenance" (Garzanti et al., 2007). In detail, "Axial Belt" detrital signatures are influenced by metamorphic grade of source rocks and relative abundance of continental versus oceanic protoliths, typifying distinct subprovenances. Metasedimentary cover nappes shed lithic to quartzolithic detritus, including metapelite, metapsammite, and metacarbonate grains of various ranks; only amphibolite-facies metasediments supply abundant heavy minerals (e.g., almandine garnet, staurolite, kyanite, sillimanite, diopsidic clinopyroxene). Continental-basement nappes shed hornblende-rich quartzofeldspathic detritus. Largely retrogressed blueschist to eclogite-facies metaophiolites supply albite, metabasite and foliated antigorite-serpentinite grains, along with abundant heavy minerals (epidote, zoisite, clinozoisite, lawsonite, actinolitic to barroisitic amphiboles, glaucophane, omphacitic clinopyroxene). Increasing metamorphic grade and deeper

  14. Geochemistry of tectonically expelled fluids from the northern Coast ranges, Rumsey Hills, California, USA (United States)

    Davisson, M.L.; Presser, T.S.; Criss, R.E.


    Tectonic compression has created abnormally high pressure on deep basinal fluids causing their expulsion from areally exposed Upper Cretaceous rock along the eastern margin of the California Coast ranges. The fluids emerge as near-neutral, perennial sodium chloride springs at high elevations with flow rates as high as 10 L per min. Higher spring discharges are more common around the exposure of a west-vergent fault propagation fold axis. Spring waters range from ~1000 to 27,000 mg/L TDS. The least saline water (??18O = -7.5???) closely represents local meteoric water that mixes with saline fluid (??18O = +5.3???) and forms a slope of ~3.5 on a ??D vs. ??18O plot. A Na (125 to 8000 mg/L) vs. Cl (150 to 17,000 mg/L) plot shows a linear dilution trend that extends close to, but below, the values for modern seawater. Calcium (75-3000 mg/L) is considerably enriched relative to seawater and forms a nonlinear trend with chloride. In detail, the "Na deficit," defined by the difference between the measured Na content and the Na concentration on a hypothetical seawater dilution line, is approximately balanced by the Ca excess, similarly defined by the seawater dilution line. This relationship strongly suggests that the fluid is diluted seawater that is being modified by active albitization of plagioclase at different depths. Simultaneous B and 18O enrichment of the fluids, accompanied by deuterium depletion, further suggest that the seawater modification is influenced by clay diagenesis. Bicarbonate and SiO2 concentrations show an inverse correlation with Cl, with most waters being saturated or slightly oversaturated with calcite and quartz at the discharge temperatures. Some freshwater springs with near-meteoric stable isotope values may represent mixing of young groundwater from perched aquifers, but in many cases, the freshwater springs emerge along the same structures and have the same perennial nature as the saline fluids, and expulsion of an older fresh groundwater

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Late Neoproterozoic rare metal granitoids of Gabal El-Ineigi pluton, Northern Arabian-Nubian Shield, Egypt (United States)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Mohamed, Haroun A.; Farahat, Esam S.; Ahmed, Awaad F.


    Gabal El-Ineigi granitoid pluton is situated in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt and is considered as one of the good examples of the fluorite bearing rare metal granites in the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). It constitutes a multiphase pluton consists of porphyritic syenogranites (SG) and coarse to medium grained highly evolved alkali-feldspar granites (AFG) intruded into the older granodiorites and metagabbro-diorite rocks. Petrographic features indicate that quartz, K-feldspar (perthite, Or97‑99), plagioclase (albite, An0‑6) and biotite are the major mineral phases of both granitic types with subordinate muscovite that is observed only in the AFG. Columbite, rutile, fluorite, zircon and thorite are the significant accessory minerals in the AFG while, allanite is exclusively encountered in the SG. Mineral chemistry study reveals that Nb-Ta-Ti-bearing oxides [columbite-group minerals (CGM)] and Nb-bearing oxides (ilmenorutile) represent the most common Nb-Ta host in the AFG. The CGM are represented mostly by complex zoned columbite-(Fe) and rarely by yttrocolumbite-(Y), with Mn/(Mn+Fe) ratios ranging from 0.17 to 0.31. Xenomorphic fluorite (F=46-51 wt%) is commonly filling the spaces between the major mineral phases and sometimes host rare metal minerals, e.g. columbite and thorite. Euhedral zoned allanite (Ce-Nd) is the common REE bearing mineral encountered in the SG. Geochemically, Gabal El-Ineigi granitoids are metaluminous (A/CNK= 0.95-0.99) related to post-collosional A2-type granites. The late phase AFG have distinctive geochemical features typical of rare-metal granites. They are highly fractionated calc-alkaline granitoids characterized by high Rb, Nb, Y, U and many HFSE contents, and extremely low Sr and Ba contents (4-35 and 13-18 ppm, respectively). Moreover, their REE patterns show pronounced negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.03 - 0.05) and tetrad effect (TE1,3=1.16 and 1.42), implying extensive fractionation via fluid-rock interaction that

  16. UHP-Metamorphic Pyrope Quartzites From Dora Maira: Cathodoluminescence of Silica and Twinning of Coesite (United States)

    Schertl, H.; Medenbach, O.; Neuser, R. D.


    brownish-violet. Most interestingly these luminescence colours of quartz differ from those of quartz filling cracks (brown in colour, late generation of quartz) within the relic coesite crystals. The matrix quartz shows dark blue luminescence colours. In rare cases within the coesite/quartz inclusions in pyrope a mineral was observed exhibiting a bright brownish-yellow luminescence colour. Later studies revealed this mineral as chalcedony (Schertl et al., 2004, Fig. 1e), difficult to distinguish from quartz under the polarizing microscope because of their similar refractive indices and birefringences. Chalcedony as a low temperature phase was formed after cracking of the host pyrope. Twinning of coesite is reminiscent of polysynthethic plagioclase consisting of albite- and pericline-law individuals. Twinning of synthetic coesite was already reported by Ramsdell in 1955. He described (100)- and (021)-twins, that however, mainly derived from X-ray investigations because of the imperfect development of the run products. Further studies by Sclar et al. (1962) confirmed the occurrence of (021)-twins, Naka et al. (1975) provided evidence for (-121)- and (-233)-twins. Two respective types of lamellae in metamorphic coesites from Dora Maira were identified; their twin planes are intersecting each other with an angle of ca. 90°. The lamellae are twinned after (021) and (-101), the latter observed in natural coesite for the first time.

  17. Numerical modelling of gas-water-rock interactions in volcanic-hydrothermal environment: the Ischia Island (Southern Italy) case study. (United States)

    Di Napoli, R.; Federico, C.; Aiuppa, A.; D'Antonio, M.; Valenza, M.


    ). Overall, our model calculations satisfactorily reproduce the main chemical features of Ischia groundwaters. In the model runs, attainment of partial to complete equilibrium with albite and K-feldspar fixes the Na/K ratios of the model solutions at values closely matching those of natural samples. Precipitation of secondary phases, mainly clay minerals (smectite and saponite) and zeolites (clinoptilolite), during the reaction path is able to well explain the large Mg-depletions which characterise Ischia thermal groundwaters; while pyrite and troilite are shown to control sulphur abundance in aqueous solutions. SiO2(aq) contents in model simulations fit those measured in groundwaters and are being buffered by the formation of quartz polymorphs and Si-bearing minerals. Finally, our simulations are able to reproduce redox conditions and Fe-depletion trends of natural samples. We conclude that reaction path modelling is an useful tool for quantitative exploration of chemical process within volcano-hosted hydrothermal systems.

  18. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California (United States)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.


    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at

  19. Mineral displacement and -dissolution processes and their relevance to rock porosity and permeability in Rotliegend sandstones of the Altmark natural gas field (central Germany) - results from CO2 laboratory batch experiments (United States)

    Pudlo, Dieter; Enzmann, Frieder; Heister, Katja; Werner, Lars; Ganzer, Leonhard; Reitenbach, Viktor; Henkel, Steven; Albrecht, Daniel; Gaupp, Reinhard


    The Rotliegend reservoir sandstones of the Altmark area (central Germany) comprise the second largest natural gas field of Europe. These sandstones were deposited on a playa-like continental platform with braided river systems, ephemeral lakes and aeolian dunes under semi-arid conditions. Some of the pristine, red coloured deposits suffered intensive late diagenetic alteration and are now preserved as bleached, high porous and permeable sandstones. To evaluate the relevance of distinct fluids and their fluid-rock alteration reactions on such bleaching processes we performed laboratory static batch experiments on the Altmark sandstones. These 4-6 week lasting runs were conducted with CO2 saturated synthetic brines under typical Altmark reservoir conditions (p= 20 MPa, T= 125°C). Thereby mineralogical, petrophysical and (hydro- and geo-) chemical rock features were maintained prior and after the experiments. Chemical data proved the dissolution of carbonate and sulphate minerals during the runs, whereas the variation in abundance of further elements was within the detection limit of analytical accuracy. However, FE-SEM investigations on used, evaporated brines reveal the presence of illite and chlorite minerals within a matrix of Ca-, Si-, Fe, Al-, Na- and S components (carbonate, anhydrite, albite and Fe-(hydr-) oxides ?). By porosity and relative permeability measurements an increase in both rock features was observed after the runs, indicating that mineral dissolution and/or (clay) fine migration/detachment occurred during the experiments. Mineral dissolution, especially of pore-filling cements (e.g. carbonate-, sulphate minerals) is also deduced by BET analysis, in determining the specific surface of the sandstones. The size of these reactive surfaces increased after the experiments, suggesting that after the dissolution of pore-filling cements, formerly armoured grain rimming clay cutans were exposed to potential migrating fluids. These findings are also

  20. Evaluation of metasomatic changes in an interlayered blueschist-greenschist sequence (Coastal Cordillera, Chile) by combining geochemical data with equilibrium assemblage diagrams (United States)

    Halama, Ralf; Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias


    In the Coastal Cordillera of Central Chile, a spectacular sequence of interlayered blueschists and greenschists occurs in coastal outcrops near Pichilemu. Three explanations are generally proposed to interpret the interlayering of metamorphic rocks that represent distinct metamorphic facies: 1. Differences in the pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of equilibration and late-stage tectonic juxtaposition, 2. Chemical differences between the layers inherited from the protolith, and 3. Differences in the degree of metasomatic overprint during metamorphism. Investigations of such interlayered sequences can shed light on the mobility of elements and fluid-rock interaction during metamorphism. To identify the processes responsible for interlayering, geochemical analyses were combined with petrologic investigations involving the calculation of isothermal and isobaric binary phase diagrams using the THERIAK-DOMINO [1] software. Major mineral phases in blueschist and greenschist layers are amphibole, white mica, chlorite, and albite with subordinate amounts of titanite, epidote, hematite and apatite. The mineralogy of blueschist and greenschist layers is similar, albeit the modal proportions differ, causing the distinct colouring. Peak P-T conditions of blueschists reach 370±20 °C at 10±1 kbar [2]. The layering on a cm-to-dm scale and the similar mineralogy suggest that both blueschist and greenschist layers experienced a similar P-T evolution. For adjacent blueschist-greenschist pairs, blueschists have consistently higher Si and Na contents, whereas greenschists are relatively enriched in Al, Mg and total Fe. However, the observed major element geochemical trends are inconsistent with magmatic differentiation. For several blueschist-greenschist pairs, ratios of incompatible trace elements, which are indicative of the protolith composition and considered as relatively immobile during low-T metamorphism (Th/Yb, Nb/Yb), are near identical. These features point to

  1. The Damage and Geochemical Signature of a Crustal Scale Strike-Slip Fault Zone (United States)

    Gomila, R.; Mitchell, T. M.; Arancibia, G.; Jensen Siles, E.; Rempe, M.; Cembrano, J. M.; Faulkner, D. R.


    . Whole-rock XRF analyses show Al and Ca content decrease with increasing Si, whereas Na increases towards the core. This can be interpreted as compositional changes of plagioclase to albite-rich ones due to chloritic-propylitic alteration. In the damage zone, LOI increases towards the core but decreases inside of it. This is explained by H2O-rich clays and gypsum in the fault core boundary represented as fault gouge zones whereas in the cataclastic core zone, the decrease in LOI is explained by epidote. Our results show the JF had an evolving permeability structure where a cataclasite-rich core is formed at an early stage, and then a gouge-bounded core is developed which acted as a barrier to fluid from east to west of the fault.

  2. Geochemistry and fluid inclusions across a crustal strike-slip Mesozoic fault: insights of fluid-flow / rock interaction in the Atacama Fault System (United States)

    Gomila, R.; Mitchell, T. M.; Arancibia, G.; Jensen, E.; Rempe, M.; Cembrano, J. M.; Hoshino, K.; Faulkner, D.


    Faults architecture and their permeability related fractures play a first order role in fluid-flow migration throughout the upper crust. Commonly, the interaction between fluid-flow migration and host rock is reflected as mineral precipitation in a vein mesh and/or as mineralogical changes (alteration) of the host rock. Often, however, the relationship between a fault zone and the fluid-flow passing through it is poorly understood. In order to improve our understanding of this process we have chosen, as a case study, the Jorgillo Fault (JF), which lies within the Atacama Fault System, a trench-parallel large-scale structure developed within Mesozoic rocks of the present-day Coastal Cordillera in northern Chile. The JF is represented as a ca. 18 km long NNW-SSE, in its southern end, to NW-SE, in its northern part, west-ward concave-shape sinistral strike-slip fault showing a maximum left-lateral displacement of about 4 km and a subvertical dip. The fault cuts through crystalline rocks of gabbric, dioritic and granodioritic composition. The JF core is composed by a ca. 1 m wide cataclasite zone bounded by two fault gouge zones ca. 40 cm in average while its minimum damage zone extension, based in field observations, is ca. 2 m wide each side of the core zone. A fault perpendicular transect was mapped and sampled in order to run XRF and XRD analyses of the fault core, damage zone and undeformed protolith. XRF analyses of the rocks revealed that contents of Al and Ca decrease with increasing Si, while Na increases towards the fault core. Fujita et al. (2012) interpreted similar behavior in analysis of rocks belonging to the Coloso Fault, which is genetically and spatially related to the JF, as compositional changes of plagioclase to albite-rich ones due to chloritic-propilitic alteration processes. In the damage zone, L.O.I. data increase towards the fault core but decrease inside the core in its cataclastic zone. This behavior of L.O.I. data is explained by the

  3. Sedimentary carbonate-hosted giant Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit of Inner Mongolia, China; a cornerstone example for giant polymetallic ore deposits of hydrothermal origin (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Tatsumoto, M.; Junwen, Wang; Conrad, J.E.; McKee, E.H.; Zonglin, Hou; Qingrun, Meng; Shengguang, Huang


    Detailed, integrative field and laboratory studies of the textures, structures, chemical characteristics, and isotopically determined ages and signatures of mineralization of the Bayan Obo deposit provided evidence for the origin and characteristics favorable for its formation and parameters necessary for defining giant polymetallic deposits of hydrothermal origin. Bayan Obo is an epigenetic, metasomatic, hydrothermal rare earth element (REE)-Fe-Nb ore deposit that is hosted in the metasedimentary H8 dolostone marble of the Middle Proterozoic Bayan Obo Group. The metasedimentary sequence was deposited on the northern continental slope of the North China craton. The mine area is about 100 km south of the suture marking Caledonian subduction of the Mongolian oceanic plate from the north beneath the North China craton. The mineralogy of the deposit is very complex, consisting of more than 120 different minerals, some of which are epigenetic minerals introduced by hydrothermal solutions, and some of which are primary and secondary metamorphic minerals. The major REE minerals are monazite and bastnaesite, whereas magnetite and hematite are the dominant Fe-ore minerals, and columbite is the most abundant Nb mineral. Dolomite, alkali amphibole, fluorite, barite, aegirine augite, apatite, phlogopite, albite, and microcline are the most widespread gangue minerals. Three general types of ores occur at Bayan Obo: disseminated, banded, and massive ores. Broad zoning of these ore types occurs in the Main and East Orebodies. Disseminated ores are in the outermost zone, banded ores are in the intermediate zone, and massive ores are in the cores of the orebodies. On the basis of field relations, host rocks, textures, structures, and mineral assemblages, many varieties of these three types of ores have been recognized and mapped. Isotopic dating of monazite, bastnaesite, aeschynite, and metamorphic and metasomatic alkali amphiboles associated with the deposit provides constraints

  4. Gneiss wastes as secondary raw material for the ceramic industry: an example from the Verbano Cusio Ossola district (Piedmont, north-western Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro


    -feldspathic rocks (i.e. Serizzo and Beola), are potential sources of secondary raw materials for the ceramic industry. To assess the feasibility of a reuse of these waste materials, an extensive sampling was performed on the main quarry dumps. The waste rocks were characterized by polarized light optical microscopy (OM) on thin sections, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), quantitative X-ray powder diffraction (XRD-QPA with the Rietveld method), electron microprobe (WDS and EDS) and whole-rock geochemistry (ICP-AES, ICP-MS and LECO®). The performed analyzes show a marked mineralogical and chemical heterogeneity (e.g. highly variable content of phyllosilicates, FeOtot content between 0.39 and 6.99 wt.%), as well as important textural and granulometric differences. On the other hand, the composition of feldspars is quite homogeneous, with the plagioclase ranging from almost pure albite to oligoclase (An 25 - 30%). Some varieties of Serizzo and Beola (Serizzo Sempione, Serizzo Formazza and Beola Bianca) are preferable because of their relatively low FeOtot content, but granulometric and textural factors should never be overlooked, as they have an important feedback in the efficiency and feasibility of the industrial treatments (e.g. magnetic separation). Specifically, some Beola varieties with particularly fine grain size and mylonitic texture, are poorly-suited to industrial ore treatments. On the contrary, the Serizzo varieties, although with a generally higher FeOtot content, have a coarser and homogeneous (and therefore preferable) grain size. Waste materials with different composition could be mixed properly until reaching the desired "ideal" compositions for the following industrial treatments. In any case, an accurate characterization of the waste materials from each of quarry dump is of fundamental importance.

  5. Mineralogy and chemistry of the green stone artifacts (muiraquitãs of the museums of the Brazilian State of Pará Mineralogia e química de artefatos de pedra verde (muiraquitãs dos Museus do Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cristina Resque Meirelles


    Full Text Available Muiraquitãs, lithic artifacts found in the Amazon basin, have been considered to be Asian in origin, or to have been sculpted by the legendary female Amazon warriors. These pieces are now very rare, and are found mainly in museum collections. In the present study, the mineralogical and chemical content of 23 specimens from the collections of the Museu de Gemas (Gemstone Museum and Museu do Encontro (Meeting Museum in Belém, Brazil, were analyzed. Most of the pieces were made of minerals commonly found in Brazil - quartz, albite, microcline, variscite, anorthite, and tremolite (the equivalent of nephritic jade. However, four of the pieces were made of jadeite, that is, jadeitic jade, which is unknown in the Amazon basin or in other parts of Brazil. The confirmation of the presence of this mineral in some of the artifacts reopens the debate on the mineralogical origin of the muiraquitãs found in the Amazon basin. Before the present discovery, their origin was defended as Amazonian due to the absence of jadeite jade in the searched pieces and the fact that jadeite was not found in Brazil but in Central America and Asia.Os muiraquitãs foram considerados de proveniência asiática ou, também, como peças esculpidas pelas lendárias mulheres guerreiras, as Amazonas. São peças, hoje, muito raras, encontradas em alguns acervos de Museus. Estudos mineralógicos e químicos de 23 peças do acervo dos Museus de Gemas e do Encontro em Belém, Brasil, mostraram que os muiraquitãs podem ser constituídos, tanto de quartzo, como de albita, ou microclínio, pirofilita, variscita, anortita e tremolita (equivalente ao jade nefrítico, minerais frequentes em formações geológicas do Brasil. No entanto quatro peças são constituídas de jadeíta, ou seja, em jade jadeítico, raro e desconhecido na Amazônia e Brasil. A constatação da presença desse mineral reacende a discussão em torno da origem mineralógica dos muiraquitãs encontrados na Amaz

  6. The dissolution of naturally weathered feldspar and quartz (United States)

    Anbeek, Chris; Van Breemen, Nico; Meijer, Edward L.; Van Der Plas, Leendert


    Surface area measurements and dissolution experiments were performed on subsamples from a naturally weathered mineral assemblage (100-1000 μm) consisting of feldspar and quartz. The subsamples were obtained by splitting the assemblage into four different ranges of grain density, each of which was sieved to three different size fractions. BET-krypton and geometric surface areas, combined with mineralogical data and average grain diameters, showed that (1) surface roughness factors of the subsamples are generally much higher than those of freshly created surfaces by grinding and (2) for individual density ranges (i.e., at constant mineralogical composition), the surface roughness factor decreases linearly with decreasing grain diameter. Scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction showed that contributions to the surface roughness factors from secondary mineral coatings, macropores (diameters >50 nm) and etch pits are insignificant. In contrast, krypton adsorption data indicated that by far most surface roughness is due to the presence of micropores and mesopores (diameters <50 nm). These findings strongly suggest that, during natural weathering, micropores/mesopores develop at sites whose density (cm -2 of geometric surface area) is approximately proportional to grain diameter. Multivariate linear regression showed that, at similar grain diameters, the micropore/mesopore density increases in the order: quartz < microcline < albite < oligoclase/andesine. This sequence is similar to the well-known sequence of relative weatherability of these minerals, suggesting a relationship between weatherability and micropore/mesopore density. At pH 3 HCl and ambient temperature, dissolution rates of Na, K, Ca, Al and Si from the subsamples normalized to the BET-krypton surface area, were essentially independent of the grain diameter. Due to effects from surface roughness, dissolution rates normalized to the geometric surface area were essentially proportional to grain

  7. Solid oxide electrolysis cells - Performance and durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauch, A.


    In this work H2 electrode supported solid oxide cells (SOC) produced at Risoe National Laboratory, DTU, have been used for steam electrolysis. Electrolysis tests have been performed at temperatures from 650AeC to 950AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) from 0.99/0.01 to 0.30/0.70 and current densities from -0.25 A/cm2 to -2 A/cm2. The solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) have been characterised by iV curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at start and end of tests and by EIS under current load during electrolysis testing. The tested SOCs have shown the best initial electrolysis performance reported in literature to date. Area specific resistances of 0.26 Oecm2 at 850AeC and 0.17 Oecm2 at 950AeC were obtained from electrolysis iV curves. The general trend for the SOEC tests was: 1) a short-term passivation in first few hundred hours, 2) then an activation and 3) a subsequent and underlying long-term degradation. The transient phenomenon (passivation/activation) was shown to be a set-up dependent artefact caused by the albite glass sealing with a p(Si(OH)4) of 1.10-7 atm, leading to silica contamination of the triple-phase boundaries (TPBs) of the electrode. The long-term degradation for the SOECs was more pronounced than for fuel cell testing of similar cells. Long-term degradation of 2%/1000 h was obtained at 850AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) = 0.5/0.5 and -0.5 A/cm2, whereas the degradation rate increased to 6%/1000h at 950AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) = 0.9/0.1 and -1.0 A/cm2. Both the short-term passivation and the long-term degradation appear mainly to be related to processes in the H2 electrode. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs show that only limited changes occur in the Ni particle size distribution and these are not the main degradation mechanism for the SOECs. Micro and nano analysis using energy dispersive spectroscopy in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM reveals that glassy phase impurities have accumulated at the TPBs as a result of

  8. Hydrothermal modification of host rock geochemistry within Mo-Cu porphyry deposits in the Galway Granite, western Ireland (United States)

    Tolometti, Gavin; McCarthy, Will


    Hydrothermal alteration of host rock is a process inherent to the formation of porphyry deposits and the required geochemical modification of these rocks is regularly used to indicate proximity to an economic target. The study involves examining the changes in major, minor and trace elements to understand how the quartz vein structures have influenced the chemistry within the Murvey Granite that forms part of the 380-425Ma Galway Granite Complex in western Ireland. Molybdenite mineralisation within the Galway Granite Complex occurred in close association with protracted magmatism at 423Ma, 410Ma, 407Ma, 397Ma and 383Ma and this continues to be of interest to active exploration. The aim of the project is to characterize hydrothermal alteration associated with Mo-Cu mineralisation and identify geochemical indicators that can guide future exploration work. The Murvey Granite intrudes metagabbros and gneiss that form part of the Connemara Metamorphic complex. The intrusion is composed of albite-rich pink granite, garnetiferous granite and phenocrytic orthoclase granite. Minor doleritic dykes post-date the Murvey Granite, found commonly along its margins. Field mapping shows that the granite is truncated to the east by a regional NW-SE fault and that several small subparallel structures host Mo-Cu bearing quartz veins. Petrographic observations show heavily sericitized feldspars and plagioclase and biotite which have undergone kaolinization and chloritisation. Chalcopyrite minerals are fine grained, heavily fractured found crystallized along the margins of the feldspars and 2mm pyrite crystals. Molybdenite are also seen along the margins of the feldspars, crystallized whilst the Murvey Granite cooled. Field and petrographic observations indicate that mineralisation is structurally controlled by NW-SE faults from the selected mineralization zones and conjugate NE-SW cross cutting the Murvey Granite. Both fault orientations exhibit quartz and disseminated molybdenite

  9. Metasomatism-controlled nucleation and development of paired-shear zone: an example from the Neves area (Eastern Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Link, Gaétan; Goncalves, Philippe; Lanari, Pierre; Oliot, Emilien


    Ductile shear zones reflects the process of strain localization in the middle and the lower crust. Several studies have shown that shear zones are characterized by significant syn-kinematic changes in mineralogy and chemical composition linked to fluid circulation, little attention has been paid to the role of chemical processes on strain localization comparison to mechanical processes. In the Neves area (Tauern window, Eastern Alps, Italy), a Variscan granodiorite is affected by an Alpine deformation, under amphibolite facies conditions. This deformation is characterized by the nucleation of single shear zones on inherited brittle structures, and paired-shear zones flanking a bleached zone developed to either side of the fractures and aplitic dykes (Mancktelow and Pennacchioni 2005). In this contribution, we focus our attention on the paired-shear zones developed on metasomatic halos surrounding fractures, which can give insights into interactions between fluid transfer, metasomatism, mineral reactions and deformation. In the undeformated granodiorite, the mineralogical assemblage consists of quartz, K-felspar, saussuritized plagioclase and biotite. The metasomatic bleached zone consists of a mineralogical assemblage of quartz and feldspar (mainly albite). The central fracture is filled with epidote. The shear zone that nucleated on the wall of the bleached zone is characterized by the crystallization of new metamorphic phases at the expense of primary magmatic and secondary metasomatic phases: garnet on former plagioclase site, phengite in the foliation, epidote and Fe and Ti-oxydes. The P-T conditions of the ductile deformation stage, associated with metasomatism, are estimated at 520°C - 0,55 Gpa, based on growth chemical zonation of garnets. Garnet shows distinct morphology depending on its textural setting: euhedral garnet is characterized by a growth chemical zonation with an enriched-Mn core and an enriched-Fe rim, in the deformed metagranodiorite; atoll

  10. The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars (United States)

    Hovis, G. L.; Medford, A.; Conlon, M.


    Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (α) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase. When combined with thermal expansion data for albite (2,3,4) a steep linear trend of α as a function of VRT emerges, reflecting how small changes in composition dramatically affect expansion behavior. The thermal expansion data for five synthetic Ba-K feldspars ranging in composition from 20 to 100 mole percent celsian, combined with data for pure K-feldspar (3,4), show α-VRT relationships similar in nature to the plagioclase series, but with a slope and intercept different from the latter. Taken as a group all Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study along with Sr- (5) and Pb-feldspar (6) from other workers, show very limited thermal expansion that, unlike AlSi3 feldspars, has little dependence on the divalent-ion (or M-) site occupant. This apparently is due to the necessitated alternation of Al and Si in the tetrahedral sites of these minerals (7), which in turn locks the tetrahedral framework and makes the M-site occupant nearly irrelevant to expansion behavior. Indeed, in feldspar series with coupled chemical substitution it is the change away from a 1:1 Al:Si ratio that gives feldspars greater freedom to expand. Overall, the relationships among α, chemical composition, and room-temperature volume provide useful predictive tools for estimating feldspar thermal expansion and give insight into the controls of expansion behavior in

  11. Los sistemas geotermales del Pirineo Central. II. Resultados de la aplicación de técnicas geotermométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimeno, M. J.


    Full Text Available Reservoir temperatures are calculated for six geothermal systems in the Central Pyrenees (Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Benasque, Panticosa, Luchon and Cauterets using different geothermometrical methods. In general, the selected hot springs have similar geochemical features belonging to the group of alkaline thermal systems installed in granitic environments. More in detail, however, it is important to note that Na and K concentrations of Panticosa and Benasque thermal springs are the lowest found in this water group to date. Both classical geothermometers and modeling calculations agree within a few degrees for the Arties, Caldas and Luchon geothermal systems: thermal waters are in equilibrium in their reservoirs with a common mineral association (quartz, albite, K-feldspar, caolinite and some calc-aluminum silicate at 103, 107 and 127° C, respectively. Cauterets, Panticosa and Benasque thermal waters appear to be equilibrated with the same mineral association at 98, 107 and 94° C, respectively as deduced from silica and Na-K geothermometers. Na-K-Ca and Ca-K geothermometers provide lower temperatures for these systems, probably because of some exchange of calcium between rock and water during the ascent of solutions. Nevertheless, the modeling calculations fail to represent the composition of Panticosa and Benasque thermal springs: these waters are out of equilibrium with the selected mineral association at the temperatures given by Na-K and SiO2-quartz geothermometers Therefore, the agreement between these geothermometers appear to be fortuitous, specially for Benasque thermal waters.Mediante la utilización de distintas técnicas geotermométricas se han estimado las temperaturas en el reservorio de seis sistemas geotermales (Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Benasque, Panticosa, Luchon y Cauterets instalados en los materiales graníticos del Pirineo Central. Los manantiales seleccionados para realizar los cálculos muestran similares caracteres

  12. Evaluation of ASR potential of quartz-rich rocks by alkaline etching of polished rock sections (United States)

    Šachlová, Šárka; Kuchařová, Aneta; Pertold, Zdeněk; Přikryl, Richard


    standard AMBT (folowing ASTM C1260). The etching experiment is regarded to be feasible method to quantify ASR potential of quartz- (resp. SiO2-) rich rocks. Employement of the method: (1) decreases potential error from less experienced operator; (2) minimizes the volume of the rock need to be analyzed; (3) enables to visualize microscopic features where ASR originates; and (4) enables to identify alkali-reactive components in the rocks. The main disadvatage of the method is regarded in the restriction to quartz- (resp. SiO2-) rich rocks. If other minerals are included in the rocks their role in ASR should be considered. These minerals can be excluded from the analysis in case they are not reactive and if their content is very low (e.g. accesory minerals). If the minerals contribute to ASR (e.g. albite, micas), these mineral phases should be included in the analysis. Then the application of PIA needs to be modified in respect to different grey shades of individual minerals.

  13. Composition, Temperature, and Pressure Dependence of the Phonon (Thermal) Conductivity of Silicate Geoliquids (United States)

    Tikunoff, Dane Michael

    which each oxygen atom is surrounded by two nearest neighbors of either Si or Al, is expected to possess a longer phonon mean free path, and thus higher conductivity, than the less polymerized liquid CaMgSi2O6, in which each oxygen atom, on average, is surrounded by only 4/3 nearest neighbors of Si. Simulation results for diopside melt at 2059+/-12 K and 0.04+/-0.14 GPa and albite melt at 2090+/-20 K and 0.20+/-0.23 GPa give values of k=1.143+/-0.004 W/m K and k=1.498+/-0.147 W/m K, respectively. Thus, this expectation based on empirical results has been faithfully captured by MD simulation. A modified Arrhenian expression was found to fit all liquids over the temperature and pressure range of the simulations (2000-4500 K and 0-30 GPa) reasonably well (correlation coefficient R2 ≈ 0.9). Activation energies are around 20 kJ/mol and activation volume is of order a few cm3/mol. A good correlation between the coordination numbers (CN) of Ca, Mg, Na, Al and Si around oxygen and by oxygen around the cations and thermal conductivity may be used semi-quantitatively to predict thermal conductivity in multi-component silicate liquids.

  14. Geochemistry of major and trace elements and Pb–Sr isotopes of a weathering profile developed on the Lower Cambrian black shales in central Hunan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The chemical changes during black shale weathering are geochemically estimated. • Chemical changes and Pb–Sr data suggest four types of chemical reactions. • There were two stages of geochemical processes during black shale weathering. • Early stage of chemical differentiation led elements leaching and redistribution. • Soil was formed by later chemical homogenisation after the early differentiation. - Abstract: This paper reports a geochemical study on the major and trace elements and Pb–Sr isotopes of a weathering profile developed in the Lower Cambrian black shales in central Hunan (China). Six weathering horizons were identified and sampled vertically throughout the profile. The chemical composition of the profile consists of variable concentrations of the major elements Fe2O3, FeO, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, and P2O5 and of less variable concentrations of SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, and K2O. The chemical change caused by weathering is estimated by mass-balance calculations, and the results show that the element mobility is characterised by substantial loss of SiO2, FeO, CaO, K2O, Na2O, LOI, Cr, V, Ba, Cs, Rb, Sr, U, and Th, and moderate loss of Al2O3, MgO, Fe2O3, Ni, Cu, Pb, Tl, Sn, Sc, Ge and REE (Y). The high field strength elements TiO2, Sn, Sc, U, Ga, Ge, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta were immobile during weathering. The chemical changes and the Pb–Sr isotopic data suggest that four types of chemical reactions occurred: the oxidation of sulphide minerals (e.g., pyrite) and organic carbon (OS), the dissolution of less resistant clinochlore-Ia, calcite, and P-bearing minerals (DL), the dissolution of detrital albite and microcline (DA), and the transformation of clay (TC) minerals (e.g., muscovite and illite–smectite). These chemical reactions then led to two stages of geochemical processes, an early stage of chemical differentiation and a later stage of chemical homogenisation. The chemical differentiation dominated by the OS, DL, and DA reactions

  15. 新疆南部祖母绿(绿柱石)成矿地质条件初探%Preliminary discussion of the the metailogenic conditions of emerald deposit, Southern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹秀艳; 李甲平; 汪立今; 罗卫东; 石玉君; 陈勇; 陈俊华


    The emeralds of Xinjiang are good in quality, and the deposit has enormous potential yields of excellent quality emerald. This paper is mainly to analyze the geological characteristics of this deposit, including the regional geological features; mining and geological characteristics of ore body; ore mineralogi-cal characteristics of micro. The formation and distribution of emerald ore bodies found in Xinjiang are controlled by regional stratigraphy, magmatic, tectonic and other factors. Emerald (Beryl) Produced in the carbonaceous limestone, shale, calcite, calcite-quartz veinlets. Veins mostly were shaped by oblique veins, bedding pulse. Based on this study, according to samples collected, carrying on microscopic order of mineral assemblages and the formation of micro-mineralogy, mineralization process will be divided into three periods, namely before mineralization, mineralization period, after forming, obtained in the main ore minerals of the formation of calcite, quartz, albite, beryl, etc.. Through this research, the area emerald (beryl) exploration of important guiding significance.%新疆南部首次发现质量好的祖母绿(绿柱石),其成矿地质条件研究意义重大.本文主要对新疆南部祖母绿(绿柱石)矿的成矿地质条件进行初步探讨,包括区域地质特征、矿区及矿体地质特征、矿石显微矿物学特征等.发现新疆祖母绿矿体的形成和分布,受区内地层、岩浆、构造等多种因素和条件限制.祖母绿(绿柱石)多产于含碳质灰岩、页岩的方解石、方解石-石英细脉中,含祖母绿(绿柱石)矿脉多以斜交脉、顺层脉产出.在此研究基础上,根据所采集的样品,进行了显微矿物组合特征和生成顺序的微观矿物学研究,将成矿作用过程划分为三个期次,即成矿前、成矿期、成矿后.得出在成矿期形成的主要矿物为方解石、石英、钠长石、绿柱石等.通过上述研究,对该区祖母绿(绿柱石)找矿具有重要的指导意义.

  16. Discovery of double-peaking potassic volcanic rocks in Langshan Group of the Tanyaokou hydrothermal-sedimentary deposit, Inner Mongolia, and its indicating significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Runmin; ZHAI Yusheng; WANG Zhigang; HAN Xuefeng


    It is revealed that the protolith of gray-light brown potash-feldspar-leucogranulites and granulites in the 2nd formation of the LG in Tanyaokou deposit are quartz kerotophyre of synsedimentary eruption based on the following facts and features: (1) The rocks look compact and homogeneous without obvious crystals with naked eyes; (2) they contain blastoporphyritic or glomeroporphyritic and blasto-crystalloclastic crystals consisting of quartz with wavy extinction and albite with obvious alteration and deformation; (3) they also contain radiated and fibrous blasto-microspherulitic texture and swallow-tailed bifurcate and blasto-hollow-skeleton crystal texture, representing the rapid cooling characteristic of the magma during submarine volcanic eruption; (4) the major chemical compositions of the rocks are: SiO2 = 70.80%―76.00%, K2O (4.83%―6.22%)>Na2O(2.78%―3.80%), and K2O+Na2O = 8.63%―9.00%; and (5) their petrochemical diagrams indicate that they are volcanic rocks. Together with the characteristic that they occur in the same sequence with potassic spilite (SiO2 = 46.12%―50.68%, K2O = 4.23%―5.93%>Na2O = 2.15%―3.14%, K2O+Na2O = 6.51%―8.08%), it can be confirmed that the volcanics occurring in the 2nd Formation of the LG in Tanyaokou district are double-peaking potassic volcanic rocks. The discovery, together with the tuffs with ore minerals and the distribution of lead isotopic as well as the value of Co/Ni of pyrites >1 showing the obvious endogenic metalization, can prove that the Tanyaokou deposit is an untypical SEDEX-type deposit formed in the extension fault basin in the Mesoproterozonic aulacogen of the northern margin of the North China Platform, and its metallogenesis is related to the synsedimentary volcanic activities and the hydrothermal exhalation, and both the ore-forming material source and volcanics came from mantle or lower crust. These facts mentioned above, together with the meta-volcanic rocks (double-peaking) found in the

  17. Mass transfer and fluid evolution in late-metamorphic veins, Rhenish Massif (Germany): insight from alteration geochemistry and fluid-mineral equilibria modeling (United States)

    Marsala, Achille; Wagner, Thomas


    Element mobility and fluid-rock interaction related to the formation of late-metamorphic quartz veins have been studied by combination of mineral chemistry, whole-rock geochemistry, mass balance analysis and fluid-mineral equilibria modeling. The quartz veins are hosted by very low-grade metasedimentary rocks of the fold-and-thrust belt of the Rhenish Massif (Germany). The veins record two stages of evolution, a massive vein filling assemblage with elongate-blocky quartz, chlorite, apatite and albite, and a later open space filling assemblage with euhedral crystals of quartz, ankerite-dolomite and minor calcite and sulfides. Detailed mass balance analysis of an alteration profile adjacent to a representative quartz vein demonstrates that element mobility is restricted to the proximal zone. The most important element changes are gain of Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and CO2, and loss of Si, K and Na. The data demonstrate that wall-rock carbonation is one of the main alteration features, whereas mobility of Si, K and Na are related to dissolution of quartz and destruction of detrital feldspar and muscovite. The whole-rock geochemical data, in conjunction with fluid composition data and pressure-temperature estimates, were used as input for fluid-mineral equilibria modeling in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K-C-S-O-H-B-F-Cl. Modeling involved calculation of rock-buffered fluid compositions over the temperature interval 100-500 °C, and reaction-path simulations where a rock-buffered high-temperature fluid reacts with fresh host-rocks at temperatures of 400, 300 and 200 °C. Calculated rock-buffered fluid compositions demonstrate that retrograde silica solubility is a strong driving force for quartz leaching in the temperature-pressure window of 380-450 °C and 0.5 kbar. These conditions overlap with the estimated temperatures for the initial stage of vein formation. Reaction-path models show that high-temperature alteration can produce the observed silica leaching, suggesting that

  18. Experimental approach to form anorthositic melts: phase relations in the system CaAl2Si2O8 - CaMgSi2O6 - Mg2SiO4 at 6 wt.% H2O (United States)

    Zirner, Aurelia Lucretia Katharina; Ballhaus, Chris; Fonseca, Raúl; Müncker, Carsten


    Massive anorthosite dykes are documented for the first time from the Limassol Forest Complex (LFC) of Cyprus, the LFC being a deformed equivalent of the Troodos ultramafic massif. Both the Troodos and LFC complexes are part of the Tethyan realm consisting of Cretaceous oceanic crust that formed within a backarc basin 90 Ma ago and was obduced during late Miocene. From crosscutting relations with the sheeted dyke complex, it follows that the anorthosites belong to one of the latest magmatic events on Cyprus. In hand specimen, the rocks appear massive and unaltered, although in thin section magmatic plagioclase (An93) is partially replaced by albite and thomsonite (zeolite). Where magmatic textures are preserved, plagioclase forms cm-sized, acicular, radially arranged crystal aggregates that remind of spinifex textures. Six major types of anorthosite occurrences have previously been described, none of them matching with the above described anorthosite dykes [1]. The origin of these anorthosite dykes remains poorly understood. Even though they occur as intrusive dykes, it is evident that they cannot represent liquidus compositions, at least under dry conditions. Whole-sale melting of pure An93 would require temperatures in excess of 1450 °C, which is a quite unrealistic temperature of the modern Earth's crust. The working hypothesis is that boninitic melts with approximately 4 wt.% H2O, as found in the cyprian upper pillow lavas (UPL), could produce such rocks by olivine-pyroxene fractionation. Indeed, experiments indicate that such lithologies can be generated by medium-pressure fractional crystallization of hydrous basaltic melts followed by decompression-degassing. High pH2O stabilizes olivine but tends to suppress plagioclase as the highest polymerized phase. Hence the An component is accumulated in the (late-stage) melt. When such a system experiences sudden decompression, the aqueous phase will exsolve and will trigger massive precipitation of anorthite

  19. The interplay of evolved seawater and magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in the 3.24 Ga panorama volcanic-hosted massive sulfide hydrothermal system, North Pilbara Craton, Western Australia (United States)

    Drieberg, Susan L.; Hagemann, Steffen G.; Huston, David L.; Landis, Gary; Ryan, Chris G.; Van Achterbergh, Esmé; Vennemann, Torsten


    The ~3240 Ma Panorama volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) district is unusual for its high degree of exposure and low degree of postdepositional modification. In addition to typical seafloor VHMS deposits, this district contains greisen- and vein-hosted Mo-Cu-Zn-Sn mineral occurrences that are contemporaneous with VHMS orebodies and are hosted by the Strelley granite complex, which also drove VHMS circulation. Hence the Panorama district is a natural laboratory to investigate the role of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in VHMS hydrothermal systems. Regional and proximal high-temperature alteration zones in volcanic rocks underlying the VHMS deposits are dominated by chlorite-quartz ± albite assemblages, with lesser low-temperature sericite-quartz ± K-feldspar assemblages. These assemblages are typical of VHMS hydrothermal systems. In contrast, the alteration assemblages associated with granite-hosted greisens and veins include quartz-topaz-muscovite-fluorite and quartz-muscovite (sericite)-chlorite-ankerite. These vein systems generally do not extend into the overlying volcanic pile. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies suggest that the greisens were produced by high-temperature (~590°C), high-salinity (38–56 wt % NaCl equiv) fluids with high densities (>1.3 g/cm3) and high δ18O (9.3 ± 0.6‰). These fluids are compatible with the measured characteristics of magmatic fluids evolved from the Strelley granite complex. In contrast, fluids in the volcanic pile (including the VHMS ore-forming fluids) were of lower temperature (90°–270°C), lower salinity (5.0–11.2 wt % NaCl equiv), with lower densities (0.88–1.01 g/cm3) and lower δ18O (−0.8 ± 2.6‰). These fluids are compatible with evolved Paleoarchean seawater. Fluids that formed the quartz-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-cassiterite veins, which are present within the granite complex near the contact with the volcanic pile, were intermediate in temperature and isotopic composition between the greisen

  20. 新疆冰达坂含金剪切带内组分分异及对金矿化的影响%Compositional Variation of the Bingdaban Goldbearing Shear Zone and Its Significance to the Gold Mineralization in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨猛; 王居里; 王建其; 党飞鹏


    strain zone like ore offers better chemiphysical conditons to gold mineralization, such as higher Fe enrichment and expanding space like D, Ptype shearing fractures, where gold ore can locate. Meanwhile, due to the effect between alkali (especially Na) metasomatism and Si,K,Ca, compositions differentiate from the deeper layer to the lighter layer, which supplies stuff base for silication and quartzvein gold mineralization in the lighter layer with country rock alteration such as sericitization, carbonation, chloritization and so on. According to these findings, potash (especially Kf) alteration which may show as ore foot facies can be inferred under albitization alteration, which means there are some blind gold orebodies under both the deeper layer like Saridala tion belt. and the lighter layer like Wangfeng along the gold mineraliza

  1. Effect of the background solution and material composition on the transport of silver nanoparticles in saturated aquifer materials (United States)

    Adrian, Yorck; Schneidewind, Uwe; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Azzam, Rafig


    Engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are used in various consumer products such as cloth or personal care products due to their antimicrobial properties (Benn et al., 2010). Their transport behavior in the environment is still under investigation. Previous studies have been focusing on the transport of AgNP in simple test systems with glass beads or soil materials (Braun et al., 2015), but studies investigating aquifer material are rare. However, the protection of fresh water resources in the subsurface is an important part in the protection of human health and the assurance of future economic activities. Therefore, expert knowledge regarding the transport and fate of engineered nanoparticles as potential contaminants in aquifers is essential. Within the scope of the research project NanoMobil funded by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the transport and retention behavior of AgNP in aquifer material was investigated under saturated conditions in laboratory columns for different flow velocities, ionic strengths (IS) and background solutions. The used aquifer material consisted mainly of quartz and albite. The quartz grains were partially coated with iron hydroxides and oxides. Furthermore, 1% hematite was present in the silicate dominated aquifer material. The experiments were conducted using NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2 background solutions to examine the effects of monovalent and divalent cations on the transport of AgNP. Flow velocities in the columns were chosen to represent typical flow velocities of groundwater in the subsurface. For the experiments two mean grain sizes of 0.3 and 0.7 mm were used to investigate the effect of the grain size on the transport behavior. Particle concentration was measured using ICP-MS and particle size was determined using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF). HYDRUS-1D (Šimůnek et al., 2013) was used to elucidate the transport and retention processes of the AgNP in the aquifer material. The obtained results show

  2. Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride: and Chloroform: Progress in FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.


    20°C, which are most germane to the groundwater environment, will likely take two more years before they are complete. Second, due to the importance of heterogeneous effects, we recommend the continuation of sampling and analysis for a similar set of experiments looking at hydrolysis rates of CT and CF in contact with individual minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite, albite, and muscovite) or Hanford-Site sediment, and, for CF, in homogeneous solutions. These experiments were set up under a separate project funded by a congressional earmark (EM-22) for which funding expired at the end of FY08. Third, we strongly recommend development of a 13C/12C isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) approach for determination of hydrolysis rates at groundwater temperatures and relevant CT and CF concentrations. The technique is sensitive enough that we expect to be able to shorten the time required for a rate-constant determination by 20-fold. Thus, a 5-year experiment conducted by the sealed-ampule approach could be shortened to 3 months by the IRMS approach. This sensitivity also would allow the IRMS technique to be used to follow hydrolysis rates at concentrations found in groundwater plumes at Hanford.

  3. Multi-stage barites in partially melted UHP eclogite: implications for fluid/melt activities during deep continental subduction in the Sulu orogenic belt (United States)

    Wang, Songjie; Wang, Lu


    . Zr-in-rutile thermometry shows their formation temperature to be 586-664 oC at 1.5-2.5 GPa. Barite-bearing MS inclusions with Ba-bearing K-feldspar (type-II) connected by Kfs+Pl+Bt veinlets of in-situ phengite breakdown and thin barite veinlets along grain boundaries (type-III) are products of phengite breakdown and induced fluid flow during exhumation. These barites have witnessed the gradational separation process of melt/ fluid from miscibility on/above the second critical endpoint during UHP metamorphism, to immiscibility along the exhumation path of the subducted slab. Associated reactions from pyrite to hematite and goethite with the type-III barite ring surrounding the pyrite provide evidence for a local high oxygen fugacity environment during eclogite partial melting and subsequent melt/fluid crystallization processes. Moreover, large grain barite aggregations (type-IV) modified by amphibole+albite symplectite are most likely formed by release of molecular and hydroxyl water from anhydrous minerals of eclogite during high-grade amphibolite-facies retrogression. The growth of multi-stage barites in UHP eclogite further advances our understanding of fluid/melt transfer, crystallization processes along the subduction-exhumation path of the partially melted eclogite, broadening our knowledge of melt/fluid evolution within subduction-collision zones worldwide. REFERENCES Chen Y.X., et al., 2014, Lithos, 200, 1-21. Liu J.B., et al., 2000, Acta Petrologica Sinica 16(4), 482-484. Zeng L.S., et al., 2007, Chinese Science Bulletin, 52(21), 2995-3001. Gao X.Y., et al., 2012, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 30(2), 193-212.

  4. Petrological cannibalism: the chemical and textural consequences of incremental magma body growth (United States)

    Cashman, Kathy; Blundy, Jon


    The textures of minerals in volcanic and plutonic rocks testify to a complexity of processes in their formation that is at odds with simple geochemical models of igneous differentiation. Zoning in plagioclase feldspar is a case in point. Very slow diffusion of the major components in plagioclase means that textural evidence for complex magmatic evolution is preserved, almost without modification. Consequently, plagioclase affords considerable insight into the processes by which magmas accumulate in the crust prior to their eventual eruption or solidification. Here, we use the example of the 1980-1986 eruptions of Mount St. Helens to explore the causes of textural complexity in plagioclase and associated trapped melt inclusions. Textures of individual crystals are consistent with multiple heating and cooling events; changes in total pressure ( P) or volatile pressure () are less easy to assess from textures alone. We show that by allying textural and chemical analyses of plagioclase and melt inclusions, including volatiles (H2O, CO2) and slow-diffusing trace elements (Sr, Ba), to published experimental studies of Mount St. Helens magmas, it is possible to disambiguate the roles of pressure and temperature to reconstruct magmatic evolutionary pathways through temperature-pressure-melt fraction ( T-- F) space. Our modeled crystals indicate that (1) crystallization starts at > 300 MPa, consistent with prior estimates from melt inclusion volatile contents, (2) crystal cores grow at = 200-280 MPa at F = 0.65-0.7, (3) crystals are transferred to = 100-130 MPa (often accompanied by 10-20 °C of heating), where they grow albitic rims of varying thicknesses, and (4) the last stage of crystallization occurs after minor heating at ~ 100 MPa to produce characteristic rim compositions of An50. We hypothesize that modeled decreases in excess of ~50 MPa most likely represent upward transport through the magmatic system. Small variations in modeled , in contrast, can be effected by

  5. 搭格架温泉水化学特征及其约束因素研究%Hydrochemical Characteristics and Constraints of Hot Springs in Dagejia Geothermal Field, Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王香桂; 伍乾富; 伍坤宇; 沈立成


    搭格架地热区温泉水DJ1-DJ116号样品于2009年采集,阳离子及微量元素含量采用ICP-OES法测试,Cl(-)含量采用滴定法测试,其余阴离子含量采用紫外-可见光分光光度法测试.通过对温泉水化学指标的分析,研究温泉的水化学特征及约束因素.其温泉水化学类型为HCO(3)-Na型,平均矿化度为1524 mg/L,具有较高的Na/Cl值,温泉水演化程度较高,为完全平衡水,热储中的水岩反应达到了平衡状态.温泉水中PO(2)极低,PCO(2)较高;大部分温泉水中玉髓、石英和无定形态Si0(2)三种硅质热液矿物的饱和度指数大于0.K-Na温标计算热储平均平衡温度为251.36℃,泉水中的Na(+),K(+)离子活度主要受到钠、钾长石的约束.微量元素组合表现出花岗岩源的特征.总体上搭格架地热区温泉水化学特征受到区域地质背景的约束.%The hot water samples DJ1-DJ116 were collected in 2009.Cations and trace elements were analyzed by the ICP-OES method, Cl- content was tested by the titration method, and the other anions were tested by the UV-visible spectrometry method.Through analyzing the chemical indicators of hot springs we study the characteristics and constraints of the water.The hydrochamical type of the hot springs is HCO3-Na, the average salinity is 1 524 mg/L and Na/Cl value is high.The evolution level of the water is equilibrium water and water-rock reaction in thermal reservoir has reached equilibrium.The waters are with very low partial pressure of oxygen and higher partial pressure of dioxide carbon.The saturation index of three kinds of silica minerals in most water samples are >0.The average equilibrium temperature of thermal reservoir is 251.36℃, which is calculated by K-Na geo-thermometer.The activities of Na+, K+ are constrained by albite and K-feldspar minerals.The characteristics of trace elements portfolio show that they are originated in granite.Take the whole, the hydrochemical characteristics of the

  6. Organic petrology and geochemistry of mudrocks from the lacustrine Lucaogou Formation, Santanghu Basin, northwest China: Application to lake basin evolution (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Fishman, Neil; Wu, Tao; Baugher, Gregory


    inertinite is present in the upper section, indicating greater terrestrial influx and consistent with higher quartz and plagioclase content (dominantly authigenic chalcedony and albite). Laminated mudstones in the upper section indicate anoxia prevented bioturbation from benthic grazing, also indicating stratified water column conditions. A decrease upsection in authigenic dolomite with reciprocal increase of ankerite/siderite is consistent with decreasing salinity, as is an overall decrease in gammacerane index values. These observations suggest evolution from a shallow, stratified evaporative (saline) setting to a deeper, stratified freshwater basin with higher water input during Lucaogou deposition. The evolution from an under-filled to balance-filled lake in Santanghu Basin is similar to Lucaogou deposition in Junggar Basin, suggesting similar tectonic and climatic controls. Paleoclimate interpretations from other researchers in this area suggested an evolution from semi-arid to humid conditions during the Roadian; we interpret that the evolution from an under-filled to balanced-filled lake seen in our data is in response to climate change, and may represent increased groundwater delivery to the Santanghu Basin.

  7. Mineral chemistry and magnetic petrology of the Archean Planalto Suite, Carajás Province - Amazonian Craton: Implications for the evolution of ferroan Archean granites (United States)

    Cunha, Ingrid Roberta Viana da; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Feio, Gilmara Regina Lima


    The Planalto Suite is located in the Canaã dos Carajás subdomain of the Carajás Province in the southeastern part of the Amazonian Craton. The suite is of Neoarchean age (∼2.73 Ga), ferroan character, and A-type affinity. Magnetic petrology studies allowed for the distinction of two groups: (1) ilmenite granites showing low magnetic susceptibility (MS) values between 0.6247×10-3 and 0.0102 × 10-3 SI and (2) magnetite-ilmenite-bearing granites with comparatively higher but still moderate MS values between 15.700×10-3 and 0.8036 × 10-3 SI. Textural evidence indicates that amphibole, ilmenite, titanite, and, in the rocks of Group 2, magnetite also formed during magmatic crystallization. However, compositional zoning suggests that titanite was partially re-equilibrated by subsolidus processes. The amphibole varies from potassian-hastingsite to chloro-potassian-hastingsite and shows Fe/(Fe + Mg) > 0.8. Biotite also shows high Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios and is classified as annite. Plagioclase porphyroclasts are oligoclase (An25-10), and the grains of the recrystallized matrix show a similar composition or are albitic (An9-2). The dominant Group 1 granites of the Planalto Suite were formed under reduced conditions below the FMQ buffer. The Group 2 granites crystallized under more oxidizing conditions on or slightly above the FMQ buffer. Pressures of 900-700 MPa for the origin and of 500-300 MPa for the emplacement were estimated for the Planalto magmas. Geothermometers suggest initial crystallization temperatures between 900 °C and 830 °C, and the water content in the magma is estimated to be higher than 4 wt%. The Neoarchean Planalto Suite and the Estrela Granite of the Carajás Province reveal strong mineralogical analogies, and their amphibole and biotite compositions have high total Al contents. The latter characteristic is also observed in the same minerals of the Neoarchean Matok Pluton of the Limpopo Belt but not in those of the Proterozoic rapakivi A

  8. Properties of the Hermean Regolith. 5; New Optical Reflectance Spectra, Comparison with Lunar Anorthosites and Mineralogical Modelling (United States)

    Warell, J.; Blewett, D. T.


    We present new optical (0.4-0.65 micron) spectra of Mercury and lunar pure anorthosite locations, obtained quasi-simultaneously with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) in 2002. A comparative study is performed with the model of Lucey et al. between iron-poor, mature, pure anorthosite (less than 90% plagioclase feldspar) Clementine spectra from the lunar farside and a combined 0.4-1.0 micron mercurian spectrum, obtained with the NOT, calculated for standard photometric geometry. Mercury is located at more extreme locations in the Lucey ratio-reflectance diagrams than any known lunar soil, specifically with respect to the extremely iron-poor mature anorthosites. Though quantitative prediction of FeO and TiO2 abundances cannot be made without a more generally applicable model, we find qualitatively that the abundances of both these oxides must be near zero for Mercury. We utilize the theory of Hapke, with realistic photometric parameters, to model laboratory spectra of matured mineral powders and lunar soils, and remotely sensed spectra of lunar anorthosites and Mercury. An important difference between fabricated and natural powders is the high value for the internal scattering parameter necessary to interpret the spectra for the former, and the requirement of rough and non-isotropically scattering surfaces in the modelling of the latter. The mature lunar anorthosite spectra were well modelled with binary mixtures of calcic feldspars and olivines, grain sizes of 25-30 micron and a concentration of submicroscopic metallic iron (SMFe) of 0.12-0.15% in grain coatings. The mercurian spectrum is not possible to interpret from terrestrial mineral powder spectra without introducing an average particle scattering function for the bulk soil that increases in backscattering efficiency with wavelength. The observed spectrum is somewhat better predicted with binary mixture models of feldspars and pyroxenes, that single-component regoliths consisting of either albite or diopside

  9. Reaction zone between pre-UHP titanite and host rock: insights into fluid-rock interaction and deformation mechanisms during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust (Dabie Shan UHP unit, China) (United States)

    Wawrzenitz, N.; Romer, R. L.; Grasemann, B.; Morales, L. F. G.


    titanite grains are patchy zoned and replace, along with rutile, calcite, quartz, and apatite, the old titanite megacryst. This reaction reflects the changing CO2 versus fluorine activity in the available fluid phase, rather than changing P-T conditions. The Sr isotope composition of the phases formed by these fluid-mediated reactions is variable and depends on the reaction-history and origin of the fluids. (iii) Brittle deformation of the titanite megacryst induced the formation of fractures, enhancing fluid transport and precipitation of new titanite, allanite, calcite ± rutile, and albite (locally anorthite), as well as Zn(Fe) - and Cu - sulphides along the vein walls. Dislocation creep is indicated by subgrains in local zones of high differential stress within the rim of the titanite megacryst. However, dissolution precipitation creep has been much more effective in changing the (isotope)chemical composition of titanite compared to dislocation creep. Romer, R.L., Wawrzenitz, N., Oberhänsli, R., 2003. Terra Nova 15, 5, 330-336. Wawrzenitz, N., Romer, R.L., Oberhänsli, R., Dong, S., 2006. Lithos 89, 1-2, 174-201.

  10. Mass transfer and fluid evolution in late-metamorphic veins, Rhenish Massif (Germany): insight from alteration geochemistry and fluid-mineral equilibria modeling (United States)

    Marsala, Achille; Wagner, Thomas


    Element mobility and fluid-rock interaction related to the formation of late-metamorphic quartz veins have been studied by combination of mineral chemistry, whole-rock geochemistry, mass balance analysis and fluid-mineral equilibria modeling. The quartz veins are hosted by very low-grade metasedimentary rocks of the fold-and-thrust belt of the Rhenish Massif (Germany). The veins record two stages of evolution, a massive vein filling assemblage with elongate-blocky quartz, chlorite, apatite and albite, and a later open space filling assemblage with euhedral crystals of quartz, ankerite-dolomite and minor calcite and sulfides. Detailed mass balance analysis of an alteration profile adjacent to a representative quartz vein demonstrates that element mobility is restricted to the proximal zone. The most important element changes are gain of Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and CO2, and loss of Si, K and Na. The data demonstrate that wall-rock carbonation is one of the main alteration features, whereas mobility of Si, K and Na are related to dissolution of quartz and destruction of detrital feldspar and muscovite. The whole-rock geochemical data, in conjunction with fluid composition data and pressure-temperature estimates, were used as input for fluid-mineral equilibria modeling in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K-C-S-O-H-B-F-Cl. Modeling involved calculation of rock-buffered fluid compositions over the temperature interval 100-500 °C, and reaction-path simulations where a rock-buffered high-temperature fluid reacts with fresh host-rocks at temperatures of 400, 300 and 200 °C. Calculated rock-buffered fluid compositions demonstrate that retrograde silica solubility is a strong driving force for quartz leaching in the temperature-pressure window of 380-450 °C and 0.5 kbar. These conditions overlap with the estimated temperatures for the initial stage of vein formation. Reaction-path models show that high-temperature alteration can produce the observed silica leaching, suggesting that

  11. Los sistemas geotermales del Pirineo central. I. Caracteres geoquímicos y fisicoquímicos de los manantiales termales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, J.


    Full Text Available The compositional characters of selected hot springs from the Panticosa, Benasque, Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Luchon and Cauterets geothermal systems in the Central Pyrenees have been studied. All the springs have the same global geochemical features (high pH, low total dissolved solids, very low Mg concentrations, Na as the dominant cation, and absence of a dominant anion and belong to the same granite-related alkaline thermal waters group. Chemical composition of the springs is similar to each other, and to that found in other Pyrenean geothermal systems. A more detailed comparison shows, however, that Panticosa and Benasque systems have the lowest sodium and potassium concentrations found in any water belonging to the group of alkaline waters. Differences in pH values among the springs are related to emergence temperature as it occurs in the Pyrenean geothermal systems. According to the high pH of these waters, speciation calculations at emergence temperature show a very low CO2 partial pressure, dissolved silica partially ionized as H3Si04-, and Al(OH4- as the dominant aluminium species. Saturation indexes show that almost al1 the waters are highly oversaturated with quartz (close to equilibrium with chalcedony, potassium feldspar, and albite, which are the minerals equilibrated at depth with the solutions. Furthermore, all waters are in equilibrium with kaolinite and ca1cite at emergence conditions, showing the existence of a reequilibrium process during their ascent to the surface. This process happens to be one of the most important in the geochemical evo1ution of these alkaline systems.Las aguas de los sistemas geotermales de Panticosa, Benasque, Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Luchon y Cauterets en el Pirineo Central presentan rasgos geoquímicos similares (valores de pH elevados, bajo contenido de sólidos disueltos, muy bajas concentraciones de Mg, sodio como catión dominante y sin un anión en proporciones preponderantes sobre los dem

  12. Static and fault-related alteration in the lower ocean crust, IODP Expedition 345, Hess Deep (United States)

    McCaig, Andrew; Faak, Kathrin; Marks, Naomi; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Wintsch, Robert; Harigane, Yumiko; Titarenko, Sofya


    IODP Expedition 345 drilled the first holes in the lower plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge, recovering primitive layered gabbros (Gillis et al 2014). Alteration can be subdivided into two series: 1) a largely static pseudomorphic alteration affecting predominantly olivine. This began in the amphibolite facies with minor secondary cinopyroxene and hornblendic amphibole replacing primary pyroxene, and sporadically developed corona textures with tremolite and chlorite replacing olivine and plagioclase respectively, but was predominantly in the greenschist and sub-greenschist facies with talc, serpentine, clay minerals,oxides andsulphides replacing olivine, and prehnite and locally other calcsilicates replacing plagioclase, commonly in micro-vein networks. Albitic plagioclase is sporadically developed, and locally zeolite and carbonate. 2) An overprinting metasomatic alteration under sub-greenschist or perhaps lowermost greenschist conditions(zeolite. This alteration is spatially related to cataclastic fault zones and macroscopic veins. Comminuted plagioclase in cataclasites is commonly completely replaced by prehnite, while chlorite may completely pseudomorph olivine, locally with textures suggesting replacement of previous secondary minerals such as talc and serpentine. Chlorite also ubiquitously occurs as patches replacing plagioclase along grain boundaries, locally associated with carbonate and amphibole needles. Metamorphosed dykes show chilled margins within the cataclasites, and are affected by cataclastic deformation. Faults, dykes and overprinting alteration are all inferred to be related to the westward propagation of Cocos-Nazca spreading that formed Hess Deep. Samples of different alteration and cataclastic domains were cut out of this section chips for isotopic analysis. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of cataclasites and dyke rocks are in the range 0.7037 - 0.7048, indicating alteration by seawater at moderate integrated fluxes. The highest values were in


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A; Tommy Edwards, T


    transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperature (Tg) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and was recorded to be 443 {+-} 3 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as guidance, subsamples of the glass were isothermally heat treated for 0.5 to 768 hours at temperatures between 400 C to 1100 C. Each of the 56 heat treated samples, along with quenched and centerline canister cooled (CCC) treated samples, were analyzed using Xray diffraction (XRD) and the PCT. Crystallization was detected only in samples treated at 600 C for more than 192 hours, and 700, 800, and 900 C for more than 48 hours. Phases crystallized were similar in composition if not the same as those found in the previous TTT studies. Six different crystalline phases were detected, including nepheline, acmite, lithium silicate, trevorite, krinovite, and albite. Overall, phases were spinel (iron) based, lithium metasilicate, sodium aluminosilicate or sodium transition metal silicate in composition. No new crystalline families were detected. Durability, as measured by the PCT, decreased when lithium silicate or nepheline crystals were present. Only one heat treated sample had a measured PCT response exceeding the benchmark EA glass, which was a sample treated at 600 C for 768 hours. During normal processing at the DWPF these conditions would be highly unlikely to occur, even in an extreme accident scenario. In order to continue to meet the requirements of the WCP, a simplified strategy is suggested for the generation of future TTT diagrams. A strategy has been developed that would require completing two more TTT diagrams for two averaged, future, predicted waste types. By creating diagrams for the resulting glass compositions of encompassing waste types, it will give insight to the crystallization regions possible for those averages. As discussed in the report, 'Initial MAR Assessments to Access the Impact of Al-Dissolution on DWPF Operating

  14. Main geological settings of uranium mineralization in the Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    dislocations, widespread permeable zones of cracks, breccia, schistosity, uraniumspecialized rocks with abundant movable varieties, massive uranium-specialized granitoid, greizenized granite and host gneiss. Uranium mineralization is in the axial parts of the FFD zones close to the contact of the Yatulian dolomite with the Ludicovian aleurolite and shungite-bearing aleurolite. It is seen on either an east-west steeply dipped or overturned anticline limb, or in the core of the nearhinge synclines. The mineralization is controlled by an area of hydrothermal-metasomatic albite-carbonate- micaceous alteration. Uranium mineralization in the FFD zones is mainly concentrated in sulfide-carbonate-pitchblende veins. Ore-bearing areas containing complex deposits are 2 - 2.5 km long and 500 - 600 m wide. There are several ore deposits lying at the depth of 100 -180m in each area. The deposits are of a complicated shoestring or cigar shape ranging in length from 1100 to 1800 m, being 15 - 50m thick. The uranium mineralization is represented with brannerite, coffinite, pitchblende. The mineralization potential of this type is determined by the discovery of five uranium-associated deposits within the Onega depression FFD zones (Srednyaya Padma, Kosmozero and others). The Early Proterozoic Kuusamo -Pana - Kuolajarvi and Imandra - Varzuga troughs characterized with widely spread uraniumspecialized black schists are highly prospective for ore deposits of this type

  15. Predictive modeling of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep saline sandstone reservoirs: Impacts of geochemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balashov, Victor N; Guthrie, George D; Hakala, J Alexandra; Lopano, Christina L. J.; Rimstidt, Donald; Brantley, Susan L


    maximum CO{sub 2} sequestration, 34.5 kg CO{sub 2} per m{sup 3} of sandstone, is attained by 4000 years even though the system does not achieve chemical equilibrium until ~25,000 years. This maximum represents about 20% CO{sub 2} dissolved as CO{sub 2},aq, 50% dissolved as HCO{sub 3}{sup -}{sub ,aq}, and 30% precipitated as calcite. The extent of sequestration as HCO{sub 3}{sup -} at equilibrium can be calculated from equilibrium thermodynamics and is roughly equivalent to the amount of Na+ in the initial sandstone in a soluble mineral (here, oligoclase). Similarly, the extent of trapping in calcite is determined by the amount of Ca2+ in the initial oligoclase and smectite. Sensitivity analyses show that the rate of CO{sub 2} sequestration is sensitive to the mineral-water reaction kinetic constants between approximately 10 and 4000 years. The sensitivity of CO{sub 2} sequestration to the rate constants decreases in magnitude respectively from oligoclase to albite to smectite.

  16. Effects of glacial/post-glacial weathering compared with hydrothermal alteration - implications for matrix diffusion. Results from drillcore studies in porphyritic quartz monzodiorite from Aespoe SE Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstroem, Ove [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Eriksson, Gunda; Sandell, Yvonne [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    The effects of hydrothermal + subsequent low temperature alteration and glacial/post-glacial weathering have been studied in two cores of quartz monzodiorite. One core (YA 1192) was drilled into the hydrothermally altered wall rock of a water-conducting fracture exposed at 170 m depth in the access tunnel to the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The other one (Bas 1) was drilled from an outcrop with a glacially polished surface, 1 km north of the YA 1192 site. Both drill cores were sectioned into mm-thick slices perpendicular to the core axis. The fracture filling of the YA 1192 core, the weathered surface of the BAS 1 core and the different slices were analysed for major and trace elements and isotopes of U and Th. The altered zone of the YA 1192 core extends to approx. 2.5 cm from the fracture surface. The alteration (mainly plagioclase {yields} albite + sericite + epidote) has resulted in a higher porosity and formation of sorbing secondary minerals (e.g. sericite), favouring matrix diffusion. Increased Br concentrations in the altered zone are indicative of saline water in pores and micro fractures i.e. the presence of a diffusion medium. 234U/238U activity ratios > 1 and increased Cs in the altered zone are then interpreted as diffusion of U and Cs from fracture groundwater and subsequent sorption. The U migration is geologically recent (< 1 Ma). The 2.5 cm altered zone (corresponding to the zone of active matrix diffusion) significantly exceeds the visible red staining zone (0.5 cm) caused by hematite/FeOOH micrograins, emphasizing the need of microscopy to identify zones of alteration. The conspicuous weathering at the BAS 1 site is confined to a narrow rim of the bedrock surface (approx. 0.2-0.5 cm thick). Mass balance calculations for this rim (based on immobility of K) indicate that mechanical erosion has dominated over chemical dissolution processes (is roughly 10 times greater). The chemical weathering has affected mainly plagioclase and chlorite resulting

  17. Geochemical and geochronological constraints on the genesis of Au-Te deposits at Cripple Creek, Colorado (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Romberger, S.B.; Beaty, D.W.; Pontius, J.A.; Snee, L.W.; Stein, H.J.; Thompson, T.B.


    The Cripple Creek district (653 metric tons (t) of Au) consists of Au-Te veins and disseminated gold deposits that are spatially related to alkaline igneous rocks in an Oligocene intrusive complex. Vein paragenesis includes quartz-biotite-K feldspar-fluorite-pyrite followed by base metal sulfides and telluride minerals. Disseminated deposits consist of microcrystalline native gold with pyrite that are associated with zones of pervasive adularia. New 40Ar/39Ar dates indicate that there was a complex magmatic and hydrothermal history. Relatively felsic rocks (tephriphonolite, trachyandesite, and phonolite) were emplaced into the complex over about 1 m.y., from 32.5 ?? 0.1 (1??) to 31.5 ?? 0.1 Ma. A younger episode of phonolite emplacement outside of the complex is indicated by an age of 30.9 ?? 0.1 Ma. Field relationships suggest that at least one episode of mafic and ultramafic dike emplacement occurred after relatively more felsic rocks and prior to the main gold mineralizing event. Only a single whole-rock date for mafic phonolite (which indicated a maximum age of 28.7 Ma) was obtained. However, constraints on the timing of mineralization are provided by paragenetically early vein minerals and K feldspar from the disseminated gold pyrite deposits. Early vein minerals (31.3 ?? 0.1-29.6 ?? 0.1 Ma) and K feldspar (29.8 ?? 0.1 Ma) from the Cresson disseminated deposit, together with potassically altered phonolite adjacent to the Pharmacist vein (28.8 and 28.2 ?? 0.1 Ma), suggest there was a protracted history of hydrothermal activity that began during the waning stages of phonolite and early mafic-ultramafic activity and continued, perhaps intermittently, for at least 2 m.y. Estimated whole-rock ??18O values of the alkaline igneous rocks range from 6.4 to 8.2 per mil. K feldspar and albite separates from igneous rocks have lead isotope compositions of 206Pb/204Pb = 17.90 to 18.10, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.51 to 15.53, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.35 to 38.56. These isotopic

  18. Characterization and modes of occurrence of elements in feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Cathcart, James D.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A.; O'Connor, Joseph T.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Bullock, John H.; Hower, James C.; Meeker, Gregory P.


    The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana utility company to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products from a coal-fired power plant. The Indiana power plant utilizes a low-sulfur (0.23 to 0.47 weight percent S) and lowash (4.9 to 6.3 weight percent ash) subbituminous coal from the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Based on scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of feed coal samples, two mineral suites were identified: (1) a primary or detrital suite consisting of quartz (including beta-form grains), biotite, feldspar, and minor zircon; and (2) a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The primary mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be of volcanic origin, whereas the authigenic mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be the result of the alteration of the volcanic minerals. The mineral suites have contributed to the higher amounts of barium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, strontium, and titanium in the Powder River Basin feed coals in comparison to eastern coals. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that (1) fly ash is mostly aluminate glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals; and (2) bottom ash is predominantly quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite, and spinel group minerals. Microprobe and scanning electron microscope analyses of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, and monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, wollastonite, and periclase. The abundant calcium and

  19. Influence of liquid structure on diffusive isotope separation in molten silicates and aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, J.M.; DePaolo, D.J.; Ryerson, F.J.; Peterson, B.


    Molecular diffusion in natural volcanic liquids discriminates between isotopes of major ions (e.g., Fe, Mg, Ca, and Li). Although isotope separation by diffusion is expected on theoretical grounds, the dependence on mass is highly variable for different elements and in different media. Silicate liquid diffusion experiments using simple liquid compositions were carried out to further probe the compositional dependence of diffusive isotopic discrimination and its relationship to liquid structure. Two diffusion couples consisting of the mineral constituents anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}; denoted AN), albite (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}; denoted AB), and diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}; denoted DI) were held at 1450°C for 2 h and then quenched to ambient pressure and temperature. Major-element as well as Ca and Mg isotope profiles were measured on the recovered quenched glasses. In both experiments, Ca diffuses rapidly with respect to Si. In the AB–AN experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 20 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Ca is much greater than in natural liquid experiments where D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 1. In the AB–DI experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 6 and the efficiency of isotope separation is between that of the natural liquid experiments and the AB–AN experiment. In the AB–DI experiment, D{sub Mg}/D{sub Si} ~ 1 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Mg is smaller than it is for Ca yet similar to that observed for Mg in natural liquids. The results from the experiments reported here, in combination with results from natural volcanic liquids, show clearly that the efficiency of diffusive separation of Ca isotopes is systematically related to the solvent-normalized diffusivity—the ratio of the diffusivity of the cation (D{sub Ca}) to the diffusivity of silicon (D{sub Si}). The results on Ca isotopes are consistent with available data on Fe, Li, and Mg isotopes in silicate liquids, when considered in terms of the parameter D{sub cation

  20. Petrophysical, Lithological and Mineralogical Characteristics of the Shale Strata of the Volga- Ural Region (United States)

    Morozov, Vladimir P.; Plotnikova, Irina N.; Pronin, Nikita V.; Nosova, Fidania F.; Pronina, Nailya R.


    The objects of the study are Upper Devonian carbonate rocks in the territory of South-Tatar arch and Melekess basin in the Volga- Urals region. We studied core material of Domanicoid facies from the sediments of Mendymski and Domanik horizons of middle substage of Frasnian stage of the Upper Devonian. Basic analytical research methods included the following: study of the composition, structural and textural features of the rocks, the structure of their voids, filter and reservoir properties and composition of the fluid. The complex research consisted of macroscopic description of the core material, optical microscopy analysis, radiographical analysis, thermal analysis, x-ray tomography, electron microscopy, gas-liquid chromatography, chromate-mass spectrometry, light hydrocarbons analysis using paraphase assay, adsorbed gases analysis, and thermal vacuum degassing method. In addition, we performed isotopic studies of hydrocarbons saturating shale rocks. Shale strata are mainly represented by carbonate-chert rocks. They consist mainly of calcite and quartz. The ratio of these rock-forming minerals varies widely - from 25 to 75 percent. Pyrite, muscovite, albite, and microcline are the most common inclusions. Calcareous and ferruginous dolomite (ankerite), as well as magnesian calcite are tracked down as secondary minerals. While performing the tests we found out that the walls of open fractures filled with oil are stacked by secondary dolomite, which should be considered as an indication moveable oil presence in the open-cut. Electron microscopy data indicate that all the studied samples have porosity - both carbonates and carbonate-siliceous rocks. Idiomorphism of the rock-forming grains and pores that are visible under a microscope bring us to that conclusion. The analysis of the images indicates that the type of reservoir is either porous or granular. The pores are distributed evenly in the volume of rock. Their size is very unstable and varies from 0.5 microns

  1. La Hornblendita Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego:: Petrografía, geoquímica y geocronología The Ushuaia Hornblendite (Tierra del Fuego: petrography, geochemistry and geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Acevedo


    -piroxenites, diorites, gabbros, syenites and monzodiorites. The mineralogy of the most representative specimen shows that it is composed of hornblende and diopside as essential minerals, with biotite and potassic feldspar as minor constituents, and sphene, apatite, and opaque minerals (mainly magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and chalcopyrite as accessories. Alteration processes include albitization, epidotization, chloritization and carbonatization, that represent substantial chemical changes that would affect any chemical classification of the rocks. Nevertheless, it is considered that the parental magma was of calc-alkaline Andean Type, related to the Andean Batholith, produced during regional subduction, and not in any way to an ophiolitic sequence. The calc-alkaline geochemistry is attributed to partial melting. In fact, the magma did not derive from primary mantle melts but came from evolved and contaminated mantle fluids that ascended toward crustal levels, thus favouring an assimilation process, in a magmatic arc setting. Potassium-argon whole-rock dating of one hornblendite sample gave an age of 113 ± 5 Ma

  2. Fractional crystallization of high-K arc magmas: biotite- versus amphibole-dominated fractionation series in the Dariv Igneous Complex, Western Mongolia (United States)

    Bucholz, Claire E.; Jagoutz, Oliver; Schmidt, Max W.; Sambuu, Oyungerel


    Many studies have documented hydrous fractionation of calc-alkaline basalts producing tonalitic, granodioritic, and granitic melts, but the origin of more alkaline arc sequences dominated by high-K monzonitic suites has not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results from a combined field, petrologic, and whole-rock geochemical study of a paleo-arc alkaline fractionation sequence from the Dariv Range of the Mongolian Altaids. The Dariv Igneous Complex of Western Mongolia is composed of a complete, moderately hydrous, alkaline fractionation sequence ranging from phlogopite-bearing ultramafic and mafic cumulates to quartz-monzonites to late-stage felsic (63-75 wt% SiO2) dikes. A volumetrically subordinate more hydrous, amphibole-dominated fractionation sequence is also present and comprises amphibole (±phlogopite) clinopyroxenites, gabbros, and diorites. We present 168 whole-rock analyses for the biotite- and amphibole-dominated series. First, we constrain the liquid line of descent (LLD) of a primitive, alkaline arc melt characterized by biotite as the dominant hydrous phase through a fractionation model that incorporates the stepwise subtraction of cumulates of a fixed composition. The modeled LLD reproduces the geochemical trends observed in the "liquid-like" intrusives of the biotite series (quartz-monzonites and felsic dikes) and follows the water-undersaturated albite-orthoclase cotectic (at 0.2-0.5 GPa). Second, as distinct biotite- and amphibole-dominated fractionation series are observed, we investigate the controls on high-temperature biotite versus amphibole crystallization from hydrous arc melts. Analysis of a compilation of hydrous experimental starting materials and high-Mg basalts saturated in biotite and/or amphibole suggests that the degree of K enrichment controls whether biotite will crystallize as an early high-T phase, whereas the degree of water saturation is the dominant control of amphibole crystallization. Therefore, if a melt

  3. Effects of glacial/post-glacial weathering compared with hydrothermal alteration - implications for matrix diffusion. Results from drillcore studies in porphyritic quartz monzodiorite from Aespoe SE Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of hydrothermal + subsequent low temperature alteration and glacial/post-glacial weathering have been studied in two cores of quartz monzodiorite. One core (YA 1192) was drilled into the hydrothermally altered wall rock of a water-conducting fracture exposed at 170 m depth in the access tunnel to the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The other one (Bas 1) was drilled from an outcrop with a glacially polished surface, 1 km north of the YA 1192 site. Both drill cores were sectioned into mm-thick slices perpendicular to the core axis. The fracture filling of the YA 1192 core, the weathered surface of the BAS 1 core and the different slices were analysed for major and trace elements and isotopes of U and Th. The altered zone of the YA 1192 core extends to approx. 2.5 cm from the fracture surface. The alteration (mainly plagioclase → albite + sericite + epidote) has resulted in a higher porosity and formation of sorbing secondary minerals (e.g. sericite), favouring matrix diffusion. Increased Br concentrations in the altered zone are indicative of saline water in pores and micro fractures i.e. the presence of a diffusion medium. 234U/238U activity ratios > 1 and increased Cs in the altered zone are then interpreted as diffusion of U and Cs from fracture groundwater and subsequent sorption. The U migration is geologically recent (< 1 Ma). The 2.5 cm altered zone (corresponding to the zone of active matrix diffusion) significantly exceeds the visible red staining zone (0.5 cm) caused by hematite/FeOOH micrograins, emphasizing the need of microscopy to identify zones of alteration. The conspicuous weathering at the BAS 1 site is confined to a narrow rim of the bedrock surface (approx. 0.2-0.5 cm thick). Mass balance calculations for this rim (based on immobility of K) indicate that mechanical erosion has dominated over chemical dissolution processes (is roughly 10 times greater). The chemical weathering has affected mainly plagioclase and chlorite resulting in

  4. 马朗凹陷哈尔加乌组火山岩储集层特征%Characteristics of Volcanic Reservoirs of Harjiawu Formation in Malang Sag in Santanghu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳成志; 刘红; 王翔飞; 何仁忠; 王昕; 于海山


    Based on the data of core,thin section,scanning electron microscopy and the petrophysical property,this paper presents the characteristics of Harjiawu volcanic reservoir of the Carboniferous in Malang sag,and obtains the following understandings.①The lithology is dominated by basalt,andesite and transitional lithology;②The main lithofacies is overflow facies,explosion and volcano-sedimentary facies are secondary;③The volcanic reservoir are of medium-low porosity and low-super low permeability;④Primary porosity is not developed because of its underwater eruption,however,the pores,vugs and fractures often superimposed on the original storage space after the transformation of the post-magmatic diagenesis and woven together form the effective storage spaces;⑤The phenomena such as albitization,arfvedsonitization and Sideritization prove existence of hydrocarbon alkali fluid in the Carboniferous volcanic rocks and the extensive development of alkali metasomatism;⑥Devitrification,weathering,tectonism,metasomatism and dissolution have significant effects on the volcanic reservoir modification,which are the main diageneses for forming secondary pores and the key factors for forming effective reservoirs of the Harjiawu formation.%利用岩心、薄片、扫描电镜及物性资料,通过对三塘湖盆地马朗凹陷石炭系哈尔加乌组火山岩储集层特征的研究,得到以下认识:以玄武岩、安山岩及其过渡岩性为主;以溢流相为主,爆发相和火山沉积相次之;为中低孔、低渗透-特低渗透火山岩储集层;主要为水下喷发,原生孔隙不发育,通过岩浆期后成岩作用的改造,形成叠加在原生储集空间之上的交织在一起的孔、洞、缝构成本区的有效储集空间;由钠长石化、钠铁闪石化和菱铁矿化等现象证明了火山岩中碱性流体的存在以及碱交代作用的广泛发育;脱玻化作用、风化作用、构造作用、交代作用和溶解作

  5. Geochemical and Geochronologic Investigations of Zircon-hosted Melt Inclusions in Rhyolites from the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge IOA-REE Deposit, St. Francois Mountains, Missouri (United States)

    Watts, K. E.; Mercer, C. N.; Vazquez, J. A.


    Silicic volcanic and plutonic rocks of an eroded Mesoproterozoic caldera complex were intruded and replaced by iron ore, and cross-cut by REE-enriched breccia pipes (~12% total REO) to form the Pea Ridge iron-oxide-apatite-REE (IOA-REE) deposit. Igneous activity, iron ore formation, and REE mineralization overlapped in space and time, however the source of REEs and other metals (Fe, Cu, Au) integral to these economically important deposits remains unclear. Melt inclusions (MI) hosted in refractory zircon phenocrysts are used to constrain magmatic components and processes in the formation of the Pea Ridge deposit. Homogenized (1.4 kbar, 1000°C, 1 hr) MI in zircons from rhyolites ~600 ft (PR-91) and ~1200 ft (PR-12) laterally from the ore body were analyzed for major elements by EPMA and volatiles and trace elements (H2O, S, F, Cl, REEs, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, U, Th) by SHRIMP-RG. Metals (including Cu, Au) will be measured in an upcoming SHRIMP-RG session. U-Pb ages, Ti and REE were determined by SHRIMP-RG for a subset of zircon spots adjacent to MI (1458 ± 18 Ma (PR-12); 1480 ± 45 Ma (PR-91)). MI glasses range from fresh and homogeneous dacite-rhyolite (65-75 wt% SiO2) to heterogeneous, patchy mixtures of K-spar and quartz (PR-12, 91), and more rarely mica, albite and/or anorthoclase (PR-91). MI are commonly attached to monazite and xenotime, particularly along re-entrants and zircon rims (PR-91). Fresh dacite-rhyolite glasses (PR-12) have moderate H2O (~2-2.5 wt%), Rb/Sr ratios (~8) and U (~5-7 ppm), and negative (chondrite-normalized) Eu anomalies (Eu ~0.4-0.7 ppm) (typical of rhyolites), whereas HREEs (Tb, Ho, Tm) are elevated (~2-3 ppm). Patchy K-spar and quartz inclusions (PR-12, 91) have flat LREE patterns, and positive anomalies in Tb, Ho, and Tm. One K-spar inclusion (PR-91) has a ~5-50 fold increase in HREEs (Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and U (35 ppm) relative to other MI. U-Pb and REE analyses of its zircon host are not unusual (1484 ± 21 Ma); its irregular shape

  6. El yacimiento de estaño Vil Achay, Catamarca The Vil Achay tin deposit of Catamarca, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S. Fogliata


    Full Text Available El yacimiento de estaño Vil Achay está ubicado en el flanco suroriental de la sierra de Fiambalá, provincia de Catamarca. Las rocas más antiguas aflorantes son anfibolitas pertenecientes al Gabro Fiambalá de edad ordovícica. Están intruidas por el granito El Salto de posible edad carbonífera. En las cercanías del contacto entre ambas unidades aflora un dique granítico emplazado en las anfibolitas, portador de la mineralización. La alteración hidrotermal en el dique granítico corresponde a albitización y greisenización. La mineralización (casiterita se encuentra diseminada en el dique. Existen sectores con mayor concentración de casiterita controlados por fracturas subverticales cerca del contacto oeste del dique. Se identificó la siguiente secuencia mineral: casiterita, magnetita, wolframita (escasa, calcopirita, pirita, covelina, calcosina, hematita, limonita, malaquita y azurita. El granito El Salto es meta a peraluminoso, postectónico, enriquecido en Rb, Nb, Y y Sn. La distribución de las tierras raras muestran fuerte fraccionamiento en tierras raras pesadas y relativo en tierras raras livianas. Tal fraccionamiento es indicativo de la actividad de los aniones de F en los fluidos mineralizantes. La gran actividad del F en los fluidos es responsable de la mineralización de Sn en greisen. Se propone que el depósito forma parte de un sistema tipo greisen abierto rico en F durante el estadio tardío magmático hidrotermal genéticamente relacionado con el granito El Salto.The Vil Achay tin deposit is located on the south-eastern flank of Sierra de Fiambalá in the province of Catamarca. The oldest exposed rocks are amphibolites of the Fiambalá Gabbro (Ordovician, intruded by the El Salto Granite of possible Carboniferous age. Within the amphibolites, near the contact between the two units, is a mineralized granitic dyke, exhibiting hydrothermal alteration (albitization and greisenization. Cassiterite is disseminated in the

  7. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Itokawa Regolith Grains (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Berger, E. L.


    Introduction: In a remarkable engineering achievement, the JAXA space agency successfully recovered the Hayabusa space-craft in June 2010, following a non-optimal encounter and sur-face sampling mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa. These are the first direct samples ever obtained and returned from the surface of an asteroid. The Hayabusa samples thus present a special op-portunity to directly investigate the evolution of asteroidal sur-faces, from the development of the regolith to the study of the effects of space weathering. Here we report on our preliminary TEM measurements on two Itokawa samples. Methods: We were allocated particles RA-QD02-0125 and RA-QD02-0211. Both particles were embedded in low viscosity epoxy and thin sections were prepared using ultramicrotomy. High resolution images and electron diffraction data were ob-tained using a JEOL 2500SE 200 kV field-emission scanning-transmission electron microscope. Quantitative maps and anal-yses were obtained using a Thermo thin-window energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrometer. Results: Both particles are olivine-rich (Fo70) with µm-sized inclusions of FeS and have microstructurally complex rims. Par-ticle RA-QD02-0125 is rounded and has numerous sub-µm grains attached to its surface including FeS, albite, olivine, and rare melt droplets. Solar flare tracks have not been observed, but the particle is surrounded by a continuous 50 nm thick, stuctur-ally disordered rim that is compositionally similar to the core of the grain. One of the surface adhering grains is pyrrhotite show-ing a S-depleted rim (8-10 nm thick) with nanophase Fe metal grains (<5 nm) decorating the outermost surface. The pyrrhotite displays a complex superstructure in its core that is absent in the S-depleted rim. Particle RA-QD02-0211 contains solar flare particle tracks (2x109 cm-2) and shows a structurally disordered rim 100 nm thick. The track density corresponds to a surface exposure of 103-104 years based on the track production rate

  8. Isotope age of the rare metal pegmatite formation in the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt (Kola region of the Fennoscandian shield): U-Pb (TIMS) microlite and tourmaline dating (United States)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay; Lyalina, Ludmila; Mokrushin, Artem; Zozulya, Dmitry; Groshev, Nikolay; Steshenko, Ekaterina; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy


    The Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt is located in the central suture zone, which separates the Murmansk block from the Central-Kola and the Keivy blocks. The belt is represented by volcano-sedimentary rocks of Archaean age of 2.9-2.5 Ga. Rare metal pegmatites (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be) occur among amphibolite and gabbroid intrusions in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the belt. According to the Rb-Sr data, the age of pegmatites was considered to be 2.7 Ga. Until recently there was no generally accepted point of view on the origin of pegmatites. Now we have isotopic data for a range of rock complexes that could pretend to be parental granites for the rare metal pegmatites. These are granodiorites with the zircon age of 2733±Ma, and microcline and tourmaline granites, which Pb-Pb isochronal age on tourmaline from the tourmaline granite located near the deposit is estimated to be 2520±70 Ma. The pegmatite field of the Vasin Myl'k deposit with the lepidolite--albite--microcline--spodumene--pollucite association is located among amphibolites in the northwestern part of the belt. The deposit is represented by subparallel low-angle zoned veins up to 220 m long and 5 m thick dipping in the southeastern direction at an angle of 10° too 30°. The minerals of the columbite--tonalite group from Vasin Myl'k deposit include microlite, simpsonite, and torolite, and are the oldest among different minerals represented by several generations in pegmatites under consideration. Zircons from the pegmatites are mostly represented by crystals with the structure affected by the action of fluids that put certain restrictions on its use as a geochronometer of the crystallization process. Microlite from the pegmatite taken from the dump of a prospecting drill hole was used for U--Pb (TIMS). The mineral is represented by 0.5--1.0 mm long euhedral octahedral crystals. It is brown in color, and transparent. The microlite crystals were preliminarily cleaned from

  9. Fluid-Ultramafic Rock Interaction and Formation of Jadeite Rocks%流体一超镁铁质岩相互作用与硬玉岩的形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁敏; 向华; 钟增球; 周汉文


    俯冲带中流体与岩石相互作用以及流体循环一直是地质学家关注的焦点之一.硬玉岩(翡翠)作为高档宝玉石材料,其成因一直备受关注.硬玉岩产于与俯冲带有关的蛇纹石化超镁铁质岩中,是俯冲带中流体与超镁铁岩相互作用的特殊产物.岩石组合、岩相学、显微结构及矿物化学特征表明:橄榄岩与流体的作用可以分为5个阶段,分别为蛇纹石化→(绿泥石、金云母)→角闪石→辉石→(方沸石、钠长石)阶段.结合热力学相图,总结了橄榄岩与流体作用过程中矿物的演化序列.硬玉岩的形成需要富Na、Al、si流体和较高的压力.缅甸硬玉岩中,钠质闪石总是与硬玉岩伴生,钠质闪石成分变化大,且能与流体发生再平衡从而调节自身和流体的成分.钠质闪石在硬玉形成过程中充当了Na、Al、Si的缓冲剂,使Na、Al、Si达到一定比例有利于硬玉的结晶.%The fluid-rock interactions and fluid circulations in subduction zone have been a focus for geologists. As a kind of high-grade gem material, the genesis of jadeite rocks attracts an increasing concern. The jadeite rocks generally occur in the serpentinized ultramafic rocks in subduction zones and its formation is related to the interaction between subduction-related fluids and ultramafic rocks (peridotite). Based on rock association, petrography, microstructure and mineral chemical characteristics, the processes of interaction between peridotite and fluid can be divided into five stages, that is, serpentine→ (chlorite, phlogopite) →amphibole→pyroxene→ (analcime, albite). Combined with analysis of thermodynamic phase diagrams, the evolutionary series of minerals in the processes of interaction are identified. Formation of jadeite requires the fluids enrich in Na, Al, Si and under relatively higher pressure. In the jadeite rocks from Myanmar, the sodium amphiboles with various chemical components are always associated with

  10. Hydrocarbon composition of authigenic inclusions: Application to elucidation of petroleum reservoir filling history (United States)

    Karlsen, Dag A.; Nedkvitne, Tor; Larter, Steve R.; Bjørlykke, Knut


    Geochemical analysis of petroleum inclusions trapped in authigenic feldspar and quartz in the Ula Formation in the North Sea Ula oil field revealed a petroleum of markedly different composition than the oil presently in the reservoir. Using microthermometry and the burial history as a dating tools, it is concluded that the petroleum in the K-feldspar inclusions was present in the more porous and permeable parts of the Ula Formation as early as 45-75 My Bp when the field was at a depth of about 1.0-1.5 km, as compared with the current depth of 3.4 km. This early petroleum, which was trapped as inclusions in authigenic K-feldspar, shows a distinctly different distribution of tricyclic terpanes and pentacyclic triterpanes from that of the current petroleum charge in the Ula Formation, which was derived from the Mandal Formation source rock in late Neogene time. Molecular parameters show that the oil in the K-feldspar inclusions is significantly less mature than the crude oil in the present reservoir. The approximate 90°C temperature increase occurring after entrapment of the early petroleum in Kfeldspar (the field is currently at 143°C) appears not to have reset the low maturity signature of the oil in the K-feldspar inclusions. This could suggest that the temperature in the inclusions is too low for isomerization/selective thermal degradation to occur (lack of catalysts?), or that there are other controls on the ratio of some of these parameters. Still, parameters like the ratio of C 21 to C 28 triaromatic steroids, and those based on dimethyl- and trimethyl-naphthalenes, are comparatively similar in both the inclusions and in the reservoir crude. The oil inclusions in authigenic quartz and albite, formed from about 10 My BP (burial depth ≈ 2.5 km) until the present (burial depth = 3.4 km), are interpreted as representing a palaeo-petroleum charge having a composition intermediate between the oil found in K-feldspar inclusions and the oil charge in the present

  11. Mineral chemistry and shrimp U-Pb Geochronology of mesoproterozoic polycrase-titanite veins in the sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag Deposit, British Columbia (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Belkin, H.E.; Fanning, C.M.; Ransom, P.W.


    Small polycrase-titanite veins 0.1-2 mm thick cut the tourmalinite feeder zone in the deep footwall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, southeastern British Columbia. Unaltered, euhedral crystals of polycrase and titanite 50-100 ??m in diameter are variably replaced by a finer-grained alteration-induced assemblage composed of anhedral polycrase and titanite with local calcite, albite, epidote, allanite, and thorite or uranothorite (or both). Average compositions of the unaltered and altered polycrase, as determined by electron-microprobe analysis, are (Y0.38 REE0.49 Th0.10 Ca0.04 Pb0.03 Fe0.01U0.01) (Ti1.48 Nb0.54 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6 and (Y0.42 REE0.32 Th0.15 U0.06 Ca0.04 Pb0.01 Fe0.01) (Ti1.57 Nb0.44 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6, respectively. The unaltered titanite has, in some areas, appreciable F (to 0.15 apfu), Y (to 0.40 apfu), and Nb (to 0.13 apfu). SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of eight grains of unaltered polycrase yields a weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 1413 ?? 4 Ma (2??) that is interpreted to be the age of vein formation. This age is 50-60 m.y. younger than the ca. 1470 Ma age of synsedimentary Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the Sullivan deposit, which is based on combined geological and geochronological data. SHRIMP ages for altered polycrase and titanite suggest later growth of minerals during the ???1370-1320 Ma East Kootenay and ???1150-1050 Ma Grenvillian orogenies. The 1413 ?? 4 Ma age for the unaltered polycrase in the veins records a previously unrecognized post-ore (1370 Ma) mineralizing event in the Sullivan deposit and vicinity. The SHRIMP U-Pb age of the polycrase and high concentrations of REE, Y, Ti, Nb, and Th in the veins, together with elevated F in titanite and the absence of associated sulfides, suggest transport of these high-field-strength elements (HFSE) by F-rich and S-poor hydrothermal fluids unrelated to the fluids that formed the older Fe-Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide ores of the Sullivan deposit. Fluids containing abundant REE, HFSE, and F may have been derived from a

  12. The giant Kalgoorlie Gold Field revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noreen Mary Vielreicher; David Ian Groves; Neal Jesse McNaughton


    The Neoarchaean Kalgoorlie Gold Field contains the giant Golden Mile and world-class Mt Charlotte deposits, which have been the subject of much research for over 100 years. The Golden Mile deposit is a complex array of ductile to brittle vein and breccia lodes that are predominantly hosted in the highly-fractionated Golden Mile Dolerite sill. The Fimiston lodes comprise an array of narrow lodes that evolved broadly syn- to late-formation of the regional D2 NW-trending foliation. The lodes are charac-terized by pyrite veinlets and disseminations, quartz veinlets and breccias, and banded quartz-carbonate veins with sericite, carbonate, and pyrite-dominated alteration. Bonanza Green-Leader, or Oroya-style, lodes, with grades in excess of 1000 g/t Au, are similar to the Fimiston-style lodes, but are character-ized by abundant visible gold, native tellurium and more abundant telluride minerals within roscoelite-bearing alteration zones. The arguably structurally younger Mt Charlotte-style lodes are characterized by a pipe-shaped, coarse-grained quartz, carbonate and scheelite vein-stockwork with distinct vertically-zoned, carbonate-sericite-albite-pyrite ? pyrrhotite dominant alteration assemblages around veins within Unit 8 of the Golden Mile dolerite and porphyry dykes. The network of steep-and gently-dipping extension and shear fracture-fill veins are associated with NE-trending fault sets that cross cut the regional NW-trend. The deposit area is intruded by swarms of porphyry dykes, including syn-volcanic mafic dykes, early and volumetrically most significant c. 2.67 Ga feldspar-phyric porphyry dykes, as well as later c. 2.66‒2.65 Ga calc-alkaline hornblende-phyric dykes associated with younger c. 2.65‒2.64 Ga lamprophyre dykes. All post-volcanic dykes have similar orientations to the Fimiston lodes. The feldspar dykes are clearly overprinted by all styles of mineralization, although the relationship between hornblende-phyric and lamprophyre dykes and gold

  13. The origin of life near deep-sea hydrothermal systems during the Cambrian explosion: data from the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit (Central Asia) (United States)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Terleev, Alexander; Safonova, Inna; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey; Tokarev, Dmitry


    On Earth the solar radiation and the hydrothermal circulation both affect life evolution. Recent extensive studies of the World Ocean have shown that the biodiversity of Earth is linked with hydrothermal activity on the oceanic floor. These deep-sea ecosystems use chemical energy, not solar radiation. In the last quarter of the XX century, a new type of hydrothermal systems, so-called black smokers, was discovered in mid-oceanic ridges. As black smokers form sulfide ores and are surrounded by abundant bio-oases or symbioses, identification of their analogues in ancient orogenic belts is necessary for studying life origin and evolution. Of special importance are problems of life associated with deep-sea hydrothermal systems acted at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary - the time of Cambrian explosion (Maruyama et al., 2013). During that explosion life significantly evolved and diversified due to dramatic changes of Earth's environment. Consequently, the early Cambrian - late Precambrian Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit of East Tuva in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is of special interest. This deposit was formed on the bottom of ancient back-arc deep-sea basin as a result of black smoker hydrothermal activity and is hosted by volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks altered by the high temperature solutions. The altered Kyzyl Tashtyg basalts have an amygdules (filled by albite, epidote and carbonates), contain brown-green microfossils, often attached to their walls. The microfossils are thin tubes 5 to 25 microns in diameter and 500 microns long. This tubes are empty and have straight, curved or branching shape. Chemically, the tube material is close to epidote. In consideration of microscopic dimensions, simple morphology and similarity with modern tubular microorganisms, the studied tube-shaped microfossils can be related to cyanobacteria. Almost the same fossils, associated with oceanic basalt complexes, were described earlier (Furnes et al., 2007; Mcloughlin et al., 2007

  14. Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and mineralogical investigations of metadolerites from Western Svalbard : A preliminary report (United States)

    Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey


    A group of 42 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples from 7 sites located in central part of the West Spitsbergen Thrust and Fault Belt has been investigated. The samples were collected from 5 distinct metadolerite sheets intruded into the Proterozoic - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic complex of Western Oscar II Land (Western Svalbard Caledonian Terrane - Harland, 1997 division). All analyzed metadolerite samples were metamorphosed under greenschist facies metamorphism. The metamorphic assemblage consist of hornblende, biotite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, stilpnomelane, titanite, albite, and quartz. Calcite, associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and covellite, that occurs as irregular intergrowths or thin veins, document high activity of H2O-CO2-rich fluids during metamorphism. Primary magmatic phases represented by clinopyroxene occur rarely, and only in thick metadolerite dykes. Accessory oxides change their mineralogical and chemical composition during metamorphism. In all examined samples primary Ti-magnetite and oxy-exsolved hematite break-down completely into titanite or have been dissolved. The ilmenite are also replaced by titanite, but in metadolerites at contact with host metapelites, slightly altered ilmenite grains with preserved hematite exsolution were documented. Basing on mineralogical observations it should be expected that metamorphic processes have almost completely reset the paleomagnetic data record from the time of dolerite crystallization. This stage can document only rare hematite oxy-exsolution preserved within ilmenite, and presumably small inclusion of magnetite still preserved within unaltered clinopyroxene. The paleomagnetic record of metamorphic stage is probably recorded by pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite, and late Ti-free magnetite that can grow during breakdown of pyrrhotite to pyrite (Ramdohr. 1980). The NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetisation) intensities of the palaeomagnetic samples exceed the minimum 10

  15. Is there a geochemical link between volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Organ Mountains caldera? (United States)

    Memeti, V.; Davidson, J.


    determine within-crystal geochemical variations. Our current conclusions and working hypotheses are: 1) All igneous rocks from the Organ Mountains are crustal-mantle melt mixtures indicating two component mixing; 2) the caldera-forming ignimbrites are likely derived from a fractionating Organ Needle pluton; 3) pre- and post-caldera lavas are isotopically similar to the post-caldera Sugarloaf Peak quartz-monzonite; 4) K-feldspar cumulate textures in the structurally top 0.5-1 km of the Organ Needle pluton indicate that interstitial melt was lost from the magma mush, which likely fed the ignimbrite eruptions. 5) Plutonic feldspar textures are complex compared to rather simple zoned volcanic feldspars including K-feldspar rimmed plagioclase, plagioclase rimmed K-feldspar and unrimmed feldspars occurring over a range of grain sizes at thin section scale. Some volcanic feldspar phenocrysts have any previous zonation erased due to late stage albitization. Although the single mineral studies are still work in progress and details need resolving, our data so far suggest a geochemical link between volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Organ Mountains caldera, albeit a complex one; and greater complexity in plutonic versus volcanic minerals. [1] Seager (1980), NM Bureau of Mines and Min. Res. Memoir 36, 97 p. [2] Zimmerer & McIntosh (2013) Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 93, p. 4421-4433

  16. 东天山红云滩铁矿床矿物学、矿物化学特征及矿床成因探讨%Mineralogy, mineral chemistry and genesis of the Hongyuntan iron deposit in East Tianshan Mountians, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立成; 王义天; 陈雪峰; 马世青; 王志华; 余长发


    东天山红云滩铁矿赋存于下石炭统雅满苏组火山碎屑岩地层中.矿体主要呈层状、似层状、透镜状.矿石矿物以大量磁铁矿为主,含少量的磁赤铁矿、镜铁矿、黄铁矿和极少量的黄铜矿等.脉石矿物主要有石榴石、透辉石、阳起石、绿帘石、绿泥石、黑云母、钠长石、石英等.矿石构造以块状构造和浸染状构造为主,局部为条带状构造、脉状构造;矿石结构包括半自形-他形粒状结构、交代结构.围岩蚀变对称分带明显,从矿(化)体到两侧围岩,蚀变呈现从深色到浅色的变化现象.根据矿物共生组合、矿石组构的观察,本次工作识别出矽卡岩期和热液期两个成矿期,进一步细分为4个成矿阶段:矽卡岩阶段、退化蚀变阶段(主成矿期)、热液早期阶段及石英-硫化物阶段.电子探针分析表明石榴石端员组分以钙铁榴石-钙铝榴石系列为主,辉石端员组分以透辉石-钙铁辉石为主,角闪石端员组分主要为阳起石和透闪石,这些特点表明矿区矽卡岩为热液交代钙矽卡岩.磁铁矿的主、微量元素特征表明其形成与矽卡岩密切相关.结合成矿地质特征,认为矽卡岩是由富铁岩浆热液流体沿断裂构造运移、交代下石炭统雅满苏组富钙火山碎屑岩地层而形成的,磁铁矿的形成与矽卡岩的退化变质作用有关.%The Hongyuntan iron deposit is hosted in pyroclastic rocks of the Lower Carboniferous Yamansu Formation.The ore bodies occur as layers,stratoid bodies or lenses.The principal ore mineral is magnetite,together with minor maghemite,specularite,pyrite and trace chalcopyrite.The gangue minerals include garnet,diopside,actinolite,chlorite,tremolite,epidote,biotite,albite and quartz.The ore structures are mainly of massive and disseminated forms,with occasional banded or veined forms.The ore textures are of subhedral-anhedral granular and metasomatic types.The wall rock alteration shows

  17. Metasomatismo en ortoanfibolitas de la Faja máfica-ultramáfica del río de las tunas, Mendoza Metasomatism in orthoamphibolites from the Río de Las Tunas mafic-ultramafic belt, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Florencia Gargiulo


    áticos y la secuencia de reemplazo observada en ellos, sugieren que tales asociaciones se generaron a causa de un proceso metasomático, acontecido en condiciones de bajo grado a una presión menor a 4 kbar, durante los estadios finales del ciclo de metamorfismo regional evidenciado en el área.In this contribution, petro-mineralogical and chemical evidences of metasomatism in orthoamphibolites from the Río de Las Tunas mafic-ultramafic belt in Frontal Cordillera of Mendoza province are provided. These orthoamphibolites integrate the metamorphic basement of the Frontal Cordillera and they belong to the Guarguaráz Metamorphic Complex. These rocks show mineral associations and textural relationships indicating disequilibrium conditions between some of the mineral phases. Hornblendic amphibole crystals show a reaction border with development of clinopyroxene (ferroan dioside; meanwhile the calcicplagioclase is mostly replaced by a fine-grained matrix integrated by the mineral association of garnet-epidotes.l -prehnite-pumpellyite- albite. The amphibole and clinopyroxene crystals are also partially replaced by pumpellyite and/or chlorite, meanwhile the matrix is slightly replaced by muscovite and calcite. Garnet compositions belong to the grossular-andradite series and their average composition is: Alm05Adr53Prp01Sps04Grs36Uv01. Some crystals with Cr2O3 content between 11.69-13.17 wt.% and with a subtle chemical zonation (uvarovitic core: Alm03Adr13Prp00Sps02Grs35Uv47 with more grossularic border: Alm03Adr12 Prp00Sps01Grs44Uv40 occur in relationship with magnetite crystals with up to 20% of the chromite component. Pressure estimations based on the compositional zoning of amphibole crystals gave values between 2.5-4.5 kbar. The observed mineral associations together with the textural and chemical characteristics of these rocks show that this kind of orthoamphibolites is completely different from the classical amphibolites of igneous protoliths outcropping in the study area

  18. 西藏搭格架地热区天然水的水化学组成与稳定碳同位素特征%Characteristics of hydrochemical compositions and stable carbon isotope of natural water in the Daggyia geothermal field,Tibet,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尊波; 沈立成; 梁作兵; 江泽利; 廖昱


    The objective of this work is to investigate the hydrochemical compositions of the geothermal wa-ter,lake water,river water,and ice-and snow-melt water as well as control factors of provenance in the Daggyia geothermal field of Tibet.The field surveys and sampling were conducted in August 2014.The main cations and anions of samples were measured using the ICP-OES and UV-visible spectrophotometer.The iso-topic ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)were analyzed using a gas stable isotope ratio mass spectrom-eter.The results show that the concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS)range from 977.13 mg/L to 1 279.50 mg/L for geothermal water,and K+ and Na+ are the main cations,and HCO 3 - and Cl- are the main anions.The concentrations of TDS of the lake waters range from 77.81 mg/L to 810.94 mg/L,Ca2 + ,Na+ , HCO 3 - (CO 3 2 - )and SO 4 2 - occupy the majority of ions.The hydrochemical types of both geothermal water and lake water are the type of bicarbonate-sodium.The ion concentrations of river and melt water are low, and the hydrochemical type is bicarbonate-calcium.The concentrations of DIC in geothermal water range from 9.2 mmol/L to 15.4 mmol/L,and that of δ1 3 CDIC ranges from -9.09‰ to -0.95‰.The concentra-tions of DIC in lake water are 1.1 mmol/L to 9.7 mmol/L,theδ1 3 CDIC values are -8.84‰ to -0.27‰.The Gibbs boomerang envelope of water samples indicates that the hydrochemical characteristics are mainly con-trolled by silicate rocks weathering in the area,and the major processes are the albite and potash feldspar weathering,while the hydrochemical compositions of geothermal water are also affected by dissolution of e-vaporation of salt rocks.The carbon sources of silicate weathering around the lakes are mainly soil carbon di-oxide.Meanwhile the deep carbon dioxide input is the main source of silicate hydrolysis in hot spring areas.%为探究青藏高原搭格架地热区地热水、湖水、河水、冰雪融水等天然水体的水化学

  19. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    groundwater discharge. Most lines of evidence support that the sulphur system, microbiologically mediated, is the main redox controller in the deepest and most saline groundwaters. On the other hand, Littorina-rich brackish groundwaters show variable and very high iron contents, in agreement with what has been observed in similar groundwaters elsewhere. The microbial analyses only found trace amounts of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in these samples, but very high numbers of iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). However, there is no correlation between Fe{sup 2+} concentration and the number of IRB in these groundwaters. Moreover, they show very low but detectable contents of dissolved S{sup 2-} and the {delta}{sup 34}S values are very homogeneous (around 2.5%) and clearly higher than in the present Baltic Sea, indicating that sulphate reduction has operated. These observations could support the existence of an iron-sulphide precipitation process during the Littorina Sea phase of these groundwaters but not intense enough to effectively limit Fe{sup 2+} solubility. A modelling approach was used to simulate the obtained groundwater in the Forsmark area by introducing Littorina Sea water. These results indicate that re-equilibrium reaction processes are important in the control of some parameters such as pH (as well as Eh, and some minor trace elements), moving the waters towards the adularia-albite boundary. However, the main compositional changes, and even the extent of re-equilibration processes, are controlled by the extent of the mixing process. Coupled transport modelling was used to model the measured water conservative elements, tritium contents and the water recharge into the granitic bedrock. The simulations indicate that quaternary sediments may play a significant role since most of the infiltrated water could flow through the conductive layers in the sediment to discharge zones, mainly associated with lakes and the Baltic Sea coast line. Based on this hypothesis, the

  20. Magnetic properties during heating of the peat sediments in arid regions%干旱区泥炭样品加热过程中磁学特征的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊辉; 夏敦胜; 张英; 张健; 许淑婧; 刘宇航


    to be heated, the magnetization slowly decreases. When being heated to around 380 X , the magnetization suddenly increases and arrives at its max at around 460 ℃ , then it starts to decrease, the distinct turn is 580℃and decreases to zero, which means that this mineral is magnetite. In Day - plot, the plotted scatter of the raw sample is mostly located in the PSD area, when being heated from 0 ℃ directly to 700 ℃, the samples are mostly located in the MD area, indicating that magnetic particulate becomes coarse during the heating, which corresponds to the magnetic domain reflected by hysteresis loops. The results of X-ray diffraction show that the main mineral in original peat is quartz, al-bite, illite, there are also iron-containing chlorite and magnetite. The results show that the low-coercivity magnetite contributes most to the magnetic susceptibility. Its grain size is PSD. During the heating, the chlorite break up into new magnetite, magnetic domain transformed into MD. The gradual heating K -T curve indicates that K -T curve is an indicator to analyse the magnetic properties of the weak magnetic substance which contain mass organic matter. The type and quantity of the magnetic mineral created during the heating are not only controlled by the highest temperature, they also present diversity when the peat samples are heated to the different temperature because organic matter has reducing action to the magnetic minerals, which make the transformation, reform and the final product complicated when the samples are heated to different temperature.%利用采自干旱区高山~新疆阿尔泰山的表层泥炭样品,以K-T曲线为主,结合J-T曲线、磁滞参数以及XRD等相关实验,探讨了应用热磁实验鉴别富含有机质的弱磁性物质磁性特征.结果表明:样品中磁化率的主要贡献者为低矫顽力的强磁性矿物-磁铁矿,磁铁矿的粒径为PSD(准单畴).加热过程中,含铁粘土矿物绿泥石分解生成新的磁

  1. Análise da co-utilização do resíduo do beneficiamento do caulim e serragem de granito para produção de blocos e telhas cerâmicos Analysis of the use of kaolin processing waste and granite sawing waste together for the production of ceramic bricks and roof tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes


    high amounts of wastes. This work has as aim the characterization of the kaolin processing waste and granite sawing waste and the evaluation of their use together for the production of bricks and roof tiles. The wastes were characterized by chemical composition determination, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and gravimetric analyses, particle size distribution determination, and morphological analysis by electronic scanning microscopy. Several formulations were prepared and samples bodies were prepared by extrusion. The sample bodies were fired at 800, 900 and 1000 ºC. Fired samples were characterized in terms of water absorption and mechanical strength. The results showed that the kaolin waste is composed by kaolinite, mica and quartz and that the granite waste is composed by quartz, mica, albite and calcite, and that, the wastes have significantly distinct particles size distributions. It could also be concluded that are possible incorporations of up to 50% of wastes in formulation for the production of ceramic bricks and roof tiles, and that, the use of the kaolin waste and granite waste together provide better physical properties than those observed in samples bodies with incorporations of only kaolin waste.

  2. Thermal expansion behavior of fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions (United States)

    Hovis, G.; Harlov, D.; Gottschalk, M.; Hudacek, W.; Wildermuth, S.


    diagnostics. Mineralogical Magazine 61, 65-77. Hovis, G.L., Brennan, S., Keohane, M., Crelling, J. (1999) High-temperature X-ray investigation of sanidine - analbite crystalline solutions: Thermal expansion, phase transitions, and volumes of mixing. The Canadian Mineralogist 37, 701-709. Hovis, G.L., Crelling, J., Wattles, D., Dreibelbis, B., Dennison, A., Keohane, M., and Brennan, S. (2003) Thermal expansion of nepheline - kalsilite crystalline solutions. Mineralogical Magazine 67, 535-546. Hovis, G.L. and Graeme-Barber, A. (1997) Volumes of K-Na mixing for low albite - microcline crystalline solutions at elevated temperature: A test of regular solution thermodynamic models. American Mineralogist 82, 158-164. Hovis, G.L., Harlov, D.E., Hahn, A., and Steigert, H. (2007) Enthalpies and volumes of F-Cl mixing in fluorapatite - chlorapatite crystalline solutions. Geophysical Research Abstracts 9, abstract 01748. Hovis, G.L., Morabito, J.R. Spooner, R., Mott, A. Person, E.L., Henderson, C. Michael B., Roux, J., and Harlov, D. (2008) A simple predictive model for the thermal expansion of AlSi3 feldspars. American Mineralogist 98, 1568-1573. Hovis, G.L., Person, E., Spooner, A., and Roux, J. (2006) Thermal expansion of highly silicic nepheline - kalsilite crystalline solutions. Mineralogical Magazine 70, 383-396. O'Reilly, S.Y. and Griffin, W.L. (2000) Apatite in the mantle: implications for metasomatic processes and high heat production in Phanerozoic mantle. Lithos 53, 217-232. Parrish, W. (1953) X-Ray reflection angle tables for several standards. Technical Report No. 68, Philips Laboratories Incorporated, Irvington on Hudson, New York.

  3. Ore genesis constraints on the Idaho Cobalt Belt from fluid inclusion gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratio analyses (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; Landis, Gary P.


    38Ar produced by nucleogenic production from 41K. In contrast, some ore and gangue minerals yield significant SO2 and have low RH and RS values of a more oxidized fluid. Three extracts from gangue quartz have high helium R/RA values indicative of a mantle source and neon isotope compositions that require nucleogenic production of 22Ne in fluorite from U ± Th decay. Two extracts from gangue quartz have estimated 40K/40Ar that permit a Precambrian age. Extracts from gangue quartz in three different ore zones are biased toward the hypersaline population of inclusions and have a tight range of ion ratios (Na, K, NH4, Cl, Br, F) suggestive of a single fluid. Their Na, Cl, Br ratios suggest this fluid was a mixture of magmatic and basinal brine. Na-K-Ca temperatures (279°-347°C) are similar to homogenization temperatures of hypersaline inclusions. The high K/Na of the brine may be due to albitization of K silicate minerals in country rocks. Influx of K-rich brines is consistent with the K metasomatism necessary to form gangue biotite with high Cl. An extract from a post-ore quartz vein is distinct and has Na, Cl, Br ratios that resemble metamorphic fluids in Cretaceous silver veins of the Coeur d'Alene district in the Belt Basin. The results show that in some samples, for certain components, it is possible to "see through" the Cretaceous metamorphic overprint. Of great import for genetic models, the volatiles trapped in gangue quartz have 3He derived from a mantle source and 22Ne derived from fluorite, both of which may be attributed to nearby ~1377 Ma basalt-rhyolite magmatism. The brine trapped in gangue quartz is a mixture of magmatic fluid and evaporated seawater. The former requires a granitic intrusion that is present in the bimodal intrusive complex, and the latter equatorial paleolatitudes that existed in the Mesoproterozoic. The results permit genetic models involving heat and fluids from the neighboring bimodal plutonic complex and convection of basinal brine

  4. Estudo colorimétrico de fritas feldspáticas Colorimetric study of feldsphatic frits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F Santos


    minerals at high temperatures (about 1500 ºC. Glazes prepared exclusively from frits are used to manufacture ceramic pieces where the aesthetic component is more important than structural features, such as in the case of tiles, decorative ceramics and dental restorations. To improve the decorative effect the ceramic tile has to be colorimetrically stable in order to preserve the color provided by the pigment. In this context, the present work presents the results obtained in a color study carried out by application of ceramic pigments in transparent frits, produced with feldspar from Borborema-Seridó (PB/RN region, Brazil. The chemical analysis of feldspar evidenced that this mineral present the requested characteristics for the application as glaze, once its impurities content (iron and other colorant oxides are low grade. The mineral was characterized by X-ray diffraction (albite and orthoclase and size distribution was determined by screening (Tyler sieves, as being less than 100 µm. The colorimetric evaluation by using CIELab standards and reflectance measurements allowed characterizing the color of the ceramic tiles obtained under different light sources and illuminants. The results indicated that the feldspar from Seridó presents potential for application as colored ceramic tile and hereafter it could be applied in the area of dental restorations, since that mineral is one of the main components of the dental porcelains, however, until the present, all dental restorative material used in Brazil is of foreign origin.

  5. Usefulness of NIR spectroscopy for the estimation of the mineral composition and texture of soils and heavy metal uptake (United States)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Gómez, I.; Jordán, M. M.; Guerrero, C.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Meseguer, S.; Sanfeliu, T.


    The accumulation of heavy metals in soils from different sources (atmospheric deposition, agricultural practices, urban-industrial activities, etc.) is of a great environmental concern. In this sense, there is a consensus in the literature that the total heavy metals in soil are not a suitable tool for risk assessment regarding heavy metal mobility and bioavailability. Several approaches have been proposed to estimate this bioavailability but controversy exists to define an universal method. The bioavailability is influenced, apart from other properties like pH, organic matter, etc., by the mineral fraction and texture of a soil. However, the determination of these parameters, especially the mineral composition, is laborious, expensive, and time consuming. Thus, the objectives of this work are the estimation of the texture and mineral components of contrasting soils and the heavy metal uptake (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd) by barley after sewage sludge application using NIR spectroscopy. A set of 70 contrasting soils from different parts of Spain were used for the analysis of the texture and mineral composition. The mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using whole soil random powder, oriented clay on ceramic plates, and clay random powder. Chung method was used for semi-quantitative interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns of soils, obtaining the percentage of Calcite (Ca), Quartz (Q), Albite (Ab), Potassium Feldspar (FK), phyllosilicates (PS). For the prediction of heavy metal uptake, the 70 soils were divided in two separate sets of 36 (experiment 1) and 34 (experiment 2) soils. The methodology for both experiments, separated in time, was the same. The soils were amended with the same dose of sewage sludge (15.71 g dry weight kg-1) and placed in pots. In these pots, a bioassay with barley, under greenhouse conditions, was carried out. Eight weeks after sowing, the plants were harvested. Roots were dried in an

  6. Magnetic properties during heating of the peat sediments in arid regions%干旱区泥炭样品加热过程中磁学特征的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊辉; 夏敦胜; 张英; 张健; 许淑婧; 刘宇航


    to be heated, the magnetization slowly decreases. When being heated to around 380 X , the magnetization suddenly increases and arrives at its max at around 460 ℃ , then it starts to decrease, the distinct turn is 580℃and decreases to zero, which means that this mineral is magnetite. In Day - plot, the plotted scatter of the raw sample is mostly located in the PSD area, when being heated from 0 ℃ directly to 700 ℃, the samples are mostly located in the MD area, indicating that magnetic particulate becomes coarse during the heating, which corresponds to the magnetic domain reflected by hysteresis loops. The results of X-ray diffraction show that the main mineral in original peat is quartz, al-bite, illite, there are also iron-containing chlorite and magnetite. The results show that the low-coercivity magnetite contributes most to the magnetic susceptibility. Its grain size is PSD. During the heating, the chlorite break up into new magnetite, magnetic domain transformed into MD. The gradual heating K -T curve indicates that K -T curve is an indicator to analyse the magnetic properties of the weak magnetic substance which contain mass organic matter. The type and quantity of the magnetic mineral created during the heating are not only controlled by the highest temperature, they also present diversity when the peat samples are heated to the different temperature because organic matter has reducing action to the magnetic minerals, which make the transformation, reform and the final product complicated when the samples are heated to different temperature.%利用采自干旱区高山~新疆阿尔泰山的表层泥炭样品,以K-T曲线为主,结合J-T曲线、磁滞参数以及XRD等相关实验,探讨了应用热磁实验鉴别富含有机质的弱磁性物质磁性特征.结果表明:样品中磁化率的主要贡献者为低矫顽力的强磁性矿物-磁铁矿,磁铁矿的粒径为PSD(准单畴).加热过程中,含铁粘土矿物绿泥石分解生成新的磁

  7. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckel, Timothy [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes); Trevino, Ramon [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes)


    m) of data allowed for the identification and mapping of unconformable surfaces including what is probably a surface associated with the last Pleistocene glacial lowstand. The identification of a previously unrecognized (in commercial seismic data) gas chimney that was clearly defined in the 2013 HR3D survey, indicates that HR3D surveys may be useful as both a characterization tool for the overburden of a potential carbon sequestration site and as an additional monitoring tool for future engineered injection sites. Geochemical modeling indicated that injection of CO₂ would result in minor dissolution of calcite, K-feldspar and albite. In addition, modeling of typical brines in Miocene age rocks indicate that approximately 5% of injection capacity would result from CO₂ dissolution into the brine. After extensive searches, no rock samples of the Marginulina A and Amphistegina B seals (“caprocks”) were obtained, but analyses of available core samples of other Miocene age mudrocks (seals or caprocks) indicate that they have sealing ability sufficient for potential CO2 storage in underlying sandstone units.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MSDufour; ABKoltsov; 等


    刚玉矿化位于穆兹科尔(Muzkol)变质杂岩体内.该杂岩体近纬向展布在帕米尔中部阿尔卑斯褶皱带的东部,属蓝晶石-夕线石型阿尔卑斯带变质杂岩.地质填图发现有4个变质岩区:低绿片岩相(白云母-绿泥石)区,高绿片岩相(黑云母-绿泥石)区,绿帘石-角闪岩相区,角闪岩相区,而刚玉矿化集中在绿帘石-角闪岩及周围角闪岩相变质体内的交代蚀变区.交代蚀变区内的刚玉矿化通常与层面或大型同倾斜褶皱轴面平行.根据母岩成分可将含刚玉交代岩分力3类,分别位于万解石大埋岩内、日云石大理岩内及片岩内.在大理岩内,刚玉成粉红色,与白云母、黑云母、方柱石、钙长石、正长石、金红石、电气石、磷灰石、黄铁矿及石墨共生,以Al含量变化大和Fe含量低为特点.在片岩内,刚玉成蓝色,与黑云母、绿泥石、电气石及磷灰石共生各种类型的含刚玉岩石均以K Na,Mg的含量较高而Fe含量较低为特点.根据P-T-XCO2图估算含刚玉交代岩的稳定范围在610℃<T< 660℃,4.5kPa<Ptot<6kPa及0.16<XCO2<0.46内.K-Ar法测得云母的刚玉矿化年龄在2~17Ma.多波段流体反应器数值模拟显示含刚玉交代岩的主要形成过程为含大量硅酸盐矿物或泥质岩缝隙的大理岩的脱硅过程,是通过深部铝、硅不饱和流体实现的.%Corundum mineralization is localized in the Muzkol metamorphic complex, which stretches insub-latitude direction in the eastern part of the Alpine fold zone of Central Pamir. Muzkol complex is theAlpine zonal metamorphic complex of the kyanite-sillimanite type. Corundum manifestations areconcentrated in the zones of metasomatic alteration in the limits of the epidote-amphibolite and adjoiningpart of the amphibolite metamorphic facies. Depending on the composition of the host rocks three typesanorthite, albite, rutile, tourmaline, apatite, pyrite and graphite. Schists contain bluish corundum

  9. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    discharge. Most lines of evidence support that the sulphur system, microbiologically mediated, is the main redox controller in the deepest and most saline groundwaters. On the other hand, Littorina-rich brackish groundwaters show variable and very high iron contents, in agreement with what has been observed in similar groundwaters elsewhere. The microbial analyses only found trace amounts of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in these samples, but very high numbers of iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). However, there is no correlation between Fe2+ concentration and the number of IRB in these groundwaters. Moreover, they show very low but detectable contents of dissolved S2- and the δ34S values are very homogeneous (around 2.5%) and clearly higher than in the present Baltic Sea, indicating that sulphate reduction has operated. These observations could support the existence of an iron-sulphide precipitation process during the Littorina Sea phase of these groundwaters but not intense enough to effectively limit Fe2+ solubility. A modelling approach was used to simulate the obtained groundwater in the Forsmark area by introducing Littorina Sea water. These results indicate that re-equilibrium reaction processes are important in the control of some parameters such as pH (as well as Eh, and some minor trace elements), moving the waters towards the adularia-albite boundary. However, the main compositional changes, and even the extent of re-equilibration processes, are controlled by the extent of the mixing process. Coupled transport modelling was used to model the measured water conservative elements, tritium contents and the water recharge into the granitic bedrock. The simulations indicate that quaternary sediments may play a significant role since most of the infiltrated water could flow through the conductive layers in the sediment to discharge zones, mainly associated with lakes and the Baltic Sea coast line. Based on this hypothesis, the effective recharge into the granitic

  10. Metallogenetic systems associated with granitoid magmatism in the Amazonian Craton: An overview of the present level of understanding and exploration significance (United States)

    Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Juliani, Caetano; Xavier, Roberto P.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Bastos Neto, Artur C.; Klein, Evandro L.; Assis, Rafael R.; Leite, Washington Barbosa, Jr.; Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Fernandes, Carlos Marcello Dias; Pereira, Vitor Paulo


    íder and Teles Pires suites). The Transamazonas Province corresponds to a N-S-trending orogenic belt, consolidated during the Transamazonian cycle (2.26-1.95 Ga), comprising the Lourenço, Amapá, Carecuru, Bacajá, and Santana do Araguaia tectonic domains. They show a protracted tectonic evolution, and are host to the pre-, syn-, and post-orogenic to anorogenic granitic magmatism. Gold mineralization associated with magmatic events is still unclear. Greisen and pegmatite Sn-Nb-Ta deposits are related to 1.84 to 1.75 Ga late-orogenic to anorogenic A-type granites. The Pitinga Tin Province includes the Madeira Sn-Nb-Ta-F deposit, Sn-greisens and Sn-episyenites. These are associated with A-type granites of the Madeira Suite (1.84-1.82 Ga), which occur within a cauldron complex (Iricoumé Group). The A-type magmatism evolved from a post-collisional extension, towards a within-plate setting. The hydrothermal processes (400 °C-100 °C) resulted in albitization and formation of disseminated cryolite, pyrochlore columbitization, and formation of a massive cryolite deposit in the core of the Madeira deposit. The Rondônia Tin Province hosts rare-metal (Ta, Nb, Be) and Sn-W mineralization, which is associated with the São Lourenço-Caripunas (1.31-1.30 Ga), related to the post-collisional stage of the Rondônia San Ignácio Province (1.56-1.30 Ga), and to the Santa Clara (1.08-1.07 Ga) and Younger Granites of Rondônia (0.99-0.97 Ga) A-type granites. The latter are linked to the evolution of the Sunsás-Aguapeí Province (1.20-0.95 Ga). Rare-metal polymetallic deposits are associated with late stage peraluminous granites, mainly as greisen, quartz vein, and pegmatite types.

  11. The Rožná uranium deposit (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic): shear zone-hosted, late Variscan and post-Variscan hydrothermal mineralization (United States)

    Kříbek, Bohdan; Žák, Karel; Dobeš, Petr; Leichmann, Jaromír; Pudilová, Marta; René, Miloš; Scharm, Bohdan; Scharmová, Marta; Hájek, Antonín; Holeczy, Daniel; Hein, Ulrich F.; Lehmann, Bernd


    Three major mineralization events are recorded at the Rožná uranium deposit (total mine production of 23,000 t U, average grade of 0.24% U): (1) pre-uranium quartz-sulfide and carbonate-sulfide mineralization, (2) uranium, and (3) post-uranium quartz-carbonate-sulfide mineralization. (1) K-Ar ages for white mica from wall rock alteration of the pre-uranium mineralization style range from 304.5 ± 5.8 to 307.6 ± 6.0 Ma coinciding with the post-orogenic exhumation of the Moldanubian orogenic root and retrograde-metamorphic equilibration of the high-grade metamorphic host rocks. The fluid inclusion record consists of low-salinity aqueous inclusions, together with H2O-CO2-CH4, CO2-CH4, and pure CH4 inclusions. The fluid inclusion, paragenetic, and isotope data suggest that the pre-uranium mineralization formed from a reduced low-salinity aqueous fluid at temperatures close to 300°C. (2) The uraniferous hydrothermal event is subdivided into the pre-ore, ore, and post-ore substages. K-Ar ages of pre-ore authigenic K-feldspar range from 296.3 ± 7.5 to 281.0 ± 5.4 Ma and coincide with the transcurrent reorganization of crustal blocks of the Bohemian Massif and with Late Stephanian to Early Permian rifting. Massive hematitization, albitization, and desilicification of the pre-ore altered rocks indicate an influx of oxidized basinal fluids to the crystalline rocks of the Moldanubian domain. The wide range of salinities of fluid inclusions is interpreted as a result of the large-scale mixing of basinal brines with meteoric water. The cationic composition of these fluids indicates extensive interaction with crystalline rocks. Chlorite thermometry yielded temperatures of 260°C to 310°C. During this substage, uranium was probably leached from the Moldanubian crystalline rocks. The hydrothermal alteration of the ore substage followed, or partly overlapped in time, the pre-ore substage alteration. K-Ar ages of illite from ore substage alteration range from 277.2 ± 5.5 to

  12. Batievaite-(Y), Y2Ca2Ti[Si2O7]2(OH)2(H2O)4, a new mineral from nepheline syenite pegmatite in the Sakharjok massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia (United States)

    Lyalina, L. M.; Zolotarev, A. A.; Selivanova, E. A.; Savchenko, Ye. E.; Krivovichev, S. V.; Mikhailova, Yu. A.; Kadyrova, G. I.; Zozulya, D. R.


    Batievaite-(Y), Y2Ca2Ti[Si2O7]2(OH)2(H2O)4, is a new mineral found in nepheline syenite pegmatite in the Sakharjok alkaline massif, Western Keivy, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The pegmatite mainly consists of nepheline, albite, alkali pyroxenes, amphiboles, biotite and zeolites. Batievaite-(Y) is a late-pegmatitic or hydrothermal mineral associated with meliphanite, fluorite, calcite, zircon, britholite-group minerals, leucophanite, gadolinite-subgroup minerals, titanite, smectites, pyrochlore-group minerals, zirkelite, cerianite-(Ce), rutile, behoite, ilmenite, apatite-group minerals, mimetite, molybdenite, and nickeline. Batievaite-(Y) is pale-cream coloured with white streak and dull, greasy or pearly luster. Its Mohs hardness is 5-5.5. No cleavage or parting was observed. The measured density is 3.45(5) g/cm3. Batievaite-(Y) is optically biaxial positive, α 1.745(5), β 1.747(5), γ 1.752(5) (λ 589 nm), 2V meas. = 60(5)°, 2V calc. = 65°. Batievaite-(Y) is triclinic, space group P-1, a 9.4024(8), b 5.5623(5), c 7.3784(6) Å, α 89.919(2), β 101.408(2), γ 96.621(2)°, V 375.65(6) Å3 and Z = 1. The eight strongest lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [d(Å)(I)(hkl)] are: 2.991(100)(11-2), 7.238(36)(00-1), 3.061(30)(300), 4.350(23)(0-1-1), 9.145(17)(100), 4.042(16)(11-1), 2.819(16)(3-10), 3.745(13)(2-10). The chemical composition determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) is (wt.%): Nb2O5 2.25, TiO2 8.01, ZrO2 2.72, SiO2 29.96, Al2O3 0.56, Fe2O3 0.43, Y2O3 11.45, La2O3 0.22, Ce2O3 0.33, Nd2O3 0.02, Gd2O3 0.07, Dy2O3 0.47, Er2O3 1.07, Tm2O3 0.25, Yb2O3 2.81, Lu2O3 0.45, CaO 24.98, MnO 1.31, MgO 0.01, Na2O 1.13, K2O 0.02, F 2.88, Cl 0.19, H2O 6.75 (determined on the basis of crystal structure data), O = (F,Cl) -1.25, total 97.09 wt.%. The empirical formula based on the EPMA and single-crystal structure analyses is (Y0.81Ca0.65Mn0.15Zr0.12Yb0.11Er0.04Fe3+ 0.04Ce0.02Dy0.02Lu0.02La0.01Tm0.01)Σ2.00((H2O)0.75Ca0.70□0.55)Σ2.00Ca2.00(□0.61Na0.25( H2O

  13. Investigation on the oxygen transport mechanisms in the Sarcheshmeh waste rock dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Yousefi


    Full Text Available Introduction Pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage (AMD are the serious environmental problems associated with the mining activities in sulphide ores. The rate of pyrite oxidation is governed by the availability of oxygen (Borden, 2003. Therefore, the identifying oxygen supplying mechanism is one of the most important issues related to the environmental assessment of waste rock dumps (Cathles and Apps, 1975; Jaynes et al., 1984; Davis and Ritchie, 1986. Although comprehensive researches were performed on the mathematical description of oxygen transport processes using the numerical modeling (Morin et al., 1988; Blowes et al., 1991; Wunderly et al., 1986; Elberling et al., 1994; Jannesar Malakooti et al., 2014, so far, the interactions between these processes and geochemical and mineralogical characteristics has not been studied especially in waste rock dumps. Therefore the main objective of this study is to identify the evidences for knowing the oxygen transport mechanisms in the waste dumps and also, its role in intensity of pyrite oxidation. It is expected that such these structural studies could be useful for better understanding of dominant processes in numerical modeling and also providing environmental management strategies in the study area and other sites by similar characteristics. Materials and Methods In this study, thirty solid samples were collected from six excavated trenches in the waste rock dumps No. 19 and 31 of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine. Collected samples were studied using several methods such as XRD, ASTM-D2492, paste pH and grain size distribution. The results obtained from these methods were used with the field observations in order to characterize some detail information about oxygen supplying mechanisms for oxidation reactions in the waste rock dumps. Result The main minerals found by the XRD analysis were quartz and muscovite which were present in all samples. Pyrite, orthose, albite, and chlorite were also

  14. Fish community ecology in rocky reef habitat of Ma'an Archipelago.Ⅰ.Species composition and diversity%马鞍列岛岩礁生境鱼类群落生态学.Ⅰ.种类组成和多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪振华; 章守宇; 陈清满; 许强; 王凯


    economically-important species. However, fish diversity has dropped in comparison to its original status in RRH habitats. We suggest that more attention should be paid to the management and conservation of rocky reef habitat.%为了解潮下带岩礁生境的鱼类区系特征,于2009年对马鞍列岛岩礁生境进行了12个月的多网目组合刺网采样,从分类学和生态型组成等方面,结合多样性和相对重要性指数,对该生境的鱼类组成和多样性特征进行了分析.全年共采集鱼类87种,隶属2纲14目50科73属.其中鲈形目鱼类51种,占58.6%;趋礁性鱼类49种,占56.3%;放流鱼类7种,占8%.所有鱼类个体中,幼鱼的总比例为67.4%.暖水种、暖温种和冷温种分别为50、36和1种;底层、近底层和中上层鱼类各为19、46和22种,其中褐菖鲉(Sebastiscus marmoratus)、黄姑鱼(Nibea albitTora)和赤鼻棱鲲(Thryssa kammalensis)分别为各水层的绝对优势种;定居种、季节性洄游种和偶见种各为32、55和11种.岩礁生境鱼类多样性呈现明显的季节变化特征,2月份最低,9月份最高.研究结果表明,马鞍列岛岩礁生境是以趋礁鱼类为特征群体、暖水性和暖温性鱼类共同主导、各个类型的幼鱼在夏秋季集群出现、同时也分布了一定量放流种的高鱼类多样性栖息地,它为各种鱼类提供了优良的摄食、避敌和繁殖场所,是近岸海洋生态系统中相当重要的生境.然而相比过去,该生境的鱼类多样性已经大大降低,因此需对其保护工作予以更多关注.

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Jurassic coals from the Gheshlagh mine, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Shamanian


    -bearing formation in the Ghashlagh mine belongs to the clastic unit of the Shemshak Formation, consisting mainly of about 2400 m sandstone, siltstone, shale. The middle part of this formation includes the economic coal beds. Petrographic and mineralogical investigations indicate that the dominant mineral phases of the Gheshlagh coals are quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, albite, muscovite, illite and pyrite. Pyrite occurs as euhedral to anhedral crystals and locally as framboids which are disseminated in the coal. Oxidation products consist mainly of iron hydrosulfate resulting from the oxidation of pyrite. The organic/inorganic affinity of elements in coal was determined using the correlation coefficient between the elements and ash yeild. Si, Al, Ti, Fe, K, Na, Ga, Zr, Rb and Nb are mainly associated with minerals. Sr, Pb and Ni have a dual association. The concentrations of most trace elements in the Gheshlagh coal samples are high when compared with the usual reported range in the world. The contents of Pb and Ni show the highest concentrations. Discussion The Gheshlagh coals are characterized by relatively low amount of sulfur indicating deposition in lacustrine and swamp environments (Goodarzi et al., 2006. The concentration of Ni, V, Sr, Ba and Ce in the Gheshlagh coals are relatively higher than the Shahroud and Lushan coals (Yazdi and Esmaeilnia, 2004. The comparison of the concentration of trace elements in the Gheshlagh coals and worldwide concentrations (Swaine, 1990 indicates the enrichment of Ni and Pb in the Gheshlagh coals. Gluskoter et al. (1977 used a value of six times the Clarke value to determine if an element is enriched in the whole coal. By these criteria, the concentration of Ni and Pb are enriched in the Gheshlagh coals when compared with the Clarke values. Generally, the distribution and abundance of reacting mineral species in the coal mines can be used to predict the extent of acidification and neutralization in particular area. In the Gheshlagh coal

  16. Petrography, Mineral Chemistry and Geothermobarometry of Andalusite- Bearing Schists North of Azna (Northern Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Abdollahi Silabi


    deformation that hasproduced the current morphologyof the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (Shabanian Borujeni, 2008. In this paper we focused on petrography and mineral chemistry and thermodynamic conditions of the metapelites. Materials and methods The chemical compositions of minerals were determined by a CAMECA SX100 electron microprobe (EMP at Universität Stuttgart (Germany. The instrument is equipped with five wavelength dispersive spectrometers. The beam current and acceleration voltage were 15 nA and 15 kV, respectively. v Discussion and Results The Azna regional metamorphic rocks include quartz-feldspar schists, mica schists, andalusite-bearing schists and quartzites. The Azna metapelites are schists, containing quartz, feldspars, andalusite, muscovite, biotite, muscovite, chlorite and garnet, in variable proportions, characterized byporphyroblastic and lepidoblastic textures. Based on mineralogy, minerals of these rocks contain andalusite, garnet, feldspar, muscovite, biotite, quartz and chlorite. Microprobe analyses show that the mineral compositions are as follows: White micas in the andalusite-bearing schists are muscovite, plagioclases are albite-oligoclase, garnets are almandine-spessartine with weak chemical zoning and biotites are siderophylite-annite. Based on geothermobarometry, these rocks formed in the hornblende-hornfels facies and the low pressure part of the amphibolite facies,with temperatures about 562-692 °C and pressures1.07-4.12 kbar. After the regional metamorphism of these rocks,granitoidintrusions causedthermal metamorphism of these rocks and the formation of andalusite-bearing schists. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the Office of Graduate Studies of the University of Isfahan for their support. We also thank Prof. Hans-JoachimMassonne, who played major roles during the microprobe analysis of minerals at the InstitutfürMineralogie und Kristallchemie, Universität Stuttgart (Germany. References Aghanabati, A., 2004. Geology of Iran. Geological

  17. Characteristics and Evolution of Hydrochemical Compositions of Freshwater Lake in Tibetan Plateau%青藏高原淡水湖泊水化学组成特征及其演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 尚英男; 沈立成; 伍坤宇; 肖琼


    . 11-0. 35 , Ca/Na was 0.58, Mg/Ca was 0. 12, and HCO3/Na was 1.46, which suggested that the hydrochemical composition of the lake water was mainly controlled by silicate rock weathering based on Gibbs model and analysis of elemental stoichiometry. The minerals participated in weathering processes included plagioclase (anorthite, albite) , potassium feldspar, biotite, calcite, dolomite, gypsum, rock salt, etc. The average value of K/Na was 0. 059 , indicating the weathering level of potassium feldspar was relatively low. The saturation index (SI) of calcite, dolomite, gypsum, quartz and hematite contained in the lake was higher than zero, while the SI of rock salt was lower than 0, revealing the trend that the freshwater lake is turning into salt water lake in Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Magnetite composition of Zhibo iron deposit in Western Tianshan Mountains and its genetic significance%西天山智博铁矿床磁铁矿成分特征及其矿床成因意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志华; 张作衡; 蒋宗胜; 洪为; 田敬全


    Located in the eastern Awulale metallogenic belt of Western Tianshan Mountains, the large-size Zhibo iron deposit is hosted in basaltic andesite, andesite and pyroclastic rocks of the Lower Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation. The Zhibo iron deposit consists of four main areas: the eastern zone, the middle zone, the western zone, and No. 13 ore body, in which the ore bodies occur as layers, strafeid bodies or lenses. Mineralization consists of massive magnetite associated with minor disseminations of pyrite and veinlets of hematite and trace chal-copyrite. The ore structures include mainly massive and disseminated, subordinately brecciated, and occasionally banded or vein-stockwork forms, whereas the ore textures consist of ubhedral - anhedral grainular, metasomatic relict, and platy forms. The principal alteration mineral assemblages in Zhibo include diopside, albite, K-feldspar, epidote, and actinolite, together with calcite, quartz, chlorite and titanite. On the basis of observed mineral assemblages and ore textures as well as mineral analyses, two periods of ore deposition have been recognized: magmatic period and hydrothermal ore-forming period, which could be further subdivided into three metallogenic stages, i.e., magnetite-diopside-epidote stage (a1), magnetite-K-feldspar-epidote stage (bl) and quartz-sulfide stage (b2). Electron microprobe analyses show that the magnetite with magmatic features has higher content of FeOT and lower content of Al2O3, CaO, MgO, SiO2 in comparison with the magnetite with hydrothermal features. The content of V2O5 in brecciated and disseminated ore is relatively high, similar to the content of volcanic rocks, suggesting that part of iron of the ore-forming stage came from the wall rock. Massive and disseminated magnetite has varied FeOT values, mostly above 90% ; FeOT content of magnetite from brecciated, veined and dendritic ores varies between 90% and 92% ; the FeOx content of magnetite from laminated ore varies between 88

  19. Paravinogradovite, (Na,□)2 [(Ti4+, Fe3+)4 {Si2 O6}2 {Si3 Al O10} (OH)4] H2O, a new mineral species for the Khibina alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: description and crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paravinogradovite is a new mineral species from Mount Kukisvumchorr, Khibina alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Paravinogradovite forms prismatic crystals elongate along [100] and up to 0.5-1.0cm long; crystals in some cases occur in fan-shaped aggregates sporadically scattered throughout a matrix of feldspar, nepheline and natrolite in a strongly mineralized nepheline-feldspar pegmatite. Associated minerals are nepheline, K-feldspar, albite, analcime, natrolite, aegirine, biotite, chlorite, zircon, ilmenite, pyrochlore, ancylite-(Ce), nordstrandite, carbonate-fluorapatite, fluorite, galena and cerussite. Crystals of paravinogradovite are colorless to white, with a white streak and a luster that varies from vitreous to pearly. The mineral is translucent to transparent, and shows weak yellow-green fluorescence under 240-400 nm ultraviolet radiation. Paravinogradovite has a perfect cleavage on {001} and an indistinct cleavage on {010}. It is brittle, has a splintery fracture and a Mohs hardness of 5. Its observed and calculated densities are 2.77(2) and 2.76 g/cm3, respectively. It is biaxial negative with α 1.707(2), β 1.741(2), γ 1.755(2), 2V(obs.) = 64(1)o, 2V(calc.) = 64o, nonpleochroic with dispersion r> v, with Z ∼ b, X Λα 30o. Paravinogradovite is triclinic, space group P1, a 5.2533(1), b 8.7411(3), c 12.9480(5) Angstroem, α 70.466(1), β 78.472(1), γ 89.932(1)o, V547.65(5) )Angstroem, Z = 1. The strongest seven lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in Angstroem(I)((hkl)] are: 3.182(100)(0 13,014), 5.88(65)(011,012), 11.9(58)(001), 4.35 (38)(021,102), 5.98(35)(002), 3.085(29)(123) and 2.735(21)(122). Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave SiO2 43.54, A12O3 6.12, Fe2O3 4.11, Nb2O5 0.50, TiO2 29.59, BeO 0.76, MgO 0.13, Na2O 7.77, K2O 0.87, H2O 6.23, sum 99.62 wt.%, where the amount of Be and the amount of H2O were determined by crystal-structure analysis, and the valence state of Fe was determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The

  20. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckel, Timothy [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes); Trevino, Ramon [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes)


    m) of data allowed for the identification and mapping of unconformable surfaces including what is probably a surface associated with the last Pleistocene glacial lowstand. The identification of a previously unrecognized (in commercial seismic data) gas chimney that was clearly defined in the 2013 HR3D survey, indicates that HR3D surveys may be useful as both a characterization tool for the overburden of a potential carbon sequestration site and as an additional monitoring tool for future engineered injection sites. Geochemical modeling indicated that injection of CO₂ would result in minor dissolution of calcite, K-feldspar and albite. In addition, modeling of typical brines in Miocene age rocks indicate that approximately 5% of injection capacity would result from CO₂ dissolution into the brine. After extensive searches, no rock samples of the Marginulina A and Amphistegina B seals (“caprocks”) were obtained, but analyses of available core samples of other Miocene age mudrocks (seals or caprocks) indicate that they have sealing ability sufficient for potential CO2 storage in underlying sandstone units.

  1. Experimental constraints on the monazite-fluorapatite-allanite and xenotime-(Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite-(Y,HREE)-rich epidote phase relations as a function of pressure, temperature, and Ca vs. Na activity in the fluid (United States)

    Budzyń, Bartosz; Harlov, Daniel E.; Majka, Jarosław; Kozub, Gabriela A.


    Stability relations of monazite-fluorapatite-allanite and xenotime-(Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite-(Y,HREE)-rich epidote are strongly dependent on pressure, temperature and fluid composition. The increased Ca bulk content expands stability field of allanite relative to monazite towards higher temperatures (Spear, 2010, Chem Geol 279, 55-62). It was also reported from amphibolite facies Alpine metapelites, that both temperature and bulk CaO/Na2O ratio control relative stabilities of allanite, monazite and xenotime (Janots et al., 2008, J Metam Geol 26, 5, 509-526). This study experimentally defines influence of pressure, temperature, high activity of Ca vs. Na in the fluid, and high vs. moderate bulk CaO/Na2O ratio on the relative stabilities of monazite-fluorapatite-allanite/REE-rich epidote and xenotime-(Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite-(Y,HREE)-rich epidote. This work expands previous experimental study on monazite (Budzyń et al., 2011, Am Min 96, 1547-1567) to wide pressure-temperature range of 2-10 kbar and 450-750°C, utilizing most reactive fluids used in previous experiments. Experiments were performed using cold-seal autoclaves on a hydrothermal line (2-4 kbar runs) and piston-cylinder apparatus (6-10 kbar runs) over 4-16 days. Four sets of experiments, two for monazite and two for xenotime, were performed with 2M Ca(OH)2 and Na2Si2O5 + H2O fluids. The starting materials included inclusion-free crystals of monazite (pegmatite, Burnet County, TX, USA) or xenotime (pegmatite, Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan) mixed with (1) labradorite (Ab37An60Kfs3) + K-feldspar + biotite + muscovite ± garnet + SiO2 + CaF2 + 2M Ca(OH)2 or (2) albite (Ab100) + K-feldspar + biotite + muscovite ± garnet + SiO2 + CaF2 + Na2Si2O5 + H2O. 20-35 mg of solids and 5 mg of fluid were loaded into 3x15 mm Au capsules and arc welded shut. The monazite alteration is observed in all runs. Newly formed REE-rich fluorapatite and/or britholite are stable in all experimental P-T range in the

  2. Studies on 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of strike-slip time of the Tan-Lu fault zone and their tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Guang


    . Soc. Am.Bull.,1995, 107(5): 520-535.[22]Arita, K., Dallmeyer, R. D., Takasu, A., Tectonothermal evolution of the Lesser Himalaya, Nepal: Constraints from 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Kathmandu Nappe, The Island Arc, 1997, 6: 372-385.[23]Dallmeyer. R. D., Pana, D. I., Neubauer, F. et al., Tectonothermal evolution of the Apuseni Mountains, Romania: Resolution of Variscan versus Apline events with 40Ar/39Ar ages, The Journal of Geology, 1999, 107: 329-352.[24]Hu, S. L., Zou, H. B., Zhou, X. M., 40Ar/39Ar muscovite and hornblende ages respectively from cordierite granite at Shexian, Anhui and albite granite at Dexing, Jiangxi, in Lithospheric Textures and Geological Evolution of the Southeast China (ed., Li, J. L.) (in Chinese), Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Publishing House, 1993, 141-144.[25]Li, X. M., Li, B. X., Zhang, J. et al., Isotopic ages of the Guangdian intrusion in Anhui and dynamometamorphism in the Tan-Lu fault zone, Journal of University of Science and Technology (in Chinese), 1985 (supplement): 254-261.[26]Li. S. G., Hart. S. K., Zheng, S. G. et al., Sm-Nd isotopic age constraint on collision time of North and South blocks, Science in China, Ser. B, 1989, (3): 1391-1400.[27]Li, S. G.. Liu, D. L., Cheng, Y. Z. et al., Formation ages of blueschists in central China, Scientia Geologica Sinica, 1993, 28(1): 21-27.[28]Li. S. G., Li, H. M., Cheng, Y. Z., Chronology of ultra-high- pressure metamorphism of the Dabieshan-Sulu terrane-Zircon U-Pb isotopic system, Science in China, Ser. D (in Chinese), 1997, 27(3): 200-206.[29]Wang, G. Z., Yang, W. R., Time and space pattern of Meso-Cenozoic exhumation of Dabie orogenic belt, tectonochronological evidence, Scientia Geologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1998, 23(5): 461-467.[30]Li, Q., Cheng, W. J., Ma, B. L. et al., Preliminary studies on thermal evolution post collsion of the North China and Yangtze plates, Seismological Geology (in Chinese), 1995, 17(3): 193-203.[31]Engebretson, D. C