Sample records for albite

  1. Effects of Irradiation on Albite's Chemical Durability. (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan; La Plante, Erika Callagon; Krishnan, N M Anoop; Le Pape, Yann; Neithalath, Narayanan; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav


    Albite (NaAlSi 3 O 8 ), a framework silicate of the plagioclase feldspar family and a common constituent of felsic rocks, is often present in the siliceous mineral aggregates that compose concrete. When exposed to radiation (e.g., in the form of neutrons) in nuclear power plants, the crystal structure of albite can undergo significant alterations. These alterations may degrade its chemical durability. Indeed, careful examinations of Ar + -implanted albite carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and molecular dynamics simulations show that albite's crystal structure, upon irradiation, undergoes progressive disordering, resulting in an expansion in its molar volume (i.e., a reduction of density) and a reduction in the connectivity of its atomic network. This loss of network connectivity (i.e., rigidity) results in an enhancement of the aqueous dissolution rate of albite-measured using vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) in alkaline environments-by a factor of 20. This enhancement in the dissolution rate (i.e., reduction in chemical durability) of albite following irradiation has significant impacts on the durability of felsic rocks and of concrete containing them upon their exposure to radiation in nuclear power plant (NPP) environments.

  2. Albitization in the Inkisi Sandstones, Republic of Congo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology of these albitization textures, which are often developed as a peripheral halo composed of pure albite surrounding (with a sharp contact) the practically unaltered potassium feldspar, would argue in favour of in situ albitization. In the same way, the presence of calcium-rich zones sometimes surrounding the ...

  3. In situ viscosity measurements of albite melt under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Funakoshi, K I; Terasaki, H


    The viscosities of albite (NaAlSi sub 3 O sub 8) melt under high pressures have been measured using an x-ray radiography falling sphere method with synchrotron radiation. This method has enabled us to determine the precise sinking velocity directly. Recent experiments of albite melt showed the presence of a viscosity minimum around 5 GPa (Poe et al 1997 Science 276 1245, Mori et al 2000 Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 175 87). We present the results for albite melt up to 5.2 GPa at 1600 and 1700 deg. C. The viscosity minimum is clearly observed to be around 4.5 GPa, and it might be explained not by the change of the compression mechanism in albite melt but by change of the phase itself.

  4. Mineralogy and petrograghy of some tin, lithium and beryllium bearing albite-pegmatites near Doade, Galicia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, B.J.


    The petrography and mineralogy of some Hercynian albite-pegmatites near Doade, Galicia, Spain is described. The mineral assemblage consists of albite, K-feldspar, quartz, muscovite, spodumene, petalite, cassiterite, beryl, columbitetantalite, montebrasite, apatite, eosphorite-childrenite, zircon,

  5. Identification of different generations of albite through microchemical fingerprint by LA-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Lucas E.D.; Rios, Francisco J.; Freitas, Monica E.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Geraldes, Mauro C.; Matos, Evando C. de, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Caetité, BA (Brazil)


    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province located in the south-central part of the Bahia-BR, in the central portion of the San Francisco Craton, is composed of an association of Paleoproterozoic metagranitoids, alkali-gneisses, and albitites (barren and mineralized). Intense action of metamorphic and metasomatic processes characterize this region. These processes culminated in the transformation of granites into gneisses, albitites and U mineralization in some albitites bodies. There are three types of metagranites, Lagoa do Barro (1,77Ga), Juazerinho (1,75Ga) and São Timóteo (1,74Ga). In view of this information, we aimed to verify if the albite formed by metamorphism in the metagranites has the same fingerprint of the albite present in the barren albitites. We used a LA-ICP-MS system for this. The results allowed the determination of albites fingerprint, allowing the differentiation of at least two generations. The Sr / U ratio allows characterizing these generations. The albitites have albite with minimal microchemical variation. The metagranites Lagoa do Barro and São Timóteo has similar generation of albite. The Juazerinho presents two generations of albite, one with similar to São Timóteo, Lagoa do Barro and albitites and another generation with distinctly higher concentrations of Sr and U. These results show that the same event that generated the albitite's albite interfered with the formation of the metagranite's albite, but another event culminated with the formation of the second generation of the albite in the Juazerinho. (author)

  6. Authigenic albite formation due to water-rock interactions - Case study: Magnus oilfield (UK, Northern North Sea) (United States)

    Mu, Nana; Fu, Yunjiao; Schulz, Hans-Martin; van Berk, Wolfgang


    It is the aim of this contribution to test whether organic-inorganic interactions could induce the formation of authigenic albite. This concept and related results are being compared with modelling scenarios which are purely based on inorganic geochemical reactions. In order to unravel the pathway of authigenic albite formation, this paper presents results of a multidisciplinary study from imaging, geochemistry, mineralogy, and hydrogeochemical modelling. The Jurassic reservoir sandstones of the Magnus oilfield (UK, North Sea) were chosen as a test site. Albite occurs with 4-18 wt.% in the Magnus sandstones and its contents vary with depth. However, albite contents increase with increasing K-feldspar contents and decreasing grain size. It occurs in three forms: (1) as lamellae in perthite, (2) as overgrowth on/in corroded feldspar, and, (3) as cloudy replacing albite patches in K-feldspar. The albite overgrowth has the highest chemical purity (100% albite) whilst albite lamellae and replacing albite patches are slightly less pure (containing 1-4% anorthite). Albite appears non-altered, and has a euhedral morphology and dull cathodoluminescence. It commonly co-occurs with corroded K-feldspar grains. The precipitation of diagenetic albite in the Magnus sandstones is attributed to deep burial 80 Ma ago and may have continued until today at temperatures between 90-120 °C. The results of hydrogeochemical modelling offer two possible pathways for the authigenic albite formation: (1) Dissolution of unstable minerals (such as kaolinite and chalcedony) coupled to reduction of ferric iron minerals by products generated during oil generation, migration and degradation; (2) Dissolution of non-end member feldspar, such as K-feldspar with 10% albite, coupled to illite formation can account for trace amounts of albite due to an elevated Na+/K+ activity ratio in the pore water.

  7. Neptunium(V) sorption on quartz and albite in aqueous suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, M.; Leckie, J.O.


    The behavior of neptunium in the subsurface environment is of interest since neptunium isotopes are included in nuclear waste. Previous work investigated the sorption behavior of Np onto α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite), an accessory mineral of the Yucca Mountain repository. The work reported herein involves the much more abundant silicate minerals quartz and albite, and is a logical continuation of the ongoing task. In previous work increased sorption was observed in systems containing hematite and EDTA, a ligand which acts as a surrogate for organic complexing agents. In addition, increased partial pressures of CO 2 are common in many ground waters and the effects of carbonate on sorption of radionuclides have to be studied as well. At concentration levels of 10 -7 M, Np(V) does not adsorb strongly on quartz and albite up to pH values of approximately 9 at solid/solution ratios of 30 to 40 g/l. Significant adsorption (> 20%) occurs on both minerals only at pH > 9. Pretreatment of albite affects the sorption behavior of this mineral at pH > 9, possibly due to the formation of secondary mineral phases at the albite surface. EDTA does not adsorb on quartz at concentrations of 10 -6 M. In the presence of 50 μM EDTA, Np(V) sorption seems to be restricted. EDTA at the 10 -6 M level adsorbs onto albite to an appreciable degree at pH values 3 - is the predominant solution species

  8. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.M.


    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement [fr

  9. Influence of the amount containing spodumene or albite on the sintering of a triaxial ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Camila Felippe de; Strecker, Kurt


    In this study, we investigated the properties of porcelain stoneware, made with albite or spodumene. The amount of the feldspar in the compositions ranged from 15 to 30% by weight. Specimens were pressed and sintered at 1000, 1100, 1200 and 1280 °C with an isotherm of 1 hour at the maximum temperature. The samples were characterized by analysis of the fracture surface using scanning electron microscopy and the vitrification curves, showing both the linear shrinkage and porosity in relation to the sintering temperature. The best results were obtained for samples containing 30% spodumene sintered at 1280 °C, with a linear shrinkage of 9.97% and porosity of 13.28%, while the corresponding results of samples containing 30% albite were 10.13% and 12.17%, respectively. It is concluded that the use of spodumene in the production of porcelain stoneware is viable, resulting in comparable properties. (author)

  10. Study of corrosive-erosive wear behaviour of Al6061/albite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Krishna, M.; Murthy, H.N. Narasimha; Tarachandra, R.; Satyamoorthy, M.; Bhattacharyya, D.


    This investigation analyses the influence of dispersed alumina particles on the wear behaviour of the Al/albite composites in a corrosive environment. The composites were prepared by modified pressure die-casting technique. The corrosive-erosive wear experiments were carried out on a proprietary corrosion-erosion wear tester to study the wear characteristics of the composites. The slurry was made up of water and alumina (size: 90-150 μm, proportion: 0-30 wt.%), while H 2 SO 4 (0.01, 0.1 and 1N) was added to create the corrosive conditions. Experiments were arranged to test the relationships among the corrosive-erosive wear rate, concentrations of H 2 SO 4 and alumina in the slurry, weight percent of albite in the composite, erosion speed and distance. Wear rate varies marginally at low speeds but sharply increases at higher speeds. The corrosive wear rate logarithmically increased with the increasing concentration of the corrosive medium. The effect of abrasive particles and corrosion medium on the wear behaviour of the composite is explained experimentally, theoretically and using scanning electron microscopy

  11. Elaboration and characterization of mullite-anorthite-albite porous ceramics prepared from Algerian kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rouabhia

    Full Text Available Abstract Mullite-anorthite-albite porous ceramic materials were successfully prepared by a solid-state reaction between kaolin clay and two different additives (CaCO3 and Na2CO3. The starting raw material was characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction (XRD and dynamic light scattering techniques. The effect of CaCO3 and Na2CO3 concentration (10 to 70 wt% on structure, morphology and thermal properties of the obtained ceramics was investigated by XRD, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC techniques. The XRD patterns showed that mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2, anorthite (CaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 and albite (Na2O.Al2O3.6SiO2 were the main crystalline phases present in the materials. The morphology investigation revealed the porous texture of obtained ceramics characterized by the presence of sponge-like structure mainly due to the additive decomposition at high temperatures. The DSC results confirm the presence of four temperature regions related to the kaolin thermal transformations and the formation of minerals. The temperature and enthalpy of mineral formation are additive concentration dependent. As a result, the optimal content of additives which allowed the coexistence of the three phases, a sponge-like morphology, and high porosity without cracks corresponded to 15 wt% CaCO3, 15 wt% Na2CO3, and 70 wt% kaolin.

  12. The carbonaceous matter in the uraniferous dequartzified and albitized leucogranite of Saraya (Senegal): an example of superimposed hydrothermal alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouthier, B.


    Two superimposed early hydrothermal alterations have been recognized in the Proterozoic Saraya leucogranite. Successively are described a major dequartzification leading to an episyenite infilled with carbonaceous matter and sulfate during an interruption of the system, succeeded by a mobilization of U and other elements during an albitization. A dolomite filling up followed by a silicopotassic feed-back alteration, close down the system [fr

  13. Geomorphological stability of Permo-Triassic albitized profiles - case study of the Montseny-Guilleries High (NE Iberia) (United States)

    Parcerisa, D.; Casas, L.; Franke, C.; Gomez-Gras, D.; Lacasa, G.; Nunez, J. A.; Thiry, M.


    Massif paleoalteration profiles (≥ 200 m) occur in the upper parts of the Montseny-Guilleries High (NE Catalan Coastal Ranges). The profiles consist of hard albitized-chloritized-hematized facies in the lower part and softer kaolinized-hematized facies in the upper part of the section. Preliminary paleomagnetic data show Triassic ages for both, the albitized and the kaolinized parts, and point to a surficial formation altered under oxidising conditions. Similar paleoalteration profiles have already been described and dated to Triassic ages elsewhere in Europe [Schmitt, 1992; Ricordel et al., 2007; Parcerisa et al., 2009]. These Permian-Triassic alterations are following a succession of different mineral transformations from the top to the base of the profile: 1) Red facies are defined by an increase in the amount and size of haematite crystals leading to the red colour of the rocks. The increase on haematite content is pervasively affecting the whole rock and is accompanied by the kaolinitization of the feldspars. 2) Pink facies: here, the granite shows an uniform pink colouration, which is mainly due to the albitization of the primary Ca-bearing plagioclases, accompanied by a precipitation of minute haematite, sericite, and calcite crystals inside the albite. Additionally primary biotite is fully chloritized. The pink granites are much more resistant to the present-day weathering than the "unaltered" facies at the base of the profile. 3) Spotted facies is characterized by a partial alteration of the rock, which caused a pink-screened aspect to the rock. The alteration developed along the fractures and is less well developed or absent in the non-fractured zones. In the pink-screened facies, the plagioclases are partially albitized and contain numerous hematite inclusions. Biotites are usually almost entirely chloritized. 4) Unaltered facies: These granites are coloured white to greyish, containing plagioclase and K-feldspar that do not show any trace of

  14. Anisotropic surface physicochemical properties of spodumene and albite crystals: Implications for flotation separation (United States)

    Xu, Longhua; Peng, Tiefeng; Tian, Jia; Lu, Zhongyuan; Hu, Yuehua; Sun, Wei


    Aluminosilicate minerals (e.g., spodumene, albite) have complex crystal structures and similar surface chemistries, but they have poor selectivity compared to traditional fatty acid collectors, making flotation separation difficult. Previous research has mainly considered the mineral crystal structure as a whole. In contrast, the surface characteristics at the atomic level and the effects of different crystal interfaces on the flotation behavior have rarely been investigated. This study focuses on investigating the surface anisotropy quantitatively, including the chemical bond characteristics, surface energies, and broken bond densities, using density functional theory and classical theoretical calculations. In addition, the anisotropy of the surface wettability and adsorption characteristics were examined using contact angle, zeta potential, and Fourier-transform infrared measurements. Finally, these surface anisotropies with different flotation behaviors were investigated and interpreted using molecular dynamics simulations, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This systematic research offers new ideas concerning the selective grinding and stage flotation of aluminosilicate minerals based on the crystal characteristics.

  15. The Albite Fusion Curve Re-examined: New Experiments and the Density and Compressibility of NaAlSi3O8 Liquid With Pressure (United States)

    Tenner, T. J.; Lange, R. A.


    Two half-reversals on the melting temperature of high albite (NaAlSi3O8) were determined at 2.3 GPa (1360-1370 °C) and 2.8 GPa (1383-1389 °C) in a piston-cylinder apparatus with NaAlSi3O8 glass as the starting material. A detailed thermal gradient across the sample capsule was mapped, which showed a 3.5 °C gradient across the upper third of the sample capsule and a 30 °C gradient across the lower two-thirds. A calibration against the melting curve of NaCl showed a -5 % pressure correction for the BaCO3/MgO/graphite pressure medium used in these experiments. In addition to the glass-crystal half-reversals, a crystal-glass half-reversal at 2.73 GPa was obtained (1389-1399 °C) using high albite as the starting material. All run products that quenched to a glass were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and were found to contain Boyd and England (1963), but deviate from those of Boettcher et al. (1982). Our new data on the albite fusion curve at high pressure are compared with the calculated melting reaction based on the best available thermodynamic data at one bar (Lange, 2003), and various values for the pressure dependence of liquid compressibility (K' = dKT,0/dP, where KT,0 = 1/βT,0) for NaAlSi3O8 liquid, using the 3rd-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Our phase-equilibrium data match the fusion curve calculated with a liquid value of 10.0 ± 1.0. This allows the density of NaAlSi3O8 liquid to be calculated at 1500 °C and 3.0 GPa (2.551 ± 0.01 g/cm3), with an uncertainty that is ~0.3 %. The results of this study show that the density and compressibility of this viscous and fully polymerized liquid can be calculated to high pressure (~3 GPa) with a remarkably high precision. Owing to the absence of any coordination change in NaAlSi3O8 liquid to ~8 GPa, calculations of its density and compressibility can likely be extended to this pressure.

  16. Geochemical criteria for distinguishing magmatic and metasomatic albite-enrichment in granitoids — examples from the Ta-Li granite Yichun (China) and the Sn-W deposit Tikus (Indonesia) (United States)

    Schwartz, M. O.


    Two examples of albite-rich granitoids of different genesis are discussed: the Ta-Li granite at Yichun (China) exhibits dominantly igneous textures, and the sodium-enrichment zone in biotite granite of the Sn-W deposit at Tikus is characterized by metasomatic textures. The Yichun stock shows a magmatic evolution from biotite-muscovite granite to lepidolite granite with an increase of Na2O and F concentrations and a decrease of CaO and Sr concentrations. The composition of the different granite phases is close to pseudoternary minima in the haplogranite-H2O(-Li-F) system. The composition of the F-rich albitization zone at Tikus deviates strongly from the pseudoternary minima and shows a tendency to become monomineralic (nearly pure albitite). CaO and Sr concentrations are increased or remain unchanged with respect to the unaltered biotite granite at Tikus. Albitization produced by fluid-rock interaction in F-rich systems is characterized by that CaO or Sr released by the breakdown of plagioclase in the granite protolith, are fixed in newly formed fluorite or albite, respectively.

  17. Mega-solubility of quartz resulting from highly alkaline fluids produced by dissolved albite in H2O at deep crustal conditions (United States)

    Makhluf, A. R.; Manning, C. E.


    Models of H2O-rich fluids equilibrated with rocks at high P and T fail to predict the high solubilities observed experimentally, chiefly because thermodynamic data for the most abundant solutes is lacking. We investigated the effects of dissolved albite (Ab) on the solubility of quartz (Qz) at 1.0 GPa and 675-900 °C using a piston-cylinder apparatus to quantify possible mineral buffering or enhancement effects. We found a very large enhancement effect on the solubility of Qz when dissolved in dilute aqueous Ab solutions. SiO2 concentrations are similar to Qz solubility in strongly alkaline KOH solutions. At the highest temperature of 900 °C, we found that the solubility of Qz in 1.0 molal Ab solution increases by of factor of 4.5 over that in pure H2O, which corresponds to 10.7 molal SiO2. The nearly identical solubility of Qz in KOH(aq) and Ab solutions of the same concentration, P, and T, strongly suggest that NaOH(aq) liberated from NaAlSi3O8 in H2O fluids effects SiO2 solubility in a similar manner to that of KOH(aq). The deprotonated silica dimer was found to be a key species responsible for the high solubility of Qz in KOH(aq) and is likely responsible for the high solubility of Qz in Ab solutions. While the binaries Qz-H2O, Ab-H2O, and Qz-Ab are well known at 1.0 GPa, little data exists on the ternary system. The new results help quantify the ternary relations in the Ab-Qz-H2O system, which can be used as a simple model for liquid-vapor immiscibility granitic magmas. In addition, these highly alkaline solute-rich aqueous fluids suggest a mechanism for Ab-Qz metasomatism in subduction zones, such as in the Catalina schist (Bebout and Barton 1993), which provides an alternative to high P-T magmas. Our results show that subduction zone and metasomatic fluids may be much more alkaline and have significantly higher dissolving power than previously thought.

  18. High-pressure phase relations in the composition of albite NaAlSi3O8 constrained by an ab initio and quasi-harmonic Debye model, and their implications (United States)

    Deng, L.; Liu, X.; Liu, H.; Dong, J.


    The high pressure physical-chemical behaviors of feldspar in subducted slab are very important to the geodynamic process in the deep interior of the Earth. Albite (NaAlSi3O8;Ab) is one of the few end members in the feldspar family, and its high-P behavior is obviously a prerequisite to the full understanding of the physical-chemical properties of feldspar at high pressures. So far it has been well accepted that Ab breaks down to the phase assemblage of Jadeite+Stishovite(NaAlSi2O6; Jd, SiO2; St,JS hereafter) at ~9-10 GPa. The JS phase assemblage might be stable up to ~23 GPa, and eventually directly change into the phase assemblage of calcium-ferrite type NaAlSiO4 (Cf) +2St (CS hereafter). However, some independent researches suggest there is an intermediate phase Na-hollandite (Na-Hall; a phase with the composition of NaAlSi3O8 and the structure of hollandite) between JS phase assemblage transition into CS phase assemblage (Liu 1978; Tutti 2007; Sekine and Ahrens, 1992; Beck et al., 2004). Whether Na-Hall is a thermodynamic stable phase under high P-T conditions remains unknown. In this work, phase relations in the composition of albite NaAlSi3O8 at pressures up to 40 GPa were constrained by a theoretical method that combines the ab initio calculation and quasi-harmonic Debyemodel. First, the P-T dependence of the thermodynamic potentials of the individual phase, St, Cf, Jd and the hypothetical Na-Holl were derived. Our results are generally in consistent agreement with available experimental data and previous theoretical predictions. Second, the Gibbs free energy of the hypothetical Na-Holl phase was compared with that of the phase assemblages JS and CS. Our results show that the Na-Holl phase is not a thermodynamically stable phase over the studied P-T conditions of 0-40 GPa and 100-600 K, which rules it out as a possible intermediate phase along the transition path from the JS phase assemblage to CS phase assemblage. Our calculations have predicted that the JS

  19. albitization in the sandstones of inkisi in republic of congo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1: Geographical location and geological setting of the Inkisi Formation [map built from the maps of Alvarez and ... s t. - Co n g o lia n. Formation of lower. Tilloïde. Other authors consider that this formation has undergone a distinctly different history from the underlying ..... mojave Desert, southeastern California: Ph. D. Thesis ...

  20. Determination of chlorite, muscovite, albite and quartz in claystones and clay shales by infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ritz, M.; Vaculíková, Lenka; Plevová, Eva; Matýsek, D.; Mališ, J.


    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2012), s. 511-520 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : claystone and clay shale * infrared spectroscopy * chemometrics * chlorite * muscovite Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kigom granites in central Nigeria are alkali amphibole bearing and peralkaline in nature. They are hypersolvus in character and contain mesoperthite in which the albite (Or1-2) and microcline are present in approximately equal proportions. The albite is fully ordered while K-rich feldspar is dominantly microcline.

  2. Thermo-optical properties of optically stimulated luminescence in feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Johnsen, O.


    Optically stimulated luminescence processes in feldspars are subject to competing thermal enhancement and quenching processes: this article describes the thermal enhancement effects for orthoclase, albite and plagioclase feldspars. It is demonstrated that certain lattice vibrational modes can...

  3. Formation of atoll garnets in the UHP eclogites of the Tso Morari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mallika K Jonnalagadda


    pumpellyite-actinolitefacies/la- wsonite albite facies→blueschist facies→ type C eclogites (Guillot et al. 2008). The reconstruction of the tectonic history of the Tso Morari eclogites proposed below is based on our petrologic study.

  4. Petrography and geochemistry of the primary ore zone of the Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite field, Adola Belt, Southern Ethiopia: Implications for ore genesis and tectonic setting (United States)

    Mohammedyasin, Mohammed Seid; Desta, Zerihun; Getaneh, Worash


    The aim of this work is to evaluate the genesis and tectonic setting of the Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite deposit using petrography and whole-rock geochemical analysis. The samples were analysed for major elements, and trace and rare earth elements by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, respectively. The Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite deposit is controlled by the N-S deep-seated normal fault that allow the emplacement of the granite-pegmatite in the study area. Six main mineral assemblages have been identified: (a) alaskitic granite (quartz + microcline + albite with subordinate muscovite), (b) aplitic layer (quartz + albite), (c) muscovite-quartz-microcline-albite pegmatite, (d) spodumene-microcline-albite pegmatite, partly albitized or greisenized, (e) microcline-albite-green and pink spodumene pegmatite with quartz-microcline block, which is partly albitized and greisenized, and (f) quartz core. This mineralogical zonation is also accompanied by variation in Ta ore concentration and trace and rare earth elements content. The Kenticha granite-pegmatite is strongly differentiated with high SiO2 (72-84 wt %) and enriched with Rb (∼689 ppm), Be (∼196 ppm), Nb (∼129 ppm), Ta (∼92 ppm) and Cs (∼150 ppm) and depleted in Ba and Sr. The rare earth element (REE) patterns of the primary ore zone (below 60 m depth) shows moderate enrichment in light REE ((La/Yb)N = ∼8, and LREE/HREE = ∼9.96) and negative Eu-anomaly (Eu/Eu* = ∼0.4). The whole-rock geochemical data display the Within Plate Granite (WPG) and syn-Collisional Granite (syn-COLG) suites and interpret as its formation is crustal related melting. The mineralogical assemblage, tectonic setting and geochemical signatures implies that the Kenticha rare metal bearing granite pegmatite is formed by partial melting of metasedimentary rocks during post-Gondwana assembly and further tantalite enrichment through later hydrothermal-metasomatic processes.

  5. Sodium storage in deep paleoweathering profiles beneath the Paleozoic-Triassic unconformity (United States)

    Thiry, M.; Parcerisa, D.; Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Schmitt, J.-M.


    A major sodium accumulation has been recognized for long and by numerous authors in the Permo-Triassic salt deposits (Hay et al., 2006). Beside these basinal deposits, important masses of sodium were stored on the continents within deep palaeoweathering profiles in form of albite. Indeed, wide surfaces and huge volumes of granito-gneissic basements of the Hercynian massifs are albitized from North-Africa up to Scandinavia. These albitized rocks have usually been considered as related to tardi-magmatic metasomatic processes (Cathelineau 1986; Petersson and Eliasson 1997). Geometrical arrangement and dating of these alterations point out that these albitizations, or at least a part of them, developed under low temperature subsurface conditions in relation with the Triassic palaeosurface (Ricordel et al., 2007; Parcerisa et al., 2009). Petrology The albitized igneous rocks show a strong alteration with pseudomorphic replacement of the primary plagioclases into albite, replacement of primary biotite by chlorite and minor precipitation of neogenic minerals like albite, chlorite, apatite, haematite, calcite and titanite. Albitized rocks are characterized by their pink coloration due to the presence of minute haematite inclusions in the albite. The development and distribution of the albitization and related alterations above the unaltered basement occurs in three steps that define a vertical profile, up to 100-150 m depth. 1) In the lower part of the profile, albitization occurs within pink-colored patches in the unaltered rock, giving a pink-spotted aspect to the rock. 2) In the middle part of the profile, rocks have an overall pink coloration due to the albitization of the primary Ca-bearing igneous plagioclases. Usually, this facies develops in a pervasive manner, affecting the whole rock, but it may also be restricted to joints, giving a sharp-pink coloration to the fracture wall. 3) Finally, the top of the profile is defined by the same mineral paragenesis as in the

  6. Petrology of blueschist facies metamorphic rocks of the Meliata Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali


    Full Text Available Meliata blueschists originated from basalts, limestones, pelites, psammitic and amphibolite facies basement rocks. Compositionally, the metabasalts have a geochemical signature mostly indicative of a transitional arc-MORB origin, but some mafic rocks having affinity with within plate basalts also present. The mafic blueschists consist of blue amphibole, epidote and albite, rarely also garnet, Na-pyroxene and chloritoid. Apart from phengite and quartz the metapelites and metapsammites contain one or more of the minerals: chloritoid, paragonite, glaucophane, albite, chlorite, occasionally also Na-pyroxene and garnet. Amphibolite facies rocks contain relic garnet, plagioclase and hornblende, the latter two replaced by albite and blue amphibole, respectively. The zoning patterns of blue amphibole, garnet and chloritoid suggest their formation during prograde stage of metamorphism. P-T conditions of meta-morphism are estimated to be about 350-460 oC and 10-12 kbar.

  7. Uruguay geology contributions no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.


    Sedimentary facies: the metasiltites and mela sandstones develop granoblastic textures. The present lepidoblastic textures in flexured bands of seri cite and/or chlorite, a fine qranoblastic matrix made by quartz-feldespaths. The carbonates develop mosaic textures with big crystals of calcites and dolomite, generally elongated following metamorphic foliation (seri cite/chlorite). The quartzites develop qranoblastic textures, with few minerals. Volcanics facies: the basic volcanics presents doleritic intersect al textural, that exist saussuritized plagioclase and albitic diabasa with diopside-augite beaches. Usually the pyroxenes develop poiquilitic textural. Present amphiboles of the acti note series and frequently sphene. Others basic rocks are microlitio porfiric, in intersect al or fluidal matrix, with albite microliters in epi dote-chlorite-acti note criploerislalline ground.The stability relationships of the diferents types of basic metavulcanites show low metamorphic facies, with temperatures under 530-550 grades C, being the most Irequenl association: albite+actinote+chlorite+epidote+opaques- opaques.The clastic faciest are integrated by monogenic breccia with elements of varied vulcanites and porfiric rnicrolitic texture. The matrix is made of line quartz and epidote aggregate. The basic volcanism present hyalo-porfiric textures with saussuritized plagiodase pheno crystals, and quartz in a micro lo criptocrystalline ground. Were also defined rocks with porfiric texture in a piromeritic ground as well as rocks with vacuolar microlitic texture.The clastic facies are made by breccias with sharp elements, with rare cement, integrated by pyroclastic products, The volcanics rocks present retrometamorphism of the phenocrystals and devitrification. The plagioclase are traslormated in fine aggregates of albite epidote. The regional metamorphism minerals are represented by the para genesis: quartz+albite+chlorite+epidote+(seri cite-actinole), subfacies quartz albite

  8. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Gaafar


    Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E–W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm, Hf (51 ppm, Nb (340 ppm, Ta (44 ppm, and U (90 ppm. Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric, geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two main structural trends in the NW- and ENE-directions.

  9. Page 1 Ife.Journaſ of Sciencevol. 9, no. 2 (2007) 203 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okunlola and Akintola: Geochemical features and rare-metal potentials of precambrian pegmatites 207. Eig. 4: Photo micrograph of Sepeteri pegmatite in transmitted light (cross polars), show in g micro cline (M ), albite (alb), and quartz (q). . . . bar scale = 20 m m. ,. Fig. 5: K /R b vs C:s Plot for Sep eteri pegmatite on the ...

  10. Relative contributions of crust and mantle to the origin of the Bijli ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Bijli Rhyolite can be recognized as a poorly sorted pyroclastic deposit, and comprises of phenocrystic K-feldspar + albite ± anorthoclase set in fine-grained micro-fragmental matrix of quartz-feldsparsericite- chlorite-iron-oxide ± calcite. The rocks are largely ... LREE is high (La/Yb ∼20) and HREE 20-30 times chondritic.

  11. Microtextural and mineral chemical analyses of andesite–dacite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the calc-alkaline rock suite of rocks as proxies for magma mixing and mingling processes. Pla- .... reason behind these contrasting suites of rock asso- ...... Mexico; J. Petrol. 41 1397–1411. Tsuchiyama A 1985 Dissolution kinetics of plagioclase in the melt of the system diopside-albite-anorthite, and the origin of dusty ...

  12. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    isotopic methods suggests that no thermal disturbance has occurred in these rocks after their ... of India has earlier been dated by Rb-Sr method and found that it .... The extinction angle on the albite twin law is about 10◦. Pro- nounced bending of the twin lamellae are also observed. At places, the feldspars have been con-.

  13. Basement to surface expressions and critical factors in the genesis of unconformity-related deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Eric


    Two subprojects: 1) Basement to surface expressions of deep mineralization and refinement of critical factors leading to the genesis of unconformity-related uranium deposits; and 2) Recognition of uranium ore system alteration signatures in complex terranes: IOCG vs albite-hosted uranium vs volcanic-hosted uranium.

  14. Formation of Atoll Garnets in the UHP Eclogites of the Tso Morari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    geothermal gradients: zeolite →pumpellyite-actinolitefacies /lawsonite albite facies→blueschist. 1 facies→ type C eclogites (Guillotet al. 2008). The reconstruction of thetectonic history of the. 2. Tso Morari eclogites proposed below is based on our petrologic study and considers the. 3 following constraints: (1) Protoliths for ...

  15. Mineral shock signatures in rocks from Dhala (Mohar) impact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhuparna Roy


    Nov 23, 2017 ... 4.3 X-ray diffractometry. The minerals identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method in the melt breccia as well as the shocked basement granite are quartz, albite, microcline, biotite, hornblende, chlorite, apart from traces of calcite, galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. The crystallographic parameters of quartz ...

  16. U–Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high‐pressure/ low‐temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori : tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.


    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U–Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite–Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds

  17. Chemical and mineralogical characterization and ceramic suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical and mineralogical characterization of raw feldspathic materials from Dschang (Cameroon) was realized by means of X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analyses, optical and scanning electron microscopies, and analytical techniques. It was found that these materials consist of albite (43 ± 3 wt.%), microcline ...

  18. Preliminary results of the investigation of the central galician schist area (prov. of Orense and Pontevedra, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerbeke, van G.L.E.; Hilgen, J.D.; Floor, P.


    Probably Lower Paleozoic quartzo-pelitic schists with bands of feldspathic schists, white and black quartzites, graphite schists and amphibolites have been folded twice. Hercynian regional metamorphism led to porphyroblastic growth of chlorite, albite, biotite, garnet, staurolite mainly between F1

  19. Susceptibility of Granite Rock to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees C and 250 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.; Gill, S., Ecker, L., Butcher, T., Warren, J.


    Granite rock comprising anorthoclase-type albite and quartz as its major phases and biotite mica as the minor one was exposed to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2})/water at 250 C and 13.78 MPa pressure for 104 hours. For comparison purpose, four other rocks, albite, hornblende, diorite, and quartz, also were exposed. During the exposure of granite, ionic carbonic acid, known as the wet carbonation reactant, preferentially reacted with anorthoclase-type albite and biotite, rather than with quartz. The susceptibility of biotite to wet carbonation was higher than that of anorthoclase-type albite. All the carbonation by-products of anorthoclase-type albite were amorphous phases including Na- and K-carbonates, a kaolinite clay-like compound, and silicon dioxide, while wet carbonation converted biotite into potassium aluminum silicate, siderite, and magnesite in crystalline phases and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Three of these reaction by-products, Na- and K-carbonates and HF, were highly soluble in water. Correspondingly, the carbonated top surface layer, about 1.27 mm thick as carbonation depth, developed porous microstructure with numerous large voids, some of which have a size of {>=} 10 {mu}m, reflecting the erosion of granite by the leaching of these water-soluble reaction by-products. Comparing with this carbonation depth, its depth of other minerals was considerable lower, particularly, for hornblende and diorite with 0.07 and 0.02 mm, while no carbonate compound was detected in quartz. The major factor governing these low carbonation depths in these rocks was the formation of water-insensitive scale-like carbonate by-products such as calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), and magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). Their formation within the superficial layer of these minerals served as protective barrier layer that inhibits and retards further carbonation of fresh underlying minerals, even if the exposure time was extended. Thus, the coverage by this barrier layer

  20. Fluid inclusions in minerals associated to uranium mineralization in Jazida do Engenho (anomaly 09), Lagoa Real uranium province - Bahia, Brazil; Inclusoes fluidas nos minerais associados a mineralizacao uranifera da Jazida do Engenho (Anomalia 09), provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Aurelio da Silva de


    The Engenho deposit (anomaly 09) is south-eastern from Cachoeira Mine (anomaly 13), in the northern part of the Province. The uranium mineralization is associated to 'albitites' (over 70% of albite/oligoclase). Epidosites with uranium may also occur. The 'albitite' main minerals are pyroxene, gamet, albite/oligoclase feldspar, amphibole and biotite. Pyroxene, gamet, plagioclase, titanite and epidote are the minerals associated to the uranium mineralization. The fluids related to pyroxene, gamet and epidote are aqueous-saline, primary and with no carbonic phases and are constant, with small variations. They all present medium to high salinity (14 to 18wt% NaCl eq.), the higher values being related to pyroxene and the lower ones related to gamet and epidote. The fluids associated to albite/oligoclase, although aqua-saline and with no carbonic phases, show salinities much lower than in pyroxene, gamet and epidote, suggesting a intense dilution process indicating dilution toward the later minerals phases. The data suggest the pyroxene formation process occurring under a 3,5 kbar pressure condition which corresponds to approximately 10km depth. The dispersion on Th in albites, due probably to the overheating and non elastic increase in volume, precluded a reliable pressure calculation. The IF's microscopy m plagioclase gneiss (albitites host-rocks) suggests the probability of primary carbonic fluids associated to these minerals. The fluids with CO{sub 2} showed in the gneiss maybe also be present in the albitites, probably as late or intergranular fluids. This assumption is based on the fact that signs of carbonic gases were shown during crushing tests. These tendencies suggest the occurrence of two albitization phases in this Lagoa Real area: one associated to a fluid composed by H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + salts (in the gneiss host) and another (in the albitite) formed by an aqueous-saline phase. The data indicate the Brasiliano event as a thermal

  1. Fluid inclusions in minerals associated to uranium mineralization in Jazida do Engenho (anomaly 09), Lagoa Real uranium province - Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Aurelio da Silva de


    The Engenho deposit (anomaly 09) is south-eastern from Cachoeira Mine (anomaly 13), in the northern part of the Province. The uranium mineralization is associated to 'albitites' (over 70% of albite/oligoclase). Epidosites with uranium may also occur. The 'albitite' main minerals are pyroxene, gamet, albite/oligoclase feldspar, amphibole and biotite. Pyroxene, gamet, plagioclase, titanite and epidote are the minerals associated to the uranium mineralization. The fluids related to pyroxene, gamet and epidote are aqueous-saline, primary and with no carbonic phases and are constant, with small variations. They all present medium to high salinity (14 to 18wt% NaCl eq.), the higher values being related to pyroxene and the lower ones related to gamet and epidote. The fluids associated to albite/oligoclase, although aqua-saline and with no carbonic phases, show salinities much lower than in pyroxene, gamet and epidote, suggesting a intense dilution process indicating dilution toward the later minerals phases. The data suggest the pyroxene formation process occurring under a 3,5 kbar pressure condition which corresponds to approximately 10km depth. The dispersion on Th in albites, due probably to the overheating and non elastic increase in volume, precluded a reliable pressure calculation. The IF's microscopy m plagioclase gneiss (albitites host-rocks) suggests the probability of primary carbonic fluids associated to these minerals. The fluids with CO 2 showed in the gneiss maybe also be present in the albitites, probably as late or intergranular fluids. This assumption is based on the fact that signs of carbonic gases were shown during crushing tests. These tendencies suggest the occurrence of two albitization phases in this Lagoa Real area: one associated to a fluid composed by H 2 O + CO 2 + salts (in the gneiss host) and another (in the albitite) formed by an aqueous-saline phase. The data indicate the Brasiliano event as a thermal event without a predominant fluid

  2. Petrology and P-T condition of white mica-chlorite schists from Vlasina series - Surdulica, SE Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasković Nada J.


    Full Text Available This paper reports structural, textural, petrological and metamorphic data from Vlasina Series of greenschists rocks (as part of the Upper Complex of the Serbo-Macedonian Massif within which group of white mica-chlorite schist are extensively developed. This group of rocks made the ground of series in which various types of green rocks appear as a lenses and small irregular mass, rarely as dykes. Other features, that characterize these rocks, are the common occurrence of albite and garnet (subordinate porphyroblasts, as well as development of quartz segregation. Group of white mica-chlorite schist makes about 75 vol. % of Series. Among them, according to mode and mineral composition, the following schist varieties are distinguished: albite-white mica-chlorite (±garnet, white mica-chlorite (±garnet, albite-white mica, sericite-chlorite (±albite, graphite-sericite as well as phyllites and calcshists. Their metamorphic evolution is characterized by the development of a metamorphic episode during Carboniferous - c. 350-330 Ma (Milovanović et al., 1988 of low to medium P and T. The mineral assemblages of first phase (low PT is preserved as a very thin Si=S1 foliation included in albite porphyroblast or as small polygonal arcs of S1 in S2 foliation. Textural, mineralogical and petrological data indicate that original volcanoclastic-sedimentary series was transformed during three phase of deformation and metamorphism in the temperature range from 320-415°C, locally 450-500°C and pressures 3 to 5 kbar.

  3. Carboniferous-Permian tectonic transition envisaged in two magmatic episodes at the Kuruer Cu-Au deposit, Western Tianshan (NW China) (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Li, Nuo; Qi, Nan; Guo, Jian-Ping; Chen, Yan-Jing


    The Western Tianshan in NW China is one of the most important gold provinces in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The recently discovered Kuruer Cu-Au deposit has been interpreted to represent a transition from high-sulfidation epithermal to porphyry mineralization system. In this study, we present new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages for the many magmatic rock types at Kuruer, including the Dahalajunshan Formation andesitic tuff (333.2 ± 1.6 Ma), diorite porphyry (269.7 ± 2.0 Ma), slightly-altered (264.4 ± 2.6 Ma) and intensively-altered (270.5 ± 2.5 Ma) albite porphyry. These ages reveal two distinct magmatic episodes: The Early Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation (wall rocks) andesitic tuff samples contain narrow ranges of SiO2 (60.29-61.28 wt.%), TiO2 (0.96-0.98 wt.%), Al2O3 (16.55-16.57 wt.%) and Fe2O3T (5.36-5.57 wt.%). The tuff is characterized by LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion, as well as LREE/HREE enrichment ((La/Yb)N = 8.31-8.76) and negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.64-0.76). Zircon εHf (t) values are 5.4-8.2, and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) are 821-1016 Ma, indicating partial melting of a moderately depleted mantle wedge with Precambrian continental crustal input. The ore-forming Middle Permian diorite porphyry and (quartz) albite porphyry have variable major oxide compositions (e.g., SiO2 = 53.09-53.12 wt.% for the diorite porphyry, 70.84-78.03 wt.% for the albite porphyry, and 74.07-75.03 wt.% for the quartz albite porphyry) but similar chondrite-normalized REE and primitive mantle-normalized multi-element patterns. These porphyries display LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion, as well as elevated LREE/HREE enrichment and negative Eu anomalies. The positive zircon εHf(t) values (11.7-15.9 for the diorite porphyry, 8.9-14.9 for the albite porphyry) and young two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) (282-542 Ma for the diorite porphyry, 337-717 Ma for the albite porphyry) indicate a major juvenile continental crustal involvement. We propose that the

  4. Effect of pressure on the short-range structure and speciation of carbon in alkali silicate and aluminosilicate glasses and melts at high pressure up to 8 GPa: 13C, 27Al, 17O and 29Si solid-state NMR study (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Fei, Yingwei; Lee, Sung Keun


    Despite the pioneering efforts to explore the nature of carbon in carbon-bearing silicate melts under compression, experimental data for the speciation and the solubility of carbon in silicate melts above 4 GPa have not been reported. Here, we explore the speciation of carbon and pressure-induced changes in network structures of carbon-bearing silicate (Na2O-3SiO2, NS3) and sodium aluminosilicate (NaAlSi3O8, albite) glasses quenched from melts at high pressure up to 8 GPa using multi-nuclear solid-state NMR. The 27Al triple quantum (3Q) MAS NMR spectra for carbon-bearing albite melts revealed the pressure-induced increase in the topological disorder around 4 coordinated Al ([4]Al) without forming [5,6]Al. These structural changes are similar to those in volatile-free albite melts at high pressure, indicating that the addition of CO2 in silicate melts may not induce any additional increase in the topological disorder around Al at high pressure. 13C MAS NMR spectra for carbon-bearing albite melts show multiple carbonate species, including [4]Si(CO3)[4]Si, [4]Si(CO3)[4]Al, [4]Al(CO3)[4]Al, and free CO32-. The fraction of [4]Si(CO3)[4]Al increases with increasing pressure, while those of other bridging carbonate species decrease, indicating that the addition of CO2 may enhance mixing of Si and Al at high pressure. A noticeable change is not observed for 29Si NMR spectra for the carbon-bearing albite glasses with varying pressure at 1.5-6 GPa. These NMR results confirm that the densification mechanisms established for fluid-free, polymerized aluminosilicate melts can be applied to the carbon-bearing albite melts at high pressure. In contrast, the 29Si MAS NMR spectra for partially depolymerized, carbon-bearing NS3 glasses show that the fraction of [5,6]Si increases with increasing pressure at the expense of Q3 species ([4]Si species with one non-bridging oxygen as the nearest neighbor). The pressure-induced increase in topological disorder around Si is evident from an


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesnica Garašić


    Full Text Available Mineral relationships and their chemistry were studied in some basic magmatic rocks of Banija ophiolite complex. On the basis of mineral and structural characteristics three kind of rocks are distinguished: metadiabase I (being characterized by secondary amphibole, metadiabase II (being characterized by secondary albite and spilite. Detailed chemistry of all mineral phases, specially of zoned clinopyroxenes and zoned amphiboles is given. The black opaque phases consist of different Fe-Ti-Mn oxides (ilmenite, Mn-ilmenite, magnetite, Ti-magnetite, ferropseudobrookite being often at the rims replaced by Al- and Fe-rich titanite. All rocks are hydrothermally metamorphosed whereby amphibole replaced partly or completely clinopyroxene and plagioclase was altered in albite, prehnite, pumpellyite and/or sericite. Secondary chlorite occurs too. The whole rock chemistry of each studied rock corresponds to tholeiitic basalts.

  6. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Eocene Helete formation , Adiyaman, Turkey (United States)

    Choi, J.; Lee, I.; Yildirim, E.


    Helete formation is located at Adiyaman, Turkey which is in the Alpine-Himalayan orogeny belt. Helete formation is represented by andesitic, basaltic and gabbroic rocks cut by localized felsic intrusions and overlain by open-marine Nummulitic carbonate sediments. Electron microprobe analyses were conducted for 15 rocks samples of Helete formation. These rock samples are named as basalt, andesite, gabbro, diorite, dacite, and granite. Basalt and andesite samples are composed of clinopyroxene(augite), plagioclase(Ab98-96), carbonate, and hyaline. Gabbro samples have wide range of plagioclase composition from anorthite to albite(Ab92-16), and other minerals like clinopyroxene(augite) and amphibole(hornblende and actinolite). Diabase samples consist of epidote group minerals and sphene with plagioclase(Ab80), pyroxene and hornblende. Dacite samples are composed of dolomite and quartz. Granite samples are composed of quartz, chlorite, and plagioclase which range from albite to oligoclase in composition (Ab98-89).

  7. Utilization of plastic detectors in autoradiographic studies of radioactive minerals from the Lagoa Real uranium Province, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, P.M.C.


    A short account on an autoradiographic technique using plastic detectors, it's methodology, application and results is presented. With this technique the distribution of radioactive minerals in rocks can be studied in detail. As radioactive source for this study, samples mineralized in uraninite and/or pitchblende were used. The utilized detectors were the CR-39 (a polymer plate) and films of celulose nitrate: CA-80-15 and CN-85. The mineralization is associated to mafics (amphibole, pyroxene, biotite, garnet, etc.) and to plagioclase (albite or albite-oligoclase), occurring as small inclusions and also in microfractures, cleavages and grain boundaries, mainly among plagioclase crystals which occur close to or practically touching mafic minerals. (Author) [pt

  8. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins (United States)

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, Russell G.; Evans, Karl V.; Kunk, Michael J.; Pillers, Renee M.


    The Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) ore deposits of the Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, have previously been classified as Besshi-type VMS, sedex, and IOCG deposits within an intact stratigraphic section. New studies indicate that, across the district, mineralization was introduced into the country rocks as a series of structurally controlled vein and alteration systems. Quartz-rich and biotite-rich veins (and alteration zones) and minor albite and siderite veinlets maintain consistent order and sulfide mineral associations across the district. Both early and late quartz veins contain chalcopyrite and pyrite, whereas intermediate-stage tourmaline-biotite veins host the cobaltite. Barren early and late albite and late carbonate (generally siderite) form veins or are included in the quartz veins. REE minerals, principally monazite, allanite, and xenotime, are associated with both tourmaline-biotite and late quartz veins. The veins are in mineralized intervals along axial planar cleavage, intrafolial foliation, and shears.

  9. Radioactivity and radon emanation fraction of the granites sampled at Misasa and Badgastein. (United States)

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Ishimori, Yuu; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori


    The chemical composition was analyzed and the radioactivity, radon exhalation rate and emanation fraction were measured to investigate the characteristics of the granites sampled at Misasa and Badgastein, world famous for radon therapy. The Misasa granite was probably composed of quartz, albite and microcline. The Badgastein granite was probably composed of quartz and muscovite. The radon exhalation rates and emanation fractions of the Misasa granite were much higher than those of the Badgastein granite, regardless of the (226)Ra activity concentrations.

  10. Changes in the species composition of the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet under the impact of biological preparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites (United States)

    Pusenkova, L. I.; Il'yasova, E. Yu.; Lastochkina, O. V.; Maksimov, I. V.; Leonova, S. A.


    The species structure of the mycobiota in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet in ontogenesis was studied. The treatment of the plants with biopreparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites (Phytosporin-M, Vitaplan, and Albit) were shown to create conditions for the colonization of the plant rhizosphere and phyllosphere by bacteria-antagonists displacing phytopathogenic microorganisms and stimulating plant growth, which induces the transformation of the microbial cenosis.

  11. The study of the mineralogy and rare earth elements behavior in the hydrothermal alteration zones of the Astaneh granitoid massif (SW Arak, Markazi province, Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeily, D.; Afshooni, S. Z.; Valizadeh, M. V.


    The Astaneh granitoid massif is located about 40 km to Arak city, central Iran, is a part of Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone. These intrusive rocks which are mainly composed of gronodioritic rocks, widely affected under hydrothermal alteration. The alteration zones, on the basis of field studies and mineralogy as well as the study of the REE behavior, are investigated in this paper. Eight alteration zones including phyllic (sericitic) with quartz, sericite and pyrite; chloritic with quartz, sericite and chlorite; propylitic with chlorite, epidot, calcite and albite; argillic with clay minerals (chlorite and illite); silicic with abundant quartz; albitic with albite, chlorite and quartz; hematitisation with hematite, Fe-carbonates (ankerite and siderite) and tourmalinisation with tourmaline (dravite) are identified. The results demonstrate notable differences in the REE behavior in the different alteration zones. Accordingly, comparison with the fresh rocks, in the phyllic (sericitic) alteration, LREE are enriched, but HREE, except Yb which enriched, unchanged. Also in chloritic alteration zone, LREEs are depleted, but HREEs represent different behaviors. In the argillic and propylitic alteration zones, all REE are depleted, but compared with HREE, the LREE represent more depletion. In the silicic and hematitisation alteration zones, compared with HREE, the LREE are enriched. Finally, in the albitic and tourmalinisation alteration zones all REE are depleted. These features indicate that the behavior of REE in the hydrothermal alteration zones of the Astaneh granitoid rocks is mainly controlled by p H, availability of complexing ions in the fluid as well as the presence of secondary phases as host REE minerals

  12. Characterization and classification of clay minerals for potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clay samples composed of albite (5-16.7%), kaolinite (11.4-36.2%), microcline (15.2-35.3%), quartz (24.3-68.1%), hornblende (7.6% in samples from Ngamwa only), and other mineral impurities in small amounts. Ngamwa clayey materials consist of high impurities of chemical oxides such as TiO2, MnO, MgO and ...

  13. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Bijli Rhyolite can be recognized as a poorly sorted pyroclastic deposit, and comprises of phenocrystic K-feldspar + albite ± anorthoclase set in fine-grained micro-fragmental matrix of quartz-feldsparsericite- chlorite-iron-oxide ± calcite. The rocks are largely metaluminous with high SiO2, Na2O+ KO, Fe/Mg, Ga/Al, Zr, Ta, ...

  14. A-thermal elastic behavior of silicate glasses. (United States)

    Rabia, Mohammed Kamel; Degioanni, Simon; Martinet, Christine; Le Brusq, Jacques; Champagnon, Bernard; Vouagner, Dominique


    Depending on the composition of silicate glasses, their elastic moduli can increase or decrease as function of the temperature. Studying the Brillouin frequency shift of these glasses versus temperature allows the a-thermal composition corresponding to an intermediate glass to be determined. In an intermediate glass, the elastic moduli are independent of the temperature over a large temperature range. For sodium alumino-silicate glasses, the a-thermal composition is close to the albite glass (NaAlSi3O8). The structural origin of this property is studied by in situ high temperature Raman scattering. The structure of the intermediate albite glass and of silica are compared at different temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C. When the temperature increases, it is shown that the high frequency shift of the main band at 440 cm(-1) in silica is a consequence of the cristobalite-like alpha-beta transformation of 6-membered rings. This effect is stronger in silica than bond elongation (anharmonic effects). As a consequence, the elastic moduli of silica increase as the temperature increases. In the albite glass, the substitution of 25% of Si(4+) ions by Al(3+) and Na(+) ions decreases the proportion of SiO2 6-membered rings responsible for the silica anomaly. The effects of the silica anomaly balance the anharmonicity in albite glass and give rise to an intermediate a-thermal glass. Different networks, formers or modifiers, can be added to produce different a-thermal glasses with useful mechanical or chemical properties.

  15. Mid-crustal uranium and rare metal mineralisation in the Mount Isa Inlier: a genetic model for formation of orogenic uranium deposits


    McGloin, Matthew


    Uranium mineralisation near Mount Isa in northwest Queensland, Australia, is widespread yet poorly understood. Within this region in the Western Fold Belt, one hundred and ninety uranium-rare metal occurrences are known. This uranium mineralisation is similar to worldwide examples of albitite-hosted or sodium-metasomatic uranium deposits, which host albite-carbonate ore zones enriched in incompatible elements. Various metal sources and ore-forming processes have been sugg...

  16. Optimization Mechanism of Additive of Composite Sodium Salts on Vanadium Oxidation of Siliceous Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlong Yang


    Full Text Available The promotion of strengthening of vanadium oxidation by compound additive of sodium salts is described from the changes of the vanadium valence state and mineral phase. The results are as follows: during the roasting process, dehydroxy mica converts to the melt, which the composite system mainly contains Na, K, Al, Si, and O. Under the action of NaCl-Na2CO3, ion exchange between sodium and potassium promotes the crystallization of albite from the melt. Na2CO3 enhances the reactivity of quartz. The albite reacts with activated quartz, which promotes the migration of sodium ions and the generation of vanadate. Under the action of NaCl-Na2SO4, The crystallization of spinel in the melt is promoted and that of the albite is inhibited. Under the action of Na2SO4-Na2CO3, the permeability of ore is deteriorated. The ion exchange process and the vanadium oxidation is inhibited from the melt. The composite additive with three sodium salts shows a stronger promoting effect on vanadium oxidation. The contribution of NaCl and Na2CO3 to V(V in roasted slag was the highest among three sodium salts. With a certain ratio of NaCl and Na2CO3, the low content of Na2SO4 did not significantly affect the V(V content in roasted slag.

  17. Effects of heat-flow and hydrothermal fluids from volcanic intrusions on authigenic mineralization in sandstone formations

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    Wolela Ahmed


    Full Text Available Volcanic intrusions and hydrothermal activity have modified the diagenetic minerals. In the Ulster Basin, UK, most of the authigenic mineralization in the Permo-Triassic sandstones pre-dated tertiary volcanic intrusions. The hydrothermal fluids and heat-flow from the volcanic intrusions did not affect quartz and feldspar overgrowths. However, clay mineral-transformation, illite-smectite to illite and chlorite was documented near the volcanic intrusions. Abundant actinolite, illite, chlorite, albite and laumontite cementation of the sand grains were also documented near the volcanic intrusions. The abundance of these cementing minerals decreases away from the volcanic intrusions.In the Hartford Basin, USA, the emplacement of the volcanic intrusions took place simultaneous with sedimentation. The heat-flow from the volcanic intrusions and hydrothermal activity related to the volcanics modified the texture of authigenic minerals. Microcrystalline mosaic albite and quartz developed rather than overgrowths and crystals near the intrusions. Chlorite clumps and masses were also documented with microcrystalline mosaic albite and quartz. These features are localized near the basaltic intrusions. Laumontite is also documented near the volcanic intrusions. The reservoir characteristics of the studied sandstone formations are highly affected by the volcanic and hydrothermal fluids in the Hartford and the Ulster Basin. The porosity dropped from 27.4 to zero percent and permeability from 1350 mD to 1 mD.

  18. Influence of feldspar containing lithium in the sintering of triaxial ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Camila Felippe de; Strecker, Kurt


    In this work, the properties of a ceramic material based on a triaxial mass composed of clay, quartz and 15 to 30% feldspar, albite or spodumene, has been investigated. Specimen were prepared by uniaxial pressing under 28.5MPa and sintering at temperatures of 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C, for 1h. The samples were characterized by their linear shrinkage, apparent porosity, apparent density and flexural strength, as well as analysis of the microstructure. The best results were obtained for samples prepared with 30% spodumene and sintered at 1200 deg C, with a shrinkage of 6.4%, density of 2.01g/cm 3 , porosity of 14.3% and flexural strength of 13.4MPa, while samples prepared with albite exhibited shrinkage of 5.8%, density of 1.9g/cm 3 , porosity of 18.9% and strength of 9.8MPa. Therefore, by the substitution of albite by spodumene in the ceramic triaxial mass, lower sintering temperatures may be employed, thus reducing production costs by the lesser energy consumption. (author)(

  19. A mineralogical investigation of samples from the Eenzaamheid cobalt-molybdenum deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nooy, C.D.


    The cobalt-molybdenum deposit on the farm Eenzaamheid, near Balmoral, is situated in gabbroic dykes in the higly altered quartzites and shales of the Pretoria beds in the Transvaal Supergroup. The mineralogy of both unmineralized and mineralized samples from the deposit was studied. The main minerals in the host rock are tremolite, albite, quartz and prehnite. Safflorite and molybdenite are the main ore minerals, with minor cobaltite, niccolite, and gersdorffite. The mineralization is associated with quartz- and albite-rich host rocks, whereas the tremolite- and albite-rich rocks are usually unmineralized. A cobalt content of 1,76 per cent and a molybdenum content of 0,20 per cent were determined by the chemical analysis of a representative sample. Owing to the coarse-grained and interstitial nature of the ore minerals, the ore should be free milling, and liberation is expected at a fairly coarse grain size (about 0,5 mm). The cobalt minerals and the molybdenite should be easily concentrated by gravity methods and flotation methods respectively. 18 figs., 4 tabs., 3 refs

  20. Low magnification EBSD mapping of texture distribution in a fine-grained matrix (United States)

    Gardner, Joseph; Mariani, Elisabetta; Wheeler, John


    The study of texture (CPO) in rocks is often restricted to individual phases within a given sample or specific area of said sample. Large scale EBSD mapping of the matrix of a greenschist facies albite mylonite has shown that an overall significant CPO within albite grains is strongly domainal, and each domain has a unique CPO that is independent of both common slip systems in plagioclase and the specimen geometry (i.e. foliation and lineation). Observational evidence suggests the metamorphic breakdown of plagioclase to albite (Ab) plus a Ca-bearing phase (clinozoisite, Cz) has produced a two phase mixture in which each phase has a contrasting solubility. New grains of albite are thought to nucleate epitaxially from original plagioclase as a reaction front passes through parent grains. A pseudomorphic region of Ab plus Cz after an original plagioclase crystal, protected from intense deformation by enclosure in a cm-scale augite clast, gives insight into pre-deformation daughter grain distributions. The albite in the region inherits a strong CPO and 180° misorientation peak from a relict twin pattern due to epitaxial growth while clinozoisite is randomly distributed and oriented (despite some grains nucleating from the plagioclase parent twin boundary). In the deformed matrix, daughter Ab is seen to be the more mobile phase, having undergone obvious dissolution, transport and reprecipitation into fractures and pressure shadows, whereas Cz grains are relatively insoluble and rotate into parallelism with the foliation, forming bands that anastamose around Cpx porphyroclasts. Despite this modification, albite in the matrix retains significant CPOs that comprise distinct domains with sharp boundaries. A 180° misorientation peak thought to be a signature of twinning inherited from parent plagioclase is also observed in each domain. Why a CPO should be preserved under these conditions (contrary to our traditional understanding that CPOs are a signature of dislocation

  1. Microchemistry, geochemistry and geochronology of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province (BA) magmatic association: petrological and evolutionary significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Lucas Eustaquio Dias


    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province (PULR) is located in the center-south of the Bahia State, in the central part of Sao Francisco Craton and consists of an association of Paleoproterozoic meta-granites, alkali-gneiss, albitites, meta-leucodiorite and charnockites. This work has as objective the studies of the magmatic association, trying to understand its petrological and evolutionary meaning. For this purpose, representative bodies were sampled in order to develop unpublished studies of litogeochemistry, isotopes, geochronology and mineral chemistry. These analyzes were performed in: different preserved granitoid facies (Lagoa do Barro, Sao Timoteo, Juazeirinho and late pegmatitic phases), the meta-leucodiorites and charnockite. The data obtained using several modern methodologies, such as geochronology and mineral chemistry by LA-ICP-MS, provided results that allowed the characterization of two magmatic lithologies not described in the literature (Juazeirinho granite e late pegmatitic phases), and also a lithology preliminarily described (Lagoa do Barro granite). Moreover, these data contributed to elucidate the origin and meaning of the leucodiorite and charnoquito varieties, and made it possible to verify new compositional and mineral chemistry tendencies of Sao Timoteo granite. The data presented show that the studied granites were affected by albititization events (tardi or post-magmatic), which have different micro-chemical characteristics from the processes of albite formation related to the non-mineralized albitites bodies. Three albititization events were identified: a) An event that affected the granites characterized by the formation of albite with Rb and U, (b) Another event related to fluids associated with late pegmatitic bodies that formed albite with high levels of U, Rb and Ba, and partially affected the granites of the next pegmatoids portions; and (c) a final albititization event that caused the formation of the albite gneiss bodies, with albite

  2. Microchemistry, geochemistry and geochronology of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province (BA) magmatic association: petrological and evolutionary significance; Microquimica, geoquimica e geocronologia da associacao magmatica da provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real, BA: significado petrologico e evolutivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Lucas Eustaquio Dias


    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province (PULR) is located in the center-south of the Bahia State, in the central part of Sao Francisco Craton and consists of an association of Paleoproterozoic meta-granites, alkali-gneiss, albitites, meta-leucodiorite and charnockites. This work has as objective the studies of the magmatic association, trying to understand its petrological and evolutionary meaning. For this purpose, representative bodies were sampled in order to develop unpublished studies of litogeochemistry, isotopes, geochronology and mineral chemistry. These analyzes were performed in: different preserved granitoid facies (Lagoa do Barro, Sao Timoteo, Juazeirinho and late pegmatitic phases), the meta-leucodiorites and charnockite. The data obtained using several modern methodologies, such as geochronology and mineral chemistry by LA-ICP-MS, provided results that allowed the characterization of two magmatic lithologies not described in the literature (Juazeirinho granite e late pegmatitic phases), and also a lithology preliminarily described (Lagoa do Barro granite). Moreover, these data contributed to elucidate the origin and meaning of the leucodiorite and charnoquito varieties, and made it possible to verify new compositional and mineral chemistry tendencies of Sao Timoteo granite. The data presented show that the studied granites were affected by albititization events (tardi or post-magmatic), which have different micro-chemical characteristics from the processes of albite formation related to the non-mineralized albitites bodies. Three albititization events were identified: a) An event that affected the granites characterized by the formation of albite with Rb and U, (b) Another event related to fluids associated with late pegmatitic bodies that formed albite with high levels of U, Rb and Ba, and partially affected the granites of the next pegmatoids portions; and (c) a final albititization event that caused the formation of the albite gneiss bodies, with albite

  3. Origen de arcillas alumínicas en horizontes de alteración de materiales graníticos del borde sur de la sierra de Guadarrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Patino, M. T.


    Full Text Available Three weathering profiles of granitic rocks and two arkoses in the NW of Madrid Province have been studied. Rocks are granodiorites and adamellites with albites showing variable degrees of sericitization, and no-weathered potassic feldspars. Clay fraction in the weathered horizons from these rocks displays high content in beidellite, and minor amounts of illite and 7 Ǻ-halloysite. On the other hand, beidellite, illite and well crystallized kaolinite are clay minerals in the arkosic rocks. Microfabric characteristics from SEM studies show abundant weathered albites with clean surfaces and formation of beidellite in all areas of the samples. Moreover, spatial relations between albite and beidellite are not observed. In pedochemical weathering of albite, sodium from this mineral should be exchanged with protons from soil solution with very quick kinetics. This initial alkalinization produces an increase in the silica solubility released from albite network. In these environments, a continued contact between weathering solution and albite causes a silica and alumina enrichment and beidellite or 7 Ǻ-halloysite precipitation. Microclimatic variations in weathering environment may cause fluctuations in silica and alumina activities with resultant pH changes. So, when silica activities are high, beidellite neoformation is favoured; on the contrary, 7 Ǻ-halloysite is precipitated.Se han estudiado tres perfiles de alteración de rocas graníticas y dos muestras de arcosas en la zona NO de la provincia de Madrid. Las rocas, clasificadas como granodioritas y adamellitas, presentan albitas con sericitización variable, y escasos feldespatos potásicos muy poco alterados. La fracción arcilla de los horizontes de alteración de estas rocas presenta un alto contenido en beidellita, así como porcentajes menores de ilita y haloisita-7Ǻ. Por otra parte, los minerales de la arcilla presentes en las arcosas son ilita, beidellita y caolinita bien

  4. Hydrothermal alteration and mass exchange in the hornblende latite porphyry, Rico, Colorado (United States)

    Larson, P.B.; Cunningham, C.G.; Naeser, C.W.


    The Rico paleothermal anomaly, southwestern Colorado, records the effects of a large hydrothermal system that was active at 4 Ma. This hydrothermal system produced the deep Silver Creek stockwork Mo deposit, which formed above the anomaly's heat source, and shallower base and precious-metal vein and replacement deposits. A 65 Ma hornblende latite porphyry is present as widespread sills throughout the area and provided a homogenous material that recorded the effects of the hydrothermal system up to 8 km from the center. Hydrothermal alteration in the latite can be divided into a proximal facies which consists of two assemblages, quartz-illite-calcite and chlorite-epidote, and a distal facies which consists of a distinct propylitic assemblage. Temperatures were gradational vertically and laterally in the anomaly, and decreased away from the centra heat source. A convective hydrothermal plume, 3 km wide and at least 2 km high, was present above the stock-work molybdenum deposit and consisted of upwelling, high-temperature fluids that produced the proximal alteration facies. Distal facies alteration was produced by shallower cooler fluids. The most important shallow base and precious-metal vein deposits in the Rico district are at or close to the boundary of the thermal plume. Latite within the plume had a large loss of Na2O, large addition of CaO, and variable SiO2 exchante. Distal propylitized latite samples lost small amounts of Na2O and CaO and exchanged minor variable amounts of SiO2. The edge of the plume is marked by steep Na2O exchange gradients. Na2O exchange throughout the paleothermal anomaly was controlled by the reaction of the albite components in primary plagioclase and alkali feldspars. Initial feldspar alteration in the distal facies was dominated by reaction of the plagioclase, and the initial molar ratio of reactants (alkali feldspar albite component to plagioclase albite component) was 0.35. This ratio of the moles of plagioclase to alkali feldspar

  5. Clay mineralogy of the Boda Claystone Formation (Mecsek Mts., SW Hungary) (United States)

    Németh, Tibor; Máthé, Zoltán; Pekker, Péter; Dódony, István; Kovács-Kis, Viktória; Sipos, Péter; Cora, Ildikó; Kovács, Ivett


    Boda Claystone Formation (BCF) is the host rock of the planned site for high level nuclear waste repository inHungary. Samples representing the dominant rock types of BCF were studied: albitic claystone, claystone with high illite content, and analcime bearing claystone. Clay minerals in these three rock types were characterized by Xray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal analysis (DTA-TG), and the results were discussed from the point of view of the radionuclide sorption properties being studied in the future. Mineral compositions of bulk BCF samples vary in wide ranges. In the albitic sample, besides the dominant illite, few percent of chlorite represents the layer silicates in the clay fraction. Illite is the dominating phase in the illitic sample, with a few percent of chlorite. HRTEM study revealed that the thickness of illite particles rarely reaches 10 layers, usually are of 5-6 TOT layer thick. Illite crystals are generally thicker in the albitic sample than in the illitic one. The significant difference between the clay mineral characterisitics of the analcimous and the other two samples is that the former contains regularly interstratified chlorite/smectite beside the dominant illite. Based on the structural and chemical data two illite type minerals are present in the BCF samples: 1M polytype containing octahedral Fe and Mg besides Al, 2M polytype illite generally is free of Fe andMg. Close association of very thin illite plates and nanosized hematite crystals is typical textural feature for BCF. The goal of this study is to provide solid mineralogical basis for further studies focusing on radionuclide sorption properties.

  6. Phanerozoic extensional faulting and alteration control on uranium mineralization in trachytes of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt (United States)

    Hamdy, Mohamed M.; Waheeb, Anton G.; Aly, Samir M.; Farag, Nagdy M.; Sadek, Adel F.


    The Gabal Nasb El Atshan Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian altered trachytes include uranium up to 3165 ppm. The paleostress and resolved shear stress analyses of the deformation systems in Gabal Nasb El Atshan area indicate that the trachyte was subjected to WNW-ESE to E-W tensile shear stress directed extensional regimes. The low-stress regions in the vicinity of extensional faults and their associated joints were favorable locations for fluid flow and the consequence alteration and U-mineralization. This occurred more extensively along the contacts between the sills of trachyte and the Hammamat sedimentary rocks; where the latter acted as a physical barrier for the alteration fluids migration outward. Alteration styles include albitization, aegirinization, arfvedsonization, chloritization and ferruginisation. The albitization is the most common sodic metasomatism, giving sanidine from Or98.8Ab0.7 to Or62.3Ab37.6, anorthoclase from Or51.4Ab48.0 to Or12.2Ab87.6 and albite from Or11.0Ab89.0 to Or0.8Ab99.2. Aegirine and arfvedsonite formed due to decreasing sodium activity in the metasomatic fluids. Sodic metasomatism may be the source of uranium-enrichment, taking place during the late magmatic to deuteric processes. This was followed by a retrograde alteration of chloritization between 175 and 42 °C toward precipitation of Fe-oxides and alteration of primary uranium. Surficial low-temperature alteration remobilized and redistributed the produced uranylhydroxides and ferruginisation caused the reduction and adsorption of U forming betafite, uranophane, soddyite, umohoite, uranotile and uranopilite.

  7. Effects of fluid-assisted diffusion on texture strength in a mylonitised metagabbro (United States)

    Gardner, Joseph; Wheeler, John; Mariani, Elisabetta


    Most rocks are polyphase materials yet many studies of rock texture tend to isolate the behaviour of individual phases. Characterisation of interaction between phases can yield useful information about the deformation behaviour of real rocks. Our work focuses on a broadly two phase mixture of albite and clinozoisite in mylonitised metagabbros, and how these two phases may have interacted to create, maintain and/or weaken the variable strength CPOs observed in each phase. Intriguingly, the rocks have deformed primarily by diffusion-accommodated processes, which are traditionally thought to weaken or destroy an existing CPO. Our data suggest that diffusion can preserve strong textures. Plagioclase in metamorphosed gabbros from a km-scale extensional shear zone in the NW Italian Alps (Gressoney Shear Zone) has undergone (to a first order) breakdown to albite (Ab) + clinozoiste (Cz) at greenschist facies. Grain size reduction via nucleation of product grains, plus the effects of Zener pinning, lead to an average grain size of clasts drove dissolution. Precipitate that fills pressure shadows may thus be locally derived. Pressure shadows have tails that streak through the matrix as single phase albitic layers; grain size in these layers is commonly >100 μm, which suggests grain growth elsewhere in the matrix was indeed inhibited by the presence of a second phase. Discrete CPO bands vary in size. Variations in grain and grain boundary characteristics between domains are being quantified to investigate whether the way an inherited orientation relates to L-S sample geometry may have had any control over degree of dissolution (implied from grain morphology) within domains. Whether volume fraction of Cz in (what remains of) each domain has influenced dissolution will also be characterised by quantifying grain shape, orientation and distribution of phases in individual domains.

  8. Origin of the Okrouhlá Radouň episyenite-hosted uranium deposit, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic: fluid inclusion and stable isotope constraints (United States)

    Dolníček, Zdeněk; René, Miloš; Hermannová, Sylvie; Prochaska, Walter


    The Okrouhlá Radouň shear zone hosted uranium deposit is developed along the contact of Variscan granites and high-grade metasedimentary rocks of the Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif. The pre-ore pervasive alteration of wall rocks is characterized by chloritization of mafic minerals, followed by albitization of feldspars and dissolution of quartz giving rise to episyenites. The subsequent fluid circulation led to precipitation of disseminated uraninite and coffinite, and later on, post-ore quartz and carbonate mineralization containing base metal sulfides. The fluid inclusion and stable isotope data suggest low homogenization temperatures (˜50-140 °C during pre-ore albitization and post-ore carbonatization, up to 230 °C during pre-ore chloritization), variable fluid salinities (0-25 wt.% NaCl eq.), low fluid δ18O values (-10 to +2 ‰ V-SMOW), low fluid δ13C values (-9 to -15 ‰ V-PDB), and highly variable ionic composition of the aqueous fluids (especially Na/Ca, Br/Cl, I/Cl, SO4/Cl, NO3/Cl ratios). The available data suggest participation of three fluid endmembers of primarily surficial origin during alteration and mineralization at the deposit: (1) local meteoric water, (2) Na-Ca-Cl basinal brines or shield brines, (3) SO4-NO3-Cl-(H)CO3 playa-like fluids. Pre-ore albitization was caused by circulation of alkaline, oxidized, and Na-rich playa fluids, whereas basinal/shield brines and meteoric water were more important during the post-ore stage of alteration.

  9. Formation of albitite-hosted uranium within IOCG systems: the Southern Breccia, Great Bear magmatic zone, Northwest Territories, Canada (United States)

    Montreuil, Jean-François; Corriveau, Louise; Potter, Eric G.


    Uranium and polymetallic U mineralization hosted within brecciated albitites occurs one kilometer south of the magnetite-rich Au-Co-Bi-Cu NICO deposit in the southern Great Bear magmatic zone (GBMZ), Canada. Concentrations up to 1 wt% U are distributed throughout a 3 by 0.5 km albitization corridor defined as the Southern Breccia zone. Two distinct U mineralization events are observed. Primary uraninite precipitated with or without pyrite-chalcopyrite ± molybdenite within magnetite-ilmenite-biotite-K-feldspar-altered breccias during high-temperature potassic-iron alteration. Subsequently, pitchblende precipitated in earthy hematite-specular hematite-chlorite veins associated with a low-temperature iron-magnesium alteration. The uraninite-bearing mineralization postdates sodic (albite) and more localized high-temperature potassic-iron (biotite-magnetite ± K-feldspar) alteration yet predates potassic (K-feldspar), boron (tourmaline) and potassic-iron-magnesium (hematite ± K-feldspar ± chlorite) alteration. The Southern Breccia zone shares attributes of the Valhalla (Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) albitite-hosted U deposits but contains greater iron oxide contents and lower contents of riebeckite and carbonates. Potassium, Ni, and Th are also enriched whereas Zr and Sr are depleted with respect to the aforementioned albitite-hosted U deposits. Field relationships, geochemical signatures and available U-Pb dates on pre-, syn- and post-mineralization intrusions place the development of the Southern Breccia and the NICO deposit as part of a single iron oxide alkali-altered (IOAA) system. In addition, this case example illustrates that albitite-hosted U deposits can form in albitization zones that predate base and precious metal ore zones in a single IOAA system and become traps for U and multiple metals once the tectonic regime favors fluid mixing and oxidation-reduction reactions.

  10. Phosphate and feldspar mineralogy of equilibrated L chondrites: The record of metasomatism during metamorphism in ordinary chondrite parent bodies (United States)

    Lewis, Jonathan A.; Jones, Rhian H.


    In ordinary chondrites (OCs), phosphates and feldspar are secondary minerals known to be the products of parent-body metamorphism. Both minerals provide evidence that metasomatic fluids played a role during metamorphism. We studied the petrology and chemistry of phosphates and feldspar in petrologic type 4-6 L chondrites, to examine the role of metasomatic fluids, and to compare metamorphic conditions across all three OC groups. Apatite in L chondrites is Cl-rich, similar to H chondrites, whereas apatite in LL chondrites has lower Cl/F ratios. Merrillite has similar compositions among the three chondrite groups. Feldspar in L chondrites shows a similar equilibration trend to LL chondrites, from a wide range of plagioclase compositions in petrologic type 4 to a homogeneous albitic composition in type 6. This contrasts with H chondrites which have homogeneous albitic plagioclase in petrologic types 4-6. Alkali- and halogen-rich and likely hydrous metasomatic fluids acted during prograde metamorphism on OC parent bodies, resulting in albitization reactions and development of phosphate minerals. Fluid compositions transitioned to a more anhydrous, Cl-rich composition after the asteroid began to cool. Differences in secondary minerals between H and L, LL chondrites can be explained by differences in fluid abundance, duration, or timing of fluid release. Phosphate minerals in the regolith breccia, Kendleton, show lithology-dependent apatite compositions. Bulk Cl/F ratios for OCs inferred from apatite compositions are higher than measured bulk chondrite values, suggesting that bulk F abundances are overestimated and that bulk Cl/F ratios in OCs are similar to CI.

  11. Petrology and ⁴⁰Ar/3⁹Ar-chronology of metavolcanic rocks from the Northern Phyllite Zone (Southern Hunsrück and Taunus Mountains, Germany): insights into a late Variscan ductile shear zone. (United States)

    Fladt, Matthias; Soder, Christian; Schwarz, Winfried; Trieloff, Mario


    The Northern Phyllite Zone (NPZ) is a low-grade mylonitic shear zone between the high-grade rocks of the Mid-German Crystalline Zone and the very low-grade rocks of the Rhenohercynian Zone of the Variscan orogen. The NPZ comprises low-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. Basaltic, intermediate and rhyolitic metavolcanics from the Soonwald and the Southern Taunus Mountains show the following paragenesis: actinolite + chlorite + epidote + albite + phengite + titanite + quartz ± calcite ± stilpnomelane ± pumpellyite ± aegirine-augite; blue amphibole (winchite) + chlorite + phengite + stilpnomelane + albite + titanite + quartz + magnetite ± epidote ± hematite; quartz + albite + K-feldspar + phengite + chlorite + titanite ± stilpnomelane ± ilmenite ± magnetite ± hematite. Occasionally, relict magmatic phases are present. The foliation strikes SW-NE and dips 60-70° to the NW. Stretching lineations are subhorizontal. P-T-estimations were done on the basis of equilibrium assemblage modelling yielding peak metamorphic conditions of 300-350 °C and 6-6.5 kbar. Thus, burial depths of 20-22 km and a low geothermal gradient of 15-16 °C/km are inferred. ⁴⁰Ar/3⁹Ar-dating of stepwise heated phengite separates (100-200 µm) results in plateau ages of ˜320 Ma. Two of the examined separates show argon diffusive loss ⁴⁰Ar/3⁹Ar-age spectra, which yield a period of argon loss between 145 and 130 Ma. Diffusive argon loss is possibly related to widespread Jurassic-Cretaceous hydrothermal activity in SW Germany. We interpret the Northern Phyllite Zone as a sinistral shear zone documenting prolonged oblique convergence following the peak of the Variscan orogeny between 340-330 Ma until 320 Ma.

  12. P-T and structural constraints of lawsonite and epidote blueschists from Liberty Creek and Seldovia: Tectonic implications for early stages of subduction along the southern Alaska convergent margin (United States)

    López-Carmona, Alicia; Kusky, Timothy M.; Santosh, M.; Abati, Jacobo


    The southern Alaska convergent margin contains several small belts of sedimentary and volcanic rocks metamorphosed to blueschist facies, located along the Border Ranges fault on the contact between the Wrangellia and Chugach terranes. These belts are significant in that they are the most inboard, and thus probably contain the oldest record of Triassic-Jurassic northward-directed subduction beneath Wrangellia. The Liberty Creek HP-LT schist belt is the oldest and the innermost section of the Chugach terrane. Within this belt lawsonite blueschists contains an initial high-pressure assemblage formed by lawsonite + phengite + chlorite + sphene + albite ± apatite ± carbonates and quartz. Epidote blueschists are composed of sodic, sodic-calcic and calcic amphiboles + epidote + phengite + chlorite + albite + sphene ± carbonates and quartz. P-T pseudosections computed from four representative samples constrain maximum pressures at 16 kbar and 250-280 °C for the Lawsonite-bearing blueschists, and 15 kbar and 400-500 °C for the epidote-bearing blueschists, suggesting a initial subduction stage of 50-55 km depth. The growth of late albite porphyroblasts in all samples suggests a dramatic decompression from ca. 9 kbar to 5 kbar. The Liberty Creek schists can be correlated with the Seldovia blueschist belt on the Kenai Peninsula. Metamorphism in both terranes took place in the Early Jurassic (191-192 Ma), recording an early stage of subduction beneath Wrangellia. In the nearby terranes of the same margin, the age of metamorphism records an early stage of subduction at 230 Ma. Based on this difference in age, a maximum of 40 Ma were necessary to subduct the protoliths of the Seldovia and Liberty Creek blueschists to depths of circa 50-55 km, suggesting a minimum vertical component of subduction of 1.2-1.5 cm/year.

  13. Estimation of landslide-triggering factors using clay minerals, ASTER satellite image and GIS in the Busan area, southeastern Korea (United States)

    Jeong, G. C.; Kim, M. G.; Choi, J. J.; Ryu, J. O.; Nho, J. G.; Choo, C. O.


    This study aims at estimating landslide-inducing factors such as extreme rainfall, slope, and geological factors in Busan city, southeastern Korea, using clay mineralogy, DM analysis and DB construction in order to develop the landslide evaluation standards suitable for the country. GIS-based data collected from the study area include geological maps, topological maps, soil maps, forest maps and others in the DB construction. Data extraction and processing for landslide-induced factors consist of expandable clay minerals identified using XRD, along with XRF and weathering sensitivity analysis and fundamental soil analysis on 38 bulk samples composed of weathered rocks and soils. Finally landslide sensibility maps were constructed using ArcGIS, together with ASTER satellite images for identifying clay minerals on regional areas helpful for saving time and money. In Mt. Cheonma, 16 samples are composed of quartz, albite, illite, vermiculite, and kaolinite, with little difference in mineralogy. In Mt. Hwangryeong and Mt. Geumryeun, 12 samples consist of quartz, albite, illite, vermiculite, kaolinite and hornblende, with little difference in mineralogy. In Mt. Songhak, 10 samples are composed of quartz, illite, vermiculite, and kaolinite. Quartz, albite and illite are abundant in most samples, regardless of sites studied. IDW interpolation method was applied to the Busan area. The resolution of space grids consists of 5 m x 5 m. Especially, illite was used as the most effective factor that induces landslide using IDW interpolation and ASTER satellite images. In conclusion, sensibility maps constructed using 16 layers including illite content, weathered sensibility are well in accordance with the real sites where landslides took place, showing that areas with high sensibility are closely related to the high frequencies of landslide. This research was supported by the Public Welfare & Safety Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded

  14. Laboratory and in situ determination of the migration processes of actinide complexes and colloids in a fissured granitic environment. El Berrocal project (preliminary activities - phase 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astudillo, J.; Del Olmo, C.; Commission of the European Communities, Ispra


    The experimental site of El Berrocal has been chosen for a study of the migration of natural radionuclides in a fractured granitic environment. The granite is classified as an alkaline feldspar-rich quartz granite with two micas. The fresh granite is affected by hydrothermal alteration processes related to fractures, which has led to a strong sericitization of albite, and the precipitation of secondary chlorites and carbonates. The most important U-bearing and Th-bearing accessory minerals are uraninite, thorite-auerlite, monazite, anatase, apatite and zircon. Approximately 65% of the total of U in the rock is held as uraninite. In the altered granite, most of the U is held as autunite. Hydrogeochemical data show that Co 2 /H 2 CO 3 is the dominant system, followed by the silica-silicate system. Based on their stability analyses, two zones can be defined: (i) waters north of the dyke and from deep zones where calcite is in equilibrium and albite and gibbsite precipitate, and (ii) surface waters, south of the dyke, subsaturated in relation to calcite, producing the alteration of albite and the precipitation of montmorillonite. The size distribution of the colloids varies, depending on the treatment given to the water samples. The particles are mainly composed of K-feldspars and clay minerals (smectite) and occasionally by quartz, mica, calcite and pollen. The El Berrocal groundwaters have a very low amount of organic matter. Column migration tests have been carried out and were performed with intact granitic cores and with crushed granite. Np proved to be an adequate radionuclide for these experiments. Under oxic conditions and in the absence of organic matter, it was completely retained in both types of columns, whereas in the presence of organic matter a more rapid breakthrough was observed. Under anoxic conditions, and with or without organic matter, Np was found to move faster than under oxic conditions. (author). 13 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs

  15. Mueilha rare metals granite, Eastern Desert of Egypt: An example of a magmatic-hydrothermal system in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (United States)

    Abu El-Rus, Mohamed A.; Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Lindh, Anders


    The Mueilha granite pluton is one of the rare-metals bearing peraluminous granitic plutons in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. It represents the apical part of a highly evolved magma chamber emplaced at a shallow level subsequent to the post Pan-African orogeny. The pluton can be seen as a highly leucocratic medium-grained albite/oligoclase framework infilled with quartz, K-feldspar and muscovite that are variably overgrown by K-feldspar, muscovite, quartz and topaz megacrysts. The increasing number and size of the K-feldspar megacrysts at the expense of the whitened albite/oligoclase framework imparts variably red color to the Mueilha granite. Contacts between the milky white and red granites are usually gradational, but may be locally sharp or may form narrow transition zones resulting from abrupt variations in texture and lithology. Textural relations indicate an initial stage of hydrothermal albitization of magmatic plagioclase and crystallization of topaz megacrysts resulting from infiltration of Na-rich fluorine bearing fluids. A subsequent stage of metasomatic enrichment is characterized by extensive growth of large K-feldspar, quartz and muscovite megacrysts at the expense of the albite/oligoclase crystals as a result of infiltration of K-Si rich hydrous fluids. Post-magmatic infiltration of hydrous fluids along the fault planes is shown by the intense replacement of alkali feldspar megacrysts by quartz, development of myrmekitic intergrowth pockets along the K-feldspar megacrysts and sealing of the micro-fractures by cryptocrystalline mixtures of clay minerals, iron oxides, sericite and chlorite. Compositionally, the red granitic rocks have higher SiO2, Fe2O3total, K2O/Na2O, Σ REE, Y, Th, U, Zr and Zn and lower Al2O3, Ga, Ta, Nb and Mo compared to the milky white granites. LILE and Sn do not show clear variation trends throughout the Mueilha granite pluton, suggesting their immobility during hydrothermal alteration. Microthermometric measurements indicate that

  16. Uranium (-nickel-cobalt-molybdenum) mineralization along the Singhbhum copper belt, India, and the problem of ore genesis (United States)

    Sarkar, S. C.


    Uranium mineralization is present at many places along the 200 km long Singhbhum copper belt, but the mineralization is relatively concentrated at the central part of it. The belt is characterized by many shear zone features, such as mylonites, phyllonites, and L-S type of structures and of course, copious metasomatism. Country rocks are basic schists, metapelites, quartzose rocks and albite schist/gneiss (‘Soda Granite’). Orebodies are sheet-like, conformable with the pervasive planar structures in the host rocks. No pronounced ‘wall rock alteration’ accompanied the mineralization. Grade of the ore is low (pile.

  17. Favourable environments for uranium occurences in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.C.S. dos


    Based on the present knowledge of Brazilian Precambrian geology, an attempt is made to divide Precambrian rocks into different regions according to their favourability criteria for uranium concentrations. Paleozoic and Mesozoic occurrences are also mentioned. They are mainly associated with large sedimentary basins. Brazilian uranium occurrences can be grouped into the following environments: (1) Metaconglomerates; (2) Metasomatic rocks (associated with albitization); (3) Vein type; (4) Sandstone type and (5) Intrusive alkalic rock. Upper Proterozoicas folding regions related to mobile belts and large Precambrian unconformities are good targets for uranium exploration in Brazil. (Author) [pt

  18. Eudialyte decomposition minerals with new hitherto undescribed phases from the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Rose-Hansen, J.; Sørensen, H.


    Eudialyte is a distinctive mineral in the agpaitic group of peralkaline nepheline syenites. The paper describes the alteration of eudialyte from the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland, which is the type locality for eudialyte, as well as for agpaitic rocks. Two types of alteration...... are distinguished: alteration of eudialyte to catapleiite is widespread in the complex, whereas alteration to zircon only occurs in strongly altered rocks. additionally, the fol-lowing minerals have been identified in the altered eudialyte: aegirine, K-feldspar, albite, analcime, fluorite, monazite, apatite...

  19. The Petäjäskoski Formation, a new lithostratigraphic unit in the Paleoproterozoic Peräpohja Belt, northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kyläkoski


    Full Text Available This paper gives the first description of a newly-recognized, basin-wide metasedimentary unit in the Paleoproterozoic (~2.4–1.9 Ga Peräpohja Belt, northern Finland. The unit, which is named the Petäjäskoski Formation (PFm after the single location where the rocks are known to be exposed, is situated stratigraphically in the middle part of the Kivalo Group between the quartzites of the>2.22 Ga Palokivalo Formation and the mafic volcanic rocks of the ~2.1 Ga Jouttiaapa Formation.The bulk of the PFm comprises phlogopitic-sericitic and albitic schists with abundant hematite as a diagnostic feature. Quartzite and dolomite interbeds are common. Based on drillcore and geophysical data, the succession is several hundreds of meters thick. The unit has prograde, chiefly lower greenschist facies mineral assemblages and, though being commonly intensely deformed, shows well-preserved sedimentary structures that imply deposition in shallow-water tosubaerial environments. Based on the original lithological features, the Petäjäskoski Formation can be defined as a claystone-siltstone-sandstone-dolostone association. On the geochemical and stratigraphic basis, the albite schists likely represent albitized equivalents of the micaceous claystones and siltstones. They are intercalated with stratabound collapse breccias, up to tens of meters in thickness, with clasts composed mainly of bordering albite schist. A mafic sill intruding the Petäjäskoski Formation yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 2140 ± 11 Ma. The older, c. 2220 Ma, differentiated sills are not known to reach the stratigraphic level of thePetäjäskoski Formation and hence, the depositional age of the PFm sediments can be bracketed between c. 2220 and 2140 Ma. Detrital zircon grains dated from a quartzitic sample from the PFmshow an Archean (c. 2650–3470 Ma provenance.The moderate to high MgO (~6–13 wt.%, K2O (~3–8 wt.% and FeOtot(8–15 wt.% contents, low CaO and Na2O contents, and abundant

  20. Quantification of minerals from ATR-FTIR spectra with spectral interferences using the MRC method (United States)

    Bosch-Reig, Francisco; Gimeno-Adelantado, José Vicente; Bosch-Mossi, Francisco; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio


    A method for quantifying the individual components of mineral samples based on attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is described, extending the constant ratio (CR) method to analytes absorbing in a common range of wavenumbers. Absorbance values in the spectral region where the analytes absorb relative to the absorbance of an internal standard absorbing at a wavenumber where the analytes do not absorb, permits the quantification of N analytes using measurements at N fixed wavenumbers. The method was tested for mixtures of albite, orthoclase, kaolin and quartz.

  1. Geochemical modeling of groundwater in southern plain area of Pengyang County, Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-yue Li


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution mechanisms of a hydrochemical field and to promote its benefits to the living standards of local people and to the local economy in the southern plain area of Pengyang County, in Ningxia, China. Based on understanding of the hydrogeological conditions in Pengyang County, the chemical evolution characteristics of groundwater in the plain area were analyzed. PHREEQC geochemical modeling software was used to perform hydrochemical modeling of water-rock interaction and to quantitatively analyze the evolution processes and the formation mechanisms of the local groundwater. Geochemical modeling was performed for two groundwater paths. The results showed that, along path 1, Na+ adsorption played the leading role in the precipitation process and its amount was the largest, up to 6.08 mmol/L; cation exchange was significant along path 1, while along simulated path 2, albite accounted for the largest amount of dissolution, reaching 9.06 mmol/L, and the cation exchange was not significant. According to the modeling results, along the groundwater flow path, calcite and dolomite showed oversaturated status with a precipitation trend, while the fluorite and gypsum throughout the simulated path were not saturated and showed a dissolution trend. The total dissolved solids (TDS increased and water quality worsened along the flow path. The dissolution reactions of albite, CO2, and halite, the exchange adsorption reaction of Na+, and the precipitation of sodium montmorillonite and calcite were the primary hydrogeochemical reactions, resulting in changes of hydrochemical ingredients.

  2. Geology of the Riacho do Pontal iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG prospect, Bahia, Brazil: hydrothermal alteration approached via hierarchical cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto Bacelar Huhn

    Full Text Available The Riacho do Pontal prospect is situated on the border between the Borborema Province and the São Francisco Craton, in Bahia state. It comprises rocks polydeformed during the Neoproterozoic. The prospect area includes migmatites and gneissic rocks intruded by several sin- to post-tectonic granites. Structural analysis indicates a strong relationship between the development of ductile to brittle-ductile shear zones and associated hydrothermalism. The main tracts of high-strain rate are represented by the Riacho do Pontal (north and Macururé (south shear zones. Several copper occurrences have been mapped within the Riacho do Pontal prospect along secondary shear zones. In these areas, the gneissic rocks were affected by intense hydrothermal alteration. Hierarchical cluster analysis permitted the identification of the main hydrothermal mineral associations present in these rocks, which resulted from potassic (biotite and sodic-calcic (amphibole-albite alteration, in addition to silicification and iron alteration (hematite. These hydrothermal alteration types are similar to those typically found in iron oxide copper-gold deposits developed at intermediate crustal levels. Hematite-quartz-albite-chalcopyrite-pyrite hydrothermal breccias host the highest-grade copper ore (chalcopyrite-pyrite-chalcocite zones. The spatial relationship between copper deposits and shear zones improves the metallogenic potential for copper of the Borborema Province and has important implications for mineral exploration in the region.

  3. Metamorphism, metasomatism and mineralization at Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobato, L.M.


    Uranium deposits cumulatively in the 100,000 tonne U 3 O 8 range occur within ductile shear zones transecting Archean basement gneisses of the Sao Francisco Craton, at the Lagoa Real region of south-central Bahia, Brasil. The gneisses, dated at 2.6-3.0Ga, are at amphibolite and granulite facies and overlie to the west, the Proterozoic Espinhaco metasedimentary sequence along a thrust fault. Petrography and mineral chemistry show that in the zones of alteration/mineralization, the original K-feldspar + quartz + albite/oligoclase + hastingsite assemblage, is replaced by albite + aegirine - angite + andradite + hematite assemblages, with or without uraninite. This information along with oxygen isotope, whole rock geochemistry and fluid inclusion studies indicate that the alteration process involves removal of Si, K, Rb, Ba and addition of Na under oxidizing conditions. V, Pb and Sr were introduced along with U via interaction with saline SO 2 - rich, isotopically light fluids under varying water/rock ratios and at temperatures of 500 - 550 0 C. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr systematics suggest that it is unlikely that Sr, and by extension uranium, were introduced by fluids originating from the basement gneisses. Geological constraints and the general alteration pattern are consistent with the release of the mineralizing fluids in response to the overloading of the basement rocks onto the Sedimentary Espinhaco via a thrust mechanism. (Author) [pt

  4. Uranium mineralization at Lagoa Real, BA, Brazil: the role of fluids in its genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prates, Sonia Pinto; Neves, Jose Marques Correia; Fuzikawa, Kazuo, E-mail: pratess@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The Lagoa Real uranium province is situated in the central-south of Bahia state . Brazil and it is presently by far the most important and best known uranium occurrence in Brazil. Nowadays 34 anomalies are known in a 30 Km long and 5 km wide area. An open pit mine was open in Cachoeira Mine, in the north portion of the area, and it is the only uranium mine in operation in Brazil and even in South America as well. The uranium mineralization in the Lagoa Real uranium province occurs in metamorphic rocks named albitites, due to their albite content (over 70%). Uraninite is the main uranium mineral, followed by pechblende, uranophane, torbernite and other uranyl minerals. Uraninite occurs as tiny round and irregular crystals (20 a 30 mum) included or associated to mafic minerals, mainly pyroxene and garnet, and also to amphibole and biotite and sometimes to albite. Some secondary minerals such as, for instance, uranophane, torbernite and tyuyamunite are also found. The main albitites minerals from the Cachoeira mine (plagioclase, garnet, biotite, pyroxene, amphibole and titanite) were studied by means of Infrared Spectroscopy Techniques. Good results were obtained from small quantities of material (around 2 mg) and allowed the minerals identification, and also to know their composition (from the peak position) and to detect the presence of water molecules, which indicates an aqueous phase during the uranium formation, probably rich in Fluorine. (author)

  5. Uranium mineralization at Lagoa Real, BA-Brazil: some contributions to understand its genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prates, Sonia Pinto; Neves, Jose Marques Correia; Fuzikawa, Kazuo [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail:


    The Lagoa Real uranium province is situated in the central-south of Bahia state - Brazil. It was found in 1977 by Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras - NUCLEBRAS and nowadays 34 anomalies are known in a 30 Km length and 5 km wide area. An open pit mine was open in Cachoeira Mine, in the north portion of the area. The uranium mineralization in the Lagoa Real uranium province occurs in metamorphic rocks named albitites, due to their albite content (over 70%). The albitites are enclosed in the gneisses and granites of the Lagoa Real Complex. Uraninite is the main uranium mineral, followed by pechblende, uranophane, torbernite and other uranyl minerals. Uraninite occurs as tiny round and irregular crystals (20 a 30 {mu}m) included or associated to mafic minerals, mainly pyroxene and garnet, and also to amphibole and biotite and sometimes to albite. X-Ray Diffraction, Infra-Red Spectroscopy and thermal analysis preliminary data (structures, crystalline degree, water loss temperature, thermochemical events) obtained from these minerals provide information which enables the understanding of metallogenesis of the uranium mineralization. (author)

  6. Estimation of crystallization pressure of granite intrusions (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Ming


    A numerical method is presented to estimate the crystallization pressure of granite intrusions based on two polynomial equations obtained by an analysis of the existing haplogranite ternary phase diagram and associated dataset. The results indicate that the pressure is correlated respectively with normative quartz (Qtz) content and with normative albite (Ab) plus orthoclase (Or) contents of granitic rocks as follows. where P is pressure in MPa, and R denotes correlation coefficient. It is noted that the procedure of normalizing the sum of CIPW norm (quartz, albite, orthoclase) contents to 100% is required before using Eqs. (1) and (2). The difference in pressure calculations between these two equations is ≤ 16 MPa for the range of normative quartz contents from 15 to 40 wt%. An example of how to use these equations to estimate the crystallization pressure of a granite intrusion is also provided to show the validity and convenience of this method. The uncertainty of such pressure estimation is not well known, although it must fall into the uncertainty range of the existing experimental work on pressure constraints. The simplicity of this empirical method is appreciable, although its applicability to natural granitoids needs further test. More experimental work is required to constrain the effects of components, such as CaO, FeO, MgO, F, Cl, CO2, on the granite phase equilibria. These equations, however, can be used for estimating crystallization pressures of water-saturated and quartz-oversaturated granitic systems.

  7. Southern complex: geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry of selected uranium- and thorium-rich granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.


    Four major rock groups are defined in the Southern Complex: the Bell Creek Granite (BCG), the Clotted Granitoids (CGR), the Albite Granite (AGR), and the Migmatite Complex. Metatexites of the Migmatite Complex are the oldest rocks and include paleosome of a metasedimentary and metavolcanic protolith represented by Banded Iron Formation, Banded Amphibolite, and Banded Gneisses, and interlayered or crosscutting leucogranites. The CGR span the range from metatexite to diatexite and represent in-situ partial melting of metapelitic layers in the protolith during intrusion of the BCG. The BCG cuts the migmatites, is locally cut by the CGR, and was derived by partial melting of a dominantly metasedimentary protolith at some depth below the presently exposed migmatites during a regional tectonothermal event. The Albite Granite is a 2km diameter, muscovite-fluorite-columbite-bearing intrusive stock that cuts all other major units. The thorium history of the BCG is a function of the history of monazite. The thorium history of the CGR is also dominated by monazite but the thorium content of this unit cannot be entirely accounted for by original restite monazite. The uranium history of the BCG and CGR was dominated by magmatic differentiation and post magmatic, metamorphic and supergene redistributions and is largely independent of the thorium history. The thorium and uranium history of the AGR was dominated by magmatic/deuteric processes unlike the BCG and CGR

  8. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of carboxylic acids adsorbed onto mineral surfaces (United States)

    Kubicki, J. D.; Schroeter, L. M.; Itoh, M. J.; Nguyen, B. N.; Apitz, S. E.


    A suite of naturally-occurring carboxylic acids (acetic, oxalic, citric, benzoic, salicylic and phthalic) and their corresponding sodium salts were adsorbed onto a set of common mineral substrates (quartz, albite, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) in batch slurry experiments. Solution pH's of approximately 3 and 6 were used to examine the effects of pH on sorption mechanisms. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to obtain vibrational frequencies of the organic ligands on the mineral surfaces and in solution. UV/visible spectroscopy on supernatant solutions was also employed to confirm that adsorption from solution had taken place for benzoic, salicylic and phthalic acids. Molecular orbital calculations were used to model possible surface complexes and interpret the experimental spectra. In general, the tectosilicates, quartz and albite feldspar, did not chemisorb (i.e., strong, inner-sphere adsorption) the carboxylate anions in sufficient amounts to produce infrared spectra of the organics after rinsing in distilled water. The clays (illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) each exhibited similar ATR FTIR spectra. However, the illite sample used in this study reacted to form strong surface and aqueous complexes with salicylic acid before being treated to remove free Fe-hydroxides. Chemisorption of carboxylic acids onto clays is shown to be limited without the presence of Fe-hydroxides within the clay matrix.

  9. Paragenesis of sodic pyroxene-bearing quartz schists: implications for the P-T history of the Sanbagawa belt (United States)

    Enami, Masaki; Wallis, Simon R.; Banno, Yasuyuki


    Sodic pyroxene (jadeite content X jd=0.1 0.3) occurs locally as small inclusions within, albite porphyroblasts and in the matrix of hematite-bearing quartz schists in the Sanbagawa (Sambagawa) metamorphic belt, central Shikoku, Japan. The sodic, pyroxene-bearing samples are characteristically free from chlorite and their typical mineral assemblage is sodic pyroxene+subcalcic (or sodic) amphibole+phengitic mica+albite+quartz+hematite+titanite±epidote. Spessartine-rich garnet occurs in Mn-rich samples. Sodic pyroxene in epidote-bearing samples tends to be poorer in acmite content (average X Acm=0.26 0.50) than that in the epidote-free samples ( X Acm=0.45 0.47). X Jd shows no systematic relationship to metamorphic grade, and is different among the three sampling regions [Saruta-gawa, Asemi-gawa and Bessi (Besshi)]. The average X Jd of the Saruta-gawa samples (0.21 0.29) is higher than that of the Asemi-gawa (0.13 0.17) and Bessi (0.14 0.23). The P-T conditions of the Asemi-gawa and Bessi regions are estimated at 5.5 6.5 kbar, >360°C in the chlorite zone, 7 8.5 kbar, 440±15°C in the garnet zone and 8 9.5 kbar, 520±25°C in the albite-biotite zone. Metamorphic pressure of the Saruta-gawa region is systematically 1 1.5 kbar higher than that of the Asemi-gawa and Bessi regions, and materials of the Saruta-gawa region have been subducted to a level 3 5 km deeper than materials that underwent metamorphism at equivalent temperatures and are now exposed in the Asemi-gawa and Bessi regions. Pressure slightly increases toward the north (structurally high levels) through the Sanbagawa belt of central shikoku. Two types of zonal structure were observed in relatively coarse-grained sodic pyroxenes in the matrix. One type is characterized by increasing X Jd from core to rim, the other type by decreasing X Jd from core to rim. Both types of zoned pyroxenes show an increase in X Fe 2+[=Fe2+/(Fe2++Mg)] from core to rim. The first type of zoning was observed in a sample from the

  10. Eight-phase alkali feldspars: low-temperature cryptoperthite, peristerite and multiple replacement reactions in the Klokken intrusion (United States)

    Parsons, Ian; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Heizler, Matthew T.; Heizler, Lynn L.; Ivanic, Tim; Lee, Martin R.


    Eight feldspar phases have been distinguished within individual alkali feldspar primocrysts in laminated syenite members of the layered syenite series of the Klokken intrusion. The processes leading to the formation of the first four phases have been described previously. The feldspars crystallized as homogeneous sodian sanidine and exsolved by spinodal decomposition, between 750 and 600 °C, depending on bulk composition, to give fully coherent, strain-controlled braid cryptoperthites with sub-μm periodicities. Below ~500 °C, in the microcline field, these underwent a process of partial mutual replacement in a deuteric fluid, producing coarse (up to mm scale), turbid, incoherent patch perthites. We here describe exsolution and replacement processes that occurred after patch perthite formation. Both Or- and Ab-rich patches underwent a new phase of coherent exsolution by volume diffusion. Or-rich patches began to exsolve albite lamellae by coherent nucleation in the range 460-340 °C, depending on patch composition, leading to film perthite with ≤1 μm periodicities. Below ~300 °C, misfit dislocation loops formed, which were subsequently enlarged to nanotunnels. Ab-rich patches (bulk composition ~Ab91Or1An8), in one sample, exsolved giving peristerite, with one strong modulation with a periodicity of ~17 nm and a pervasive tweed microtexture. The Ab-rich patches formed with metastable disorder below the peristerite solvus and intersected the peristerite conditional spinodal at ~450 °C. This is the first time peristerite has been imaged using TEM within any perthite, and the first time peristerite has been found in a relatively rapidly cooled geological environment. The lamellar periodicities of film perthite and peristerite are consistent with experimentally determined diffusion coefficients and a calculated cooling history of the intrusion. All the preceding textures were in places affected by a phase of replacement correlating with regions of extreme optical

  11. Emplacement and deformation of the A-type Madeira granite (Amazonian Craton, Brazil) (United States)

    Siachoque, Astrid; Salazar, Carlos Alejandro; Trindade, Ricardo


    The Madeira granite is one of the Paleoproterozoic (1.82 Ga) A-type granite intrusions in the Amazonian Craton. It is elongated in the NE-SW direction and is composed of four facies. Classical structural techniques and the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) method were applied to the study of its internal fabric. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, thermomagnetic curves, remanent coercivity spectra, optical microscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analyses were carried out on the earlier and later facies of the Madeira granite: the rapakivi granite (RG) and the albite granite (AG) respectively. The last one is subdivided into the border albite granite (BAG) and the core albite granite (CAG) subfacies. AMS fabric pattern is controlled by pure magnetite in all facies, despite significant amounts of hematite in the BAG subfacies. Microstructural observations show that in almost all sites, magnetic fabric correlates to magmatic state fabrics that are defined by a weak NE-SW orientation of mafic and felsic silicates. However, strain mechanisms in both subfacies of AG also exhibit evidence for solid-state deformation at high to moderate temperatures. Pegmatite dyke, strike slip fault (SFA-B-C), hydrothermal vein, normal fault (F1-2) and joint (J) structures were observed and their orientation and kinematics is consistent with the magmatic and solid-state structures. Dykes, SFA-C and F1, are usually orientated along the N70°E/40°N plane, which is nearly parallel to the strike of AMS and magmatic foliations. In contrast, veins, SFB, F2 and some J are oriented perpendicular to the N70°E trend. Kinematic analysis in these structures shows evidence for a dextral sense of movement in the system in the brittle regime. The coherent structural pattern for the three facies of Madeira granite suggests that the different facies form a nested pluton. The coherence in orientation and kinematics from magmatic to high-temperature solid-state, and into the brittle

  12. Fault rocks and veins formation in the crystalline Palaeozoic basement of the N margin of the Littoral Chain (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Spain) (United States)

    Alías, Gemma; Belmonte, Alba; Cantarero, Irene; Inglés, Montserrat; Travé, Anna


    The Littoral Chain corresponds to a horst of NE-SW direction formed during the Neogene extension which in the studied area (Collserola-Montnegre massif) is mainly composed by Paleozoic materials. At the northern margin the horst limits with the Vallès basin which is infilled by Miocene detrital materials. In the Forques Hill, two km to the est of Martorell, an excellent outcrop of Ordovician phyllites summarise an spread tectonic evolution from Hercynian to Neogene deformation. This work evaluates the behaviour of phyllites during the Hercynian ductile deformation and later during the fragile Mesozoic and Neogene tectonics. The weakness of these rocks together with the situation very close to the Vallès Fault favour that this area concentrates many deformation structures related to extensional tectonics, such as veins, cataclasites and gouges. Phyllites present a pervasive regional hercynian foliation oriented WNW-ESE and dipping moderately to the NNE; a huge amount of quartz veins, up to 20% of the rock volume, were injected during and immediately after the main foliation development. Two groups of fractures cutting the phyllites can be distinguished in the field according to the fault rock products, the vein infilling, the orientation and the geometry. The first one corresponds to Mesozoic fractures that have a NE-SW trend and dip indistinctly to the NW or SE, in a conjugate system. They are characterized by the formation of a broad zone of 0,2 m up to 1,5 m formed either by cataclasites or en echelon veins that indicate a normal movement. The cataclasites are cohesive greenish rocks, with 50% of clasts of wall rock from mm to dm in size. Neoformed minerals in the matrix are chlorite - albite - barite ± titanite and rutile. Veins are white to pinkish in colour and two types of infill have been identified: albite - chlorite - iron oxides± rutile and dolomite - chlorite. The second group belongs to Neogene fractures which although similar orientation than those

  13. Propiedades termoluminiscentes de una albita de minas Geraes (Brasil

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    García-Guinea, J.


    Full Text Available Albite sodium feldspar is studied by thermoluminescent methods using the blue region of the spectra (circa 400nm and the possible uses as a dosimeter are explored. The light emission of the spectra bands of natural and irradiated albite under X and gamma rays are determined using automated RISØ thermoluminescence equipment. Albite is a potential material to be used as retrospective dosimeter due to its good blue thermoluminescence characteristics in good agreement with the dosimetric requirements. It is sensitive to radiation, possesses a good linearity (0.06-8Gy, shows an acceptable stability in time, it is highly reproducible and can detect low levels of dose (60mGy. The TL glow curves emission exhibit a very complex structure associated to a continuous trap distribution. This behaviour could be explained as a consequence of a dynamic creation-annihilation of a [AlO4/alkali]+ and [AlO4]o centres.

    Se estudian las posibilidades dosimétricas de la albita (feldespato sódico por métodos termoluminiscentes utilizando la región espectral del azul (alrededor de los 400nm. Se registran las posiciones espectrales de emisión de luz de este material irradiado con rayos X y con radiación gamma en un equipo automático de termoluminiscencia Risø. La albita puede ser empleada potencialmente en el campo de la reconstrucción de dosis post-accidental ya que sus propiedades termoluminiscentes en la región espectral del azul presentan buenas características dosimétricas. Se observa que la albita es muy sensible a la radiación, presenta una excelente linealidad con la dosis (0.06-8Gy, muestra una gran estabilidad con el tiempo, tiene reproducibilidad aceptable y puede detectar bajos rangos de dosis (60mGy. Sus curvas de termoluminiscencia tienen una estructura compleja asociada a una distribución continua de trampas en todo el rango de temperaturas. Este comportamiento podría explicarse como consecuencia de la formación-aniquilación din

  14. Geology and age of the Lac a la Perdrix fenite, southern Gatineau district, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogarth, D.D.


    The Lac a Ia Perdrix fenite lies in the Central Metasedimentary Belt of the Grenville Province. This 30 m wide fenite, adjacent to a narrow calciocarbonatite sill, replaces diopside-oligoclase gneiss and is composed of magnesio-arfvedsonite, aegirine, microcline, albite, and fluorapatite. Near the contact with carbonatite, it contains appreciable monazite and barite whereas aegirine virtually disappears. Fenitization probably took place early in the igneous stage of carbonatite development. A Pb/U monazite age of 1026 ± 2 Ma is thought to date fenite formation. Together with published data, this age shows that carbonatite intruded metamorphic rocks near the close of the Grenville Orogeny. (author). 33 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Mineralogy, geochemistry, porosity and redox properties of rocks from Forsmark. Compilation of data from the regional model volume for SR-Site

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    Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))


    This report is a compilation of the data acquired during the Forsmark site investigation programme on the mineralogy, geochemistry, redox properties and porosity of different rock types at Forsmark. The aim is to provide a final summary of the available data for use during the SR-Site modelling work. Data presented in this report represent the regional model volume and have previously been published in various SKB reports. The data have been extracted from the SKB database Sicada and are presented as calculated median values, data range and lower/upper quartile. The representativity of all samples used for the calculations have been evaluated and data from samples where there is insufficient control on the rock type have been omitted. Rock samples affected by alteration have been omitted from the unaltered samples and are presented separately based on type of alteration (e.g. oxidised or albitized rock)

  16. MINERALOGIA E QUÍMICA DE SOLO DE VÁRZEA E SUAS SUSCEPTIBILIDADES NO PROCESSO DE TERRAS CAÍDAS NA COMUNIDADE DO DIVINO ESPÍRITO SANTO-AM / Mineralogy and chemistry of the lowland soil and its sensibilities in the process of lands falls in community Divino Espírito Santo (Amazonas, Brazil.

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    Regiane Campos Magalhães


    Full Text Available The study about the mineralogical and chemical lowland soils generate information to compose a current survey about the susceptibility of lowland soil to process Fallen Lands. With this purpose we studied five profiles the banks of the Solimões River, located in the municipality of Iranduba (AM. The information obtained allowed to determine the Neosoil Fluvic the study area has favorable conditions for cultivation with an average pH of 6.2, with high levels of Ca, Mg, K, P, micronutrients and zero Al content, with high levels of C and M. O. in the first layer and a decrease in depth. Thus, Neosoil Fluvic was characterized as Tb eutrophic, with base saturation above 50%, with good CTC. The mineralogy was homogeneous in all profiles, with a predominance of primary minerals: Quartz, Albite and rutile, with low proportions of clay minerals Muscovite, Kaolinite, Muscovite-Illite interstratified and Illite.


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    Francesca Castorina


    Full Text Available The Sr/Ca ratios and Sr-isotope ratios of bulk samples and acetate extracts from a soil profile developed on Pliocene marine clays near Radicofani, in southern Tuscany, were determined. The uniform Sr/Ca ratios in the soil indicated a uniform distribution of the two elements throughout the profile. In contrast, the lower Sr/Ca ratios of acetate extracts from the upper horizons of the soil suggest preferential removal of Sr relative to Ca, perhaps by the plants. These latter seem to accumulate more Sr than Ca during their lifetime. The δ87Sr of acetate extracts suggests that bulk Sr is provided by the calcite of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary formations of southern Tuscany. A minor source of Sr, although subordinate, is represented by clastic albite. A grass sample growing on the soil contained the Sr uptaken from both sources.

  18. Mineralogical characterization of quarry fines from Tracuateua city, state of Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.H.B. da; Negrao, R.C.; Angelica, R.S.; Universidade Federal do Para


    The aim of this study was to characterize the mineralogy quarry fines samples for its reuse and thus contributing to mitigate the environmental impact caused by this waste. In order to achieve the results, samples were collected and prepared for assays and identification of the mineralogical phases present in the quarry fines from the samples. X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy techniques were used. The quarry of fines characterization was based on qualitatively identification the minerals present in the samples. It was detected the presence of quartz, muscovite and feldspar (albite and microclinite) by x-ray diffraction technique and microscopic and macroscopic observations. Moreover, the size distribution was determined, and the samples presented a medium to fine size (ranging from 9,5 mm to 0,075 mm) and the grains presented an irregular and angular shapes. (author)

  19. Time-temperature evolution of microtextures and contained fluids in a plutonic alkali feldspar during heating (United States)

    Parsons, Ian; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Lee, James K. W.; Ivanic, Tim; Golla-Schindler, Ute


    Microtextural changes brought about by heating alkali feldspar crystals from the Shap granite, northern England, at atmospheric pressure, have been studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. A typical unheated phenocryst from Shap is composed of about 70 vol% of tweed orthoclase with strain-controlled coherent or semicoherent micro- and crypto-perthitic albite lamellae, with maximum lamellar thicknesses 700°C, and after >48 h at 700°C, all such regions were essentially compositionally homogeneous, as indicated by X-ray analyses at fine scale in the transmission electron microscope. Changes in lamellar thickness with time at different T point to an activation energy of ~350 kJmol-1. A lamella which homogenised after 6,800 h at 600°C, therefore, would have required only 0.6 s to do so in the melting interval at 1,100°C. Subgrains in patch perthite homogenised more slowly than coherent lamellae and chemical gradients in patches persisted for >5,000 h at 700°C. Homogenisation T is in agreement with experimentally determined solvi for coherent ordered intergrowths, when a 50-100°C increase in T for An1 is applied. Homogenisation of lamellae appears to proceed in an unexpected manner: two smooth interfaces, microstructurally sharp, advance from the original interfaces toward the mid-line of each twinned, semicoherent lamella. In places, the homogenisation interfaces have shapes reflecting the local arrangements of nanotunnels or pull-aparts. Analyses confirm that the change in alkali composition is also relatively sharp at these interfaces. Si-Al disordering is far slower than alkali homogenisation so that tweed texture in orthoclase, tartan twinning in irregular microcline, and Albite twins in albite lamellae and patches persisted in all our experiments, including 5,478 h at 700°C, 148 h at 1,000°C and 5 h at 1,100°C, even though the ensemble in each case was chemically homogeneous. Nanotunnels and pull-aparts were modified after only 50 min

  20. Petrography, mineral chemistry and lithochemistry of the albitite and granite-gneissics rocks of anomaly 35 from Lagoa Real uranium province; Petrografia, quimica mineral e litoquimica do albitito e das rochas granito-gnaissicas da anomalia 35, provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Camila Marques dos


    albitites and gneisses are macroscopically gradational, however, in the garnet albitites replacement of granitic mineral facies by the albitite facies were observed petrographically, implying a granitic protolith for this rock. On the other hand, magnetite albitites do not have clear relationship with granites. Albitites usually have porphyroblastic texture with granoblastic polygonal matrix and chessboard texture in albite porphyroclasts. The garnet albitites comprise hedenbergite, hastingsite, garnet, magnetite and sphena. Magnetite albitites, in turn, have hedenbergite, Fe-edenite, biotite, martitized magnetite, allanite and sphene. The diopside+actinolite+eastonita association is late, and in these rocks, it is restricted to more deformed portions or filling voids. The biotite albitites comprise biotite, zircon and apatite hedenbergite (?). Mineralization occurs in magnetite albitites as thin lenses composed by sphene, magnetite, carbonate and zircon. The uranium mineral is the uraninite, which occurs filling spaces between crystals and sphene or albite granules. In comparison to granites, albitites have a higher content of Na{sub 2}O, MgO, V, W, Zr, Pb and Sr for and lower K{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2} and F. They have a geochemical REE pattern that is identical to that of granite. The similarity between macroscopic granites and albitites, the presence of vazios, feldspar hematitization and sericitization causing macroscopical reddening in transitional portions and the replacement of potassic feldspar by albite and oligoclase are suggestive of episyenitization processes. The metasomatic perthites and presence of chessboard texture in porphyroclasts indicate successive albitization processes prior to deformation. The comparison between albitite samples of different drill cores and anomalies shows that there are differences in the formation and mineralization of these rocks. The V and Mg enrichment in some albitites suggests that these rocks may result from the interaction of

  1. Petrography, mineral chemistry and lithochemistry of the albitite and granite-gneissics rocks of anomaly 35 from Lagoa Real uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Camila Marques dos


    albitites and gneisses are macroscopically gradational, however, in the garnet albitites replacement of granitic mineral facies by the albitite facies were observed petrographically, implying a granitic protolith for this rock. On the other hand, magnetite albitites do not have clear relationship with granites. Albitites usually have porphyroblastic texture with granoblastic polygonal matrix and chessboard texture in albite porphyroclasts. The garnet albitites comprise hedenbergite, hastingsite, garnet, magnetite and sphena. Magnetite albitites, in turn, have hedenbergite, Fe-edenite, biotite, martitized magnetite, allanite and sphene. The diopside+actinolite+eastonita association is late, and in these rocks, it is restricted to more deformed portions or filling voids. The biotite albitites comprise biotite, zircon and apatite hedenbergite (?). Mineralization occurs in magnetite albitites as thin lenses composed by sphene, magnetite, carbonate and zircon. The uranium mineral is the uraninite, which occurs filling spaces between crystals and sphene or albite granules. In comparison to granites, albitites have a higher content of Na 2 O, MgO, V, W, Zr, Pb and Sr for and lower K 2 O, SiO 2 and F. They have a geochemical REE pattern that is identical to that of granite. The similarity between macroscopic granites and albitites, the presence of vazios, feldspar hematitization and sericitization causing macroscopical reddening in transitional portions and the replacement of potassic feldspar by albite and oligoclase are suggestive of episyenitization processes. The metasomatic perthites and presence of chessboard texture in porphyroclasts indicate successive albitization processes prior to deformation. The comparison between albitite samples of different drill cores and anomalies shows that there are differences in the formation and mineralization of these rocks. The V and Mg enrichment in some albitites suggests that these rocks may result from the interaction of fluids with

  2. Dacite – siltstone peperite from Trlično at Rogatec, Eastern Slovenia

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    Polona Kralj


    Full Text Available Dacitic glassy lava flow at Trlično is surrounded by a dacite – siltstone peperite and peperitic breccia that underwent alteration, recognised in two, only a few metres thick zones. In the higher-temperature alteration zone, albite extensively replaces volcanic glass and primary plagioclases. The siltstone components are altered to microcrystalline quartz, iron oxides and interlayered illite/smectite clay minerals. This zone developed upon thermalmetamorphosis related to the transfer of heat from the cooling lava. In the lower temperature alteration zone, analcime occurs as the replacement of volcanic glass and pore- and fissure-filling, while the primary plagioclases and poorly lithified siltstone remained fairly unchanged. This zone developed under hydrothermal conditions related to the heating, circulation and reactions of pore waters in the sediment surrounding the lava flow.

  3. Geochemistry and geochronology Rb-Sr, K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar of the Pan-African granitic complexes of the Tamanrasset area (Algeria): relationships with the associated Sn-W mineralizations and tectonic evolution of Central Hoggar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, J.M.; Zimmermann, J.L.; Dautel, D.; Boullier, A.M.; Bouabsa, L.; Farrar, E.; Archibald, D.A.; Moulahoum, O.


    New field mapping, petrographic and mineralogic, geochemical and geochronological data allow us to distinguish two successive magmatic suites with contrasting geochemistry: (1) granites with subalkaline affinity between 615 Ma (Anfeg) and 576 Ma (Tifferkit); (2) peraluminous magmatism and Li-F specialized leucogranites with associated Sn-W mineralization between 539 and 525 Ma. Such a magmatic evolution is interpreted as resulting from thickening of the continental crust during the Pan-African collision. Earliest magmas show mantle contribution and were formed close to the crust-mantle boundary where synchronous crustal stacking developed in amphibolite facies conditions. Latest peraluminous magmatism of crustal derivation and albite-topaz leucogranites appear to be controlled by localized extensional structures, 80 Ma after the main tectono-metamorphic event

  4. Microstructural analysis from archaeological sculptures of the Olmeca culture

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    Rodriguez L, V.; Mendoza A, D.; Espinosa P, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Salazar, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52045 (Mexico); Martinez C, G. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This work presents the results obtained from the characterization of a series of samples belonging to different monuments of the Olmec culture. These monuments are exhibited in the archaeological site of La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to determine the crystalline phases that characterise the samples, these phases are associated to different morphology. The elemental analysis exhibits the presence mainly of such elements as C, Si, O, Al, Na, Ca and in less abundance Ti, K, Cr, Ni and Mn were determined. The morphology is characterized by the presence of plane tabular structures, schists, extended slates and clusters of irregular grain. Such crystal phases as anorthite, albite, sanidine, zinnwaldite and clinochlore were identified. These phases are associated with such type of materials as feldspars and mica. All the identified phases are noted for presenting near perfect exfoliation. (Author)

  5. Isotopic (Rb-Sr, δ18 O) study of tantalum-bearing lithium-fluorine granite cupola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrej, E.V.; Zhuravlev, A.Z.; Kovalenko, V.I.; Yarmolyuk, V.V.; Shatagin, K.N.


    The results of isotopic studies, Rb/Sr datings and investigations in the isotopic composition of oxygen-ore-forming minerals similar to tantalum-bearing lithium-fluorine granite from the Orlov mountain mass in the Eastern part of Baikal region are presented. It is shown that 141.5 ± 2.8 million years ago mica crystallization took place. Since the obtained data on the isotopic composition of oxygen do not contradict to the conclusion about magmatic origin of mica it is possible that mica's age corresponds to the time of Orlov granite formation: hydrothermal reprocessing of albite and microcline occurred 136 ± 1 million years ago and resulted in the reduction of oxygen isotopic composition in the field conditions. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Étude par spectroscopie Mössbauer du fer (III) dans des verres silicatés multicomposants d'intérêt géologique


    Levitz, P.; Calas, G.; Bonnin, D.; Legrand, A.P.


    Cet article décrit la spectroscopie Môssbauer du Fe (III) dans des verres silicatés synthétiques d'intérêt géologique. La composition chimique de ces verres s'étend d'une composition basique, verres de diopside ou de basalte, à une composition acide, verres d'albite ou de granite. Une nouvelle méthode d'analyse des spectres Môssbauer contenant du Fe (II) et du Fe (III) est décrite. Celle-ci permet d'obtenir le spectre d'absorption Môssbauer du Fe (III) sans hypothèse sur la forme théorique de...

  7. Micro-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopic studies of ceramic shards excavated from ancient Stratonikeia city at Eskihisar village in West-South Turkey (United States)

    Bahçeli, Semiha; Güleç, Gamze; Erdoğan, Hasan; Söğüt, Bilal


    In this study, micro-Raman and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) were used to characterize the mineralogical structures of pigments of four ceramic fragments in which one of them belongs to Hellenistic period (1st - IVth century BC) and other three ceramic shards belong to Early Rome (IVth century BC- 1st century AD) excavated from Stratonikeia ancient city. In the results of investigations on these four ceramic fragments, the various phases were identified: quartz, kaolinite, albit (or Na-feldspar), calcite, anastase, hematite and magnetite. Furthermore, the obtained findings indicate that firing temperature is about 800-850 °C for all the shards.

  8. Late sodic metasomatism evidences in bimodal volcanic rocks of the Acampamento Velho Alloformation, Neoproterozoic III, southern Brazil

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    Delia Del Pilar M. de Almeida


    Full Text Available A mineralogical study was carried out in mafic and felsic volcanic rocks of the Acampamento Velho Alloformation at Cerro do Bugio, Perau and Serra de Santa Bárbara areas (Camaquã Basin in southern Brazil. The Acampamento Velho bimodal event consists of two associations: lower mafic at the base and upper felsic at the top. Plagioclase and alkali-feldspar were studied using an electronic microprobe, and magnetite, ilmenite, rutile, illite and alkali-feldspar were investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The rocks were affected by a process of late sodic autometasomatism. In mafic rocks, Ca-plagioclase was transformed to albite and pyroxenes were altered. In felsic rocks, sanidine was partially pseudomorphosed, generating heterogeneous alkali-feldspar. In this association, unstable Ti-rich magnetite was replaced by rutile and ilmenite. In mafic rocks, the crystallization sequence was: (1 Ti-rich magnetite (?, (2 pyroxene and Ca-plagioclase, (3 albite (alteration to Ca-plagioclase, (4 sericite, chlorite and calcite (alteration to pyroxene, and kaolinite (alteration to plagioclase/albite. In felsic rocks: (1 zircon, (2 Ti-rich magnetite, (3 sanidine, (4 quartz. The introduction of late Na-rich fluids, generated the formation of (5 heterogeneous alkali-feldspar, (6 ilmenite and rutile from the Ti-rich magnetite, (7 albite in the spherulites. Finally, alteration of sanidine, vitroclasts and pumice to (8 illite.Um estudo mineralógico de detalhe foi realizado nas rochas vulcânicas da Aloformação Acampamento Velho nos Cerros do Bugio, Perau e Serra de Santa Bárbara (Bacia do Camaquã, sudeste do Brasil. Este evento bimodal é constituído por duas associações: máfica inferior na base e félsica superior no topo. Foram estudados grãos de plagioclásio e feldspato alcalino com o uso de microssonda eletrônica, sendo que, magnetita,ilmenita, rutilo e ilita além de feldspato alcalino foram pesquisados através do microscópio eletr


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    Vladimir Majer


    Full Text Available Metharyolites of Vranica mountain are roks of emphasized porphyritic texture containing phenocrysts of quartz, K.feldspar and very rarely albite. The groundmass is microcrystallinic, characterized by finegrained phengite, biotite and area consisting of granophyric intergrowths of quartz and feldspar. Accessory minerals are ilmenite, rutila, apatite, zircon and chlorite. Metarhyolites are peraulminous rocks (PI=1.-4.1 having dominantly potassium character (K2O/Na2O=1,3-13,8. Incompatible elements are enriched relative to the normalizing chondrite composition, pointing to the crustal origin of metarhyolite magma. Although phengites typically occur in high pressure rocks, it seems that phengites of metarhyolites of Vranica mountain belong to the seldom group of phengites occurring in the low to medium pressure rocks (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Zeolitización de rocas andesíticas

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    Plana, F.


    Full Text Available The study of some andesites from King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Anctartica has pointed out the existence of a hydrothermal alteration process going rise to a zeolitic secondary minerals of low-temperature assemblages. Two paragenesis have been identified (Smectite-Bytownite-Mordenite, Smectite-Albite-Laumontite which reflecting different conditions durign the hydrothermal alteration of these andesitic rocksEl estudio de rocas andesíticas de la Isla King George (Archipiélago de las Shetland del Sur, Antártida pone de manifiesto la existencia de procesos de alteración hidrotermal con la formación de minerales zeolíticos secundarios pertenecientes a asociaciones de baja temperatura. Se han identificado dos paragénesis (Esmectitas-Bytownita-Mordenita, Esmectitas-AlbitaLaumontita que reflejan distintas condiciones durante la alteración hidrotermal de dichas rocas andesíticas.

  11. Origin of peak and retrograde assemblages during Grenvillian orogeny from garnet-staurolite bearing mica schist of Bhilwara Supergroup, NW India: constraints from pseudosection modelling (United States)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Saha, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Saheli


    Fractionation of components due to formation of garnet porphyroblasts during prograde metamorphism, have been constrained from pseudosection analyses. Such fractionation process leads to changes in the effective bulk composition within the rock, which can be modelled with well-preserved growth zonation patterns in garnet porphyroblasts. On the contrary, textures and mineralogy in metamorphic rocks can be far more complex with different textural domains within a single rock preserving assemblages formed along different segments of the P-T paths or during different metamorphic events. Examples of such textures include pseudomorphs, reaction rims or coronae, symplectites formed by breakdown of both cores and rims of porphyroblasts. Apart from pressure and temperature, availability of fluids during metamorphic reactions plays important roles in defining mineral assemblages and textures. In this study we have constrained formation of garnet porphyroblasts and paragonite-albite-sillimanite-quartz-staurolite bearing domains within the mica schist from the Rajpura-Dariba sequence of the Bhilwara Supergroup in NW India. The mica schist is inter-layered with calc-silicates and quartzite and together the units form a NE-SW trending Grenvillian orogenic belt in southern part of Bhilwara Supergroup sequence. Within the mica schist, three distinct textural domains have been observed: (i) muscovite-biotite-quartz-feldspar bearing matrix foliation, (ii) garnet porphyroblasts within the matrix foliation, (iii) staurolite-paragonite-albite-staurolite-sillimanite-quartz bearing domains. Paragonite, albite and sillimanite occur exclusively in the pseudomorph domains. Garnet porphyroblasts show variation in compositions from cores (Spessartine0.14 Grossular0.10 Pyrope0.12 Almandine0.72) to rims (Spessartine0.09Grossular0.15Pyrope0.12Almandine0.75). The average XMg contents of staurolite and matrix biotite are 0.21 and 0.57 respectively. Pseudosections have been constructed from the

  12. Physicochemical study of ceramics from Pre classic of Cuicuilco 'C' Mexico, methodology to define origin of raw material; Estudio fisico-quimico de ceramica del Preclasico de Cuicuilco 'C' Mexico. Metodologia para definir procedencia de materia prima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo S, A.; Sanchez P, S. [Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia INAH, Periferico Sur y Zapote s/n, Col. Isidro Fabela, Delegacion Tlalpan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Perez C, M.A. [Proyecto Arqueologico de Cuicuilco, DEA-INAH, Lic. Verdad 3, Col. Centro (Mexico); Jimenez D, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas de la UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar F, M.; Zorrilla C, C.; Arenas A, J.A. [IFUNAM, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    Cuicuilco has been considered one of the most important centers during the Formative Period (1000 - 0 b. C.) in the south of Mexico Basin, mainly, due its dimensions. Because of the Xitle volcano eruption, its occupation decreases around 200 b. C. This paper presents the results of a multidisciplinary investigation about ceramic material from Cuicuilco 'C', located in the south of Mexico City, and sediments from different places near to it. The analysis was done by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X- Ray Diffraction (XRD). Its results show the presence of Si, O, Fe and Al as majority elements, and crystalline phases as albite, hematite, quartz, maghemite and cristobalite. Chemical elements identified at ceramic samples has been submitted to an statistical analysis in order to be compared with the results of analyzed sediments, to determinate the raw material origin. (Author)

  13. Analysis of deterioration of rocky material which conform the sculptured serpents of the Tenayuca pyramid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, D.; Martinez C, G.; Rodriguez L, V.


    This work presents the results about the characterization of rocky materials samples proceeding from heads of snakes that adorn the pyramid of Tenayuca, Mexico. Analysis of these samples, that show deterioration presence was performance through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Several morphological structures such as granular, tubular, acicular growths and fibers were observed, some of they could be associate to salt migration. It was possible to identify different crystalline phases associated with albite (NaAlSi 3 O 8 ), anorthite [(Ca,Na)(Si,Al) 4 O 8 ], ferroactinolite [(Ca,Na,K) 2 Fe 5 Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 ], gypsum (CaSO 4 2H 2 O), quartz (SiO 2 ) and thenardite (Na 2 SO 4 ). (Author) 10 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  14. Petrology of plagiogranite from Sjenica, Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt (southwestern Serbia) (United States)

    Milovanović, Dragan; Srećković-Batoćanin, Danica; Savić, Marija; Popovic, Dana


    The Sjenica plagiogranite occurs in the southern part of the Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt, 5 km northwest of Sjenica. The main minerals are albite with strongly altered biotite (replaced with chlorite), with occasional amphibole (magnesio hornblende to tschermakite) and quartz. An enclave of fine-grained granitic rocks with garnet grains was noted too. Secondary minerals are calcite and chlorite (daphnite). Major, trace and REE geochemistry coupled with field observations support a model by which the Sjenica plagiogranite could be formed by fractional crystallization of mantle origin mafic magma in a supra-subduction zone setting. Occurrences of calcite and chlorite nests in the Sjenica plagiogranites revealed that these rocks underwent hydrothermal alteration due to intensive sea water circulation in a sub-sea-floor environment.

  15. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Cameroon. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Cameroon estimates the Speculative Resources of that country to be in the order of 10 000 tonnes uranium for syenite-associated U-deposits in southern Cameroon, and in the order of 5 000 tonnes uranium for uranium deposits associated with albitized and desilicified late tectonic Panafrican granites (episyenite) and Paleozoic volcanics in northern Cameroon. No specific tonnage is given for Francevillian equivalents (DJA-Series) and for Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, which are thought to hold limited potential for sandstone hosted uranium. However the Douala basin, consisting of mixed marine and continental sequences merits some attention. No specific budget and programme for uranium exploration are proposed for Cameroon. Instead specific recommendations concerning specific potential environments and general recommendation concerning the methodology of exploration are made. (author)

  16. Baltic modernism in Belgrade: Design of the building of the Monopoly Administration and the Ministry of Finance in Belgrade (1908 by Krichinsky and Vasilyev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadijević Aleksandar


    Full Text Available The term “Baltic Modernism” in the contemporary architectural historiography is used to denote a specific regional branch of international Art Nouveau movement with the centers in Saint Petersburg and Helsinki, that spread from Stockholm, Riga, Tallinn and other Baltic cities in the period from 1900 to 1914. Although it was a blend of Nordic and Slavic artistic components it was endowed with a stylish consistency grounded on steady personal relationships between the Baltic architects. This also accounts for the renown Russian architects, Stepan Krichinsky (Stepan Samojlovič Kričinskij and Nikolay Vasilyev (Nikolaj Vasil’evič Vasil’ev, whose awarded competition drawing for Belgrade Palace of Monopoly Administration and the Ministry of Finance (1908 has been partially addressed in the Serbian historiography. Albite comprehensive, it has never been fully examined in the architectural context from which it was derived.

  17. [Study on the vibrational spectra characterization of the "she tai cui" jade]. (United States)

    Chen, Quan-Li; Bao, De-Qing; Yin, Zuo-Wei; Yao, Wei


    The gemological testing methods, infrared absorption spectrum, Raman spectrum and X-ray powder diffraction were employed to study the gemological characteristics, spectral characteristics and structural features of the "She tai cui" jade. It is indicated that most "She tai cui" jade has the refractive index in the range of 1.53 to 1.54, and a density of 2.65-2.79 cm(-1), and the hardness of 6.5 to 7 in addition to the low hardness (quartzite jade, while the latter contains a certain amount of SiO2 (about 34.85%) and a trace amount of calcite and albite, and is attributed to the dolomite jade.

  18. Metallurgical characterization of kaolin from Atacama, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rivera

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to determine the exploitation potentiality of a kaolin deposit from Atacama in the north of Chile, two types of kaolin (K-1 and K-2 were characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM/EDXS, size distribution, whiteness and DSC. Kaolinite, quartz, muscovite and albite were recognized as main constituents of the ore deposit, and also a significant amount of impurities that negatively impacts on quality were detected. Results show that the low quality presented by the samples, especially K-2, impedes their industrial use as raw material and further mineral concentration processes are proposed. Finally, the results of thermal analysis confirm a conversion to metakaolin that could be the basis for an alternative processing route.

  19. Thermoluminescence response of the poly mineral fraction from hibiscus sabdariffa L foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Guzman, S. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Brown, F. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.m [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)


    Food processed by ionizing irradiation is a safe technology and has been recognized by the FAO/Who Codes Alimentarius Commission. It is an excellent method to prevent food spoilage and food borne diseases by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and slowing down ripening. The widespread use of food irradiation treatments that include spices, dry vegetables, grains and fruits make relevant the developing of methods for identification and analyses of foodstuffs processed by irradiation. The present work focuses on the thermoluminescence property of Mexican Roselle flower previously irradiated for detection purposes. The poly mineral content of irradiated commercial Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was extracted and analyzed by thermoluminescence (Tl). The X-ray diffraction analyses showed that quartz and albite composition for the poly mineral fraction. Different grain sizes; 10, 53, 74 and 149 {mu}m, were selected for the Tl analyses. The Tl glow curves depended on the grain sizes. The glow curves depicted two peaks around 92 and 120 C. The first peak was ascribed to quartz and the broad part of the glow curves (120-250 C) seems to correspond to the albite. Because the complex structure of the Tl glow curves from poly minerals the kinetic parameters were calculated by a fitting process using a deconvolution method based on a non-linear least-squares Levenberg-Ma quart. The values of the activation energy were found to be at 0.79-1.05 eV and 0.79-1.04 for 53 {mu}m and 250 {mu}m, respectively. The Tl properties of the samples were determined including dose response, reproducibly, fading and UV light bleaching. (Author)

  20. Further description of the petrology of the Topopah Spring member of the paintbrush tuff in drill holes UE25A-1 and USW-G1 and of the lithic-rich tuff in USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, P.I.; Caporuscio, F.A.; Bish, D.L.


    The Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the Lithic-rich tuff and two Tertiary volcanic units that occur in cores from drill holes UE25a-1 and USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Recently they have been suggested as possibly suitable for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive waste. Earlier petrologic characterization of these units is augmented here. The Topopah Spring Member (approximately 350 m thick) has two compound cooling units. The upper, thinner unit is densely welded to vitrophyric. The lower unit ranges from nonwelded to vitrophyric, and its nonwelded base is extensively zeolitized to clinoptilolite and mordenite. Heulandite occurs as fracture fill in the overlying vitrophyric part, but zeolites are absent above that vitrophyre. Here primary devitrification plus vapor-phase crystallization dominate the mineralogy. Vapor-phase effects are especially prominent between the two vitrophyres in both cores and include numerous large lithophysal cavities throughout most of this moderately to densely welded tuff. The Lithic-rich tuff extends from 1203 to 1506 m in the USW-G1 drill core. It is nonwelded to partly welded but is well indurated due to pervasive intergrowths of authigenic minerals. These phases are analcime, albite, alkali feldspar, sericite, chlorite and quartz. The transition from analcime to secondary albite corresponds to Iijima's zeolite Zone IV boundary, and this boundary appears in USW-G1 at 1326 m. However, analcime remains as a prominent phase through most of the Lithic-rich tuff. Further work is necessary to assess the suitability of either of these horizons for a waste repository. In the Topopah Spring Member, both mechanical and hydrologic properties of thick lithophysal zone must be studied, as well as the complete sequence of fracture fill. For both units, zeolite and clay mineral stabilities need to be investigated

  1. Petrography and geochemistry of granitoids from the Samphire Pluton, South Australia: Implications for uranium mineralisation in overlying sediments (United States)

    Domnick, Urs; Cook, Nigel J.; Bluck, Russel; Brown, Callan; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.


    The Blackbush uranium deposit (JORC Inferred Resource: 12,580 tonnes U), located on the north-eastern Eyre Peninsula, is currently the only sediment-hosted U deposit investigated in detail in the Gawler Craton. Uranium is hosted within Eocene sandstone of the Kanaka Beds, overlying Mesoproterozoic granites of the Samphire pluton, affiliated with the Hiltaba Intrusive Suite ( 1.6 Ga). These are considered the most probable source rocks for uranium mineralisation. By constraining the petrography and mineralogy of the granites, insights into the post-emplacement evolution can be gained, which may provide an exploration indicator for other sediment-hosted uranium systems. Three geochemically distinct granite types were identified in the Samphire Pluton and correspond to domains interpreted from geophysical data. All granites show complex alteration overprints and textures with increasing intensity closer to the deposit, as well as crosscutting veining. Alkali feldspar has been replaced by porous K-feldspar and albite, and plagioclase is overprinted by an assemblage of porous albite + sericite ± calc-silicates (prehnite, pumpellyite and epidote). This style of feldspar alteration is regionally widespread and known from Hiltaba-aged granites associated with iron-oxide copper‑gold mineralisation at Olympic Dam and in the Moonta-Wallaroo region. In two granite types biotite is replaced by calcic garnet. Calc-silicates are indicative of Ca-metasomatism, sourced from the anorthite component of altered plagioclase. Minor clay alteration of feldspars is present in all samples. Mineral assemblages in veins include quartz + hematite, hematite + coffinite, fluorite + quartz, and clay minerals. Minor chlorite and sericite are found in all vein types. All granite types are anomalously rich in U (concentrations between 10 and 81 ppm). Highly variable Th/U ratios, as well as hydrothermal U minerals (mostly coffinite) in granites and veins, are clear evidence for U mobility

  2. Dynamic Metasomatism: Stable Isotopes, Fluid Evolution, and Deformation of Albitite and Scapolite Metagabbro (Bamble Lithotectonic Domain, South Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane K. Engvik


    Full Text Available New stable isotopic data from mineral separates of albite, scapolite, amphibole, quartz, and calcite of metasomatic rocks (Bamble lithotectonic domain give increased knowledge on fluid type, source, and evolution during metamorphism. Albite from a variety of albitites gives δ18OSMOW values of 5.1–11.1‰, while quartz from clinopyroxene-bearing albitite gives 11.5–11.6‰. δ18OSMOW values for calcite samples varies between 3.4 and 12.4‰ and shows more consistent δ13C values of −4.6 to -6.0‰. Amphibole from scapolite metagabbro yields a δ18OSMOW value of 4.3 to 6.7‰ and δDSMOW value of −84 to −50‰, while the scapolite gives δ18OSMOW values in the range of 7.4 to 10.6‰. These results support the interpretation that the original magmatic rocks were metasomatised by seawater solutions with a possible involvement from magmatic fluids. Scapolitisation and albitisation led to contrasting chemical evolution with respect to elements like P, Ti, V, Fe, and halogens. The halogens deposited as Cl-scapolite were dissolved by albitisation fluid and reused as a ligand for metal transport. Many of the metal deposits in the Bamble lithotectonic domain, including Fe-ores, rutile, and apatite deposits formed during metasomatism. Brittle to ductile deformation concurrent with metasomatic infiltration illustrates the dynamics and importance of metasomatic processes during crustal evolution.

  3. Characterization of Origin and Evolution of Formation Water in Buried Hill of Jizhong Depression, China, Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Geochemical Data

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    Fei Li


    Full Text Available Groundwater samples from buried hill of Jizhong Depression were evaluated using two statistical analyses: hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA. The samples were classified into four clusters, C1–C4, in HCA and the hydrochemical types of C1–C4 are HCO3-Na, Cl·HCO3-Na, Cl-Na, and Cl-Na·Ca. From C1 to C2, C3, and C4, the water-rock interaction becomes increasingly intensive, and rNa/rCl gets lower while total dissolved solids and r(Cl-Na/rMg get higher. Three components of PCA explain 86.87% of the variance. Component1 (PC1, characterized by highly positive loadings in Na+ and Cl−, is related to evaporation concentration. Component2 (PC2 is defined by highly positive loading in HCO3- and is related to influence of atmospheric water. With high positive loadings in Ca2+ and high negative loadings in Na+ and SO42-, component3 (PC3 suggests plagioclase albitization. The combination of HCA and PCA within the hydrogeological contexts allowed the division of study area into five dynamic areas. From recharge area to discharge area, the influence of atmospheric water gets weaker and water-rock interactions such as evaporation concentration and plagioclase albitization become intensive. Therefore groundwater in buried hill showed paths of hydrochemical evolution, from C1, to C2, C3, and C4. Buried hill reservoir in Jizhong Depression is mainly distributed in hydrodynamic blocking and discharge area; therefore the two regions can be the favorable areas for petroleum migration.

  4. Supra-subduction zone extensional magmatism in Vermont and adjacent Quebec: Implications for early Paleozoic Appalachian tectonics (United States)

    Kim, J.; Coish, R.; Evans, M.; Dick, G.


    Metadiabasic intrusions of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite occur in fault-bounded lithotectonic packages containing Stowe, Moretown, and Cram Hill Formation lithologies in the northern Vermont Rowe-Hawley belt, a proposed Ordovician arc-trench gap above an east-dipping subduction zone. Rocks of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite are characteristically massive and weakly foliated, have chilled margins, contain xenoliths, and have sharp contacts that both crosscut and are parallel to early structural fabrics in the host metasedimentary rocks. Although the mineral assemblage of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite is albite + actinolite + epidote + chlorite + calcite + quartz, intergrowths of albite + actinolite are probably pseudomorphs after plagioclase + clinopyroxene. The metadiabases are subalkaline, tholeiitic, hypabyssal basalts with preserved ophitic texture. A backarc-basin tectonic setting for the intrusive suite is suggested by its LREE (light rare earth element) enrichment, negative Nb-Ta anomalies, and Ta/Yb vs. Th/Yb trends. Although no direct isotopic age data are available, the intrusions are broadly Ordovician because their contacts are clearly folded by the earliest Acadian (Silurian-Devonian) folds. Field evidence and geochemical data suggest compelling along-strike correlations with the Coburn Hill Volcanics of northern Vermont and the Bolton Igneous Group of southern Quebec. Isotopic and stratigraphic age constraints for the Bolton Igneous Group bracket these backarc magmas to the 477-458 Ma interval. A tectonic model that begins with east-dipping subduction and progresses to outboard west-dipping subduction after a syncollisional polarity reversal best explains the intrusion of deformed metamorphosed metasedimentary rocks by backarc magmas.

  5. Genesis and petrology of Late Neoproterozoic pegmatites and aplites associated with the Taba metamorphic complex in southern Sinai, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelfadil, K.M.; Asimow, P.D.; Azer, M.K.; Gahlan, H.A.


    We present new field, petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data from late Neoproterozoic pegmatites and aplites in southern Sinai, Egypt, at the northernmost limit of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The pegmatites cross-cut host rocks in the Taba Metamorphic Complex (TMC) with sharp contacts and are divided into massive and zoned pegmatites. Massive pegmatites are the most common and form veins, dykes and masses of variable dimensions; strikes range mainly from E-W through NW-SE to N-S. Mineralogically, the massive pegmatites are divided into K-feldspar-rich and albite-rich groups. Zoned pegmatites occur as lenses of variable dimensions, featuring a quartz core, an intermediate zone rich in K-feldspars and an outer finer-grained zone rich in albite. All compositions are highly evolved and display geochemical characteristics of post-collisional A-type granites: high SiO2, Na2O+K2O, FeO*/MgO, Ga/Al, Zr, Nb, Ga and Y alongside low CaO, MgO, Ba and Sr. They are rich in Rare Earth Elements (REE) and have extreme negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*= 0.03–0.09). A genetic linkage between the pegmatites, aplites and alkali granite is confirmed by their common mild alkaline affinity and many other geochemical characteristics. These pegmatites and aplites represent the last small fraction of liquid remaining after extensive crystallization of granitic magma, injected along the foliation and into fractures of the host metamorphic rocks. The extensional tectonic regime and shallow depth of emplacement are consistent with a post-collisional environment. (Author)

  6. Rubidium-rich feldspars and associated minerals from the Luolamäki pegmatite, Somero, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerstra, D.K.


    Full Text Available Rubidium feldspar occurs near the core zone of the highly fractionated petalite-subtype Luolamäki granitic pegmatite in intimate intergrowth with other feldspars which are part of a characteristic sequence of alteration of pollucite. Pods of pollucite are cut by 5-20 cm-wide veins of albite, petalite, non-perthitic microcline, lepidolite and quartz, by thinner veins of fine-grained micas and spodumene, and are replaced by metasomatic adularia. Grains of rubidium feldspar occur as a potentially ordered phase in the vein microcline in association with earlier-exsolved albite, and also as late thin (< 5 μm veinlets. Rubidium feldspar also occurs as a potentially disordered phase which crystallized along with metasomatic adularia. Both generations of (Rb,K-feldspar have a similar compositional range, close to the join KAlSi3O8-RbAlSi3O8, typically with up to ~21 wt.% Rb2O (~70 mol.% Rbf and with minor Cs, but neglible Na, Ca, Fe or P. Extreme compositions have 26.0 wt.% Rb2O (89.0 mol.% Rbf and 1.26 wt.% Cs2O (2.8 mol.% Csf. The diffuse compositional gradients from microcline to rubicline are consistent with a solid-state exsolution origin, followed by fluid-assisted textural coarsening which generates distinct phase boundaries. In contrast, metasomatic adularian (Rb,K-feldspar was precipitated at low temperature (250-150°C and fine-scale zoning with variable K/Rb is preserved as a growth feature.

  7. Modelling chemical depletion profiles in regolith (United States)

    Brantley, S.L.; Bandstra, J.; Moore, J.; White, A.F.


    Chemical or mineralogical profiles in regolith display reaction fronts that document depletion of leachable elements or minerals. A generalized equation employing lumped parameters was derived to model such ubiquitously observed patterns:C = frac(C0, frac(C0 - Cx = 0, Cx = 0) exp (??ini ?? over(k, ??) ?? x) + 1)Here C, Cx = 0, and Co are the concentrations of an element at a given depth x, at the top of the reaction front, or in parent respectively. ??ini is the roughness of the dissolving mineral in the parent and k???? is a lumped kinetic parameter. This kinetic parameter is an inverse function of the porefluid advective velocity and a direct function of the dissolution rate constant times mineral surface area per unit volume regolith. This model equation fits profiles of concentration versus depth for albite in seven weathering systems and is consistent with the interpretation that the surface area (m2 mineral m- 3 bulk regolith) varies linearly with the concentration of the dissolving mineral across the front. Dissolution rate constants can be calculated from the lumped fit parameters for these profiles using observed values of weathering advance rate, the proton driving force, the geometric surface area per unit volume regolith and parent concentration of albite. These calculated values of the dissolution rate constant compare favorably to literature values. The model equation, useful for reaction fronts in both steady-state erosional and quasi-stationary non-erosional systems, incorporates the variation of reaction affinity using pH as a master variable. Use of this model equation to fit depletion fronts for soils highlights the importance of buffering of pH in the soil system. Furthermore, the equation should allow better understanding of the effects of important environmental variables on weathering rates. ?? 2008.

  8. The Lagoa Real subalkaline granitic complex (south Bahia, Brazil): a source for uranium mineralizations associated with Na-Ca metasomatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruejol, P.; Cuney, M.; Poty, B.; Neto, A.M.


    In the central zone of the Sao Francisco Craton (South Bahia), the lower Proterozoic Lagoa Real granites and orthogneisses overthrust to the West the younger Urandi and Espinhaco metamorphic series, probably a late Brazilian event. This thrust is related to the regional metamorphism (amphibolite facies) of the Lagoa Real granites and induces a reverse HP metamorphism in the over thrusted series. Undeformed granites (sao Timoeto type) present two feldspars, perthitic orthoclase largely predominant over plagioclase (oligoclase ≥ albite), blue quartz, Fe-rich amphibole and biotite ± clinopyroxene assemblages, ilmenite ≥ magnetite, zircon, apatite, allanite and Nb ± Ti-REE oxides and silicates. The crystallization of the granites begins at high temperature and under low fO 2 and P H2O conditions. Fractional crystallization of pyroxene and plagioclase leads to silica enrichment during magmatic differentiation. Increasing fO 2 and P H2O are observed during this evolution. Orthogneisses show strongly recrystallized paragenesis: equal abundance of non-perthitic microcline and plagioclase (oligoclase ≤ albite), quartz, more Al-rich amphibole and biotite, magnetite, sphene, zircon, allanite, Nb ± Ti-REE oxides and silicates, and ± apatite. HT Na and Ca metasomatism occurs 330 Ma later than granite emplacement and is synchronous with important uranium mineralizations. Major elements and trace-elements geochemistry of the granites and orthogneisses indicate subalkaline to alkaline typology. Incompatible behaviour of Th, REE, Y, Zr, Nb, and F points out a convergence with alkaline magmatism. CI, F, Th, Y, REE, NB enrichments and Ba, Sr depletions are also related to a late magmatic stage. U-Th-rich and metamict accessory minerals of the granites represent a favorabl source for the Lagoa Real uranium ore-deposits [pt

  9. Characterization of pyroxenes associated with the uranium mineralization of the Jazida Cachoeira, Lagoa Real Uranium Province, Bahia State, Brazil; Caracterizacao de piroxenios associados a mineralizacao uranifera da Jazida Cachoeira, Provincia Uranifera de Lagoa Real, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rhaine Matos


    This work has as objective to contribute for the knowledge about the genesis of the Cachoeira uranium deposit (Lagoa Real Uranium Province, Bahia State, Brazil), characterizing pyroxenes (with emphasis in those associated with the uranium mineralization and those hosting inclusions) of the deposit and their associated inclusions. In function of the accomplished analyses, steps that should be followed to obtain and interpret data from fluid inclusions (FI), in the D09B XRF X-Ray Fluorescence Beam Line of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil, have been described. The analyzed pyroxenes are augites, diopsides and aegirine-augites, and intermediate terms, for example between augite and diopside, were detected. They presented two and three phases fluid inclusions being some, possible, primary ones. The three phases FI could present a birefringent solid phase. The pyroxenes presented, also, solid inclusions. The analysis of some solid inclusions revealed that they were albites. These albites are, probably, previous to the pyroxene host mineral. The obtained results indicated that the studied pyroxenes are associated to an important phase of caleic metasomatism. These pyroxenes are not totally associated to the precipitation of the uranium. In the petrographic study of the samples, two types of plagioclase were identified, one very altered and other less altered. Synchrotron light is a powerful tool for analyze FI. It was verified that care in the preparation of the sample, such as the selection of near-surface FI, are very important to obtain reliable data. In the studies with synchrotron light only the vanadium was detected in larger amount in the area that contained FI (in pyroxene), in relation to the control area, due, mainly, to experimental factors. The presence of this element it is not easy to interpret. Additional studies, on solid and fluid inclusion in pyroxene, and in other minerals, will be important to understand the Cachoeira uranium

  10. Petrography, Gamma Radiation Measurements and Dose Rate, Northeastern Um Ara Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghazy, N.M.


    The northern part of Um Ara alkali feldspar micro granite has subjected to extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking resulting in development of amazonitized and albitized zones, reflecting K- and Na metasomatism leading to gross enrichment in U and Th towards the more evolved phases (e.g., albitized zones). Spectrometric survey data indicate that eU in Dokhan volcanics has the range of 2 to 42 ppm with an average value of 10 ppm and in monzogranites. It varies from 3 to 13 ppm with an average of 7 ppm while in alkali feldspar microgranites eU contents vary from 3 to 282 ppm with an average value of 30 ppm. The (eTh) contents in Dokhan volcanics ranges from 5-51 ppm with an average 18 ppm, in monzogranites their content was in the range of 11 to 47 ppm with an average value of 27 ppm where it ranges from 14 to 83 ppm with an average 46 ppm in alkali feldspar granite. The enhanced uranium content in altered zones was attributed to disseminated and fracture filling uranophane, autonite, in addition to other U and Th bearing minerals (such as columbite, zircon, monazite, xenotime and fluorite). Gamma-radiation dose rate and annual effective dose equivalents in mSv/y, Radium equivalent activity, external (H e x) and internal hazard index (H i n) and gamma activity index (Iγ) for all investigated samples were calculated to assess the potential radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the studied granites. Alkali feldspar granite activities would suggest that caution must be taken when using granites as building materials because they have radioactivity above the proposed acceptable level.

  11. Origin of convex tetrads in rare earth element patterns of hydrothermally altered siliceous igneous rocks from the Zinnwald Sn W deposit, Germany (United States)

    Monecke, T.; Dulski, P.; Kempe, U.


    The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of whole rock samples from evolved granitic systems hosting rare metal deposits sometimes show a split into four consecutive curved segments, referred to as tetrads. In the present contribution, a rigorous statistical method is proposed that can be used to test whether geological significance should be attributed to tetrads that are only of limited size. The method involves a detailed evaluation of element and sample specific random and systematic errors that are constrained on the basis of independent repeated preparations and analyses of sample and reference materials. Application of the proposed method to samples from the granite-hosted Zinnwald Sn-W deposit, Germany, revealed that at least two tetrads in normalized whole rock REE patterns have to be analytically significant to rule out that fractional crystallization led to the unusual behavior of the REEs. Based on the analysis of altered albite granite and greisen samples from the endocontact of the Zinnwald granite massif, it is demonstrated that the lanthanide tetrad effect is responsible for the formation of the convex tetrads. Geological and petrological evidence suggests that the tetrads in the samples developed prior to greisenization and related cassiterite precipitation. In contrast to the endocontact samples, the rhyolitic wall rocks are typified by normalized REE patterns having tetrads that are variable in size and frequently close to the limit of analytical significance. The sizes of the tetrads apparently correlate with the intensity of albitization, but show no relation to subsequent alteration processes including greisenization and low-temperature argillization. This observation proves that curved segments in normalized whole rock REE patterns can be introduced during hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction.

  12. Geochemistry of the uranium mineralized Achala granitic complex, Argentina: Comparison with Hercynian peraluminous leucogranites of western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.; Leroy, J.; Valdiviezo, P.A.; Daziano, C.; Gamba, M.; Zarco, A.J.; Morello, O.; Ninci, C.; Molina, P.


    The Achala granitic complex belongs to the Sierras Pampeanas Hercynian belt, located west of the city of Cordoba, Argentina. This complex is very large (about 100 km N-S and 40 km E-W) and is composed of biotite, biotite with muscovite and muscovite with tourmaline granites intruded in amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks, along a main N 20 deg. E structural direction. Numerous uranium mineralizations are located within the granitic massif and tungsten mineralizations are present both in the enclosing metamorphic rocks and in the granite. The geochemistry of the granite has been studied in four test areas (Southern, Copina, Median and Don Vincente). Two test areas (Median and Don Vicente) present clear evidence of hydrothermal alteration: albitization and dequartzification similar to the French 'episyenites', silicification and argillic alteration. Potassic alteration is rare and weakly developed. The two test areas with hydrothermal alteration present a high uranium geochemical background (5-30 ppm). High thorium contents (up to 65 ppm) are essentially observed in the less differentiated granites of the Copina and Median areas. Thorium/uranium ratios are highly variable (1-10). Uranium minerals are related to different environments - (1) apatite-biotite enclave mineralized with uraninite and uranothorite, (2) gneiss from the contact metamorphism rim, (3) granite with incipient dequartzification, (4) granite associated with albitic episyenites and (5) silicified granite - but are all located in the two test areas presenting clear evidence of hydrothermal alteration. The three petrogenetic events are clearly related to very different mechanisms, separated from each other by several tens of millions of years in the west European Hercynian chain. In the same period the same succession of events leading to uranium deposits is observed in Argentina. 34 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  13. Direct Measurement of the Wettability of Minerals Using Atomic Force Microscopy (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Xu, L.; Lu, H.; Wang, H.; Shi, Y.


    The wettability of reservoir rock plays an essential role in affecting the states of fluids (water, oil, etc) in pores which are constructed with various minerals. The contact angle method, which is based on the optical microscope photographs of millimeter-sized droplets on a smooth mineral surface, is one of the most widely employed methods to evaluate the wettability of a rock. However, the real reservoir rocks are composed of several kinds of minerals and thus nonhomogeneous, which leads to different wettability at different location of the rock. The mineral grains are usually micrometer-sized so that the traditional optical contact angle method cannot obtain the wettability of different minerals in the rock. Here we used a tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM, MFP-3D-BIO, Asylum Research) to measure the contact angles of micrometer-sized water droplets on different minerals in a tight sand rock which is mainly composed of quartz, albite, potash feldspar and anorthite. The water droplets varied from submicron to several tens micron in diameter. With the optimization of tool and operation parameters, the AFM tip was well controlled so that the nanoscale morphology of the contact configuration between water film and the mineral surface can be obtained at high resolution without disturbing the liquid surface. The AFM results showed that the contact angles of water on quartz and albite were 30-40 ° and 37-45 °, respectively. The AFM method provides a new measure for the wettability evaluation of reservoir rocks, and it is with potential to be applied to oil and gas hydrate studies.

  14. Thermoluminescence response of the poly mineral fraction from hibiscus sabdariffa L foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Z, E.; Guzman, S.; Brown, F.; Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M.


    Food processed by ionizing irradiation is a safe technology and has been recognized by the FAO/Who Codes Alimentarius Commission. It is an excellent method to prevent food spoilage and food borne diseases by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and slowing down ripening. The widespread use of food irradiation treatments that include spices, dry vegetables, grains and fruits make relevant the developing of methods for identification and analyses of foodstuffs processed by irradiation. The present work focuses on the thermoluminescence property of Mexican Roselle flower previously irradiated for detection purposes. The poly mineral content of irradiated commercial Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was extracted and analyzed by thermoluminescence (Tl). The X-ray diffraction analyses showed that quartz and albite composition for the poly mineral fraction. Different grain sizes; 10, 53, 74 and 149 μm, were selected for the Tl analyses. The Tl glow curves depended on the grain sizes. The glow curves depicted two peaks around 92 and 120 C. The first peak was ascribed to quartz and the broad part of the glow curves (120-250 C) seems to correspond to the albite. Because the complex structure of the Tl glow curves from poly minerals the kinetic parameters were calculated by a fitting process using a deconvolution method based on a non-linear least-squares Levenberg-Ma quart. The values of the activation energy were found to be at 0.79-1.05 eV and 0.79-1.04 for 53 μm and 250 μm, respectively. The Tl properties of the samples were determined including dose response, reproducibly, fading and UV light bleaching. (Author)

  15. Mass change calculations of hydrothermal alterations within the volcanogenic metasediments hosted Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Halilar area, NW Turkey (United States)

    Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Abdelnasser, Amr; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa


    The Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization that is formed in the volcanogenic metasediments of Bagcagiz Formation at Balikesir province, NW Turkey, represents locally vein-type deposit as well as restricted to fault gouge zone directed NE-SW along with the lower boundary of Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granitic intrusion in the study area. Furthermore, This granite is traversed by numerous mineralized sheeted vein systems, which locally transgress into the surrounding metasediments. Therefore, this mineralization closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within brecciation, and quartz stockwork veining. The ore mineral assemblage includes chalcopyrite, galena, and some sphalerite with covellite and goethite formed during three phases of mineralization (pre-ore, main ore, and supergene) within an abundant gangue of quartz and calcite. The geologic and field relationships, petrographic and mineralogical studies reveal two alteration zones occurred with the Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization along the contact between the Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granite; pervasive phyllic alteration (quartz, sericite, and pyrite), and selective propylitic alteration (albite, calcite, epidote, sericite and/or chlorite). This work, by using the mass balance calculations, reports the mass/volume changes (gain and loss) of the chemical components of the hydrothermal alteration zones associated with Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Balikesir area (Turkey). It revealed that the phyllic alteration has enrichments of Si, Fe, K, Ba, and LOI with depletion of Mg, Ca, and Na reflect sericitization of alkali feldspar and destruction of ferromagnesian minerals. This zone has high Cu and Pb with Zn contents represents the main mineralized zone. On the other hand, the propylitic zone is characterized by addition of Ca, Na, K, Ti, P, and Ba with LOI and Cu (lower content) referring to the replacement of plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals by albite, calcite, epidote, and sericite

  16. Rare earth element and yttrium geochemistry applied to the genetic study of cryolite ore at the Pitinga Mine (Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando R.R. Minuzzi


    Full Text Available This work aims at the geochemical study of Pitinga cryolite mineralization through REE and Y analyses in disseminated and massive cryolite ore deposits, as well as in fluorite occurrences. REE signatures in fluorite and cryolite are similar to those in the Madeira albite granite. The highest ΣREE values are found in magmatic cryolite (677 to 1345 ppm; ΣREE is lower in massive cryolite. Average values for the different cryolite types are 10.3 ppm, 6.66 ppm and 8.38 ppm (for nucleated, caramel and white types, respectively. Disseminated fluorite displays higher ΣREE values (1708 and 1526ppm than fluorite in late veins(34.81ppm. Yttrium concentration is higher in disseminated fluorite and in magmatic cryolite. The evolution of several parameters (REEtotal, LREE/HREE, Y was followed throughout successive stages of evolution in albite granites and associated mineralization. At the end of the process, late cryolite was formed with low REEtotal content. REE data indicate that the MCD was formed by, and the disseminated ore enriched by (additional formation of hydrothermal disseminated cryolite, hydrothermal fluids, residual from albite granite. The presence of tetrads is poorly defined, although nucleated, caramel and white cryolite types show evidence for tetrad effect.Este trabalho enfoca a geoquímica de elementos terras raras (ETR e de Y no minério criolítico disseminado, no depósito criolítico maciço e na fluorita associada na mina Pitinga. As assinaturas de ETR na criolita e fluorita são similares àquelas do granito Madeira. Os maiores valores de SETR são encontrados na criolita magmática disseminada (677 a 1.345 ppm; SETR é menor na criolita maciça, com valores médios de 10,3 ppm, 6,66 ppm e 8,38 ppm, respectivamente, nos tipos de criolita nucleada, caramelo e branca. A fluorita magmática disseminada apresenta os valores mais altos de SETR (1.708 e 1.526 ppm, contrastando com a fluorita de veio tardio(34,81 ppm. A concentra

  17. Coordinated Analyses of Diverse Components in Whole Stardust Cometary Tracks (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S. R.; Clemett, S. J.; Nguyen, L. N.; Frank, D.


    enstatite. Their O isotopic compositions are in the range of meteoritic materials, implying that they originated in the inner Solar System. Complex aromatic hydrocarbons are distributed along aerogel tracks and in TPs. These organics are likely cometary but were affected by shock heating. Three TPs of track #147 and two of track 168 have completely different mineralogy. TP2 of track #147 entirely consists of Fe-Ni alloy (5 at% Ni) and TP3 contains Fa28 with partial olivine-pyroxene intergrowth and minor albite. TP4 contains pentlandite, Fe-olivine, albite and high Ca pyroxene with Na and Cr (kosmochlor component). TP1 of #168 contains Fe-olivine, albite and pentlandite, and the concentric TP2 has a core of olivine grains with co-existing indigenous amorphous SiO2 surrounded by a carbon mantle, which in turn is surrounded by a layer of compressed aerogel. The TP of the carrot track #112 is a 16O-rich forsteritic olivine grain that likely formed in the inner Solar System. The track also contains submicron-sized diamond grains of likely Solar System origin.

  18. Pegmatite geology of the Shelby district, North Carolina (United States)

    Griffitts, Wallace R.


    The Shelby district is divided into a northwestern and a southeastern province. The rocks in the southeastern province include various units in the Battleground schist formation and the Yorkville granodiorite. Those in the northwestern province include the Carolina gneiss, with its Shelby gneiss member, and the Toluca quartz monzonite. The Cherryville quartz monzonite forms a batholith that is just west of the boundary between the two provinces. Pegmatites related to both the Toluca and the Cherryville quartz monzonites lie in the Carolina gneiss and many dikes of pegmatite that are related to the Cherryville quartz monzonite are in the tin-spodumene belt that lies along the boundary between provinces. The rocks of the southeastern province have been bent into steep isoclinal folds; those of the northwestern province were bent into open folds and gently-dipping isoclinal folds. The rocks to the southeast have been metamorphosed in the epidote-amphibolite facies whereas the rocks to the northwest represent the amphibolite or granulite facies. The pegmatites related to the Toluca quartz monzonite form sills, dikes, and concordant lenses in the Carolina gneiss, as well as dikes in the Toluca quartz monzonite. The bodies are unzoned and consist mainly of gneissic microcline-plagioclase-quartz pegmatite. The pegmatites related to the Cherryville quartz monzonite form dikes and disconformable lenses in the Carolina gneiss and the Toluca quartz monzonite. These pegmatites range widely in composition and many are zoned. The dikes west of the Cherryville batholith are rich in muscovite and plagioclase and may contain no microcline or only a moderate amount of microcline. Quartz cores and microcline-rich intermediate zones are common. Similar pegmatite forms dikes along the west edge of the tin-spodumene belt. The tin-spodumene belt containes albite-microcline-spodumene-quartz pegmatite. These dikes of albitic pegmatite are largest and most nearly parallel to one another

  19. The Fluid History of Jadeitites Near the Motagua Fault, Guatemala, as Revealed by Stable Isotope and Elemental Geochemistry (United States)

    Niespolo, E. M.; Holk, G. J.; Neff, H.


    Stable isotopes and elemental geochemistry reveal a complex fluid history for jadeitites exposed both north and south of the Motagua Fault Zone (MFZ) in Guatemala. A companion study (Niespolo et al., 2014) utilized these data to source Mesoamerican jadeitite artifacts, as this region is the only source for such materials. Materials studied include jadeitites that range from 71% to 95% jadeite with minor albite and white mica. Jadeitites north of the MFZ have δ18OJadeite = +9.2±0.6‰ (n=6), δ18OAlbite = +9.4±0.3 (n=2), δ18OWhiteMica = +9.8±0.3 (n=3), and δDWhiteMica = -52± 4‰ (n=3). Jadeite δ18O values are 2-5‰ higher than those reported by Johnson and Harlow (1999), suggesting a diverse fluid history north of the MFZ. Water in apparent equilibrium at 400°C with north MFZ jadeitite has δ18O = +8.5‰ and δD = -25‰. Jadeites from Carrizal Grande south of the MFZ have δ18OJadeite = +6.8±0.6‰ (n=7), δ18OWhiteMica = +9.0±1.2 (n=6), and δDWhiteMica = -42±2‰ (n=5), with δ18OH2O = +6.4‰ and δDH2O = -15‰. In contrast, jadeitites from La Cieba south of the MFZ have δ18OJadeite = +7.5±1.4‰ (n=5), δ18OAlbite = +9.0, δ18OWhiteMica = +9.7±0.1 (n=2), and δDWhiteMica = -42±0‰ (n=2), with δ18OH2O = +7.2‰ and δDH2O = -14‰. Calculated fluids are consistent with those associated with the alteration of serpentinite in a subduction zone setting (e.g., Harlow and Sorenson, 2005). White mica, albite and jadeite are out of 18O/16O equilibrium. This suggests post-jadeite isotopic exchange, possibly during exhumation. North MFZ jadeites are enriched in Rb, Ba, Sc, Pb and Nd, and depleted in Sr, Ti, V, and Cr relative to chondrites. Carrizal Grande jadeites are depleted in Sr, Zr, V, and Cr, and enriched in REE and Rb.

  20. Geochronology and geochemistry of the granites from the Zhuxi W-Cu ore deposit in South China: Implication for petrogenesis, geodynamical setting and mineralization (United States)

    Pan, Xiaofei; Hou, Zengqian; Zhao, Miao; Chen, Guohua; Rao, Jianfeng; Li, Yan; Wei, Jin; Ouyang, Yongpeng


    The giant Zhuxi tungsten deposit is located in the Taqian-Fuchun Ore Belt in northeastern Jiangxi province, and genetically associated with the Zhuxi granitic stocks and dykes. Three mineralization-related granites including granite porphyry dykes (GP), biotite granitic stocks (BG), and white granitic dykes (WG), were identified in the Zhuxi deposit. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb analysis for the three granitic rocks present ages ranging from 153.5 ± 1.0 Ma to 150.4 ± 1.0 Ma. The BG mainly contains quartz, microcline, albite, biotite and muscovite with minor accessory minerals including zircon, apatite, monazite, Ti/Fe oxides, and dolerite. However, the WG is mainly composed of quartz, microcline and albite with minor muscovite and accessory minerals. The GP is a medium-grained porphyritic granite and its phenocrysts include quartz, alkali feldspar, muscovite and plagioclase. All the Zhuxi granites have high SiO2 content (71.97 wt%-81.19 wt%) and total alkali (3.25 wt%-9.42 wt%), and their valid aluminum saturation index (ASI) values show a wide range of 1.03 to 2.49. High Rb/Sr ratios, low Sr content (values fall into the ranges of -6.98 to -11.97, and -3.1 to -11.5, and the Nd (TDM2) and Hf two-stage model ages (TDMc) are 1.51-1.92 Ga and 1.42-2.01 Ga, respectively. Geochemical and isotopic data suggest that these highly fractionated I-S transform-type granites were originated from magmas which showed affinity with the Proterozoic continent and the Shuangqiaoshan Group and little mantle contribution was involved during the generation of Zhuxi granitic rocks. Extreme fractional crystallization resulted in further enrichment of tungsten in the evolved granitic magma. New data, presented together with previously published data, suggest that the Zhuxi granitic complex was likely to be formed during lithospheric compression setting during the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous. The biotite granite stock predominately contributed to the production of skarn alteration and

  1. Mineral equilibria and zircon, garnet and titanite U-Pb ages constraining the PTt path of granite-related hydrothermal systems at the Big Bell gold deposit, Western Australia (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; McNaughton, Neal J.


    The Big Bell deposit (75 t gold) is located in a narrow spur of the Meekatharra greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Two ore bodies are located in a calcic-potassic contact alteration zone overprinting lineated granodiorite dykes and amphibolite: almandine-cummingtonite-hornblende skarn (1-3 g/t Au, 1700 g/t As, 330 g/t W) and the muscovite-microcline gneiss (3-5 g/t Au, 580 g/t Sb, 620 g/t W) of the Main Lode. Genetic models vary from pre- to post-metamorphic replacement. Hornblende-plagioclase pairs in amphibolite constrain peak metamorphic temperature to 670 ± 50 °C. In contrast, garnet-biotite thermometry provides estimates of 578 ± 50 and 608 ± 50 °C for garnet-cordierite-biotite schist bordering the skarn and enveloping the Main Lode. Garnet-cordierite and garnet-hornblende pairs extend the range of fluid temperature to 540 ± 65 °C, well below peak metamorphic temperature. At 540-600 °C, the alteration assemblage andalusite + sillimanite constrains pressure to 300-400 MPa corresponding to 11-14 km crustal depth. Published U-Pb ages indicate that metamorphism took place in the aureole of the southeast granodiorite-tonalite batholith (2740-2700 Ma), followed by gold mineralization at 2662 ± 5 Ma and by the emplacement of biotite granite and Sn-Ta-Nb granite-pegmatite dykes at 2625-2610 Ma. Amphibolite xenoliths in granite northwest of the deposit record the lowest temperature (628 ± 50 °C), suggesting it lacks a metamorphic aureole. The rare metal dykes are spatially associated with epidote-albite and andradite-diopside skarns (≤1.5 g/t Au), mined where enriched in the weathered zone. We analysed hydrothermal zircon intergrown with andradite. Concordant U-Pb ages of 2612 ± 7 and 2609 ± 10 Ma confirm the presence of a second granite-related system. The zircons display oscillatory zoning and have low Th/U ratios (0.05-0.08). Low-Th titanite from an albite granite dyke has a concordant but reset U-Pb age of 2577 ± 7 Ma.

  2. Unusually abundant refractory inclusions from Sahara 97159 (EH3): a comparative study with other groups of chondrites (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Kimura, M.; Hiyagon, H.; Monoi, A.


    Sixty-eight refractory inclusions and fragments were found in two polished thin sections of the Sahara 97159 EH3 chondrite, indicative of the highest abundance of refractory inclusions (22/cm 2, or 0.06 vol.%) in enstatite chondrites studied to date. All of the inclusions are intensely altered, mainly producing feldspathoids and albite, CaO depletion and minor Ti-rich compounds, such as Ti-sulfides. The alteration assemblages and FeO-poor spinel suggest that the reactions took place under reducing and SiO 2-rich conditions. This is consistent with the redox state of the host enstatite chondrite. The presence of Ti sulfides and low FeO alteration phases distinguishes alteration of E chondrite refractory inclusions from that of carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. Most of the inclusions are referred to as Type A-like (35) and spinel-rich (26), respectively. Assuming melilite has been altered, these inclusions could be analogues of individual concentrically zoned objects of fluffy melilite-spinel-rich (Type A) and spinel-pyroxene-rich inclusions from carbonaceous chondrites such as the Ningqiang (CV anomalous) and Y 81020 (CO3) chondrites. Two inclusions consist mainly of Ca-pyroxene, fine-grained alteration products (feldspathoids and albite) and spinel. They are probably altered fragments of Ca-pyroxene-plagioclase-rich (Type C) inclusions, assuming all plagioclase has been altered to produce the fine-grained groundmass. Five other inclusions are hibonite and/or corundum bearing, similar to those reported in carbonaceous chondrites. Abundance ratios of various types of the inclusions from Sahara 97159 are similar to those from Ningqiang and Y 81020. Most of the observations, including mineral assemblages, mineral chemistry, texture, bulk compositions, O isotopic compositions and REE patterns, of the Sahara inclusions suggest a common reservoir of refractory inclusions in enstatite, ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. The apparent differences, such as absence of

  3. Petrology, chronology and sequence of vein systems: Systematic magmatic and hydrothermal history of a major intracontinental shear zone, Canadian Appalachians (United States)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.; McFarlane, Chris R. M.; Sangster, Chris; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Boucher, Brandon


    Intra-continental shear zones developed during continental collision may experience prolonged magmatism and mineralization. The Cobequid Shear Zone formed part of a NE-SW-trending, orogen-parallel shear system in the late Devonian-early Carboniferous, where syn-tectonic granite-gabbro plutons and volcanic rocks 4 km thick were progressively deformed. In late Carboniferous to Permian, Alleghanian collision of Africa with Laurentia formed the E-W trending Minas Fault Zone, reactivating parts of the Cobequid Shear Zone. The 50 Ma history of hydrothermal mineralization following pluton emplacement is difficult to resolve from field relationships of veins, but SEM study of thin sections provides clear detail on the sequence of mineralization. The general paragenesis is: albite ± quartz ± chlorite ± monazite → biotite → calcite, allanite, pyrite → Fe-carbonates, Fe-oxides, minor sulfides, calcite and synchysite. Chronology was determined from literature reports and new U-Pb LA-ICPMS dating of monazite and allanite in veins. Vein mineralization was closely linked to magmatic events. Vein emplacement occurred preferentially during fault movement recognised from basin-margin inversion, as a result of fractures opening in the damage zone of master faults. The sequence of mineralization, from ca. 355 Ma riebeckite and albite veins to ca. 327 (-305?) Ma siderite-magnetite and sulfide mineralization, resembles Precambrian iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) systems in the literature. The abundant magmatic Na, halogens and CO2 in veins and some magmatic bodies, characteristic of IOCG systems, were derived from the deeply subducted Rheic Ocean slab with little terrigenous sediment. Regional extension of the Magdalen Basin caused asthenospheric upwelling and melting of the previously metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Crustal scale strike-slip faulting facilitated the rise of magmas, resulting in high heat flow driving an active hydrothermal system. Table S2

  4. Mineral Replacement Reactions as a Precursor to Strain Localisation: an (HR-)EBSD approach (United States)

    Gardner, J.; Wheeler, J.; Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Mariani, E.


    Much remains to be learned about the links between metamorphism and deformation. Our work investigates the behaviour of fluid-mediated mineral replacement reaction products when exposed to subsequent shear stresses. We focus on albite from a metagabbro that has experienced metamorphism and subsequent deformation at greenschist facies, resulting in a reduction in grain size and associated strain localisation. EBSD maps show that prior to grain size reduction, product grains are highly distorted, yet they formed, and subsequently deformed, at temperatures at which extensive dislocation creep is unlikely. The Weighted Burgers Vector can be used to quantitatively describe the types of Burgers vectors present in geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) populations derived from 2-D EBSD map data. Application of this technique to the distorted product grains reveals the prominence of, among others, dislocations with apparent [010] Burgers vectors. This supports (with some caveats) the idea that dislocation creep is not responsible for the observed lattice distortion, as there are no known slip systems in plagioclase with a [010] Burgers vector. Distortion in a replacement microstructure has also been attributed to the presence of nanoscale product grains, which share very similar, but not identical, orientations due to topotactic nucleation from adjacent sites on the same substrate. As a precipitate, the product grains should be expected to be largely free of elastic strain. However, high angular resolution EBSD results demonstrate that product grains contain both elastic strains (> 10-3) and residual stresses (several hundred MPa), as well as GND densities on the order of 1014-1015 m-2. Thus we suggest the observed distortion (elastic strain plus rotations) in the lattice is produced during the mineral replacement reaction by a lattice mismatch and volume change between parent and product. Stored strain energy then provides a driving force for recovery and

  5. Origin of CaCl2 brines by basalt-seawater interaction: Insights provided by some simple mass balance calculations (United States)

    Hardie, Lawrence A.


    Modern rift zone hydrothermal brines are typically CaCl2-bearing brines, an unusual chemical signature they share with certain oil field brines, fluid inclusions in ore minerals and a few uncommon saline lakes. Many origins have been suggested for such CaCl2 brines but in the Reykjanes, Iceland, geothermal system a strong empirical case can be made for a basalt-seawater interaction origin. To examine this mechanism of CaCl2 brine evolution some simple mass balance calculations were carried out. Average Reykjanes olivine tholeiite was “reacted” with average North Atlantic seawater to make an albite-chlorite-epidotesphene rock using Al2O3 as the conservative rock component and Cl as the conservative fluid component. The excess components released by the basalt to the fluid were “precipitated” at 275° C as quartz, calcite, anhydrite, magnetite and pyrite to complete the conversion to greenstone. The resulting fluid was a CaCl2 brine of seawater chlorinity with a composition remarkably similar to the actual Reykjanes brine at 1750 m depth. Thus, the calculations strongly support the idea that the Reykjanes CaCl2 brines result from “closed system” oceanic basalt-seawater interaction (albitization — chloritization mechanism) at greenschist facies temperatures. The calculation gives a seawater: basalt mass ratio of 3∶1 to 4∶1 (vol. ratio of 9∶1 to 12∶1), in keeping with experimental results, submarine vent data and with ocean crust cooling calculations. The brine becomes anoxic because there is insufficient dissolved or combined oxygen to balance all the Fe released from the basalt during alteration. Large excesses of Ca are released to the fluid and precipitate out in the form of anhydrite which essentially sweeps the brine free of sulfate leaving an elevated Ca concentration. The calculated rock-water interaction basically involves Na + Mg + SO4 ⇌ Ca + K, simulating chemical differences observed between oceanic basalts and greenstones from many

  6. Nanoscale transient porosity controls large-scale metamorphic fluid flow (United States)

    Plümper, Oliver; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn


    The reaction of fluids with rocks is fundamental for Earth's dynamics as they facilitate heat/mass transfer and induce volume changes, weaknesses and instabilities in rock masses that localize deformation enabling tectonic responses to plate motion. During these fluid-rock interactions it is the ability of a rock to transmit fluid, its permeability, that controls the rates of metamorphic reactions. However, although some geological environments (e.g., sediments) are open to fluids, the majority of solid rocks (e.g., granites, elcogites, peridotites, etc.) are nearly impermeable. Surprisingly though, even in rocks that are nominally impermeable widespread fluid-rock interactions are observed leading to the question: How can fluids migrate through vast amounts of nominally impermeable rocks? Here we investigate one of the most wide-spread fluid-mediated metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust, the albitization of feldspatic rocks. We show that fluid flow and element mobilization during albitization is controlled by an interaction between grain boundary diffusion and reaction front migration through an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation process. Using a combination of focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)-assisted nanotomography combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the porosity is dictated by pore channels with a pore diameter ranging between 10 to 100 nm. Three-dimensional visualization of the feldspar pore network reveals that the pore channels must have been connected during the replacement reaction. Analysis of the pore aspect ratios suggests that a Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability associated to surface energy minimization caused the disconnection of the pore channels. Fluid transport in nanometer-sized objects with at least one characteristic dimension below 100 nm enables the occurrence of physical phenomena that are impossible at bigger length scales. Thus, on the basis of our microstructural

  7. Self-induced nanofluidic transport enables crustal-scale metamorphism (United States)

    Plümper, Oliver; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Liu, Yang; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn


    The reaction of fluids with rocks is fundamental for Earth's dynamics as they facilitate heat/mass transfer and induce volume changes, weaknesses and instabilities in rock masses that localize deformation enabling tectonic responses to plate motion. During these fluid-rock interactions it is the ability of a rock to transmit fluid, its permeability, that controls the rates of metamorphic reactions. However, although some geological environments (e.g., sediments) are open to fluids, the majority of solid rocks (e.g., granites, elcogites, peridotites, etc.) are nearly impermeable. Surprisingly though, even in rocks that are nominally impermeable widespread fluid-rock interactions are observed leading to the question: How can fluids migrate through vast amounts of nominally impermeable rocks? Here we investigate one of the most wide-spread fluid-mediated metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust, the albitization of feldspatic rocks. We show that fluid flow and element mobilization during albitization is controlled by an interaction between grain boundary diffusion and reaction front migration through an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation process. Using a combination of focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)-assisted nanotomography combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) we show that the porosity is dictated by pore channels with a pore diameter ranging between 10 to 100 nm. Three-dimensional visualization of the feldspar pore network reveals that the pore channels must have been connected during the replacement reaction. Analysis of the pore aspect ratios suggests that a Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability associated to surface energy minimization caused the disconnection of the pore channels. Fluid transport in nanometer-sized objects with at least one characteristic dimension below 100 nm enables the occurrence of physical phenomena that are impossible at bigger length scales. Thus, on the basis of our microstructural

  8. Thermoluminescent dependence with the particle size in ionized foods by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuffer Z, C.A.


    The influence of the particle size of poly minerals in the signals of the thermally stimulated luminescence (TL) is analysed. The poly minerals were extracted of Mexican spices such as Origanum vulgare L. (origanum) and Capsicum annum (Chilli guajillo), these underwent to an homogenization process to obtain four different particle sizes corresponding to 149, 74, 53 and 10 μ m, and later on to expose them to gamma radiation in an interval of 0.5- 45 kGy in the Gamma beam 651 PT of 60 Co irradiator of the Nuclear Sciences Institute, UNAM. The glow curves show a maximum of TL intensity for Capsicum annum to dose of 0.5- 10 kGy with particle size selected by means of a mesh of opening of 53 μ m, while for Origanum vulgare L., the more intense emission is observed with 149 μ m. In the interval of dose 12- 45 kGy the maximum in intensity emission it was presented in 53 μ m in both cases. For the case of 10 μ m, the TL emissions were of smaller intensity, and were achieved glow curves in a clear, defined way and an overlapping that allows to center the maximum of TL emission, in a defined temperature 126 C for Origanum vulgare L., and 166 C for Capsicum annum. The behavior before described is related with the composition of the samples. For Capsicum annum it was found Quartz (60%), Albite (30%) and Ortosa (10%), while Origanum vulgare stops L., Quartz (50%), Calcite (20%), Albite (20%) and Clay (10%). The homogenization of the samples is an important factor because exists high probability of avoiding as much as possible rests of organic matter traces that can contribute to the total signal of the glow curves. Likewise the defects that pollute from a natural way to each one of the minerals found in the samples, they play an outstanding role in the TL emissions. Although to the interacting the gamma radiation with the poly minerals of different particle sizes, there is a certain energy transfer that will be translated in the absorbed dose and this it will depend on the

  9. Hydrologic Transport of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Its Control on Chemical Weathering (United States)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Parolari, Anthony J.; Porporato, Amilcare


    Chemical weathering is one of the major processes interacting with climate and tectonics to form clays, supply nutrients to soil microorganisms and plants, and sequester atmospheric CO2. Hydrology and dissolution kinetics have been emphasized as factors controlling chemical weathering rates. However, the interaction between hydrology and transport of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in controlling weathering has received less attention. In this paper, we present an analytical model that couples subsurface water and chemical molar balance equations to analyze the roles of hydrology and DIC transport on chemical weathering. The balance equations form a dynamical system that fully determines the dynamics of the weathering zone chemistry as forced by the transport of DIC. The model is formulated specifically for the silicate mineral albite, but it can be extended to other minerals, and is studied as a function of percolation rate and water transit time. Three weathering regimes are elucidated. For very small or large values of transit time, the weathering is limited by reaction kinetics or transport, respectively. For intermediate values, the system is transport controlled and is sensitive to transit time. We apply the model to a series of watersheds for which we estimate transit times and identify the type of weathering regime. The results suggest that hydrologic transport of DIC may be as important as reaction kinetics and dilution in determining chemical weathering rates.

  10. A mineralogical investigation of a uranium-bearing phosphatic siltstone from Tsongnapan, Northwestern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynard, H.J.


    A sample of uranium-bearing phosphatic siltstone from Tsongnapan in the Northwestern Cape Province was investigated mineralogically. The siltstone consists of cyclically alternating apatite- and calcite spherulite-rich layers. The calcite content of the rock is 11,4% and the apatite content is 42,1%. The groundmass shows the presence of the following elements: Si, Ca, P, Fe, Mg, K, Al, Cu and Zn. Detrital quartz, albite and magnetite are mainly confined to calcite spherulitic layers. The uranium content of the siltstone is 1 120 ppm U 3 O 8 and the thorium content 638 ppm ThO 2 . Both uranium and thorium occur mainly in the apatite-rich groundmass and to a minor extent in subsidiary monazite and zircon. Laboratory-scale metallurgical tests showed that the uranium is almost wholly leachable by hydrochloric acid while sulphuric and acetic acid dissolve only a small percentage of the uranium with concomitant formation of calcium sulphate. The rock probably formed in a low-energy regime in a marine environment where apatite and calcite spherulites crystallised from a possibly colloidal state [af

  11. Using presence of calcite cap rock in shales to predict occurrence of reservoirs composed of leached secondary porosity in the geopressured zone. Annual report, June 1, 1980-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, W.R.; Magara, K.; Milliken, K.L.; Richmann, D.L.


    The distribution of high-resistivity shale in the Frio Formation between hydropressured and geopressured strata has been mapped along the Texas Gulf Coast. Two high-resistivity intervals more than 1000 ft thick have been mapped, one in Brazoria and Galveston Counties and the other in Kenedy County. They coincide with Frio delta systems and may be related to extraordinary quantities of CO/sub 2/ produced by deltaic sediments rich in woody and herbaceous matter. Beyond being calcareous, the nature of the high-resistivity interval is enigmatic and its relationship to deep secondary porosity problematic. Most of the contained carbonate is microscopically and isotopically skeletal in origin, revealing no evidence of diagenetic modification. Minor rhombs of iron-bearing carbonate tens of microns in size were identified. Detrital feldspar compositions are being established to test subsequent changes in feldspar composition resulting from progressive burial and albitization. Hydrolysis reactions for authigenic minerals and reactions between key pairs of minerals have been written. Thermodynamic functions for complex phyllosilicates at temperatures up to 200/sup 0/C have been calculated. From thermodynamic calculations it was predicted that ferroan calcite would be the favored authigenic carbonate in shales.

  12. Microstructural and magnetic characterization of dusts from a stone crushing industry in Birbhum, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan, WB 731235 (India); Intitut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Mandal, H. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan, WB 731235 (India); Roy, M. [Microelectronics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Kusz, J.; Zubko, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Guetlich, P. [Intitut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)


    Stone dust sample collected from a stone crushing industry situated at Muhammad Bazar in Birbhum, India, is studied for its physical characterization using various techniques. Morphology and compositional analysis of the stone dust by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the dust is an agglomeration of many tiny particles (0.32-2.12 {mu}m), mostly having sharp edges, as well show microstructure heterogeneity. Elements present in the sample are detected by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis shows that the sample mainly contains minerals like anorthite, augite, esseneite and albite. An overall antiferromagnetic interaction in this sample has been indicated by the nature of the thermal dependence of magnetization. The remnant magnetization study apparently indicates two magnetic transitions at low temperatures. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy has been employed to detect different possible iron sites as well as to estimate the respective site population. In general, Moessbauer spectroscopic results corroborate the observations made through XRD analysis in general.

  13. Microstructural and magnetic characterization of dusts from a stone crushing industry in Birbhum, India (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Mandal, H.; Roy, M.; Kusz, J.; Zubko, M.; Gütlich, P.


    Stone dust sample collected from a stone crushing industry situated at Muhammad Bazar in Birbhum, India, is studied for its physical characterization using various techniques. Morphology and compositional analysis of the stone dust by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the dust is an agglomeration of many tiny particles (0.32-2.12 μm), mostly having sharp edges, as well show microstructure heterogeneity. Elements present in the sample are detected by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis shows that the sample mainly contains minerals like anorthite, augite, esseneite and albite. An overall antiferromagnetic interaction in this sample has been indicated by the nature of the thermal dependence of magnetization. The remnant magnetization study apparently indicates two magnetic transitions at low temperatures. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy has been employed to detect different possible iron sites as well as to estimate the respective site population. In general, Mössbauer spectroscopic results corroborate the observations made through XRD analysis in general.

  14. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer. (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina


    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  15. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiza Abdul Razak


    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  16. Equilibration conditions of eclogite lenses from Isla Margarita, Venezuela: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the metasedimentary Juan Griego Group (United States)

    Bocchio, R.; De Capitani, L.; Liborio, G.; Maresch, W. V.; Mottana, A.


    The constituent primary and secondary minerals in a suite of fifteen samples of eclogite, amphibole-eclogite and garnet-amphibolite, scattered as boudins and pods in metapelitic schists and gneisses on Isla Margarita, Venezuela, have been analysed by electron microprobe to augment existing bulk-rock chemical data. The large sample population available allows spurious effects of stoichiometric Fe 3+ calculation procedures and bulk-rock influence to be recognised and eliminated. All samples belong to one population with a relatively homogeneous character. The equilibration temperatures are derived from {Fe 2+}/{Mg} fractionation between garnet and clinopyroxene and range from 525-650 °C. Jadeite contents of clinopyroxene and the persistence of minor stable albite constrain pressures to between 13 and 19 kbar. Combined with new evidence for high-pressure metamorphism in the enclosing metapelites and with existing data on an eclogitic metabasic unit exposed in north-eastern Isla Margarita (La Rinconada Group), these data show convincingly that the Margarita crustal block is and has been a relatively coherent unit ever since the entire complex suffered high-pressure metamorphism in Late Mesozoic times.

  17. Trace elements in feldspars and micas in granite pegmatites from northern Minas Gerais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, R.R.


    A contribution to the geochemistry of granite pegmatites in Minas Gerais, Brazil is presented. Special emphasis is given to trace element contents in feldspars and muscovites of 25 different pegmatites and their geochemical significance. 180 potassium feldspars 110 albites and 64 muscovites have been analized. It could be demonstrated, that the trace element distributions in feldspars taken along cross-sections through some pegmatite bodies, show some regularities in those, which have a relatively simple mineralization. Other ones with a more complex composition are more characterize by a lack of these conformities. Potassium feldspars from pegmatites with a significant phosphate compound, on the average include more than 0.30% P 2 O 5 . Those of pegmatites with an extend Li-admixture contain more than 90 ppm Li. These observations may be useful to help classificate little known pegmatites in respect to economical purposes. Late formed muscovites from highly differenciated pegmatites contain beyond others - increased contents of Zn and Ga. This, too, may be a useful indicator to the further discovery of these kind of pegmatites, mostly enriched in minerals of economic interest. (Author) [pt

  18. A kinetics database and scripts for PHREEQC (United States)

    Hu, B.; Zhang, Y.; Teng, Y.; Zhu, C.


    Kinetics of geochemical reactions has been increasingly used in numerical models to simulate coupled flow, mass transport, and chemical reactions. However, the kinetic data are scattered in the literature. To assemble a kinetic dataset for a modeling project is an intimidating task for most. In order to facilitate the application of kinetics in geochemical modeling, we assembled kinetics parameters into a database for the geochemical simulation program, PHREEQC (version 3.0). Kinetics data were collected from the literature. Our database includes kinetic data for over 70 minerals. The rate equations are also programmed into scripts with the Basic language. Using the new kinetic database, we simulated reaction path during the albite dissolution process using various rate equations in the literature. The simulation results with three different rate equations gave difference reaction paths at different time scale. Another application involves a coupled reactive transport model simulating the advancement of an acid plume in an acid mine drainage site associated with Bear Creek Uranium tailings pond. Geochemical reactions including calcite, gypsum, and illite were simulated with PHREEQC using the new kinetic database. The simulation results successfully demonstrated the utility of new kinetic database.

  19. Experimental Study of Cement - Sandstone/Shale - Brine - CO2 Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Susan A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive-transport simulation is a tool that is being used to estimate long-term trapping of CO2, and wellbore and cap rock integrity for geologic CO2 storage. We reacted end member components of a heterolithic sandstone and shale unit that forms the upper section of the In Salah Gas Project carbon storage reservoir in Krechba, Algeria with supercritical CO2, brine, and with/without cement at reservoir conditions to develop experimentally constrained geochemical models for use in reactive transport simulations. Results We observe marked changes in solution composition when CO2 reacted with cement, sandstone, and shale components at reservoir conditions. The geochemical model for the reaction of sandstone and shale with CO2 and brine is a simple one in which albite, chlorite, illite and carbonate minerals partially dissolve and boehmite, smectite, and amorphous silica precipitate. The geochemical model for the wellbore environment is also fairly simple, in which alkaline cements and rock react with CO2-rich brines to form an Fe containing calcite, amorphous silica, smectite and boehmite or amorphous Al(OH3. Conclusions Our research shows that relatively simple geochemical models can describe the dominant reactions that are likely to occur when CO2 is stored in deep saline aquifers sealed with overlying shale cap rocks, as well as the dominant reactions for cement carbonation at the wellbore interface.

  20. Propagation of a hyperalkaline plume into the geological barrier surrounding a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtner, P.C.; Eikenberg, J.


    A coupled geochemical transport model (MPATH) which includes chemical reaction kinetics is used to evaluate the alteration of Swiss argillaceous sediments in a high-pH environment and to predict the spatial propagation of the hyperalkaline plume with time. The calculations predict dissolution of quartz, clay minerals and chlorite, and precipitation of zeolite minerals such as analcime and natrolite as well as he feldspars K-feldspar and albite. In addition, Portland cement-hydrates such as calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates, ettringite and friedel-salt are also predicted to form, depending on the composition of the inlet fluid and the host rock. The dissolution of clay minerals reduces the pH of the hyperalkaline plume to levels between approximately 8 and 10, depending on the composition of the inlet fluid and the host rock. For pure advective transport through porous medium, neglecting changes in porosity and permeability, the migration velocity of the high-pH front is calculated to be approximately one to two orders of magnitude less than that of the infiltrating groundwater. However, due to precipitation of secondary phases, in the present model concept a rapid decrease in porosity of the marl occurs several meters from the repository. At the interface between the marl host rock and cement the porosity increases as a consequence of the low silica concentration of the cement pore fluid. (author) 10 figs., 7 tabs., refs

  1. Use of a cranium-vessel determined by means of compound analysis; Uso de una vasija-craneo determinada por medio de analisis de compuesto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboreiro, I.; Pijoan, C.M.; Mansilla, J. [Direccion de Antropologia Fisica, INAH, Gandhi s/n, Polanco, 11560 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Bosch, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    Many human remains as bones, skin, teeth and others, were used in pre-hispanic cultures as tools or ritual objects. A human cranial vault filed in the Direccion de Antropologia Fisica presented particular and interesting cultural modifications. There are twelve drills used to restore by sewing the crane, in this way the piece resembles a pot. It has been established that it comes from North Mexico where such restoration work has been reported (Aveleyra, 1956) for containers made of vegetables (guaje). As the utilization of this kind of archaeological remain is unknown, the study of dust samples from the inside and the outside of the crane should provide hints on the products stored into it. In this study we present the X-ray diffraction results which show that the outer dusts are mainly constituted by albite, andesite and quartz, whereas in the inside the substances were mainly aluminosilicates and magnesium compounds. Hence, most probably, this crane was not used as a conventional container and it is linked to the concoction of magnesium and aluminosilicates containing products. This conclusion has to be correlated to that even nowadays, in both alternative and conventional medicine. (Author) 7 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Characterization of the Lime Mortars of the Rui Barbosa House Museum in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pereira da Silva Dalto


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterize the mortars of the Rui Barbosa House Museum, built in 1850, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using X-ray diffraction (XRD, gel-CSH determination, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR, Wavelength-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF, Thermo gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG, and granulometric analysis. Also, petrographic and physical characteristics such as porosity, water absorption, and apparent density of the mortars were used to identify the raw materials employed in their preparation. Mineralogical associations found are similar (quartz, calcite, kaolinite, microcline, muscovite, and albite for the majority of samples and only vary in their proportions; the most prominent phases are quartz and calcite. The collected data, indicating that the binder is hydrated lime, lead us to conclude that the analyzed samples are lime mortars, discarding the possibility of cement as the binder material. Two samples, located on the corner of the building, which underwent repairs, present a differentiated behavior, with high levels of dolomite and the presence of pozzolanic material, with greater water absorption and higher density, indicating the use of a different mortar type. In addition, it was verified that the WDXRF and XRD methods are able to determine the trace element composition with comparable precision with respect to the methodological approach proposed by Teutonico (1988. In addition, it has been verified that the major pollutant causing degradation of building are sulfur emitted by the vehicles and saline spray.

  3. The Morro do Resende orthogneiss: mineralogy, petrography, geochemistry and geochronology; Ortognaisse Morro do Resende: mineralogia, petrografia, geoquimica e geocronologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Fabiana Franco de; Avila, Ciro Alexandre; Bongiolo, Everton Marques; Camara, Beatriz de Oliveira; Menezes, Victor Hugo Riboura; Cunha, Fernanda Caetano de Mattos, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Neumann, Reiner, E-mail: [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (CETEM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Teixeira, Wilson; Barbosa, Natali, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias


    The Morro do Resende orthogneiss is a hololeucocratic to leucocratic, fine-grained body with monzogranitic to granodioritic composition, cropping out near the Volta Grande mine in Nazareno County, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It bears xenoliths of metamafic rocks of the Rio das Mortes metavolcano-sedimentary sequence and yields a U-Pb SHRIMP crystallization age of 2174 ± 4 Ma, relating it to one of the magmatic pulses of the Mineiro Belt. The primary mineralogy includes quartz, albite, microcline, biotite, allanite, zircon, magnetite, titanite and apatite, while sericite, epidote, zoisite, clinozoisite, carbonate and chlorite are metamorphic minerals. Maghemite, barite, fluorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet and REE fluorides (possibly gagarinite) are hydrothermal, as they fill the fractures, intergrow or replace the primary and metamorphic minerals. Fluid interaction was not homogeneous throughout the body. Metamorphic paragenesis points to greenschist facies conditions, which could be related to the Paleoproterozoic II event of the Mineiro Belt, which lasted from 2131 to 2101 Ma. The Morro do Resende orthogneiss is distinguished by significant REE enrichment, as well as a negative Eu anomaly linked to the magmatic crystallization and a negative Ce anomaly related to oxidizing hydrothermal fluids circulation. (author)

  4. Analysis of the potential geochemical reactions in the Enceladus' hydrothermal environment (United States)

    Ramirez-Cabañas, A. K.; Flandes, A.


    Enceladus is the sixth largest moon of Saturn and differs from its other moons, because of its cryovolcanic geysers that emanate from its south pole. The instruments of the Cassini spacecraft reveal different compounds in the gases and the dust of the geysers, such as salts (sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and/or sodium carbonate), as well as silica traces (Postberg et al., 2008, 2009) that could be the result of a hydrothermal environment (Hsu et al., 2014, Sekine et al., 2014). By means of a thermodynamic analysis, we propose and evaluate potential geochemical reactions that could happen from the interaction between the nucleus surface and the inner ocean of Enceladus. These reactions may well lead to the origin of the compounds found in the geysers. From this analysis, we propose that, at least, two minerals must be present in the condritic nucleus of Enceladus: olivines (fayalite and fosterite) and feldspar (orthoclase and albite). Subsequently, taking as reference the hydrothermal processes that take place on Earth, we propose the different stages of a potential hydrothermal scenario for Enceladus.

  5. Use of basaltic waste as red ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, environmental codes restrict the emission of particulate matters, which result in these residues being collected by plant filters. This basaltic waste came from construction aggregate plants located in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (State of Paraná, Brazil. Initially, the basaltic waste was submitted to sieving (< 75 μm and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of density and particle size distribution. The plasticity of ceramic mass containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of basaltic waste was measured by Atterberg method. The chemical composition of ceramic formulations containing 0% and 20% of basaltic waste was determined by X-ray fluorescence. The prismatic samples were molded by extrusion and fired at 850 °C. The specimens were also tested to determine density, water absorption, drying and firing shrinkages, flexural strength, and Young's modulus. Microstructure evaluation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Basaltic powder has similar physical and chemical characteristics when compared to other raw materials, and contributes to ceramic processing by reducing drying and firing shrinkage. Mechanical performance of mixtures containing basaltic powder is equivalent to mixtures without waste. Microstructural aspects such as pore size distribution were modified by basaltic powder; albite phase related to basaltic powder was identified by X-ray diffraction.

  6. Metallogenetic modeling for uranium exploration in rocks of the Abaira-Jussiape Anticlinal nucleus, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia; Modelagem metalogenetica para prospeccao de uranio nas rochas do nucleo da Anticlinal Abaira-Jussiape, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Jocilene dos Santos; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; Barbosa, Johildo Salomao Figueiredo [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPGG/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Abram, Maisa Bastos; Martins, Adriano Alberto Marques, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Superintendencia Regional de Salvador. Servico Geologico do Brasil


    The NNW-SSE-trending Abaira-Jussiape Anticlinal is an antiformal culmination of folding and shearing in the Paramirim Corridor of the Western Chapada Diamantina. In its core paleoproterozoic, mylonitized Caraguatai Suite, tonalites-granodiorites, alkali-feldspar granites, syenites to quartz-syenites and Jussiape Suite granites crop out. Compressional and distensional stresses mark the structural geology of the area. The compressional structures are related to two distinct deformation phases, named D1a and D1b. The main compressional phase is ductile D1a, which is related to the nucleation of dextral to dextral-reverse shearing zones. Deformation and syn-D1a recrystallization involving plagioclase and the K-feldspar suggest deformation temperature conditions above 550 deg C. The following phase D2 is of ductilebrittle nature and culminates in reverse shearing zones. The distensional structures correspond to the D3 phase and are represented by frontal shear zones with normal movement. The petrographic study helped identify a pre-D1a hydrothermal alteration process related to albitization and potassification, syn-D1 oxidation process, and hydration and saussuritization related to phases D2 and D3. The integration of lithological, petrographic, structural and geophysical data by means of the logic Fuzzy, plus the existing information regarding structural and lithologic controls of the known uranium mineralization in the Paramirim Corridor, led us to identify two promising areas for radioactive element exploration in the nucleus of Abaira-Jussiape Anticlinal. (author)

  7. Solubility of apatite in H2O-NaCl and silicate-bearing solutions at 0.7-3.0 GPa, 800° C (United States)

    Antignano, A.; Manning, C. E.


    Apatite is a major reservoir for the rare-earth elements (REE) in the earth's crust. However, little is known about its solubility in metamorphic fluids. We measured the solubility of apatite in H2O-NaCl and silicate bearing fluids at 800° C and 1.0-2.0 GPa using a piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl-graphite furnaces. A single Durango fluor-apatite crystal was loaded into a 1.6 mm OD Pt inner capsule, which was crimped and then placed in a 3.5 OD Pt outer capsule with ultra pure H2O and NaCl or powdered albite. Solubility was determined by the weight loss of the apatite grain after 24 hrs. In the H2O-NaCl experiments, total dissolved solids (TDS) were initially below detection (0.4 millimolal) between XNaCl= 0 and XNaCl= 0.025. At XNaCl= 0.035, solubility was 3.3(0.2) millimolal (errors are 1s), and it increased to 57.5(0.4) millimolal at XNaCl= 0.526. Our results show that there is an enhancement in apatite solubility with increasing pressure in pure H2O. Solubility is initially below detection at bearing solutions. This probably explains textures in which monazite mantles apatite, which are common in granulite metamorphic terranes, such as the Kiirunavaara magnetite-apatite ore.

  8. Salinity variations and chemical compositions of waters in the Frio Formation, Texas Gulf Coast. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Garrett, C.M. Jr.; Posey, J.S.; Han, J.H.; Jirik, L.A.


    Waters produced from sandstone reservoirs of the deep Frio Formation exhibit spatial variations in chemical composition that roughly coincide with the major tectonic elements (Houston and Rio Grande Embayments, San Marcos Arch) and corresponding depositional systems (Houston and Norias deltas, Greta-Carancahua barrier/strandplain system) that were respectively active along the upper, lower, and middle Texas Coast during Frio deposition. Within an area, salinities are usually depth dependent, and primary trends closely correspond to pore pressure gradients and thermal gradients. Where data are available (mainly in Brazoria County) the increases in TDS and calcium with depth coincide with the zone of albitization, smectite-illite transition, and calcite decrease in shales. Waters have fairly uniform salinities when produced from the same sandstone reservoir within a fault block or adjacent fault blocks with minor displacement. In contrast, stratigraphically equivalent sandstones separated by faults with large displacement usually yield waters with substantially different salinities owing to the markedly different thermal and pressure gradients across the faults that act as barriers to fluid movement.

  9. Geochemistry and paleotectonomagmatic setting of metabasites protolith from Asalem metamorphic complex (northwest Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nasrabady


    Full Text Available Asalem metamorphic complex consists mostly of metabasite, metapelite and serpentinite. Metabasites display metamorphic features of greenschist and blueschist facies. Greenschist facies rocks that found as both foliated and massive types contain mineralogical assemblage of actinolite, chlorite, albite and epidote. Blueschists contain mineralogical assemblage of sodic amphibole, epidote and phengite. Whole rock analyses of the metabasites indicate basaltic to andesitic composition with mainly calcalkaline nature of their protolith. According to the discrimination diagrams of tectonomagmatic setting, the protolith of investigated metabasites has been islands arc and somewhat mid ocean ridge. The patterns of rare earth elements and spider diagrams of the Asalem metabasites resemble to the basic and intermediate magmatism of islands arc or suprasubduction setting as well. Greenschists and blueschists facies rocks of the Asalem metamorphic complex have been probably equivalent to islands arc or young and hot oceanic crust of suprasubduction zone setting. This portion of oceanic basin unlike the subducted even and thick oceanic lithosphere of Paleotethys during accretion in the shallower levels of accretionary prisms, have underwent metamorphic conditions of blueschist and greenschist facies and finally gave rise to the formation of the metabasites of the Asalem metamorphic complex.

  10. On the new type of thorium-rare metal mineralization related to carbonatite complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargasarov, Yu.A.; Ginzburg, A.I.; Frolov, A.A.


    A description is given of a new type of thorium-rare metal mineralization which is genetically associated with alkaline-ultrabasic carbonate complexes and controlled by the same fractured zones as these plutons. Deposits of this type occur over non-outcropping masses of ultrabasic alkaline rocks and carbonatites or on their continuations and are regarded as typical supraintrusive formations, highly characteristic regions in which elements from these rock masses are deposited. Here are concentrated those elements which are removed from the ultrabasic alkaline rocks when carbonatites devlop in them, viz. sodium, silicon, rare earths, thorium, barium, scandium, etc. Such deposits are formed in several stages; the early stages are characterized by intensive processes of silicification (outer aureoles of fenitization) and albitization, with which thorite-xenotime mineralization is associated. The later stages are very similar in composition to the ankerite carbonatites. The localization of all stages of the hydrothermal process along the same tectonic zones is responsible for the development of telescopic phenomena and the highly characteristic nature of such deposits. The occurrence of mineralized zones with rare-earth and thorium mineralization in a number of cases may indicate the presence of deep hidden carbonatite rock masses which have no outcrop, a fact which should be taken into account during prospective work. (author)

  11. Petrogenesis of Miller Range 07273, a new type of anomalous melt breccia: Implications for impact effects on the H chondrite asteroid (United States)

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Hutson, Melinda; Friedrich, Jon M.; Rivers, Mark L.; Weisberg, Michael K.; Ebel, Denton S.; Ziegler, Karen; Rumble, Douglas; Dolan, Alyssa A.


    Miller Range 07273 is a chondritic melt breccia that contains clasts of equilibrated ordinary chondrite set in a fine-grained (shapes for coarse metal grains, unusual internal textures and compositions for coarse metal, a matrix composed chiefly of clinoenstatite and omphacitic pigeonite, and troilite veining most common in coarse olivine and orthopyroxene. These features can be explained by a model involving impact into a porous target that produced brief but intense heating at high pressure, a sudden pressure drop, and a slower drop in temperature. Olivine and orthopyroxene in chondrule clasts were the least melted and the most deformed, whereas matrix and troilite melted completely and crystallized to nearly strain-free minerals. Coarse metal was largely but incompletely liquefied, and matrix silicates formed by the breakdown during melting of albitic feldspar and some olivine to form pyroxene at high pressure (>3 GPa, possibly to 15-19 GPa) and temperature (>1350 °C, possibly to ≥2000 °C). The higher pressures and temperatures would have involved back-reaction of high-pressure polymorphs to pyroxene and olivine upon cooling. Silicates outside of melt matrix have compositions that were relatively unchanged owing to brief heating duration.

  12. To prospect for mesozoic large and superlarge volcanic type uranium deposits by outlining the specific positions of geological structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhenqian


    The author analyses the specific positions for Mesozoic large and superlarge volcanic type uranium deposits--geological environment of uranium-bearing volcanic collapse (down faulting) basin, which are characterized by being adjacent to the regional tectonic-magmatic belt, accompanied with sedimentary basin, formed in the early stage of volcanic depression, uplifted in the late stage of basin development, cut by crustal faults, under lain by acidic rock basement and accompanied by extensive argillation. On the basis of discussing the formation mechanism of this type of uranium deposit, nine location criteria for the specific positions are proposed, namely: mobile tectonic-magmatic zone at the intersection of the first and second order tectonic elements; large sized volcano-sedimentary basin at the margin of mobile tectonic-magmatic zone; small sized embayed volcanic collapse (down faulting) basin at the margin of volcano-sedimentary basin; well-developed volcanic rocks in volcanic collapse (down faulting) basin; uplifting of volcanic collapse (down faulting) basin in the later stage of basin development; volcanic collapse (down faulting) basin controlled by a crustal fault with long-term activities; multiple phases of granitic massif developed in the basement of volcanic collapse (down faulting) basin; cover of volcanic collapse (down faulting) basin underwent intense moderate-low temperature volume alteration (mainly as argillation); volume alteration is superimposed by silicification, low temperature albitization, ferrichloritization and anomalies of uranium and associated elements are encountered

  13. Formation and damping of a shock wave induced by laser in a metallic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottet, F.


    In the first part of this work, a numerical simulation of the formation and of the damping of the shock wave induced in a solid target by a laser impulse is developed. It allows to interpret the experimental obtained in the second part of the study. Two series of experiments have been realized. An iron target metallographic study is intended to verify if laser shocks produce effects comparable with conventional shocks, particularly a deformation by albite twinning the existence of which is related to the shock amplitude and its evolution during the propagation in the target. Macles observation become a possible mean to estimate the value of the induced pressures. Another experiment series has been realized to determine more directly the shock parameters. Piezoelectric cermets have been used to detect a shock-wave passage and to measure the time taken to go through targets of variable thickness. The numerical solution allows, afterwards, to deduce the maximum pressure of the induced shock. The most part of the tests have been done on copper targets, the behaviour of which is well known in a large pressure domain. Some tests have been realized on aluminium and iron targets [fr

  14. Isotopic and geochemical evidence of recharge sources and water quality in the Quaternary aquifer beneath Jinchang city, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinzhu; Pan Feng; Chen Lihua; Edmunds, W. Mike; Ding Zhenyu; He Jianhua; Zhou Kunpeng; Huang Tianming


    Multiple isotopic and hydrogeochemical tracers were utilized to understand the recharge sources and geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer beneath Jinchang city and the adjacent Gobi desert area. The groundwater shows markedly depleted stable isotopic composition compared to modern rainfall. The signature of groundwaters from Jinchang and the northern Gobi desert area differ clearly from that of the alluvial fan in the south Yongchang basin and modern rainfall, and has lower or non-detectable 3 H activity, implying that the aquifer is likely maintained by palaeowater. This groundwater in the Gobi desert has a 14 C age older than 12 ka, indicating that the groundwater resources are non-renewable. The build-up of dissolved solids through evaporation is a major control on groundwater composition, and the dominant anion species change systematically from HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- to Cl - , but cations from weathering of albite, calcite, dolomite and gypsum also make a significant contribution. The scientific results have important implications for groundwater management in Jinchang city and as well as in the Shiyang River basin under China's West Development Strategy. It is recommended that the water allocation program of diverting water from the Dongda river to the Minqin basin be reconsidered.

  15. Experimental Study of Cement - Sandstone/Shale - Brine - CO2 Interactions. (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; McNab, Walt W; Torres, Sharon C


    Reactive-transport simulation is a tool that is being used to estimate long-term trapping of CO2, and wellbore and cap rock integrity for geologic CO2 storage. We reacted end member components of a heterolithic sandstone and shale unit that forms the upper section of the In Salah Gas Project carbon storage reservoir in Krechba, Algeria with supercritical CO2, brine, and with/without cement at reservoir conditions to develop experimentally constrained geochemical models for use in reactive transport simulations. We observe marked changes in solution composition when CO2 reacted with cement, sandstone, and shale components at reservoir conditions. The geochemical model for the reaction of sandstone and shale with CO2 and brine is a simple one in which albite, chlorite, illite and carbonate minerals partially dissolve and boehmite, smectite, and amorphous silica precipitate. The geochemical model for the wellbore environment is also fairly simple, in which alkaline cements and rock react with CO2-rich brines to form an Fe containing calcite, amorphous silica, smectite and boehmite or amorphous Al(OH)3. Our research shows that relatively simple geochemical models can describe the dominant reactions that are likely to occur when CO2 is stored in deep saline aquifers sealed with overlying shale cap rocks, as well as the dominant reactions for cement carbonation at the wellbore interface.

  16. Adsorption of Radioactive Cesium to Illite-Sericite Mixed Clays (United States)

    Hwang, J. H.; Choung, S.; Park, C. S.; Jeon, S.; Han, J. H.; Han, W. S.


    Once radioactive cesium is released into aquatic environments through nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, it is harmful to human and ecological system for a long time (t1/2 = 30.2 years) because of its chemical toxicity and γ-radiation. Sorption mechanism is mainly applied to remove the cesium from aquatic environments. Illite is one of effective sorbent, considering economical cost for remediation. Although natural illite is typically produced as a mixture with sericite formed by phyllic alteration in hydrothermal ore deposits, the effects of illite-sericite mixed clays on cesium sorption was rarely studied. This study evaluated the sorption properties of cesium to natural illite collected at Yeongdong in Korea as the world-largest illite producing areas (termed "Yeongdong illite"). The illite samples were analyzed by XRF, XRD, FT-IR and SEM-EDX to determine mineralogy, chemical composition, and morphological characteristics, and used for batch sorption experiments. Most of "Yeongdong illite" samples predominantly consist of sericite, quartz, albite, plagioclase feldspar and with minor illite. Cesium sorption distribution coefficients (Kd,Cs) of various "Yeongdong illite" samples ranged from 500 to 4000 L/kg at low aqueous concentration (Cw 10-7 M). Considering Kd,Cs values were 400 and 6000 using reference sericite and illite materials, respectively, in this study, these results suggested that high contents of sericite significantly affect the decrease of sorption capabilities for radiocesium by natural illite (i.e., illite-sericite mixed clay).

  17. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Tae-Jin; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Huh, Dae-Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)


    The reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of these heterogeneities and distributions of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but for the development of the petroleums. Methods and principles of the reservoir geochemistry, which are applicable to the petroleum exploration and development, are reviewed in the study. In addition, a case study was carried out on the gas, condensate, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir, taken from the Haenam, Pohang areas and the Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Mineral geothermometers were studied to estimate the thermal history in sedimentary basins and successfully applied to the Korean onshore and offshore basins. The opal silica-to-quartz transformation was investigated in the Pohang basin as a geothermometer. In Korean basins, the smectite-to-illite changes indicate that smectite and illite can act as the geothermometer to estimate the thermal history of the basins. The albitization reaction was also considered as a temperature indicator. Naturally fractured reservoir is an important source of oil and gas throughout the world. The properties of matrix and fracture are the key parameters in predicting the performances of naturally fractured reservoirs. A new laboratory equipment has been designed and constructed by pressure pulse method to determine the properties, which are (1) the porosity of matrix, (2) the permeability of matrix, (3) the effective width of the fractures, and the permeability of the fractures. (author). 97 refs.

  18. Uranium occurrences of the Thunder Bay-Nipigon-Marathon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.F.


    During the 1981, 1982 and 1983 field seasons an inventory of all known uranium occurrences in the North Central Region of Ontario was undertaken. Three major categories of uranium occurrences were identified: uranium associated with the rocks of the Quetico Subprovince; uranium associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity; and uranium associated with alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age. Occurrences associated with the Quetico Belt are in white, albite-quartz-muscovite pegmatites. Occurrences associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity are usually of high gradee (up to 12% U 3 O 8 ), nearly always hematized and are related to fault or shear zones proximal to the unconformity. Although of high grade, many of the unconformity related occurrences are very narrow (<1 m). Alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age are an important source of uranium but possible metallurgical problems might downgrade their potential. The Quetico Subprovince is anomalously high in background uranium, and therefore contains important source rocks for uranium. Areas that have the highest potential for uranium deposits in the North Central Region are the Nipigon Basin area, and the areas underlain by the Gunflint and Rove Formations. All the high grade vein-type uranium deposits related to the unconformity are found within the Nipigon Basin. 126 refs

  19. Properties of ceramics prepared using dry discharged waste to energy bottom ash dust. (United States)

    Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Vandeperre, Luc; Grimes, Sue; Themelis, Nicolas; Koralewska, Ralf; Cheeseman, Chris


    The fine dust of incinerator bottom ash generated from dry discharge systems can be transformed into an inert material suitable for the production of hard, dense ceramics. Processing involves the addition of glass, ball milling and calcining to remove volatile components from the incinerator bottom ash. This transforms the major crystalline phases present in fine incinerator bottom ash dust from quartz (SiO(2)), calcite (CaCO(3)), gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), to the pyroxene group minerals diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6)), clinoenstatite (MgSi(2)O(6)), wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) together with some albite (NaAlSi(3)O(8)) and andradite (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)). Processed powders show minimal leaching and can be pressed and sintered to form dense (>2.5 g cm(-3)), hard ceramics that exhibit low firing shrinkage (ceramic tiles that have potential for use in a range of industrial applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The Morro do Resende orthogneiss: mineralogy, petrography, geochemistry and geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Fabiana Franco de; Avila, Ciro Alexandre; Bongiolo, Everton Marques; Camara, Beatriz de Oliveira; Menezes, Victor Hugo Riboura; Cunha, Fernanda Caetano de Mattos; Neumann, Reiner; Teixeira, Wilson; Barbosa, Natali


    The Morro do Resende orthogneiss is a hololeucocratic to leucocratic, fine-grained body with monzogranitic to granodioritic composition, cropping out near the Volta Grande mine in Nazareno County, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It bears xenoliths of metamafic rocks of the Rio das Mortes metavolcano-sedimentary sequence and yields a U-Pb SHRIMP crystallization age of 2174 ± 4 Ma, relating it to one of the magmatic pulses of the Mineiro Belt. The primary mineralogy includes quartz, albite, microcline, biotite, allanite, zircon, magnetite, titanite and apatite, while sericite, epidote, zoisite, clinozoisite, carbonate and chlorite are metamorphic minerals. Maghemite, barite, fluorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet and REE fluorides (possibly gagarinite) are hydrothermal, as they fill the fractures, intergrow or replace the primary and metamorphic minerals. Fluid interaction was not homogeneous throughout the body. Metamorphic paragenesis points to greenschist facies conditions, which could be related to the Paleoproterozoic II event of the Mineiro Belt, which lasted from 2131 to 2101 Ma. The Morro do Resende orthogneiss is distinguished by significant REE enrichment, as well as a negative Eu anomaly linked to the magmatic crystallization and a negative Ce anomaly related to oxidizing hydrothermal fluids circulation. (author)

  1. The geomicrobiology of bauxite deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiluo Hao


    Full Text Available Bauxite deposits are studied because of their economic value and because they play an important role in the study of paleoclimate and paleogeography of continents. They provide a rare record of the weathering and evolution of continental surfaces. Geomicrobiological analysis makes it possible to verify that microorganisms have played a critical role during the formation of bauxite with the possibility already intimated in previous studies. Ambient temperature, abundance of water, organic carbon and bioavailable iron and other metal substrates provide a suitable environment for microbes to inhabit. Thiobacillus, Leptospirilum, Thermophilic bacteria and Heterotrophs have been shown to be able to oxidize ferrous iron and to reduce sulfate-generating sulfuric acid, which can accelerate the weathering of aluminosilicates and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. Microorganisms referred to the genus Bacillus can mediate the release of alkaline metals. Although the dissimilatory iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in bauxites have not yet been identified, some recorded authigenic carbonates and “bacteriopyrites” that appear to be unique in morphology and grain size might record microbial activity. Typical bauxite minerals such as gibbsite, kaolinite, covellite, galena, pyrite, zircon, calcium plagioclase, orthoclase, and albite have been investigated as part of an analysis of microbial mediation. The paleoecology of such bauxitic microorganisms inhabiting continental (sub surfaces, revealed through geomicrobiological analysis, will add a further dimension to paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies.

  2. Chemical treatment of kaolin. Case study of kaolin from the Tamazert– Jijel mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chouafa


    Full Text Available The Tamazert-Jijel kaolin deposit is located in eastern Algeria, It was formed during a process of hydro-thermal alteration of feldspars rich in potassium. Kaolin, obtained at the mine, mainly contains varying amounts of impurities such as iron oxide (Fe2O3 and anatase (TiO2. These components negatively affect the quality of the commercial product. This research was performed to improve the quality of kaolin to be used in the paper industry with the goal of reducing the impurities of iron and titanium oxides. Different sized fractions of the original sample were analyzed by XRD. The results obtained showed that the mineralogical composition is: quartz, muscovite, kaolinite, dolomite, albite and orthoclase. Kaolin, like all clays, has a thin dissemination of minerals throughout it. After processing kaolin, the particle size fraction of less than 45μm, corresponding to the liberation mesh size, was retained for purification by chemical treatment with different acids of different concentrations (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, heated to boiling point temperatures. The kaolin samples treated with the various acids above were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by XRD. The results obtained from the sample treated with hydrochloric acid show that the iron oxide content of acid is reduced by 1.65% to 0.88%. Meanwhile, the brightness of the sample reached 90% under the effect of the treatment with hydrochloric acid at concentration of 2 mole/dm3.

  3. Characterization of rock samples localized in some sites of the Mexican Pacific coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Torre, J. de la; Falcon, T.; Segovia, N.; Azorin, J.


    Geophysical studies in zones of high seismicity have showed differences in the content of radioactive material that is used in the study of the geochemical behavior of the subsoil. In an emanometric mapping of radon in soil realized in the Mexican Pacific coast were finding distinct levels in zones with different lithology. With the finality to know the mineralization types in two zones of study which are localized in the Guerrero coast and they belonging to terrains named Guerrero and Xolapa it was determined the mineralogic characteristics in two types of rocks. The identification of the rocks was realized by X-ray diffraction and was determined the elemental chemical composition using a scanning electron microscope. It was indicated in the results obtained that in the two types of rocks were found minerals such as: quartz, albite, microcline anortite, ferroactinolite and biotite. However, it was found differences between them by the presence of their mineralogic compounds because in the rock belonging to Xolapa terrain were presented whereas in the rock localized in the Guerrero terrain were presented sodic and potassic feldspars. The analysis by the Elemental Chemical Composition technique (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) corroborated the results obtained by the X-ray diffraction technique. (Author)

  4. Are feldspar-to-mica reactions necessarily reaction-softening processes in fault zones? (United States)

    Wibberley, Christopher


    Reaction-softening by mineralogical changes from feldspars to sericite has been documented from many fault zones. During external crystalline basement deformation in the Alpine orogeny, the Ser Barbier thrust and splay faults in the Pelvoux Massif experienced ultracataclasis and sericitisation. Microstructural information and geochemical data from the fault rocks suggest that different muscovitisation reactions occurred at different times within the evolution of the fault zone, and each reaction had its own impact on fault rheology. Early cataclasis aided chemical breakdown of orthoclase feldspars to muscovite, yet quartz release accompanying this process resulted in local cementation and consequent hardening of the ultracataclasite. Continued deformation was accompanied by muscovitisation of the albite feldspar, and resulted in the formation of mica-rich fault rocks which experienced progressive silica removal by the fluid with increasing deformation. At this stage, reaction-enhanced ductility dominated. Much of the early cemented ultracataclasites escaped later deformation, and their low permeability allowed preservation of their early geochemical characteristics by preventing later fluid access. Such findings demonstrate how the complex interplay between deformation processes and geochemical reactions may result in a changing rheology during fault zone evolution.

  5. Size distribution and roundness of clasts within pseudotachylytes of the Gangavalli Shear Zone, Salem, Tamil Nadu: An insight into its origin and tectonic significance (United States)

    Behera, Bhuban Mohan; Thirukumaran, V.; Soni, Aishwaraya; Mishra, Prasanta Kumar; Biswal, Tapas Kumar


    Gangavalli (Brittle) Shear Zone (Fault) near Attur, Tamil Nadu exposes nearly 50 km long and 1-3 km wide NNE-SSW trending linear belt of cataclasites and pseudotachylyte produced on charnockites of the Southern Granulite Terrane. Pseudotachylytes, as well as the country rock, bear the evidence of conjugate strike slip shearing along NNE-SSW and NW-SE directions, suggesting an N-S compression. The Gangavalli Shear Zone represents the NNE-SSW fault of the conjugate system along which a right lateral shear has produced seismic slip motion giving rise to cataclasites and pseudotachylytes. Pseudotachylytes occur as veins of varying width extending from hairline fracture fills to tens of meters in length. They carry quartz as well as feldspar clasts with sizes of few mm in diameter; the clast sizes show a modified Power law distribution with finer ones (0.4) due to thermal decrepitation. In a large instance, devitrification has occurred producing albitic microlites that suggest the temperature of the pseudotachylyte melt was >1000^{circ }\\hbox {C}. Thus, pseudotachylyte veins act as a proxy to understand the genetic process involved in the evolution of the shear zone and its tectonic settings.

  6. Thermoluminescent characteristics of oregano and paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Teuffer Z, C.; Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M.; Kitis, G.


    The poly minerals from oregano and paprika were selected according to different sizes, i.e 10, 53, 74, 149 μm, and they were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation in the range of doses 0.5-45 kGy. The glow curves from these spices show an abroad TL band, centered around 150 C and by XRD analysis shows a mono mineral composition mainly quartz and feldspar, including albite, ortose and clay. The fading behavior was related to the quartz, feldspar and calcite TL properties and shown the stability of the traps associated to the defects generated by irradiation in the samples. The tendency of the TL integrated was increased with the grain size for oregano and can be related to the different energy values associated to the activation energy of the traps in the monominerals. The glow curve TL from poly minerals was analyzed and it is possible to use the dosimetric property of the poly minerals from spices for detect irradiated foodstuffs. (Author)

  7. Thermoluminescent characteristics of oregano and paprika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Teuffer Z, C. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece)


    The poly minerals from oregano and paprika were selected according to different sizes, i.e 10, 53, 74, 149 {mu}m, and they were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation in the range of doses 0.5-45 kGy. The glow curves from these spices show an abroad TL band, centered around 150 C and by XRD analysis shows a mono mineral composition mainly quartz and feldspar, including albite, ortose and clay. The fading behavior was related to the quartz, feldspar and calcite TL properties and shown the stability of the traps associated to the defects generated by irradiation in the samples. The tendency of the TL integrated was increased with the grain size for oregano and can be related to the different energy values associated to the activation energy of the traps in the monominerals. The glow curve TL from poly minerals was analyzed and it is possible to use the dosimetric property of the poly minerals from spices for detect irradiated foodstuffs. (Author)

  8. Analysis of 19th century ceramic fragments excavated from Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brazil) using FT-IR, Raman, XRF and SEM. (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P; Coelho, Filipe A; Felix, Valter S; Pereira, Marcelo O; de Souza, Marcos André Torres; Anjos, Marcelino J


    This study used Raman, FT-IR and XRF spectroscopy and SEM to analyze ceramic fragments dating from the 19th century, excavated from an old farm in the municipality of Pirenópolis, Goiás, Brazil. The results show that the samples were produced in an open oven at a firing temperature below 500°C, using raw materials including kaolinite, hematite, magnetite, quartz, microcline, albite, anhydrite, calcite, illite, orthoclase and MnO 2 . Although the analyses showed similarities in the manufacturing process and the presence of many minerals was common in all samples, multivariate statistical methods (PCA) allowed a more detailed assessment of similarities and differences in the mineral composition of the samples. The results of the PCA showed that the samples excavated in one of the slave quarters (senzalas) group with those excavated at the farmhouse, where the landowner lived, which indicates a paternalistic attitude towards captives, including the sharing of ceramic materials of everyday use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies of mineralogy and geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements in permo-Triassic Bauxite deposit, Northeast of Bukan, North West of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedini, A.; Calagari, A. A.; Hadjalilu, B.; Jahangiri, A.


    Bauxite deposit of Permo-Triassic age in northeast of Bukan was developed stratiformly along the boundary between Ruteh and Elika formations, and includes four distinct rock units. This deposit was affected by tectonic and morphological processes. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations showed that during weathering processes, two mechanisms of ferrugenization and deferrugenization played crucial role in formation of minerals such as Diaspora, boehmite, hematite, goethite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, clinochlore, illite, montmorillonite, anatase, rutile, albite, sanidine, quartz, and calcite in this deposit. By taking notice of field evidence and of mineralogical and geochemical data, the basalts (whose remnants are still present along the contact of this deposit with carbonate bedrock) are the potential parent rock of this deposit. The distribution pattern of rare earth elements (normalized to chondrite and basaltic parent rock) along with anomaly variations of Eu, Ce, and (La/Yb) N indicates differentiation of LREEs from HREEs during bauxitization processes. Further geochemical considerations indicate that the concentrations of LREEs were occurred by hematite, goethite, manganese oxides, cerianite, and secondary phosphates (rhabdophane, vitusite, gorceixite, monazite) and of HREEs by clay minerals; rutile, anatase, zircon, euxenite, and fergusonite. Incorporation of the results obtained from mineralogical and geochemical investigations suggests that in addition to factors such as p H of weathering solutions, ionic potential, composition of the parent rock, and fixation by residual minerals, adsorption processes also played crucial role in enrichment of rare earth elements during moderate to intense lateritization in the study area

  10. Clay minerals in uraniferous deposit of Imouraren (Tim Mersoi basin, Niger): implications on genesis of deposit and on ore treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billon, Sophie


    Nigerian uraniferous deposits are located in carboniferous and Jurassic formations of Tim Mersoi basin. AREVA is shareholder of 3 mine sites in this area: SOMAIR and COMINAK, both in exploitation since 1960's and IMOURAREN, 80 km further South, whose exploitation is planned for 2015. Mineralization of Imouraren deposit is included in the fluvial formation of Tchirezrine 2 (Jurassic), composed of channels and flood plains. Facies of channel in-fillings range from coarse sandstones to siltstones, while overflow facies are composed of analcimolites. Secondary mineralogy was acquired during 2 stages: 1- diagenesis, with formation of clay minerals, analcime, secondary quartz and albites, and 2- stage of fluids circulations, which induced alteration of detrital and diagenetic minerals, formation of new phases and uranium deposition. A mineralogical zoning, at the scale of deposit resulted from this alteration. The heterogeneity of Tchirezrine 2, at the level of both facies and mineralogy, is also evidenced during ore treatment, as ore reacts differently depending on its source, with sometimes problems of U recovery. Ore treatment tests showed that analcimes and chlorites were both penalizing minerals, because of 1- the sequestration of U-bearing minerals into analcimes, 2- their dissolution which trends to move away from U solubilization conditions (pH and Eh) and to form numerous sulfates, and 3- problems of percolation. A detection method of analcime-rich ores, based on infrared spectroscopy, was developed in order to optimize ore blending and so to reduce negative effects during ore treatment process. (author)

  11. Wall rock alteration and geochemical characteristics of Hengjian-Gangshangying uranium deposit in Xiangshan, Jiangxi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yu; Pan Jiayong; Xia Fei; Liu Guoqi


    With the method of thin section identification, electron probe and the petrochemical analysis, wall rock alteration and geochemical characteristics was studied for Hengjian-Gangshangying uranium deposit in Xiangshan. The results show that the deposit has a variety of alteration, which include hydromicazation, albitization, chloritization, carbonation, fluoritization, pyritization, and silicification. The alteration can be easily divided in five zones petrochemically, the hosting rock (granite porphyry) are of quasi aluminium to peraluminous which is high in Si and alkali and low in calcium-magnesium. Major elements, trace elements and rare elements in the alteration rock show regular variations and the values of major elements Ca, Mn, K and incompatible elements Sr, Th, P, Y, Yb and HREE have been increased in mineralization process. Mo, W, Pb, Zn can be used as indicator elements for uranium mineralization. The alternated rock has the same geochemical characteristics as the ore-hosting rock body which can be proven by the consistent distribution patterns of trace elements and rare elements. The mineralization material bears the characteristics of deeply-derived source. (authors)

  12. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura; Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz; Rivera, Ana Leonor


    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  13. Groundwater geochemistry in the Seminole Well Field, Cedar Rapids, Iowa (United States)

    Boyd, Robert A.


    The City of Cedar Rapids obtains its municipal water supply from four well fields in an alluvial aquifer along the Cedar River in east-central Iowa. Since 1992, the City and the U.S. Geological Survey have cooperatively studied the groundwater-flow system and water chemistry near the well fields. The geochemistry in the alluvial aquifer near the Seminole Well Field was assessed to identify potentially reactive minerals and possible chemical reactions that produce observed changes in water chemistry. Calcite, dolomite, ferrihydrite, quartz, rhodochrosite, and siderite were identified as potentially reactive minerals by calculating saturation indexes. Aluminosiicate minerals including albite, Ca-montmorillonite, gibbsite, illite, K-feldspar, and kaolinite were identified as potentially reactive minerals using hypothetical saturation indexes calculated with an assumed dissolved aluminum concentration of 1 microgram per liter. Balanced chemical equations derived from inverse-modeling techniques were used to assess chemical reactions as precipitation percolates to the water table. Calcite dissolution was predominate, but aluminosilicate weathering, cation exchange, and redox reactions also likely occurred. Microbial-catalyzed redox reactions altered the chemical composition of water infiltrating from the Cedar River into the alluvial aquifer by consuming dissolved oxygen, reducing nitrate, and increasing dissolved iron and manganese concentrations. Nitrate reduction only occurred in relatively shallow (3 to 7 meters below land surface) groundwater near the Cedar River and did not occur in water infiltrating to deeper zones of the alluvial aquifer.

  14. Effect of addition of arc furnace dust in the microstructural properties of fly ash alkali-activated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Alexandre Silva de; Pavao, Bruno Barreto; Masuero, Angela Boreges; Dal Molin, Denise Carpena Coitinho; Vilela, Antonio Cezar Faria


    The search for alternative materials for construction, with less environmental impact, has been the subject of several studies. The alkali-activated cements have shown potential for the reuse of waste, and can be used in the technology of solidification/stabilization. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the main effect of adding arc furnace dust (AFD) in the microstructural properties of matrices based on fly ash alkali-activated. Three levels of AFD were studied: 0, 5, 15 and 25%. The curing was set at 70°C/24 h, and after, kept at room temperature until the age of analysis - 1, 28 and 180 days, with XRD and FTIR analysis. In the XRD spectres it was found that compounds of albite and natron decrease the intensity of their peaks in that there is an increase in the levels of AFD. Concerning to the FTIR, we observed that the band characteristic of the fly ash (FA) 1084 cm -1 was shifted to bands near 1000 cm -1 , which shows that the residue does not interfere in the polymerization and aluminosilicate gel formation. Therefore, under the microstructural aspect, there were no major changes that would impair the use of this residue in alkali-activated matrices. (author)

  15. Hydrothermal alteration studies of gabbros from Northern Central Indian Ridge and their geodynamic implications (United States)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Mevel, Catherine; Banerjee, Ranadip


    Mylonitic gabbro and altered gabbro were recovered from off-axis high and corner high locations at ridge-transform intersection, adjacent to Vityaz transform fault of the slow spreading (32-35 mm/yr, full spreading) Northern Central Indian Ridge. Both the varieties show signatures of extensive alteration caused due to interaction with sea water. Mylonitic gabbro represents high temperature metamorphism (˜700-800°C) and comprised of hornblende mineral which exhibits well defined foliation/gneissic appearance along with dynamically recrystallised plagioclase grains frequently intercalated with magnetite-ilmenite. Altered gabbro from corner high generally includes low temperature greenschist grade (˜300°C) mineralogical assemblages: chlorite, albite, quartz and locally magnesio hornblende. Crystal plastic deformation resulted in mylonite formation and often porphyroclasts of plagioclase and clinopyroxene grains, while altered gabbro locally exhibits cataclastic texture. Presence of Vityaz transform fault and adjacent megamullion at the weakly magmatic ridge-transform intersection and off-axis high locations prompted the present scenario very much conducive for hydrothermal circulation and further facilitate the exhumation of present suite of gabbro.

  16. The New Peruvian Meteorite Carancas: Mössbauer Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction Studies (United States)

    Munayco, P.; Munayco, J.; Varela, M. E.; Scorzelli, R. B.


    The Carancas meteorite fell on 15 September 2007 approximately 10 km south of Desaguadero, near Lake Titicaca, Peru, producing bright lights, clouds of dust in the sky and intense detonations. The Carancas meteorite is classified as a H4-5 ordinary chondrite with shock stage S3 and a degree of weathering W0. The Carancas meteorite is characterized by well defined chondrules composed either of olivine or pyroxene. The Mössbauer spectra show an overlapping of paramagnetic and magnetic phases. The spectra show two quadrupole doublets associated to olivine and pyroxene; and two magnetic sextets, associated with the primary phases kamacite/taenite and Troilite (Fe2+). Metal particles were extracted from the bulk powdered samples exhibit only kamacite and small amounts of the intergrowth tetrataenite/antitaenite. X-Ray diffractogram shows the primary phases olivine, pyroxene, troilite, kamacite, diopside and albite. Iron oxides has not been detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy or XRD as can be expected for a meteorite immediately recovered after its fall.

  17. Mineral shock signatures in rocks from Dhala (Mohar) impact structure, Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh, India (United States)

    Roy, Madhuparna; Pandey, Pradeep; Kumar, Shailendra; Parihar, P. S.


    A concrete study combining optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, was carried out on subsurface samples of basement granite and melt breccia from Mohar (Dhala) impact structure, Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Optical microscopy reveals aberrations in the optical properties of quartz and feldspar in the form of planar deformation feature-like structures, lowered birefringence and mosaics in quartz, toasting, planar fractures and ladder texture in alkali feldspar and near-isotropism in bytownite. It also brings to light incidence of parisite, a radioactive rare mineral in shocked granite. Raman spectral pattern, peak positions, peak widths and multiplicity of peak groups of all minerals, suggest subtle structural/crystallographic deviations. XRD data further reveals minute deviations of unit cell parameters of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase, with respect to standard α-quartz, high- and low albite and microcline. Reduced cell volumes in these minerals indicate compression due to pressure. The c0/a0 values indicate an inter-tetrahedral angle roughly between 120o and 144o, further pointing to a possible pressure maxima of around 12 GPa. The observed unit cell aberration of minerals may indicate an intermediate stage between crystalline and amorphous stages, thereby, signifying possible overprinting of decompression signatures over shock compression effects, from a shock recovery process.

  18. Characterization of solid airborne particles deposited in snow in the vicinity of urban fossil fuel thermal power plant (Western Siberia). (United States)

    Talovskaya, A V; Yazikov, E G; Filimonenko, E A; Lata, J-C; Kim, J; Shakhova, T S


    Recognition and detailed characterization of solid particles emitted from thermal power plants into the environment is highly important due to their potential detrimental effects on human health. Snow cover is used for the identification of anthropogenic emissions in the environment. However, little is known about types, physical and chemical properties of solid airborne particles (SAP) deposited in snow around thermal power plants. The purpose of this study is to quantify and characterize in detail the traceable SAP deposited in snow near fossil fuel thermal power plant in order to identify its emissions into the environment. Applying the scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, mineral and anthropogenic phase groups in SAP deposited in snow near the plant and in fly ash were observed. We identified quartz, albite and mullite as most abundant mineral phases and carbonaceous matter, slag and spherical particles as dominate anthropogenic phases. This is the first study reporting that zircon and anthropogenic sulphide-bearing, metal oxide-bearing, intermetallic compound-bearing and rare-earth element-bearing particles were detected in snow deposits near thermal power plant. The identified mineral and anthropogenic phases can be used as tracers for fossil fuel combustion emissions, especially with regard to their possible effect on human health.

  19. A survey of lunar rock types and comparison of the crusts of earth and moon (United States)

    Wood, J. A.


    The principal known types of lunar rocks are briefly reviewed, and their chemical relationships discussed. In the suite of low-KREEP highland rocks, Fe/(Fe + Mg) in the normative mafic minerals increases and the albite content of normative plagio-clase decreases as the total amount of normative plagioclase increases, the opposite of the trend predicted by the Bowen reaction principle. The distribution of compositions of rocks from terrestrial layered mafic intrusives is substantially different: here the analyses fall in several discrete clusters (anorthositic rocks, norites, granophyres and ferrogabbros, ultramafics), and the chemical trends noted above are not reproduced. It is suggested that the observed trends in lunar highland rocks could be produced by crystal fractionation in a deep global surface magma system if (1) plagiociase tended to float, upon crystallization, and (2) the magma was kept agitated and well mixed (probably by thermal convection) until crystallization was far advanced and relatively little residual liquid was left. After the crustal system solidified, but before extensive cooling had developed a thick, strong lithosphere, mantle convection was able to draw portions of the lunar anorthositic crust down into the mantle.

  20. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura [Área de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Rivera, Ana Leonor, E-mail: [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, DF (Mexico)


    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  1. Geology and petrography of the Masatdagi diasporic bauxites, Alanya, Antalya, Turkey (United States)

    Temur, Sedat; Kansun, Gürsel


    There are more than fifteen bauxite outcrops in the study area located in the southern part of the Central Taurides. The bauxites are developed in the Upper Permian Cebireis Formation (carbonate rocks interbedded with schist) and Lower Triassic Asmaca Formation (limestone, dolomite, quartzite and schist). The bauxite outcrops are observed as parts of two or three independent bauxite blocks that were broken apart by faulting and an erosional surface. Based on outcrop appearances, four ore types can be defined; black, earthy, clayey, and Fe- and Mn-bearing bauxites. Oolitic textures are common in all ore types, except the earthy ones. Bauxites are represented by a mixture of diaspore and clay in varying proportions. Diaspore, boehmite, gibbsite, corundum, hematite, goethite, amorphous iron hydroxide, magnetite, chamosite, pyrite, marcasite, psilomelane, rutile, kaolinite, illite, muscovite, hydro-muscovite, chlorite, chloritoid, rectorite, ephesite, albite, microcline, quartz, K-Mg-Al silicate, hydrated K-Al silicate, and dolomite are present in the ore paragenesis. Bauxites, which are observed at or near the contact between the Cebireis and Asmaca formations, are thought to be fillings of cavities within and/or on Late Triassic—early Cretaceous carbonate rocks.

  2. Experimental determination of chlorite dissolution rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochelle, C.A.; Bateman, K.; MacGregor, R.; Pearce, J.M.; Wetton, P.D.; Savage, D.


    Current concepts of the geological disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the UK envisage the construction of a mined facility (incorporating cementitious engineered barriers) in chlorite-bearing rocks. To model accurately the fluid-rock reactions within the disturbed zone surrounding a repository requires functions that describe mineral dissolution kinetics under pH conditions that vary from near neutral to highly alkaline. Therefore, an experimental study to determine the dissolution rates of Fe-rich chlorite has been undertaken as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Program. Four experiments have been carried out at 25 C and four at 70 C, both sets using a range of NaCl/NaOH solutions of differing pH (of nominal pH 9.0, 10.3, 11.6 and 13.0 [at 25 C]). Dissolution rates have been calculated and were found to increase with increasing pH and temperature. However, increased pH resulted in non-stoichiometric dissolution possibly due to preferential dissolution of part of the chlorite structure relative to another, or reprecipitation of some elements as thin hydroxide or oxyhydroxide surface coatings on the chlorite. These results also show that chlorite dissolution is appreciably slower than that of albite and quartz at both 25 and 70 C, but slightly faster than that of muscovite at 70 C

  3. Electrical conductivity of the plagioclase-NaCl-water system and its implication for the high conductivity anomalies in the mid-lower crust of Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Li, Ping; Guo, Xinzhuan; Chen, Sibo; Wang, Chao; Yang, Junlong; Zhou, Xingfan


    In order to investigate the origin of the high conductivity anomalies geophysically observed in the mid-lower crust of Tibet Plateau, the electrical conductivity of plagioclase-NaCl-water system was measured at 1.2 GPa and 400-900 K. The relationship between electrical conductivity and temperature follows the Arrhenius law. The bulk conductivity increases with the fluid fraction and salinity, but is almost independent of temperature (activation enthalpy less than 0.1 eV). The conductivity of plagioclase-NaCl-water system is much lower than that of albite-NaCl-water system with similar fluid fraction and salinity, indicating a strong effect of the major mineral phase on the bulk conductivity of the brine-bearing system. The high conductivity anomalies of 10-1 and 100 S/m observed in the mid-lower crust of Tibet Plateau can be explained by the aqueous fluid with a volume fraction of 1 and 9%, respectively, if the fluid salinity is 25%. The anomaly value of 10-1 S/m can be explained by the aqueous fluid with a volume fraction of 6% if the salinity is 10%. In case of Southern Tibet where the heat flow is high, the model of a thin layer of brine-bearing aqueous fluid with a high salinity overlying a thick layer of partial melt is most likely to prevail.

  4. Effect of Al-B2O3-TiO2 Exothermic System on Performances of Fly Ash Glass/Ceramic Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun An


    Full Text Available Glass/ceramic composite coatings were prepared on 40Cr steel matrix by thermo-chemical reaction with fly ash and a small amount of SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, and albite as main raw materials. On this basis, adding 10% Al-TiO2-B2O3 exothermic system, the morphology, phase, thermal shock resistance, and corrosion resistance of the coating were tested, and the influence of exothermic system on the structure and properties of the composite coating was studied. The experimental results show that the addition of exothermic system can promote the formation of NaB15, TiB2, Na2B4O7, Ca2Al2SiO7, and other new phases by thermo-chemical reaction; when compared to the composite coating without addition of exothermic system, combined with a good interface, higher compactness, and lower porosity. The highest micro hardness can be reached 725HV0.1. The number of thermal shock from 700 °C to room temperature can reach more than 50 times; acid, salt, oil immersion corrosion test, composite coating with exothermic system relative to the matrix increased by 27.40 times, 3.97 times, and 1.88 times, respectively. The overall performance is better than that of the composite coating without exothermic system.

  5. Propagation of hydroclimatic variability through the critical zone (United States)

    Porporato, A. M.; Calabrese, S.; Parolari, A.


    The interaction between soil moisture dynamics and mineral-weathering reactions (e.g., ion exchange, precipitation-dissolution) affects the availability of nutrients to plants, composition of soils, soil acidification, as well as CO2 sequestration. Across the critical zone (CZ), this interaction is responsible for propagating hydroclimatic fluctuations to deeper soil layers, controlling weathering rates via leaching events which intermittently alter the alkalinity levels. In this contribution, we analyze these dynamics using a stochastic modeling approach based on spatially lumped description of soil hydrology and chemical weathering reactions forced by multi-scale temporal hydrologic variability. We quantify the role of soil moisture dynamics in filtering the rainfall fluctuations through its impacts on soil water chemistry, described by a system of ordinary differential equations (and algebraic equations, for the equilibrium reactions), driving the evolution of alkalinity, pH, the chemical species of the soil solution, and the mineral-weathering rate. A probabilistic description of the evolution of the critical zone is thus obtained, allowing us to describe the CZ response to long-term climate fluctuations, ecosystem and land-use conditions, in terms of key variables groups. The model is applied to the weathering rate of albite in the Calhoun CZ observatory and then extended to explore similarities and differences across other CZs. Typical time scales of response and degrees of sensitivities of CZ to hydroclimatic fluctuations and human forcing are also explored.

  6. A new type of Nb (Ta)-Zr(Hf)-REE-Ga polymetallic deposit in the late Permian coal-bearing strata, eastern Yunnan, southwestern China: Possible economic significance and genetic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shifeng; Wang, Xibo; Luo, Yangbing; Song, Zhentao; Ren, Deyi [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou, Yiping; Zhang, Mingquan; Wang, Jumin; Song, Xiaolin; Yang, Zong [Yunnan Institute of Coal Geology Prospection, Kunming 650218 (China); Jiang, Yaofa [Xuzhou Institute of Architectural Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China)


    This paper describes a new type of Nb(Ta)-Zr(Hf)-REE-Ga polymetallic deposit of volcanic origin in the late Permian coal-bearing strata of eastern Yunnan, southwestern China. Well logging data (especially natural gamma-ray), geochemical data (high concentrations of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, REE, and Ga) and mineralogical compositions (Nb(Ta)-, Zr(Hf)-, or REE-bearing minerals rarely observed), together with the volcanic lithological characteristics indicate that there are thick (1-10 m, mostly 2-5 m) ore beds in the lower Xuanwei Formation (late Permian) in eastern Yunann of southwestern China. The ore beds are highly enriched in (Nb,Ta){sub 2}O{sub 5} (302-627 ppm), (Zr,Hf)O{sub 2} (3805-8468 ppm), REE (oxides of La-Lu + Y) (1216-1358 ppm), and Ga (52.4-81.3 ppm). The ore beds are mainly composed of quartz, mixed-layer illite-smectite, kaolinite, berthierine, and albite. Four types of ore beds in the study area were identified, namely, clay altered volcanic ash, tuffaceous clay, tuff, and volcanic breccia. Preliminary studies suggest that the high concentrations of otherwise rare metals were mainly derived from the alkalic pyroclastic rocks. The modes of occurrence, spatial distribution, and enrichment mechanism of the rare metals, however, require further study. (author)

  7. Analysis of 19th century ceramic fragments excavated from Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brazil) using FT-IR, Raman, XRF and SEM (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P.; Coelho, Filipe A.; Felix, Valter S.; Pereira, Marcelo O.; de Souza, Marcos André Torres; Anjos, Marcelino J.


    This study used Raman, FT-IR and XRF spectroscopy and SEM to analyze ceramic fragments dating from the 19th century, excavated from an old farm in the municipality of Pirenópolis, Goiás, Brazil. The results show that the samples were produced in an open oven at a firing temperature below 500 °C, using raw materials including kaolinite, hematite, magnetite, quartz, microcline, albite, anhydrite, calcite, illite, orthoclase and MnO2. Although the analyses showed similarities in the manufacturing process and the presence of many minerals was common in all samples, multivariate statistical methods (PCA) allowed a more detailed assessment of similarities and differences in the mineral composition of the samples. The results of the PCA showed that the samples excavated in one of the slave quarters (senzalas) group with those excavated at the farmhouse, where the landowner lived, which indicates a paternalistic attitude towards captives, including the sharing of ceramic materials of everyday use.

  8. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Italian Republic comprises a 1200 - Km - long peninsula ex- tending from southern Europe into the Mediterranean Sea, and a number of adjacent islands, among which the principals are Sicily and Sardinia. The total area is in excess of 300,000 Sq.Km, the islands account for some 50, 000 Sq.Km. From a physiographic and morphologic point of view, Italy mainly consists of the Alpine region and the Po valley to the North and of the Appennine range and small Coastal plains to the Centre and South. Plains occupied only 20% of the total area, hills and mountains, up to 4,810 m of elevation, contribute almost equally to the remaining 80%. The most promising uranium mineralizations have been found in the Bergamasc Alps, near the small town of Novazza. Pitchblende and minor sphalerite (formation temperature, 80 deg. - 100 deg. C) occur disseminated in volcanics of permian age. The host rocks at the Novazza uranium deposit, consist of an acid ignimbrite with cineritic texture. The rocks have been affected by metasomatism which brought abundant neo-formation minerals such as silica, sericite, carbonates and minor adularia, albite and muscovite. The reasonably assured resources of the Novazza deposit have been estimated to be 1,200 ton of U having a grade of 900 p.p.m. U. Estimated additional resources are 1,000 ton U. Production is scheduled to start in 1980

  9. Characterization of some archaeological ceramics and clay samples from Zamala - Far-northern part of Cameroon (West Central Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntah, Z.L. Epossi; Sobott, R.; Bente, K., E-mail: [Institute of Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, University of Leipzig (Germany); Fabbri, B. [Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council (CNR) of Italy, Faenza (Italy)


    Seventeen ceramics samples (515±95 BP, about 580 years old) and two clay raw materials from Zamala (Far-northern, Cameroon) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (DTA/TG) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The aim of the work was the deduction of the production technology and provenance of these ceramics. With the exception of one sample the analysed ceramics formed a homogeneous chemical and mineralogical group. The observed mineralogical phases were quartz, mica (biotite), potassium feldspar (microcline) and plagioclase (albite and oligoclase). The XRD study of two local clays yielded the presence of quartz, kaolinite, mica, feldspar and plagioclase. The presence of the broad endothermic peak in the DTA/TG curves of the clays and its absence in the curves of the ceramics indicated that the firing temperature of the ceramics was above 550-600 °C, which is the temperature of the kaolinite-metakaolinite transformation. The firing experiments of the clay between 400-1200 °C in oxidizing atmosphere showed that mica disappeared above 900 °C. Therefore, the firing temperature of the sherds should have been between 600-900 °C. The chemical correlation between ceramics and local clay materials pointed out to a local production of these ceramics. (author)

  10. Spontaneous development of concentric layering in a solidified siliceous dike, East Greenland (United States)

    McBirney, Alexander R.; White, Craig M.; Boudreau, A. E.


    A meter-wide rhyolitic dike near the eastern margin of the Skaergaard Intrusion developed fine concentric layering in a small section where a fault appears to have fractured the dike and enhanced its interaction with meteoric water. Layers two or three millimeters thick consist of quartz alternating with low-temperature albite and potassium feldspar around a core of radiating clots of the same minerals. The layering seems to have resulted from late-stage crystallization and "self-organization" during devitrification in a warm hydrous environment. The development of fine-scale layering can be modeled quantitatively using the model for competitive particle growth (CPG) of Ortoleva and co-workers. Owing to the small differences of surface energy of grains of differing sizes, large crystals tend to grow at the expense of smaller ones, and a repetitive pattern of layering develops from a small initial perturbation of grain size. The spacing of layers predicted by a numerical model using reasonable estimates for the physical parameters, such as diffusivity and the rate of cooling, is in good agreement with the observed geometry and dimensions.

  11. Characterization of rock samples localized in some sites of the Mexican Pacific coast; Caracterizacion de muestras de rocas localizadas en algunos sitios de la costa del Pacifico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Torre, J. de la; Falcon, T.; Segovia, N. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa C.P. 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    Geophysical studies in zones of high seismicity have showed differences in the content of radioactive material that is used in the study of the geochemical behavior of the subsoil. In an emanometric mapping of radon in soil realized in the Mexican Pacific coast were finding distinct levels in zones with different lithology. With the finality to know the mineralization types in two zones of study which are localized in the Guerrero coast and they belonging to terrains named Guerrero and Xolapa it was determined the mineralogic characteristics in two types of rocks. The identification of the rocks was realized by X-ray diffraction and was determined the elemental chemical composition using a scanning electron microscope. It was indicated in the results obtained that in the two types of rocks were found minerals such as: quartz, albite, microcline anortite, ferroactinolite and biotite. However, it was found differences between them by the presence of their mineralogic compounds because in the rock belonging to Xolapa terrain were presented whereas in the rock localized in the Guerrero terrain were presented sodic and potassic feldspars. The analysis by the Elemental Chemical Composition technique (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) corroborated the results obtained by the X-ray diffraction technique. (Author)

  12. Radiometric ages of the Akashima Formation, Oga Peninsula, NE Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Kazuhiko; Ishizuka, Osamu; Tani, Kenichiro; Iwano, Hideki; Danhara, Tohru; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Dunkley, Daniel J.


    U-Pb and fission-track dating of zircons and Ar-Ar dating of plagioclase were conducted to estimate the eruption age of the welded dacite lapilli-tuff of the Akashima Formation, Oga Peninsula, NE Japan, yielding ages of 72 Ma, 65-63 Ma and 34 Ma, respectively. The zircon grains are mainly euhedral with zonal structures concordant with their external form, and are set in a welded matrix and in dense lenses of pumice; thus, they are likely to be juvenile. The Standard deviation of U-Pb ages of different zircon grains is small (1-2 Ma) and their age likely represents the eruption age of the magma. Fission-track ages are significantly younger than U-Pb ages, and are thought to represent thermally rejuvenation as suggested by shortening of fission tracks. The Ar-Ar age of the plagioclase remains fairly stable at almost all stages of heating; the plateau age, however, falls within the time range of the Late Eocene Monzen Formation and could represent almost complete albitization ages by associated volcanic activity. The U-Pb ages provide reliable evidence for presence of late Late Cretaceous acidic volcanism in NE Japan. (author)

  13. Geology and Mineralogy of Uranium Deposits from Mount Isa, Australia: Implications for Albitite Uranium Deposit Models

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    Nick Wilson


    Full Text Available New geological, bulk chemical and mineralogical (QEMSCAN and FEG-EPMA data are presented for albitite-type uranium deposits of the Mount Isa region of Queensland, Australia. Early albitisation of interbedded metabasalt and metasiltstone predated intense deformation along D2 high strain (mylonite zones. The early sodic alteration paragenetic stage includes albite, riebeckite, aegirine, apatite, zircon and magnetite. This paragenetic stage was overprinted by potassic microveins, containing K-feldspar, biotite, coffinite, brannerite, rare uraninite, ilmenite and rutile. An unusual U-Zr phase has also been identified which exhibits continuous solid solution with a uranium silicate possibly coffinite or nenadkevite. Calcite, epidote and sulphide veinlets represent the latest stage of mineralisation. This transition from ductile deformation and sodic alteration to vein-controlled uranium is mirrored in other examples of the deposit type. The association of uranium with F-rich minerals and a suite of high field strength elements; phosphorous and zirconium is interpreted to be indicative of a magmatic rather than metamorphic or basinal fluid source. No large intrusions of appropriate age outcrop near the deposits; but we suggest a relationship with B- and Be-rich pegmatites and quartz-tourmaline veins.

  14. Towards a Model for Albitite-Type Uranium

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    Andy Wilde


    Full Text Available Albitite-type uranium deposits are widely distributed, usually of low grade (<1% U3O8, but are often large and collectively contain over 1 million tonnes of U3O8. Uranium is hosted in a wide range of metamorphic lithologies, whose only common characteristic is that they have been extensively mylonitised. Ore minerals are disseminated and rarely in megascopic veins, within and adjacent to albitised mylonites. Grain size is uniformly fine, generally less than 50 microns. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that spatial association between uranium and various Ti-bearing phases is common. Gangue minerals include albite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite, and sodic pyroxene and amphibole. The ore rarely contains economic metals apart from uranium, phosphorous at Itataia being an exception. There is widespread evidence of hydrothermal zirconium mobility and hydrothermal zircon and other Zr phases are frequent and in some cases abundant gangue minerals. Positive correlations are noted between uranium and various high field strength elements. The group remains poorly described and understood, but a link to iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG deposits and/or carbonatite and/or alkaline magmatism is plausible.

  15. An exsolution silica-pump model for the origin of myrmekite (United States)

    Castle, R.O.; Lindsley, D.H.


    Myrmekite, as defined here, is the microscopic intergrowth between vermicular quartz and modestly anorthitic plagioclase (calcic albite-oligoclase), intimately associated with potassium feldspar in plutonic rocks of granitic composition. Hypotheses previously invoked in explanation of myrmekite include: (1) direct crystallization; (2) replacement; (3) exsolution. The occurrence of myrmekite in paragneisses and its absence in rocks devold of discrete grains of potassium feldspar challenge those hypotheses based on direct crystallization or replacement. However, several lines of evidence indicate that myrmekite may in fact originate in response to kinetic effects associated with the exsolution of calcic alkali feldspar into discrete potassium feldspar and plagioclase phases. Exsolution of potassium feldspar system projected from [AlSi2O8] involves the exchange CaAlK-1Si-1, in which the AlSi-1 tetrahedral couple is resistant to intracrystalline diffusion. By contrast, diffusion of octahedral K proceeds relatively easily where it remains uncoupled to the tetrahedral exchange. We suggest here that where the ternary feldspar system is open to excess silica, the exchange reaction that produces potassium feldspar in the ternary plane is aided by the net-transfer reaction K+Si=Orthoclase, leaving behind indigenous Si that reports as modal quartz in the evolving plagioclase as the CaAl component is concomitantly incorporated in this same phase. Thus silica is "pumped" into the reaction volume from a "silica reservoir", a process that enhances redistribution of both Si and Al through the exsolving ternary feldspar. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Rare earth element geochemistry of feldspars: examples from Fe-oxide Cu-Au systems in the Olympic Cu-Au Province, South Australia (United States)

    Kontonikas-Charos, Alkis; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ehrig, Kathy; Krneta, Sasha; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.


    Rare earth element (REE) fractionation trends in feldspars are reported from Olympic Dam (including Wirrda Well and Phillip's Ridge) and Cape Donington (Port Lincoln), for comparison with two other igneous-hydrothermal terranes within the eastern Gawler Craton: Moonta-Wallaroo and Hillside. The case studies were selected as they represent 1590 Ma Hiltaba Suite and/or 1845 - 1810 Ma Donington Suite granites, and, aside from Cape Donington, are associated with Mesoproterozoic iron-oxide copper gold (IOCG)-type mineralization. Both plagioclase and alkali feldspar were analyzed within selected samples with the purpose of constraining and linking changes in REE concentrations and fractionation trends in feldspars to local and whole-rock textures and geochemistry. Two unique, reproducible fractionation trends were obtained for igneous plagioclase and alkali feldspars, distinguished from one another by light rare earth element enrichment, Eu-anomalies and degrees of fractionation (e.g. La/Lu slopes). Results for hydrothermal albite and K-feldspar indicate that REE concentrations and fractionation trends are generally inherited from igneous predecessors, however in some instances, significant amounts of REE appear to have been lost to the fluid. These results may have critical implications for the formation of world-class IOCG systems, in which widespread alkali metasomatism plays a key role by altering the physical and chemical properties of the host rocks during early stages of IOCG formation, as well as trapping trace elements (including REE).

  17. Preliminary results on the petrology and fluid inclusions of the Rossing uraniferous alaskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.


    Petrography, radioactivity distribution and fluid inclusions have been studied in three samples of the Rossing alaskites from the S.H. anomaly outside of the Rossing deposit. After the crystallization of the alaskitic magma which involved oligoclase, biotite, orthoclase and quartz, a deuteric alteration produced a quartz, microcline, albite, muscovite, calcite plus minus chlorite mineral association similar to those observed in several French uraniferous granites. Uranium redistribution occurred during this alteration. From fluid inclusions data, the pressure at the time of the intrusion is estimated to have been at least 6kbar for a temperature of 625 degrees Celsius. Reaction of the magma with the marbles of the Rossing formation led to the boiling of the magma by an increase in the CO 2 partial pressure as well as to its crystallization. Immiscibility between a dense saline (more than 30 per cent NaCl) and CO 2 -rich fluid is proposed to have occurred simultaneously or after the fluid oversaturation of the magma. Part of uraninite is formed at the magmatic stage, another part crystallized from the magmatic fluids in the biotite-rich selvages of the alaskites or in the uraninite-fluorite veins. Uraninite crystallization appears to be mainly controlled by the oxygen fugacity prevailing in the magma and in the surrounding rocks

  18. Minasgeraisite, a new member of the gadolinite group from Minas Gerais, Brazil. (United States)

    Foord, E.E.; Gaines, R.V.; Crock, J.G.; Simmons, W.B.; Barbosa, C.P.


    Minasgeraisite, Y2CaBe2Si2O10, a 9.833(2), b 7.562(1), c 4.702(1) A, beta 90.46(6)o, P21/a, Z = 2, is a new member of the gadolinite group. Found in quantities of only several hundred mg in the Jaguaracu pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil, it occurs as 0.2 to 1.0 mm-diameter rosettes, coating and intergrown with milarite, albite, quartz and muscovite. The mineral is lavender to lilac purple and has a sheaf-like habit, with a grain size of 4.25, D(calc.) 4.90 g/cm3, lustre is earthy to subvitreous and the streak is pale purple. Minasgeraisite is slowly soluble in common acids. The mineral has one excellent cleavage, (100) by analogy with gadolinite, and another good cleavage (001). Minasgeraisite is biaxial positive with alpha (colourless) 1.740(4), beta (pale greyish yellow) 1.754(4), gamma (lavender purple) 1.786(4), 2Vgamma 68o. Strongest powder XRD lines include 3.11(100), 2.830(100), 2.540(90), 1.768(35) A.-J.A.Z.

  19. Geochemical significance of neoproterozoic rasimalai alkali syenite emplaced along Dharmapuri shear zone in the Northern part of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavel, S.; Balasubramani, S.; Nagaraju, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Zakaulla, Syed; Rai, A.K.


    The Rasimalai alkali syenite complex is emplaced within Peninsular Gneissic complex and spatially associated with NE-SW trending major Dharmapuri shear zone (DSZ) in the northern part of Tamil Nadu. It is surrounded by epidote hornblend egneiss, which is the fenetised product of Charnockite and occurs about 20 km NE of Alangayam in Vellore district. It is mainly comprised of medium to coarse grained grey syenite (albite and orthoclase) and medium to micro grained pink syenite (orthoclase, microcline and perthite) at places porphyritic in nature with hornblende, riebeckitc, aegirine and acmite as accessory minerals. Grey syenite is non radioactive and uranium mineralisation is associated with pink syenite (syngenetic and disseminated type) and quartz-barite veins (hydrothermal type). Hydrothermal activity is manifested in the form of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, barite, calcite and calcian-strontianite which occur in the form of disseminations, stringers, lumps, aggregates, veinlets and veins. Presence of high silica (63.14-75.43%) with high field strength elements (U, Th, Nb and Pb) and large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Sr, K, Ba) possibly indicates that Rasimalai alkali syenite is the product of crustal communication and partial melting of protracted emplacement of parental alkali basaltic magma

  20. Mecanismos de construcción-destrucción de patrones macroestructurales en microclimas como sistemas complejos

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    Sánchez-Muñoz, L.


    Full Text Available The structures of microcline perthites collected from granitic pegmatites have been studied at different observation scales using optical microscopy (OM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, 27Al MASS-NMR spectroscopy, and electron microprobe (EMPA with Na mappings. Pegmatite perthites are identified as complex systems. During the cooling process, K-rich feldspars display two separated genetic periods of recrystallization, each one with variable intensity along different samples. During the first period, in the mineral structure a progressive construction of macrostructural pseudo-periodic patterns is produced. These regular patterns emerge due to a combined mechanism of non-ergodic Si/Al local ordering and a global cooperative effect of the crystal structure. From the incoherent Na/K interfaces arise transformation fronts (avalanches which can coalesce longitudinally and juxtapose transversally to self-assemble into irregular domains. Finally, they can evolve up to create regular twin-domains (Albite and Pericline laws as the crystal unit of the macrostructural building. This selforganization process is activated when the system is open to water circulation acting as a catalyst of Al/Si ordering in the feldspar lattice linked with an external stimulation by shear tectonic stress. During the second period the structural patterns, previously created, are destroyed by (i relaxation and deformation twinning mechanisms, (ii coarsening of twin-domains produced by dissolution-precipitation due to aqueous fluids interactions at low temperature, (iii reorientation of Periclinelaw twin-domains to the Albite-law orientation.

    Se han estudiado estructuras de feldespatos potásicos triclínicos (microclinas intercrecidos con feldespatos sódicos en texturas pertíticas procedentes de pegmatitas graníticas a diferentes escalas de observación, mediante microscopía de luz transmitida (MLT, difracción de rayos-X (DRX, resonancia magnética nuclear de alta resoluci

  1. Tectonophysics of hydrothermal ore formation: an example of the Antei Mo-U deposit, Transbaikalia (United States)

    Petrov, V. A.; Rebetsky, Yu. L.; Poluektov, V. V.; Burmistrov, A. A.


    The Antei deposit of the southeastern Transbaikalian region is one of the largest uranium mines in Russia. It is hosted by the Late Paleozoic granitic basement of the Streltsovskaya caldera and was formed as a result of Late Mesozoic tectonothermal activity. Vein and stockwork-disseminated molybdenum-uranium mineralization at this deposit is controlled by zones of intense hydrothermal alteration, cataclasis, brecciation, and intense fracturing along steeply dipping faults, which acted as conduits for mineralizing fluids and hosts to the ore bodies. The upper edge of the ore-bearing zone is located at a depth of 400 m, and its lower edge was intersected at a depth of 1300 m from the day surface. The conditions of ore localization were determined using structural-geological and petrophysical studies coupled with numerical modeling of the effects of gravitational body forces at purely elastic and postcritical elastoplastic deformational stages. The dynamics of the tectonic stress field in the rock massif was reconstructed using the results of mapping of morphogenetic and kinematic characteristics of fault and fracture systems, as well as data on petrography and mineralogy of rocks and vein-filling material. It was shown that the fault framework of the deposit was formed in four tectonic stages, three of which took place in the geologic past and one of which reflects recent geologic history. Each tectonic stage was characterized by different parameters of the tectonic stress-strain field, fault kinematics, and conditions of mineral formation. The following types of metasomatic rocks are recognized within the deposit: high-temperature K-feldspar rocks and albitites (formed during the Late Paleozoic as the primary structural elements of a granitic massif) and Late Mesozoic low-temperature preore (hydromicatized rocks), synore (hematite, albite, chlorite, and quartz) and postore (kaolinite-smectite) rocks. The following petrophysical parameters were determined for all

  2. Calculation of the 13C NMR shieldings of the C0 2 complexes of aluminosilicates (United States)

    Tossell, J. A.


    complexation are much smaller. Complexation with CO 2 greatly increases the electric field gradient at the bridging oxygen of H 3AlOAlH 3-2, raising it to a value similar to that found for SiOSi linkages. Comparison of these results with the experimental 13C NMR spectra support the formation of CO 2-like complexes at SiOSi bridges in albite glasses and CO 3-like complexes at SiOAl and AlOAl bridges in albite and nepheline glasses. Changes in the calculated shieldings as Na + ions are added to the complexes suggest that some of the observed complexes may be similar in their CO 2-aluminosilicate interactions, but different with respect to the positions of the charge-compensating Na + ions.

  3. Caracterización hidroquímica y análisis de los estados de equilibrio termodinámico en aguas termominerales de Alhama de Murcia (Murcia, Espana

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    Padilla Benítez, A.


    Full Text Available The principal physico-chemical characteristics of sorne thermomineral waters of Alhama de Murcia detrital aquifer are studied. The waters show a temperature between 26-41 °C and they are calcium-magnesium chloride-sulphate type. The origin of ions has a direct relationship with the dissolution of evaporitic sulphate-chloride salts, carbonatic and silica rocks, agricultural contamination processes and possibly ore-deposits. Mixing processes with cold waters possibly also occur. By SOLMINEQ.88 program the thermodinamic equilibrium conditions in surface are studied; the samples are saturated in quartz, chalcedony and albite. A great part of the waters are also saturated in calcite, aragonite, dolomite, gypsum, barite and magnesite. Finally, the waters are undersaturated in cristobalite, anhydrite and fluorite. Conventional chemical geothermometers yield a broad range of temperatures. Both, calcite-dolomite and anhydrite-fluorite geothermometers was applied to two samples with anomalous results. The saturation index modeling, at a series of growing temperatures, shows an approach equilibrium with quartz, chalcedony, albite, sanidine, gipsum, anhydrite, gibbsite and halloisite between 80-110 °C. A spread in the apparent equilibration temperatures deduced from two metodology, should be a consequence of dilution by surface waters, effects of re-equilibration of minerals with waters and CO2 loss. Temperature and chemical composition of the waters shows a thermal anomaly directly related with the tectonic activity in the area.Se estudian las principales características físico-químicas de algunas aguas termominerales del acuífero detrítico de Alhama de Murcia cuya temperatura está comprendida entre 26 y 41 °C y son de facies clorurada-sulfatada cálcico-magnésica. El origen de los iones encontrados está relacionado con la disolución de materiales evaporíticos, sales sulfatadas y cloruradas, carbonatados y silicatados, procesos de

  4. Thermodynamic modeling of non-ideal mineral-fluid equilibria in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K-H-O-Cl at elevated temperatures and pressures: Implications for hydrothermal mass transfer in granitic rocks (United States)

    Dolejš, David; Wagner, Thomas


    We present the results of thermodynamic modeling of fluid-rock interaction in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-H-O-Cl using the GEM-Selektor Gibbs free energy minimization code. Combination of non-ideal mixing properties in solids with multicomponent aqueous fluids represents a substantial improvement and it provides increased accuracy over existing modeling strategies. Application to the 10-component system allows us to link fluid composition and speciation with whole-rock mineralogy, mass and volume changes. We have simulated granite-fluid interaction over a wide range of conditions (200-600 °C, 100 MPa, 0-5 m Cl and fluid/rock ratios of 10-2-104) in order to explore composition of magmatic fluids of variable salinity, temperature effects on fluid composition and speciation and to simulate several paths of alteration zoning. At low fluid/rock ratios (f/r) the fluid composition is buffered by the silicate-oxide assemblage and remains close to invariant. This behavior extends to a f/r of 0.1 which exceeds the amount of exsolved magmatic fluids controlled by water solubility in silicate melts. With increasing peraluminosity of the parental granite, the Na-, K- and Fe-bearing fluids become more acidic and the oxidation state increases as a consequence of hydrogen and ferrous iron transfer to the fluid. With decreasing temperature, saline fluids become more Ca- and Na-rich, change from weakly acidic to alkaline, and become significantly more oxidizing. Large variations in Ca/Fe and Ca/Mg ratios in the fluid are a potential geothermometer. The mineral assemblage changes from cordierite-biotite granites through two-mica granites to chlorite-, epidote- and zeolite-bearing rocks. We have carried out three rock-titration simulations: (1) reaction with the 2 m NaCl fluid leads to albitization, chloritization and desilication, reproducing essential features observed in episyenites, (2) infiltration of a high-temperature fluid into the granite at 400 °C leads to hydrolytic

  5. Petrology of blueschist and meta-greywacke along the Turkmeni-Ordib fault (Turkmeni area, SE of Anarak

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    Fereshteh Bayat


    Full Text Available Introduction The occurrence of blueschist metamorphic facies is believed to mark the existence of former subduction zones. This facies is represented in the main constituents of subduction-accretion complexes, where it occurs in separate tectonic sheets, imbricated slices, lenses, or exotic blocks within a serpentinite mélange (Volkova et al., 2011. The evidence of the presence and maturity of Paleo- Tethys oceanic crust in the CEIM (define this in Paleo-Tethys branches, subduction and collision has been studied by various authors (Bagheri, 2007; Zanchi et al., 2009; Bayat and Torabi, 2011; Torabi 2011. Late Paleozoic blueschists have recognized in the western part of the CEIM (e. g. Anarak, Chupanan and Turkmeni in linear trends. Metamorphic rocks of the Turkmeni area (SE of Anarak are composed of blueschist and meta-greywacke and are situated along the Turkmeni-Ordib fault associated with Paleozoic rock units and serpentinized peridotite bodies. Turkmeni blueschist and meta-greywackes have not been studied by previous workers. The Turkmeni blueschists consist of albite, winchite, actinolite and epidote. Granoblastic, nematoblastic and lepidoblastic are main textures in these rocks. Winchite is found in the matrix and around epidote grains. This sodic-calcic amphibole serves as an index mineral in blueschist facies. Actinolite and epidote formed during retrograde metamorphism of blueschists in the greenschist facies. The mineral assemblage of albite, epidote, chlorite and phengite ± garnet is present in meta-greywackes in the Turkmeni blueschists. Veins of garnet, muscovite, quartz and opaque minerals are extensive in these rocks. Epidote and chlorite formed in meta-greywackes by retrograde metamorphism in the greenschist facies. The aim of the present study is to determine the petrological and geochemical characteristics, P-T condition of blueschists and meta-greywackes, as well as the geotectonic setting of primary basaltic rocks of the

  6. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada) (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel


    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  7. Organic-inorganic interactions at oil-water contacts: quantitative retracing of processes controlling the CO2 occurrence in Norwegian oil reservoirs (United States)

    van Berk, Wolfgang; Schulz, Hans-Martin


    of different amounts of HDP. Modelled CO2 partial pressure values in a multicomponent gas phase equilibrated with K-feldspar, quartz, kaolinite, and calcite resemble measured data. Similar CO2 contents result from acetic acid addition (eq. 1b). Equilibration with albite or anorthite reduces the release of CO2 into the multicomponent gas phase dramatically, by 1 or 4 orders of magnitude compared with the equilibration with K-feldspar (van Berk et al., 2009). Third and based on data by Ehrenberg & Jakobsen (2001), the effects of organic-inorganic interactions at OWCs in Brent Group reservoir sandstones from the Gullfaks Oilfield (offshore Norway) have been hydrogeochemically modelled. Observed local changes in mineral phase assemblage compositions (content of different feldspar types, kaolinite, carbonate) and CO2 partial pressures are attributed to varying degrees of oil-biodegradation (up to more than 10 %; Horstadt et al. 1992). Modelling results are congruent with observations and indicate that (i) intense dissolution of anorthite, (ii) less intense dissolution of albite, (iii) minor dissolution of K-feldspar, (iv) intense precipitation of kaolinite and quartz, (v) less intense precipitation of carbonate, and (vi) formation of CO2 partial pressures are driven by the release of HDP. References Ehrenberg SN & Jakobsen KG (2001) Plagioclase dissolution related to biodegradation of oil in Brent Group sandstones (Middle Jurassic) of Gullfaks Field, northern North Sea. Sedimentology, 48, 703-721. Smith JT & Ehrenberg SN (1989) Correlation of carbon dioxide abundance with temperature in clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs: relationship to inorganic chemical equilibrium. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 6, 129-135. Seewald JS (2003) Organic-inorganic interactions in petroleum-producing sedimentary basins. Nature, 426, 327-333. van Berk, W, Schulz, H-M & Fu, Y (2009) Hydrogeochemical modelling of CO2 equilibria and mass transfer induced by organic-inorganic interactions in

  8. Petrography and U-Pb Zircon Geochronology of Geological Units of the Mesa de Cocodite, Península de Paraguaná, Venezuela (United States)

    Mendi, D.; Baquero, M. L.; Oliveira, E. P.; Urbani, F.; Pinto, J.; Grande, S.; Valencia, V.


    Several continental crust units crop out in The Mesa de Cocodite, central Paraguaná Peninsula, Northwestern Venezuela, including a newly mapped quartz-feldspar gneiss that intruded the El Amparo Pluton, a major low-graded metamorphic unit of Permian age. It is unconformably overlying by Late Jurassic phyllites of the Pueblo Nuevo Formation. All these units are cross-cut by narrow dykes. This contribution focuses on the petrography and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating of the igneous units, with the aim of constraining magmatism and its tectonic significance in the area. The quartz-feldspar gneiss consists of albite, bluish-smoked quartz, muscovite-chlorite, epidote and zircon. The enclosing El Amparo Pluton is typically a coarse-grained and thick-banded metagranodiorite, containing andesine, quartz, hornblende, epidote, K-feldspar, biotite, chlorite, titanite and zircon. The younger dykes consist of fine-grained, porphyritic hornblende diorites that contain numerous hornblende phenocrysts. The main minerals are andesine, hornblende, quartz, and chlorite. Accessory minerals include zircon, epidote and opaques. A felsic gneiss xenolith collected from the dykes contain quartz, K-feldspar, chlorite, epidote, albite and zircon. Zircon population in the quartz-feldspar gneiss displays a discordia trend, ranging in age from 1050-750 Ma but mostly around 950-900 Ma, which may represent a peak high-grade metamorphism in the area. The El Amparo Pluton provides a concordant Permian age (271.3±6.5 Ma), which is comparable with previous reported U-Pb ages in titanite. Because the porphyry dykes cross-cut all the units in the area, they should be post-Late Jurassic in Age; however, all dated zircons from the dykes are in the range of 1200-750 Ma. The absence of younger ages can be attributed to either formation during a relatively low temperature magmatic event, which generated very narrow younger zircon rims only and thus undetectable with the technique used, or a completely lack

  9. ⁵³Mn-⁵³Cr and ²⁶Al-²⁶Mg ages of a feldspathic lithology in polymict ureilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne [Planetary Science Institute. Tucson, AZ (United States); Hutcheon, Ian D. [Glenn T. Seaborg Institute. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kita, Noriko T. [Dept. of Geoscience. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Huss, Gary R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL (United States); Cohen, Barbara Anne [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Keil, Klaus


    We report 53Mn–53Cr and 26Al–26Mg isotopic data, obtained by in-situ SIMS analysis, for feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites DaG 319 and DaG 165. The analyzed clasts belong to the “albitic lithology,” the most abundant population of indigenous feldspathic materials in polymict ureilites, and are highly fractionated igneous assemblages of albitic plagioclase, Fe-rich pyroxenes, phosphates, ilmenite, silica, and Fe(Mn, K, P, Ti)-enriched glass. Glass in DaG 165 clast 19 has extremely high and variable 55Mn/52Cr ratios (500–58,000) and shows correlated 53Cr excesses up to ~ 1500‰, clearly indicating the presence of live 53Mn at the time of formation. The slope of the well-correlated isochron defined by glass and pyroxenes from this clast corresponds to (53Mn/55Mn) = (2.84 ± 0.10) × 10-6 (2σ). Data for less 55Mn/52Cr-enriched glasses from DaG 319 clast B1, as well as phosphates from several other clasts, are consistent with this isochron. The 53Mn/55Mn ratio obtained from the isochron implies that these clasts are 0.70 ± 0.18 Ma younger than the D'Orbigny angrite, corresponding to the absolute age of 4563.72 ± 0.22 Ma. Plagioclase in DaG 319 clast B1 has a fairly constant 27Al/24Mg ratio of ~ 900 and shows resolvable 26Mg excesses of ~ 2‰. The slope of the isochron defined by pyroxene and plagioclase in this clast is (3.0 ± 1.1) × 10-7 (2σ), corresponding to a time difference of 5.4 (-0.3/+0.5) Ma after CAI (assuming the canonical initial 26Al/27Al ratio of 5 × 10-5) and an age 0.5 (-0.3/+0.5) Ma younger than D'Orbigny. Its absolute age (relative to D'Orbigny) is 4563.9 (+ 0.4/-0.5) Ma, in agreement with the 53Mn–53Cr age from clast 19. These data provide the first

  10. Inverse Geochemical Reaction Path Modelling and the Impact of Climate Change on Hydrologic Structure in Snowmelt-Dominated Catchments in the Southwestern USA (United States)

    Driscoll, J. M.; Meixner, T.; Molotch, N. P.; Sickman, J. O.; Williams, M. W.; McIntosh, J. C.; Brooks, P. D.


    Snowmelt from alpine catchments provides 70-80% of the American Southwest's water resources. Climate change threatens to alter the timing and duration of snowmelt in high elevation catchments, which may also impact the quantity and the quality of these water resources. Modelling of these systems provides a robust theoretical framework to process the information extracted from the sparse physical measurement available in these sites due to their remote locations. Mass-balance inverse geochemical models (via PHREEQC, developed by the USGS) were applied to two snowmelt-dominated catchments; Green Lake 4 (GL4) in the Rockies and Emerald Lake (EMD) in the Sierra Nevada. Both catchments primarily consist of granite and granodiorite with a similar bulk geochemistry. The inputs for the models were the initial (snowpack) and final (catchment output) hydrochemistry and a catchment-specific suite of mineral weathering reactions. Models were run for wet and dry snow years, for early and late time periods (defined hydrologically as 1/2 of the total volume for the year). Multiple model solutions were reduced to a representative suite of reactions by choosing the model solution with the fewest phases and least overall phase change. The dominant weathering reactions (those which contributed the most solutes) were plagioclase for GL4 and albite for EMD. Results for GL4 show overall more plagioclase weathering during the dry year (214.2g) than wet year (89.9g). Both wet and dry years show more weathering in the early time periods (63% and 56%, respectively). These results show that the snowpack and outlet are chemically more similar during wet years than dry years. A possible hypothesis to explain this difference is a change in contribution from subsurface storage; during the wet year the saturated catchment reduces contact with surface materials that would result in mineral weathering reactions by some combination of reduced infiltration and decreased subsurface transit time. By

  11. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the Late Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab granitoids, Central Eastern Dessert, Egypt: Implications for the origin of rare metal post-orogenic A-type granites (United States)

    Sami, Mabrouk; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Farahat, Esam S.; Ahmed, Awaad F.; Mohamed, Haroun A.


    The Neoproterozoic Gabal Abu Diab pluton is a part of the Arabian Nubian shield (ANS) continental crust and located in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt. It constitutes multiphase granitic pluton intruded into granodiorite and metagabbro-diorite rocks with sharp and nonreactive contacts. Based on field observations, colors, structural variations and petrographic investigations, this granitic outcrop consists of an inner core of two-mica granite (TMG) followed outward by garnet bearing muscovite granite (GBMG) and albite granite (AG). Petrographical study indicated that medium to coarse-grained TMG is dominated by K-feldspar (Or88-98), quartz, plagioclase (albite, An0-7), muscovite and biotite with hypidiomorphic texture. With exception the appearance of garnet and the disappearance of biotite the GBMG resembles the TGM, while AG is leucocratic without any mafic mineral. The main accessories are zircon, Nb and Ta-bearing rutile, columbite, ilmenorutile, ilmenite, magnetite and apatite. This mineralogical similarity and the existence of columbite group minerals (CGM) in all granitoids, indicates a cogenetic relationship. Microprobe analyses reveal that, besides the CGM, rutile and ilmenite are the main repository phases for Nb-Ta-Ti. Columbite-(Mn) exists as individual subhedral crystals (up to 100μm in size) or intimate intergrowth with Nb-bearing rutile and/or ilmenite. The CGM are represented mostly by columbite-(Mn) with Ta/(Ta+Nb) and Mn/(Mn+Fe) ratio ranging from 0.02-0.08 and 0.4-0.9, respectively suggesting extreme degree of magmatic fractionation. Rutile contains significant amounts of Ta (up to 4 wt.% Ta2O5) and Nb (up to 22 wt.% Nb2O5). Biotites are phlogopite-annite in composition (Ann47-60Phlog40-53,on average) and are enriched with AlIV that characterize peraluminous granites. Garnets contain 60-69 mol.% spessartine and 28-36 mol.% almandine where, the ratio of spessartine and almandine together exceeds 95 mole percent, similar to garnet occur

  12. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R. (eds.)


    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.

  13. Mineral chemistry and petrogenesis of the Gurgur Mount volcanic rocks (Northeast Takab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Esmaeily


    Full Text Available Andesitic and andesitic-basaltic lavas are widespread over most of the ground surface of the Gurgur area altered mostly by the hydrothermal solutions. The main rock forming minerals in these rocks are plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine affected by the hydrothermal solutions. The altered rocks do contain minerals including calcite, sericite and chlorite. Given the results obtained and the mineral chemistry studies, the clinopyroxenes formed in the area are, chemically, calkalkaline and of diopside-augite type formed in subvolcanic to near surface levels contemporaneous with magma ascending. Plagioclase minerals show zoning textures and lie within the two andesine and albite-oligoclase fields. These units, in terms of total rock chemistry, are classified as the calk-alkaline volcanic rocks formed in the continental arcs. On the other hand, on the trace elements chondrite-normalized diagrams and enriched mantle-normalized multi- element diagrams, the LREE enrichment relative to the HREE is observed. The LILE (i.e. Rb, K and Th and the LREE (e.g. La, Ce and Nd show an enrichment in comparison to the HFSE (Zr, Hf, Nb, Yb, Y and Sm. Given the Nd/Th (1.42-1.15, Zr/Nb (12.27-21.22, Ba/La (18.64-29.77 as well as LILE enrichment associated with depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, an environment related to the subduction zones can be proposed for the area under study. Moreover, the similarity between the REE distribution pattern and the incompatible elements point to the genetic relationship between these rocks. Finally, on the base of the obtained data, it can be concluded that the volcanic rocks in the Gurgur Mountain were likely formed during the extended magmatism of the Urumieh-Dokhtar in the Cenozoic.

  14. Deposition and diagenesis of the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.E.


    The Brushy Basin Member and the upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation in northwest New Mexico are nonmarine sedimentary rocks of Late Jurassic age. This stratigraphic interval consists of as many as four lithofacies deposited in fluvial and playa-lake environments. Lithofacies A is composed of crossbed feldspathic sandstone and was deposited by braided streams on an alluvial plain. Lithofacies B is composed of crossbedded feldspathic sandstone and tuffaceous mudstone, and was deposited by braided and anastomosing streams at the distal end of the alluvial plain. Lithofacies C is composed of calcareous, tuffaceous mudstone and was deposited on a mudflat between the alluvial plain and a playa lake. Lithofacies D is composed of zeolitic, tuffaceous mudstone and was deposited in a playa lake. The distribution of diagenetic facies in mudstones and tuffs in the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member reflects the pH and salinity gradients common to fluvial/playa-lake systems. The abundant vitric ash in the sediments reacted to form montmorillonite in the fluvial facies. Calcite and montmorillonite were the reaction products where the fluvial and outermost playa facies met. Vitric ash reacted to form clinoptilolite and heulandite along the playa margins. In the center of the playa facies, analcime replaced clinoptilolite, an early zeolite. These early diagenetic minerals were replaced by albite, quartz, and mixed-layer illitemontmorillonite where the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member have been deeply buried in the San Juan basin

  15. Evidence of Metasomatism in the Lowest Petrographic Types Inferred from A Na(-), K, Rich Rim Around A LEW 86018 (L3.1) Chondrule (United States)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Marhas, Kuljeet Kaur; Simon, Justin I.; Ross, Daniel Kent


    Ordinary chondrites (OCs) represent the most abundant extraterrestrial materials and also record the widest range of alteration of primary, pristine minerals of early Solar system material available for study. Relatively few investigations, however, address: (1) the role of fluid alteration, and (2) the relationship between thermal metamorphism and metasomatism in OCs, issues that have been extensively studied in many other meteorite groups e.g., CV, CO, CR, and enstatite chondrites. Detailed elemental abundances profiles across individual chondrules, and mineralogical studies of Lewis Hills (LEW) 86018 (L3.1), an unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (UOC) of low petrographic type of 3.1 returned from Antarctica, provide evidence of extensive alteration of primary minerals. Some chondrules have Na(-), K(-), rich rims surrounded by nepheline, albite, and sodalite-like Na(-), Cl(-), Al-rich secondary minerals in the near vicinity within the matrices. Although, limited evidences of low temperature (approximately 250 C) fluid-assisted alteration of primary minerals to phyllosilicates, ferroanolivine, magnetite, and scapolite have been reported in the lowest grades (less than 3.2) Semarkona (LL3.00) and Bishunpur (LL3.10), alkali-rich secondary mineralization has previously only been seen in higher grade greater than 3.4 UOCs. This preliminary result suggests highly localized metamorphism in UOCs and widens the range of alteration in UOCs and complicates classification of petrographic type and extent of thermal metamorphism or metasomatism. The work in progress will document the micro-textures, geochemistry (Ba, Ca, REE), and isotopic composition (oxygen, Al(-)- 26 Mg-26) of mineral phases in chondrules and adjoining objects to help us understand the formation scenario and delineate possible modes of metamorphism in UOCs.

  16. Glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of the fluorinel-sodium, alumina, and zirconia calcines stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinjamuri, K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Glass-ceramics appear to be very good candidate waste forms for immobilization of the calcined high level solid wastes, fluorinel-sodium (Fl/Na), alumina and zirconia that are stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Candidate experimental glass-ceramics were synthesized at ICPP by hot isostatically pressing (HIPing) a mixture of precompacted pilot plant calcine and additives. The glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of the Fl/Na, alumina, and zirconia calcines consist of 70 wt% Fl/Na calcine, 23.9 wt% SiO{sub 2}, 5 wt% Ti, 1.1 wt% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}; 70 wt% alumina calcine, 30 wt% SiO{sub 2}; and 70 wt% zirconia calcine, 20.25 wt% SiO{sub 2}, 5 wt% Ti, 2.25 wt% Na{sub 2}O, 1.75 wt% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.75 wt% Li{sub 2}O, respectively. The characteristics of the waste forms including density, chemical durability, glass and crystalline phases, and the microstructure are investigated. The 14-day MCC-1 total mass loss rates and the normalized elemental leach rates for aluminum, boron, calcium, cadmium, chromium, cesium, potassium, silicon, sodium, strontium, titanium, and zirconium are all less than 1 g/m{sup 2}-day. The crystalline phases for the Fl/Na and zirconia waste forms include zirconia, zircon, calcium fluoride, and titanates. In addition, cadmium sulphide in Fl/Na, and cadmium metal in zirconia waste form were also identified. The crystalline phases for the alumina waste form are alpha, gamma, and delta alumina, cristobalite, albite, and mullite. Glass phase separation was not observed in alumina and zirconia waste forms. The observed glass phase separation in Fl/Na waste form appears to be chemically durable.

  17. Atmospheric weathering and silica-coated feldspar: analogy with zeolite molecular sieves, granite weathering, soil formation, ornamental slabs, and ceramics. (United States)

    Smith, J V


    Feldspar surfaces respond to chemical, biological, and mechanical weathering. The simplest termination is hydroxyl (OH), which interacts with any adsorption layer. Acid leaching of alkalis and aluminum generated a silica-rich, nanometers-thick skin on certain feldspars. Natural K, Na-feldspars develop fragile surfaces as etch pits expand into micrometer honeycombs, possibly colonized by lichens. Most crystals have various irregular coats. Based on surface-catalytic processes in molecular sieve zeolites, I proposed that some natural feldspars lose weakly bonded Al-OH (aluminol) to yield surfaces terminated by strongly bonded Si-OH (silanol). This might explain why some old feldspar-bearing rocks weather slower than predicted from brief laboratory dissolution. Lack of an Al-OH infrared frequency from a feldspar surface is consistent with such a silanol-dominated surface. Raman spectra of altered patches on acid-leached albite correspond with amorphous silica rather than hydroxylated silica-feldspar, but natural feldspar may respond differently. The crystal structure of H-exchanged feldspar provides atomic positions for computer modeling of complex ideas for silica-terminated feldspar surfaces. Natural weathering also depends on swings of temperature and hydration, plus transport of particles, molecules, and ionic complexes by rain and wind. Soil formation might be enhanced by crushing granitic outcrops to generate new Al-rich surfaces favorable for chemical and biological weathering. Ornamental slabs used by architects and monumental masons might last longer by minimizing mechanical abrasion during sawing and polishing and by silicifying the surface. Silica-terminated feldspar might be a promising ceramic surface.

  18. Progressive enrichment of island arc mantle by melt-peridotite interaction inferred from Kamchatka xenoliths (United States)

    Kepezhinskas, Pavel; Defant, Marc J.; Drummond, Mark S.


    The Pliocene (7 Ma) Nb-enriched arc basalts of the Valovayam Volcanic Field (VVF) in the northern segment of Kamchatka arc (Russia) host abundant xenoliths of spinel peridotites and pyroxenites. Textural and microstructural evidence for the high-temperature, multistage creep-related deformations in spinel peridotites supports a sub-arc mantle derivation. Pyroxenites show re-equilibrated mosaic textures, indicating recrystallization during cooling under the ambient thermal conditions. Three textural groups of clinopyroxenes exhibit progressive enrichment in Na, Al, Sr, La, and Ce accompanied by increase in Sr/Y, La/Yb, and Zr/Sm. Trace elements in various mineral phases and from felsic veins obtained through ion microprobe analysis suggest that the xenoliths have interacted with a siliceous (dacitic) melt completely unlike the host basalt. The suite of xenoliths grade from examples that display little evidence of metasomatic reaction to those containing an assemblage of minerals that have been reproduced experimentally from the reaction of a felsic melt with ultramafic rock, e.g., pargasitic amphibole, albite-rich plagioclase, Al-rich augite, and garnet. The dacitic veins within spinel lherzolite display a strong enrichment in Sr and depletion in Y and the heavy rare earth elements (e.g., Yb). The dacites are comparable to adakites (melts derived from subducted metabasalt), and not typical arc melts. We believe that these potential slab melts were introduced into the mantle beneath this portion of Kamchatka subsequent to partial melting of a relatively young (and hot) subducted crust. Island arc metasomatism by peridotite-slab melt interaction is an important mantle hybridization process responsible for arc-related alkaline magma generation from a veined sub-arc mantle.

  19. Composition, age, and origin of the ~620 Ma Humr Akarim and Humrat Mukbid A-type granites: no evidence for pre-Neoproterozoic basement in the Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Ali, Kamal A.; Moghazi, Abdel-Kader M.; Maurice, Ayman E.; Omar, Sayed A.; Wang, Qiang; Wilde, Simon A.; Moussa, Ewais M.; Manton, William I.; Stern, Robert J.


    The Humr Akarim and Humrat Mukbid plutons, in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt, are late Neoproterozoic post-collisional alkaline A-type granites. Humr Akarim and Humrat Mukbid plutonic rocks consist of subsolvus alkali granites and a subordinate roof facies of albite granite, which hosts greisen and Sn-Mo-mineralized quartz veins; textural and field evidence strongly suggest the presence of late magmatic F-rich fluids. The granites are Si-alkali rich, Mg-Ca-Ti poor with high Rb/Sr (20-123), and low K/Rb (27-65). They are enriched in high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, Y, U, Th) and heavy rare earth elements (La n /Yb n = 0.27-0.95) and exhibit significant tetrad effects in REE patterns. These geochemical attributes indicate that granite trace element distribution was controlled by crystal fractionation as well as interaction with fluorine-rich magmatic fluids. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating indicates an age of ~630-620 Ma but with abundant evidence that zircons were affected by late corrosive fluids (e.g., discordance, high common Pb). ɛNd at 620 Ma ranges from +3.4 to +6.8 (mean = +5.0) for Humr Akarim granitic rocks and from +4.8 to +7.5 (mean = +5.8) for Humrat Mukbid granitic rocks. Some slightly older zircons (~740 Ma, 703 Ma) may have been inherited from older granites in the region. Our U-Pb zircon data and Nd isotope results indicate a juvenile magma source of Neoproterozoic age like that responsible for forming most other ANS crust and refute previous conclusions that pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust was involved in the generation of the studied granites.

  20. Distribution of magnetic particulates in a roadside snowpack based on magnetic, microstructural and mineralogical analyses (United States)

    Bućko, Michał S.; Mattila, Olli-Pekka; Chrobak, Artur; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Johanson, Bo; Čuda, Jan; Filip, Jan; Zbořil, Radek; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Leppäranta, Matti


    Vehicle traffic is at present one of the major sources of environmental pollution in urban areas. Magnetic parameters are successfully applied in environmental studies to obtain detailed information about concentrations and quality of iron-bearing minerals. A general aim of this research was to investigate the magnetic, microstructural and mineralogical properties of dust extracted from the roadside snowpack accumulated on the side of an urban highway, northern Helsinki. Vertical snow profiles were taken at different distances (5, 10 and 15 m) from the road edge, during winter season 2010-2011. The temporal distribution of mass magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the road dust shows that the concentration of magnetic particles increases in the snowpack during winter. Roadside snowpack preserves a large fraction of the magnetic particulate until the late stages of melting and this could be considered as one of the main factors responsible for the resuspension phenomenon observed in Nordic countries. The vertical distribution of χ and SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization)/χ ratio may indicate the migration of magnetic particles down in the snowpack during melting conditions. Ultrafine to coarse-grained (superparamagnetic to multidomain) magnetite was identified as the primary magnetic mineral in all the studied road dust samples. The examined road dust contains significant amount of dia/paramagnetic minerals (e.g. quartz, albite, biotite) and the content of magnetite is relatively low (below 1 weight percent, wt%). The roadside snowpack is enriched in anthropogenic particles such as angular and spherical iron-oxides, tungsten-rich particles and sodium chloride. This study demonstrates the suitability of snow as an efficient collecting medium of magnetic particulates generated by anthropogenic activities.

  1. Why is Dawsonite Absent in CO2 Charged Reservoirs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellevang, H.; Declercq, J.; Aagaard, P.


    Growth of the sodium-aluminium-hydroxy carbonate dawsonite (NaAl(OH) 2 CO 3 ) after charging saline aquifers with CO 2 has been assumed in a plethora of numerical simulations at different mineralogies, aqueous solutions, pressures and temperatures. It appears however that dawsonite is less abundant than expected in natural CO 2 storage analogues if we take into account the thermodynamic stability alone. We have mapped the thermodynamic stability of dawsonite relative to mineral phases like albite, kaolinite and analcime from 37 to 200 C and performed closed-system batch kinetic simulations using a new kinetic expression including a nucleation term based on classical nucleation theory, and a growth term that was based on BCF growth theory. Using this rate equation, we have performed a sensitivity study on dawsonite growth on mineralogy, temperature, CO 2 pressure, nucleation rate and its dependencies on temperature and affinity, and on the dawsonite precipitation rate coefficient. Simulations with dawsonite growth disabled showed that the maximum over-saturation reached for dawsonite for seawater-like solutions never exceeded 3-4 times over-saturation. The positive effect on dawsonite growth of increasing the CO 2 pressure was mostly neutralized by higher acidity. Decreasing the precipitation rate coefficient by 5 orders of magnitude had a limited effect on the onset of significant growth, but the amount of dawsonite formed at the end of the 1 000 years simulated time was only 37% below the high-rate case. Reducing the nucleation rates had similar effects leading to postponed dawsonite growth. Finally, based on thermodynamic considerations and numerical simulations, we suggest that the potential of dawsonite growth is limited to a medium-temperature window framed by a high thermodynamic stability relative to competing mineral phases at low temperatures, but with rapidly diminishing nucleation and growth rates at lower temperatures constrained by energy barriers

  2. Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater evolution modeling in sedimentary rocks of the Tono mine, Japan (United States)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu; Arthur, Randolph C.

    Based on geochemical data collected by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in the Tono uranium mine, a conceptual groundwater evolution model developed by JNC is tested to evaluate whether equilibrium-based concepts of water-rock interaction are consistent with observed variations in the mineralogy and hydrochemistry of the Tono mine area. The chemical evolution of the groundwaters is modeled assuming local equilibrium for selected mineral-fluid reactions, taking into account the rainwater origin of these solutions. Results suggest that it is possible to interpret approximately the actual groundwater chemistry (i.e., pH, Eh, total dissolved concentrations of Si, Na, Ca, K, Al, carbonate and sulfate) if the following assumptions are adopted (a) CO 2 concentration in the gas phase contacting pore solutions in the overlying soil zone=10 -1 atm, and (b) minerals in the rock zone that control the solubility of respective elements in the groundwater include: chalcedony (Si), albite (Na), kaolinite (Al), calcite (Ca and carbonate), muscovite (K) and pyrite (Eh and sulfate). This result helps to build confidence in the use of simplified geochemical modeling techniques to develop an understanding of dominant geochemical reactions controlling groundwater chemistry in rocks similar to those that could be used for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It is noted, however, that the available field data may not be sufficient to adequately constrain parameters in the groundwater evolution model. In particular, more detailed information characterizing certain site properties are needed to improve the model. For this reason, a model that accounts for ion-exchange reactions among clay minerals, and which is based on the results of laboratory experiments, has also been evaluated in the present study. Further improvement of model considering ion-exchange reactions are needed in future, however.

  3. Status of geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution at the Tono in-situ tests site, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Arthur, R.C. [Monitor Scientific, L.L.C., Denver, Colorado (United States)


    Hydrochemical investigation of Tertiary sedimentary rocks at JNC's Tono in-situ tests site indicate the groundwaters are: meteoric in origin, chemically reducing at depths greater than a few tens of meters in the sedimentary rock, relatively old [carbon-14 ages of groundwaters collected from the lower part of the sedimentary sequence range from 13,000 to 15,000 years BP (before present)]. Ca-Na-HCO{sub 3} type solutions near the surface, changing to Na-HCO{sub 3} type groundwaters with increasing depth. The chemical evolution of the groundwaters is modeled assuming local equilibrium for selected mineral-fluid reactions, taking into account the rainwater origin of these solutions. Results suggest it is possible to interpret approximately the 'real' groundwater chemistry (i.e., pH, Eh, total dissolved concentrations of Si, Na, Ca, K, Al, carbonate and sulfate) if the following assumptions are adopted: CO{sub 2} concentration in the gas phase contacting pore solutions in the overlying soil zone=10{sup -1} bar, minerals in the rock zone that control the solubility of respective elements in the groundwater include; chalcedony (Si), albite (Na), kaolinite (Al), calcite (Ca and carbonate), muscovite (K) and pyrite (Eh and sulfate). It is noted, however, that the available field data may not be sufficient to adequately constrain parameters in the groundwater evolution model. In particular, more detailed information characterizing certain site properties (e.g., the actual mineralogy of 'plagioclase', 'clay' and 'zeolite') are needed to improve the model. Alternative conceptual models of key reactions may also be necessary. For this reason, a model that accounts for ion-exchange reactions among clay minerals, and which is based on the results of laboratory experiments, has also been evaluated in the present study. Further improvements of model considering ion-exchange reactions are needed in future, however. (author)

  4. Cretaceous metamorphic core complexes in the Otago Schist, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, M.A.; Lister, G.S.


    The median antiformal axis of the Otago Schist, New Zealand, is marked by a zone of relatively high-grade (up to garnet-biotite-albite) greenschist facies rocks 40 Ar/ 39 Ar geochronology has been earned out in conjunction with structural analysis in regions distant from the effects of the Alpine Fault to determine the origin of this metamorphic welt. We have determined that the metamorphic welt is bounded on its northern and southern sides by multistage ductile shear zone(s) marked by intensely developed fabrics, and/or low-angle normal faults. These structures extend over a strike length of > ∼ 200 km and on the southern side of the metamorphic welt they mark the boundary between the Caples and the Torlesse terranes. The oldest such shear zone formed between 122 and 118 Ma. The metamorphic welt was exhumed beneath low-angle normal faults and ductile shear zones that formed from 112 to 109 Ma. The shear zones form the carapace to elongate domal culminations in the central Otago Schist. These geomorphological features are Cretaceous metamorphic core complexes dissected by younger Quaternary faults. Exhumation of the shear zones occurred shortly before volcanogenic sediments began to deposit on a Cretaceous unconformity. We propose that both the Cretaceous unconformity and the underlying ductile shear zones and low-angle faults are a direct result of extensional tectonism. The ductile shear zones display both 'cross-belt' and 'belt-parallel' stretching lineations. Cross-belt stretching may have been caused by rollback of the subducting Pacific slab. Belt parallel extension is interpreted to have taken place during extension associated with rifting between Australia and Antarctica, prior to breakup. Copyright (2003) Geological Society of Australia

  5. 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral age constraints for the tectonothermal evolution of the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, central Shikoku, Japan: a Cretaceous accretionary prism (United States)

    Takasu, A.; Dallmeyer, R. D.


    The Sambagawa metamorphic belt exposed in central Shikoku, Japan, is tectonostratigraphically represented by the Oboke and structurally overlying Besshi nappe complexes. Oboke units consist of metamorphic rocks largely derived from clastic protoliths (sandstone and conglomerate) whereas Besshi units are dominated by rocks with oceanic protolith affinities (shale, chert, and greenstone). Whole-rock schist samples from low-grade Oboke units record intermediate temperature. {40Ar }/{39Ar } plateau ages of 70-77 Ma, which are interpreted to closely date attainment of maximum metamorphic conditions. Whole-rock schist samples from Besshi units (chlorite zone) record plateau ages of 85-94 Ma suggesting an earlier metamorphic climax within this structural level. Amphibole within the albite-biotite zone in Besshi records {36Ar }/{40Ar } vs. {39Ar }/{40Ar } plateau isotope correlation ages of 84-87 Ma, which are interpreted as dating the post-metamorphic cooling through temperatures required for intracrystalline retention of argon. A slightly older isotope correlation age (94 Ma) is recorded by amphibole from the higher grade oligioclase-biotite zone. Contrasts in amphibole cooling ages are interpreted as reflecting thrust-related metamorphic inversion and resultant earlier cooling of higher grade structural units. Muscovite from all structural levels of the Besshi nappe complex records {40Ar }/{39Ar } plateau ages of 76-89 Ma. These are interpreted to date post-metamorphic cooling through appropriate closure temperatures following structural assembly of the Besshi nappe complex. Protoliths of the Besshi units originated at approx. 130 Ma and attained maximum metamorphic conditions during entrainment in an accretionary complex at approx. 90-100 Ma. Higher grade sequences developed at deeper levels along the hanging wall of the accretionary complex. During subsequent structural uplift to shallower crustal levels the Besshi nappe complex was tectonically emplaced over Oboke

  6. Mineralogy, geochemistry and low grade metamorphism of green tuffs of Karaj formation in Hesarbon area (south west Firoozkooh

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    Shiva Bahrami


    Full Text Available Green tuffs of middle Eocene age in Hesarbon area, south west of Firoozkuh (East of Central Alborz consist of a thick sequence of lithic-, crystal-,vitric-and calcareous-tuffs. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies show plagioclase (albite and oligoclase, alkali feldspar (sanidine, quartz, cristobalite, biotite and hornblende are the major minerals in the rocks studied. Secondary minerals such as analcime, chlorite, prehnite and clay minerals are mainly present in the groundmass of the rocks. Extensive tectonic activities have created a variety of structural features including numerous folds and faults and therefore, have caused the green tuffs to be crushed and converted to breccia tuffs in many parts. Veins and cavities are filled by considerable amounts of zeolitic minerals including heulandite group, clinoptilolite and natrolite along with calcite and secondary quartz. Based on geochemical data, they lie on the dacite and rhyodacite field showing a calc-alkaline nature in the corresponding diagrams. According to the chondrite and primitive mantle normalized diagrams of trace elements, negative anomalies of Eu, Nb, Ti, P and depletion of HFSE together with their position in the petrogenesis discrimination diagrams, it is most likely that these rocks are formed in the active continental margin of a subduction zone. The existence of analcime and prehnite in the groundmass demonstrate that these rocks have undergone some degrees of low-grade metamorphism due to the overburden of the layers in the temperature range 200-300 °C. The present study shows that zeolite minerals filling the fractures and cavities of tuffs are precipitated by hydrothermal fluids with a neutral pH to acidic

  7. Advanced degradation of brominated epoxy resin and simultaneous transformation of glass fiber from waste printed circuit boards by improved supercritical water oxidation processes. (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen


    This work investigated various supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) systems, i.e. SCWO1 (only water), SCWO2 (water+H2O2) and SCWO3 (water+H2O2/NaOH), for waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) detoxification and recycling. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the operating conditions of the optimal SCWO3 systems. The optimal reaction conditions for debromination were found to be the NaOH of 0.21g, the H2O2 volume of 9.04mL, the time of 39.7min, maximum debromination efficiency of 95.14%. Variance analysis indicated that the factors influencing debromination efficiency was in the sequence of NaOH>H2O2>time. Mechanism studies indicated that the dissociated ions from NaOH in supercritical water promoted the debromination of brominated epoxy resins (BERs) through an elimination reaction and nucleophilic substitution. HO2, produced by H2O2 could induce the oxidation of phenol ring to open (intermediates of BERs), which were thoroughly degraded to form hydrocarbons, CO2, H2O and NaBr. In addition, the alkali-silica reaction between OH(-) and SiO2 induced the phase transformation of glass fibers, which were simultaneously converted into anorthite and albite. Waste PCBs in H2O2/NaOH improved SCWO system were fully degraded into useful products and simultaneously transformed into functional materials. These findings are helpful for efficient recycling of waste PCBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Origin of carbonatites of the Matcha alkaline pluton from Turkestan-Alai ridge, Kyrgyz Southern Tien Shan (United States)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.


    Postorogenic alkaline intrusions in the Turkestan-Alai segment of the Southern Tien Shan coexist with dikes and veins of carbonatites dated at ˜220 Ma. They are primarily composed of calcite and dolomite (60-85 %), as well as sodic amphibole, phlogopite, clinopyroxene, microcline, albite, apatite, and magnetite, with accessory niobate, ilmenite, Nb-rutile, titanite, zircon, baddeleyite, monazite-(Ce), barite, and sulfides. The rocks share mineralogical and geochemical similarity with carbonatites that originated by liquid immiscibility at high temperatures above 500°C. Silicate and salt-carbonate melts are derived from sources with mainly negative bulk ɛND(t) ˜ from -11 to 0 and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (˜ 0.7061-0.7095) which may be due to mixing of PREMA and EM-type mantle material. Pb isotopic ratios in accessory pyrrhotite (206Pb/204Pb = 18.38; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.41) exhibit an EM 2 trend. The intrusions bear signatures of significant crustal contamination as a result of magma genesis by syntexis and hybridism. Concordant isotope composition changes of δ 13C (-6.5 to -1.9 ‰), δ 18O (9.2-23 %„), δD (-58 to -41 %„), and δ 34S (12.6-12.8 ‰) in minerals and rocks indicate inputs of crustal material at the stage of melting and effect of hot fluids released during dehydration of metamorphosed oceanic basalts or sediments. The observed HFSE patterns of the oldest alkaline gabbro may be due to interaction of the primary mafic magma with IAB-type material. The isotope similarity of alkaline rocks with spatially proximal basalts of the Tarim large igneous province does not contradict the evolution of the Turkestan-Alai Triassic magmatism as the «last echo» of the Tarim mantle plume.

  9. Microstructures in landslides in northwest China - Implications for creeping displacements? (United States)

    Schäbitz, M.; Janssen, C.; Wenk, H.-R.; Wirth, R.; Schuck, B.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Meng, X.; Dresen, G.


    Microstructures, mineralogical composition and texture of selected landslide samples from three landslides in the southern part of the Gansu Province (China) were examined with optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. Common sheet silicates are chlorite, illite, muscovite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite and dickite. Other minerals are quartz, calcite, dolomite and albite. In one sample, graphite and amorphous carbon were detected by TEM-EDX analyses and TEM high-angle annular dark-field images. The occurrence of graphite and pyrophyllite with very low friction coefficients in the gouge material of the Suoertou and Xieliupo landslides is particularly significant for reducing the frictional strength of the landslides. It is proposed that the landslides underwent comparable deformation processes as fault zones. The low friction coefficients provide strong evidence that slow-moving landsliding is controlled by the presence of weak minerals. In addition, TEM observations document that grain size reduction in clayey slip zone material was produced mainly by mechanical abrasion. For calcite and quartz, grain size reduction was attributed to both pressure solution and cataclasis. Therefore, besides landslide composition, the occurrence of ultrafine-grained slip zone material may also contribute to weakening processes of landslides. TEM images of slip-zone samples show both locally aligned clay particles, as well as kinked and folded sheet silicates, which are widely disseminated in the whole matrix. Small, newly formed clay particles have random orientations. Based on synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements, the degree of preferred orientation of constituent sheet silicates in local shear zones of the Suoertou and Duang-He-Ba landslide is strong. This work is the first reported observation of well-oriented clay fabrics in landslides.

  10. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Evolution Laws of Drinking Groundwater in Pengyang County, Ningxia, Northwest China

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    Li Peiyue


    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to identify the chemical characteristics of drinking groundwater and its distribution patterns in Pengyang County and to discover the hydrochemical evolution laws of groundwater. The temporal and spatial variation of groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and evolution laws were comprehensively and systematically studied based on the understanding of the geological, hydrogeological, meteorological and hydrological conditions. Many analytical methods such as descriptive statistics, geostatistical analysis, ionic ratio coefficient method and correlation analysis were adopted based on the underground water quality analysis data. Study results showed that variation coefficients of chemical parameters of pore water in unconsolidated rocks were relatively high which indicated that water chemical compositions are vulnerable to topography, meteorology, hydrology and human activities. TDS variation was in accordance with the changes in Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- concentration. Hydrochemical type varied from HCO3•SO4-Na•Ca•Mg type and HCO3•SO4-Ca•Mg type at the upper reaches towards gradually to HCO3-Na type at the lower reaches. Ionic ratio coefficient analysis showed that the hydrodynamic conditions of the pore water in loose rocks were better than that of pore-fissure water in clastic rocks and groundwater was non-marine deposited water. Its formation effects include the weathering leaching effects of the formation containing rock salt, water-rock interaction and cation exchange reaction. Hydrochemical characteristics were mainly controlled by geological and hydrogeological conditions. Correlation analysis showed that the dissolution of rock salt and sodium sulfate salt as well as calcite precipitation occurred in pore water and in pore-crack water in clastic rocks the dissolution of albite, K-feldspar and the precipitation of dolomite were also important effects.

  11. Microtectonic-assisted P-T determination on low-grade Alpine metamorphic rocks from the "Tisia Mega-Unit" of the Slavonian Mountains in Croatia (United States)

    Balen, Dražen; Lihter, Iva; Massonne, Hans-Joachim


    The internal structure of the Tisia (Tisza) Mega-Unit in the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system encompasses large Alpine nappe systems brought to its present-day position by complex regional-scale movements. The Slavonian Mountains are part of the Bihor nappe system which is below the Codru and above the Mecsek nappe systems. The low-grade metamorphic schist unit of the Slavonian Mountains includes numerous rocks which were previously related to Precambrian and/or Lower Paleozoic orogeneses. However, recent studies (e.g. Balen, 2014, European Geosciences Union General Assembly, EGU 2014-6122) show that the metapelites of this unit should be attributed to the Alpine orogeny and the poorly known P-T conditions, which they experienced, should be refined. Although metapelites can be sensitive to changes of metamorphic conditions and, therefore, be suitable for the P-T estimation of metamorphic event(s), the extraction of mineral assemblages, being in equilibrium, and associated microtectonic data for particular low-grade metamorphic rocks is not straightforward. On the contrary, due to lack of suitable minerals and complex mictotectonic features, one can be faced with a severe problem concerning (dis)equilibrium. To avoid this, the observation scale in the research was set to the sub-mm level taking into account microtectonic positions of minerals. The investigated samples from the Slavonian Mountains are fine-grained schists consisting of chlorite (15-30 vol. %), white mica (15-25 vol. %), quartz (10-25 vol. %), feldspars (albite 10-15 vol. %; some K-feldspar), biotite (Financial support by the Croatian Science Foundation (IP-2014-09-9541) and T. Theye's help during microprobe work is greatly acknowledged.

  12. Potentially toxic elements in lignite and its combustion residues from a power plant. (United States)

    Ram, L C; Masto, R E; Srivastava, N K; George, J; Selvi, V A; Das, T B; Pal, S K; Maity, S; Mohanty, D


    The presence of potentially toxic elements in lignite and coal is a matter of global concern during energy extraction from them. Accordingly, Barsingsar lignite from Rajasthan (India), a newly identified and currently exploited commercial source of energy, was evaluated for the presence of these elements and their fate during its combustion. Mobility of these elements in Barsingsar lignite and its ashes from a power plant (Bikaner-Nagaur region of Thar Desert, India) is presented in this paper. Kaolinite, quartz, and gypsum are the main minerals in lignite. Both the fly ash and bottom ash of lignite belong to class-F with SiO₂ > Al₂O₃ > CaO > MgO. Both the ashes contain quartz, mullite, anhydrite, and albite. As, In, and Sr have higher concentration in the feed than the ashes. Compared to the feed lignite, Ba, Co, U, Cu, Cd, and Ni are enriched (10-5 times) in fly ash and Co, Pb, Li, Ga, Cd, and U in bottom ash (9-5 times). Earth crust-normalization pattern showed enrichment of Ga, U, B, Ag, Cd, and Se in the lignite; Li, Ba, Ga, B, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se, in fly ash; and Li, Sr, Ga, U, B, Cu, Ag, Cd, Pb, and Se in bottom ash. Hg, Ag, Zn, Ni, Ba, and Se are possibly associated with pyrite. Leaching test by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) showed that except B all the elements are within the safe limits prescribed by Indian Standards.

  13. Characterization of geochemical alteration halo associated with gold mineralization at the Buzwagi mine, northern Tanzania (United States)

    Manya, Shukrani


    Alteration halo geochemical study was carried out along one transect at the Buzwagi mine which is found in the Neoarchaean Nzega greenstone belt of northern Tanzania. The Buzwagi mine Au mineralization is hosted in quartz veins that are cross-cutting strongly sheared and hydrothermally altered K-granites. Mineralogical studies within the shear zone reveal that sericite, silica and sulphides are the most important hydrothermal mineral assemblages responsible for Au mineralization at the Buzwagi mine. The geochemical alteration halo is characterized by the addition of Au, Cu, Fe, K, Rb, Sn, W and U to wall rocks and simultaneous removal of Na, Sr, Ba, LREE and MREE from the host rocks. The concentrations of Cu (130-870 ppm) which show strong positive correlation with Au (R2 = 0.99) are so high in the alteration halo indicating that Cu is a strong Au pathfinder at the Buzwagi mine. Owing to their immobility during the post-emplacement processes, the HFSE (Zr, Hf, Th, Ta) remained unchanged during the hydrothermal alteration process. The addition of Fe and Cu is attributed to the presence of Fe- and Cu-sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite and chalcocite) whereas the addition of K, Rb, Sn, W and U is a function of both primary concentrations of these elements in the host rocks as well as the subsequent strong hydrothermal alteration evidenced by sericitization and silicification which involved the destruction of feldspars into sericites). The destruction of albite and its replacement by sericite accounts for the depletion of Na, Sr (and Ba). The Buzwagi mine Au mineralization mineral association do not include the more known pathfinders like Ag, As, Sb, Bi, Te and Tl and they seem not to have played a role in the mineralization process. These elements, therefore, should not be considered as pathfinders for Au exploration purposes at a Buzwagi-like deposit.

  14. Jerusalem artichoke decreased salt content and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil in the coastal saline zone (United States)

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Niu; Cheng, Yongwen; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Zed, Rengel


    Soil salinity is one of the main environmental constraints that restrict plant growth and agricultural productivity; however, utilization of salt-affected land can bring substantial benefits. This study used an in-situ remediation method by planting Jerusalem artichoke in naturally occurring saline alkali soils with different salinity (high salinity (H, >4.0 g•salt kg-1 soil), moderate salinity (M, 2.0-4.0 g•salt kg-1 soil) and low salinity (L, 1.0-2.0 g•salt kg-1 soil) in the coastal saline zone in southeast China in comparison with the respective controls without Jerusalem artichoke planting (undisturbed soil). Soil pH and salinity increased sequentially from the rhizosphere to the bulk soil and the unplanted controls. The activity of neutral phosphatase and invertase decreased in the order L > M > H, whereas that of catalase was reverse. The minimum content of calcite, muscovite and quartz, and maximum content of chlorite and albite, were found in the control soils. Planting of Jerusalem artichoke enhanced bacterial microflora in saline alkali soil. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. The number of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the rhizosphere soil was, respectively, 1.27, 1.02 and 1.25 times higher compared with the bulk soil, suggesting that Jerusalem artichoke played a significant role in increasing abundance and diversity of soil microbial populations. The study showed that Jerusalem artichoke could be used to improve saline alkali soil by enriching bacterial communities, enhancing the activity of phosphatase and invertase, and decreasing soil salinity.

  15. Low temperature geothermal systems in carbonate-evaporitic rocks: Mineral equilibria assumptions and geothermometrical calculations. Insights from the Arnedillo thermal waters (Spain). (United States)

    Blasco, Mónica; Gimeno, María J; Auqué, Luis F


    Geothermometrical calculations in low-medium temperature geothermal systems hosted in carbonate-evaporitic rocks are complicated because 1) some of the classical chemical geothermometers are, usually, inadequate (since they were developed for higher temperature systems with different mineral-water equilibria at depth) and 2) the chemical geothermometers calibrated for these systems (based on the Ca and Mg or SO 4 and F contents) are not free of problems either. The case study of the Arnedillo thermal system, a carbonate-evaporitic system of low temperature, will be used to deal with these problems through the combination of several geothermometrical techniques (chemical and isotopic geothermometers and geochemical modelling). The reservoir temperature of the Arnedillo geothermal system has been established to be in the range of 87±13°C being the waters in equilibrium with respect to calcite, dolomite, anhydrite, quartz, albite, K-feldspar and other aluminosilicates. Anhydrite and quartz equilibria are highly reliable to stablish the reservoir temperature. Additionally, the anhydrite equilibrium explains the coherent results obtained with the δ 18 O anhydrite - water geothermometer. The equilibrium with respect to feldspars and other aluminosilicates is unusual in carbonate-evaporitic systems and it is probably related to the presence of detrital material in the aquifer. The identification of the expected equilibria with calcite and dolomite presents an interesting problem associated to dolomite. Variable order degrees of dolomite can be found in natural systems and this fact affects the associated equilibrium temperature in the geothermometrical modelling and also the results from the Ca-Mg geothermometer. To avoid this uncertainty, the order degree of the dolomite present in the Arnedillo reservoir has been determined and the results indicate 18.4% of ordered dolomite and 81.6% of disordered dolomite. Overall, the results suggest that this multi

  16. Intensive low-temperature tectono-hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous rare-metal granite: a case study from the Dlhá dolina valley (Gemericum, Slovakia

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    Breiter Karel


    Full Text Available A unique case of low-temperature metamorphic (hydrothermal overprint of peraluminous, highly evolved rare-metal S-type granite is described. The hidden Dlhá dolina granite pluton of Permian age (Western Carpathians, eastern Slovakia is composed of barren biotite granite, mineralized Li-mica granite and albitite. Based on whole-rock chemical data and evaluation of compositional variations of rock-forming and accessory minerals (Rb-P-enriched K-feldspar and albite; biotite, zinnwaldite and di-octahedral micas; Hf-(Sc-rich zircon, fluorapatite, topaz, schorlitic tourmaline, the following evolutionary scenario is proposed: (1 Intrusion of evolved peraluminous melt enriched in Li, B, P, F, Sn, Nb, Ta, and W took place followed by intrusion of a large body of biotite granites into Paleozoic metapelites and metarhyolite tuffs; (2 The highly evolved melt differentiated in situ forming tourmaline-bearing Li-biotite granite at the bottom, topaz-zinnwaldite granite in the middle, and quartz albitite to albitite at the top of the cupola. The main part of the Sn, Nb, and Ta crystallized from the melt as disseminated cassiterite and Nb-Ta oxide minerals within the albitite, while disseminated wolframite appears mainly within the topaz-zinnwaldite granite. The fluid separated from the last portion of crystallized magma caused small scale greisenization of the albitite; (3 Alpine (Cretaceous thrusting strongly tectonized and mylonitized the upper part of the pluton. Hydrothermal low-temperature fluids enriched in Ca, Mg, and CO2 unfiltered mechanically damaged granite. This fluid-driven overprint caused formation of carbonate veinlets, alteration and release of phosphorus from crystal lattice of feldspars and Li from micas, precipitating secondary Sr-enriched apatite and Mg-rich micas. Consequently, all bulk-rock and mineral markers were reset and now represent the P-T conditions of the Alpine overprint.

  17. Water management of the uranium production facility in Brazil (Caetite, BA): potential impacts over groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamego, Fernando; Santos, Robson Rodger; Silva, L. Ferreira da; Fernandes, Horst Monken


    The uranium unit of Caetite - in charge of all the 'yellow cake' produced in Brazil - is located in the semi-arid Northeast region at Bahia State. The geological uranium content of the ore is 3000 ppm, which is mainly associated with albite (NaAlSi 8 O 8 ), and its extraction is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process. This process has a low water demand, which is supplied by a network of wells, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. The managing of liquid mining wastes formed by drainage waters from mine pit and solid waste piles is not enough to avoid unwarranted releases in the environment, which turn necessary the waste treatment through passing them into the industrial plant in order to reduce radionuclide concentrations. The groundwater is Na-HCO 3 type water and relative high concentration of Cl are observed in some groundwater. It seems that levels of uranium in groundwaters are mainly a consequence of the complexation of the metal by carbonates (or other anions) and not by any sort of the contamination of these waters by the drainage accumulated in the open pit. The speciation modelling allows identifying some areas where the replenishment of the aquifer is more active, but in general the recharge is a fast process run by direct infiltration. The stable isotope data (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) showed that evaporation plays a role during the infiltration, causing the groundwater salinization. These data discard the possibility that groundwater salinization was caused by discharge of deeper saline groundwater through faults associated to a regional groundwater flow system. The presence of an active shallow groundwater flow system offers better possibility for sustainable use of the groundwater resources in this semi-arid region of Brazil. (author)

  18. Isotope geochemistry of drainage from an acid mine impaired watershed, Oakland, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Thomas W.


    Oxidation of sulfides at the Leona Heights Sulfur Mine has resulted in the liberation of acid, SO 4 and metals to Leona Creek. Previous research at the site has indicated Fe(II) oxidation at rates faster than would be predicted by abiotic oxidation alone, particularly in the segment of stream between the Adit and Leona Street sample stations. In order to assess the mechanisms responsible for sulfide oxidation, samples were collected for isotopic analysis of water and SO 4 , the results of which were used to develop a stoichiometric isotope-balance model. This exercise indicated that the percentage of water-derived oxygen in SO 4 increased spatially from between 56% and 64% at the Adit to between 71% and 72% at Leona Street, illustrating that increased sulfide oxidation via Fe(III) was occurring within, or as water flows over, the waste rock, relative to water emanating directly from the former mine. The incorporation of water-derived oxygen in SO 4 during pyrite oxidation is a process controlled by Fe oxidizing bacteria such as A. ferrooxidans at low pH. The role of bacteria was further supported by estimates of the rate constant for Fe oxidation between sampling stations, yielding values that were approximately 10 6 faster than abiotic Fe oxidation alone. Stable isotopic analysis of water further indicates a close correlation of adit spring water to the local meteoric water line, while 3 H data indicate a groundwater apparent age, or time of travel from its primary zone of recharge, of 34 S data, in conjunction with reported albitized feldspars within the Leona Rhyolite host rock, indicate a magmatic origin of ore sulfur, contrary to previous interpretations at the site

  19. Evaluation of mineral-aqueous chemical equilibria of felsic reservoirs with low-medium temperature: A comparative study in Yangbajing geothermal field and Guangdong geothermal fields (United States)

    Li, Jiexiang; Sagoe, Gideon; Yang, Guang; Lu, Guoping


    Classical geothermometers are useful tools for estimating reservoir temperatures of geothermal systems. However, their application to low-medium temperature reservoirs is limited because large variations of temperatures calculated by different classical geothermometers are usually observed. In order to help choose the most appropriate classical geothermometer for calculating the temperatures of low-medium temperature reservoirs, this study evaluated the mineral-aqueous equilibria of typical low-medium temperature felsic reservoirs in the Yangbajing geothermal field and Guangdong geothermal fields. The findings of this study support that reservoirs in the Guangdong geothermal fields have no direct magma influence. Also, natural reservoirs may represent the intermediate steady state before reaching full equilibrium, which rarely occurs. For the low-medium temperature geothermal systems without the influence of magma, even with seawater intrusion, the process of minerals reaching mineral-aqueous equilibrium is sequential: chlorite and chalcedony are the first, then followed by K-feldspar, kaolinite and K-mica. Chlorite may reach equilibrium at varying activity values, and the equilibrium between K-feldspar and kaolinite or K-feldspar and K-mica can fix the contents of K and Al in the solutions. Although the SiO2 and Al attain equilibrium state, albite and laumontite remain unsaturated and thus may affect low-medium temperature calculations. In this study, the chalcedony geothermometer was found to be the most suitable geothermometer for low-medium temperature reservoirs. The results of K-Mg geothermometer may be useful to complement that of the chalcedony geothermometer in low-medium temperature reservoir systems. Na-K geothermometer will give unreliable results at low-medium temperatures; and Na-K-Ca will also be unsuitable to calculate reservoir temperatures lower than 180 °C, probably caused by the chemical imbalance of laumontite.

  20. Nanomineralogy as a new dimension in understanding elusive geochemical processes in soils: The case of low-solubility-index elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Michael; Hochella, Michael F.


    Nanomineralogy is a new dimension in understanding chemical processes in soils. These processes are revealed at the nanoscale within the structures and compositions of phases that heretofore were not even known to exist in the soils in which they are found. The discovery and understanding of soil chemistry in this way is best accessible via a combination of focused ion beam technology (for sample preparation) and high resolution, analytical transmission electron microscopy (for phase identification). We have used this scientific framework and these techniques to decipher past and present chemical processes in a soil in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada that has been impacted by both smelter contamination (acidification) and subsequent remediation within the past century. In this study, we use these methods to investigate mobilization and sequestration of the relatively immobile elements Al, Ti and Zr. In a micrometer-thick alteration layer on an albite grain, a first generation of clay minerals represents weathering of the underlying mineral prior to the acidification of the soils. Complex assemblages of Ti- and Zr-bearing nanophases occur on the surfaces of Fe-(hydr)oxide crystals and are the result of the dissolution of silicates and oxides and the mobilization of Ti- and Zr-bearing colloids under acidic conditions. These phases include anatase (TiO2), kleberite (Fe3+Ti6O11(OH)5) Ti4O7, baddelyite (ZrO2), a structural analogue to kelyshite (NaZr[Si2O6(OH)]) and authigenic zircon (ZrSiO4). Subsequent remediation of the acidic soils has resulted in the sequestration of Al and in the neoformation of the clay minerals kaolinite, smectite and illite. These complex mineral assemblages form a porous layer that controls the interaction of the underlying mineral with the environment.

  1. Petrography and geochemical study of Nezam-Abad area, Southwest of Shazand, Arak

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    Robabeh Jafari


    Full Text Available Nezam-Abad area is located in southwest of Shazand (Arak which is a part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Major intrusive rocks of Nezam-Abad are quartz diorite and minor amount of granodiorite. Leucogranitic, pegmatite dykes and quartz-tourmaline veins were intruded the quartz diorite. Quartz diorites are mainly composed of plagioclase, hornblende, biotite, quartz and pyroxene as major minerals. Major minerals of leucogranite are microcline, orthoclase, albite, quartz, biotite and muscovite. Accessory minerals consist of apatite, zircon, sphene, epidote, allanite, tourmaline and opaque. The presence of hydrous minerals like hornblende and biotite in these rocks indicate that the corresponding magma initially contained >3 wt% H2O (wet magma. The occurrences of garnet and andalusite minerals suggest assimilation process. Primary textures in these rocks are granular, granophyre, and poikilitic. Secondary textures are perthite, myrmekite, sericitization, chloritization and kaolinitization. Later hydrothermal activities and tectonic strains are factors for presence of perthite texture in leucogranite. K amount for sericitization of feldspars come from the K-feldspars and chloritization of biotite. Transformation of biotite to muscovite indicates the act of K rich fluid in later stages. On the basis of chemical analysis on the intrusive rocks, it is shown that the magma was calc-alkaline, metaluminous-peraluminous and medium-K to high-K. Study of major elements in Harker diagrams indicates Al2O3, FeO, Fe2O3 and CaO decrease with increasing of SiO2 and K2O and Na2O increase indicating that fractional crystallization may have played an important role in the formation of granitoid rocks from Nezam-Abad.

  2. Sericitization of illite decreases sorption capabilities for cesium (United States)

    Choung, S.; Hwang, J.; Han, W.; Shin, W.


    Release of radioactive cesium (137Cs) to environment occurs through nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. The concern is that 137Cs has long half-life (t1/2 = 30.2 years) with chemical toxicity and γ-radiation. Sorption techniques are mainly applied to remove 137Cs from aquatic environment. In particular, it has been known well that clay minerals (e.g, illite) are effective and economical sorbents for 137Cs. Illite that was formed by hydrothermal alteration exist with sericite through "sericitization" processes. Although sericite has analogous composition and lattice structure with illite, the sorptive characteristics of illite and sericite for radiocesium could be different. This study evaluated the effects of hydrothermal alteration and weathering process on illite cesium sorption properties. Natural illite samples were collected at Yeongdong area in Korea as the world-largest hydrothermal deposits for illite. The samples were analyzed by XRF, XRD and SEM-EDX to determine mineralogy, chemical compositions and morphological characteristics, and used for batch sorption experiments. The Yeongdong illites predominantly consist of illite, sericite, quartz, and albite. The measured cesium sorption distribution coefficients (Kd,Cs) of reference illite and sericite were approximately 6000 and 400 L kg-1 at low aqueous concentration (Cw 10-7 M), respectively. In contrast, Kd,Cs values for the Yeongdong illite samples ranged from 500 to 4000 L kg-1 at identical concentration. The observed narrow and sharp XRD peak of sericite indicated that the sericite has better crystallinity compared to illite. These experimental results suggested that sericitization processes of illite can decline the sorption capabilities of illite for cesium under various hydrothermal conditions. In particular, weathering experiments raised the cesium sorption to illite, which seems to be related to the increase of preferential sorption sites for cesium through crystallinity destruction

  3. Oxidative potential (OP) and mineralogy of iron ore particulate matter at the Gol-E-Gohar Mining and Industrial Facility (Iran). (United States)

    Soltani, Naghmeh; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Sorooshian, Armin; Moore, Farid; Dunster, Christina; Dominguez, Ana Oliete; Kelly, Frank J; Dhakal, Prakash; Ahmadi, Mohamad Reza; Asadi, Sina


    Concentrations of total suspended particulate matter, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter Gol-E-Gohar Mining and Industrial Facility. Samples were characterized in terms of mineralogy, morphology, and oxidative potential. Results show that indoor samples exceeded the 24-h PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass concentration limits (35 and 150 µg m -3 , respectively) set by the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Calcite, magnetite, tremolite, pyrite, talc, and clay minerals such as kaolinite, vermiculite, and illite are the major phases of the iron ore PM. Accessory minerals are quartz, dolomite, hematite, actinolite, biotite, albite, nimite, laumontite, diopside, and muscovite. The scanning electron microscope structure of fibrous-elongated minerals revealed individual fibers in the range of 1.5 nm to 71.65 µm in length and 0.2 nm to 3.7 µm in diameter. The presence of minerals related to respiratory diseases, such as talc, crystalline silica, and needle-shaped minerals like amphibole asbestos (tremolite and actinolite), strongly suggests the need for detailed health-based studies in the region. The particulate samples show low to medium oxidative potential per unit of mass, in relation to an urban road side control, being more reactive with ascorbate than with glutathione or urate. However, the PM oxidative potential per volume of air is exceptionally high, confirming that the workers are exposed to a considerable oxidative environment. PM released by iron ore mining and processing activities should be considered a potential health risk to the mine workers and nearby employees, and strategies to combat the issue are suggested.

  4. Geochemistry of rare earth elements within waste rocks from the Montviel carbonatite deposit, Québec, Canada. (United States)

    Edahbi, Mohamed; Plante, Benoît; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Pelletier, Mia


    Several rare earth element (REE) mine projects around the world are currently at the feasibility stage. Unfortunately, few studies have evaluated the contamination potential of REE and their effects on the environment. In this project, the waste rocks from the carbonatites within the Montviel proterozoic alkaline intrusion (near Lebel-sur-Quévillon, Quebec, Canada) are assessed in this research. The mineralization is mainly constituted by light REE (LREE) fluorocarbonates (qaqarssukite-Ce, kukharenkoite-Ce), LREE carbonates (burbankite, Sr-Ba-Ca-REE, barytocalcite, strontianite, Ba-REE-carbonates), and phosphates (apatite, monazite). The gangue minerals are biotites, chlorite, albite, ankerite, siderite, and calcite. The SEM-EDS analyses show that (i) the majority of REE are associated with the fine fraction (< 106 μm), (ii) REE are mainly associated with carbonates, (iii) all analyzed minerals preferably contain LREE (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu), (iv) the sum of LREE in each analyzed mineral varies between ~ 3 and 10 wt%, (v) the heavy REE (HREE) identified are Gd and Yb at < 0.4 wt%, and (vi) three groups of carbonate minerals were observed containing variable concentrations of Ca, Na, and F. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of REE-bearing minerals, REE mobility, and REE speciation was investigated. The leachability and geochemical behavior of these REE-bearing mine wastes were tested using normalized kinetic testing (humidity cells). Leachate results displayed higher LREE concentrations, with decreasing shale-normalized patterns. Thermodynamical equilibrium calculations suggest that the precipitation of secondary REE minerals may control the REE mobility.

  5. On the interaction of pure and impure supercritical CO2 with rock forming minerals in saline aquifers: An experimental geochemical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Franziska D.H.; Vásquez, Mónica; Wiersberg, Thomas; Naumann, Rudolf; Erzinger, Jörg


    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate and compare the geochemical impact of pure and impure CO 2 on rock forming minerals of possible CO 2 storage reservoirs. This geochemical approach takes into account the incomplete purification of industrial captured CO 2 and the related effects during injection, and provides relevant data for long-term storage simulations of this specific greenhouse gas. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the interactions of supercritical CO 2 , brine and rock-forming mineral concentrates (albite, microcline, kaolinite, biotite, muscovite, calcite, dolomite and anhydrite) using a newly developed experimental setup. After up to 42 day (1000 h) experiments using pure and impure supercritical CO 2 the dissolution and solution characteristics were examined by XRD, XRF, SEM and EDS for the solid, and ICP–MS and IC for the fluid reactants, respectively. Experiments with mixtures of supercritical CO 2 (99.5 vol.%) and SO 2 or NO 2 impurities (0.5 vol.%) suggest the formation of H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 , reflected in pH values between 1 and 4 for experiments with silicates and anhydrite and between 5 and 6 for experiments with carbonates. These acids should be responsible for the general larger amount of cations dissolved from the mineral phases compared to experiments using pure CO 2 . For pure CO 2 a pH of around 4 was obtained using silicates and anhydrite, and 7–8 for carbonates. Dissolution of carbonates was observed after both pure and impure CO 2 experiments. Anhydrite was corroded by approximately 50 wt.% and gypsum precipitated during experiments with supercritical CO 2 + NO 2 . Silicates do not exhibit visible alterations during all experiments but released an increasing amount of cations in the reaction fluid during experiments with impure CO 2 . Nonetheless, precipitated secondary carbonates could not be identified.

  6. Rocha com espodumênio como fundente para massas cerâmicas tradicionais Spodumene rock as a flux for traditional ceramic bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bragança


    Full Text Available Investigou-se a atuação de uma rocha com espodumênio como fundente em massas cerâmicas, analisando-se sua reatividade com outras matérias-primas, como quartzo e caulim. Primeiramente, caracterizou-se petrograficamente o pegmatito de onde se extrai esse fundente. Posteriormente avaliou-se o comportamento de moabilidade, fundência e deformação piroplástica da rocha com espodumênio. Analisou-se então sua influência nas propriedades tecnológicas finais das peças, principalmente em relação à temperatura de queima, às fases e à microestrutura. Comparou-se a gresificação com outros fundentes comerciais como a albita e o feldspato. O espodumênio mostrou maior capacidade de reduzir a temperatura de gresificação das peças que os fundentes tradicionais, promovendo a densificação por fluxo viscoso.A spodumene rock was used as a flux in ceramic bodies, analyzing its reactivity to other raw materials such as quartz and kaolin. The petrology properties of the pegmatite (parent rock from which the flux is extracted was characterized. The grindability, fluxing strength and pyroplastic deformation of the spodumene rock were investigated. The influence on technological properties of the final pieces, mainly in relation to the firing temperature, phases formation and microstructure were also further analyzed. The firing behavior to other commercial flux such as albite and feldspar were then compared. The spodumene rock was considered an effective flux, capable of reducing the firing temperatures of the tested bodies by viscous flow.

  7. Investigation of Enhanced Leaching of Lithium from α-Spodumene Using Hydrofluoric and Sulfuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Guo


    Full Text Available An effective method using hydrofluoric and sulfuric acid was proposed to enhance the leaching of lithium from α-spodumene, without calcination that is subjected to 1000 °C for phase transformation. The thermodynamic feasibility of the reactions was firstly verified. Dissolution conditions were tested to maximize the leaching efficiency of lithium and with efficient utilization of hydrofluoric acid (HF served as evaluation criteria. The results showed that 96% of lithium could be transferred into lixivium with an ore/HF/H2SO4 ratio of 1:3:2 (g/mL/mL, at 100 °C for 3 h. Due to the fact that HF molecules were the main reaction form, the dissolution behaviors were theoretically represented and investigated by dissolution in HF/H2SO4. When combined with chemical elements analyses and characterizations, the results of the dissolution behaviors revealed that α-spodumene and albite were preferentially dissolved over quartz. Insoluble fluoroaluminates, such as AlF3, cryolite (Na3AlF6 and cryolithionite (Na3Li3Al2F12, were generated and might be further partially dissolved by H2SO4. Fluorosilicates, such as K2SiF6, Na2SiF6, or KNaSiF6, were also generated as a part of the insoluble residues. This work provides fundamental insight into the role of HF/H2SO4 played in the dissolution of α-spodumene, and sheds light on a novel and promising process to efficiently extract lithium.

  8. New data on carbonatites of the Il'mensky-Vishnevogorsky alkaline complex, the southern Urals, Russia (United States)

    Nedosekova, I. L.


    Carbonatites that are hosted in metamorphosed ultramafic massifs in the roof of miaskite intrusions of the Il’mensky-Vishnevogorsky alkaline complex are considered. Carbonatites have been revealed in the Buldym, Khaldikha, Spirikha, and Kagan massifs. The geological setting, structure of carbonatite bodies, distribution of accessory rare-metal mineralization, typomorphism of rock-forming minerals, geochemistry, and Sr and Nd isotopic compositions are discussed. Dolomite-calcite carbonatites hosted in ultramafic rocks contain tetraferriphlogopite, richterite, accessory zircon, apatite, magnetite, ilmenite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, and pyrochlore. According to geothermometric data and the composition of rock-forming minerals, the dolomite-calcite carbonatites were formed under K-feldspar-calcite, albite-calcite, and amphibole-dolomite-calcite facies conditions at 575-300°C. The Buldym pyrochlore deposit is related to carbonatites of these facies. In addition, dolomite carbonatites with accessory Nb and REE mineralization (monazite, aeschynite, allanite, REE-pyrochlore, and columbite) are hosted in ultramafic massifs. The dolomite carbonatites were formed under chlorite-sericite-ankerite facies conditions at 300-200°C. The Spirikha REE deposit is related to dolomite carbonatite and alkaline metasomatic rocks. It has been established that carbonatites hosted in ultramafic rocks are characterized by high Sr, Ba, and LREE contents and variable Nb, Zr, Ti, V, and Th contents similar to the geochemical attributes of calcio-and magnesiocarbonatites. The low initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7044-0.7045 and ɛNd ranging from 0.65 to -3.3 testify to their derivation from a deep mantle source of EM1 type.

  9. Early Jurassic Carbon and Sodium Sequestration in a CAMP basalt flow (United States)

    Block, K. A.; Puffer, J. H.


    The initial HTQ-type CAMP Orange Mountain Basalt flow, as well as related pillowed flows and the overlying Preakness flows, locally underwent substantial and well documented albitization, chloritization, and sulphate, carbonate, and zeolite mineralization. Layers representing at least 25 vol % of the Orange Mountain Basalt have undergone a major net increase in sodium and carbon content and a major redistribution of magnesium and calcium. Most alteration occurred during the development of a widespread early Jurassic geothermal system similar to the active system of Iceland. In both cases alteration was controlled by active circulation of basin brines through vesicular layers during rapid burial at temperatures that were kept elevated by recurring magmatism. Whole rock Na2O levels typically increased from 2.2 wt. % in unaltered layers to 3.2 wt. % in vesicular layers, and commonly reached levels exceeding 5 wt. %. The environmental implications of the removal of such massive amounts of sodium from the geothermal system on the chlorine budget and the salt content of Early Jurassic lakes are currently being evaluated. Massive amounts of carbon sequestration from the geothermal system may have mitigated an increased burden on the early Jurassic atmosphere where geothermal CO2 may have otherwise been vented at hot springs or solfataras. Calcite amygdules typically account for 5 to 10 vol. % of the vesiculated layers amounting to 66 to 132 kg of CO2 per m3 of basalt. If 25 vol. % of the 160 thick Orange Mountain Basalt is vesiculated that would equate to about 2640 to 5280 kg of CO2 per m2 of basalt. The full extent of calcite enrichment across the entire CAMP province, however, has not yet been determined.

  10. Shock Metamorphism of L6 Chondrites Sahara 98222 and Yamato 74445: the P-T Conditions and the Shock age (United States)

    Ozawa, S.; Ohtani, E.; Suzuki, A.; Miyahara, M.; Terada, K.; Kimura, M.


    Impact phenomena are the fundamental processes of accretion of the terrestrial planets. Therefore, investigations of meteorites that experienced shock events are useful for understanding mechanisms of planetary impact events and formation of terrestrial planets. Heavily shocked meteorites contain abundant shock melt veins, where some high-pressure minerals have been discovered. In this study, we investigated mineralogy of shock melt veins of two L6 chondrites (Sahara 98222 and Yamato 74445) and estimated the P-T conditions during their impact events.We found that the shock melt veins of these meteorites contain several high-pressure minerals such as wadsleyite, jadeite and tuite for Sahara 98222 and ringwoodite (+ wadsleyite), akimotoite and lingunite for Yamato 74445. Tuite is a high-pressure polymorph of whitlockite and lingunite is a high-pressure polymorph of albite with hollandite structure. Based on mineralogy in the shock veins; we estimated the pressure and temperature conditions during their impact events: 13-15 GPa, > 2000°C for Sahara 98222 and 15- 24 GPa, > 2200°C for Yamato 74445, respectively.We also conducted a U-Pb dating of phosphates in and around the shock melt veins of Sahara 98222 using a Sensitive High Resolution Ion Micro Probe (SHRIMP-II) at Hiroshima University to reveal when this shock event occurred. We obtained following radioactive ages: Pb-Pb isochron age: 4466 ± 31 Ma; U-Pb isochron age: 4498 ± 150 Ma; Total U-Pb isochron age: 4467 ± 22 Ma. These ages seem to be slightly younger than the previously reported ages of chondrites, which are usually older than 4500 Ma. This could suggest that Sahara 98222 have recorded a shock event in the very early stage of the solar system where the planetary formation was going on.

  11. The Wyoming gold deposits: volcanic-hosted lode-type gold mineralisation in the eastern Lachlan Orogen, Australia (United States)

    Chalmers, D. Ian; Ransted, Terry W.; Kairaitis, Rimas A.; Meates, David G.


    The eastern Lachlan Orogen in southeastern Australia is noted for its major porphyry-epithermal-skarn copper-gold deposits of late Ordovician age. Whilst many small quartz vein-hosted or orogenic lode-type gold deposits are known in the region, the discovery of the Wyoming gold deposits has demonstrated the potential for significant lode-type mineralisation hosted within the same Ordovician volcanic stratigraphy. Outcrop in the Wyoming area is limited, with the Ordovician sequence largely obscured by clay-rich cover of probable Quaternary to Cretaceous age with depths up to 50 m. Regional aeromagnetic data define a north-south trending linear belt interpreted to represent the Ordovician andesitic volcanic rock sequence within probable Ordo-Silurian pelitic metasedimentary rocks. Drilling through the cover sequence in 2001 to follow up the trend of historically reported mineralisation discovered extensive alteration and gold mineralisation within an andesitic feldspar porphyry intrusion and adjacent volcaniclastic sandstones and siltstones. Subsequent detailed resource definition drilling has identified a substantial mineralised body associated with sericite-carbonate-albite-quartz-(±chlorite ± pyrite ± arsenopyrite) alteration. The Wyoming deposits appear to have formed as the result of a rheological contrast between the porphyry host and the surrounding volcaniclastic rocks, with the porphyry showing brittle fracture and the metasedimentary rocks ductile deformation. The mineralisation at Wyoming bears many petrological and structural similarities to orogenic lode-style gold deposits. Although the timing of alteration and mineralisation in the Wyoming deposits remain problematic, a relationship with possible early to middle Devonian deformation is considered likely.

  12. Late Cretaceous dacitic dykes swarm from Central Iran, a trace for amphibolite melting in a subduction zone (United States)

    Nosouhian, N.; Torabi, G.; Arai, S.


    Late Cretaceous Bayazeh dyke swarm is situated in the western part of the Central-East Iranian Microcontinent (CEIM). These dykes with a dominant northeast-southwest trend occur in the Eastern margin of the Yazd block. They cross cut the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The length of the Bayazeh dykes occasionally reaches up to the 2 km. Rock forming minerals of these dykes are plagioclase (andesine and oligoclase), amphibole (magnesio-hastingsitic hornblende, magnesio-hornblende and tschermakitic hornblende), quartz, K-feldspar (orthoclase), zircon and apatite. Secondary minerals are chlorite (pycnochlorite), albite, magnetite and calcite. The main textures are porphyritic, glomeroporphyritic and poikilitic. The felsic character of the Bayazeh dacitic dykes is shown by their high SiO2 (62.70 to 64.60 wt %) and low [Fe2O3* + MgO + MnO + TiO2] (average 4.64 wt %) contents. These dykes represent the peraluminous to metaluminous nature and their Na2O and K2O values are 5.20-7.14 and 1.51-2.59 wt %, respectively, which reveal their sodic chemistry. The trace element characteristics are the LREE enrichment relative to HREE, [La/Yb]CN = 13.27-22.99, and slightly negative or positive Eu anomaly. These geochemical characteristics associated with low Nb/La (0.16-0.25), Yb/Nd (0.04-0.05) and high Zr/Sm (37.60-58.25) ratios indicate that the melting of a metamorphosed subducted oceanic crust is occurred where the residual mineral assemblage is dominated by garnet amphibolite. The chemical compositions of the Bayazeh dykes resemble those of slab-derived tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) series. They were formed by subduction of Mesozoic Neo-Tethys -related Nain and Ashin oceanic crusts.

  13. Metasomatic silicate chemistry at the Bayan Obo Fe REE Nb deposit, Inner Mongolia, China: Contrasting chemistry and evolution of fenitising and mineralising fluids (United States)

    Smith, M. P.


    Fenite aureoles around carbonatite dykes, and alteration associated with Fe-REE-Nb ore bodies at Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China, show alkali silicate assemblages containing aegirine-augite, (magnesio-)riebeckite, (magnesio-)arfvedsonite, and phlogopite, accompanied by varying amounts of apatite, albite and quartz. In both fenites and orebodies simple thermodynamic constraints indicate mineral parageneses are consistent with rock buffered cooling accompanied by the infiltration of a range of externally buffered hydrothermal fluids. Statistical analysis of amphibole chemistry indicates that even in apparently texturally well constrained paragenetic stages wide variations in chemistry occur in both the ore bodies and fenites. Much of this variation is attributable to the Mg and F content of amphibole, and is therefore interpreted as a result of variation in externally controlled variables ( P, T, initial fluid composition) rather than internally controlled variables such as protolith composition. Similarities in chemistry exist between fenite and some ore body amphiboles. Thermodynamic analysis of the composition of biotite and apatite allows constraints to be placed on the F-content of hydrothermal fluids, and indicates relatively consistent compositions in fenites and orebodies (log aHF/ aH 2O = - 3.8 to - 3.6 at 300 °C and 1 kbar). Amphibole and biotite associated with niobate mineralization are both enriched in fluorine relative to the rest of the paragenesis, and biotite compositions indicate significantly higher HF activities in the hydrothermal fluid (log aHF/ aH 2O = - 2.6 at 300 °C and 1 kbar). The data presented here reinforce previous interpretations of the complex, multistage nature of mineralisation at Bayan Obo, but are still consistent with a direct involvement of carbonatite derived fluids during ore genesis.

  14. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R.


    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima's zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff

  15. Paleotransport of lanthanides and strontium recorded in calcite compositions from tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Chipera, S.J.


    Secondary calcite occurs in both saturated and unsaturated hydrologic zones (SZ and UZ, respectively) in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. In the upper UZ, the major constituents of the calcite crystal structure (C, O) have surface origins. At greater depth there is a open-quotes barren zone,close quotes straddling the water table, where calcite is rare and mixing of surface and subsurface sources may occur. Deep in the SZ, distinctive Mn calcites reflect deep sources, including Ca released as analcime or albite formed and carbonates derived from underlying Paleozoic rocks. In the UZ and in the barren zone, above the deep Mn calcites, variations in calcite lanthanide chemistry can be used to distinguish rhyolitic from quartz-latitic sources. Lanthanide ratios and Sr contents of calcites record the chemical evolution of waters flowing through the UZ and upper SZ. Variations in calcite chemistry in the UZ and in the barren zone show that (1) Sr, which is readily exchanged with clays or zeolites, is essentially removed from some flowpaths that are in contact with these minerals and (2) traces of Mn oxides found in the tuffs have a significant effect of groundwater chemistry in the UZ and in the barren zone by removing almost all Ce from solution (evidenced by characteristic Ce depletions in calcite throughout this zone). Extreme Ce removal may be a result of Ce oxidation (Ce 3+ → Ce 4+ ) at the surfaces of some Mn oxides, particularly rancieite. Higher Sr contents and lack of Ce depletions in the deeper Mn calcites reflect different ages, origins, and transport systems. The calcite record of lanthanide and Sr transport in the UZ shows that minor minerals (clays and zeolites) and even trace minerals (Mn oxides) will affect the compositions of groundwaters that flow over distances greater than a few tens of meters. 43 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Hydrochemistry and geothermometrical modeling of low-temperature Panticosa geothermal system (Spain) (United States)

    Asta, Maria P.; Gimeno, Maria J.; Auqué, Luis F.; Gómez, Javier; Acero, Patricia; Lapuente, Pilar


    The chemical characteristics of the low-temperature geothermal system of Panticosa (Spain) were investigated in order to determine the water temperature at the reservoir and to identify the main geochemical processes that affect the water composition during the ascent of the thermal waters. In general, the studied waters are similar to other geothermal systems in the Pyrenees, belonging to the group of granite-related alkaline thermal waters (high pH, low total dissolved solids, very low magnesium concentration, and sodium as the dominant cation). According to the alkaline pH of these waters, they have a very low CO2 partial pressure, bicarbonate is the dominant anion and silica is partially ionized as H3SiO4-. The unusually active acid-base pairs (HCO3-/CO32 - and, mainly, H4SiO4/H3SiO4-) act as homogeneous pH buffers and contribute to the total alkalinity in these alkaline waters. On the basis of the study of the conservative elements, a mixing process between a hot and a cold end-member has been identified. Additionally, in order to determinate the water temperature at the reservoir, several geothermometric techniques have been applied, including both geothermometrical modeling and classical geothermometrical calculations. The geothermometrical modeling seems to indicate that thermal waters re-equilibrate with respect to calcite and kaolinite during their ascent to the surface. Modeling results suggest that these thermal waters would be in equilibrium with respect to albite, K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, kaolinite and zoisite at a similar temperature of 90 ± 20 °C in the reservoir, which is in good agreement with the results obtained by applying the classical geothermometers.

  17. Luminescence characterization of a sodium rich feldspar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correcher, V.; Sanchez M, L. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J. [MNCN-CSIC, c/ J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Rivera, T. [CICATA-IPN, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This paper reports on the radioluminescence (RL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of a sodium rich feldspar ((Na,K)[AlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}]) with a mean molecular composition of orthoclase (Or) and albite (Ab) of Or{sub 1}Ab{sub 99}. Despite the complexity of the luminescence signals of the sample, it is possible to determine six different emission bands at about 300, 380, 420, 460, 550 and 680 nm. The 300 nm emission can be associated to structural defects related to the recombination process in which the Na{sup +} ion diffusion-limited is involved. The UV-blue emission band at (i) 380 nm is characteristic of mineral phases containing SiO{sub 4} tetrahedral and could be related to intrinsic defects in the lattice, (ii) the 420 nm band could be associated to the presence of Cu (II) ions placed next to the hole traps or the recombination on a centre formed from a hole-oxygen atom adjacent to two Al atoms (Al-O-Al) and (iii) the 460 nm waveband could be due to the presence of Ti{sup 4+}. The green and red emissions are respectively associated to the presence of Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The ratio between the relative intensities, peaked at 290 (the more intense waveband) and 550 nm is about 10:1 in both TL and RL; this fact indicates that the efficiency of recombination centres does no changes regardless on the type of the process. (Author)

  18. Relative stability and significance of dawsonite and aluminum minerals in geologic carbon sequestration (United States)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Carey, J. William


    Computer simulations predict dawsonite, NaAlCO3(OH)2, will provide long-term mineral sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 whereas dawsonite rarely occurs in nature or in laboratory experiments that emulate a carbon repository. Resolving this discrepancy is important to determining the significance of dawsonite mineralization to the long-term security of geologic carbon sequestration. This study is an equilibrium-based experimental and modeling evaluation of underlying causes for inconsistencies between predicted and observed dawsonite stability. Using established hydrothermal methods, 0.05 molal NaHCO3 aqueous solution and synthetic dawsonite were reacted for 18.7 days (449.2 hours) at 50°C, 20 MPa. Temperature was increased to 75°C and the experiment continued for an additional 12.3 days (295.1 hours). Incongruent dissolution yielded a dawsonite-gibbsite-nordstrandite assemblage. Geochemical simulations using Geochemist's Workbench and the resident database incorrectly predicted a dawsonite-diaspore assemblage and underestimated dissolved aluminum by roughly 100 times. Higher aqueous aluminum concentrations in the experiment suggest that dawsonite or diaspore is less stable than predicted. Simulations employing an alternate database, thermo.dat, correctly predict dawsonite and dawsonite-gibbsite assemblages at 50 and 75°C, respectively, although dissolved aluminum concentrations are still two to three times lower than experimentally measured values. Correctly reproducing dawsonite solubility in standard geochemical simulations requires an as yet undeveloped internally consistent thermodynamic database among dawsonite, gibbsite, boehmite, diaspore, aqueous aluminum complexes and other Al-phases such as albite and kaolinite. These discrepancies question the ability of performance assessment models to correctly predict dawsonite mineralization in a sequestration site.

  19. Nitrogen distribution between aqueous fluids and silicate melts (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Huang, Ruifang; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Keppler, Hans


    The partitioning of nitrogen between hydrous fluids and haplogranitic, basaltic, or albitic melts was studied at 1-15 kbar, 800-1200 °C, and oxygen fugacities (fO2) ranging from the Fe-FeO buffer to 3log units above the Ni-NiO buffer. The nitrogen contents in quenched glasses were analyzed either by electron microprobe or by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), whereas the nitrogen contents in fluids were determined by mass balance. The results show that the nitrogen content in silicate melt increases with increasing nitrogen content in the coexisting fluid at given temperature, pressure, and fO2. Raman spectra of the silicate glasses suggest that nitrogen species change from molecular N2 in oxidized silicate melt to molecular ammonia (NH3) or the ammonium ion (NH4+) in reduced silicate melt, and the normalized Raman band intensities of the nitrogen species linearly correlate with the measured nitrogen content in silicate melt. Elevated nitrogen contents in silicate melts are observed at reduced conditions and are attributed to the dissolution of NH3/NH4+. Measured fluid/melt partition coefficients for nitrogen (DNfluid/ melt) range from 60 for reduced haplogranitic melts to about 10 000 for oxidized basaltic melts, with fO2 and to a lesser extent melt composition being the most important parameters controlling the partitioning of nitrogen. Pressure appears to have only a minor effect on DNfluid/ melt in the range of conditions studied. Our data imply that degassing of nitrogen from both mid-ocean ridge basalts and arc magmas is very efficient, and predicted nitrogen abundances in volcanic gases match well with observations. Our data also confirm that nitrogen degassing at present magma production rates is insufficient to accumulate the atmosphere. Most of the nitrogen in the atmosphere must have degassed very early in Earth's history and degassing was probably enhanced by the oxidation of the mantle.

  20. [Influence of spectral interferences on the results of quartz determination by infrared spectrometry]. (United States)

    Maciejewska, Aleksandra


    Determination of quartz by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) is not specific: the obtained results are influenced by matrix components, some of which cause spectral interference. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of dust components responsible for spectral interference with quartz on the results of its determinations, and to develop methods to minimize the effects of interferences. Investigation of interferent effects were conducted using respirable dusts: quartz SRM 1878a, cristobalite SRM 1879a, synthetic amorphous silica (Zeosil) and feldspar, albite and kaolinite. For the study 17 mixtures with quartz and interferents at concentrations from 10 to 90% were prepared. Determinations of quartz were carried out by the KBr disc method. In mixtures of quartz with interferents, the results based on bands 798-779 cm-1 were overestimated by 10-55%, while those based on band 695 cm-1 were closer to the true content of quartz. It was found that the best methods able to decrease the impact of spectral interference are: scaled subtraction of IR spectra of feldspar or kaolinite analysed in nonashed samples, correction curve for kaolinite also investigated in nonashed samples with quartz-content calculation based on band 695 cm-1 in mixtures with cristobalite, amorphous silica or kaolinite in ashed samples. The study indicates the need to identify spectral interferences in dust when determining crystalline silica by FT-IR and to take actions to minimize their impact on the obtained results. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Influence of spectral interferences on the results of quartz determination by infrared spectrometry

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    Aleksandra Maciejewska


    Full Text Available Background: Determination of quartz by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR is not specific: the obtained results are influenced by matrix components, some of which cause spectral interference. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of dust components responsible for spectral interference with quartz on the results of its determinations, and to develop methods to minimize the effects of interferences. Material and Methods: Investigation of interferent effects were conducted using respirable dusts: quartz SRM 1878a, cristobalite SRM 1879a, synthetic amorphous silica (Zeosil and feldspar, albite and kaolinite. For the study 17 mixtures with quartz and interferents at concentrations from 10 to 90% were prepared. Determinations of quartz were carried out by the KBr disc method. Results: In mixtures of quartz with interferents, the results based on bands 798–779 cm–1 were overestimated by 10–55%, while those based on band 695 cm–1 were closer to the true content of quartz. It was found that the best methods able to decrease the impact of spectral interference are: scaled subtraction of IR spectra of feldspar or kaolinite analysed in nonashed samples, correction curve for kaolinite also investigated in nonashed samples with quartz-content calculation based on band 695 cm–1 in mixtures with cristobalite, amorphous silica or kaolinite in ashed samples. Conclusions: The study indicates the need to identify spectral interferences in dust when determining crystalline silica by FT-IR and to take actions to minimize their impact on the obtained results. Med Pr 2015;66(4:497–509

  2. Geochemical modelling of water-rock interactions at the Osamu Utsumi mine and Morro do Ferro analogue study sites, Pocos de Caldas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Puigdomenech, I.; McNutt, R.H.


    Geochemical processes involving water-rock interactions have been modelled using groundwater composition, mineralogical data, ion plots and computations of speciation, non-thermodynamic mass balance and thermodynamic mass transfer for two natural analogue sites near Pocos de Caldas, Brazil: the Osamu Utsumi mine and Morro do Ferro. The main rock type is an alkaline igneous complex composed of volcanic and sub-volcanic phonolites that have been hydrothermally altered and highly weathered. This altered rock mass grades from a laterite at the surface to a saprolite and finally to unweathered, hydrothermally altered bedrock at depth. The mine site contains high concentrations of uranium and Morro do Ferro contains high concentrations of thorium and rare-earths. The reaction models can reproduce the water chemistry and mineral occurences and they were validated by predicting the masses of minerals precipitated and the pH of the final water. The model computations can also reproduce the pH and iron concentrations of the water samples during CO 2 degassing and iron(II) oxidation from exposure to air. The results from the geochemical reaction models reveal that the dominant processes are production of CO 2 in the soil zone through aerobic decay of organic matter, dissolution of fluorite, calcite, K-feldspar, albite and manganese oxides, oxidation of pyrite and sphalerite and precipitation of ferric oxides, silica and kaolinite. Recharge waters are undersaturated with respect to barite and discharging waters and deeper groundwaters are saturated to supersaturated with respect to barite, demonstrating a strong equilibrium solubility control. Strontium isotope data demonstrate that sources other than calcium-bearing minerals are required to account for the dissolved strontium in the ground. These may include K-feldspar, smectite-chlorite mixed-layer clays and goyazite. (author) 24 figs., 4 tabs., 18 refs

  3. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

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    Nugroho Imam Setiawan


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.139-156This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The primary stage of this rock might be represented by the assemblage of glaucophane + epidote + titanite ± paragonite. The assemblage yields 1.7 - 1.0 GPa in assumed temperature of 300 - 550 °C, which is interpreted as maximum pressure limit of prograde stage. The peak P-T condition estimated on the basis of the equilibrium of garnet rim, barroisite, phengite, epidote, and quartz, yields 547 - 690 °C and 1.1 - 1.5 GPa on the albite epidote amphibolite-facies that correspond to the depth of 38 - 50 km. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.5 GPa at 350 °C. It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions (blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition.

  4. Environmental effect and genetic influence: a regional cancer predisposition survey in the Zonguldak region of Northwest Turkey (United States)

    Kadir, Selahattin; Önen-Hall, A. Piril; Aydin, S. Nihal; Yakicier, Cengiz; Akarsu, Nurten; Tuncer, Murat


    The Cretaceous-Eocene volcano-sedimentary units of the Zonguldak region of the western Black Sea consist of subalkaline andesite and tuff, and sandstone dominated by smectite, kaolinite, accessory chlorite, illite, mordenite, and analcime associated with feldspar, quartz, opal-CT, amphibole, and calcite. Kaolinization, chloritization, sericitization, albitization, Fe-Ti-oxidation, and the presence of zeolite, epidote, and illite in andesitic rocks and tuffaceous materials developed as a result of the degradation of a glass shards matrix, enclosed feldspar, and clinopyroxene-type phenocrysts, due to alteration processes. The association of feldspar and glass with smectite and kaolinite, and the suborientation of feldspar-edged, subparallel kaolinite plates to fracture axes may exhibit an authigenic smectite or kaolinite. Increased alteration degree upward in which Al, Fe, and Ti are gained, and Si, Na, K, and Ca are depleted, is due to the alteration following possible diagenesis and hydrothermal activities. Micromorphologically, fibrous mordenite in the altered units and the presence of needle-type chrysotile in the residential buildings in which cancer cases lived were detected. In addition, the segregation pattern of cancer susceptibility in the region strongly suggested an environmental effect and a genetic influence on the increased cancer incidence in the region. The most likely diagnosis was Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which is one of the hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, no mutations were observed in the p53 gene, which is the major cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The micromorphology observed in the altered units in which cancer cases were detected may have a role in the expression of an unidentified gene, but does not explain alone the occurrence of cancer as a primary cause in the region.

  5. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Heath, Jason E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert


    In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration, interfacial processes at the supercritical fluid-mineral interface will strongly affect core- and reservoir-scale hydrologic properties. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that water films will form on mineral surfaces in supercritical CO2, but will be thinner than those that form in vadose zone environments at any given matric potential. The theoretical model presented here allows assessment of water saturation as a function of matric potential, a critical step for evaluating relative permeabilities the CO2 sequestration environment. The experimental water adsorption studies, using Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy methods, confirm the major conclusions of the adsorption/condensation model. Additional data provided by the FTIR study is that CO2 intercalation into clays, if it occurs, does not involve carbonate or bicarbonate formation, or significant restriction of CO2 mobility. We have shown that the water film that forms in supercritical CO2 is reactive with common rock-forming minerals, including albite, orthoclase, labradorite, and muscovite. The experimental data indicate that reactivity is a function of water film thickness; at an activity of water of 0.9, the greatest extent of reaction in scCO2 occurred in areas (step edges, surface pits) where capillary condensation thickened the water films. This suggests that dissolution/precipitation reactions may occur preferentially in small pores and pore throats, where it may have a disproportionately large effect on rock hydrologic properties. Finally, a theoretical model is presented here that describes the formation and movement of CO2 ganglia in porous media, allowing assessment of the effect of pore size and structural heterogeneity on capillary trapping efficiency. The model results also suggest possible engineering approaches for optimizing trapping capacity and for

  6. What classic greywacke (litharenite) can reveal about feldspar diagenesis: An example from Permian Rotliegend sandstone in Hessen, Germany (United States)

    Molenaar, Nicolaas; Felder, Marita; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.


    Rotliegend siliciclastic sediments in southern Hessen (Germany) are a good example of dissolution of detrital feldspars, which is a common feature in many sandstones. Dissolution occurred after mechanical compaction of the lithic-rich sandstone, which experienced framework collapse with pores and pore connections filled and obstructed by deformed ductile lithic grains (pseudomatrix) thereby reducing pore space to microporosity., The advanced degree of compaction and reduced porosity caused low permeability and low hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass. This is further reduced by the presence of wackes and shales that occur intercalated with the sandstones. Feldspar dissolution thus took place in low permeable sediments when large-scale flow of meteoric or acidic fluids is ruled out as a cause of feldspar dissolution. Mineral precipitation (illite, kaolinite, and albite) took place within pseudomatrix and detrital matrix as well as in secondary pores created by feldspar dissolution. Feldspar was the source for the authigenesis. The system was thus closed during burial after framework collapse, and diagenetic reactants in the form of detrital components were already present within the system. The original mass was preserved, but redistributed and diagenetic minerals were the local sinks for the dissolved reactants, precipitating within the system. This also suggests that burial diagenesis in general might be more mass conservative than usually assumed. Rotliegend sandstones thus form a case where, despite of the lack of external exchange of mass by fluid flow, major diagenetic processes did take place and significantly modified the original mineralogy and texture. Feldspar diagenesis can take place from other processes than mere large-scale flushing of open systems as often supposed. It implies that the volumes of rock affected by feldspar diagenesis may be much larger than anticipated based upon the common hold believe that feldspar diagenesis is linked to

  7. A multiscale hydro-geochemical-mechanical approach to analyze faulted CO 2 reservoirs: Original Research Article: A multiscale hydro-geochemical-mechanical approach to analyze faulted CO 2 reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Hou, Zhangshuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bacon, Diana H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; White, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA


    This paper applies a multiscale hydro-geochemical-mechanical approach to analyze faulted CO2 reservoirs using the STOMP-CO2-R code that is coupled to the ABAQUS® finite element package. STOMP-CO2-R models the reactive transport of CO2 causing mineral volume fraction changes that are captured by an Eshelby-Mori-Tanka model implemented in ABAQUS®. A three-dimensional (3D) STOMP-CO2-R model for a reservoir containing an inclined fault was built to analyze a formation containing a reaction network with 5 minerals: albite, anorthite, calcite, kaolinite and quartz. A 3D finite element mesh that exactly maps the STOMP-CO2-R grid is developed for coupled hydro-geochemical-mechanical analyses. The model contains alternating sandstone and shale layers. The impact of reactive transport of CO2 on the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks and seals are studied in terms of mineral composition changes that affect their geomechanical responses. Simulations assuming extensional and compressional stress regimes with and without coupled geochemistry are performed to study the stress regime effect on the risk of hydraulic fracture. The tendency for the fault to slip is examined in terms of stress regime, geomechanical and geochemical-mechanical effects as well as fault inclination. The results show that mineralogical changes due to long-term injection of CO2 reduce the permeability and elastic modulus of the reservoir, leading to increased risk of hydraulic fracture in the injection location and at the caprock seal immediately above the injection zone. Fault slip is not predicted to occur. However, fault inclination and stress regime have an important impact on the slip tendency factor.

  8. U(VI) sorption on granite: prediction and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebelung, C.; Brendler, V.


    One widely accepted approach - component additivity (CA) - to describe the sorption of contaminants onto complex materials such as rocks or soils is based on the assumption that the surface of a complex mineral assemblage is composed of a mixture of mineral constituents whose surface properties are known from independent studies. An internally consistent SCM (surface complexation model) database can be developed that describes the adsorption reactions of solutes to each phase. Here, the capability of such a methodology was tested, using the code MINTEQA2 including thermodynamic data of the NEA-TDB, and literature data for SCM, namely the DDL model. The sorption characteristics of U(VI) on granite (from Eibenstock, Saxony, Germany, with the main components quartz, albite, orthoclase, and muscovite) was predicted and then compared to batch experiments. Granite plays an important role in the remediation of former uranium ore mining and milling sites, but is also one of the host rocks considered for final disposal of nuclear materials. Safety assessment requires a detailed understanding of this system and its retention potential with regard to hazardous components. Namely the sorption of uranium in this complex rock is not fully understood yet. The experiments thus also provided a better understanding of the far-field behaviour in granitic geological nuclear repositories. The robustness of the prediction was tested by variation of the granite composition and the variation of the specific surface area (SSA) - first all components were predicted with a uniform granite SSA, second with a distinct SSA for each granite component (determined on pure minerals for the same grain size fractions). Changes in compositions yielded only marginal differences in the prediction. Different approaches to SSA showed somewhat larger deviations. In conclusion, the CA methodology is a valid and robust approach to U(VI) sorption onto complex substrates such as granite, provided sufficient

  9. Modelización del proceso de episienitización (decuarcificación-albitización: formulación cinética y transporte advectivo en medio continuo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero, J. M.


    Full Text Available The development of episyenites from Sierra de Guadarrama has been modelized. The process mainly consists in a coupled process of dequartztification-albitization. The model is based on pure advective mass transport in a continuum medium, where the reactive process is formulated from a kinetic point of view. It is demonstrated the possibility of its formation through the action of low-salinity fluids (2,32 wt % NaCl equiv., partially equilibrated with a biotite monzogranite, linked to isobaric reaction paths across negative geothermal gradients, intersecting the quartz retrograde solubility field, and associated to a quick fluid-resident mobilisation due to the environment tectonic opening. The model explains the albitic nature of the alteration against former models. These predict microcline formation from the gradient relations ∂logKmic/∂T > ∂logKab/∂T (0.05739 and 0.05735 and ∂logKKCl/∂T NaCl/∂T (-0.038 and -0.036. Albite formation arises from the anortite component presence, because ∂logKan/∂T =0,1293 ≻ ∂logKmic/∂T. Non-equilibrium relations are very small, which implies that alteration intensity arises from the circulation of huge fluid volumes. This process feature together the kinetic rate constants result in a small change, spatial and temporal, of the fluid composition, being practically null for its main components (Na, K and, subordinately to these, the pH. The model also shows the necessity of handling geochemical systems as complex as possible. In this way, the proposed aqueous speciation proves that pH evolution along decreasing temperature is not necessarily acid, but inlet fluid pH dependent due to the calculated concentrations show that its behaviour mainly depends as much from Hel as from the NaOH base dissociation.Se modeliza teóricamente la formación de las episienitas de la Sierra de Guadarrama, consistente básicamente en un proceso acoplado de decuarcificaci

  10. Physicochemical impacts of dust particles on alpine glacier meltwater at the Laohugou Glacier basin in western Qilian Mountains, China. (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Chen, Jizu; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Cui, Xiaoqing; Du, Zhiheng; Kang, Shichang


    This work discusses the temporal variation of various physicochemical species in the meltwater runoff of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (4260 ma.s.l.) in central Asia, and their correlation with dust particles, based on a two-year field observation in summer 2012 and 2013, mainly focusing on dust concentration and size distribution, meltwater chemistry, particles SEM-EDX analysis in the meltwater, and MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields around the Qilian Mountains in central Asia. We find that, the volume-size distribution of dust particles in the meltwater is mainly composed of three parts, which includes fine aerosol particles (with diameter of 0~3.0 μm, mainly PM 2.5), atmospheric dust (with diameter of 3.0~20 μm), and local dust particles (20~100 μm), respectively. Comparison of dust particles in the snowpack and meltwater runoff indicates that, large part of dust particles in the meltwater may have originated from atmospheric dust deposition to the snow and ice on the glacier, and transported into the meltwater runoff. Moreover, temporal variation of dust and major ions (especially crustal species) is very similar with each other, showing great influence of dust particles to the chemical constituents of the glacier meltwater. SPM and TDS implied significant influences of dust to the physical characteristics of the glacier meltwater. Results showed that, accelerated glacier melting may affect physicochemical characteristics of the meltwater at an alpine basin under global warming. MODIS atmospheric optical depth (AOD) fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, showed great influence of regional dust transportation over western Qilian Mountains in springtime. SEM-EDX analysis shows that dust particles in the glacier meltwater contain Si-, Al-, Ca-, K-, and Fe-rich materials, such as quartz, albite, aluminate, and fly ash, similar to that deposited in snowpack. These results showed great and even currently underestimated influences of atmospheric dust

  11. Northernmost Known Outcrop in North America of Lower Cretaceous Porphyritic Ocoite Facies (Ocoa, Chile) at Western Mexico: the Talpa Ocoite (United States)

    Zárate-del Valle, P. F.; Demant, A.


    At Talpa de Allende region in Western Mexico is located the northernmost known outcrop of ocoite facies (andesite): the Talpa ocoite (TO). The ocoite facies consists of an calk-alkaline andesitic rock rich in K and characterized by the presence of megacrysts of plagioclase (An48-65). TO belongs to the so-called Guerrero Terrane composed of plutono-volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Alisitos-Teloloapan arc that was accreted to the North American craton at the end of the early Cretaceous (Lapierre et al., 1992, Can. J. Earth Sci. 29. 2478--2489). Geodynamically TO belongs to lithological sequence number IV or "Tecoman" of Tardy et al. (1994, Tectonophysics 230, 49--73). TO in hand-sample shows typical megacrysts (>1 cm) of plagioclase and clinopyroxene in a dark green aphanitic matrix. This andesitic lava has a shoshonitic character as evidenced by chemical composition: SiO_2 TiO_2 Al_2O_3 Fe_2O_3 MnO MgO CaO Na_2O K_2O P_2O_5 LOI % Ba Sr (ppm) 55.64 0.73 16.61 8.39 0.13 3.59 6.40 3.55 2.85 0.36 1.84% 1093 880 Under microscope TO is characterized by a porphyritic texture made of large labradorite phenocrysts (up to 3 cm) and clinopyroxene with a matrix made of plagioclase microlites; TO has been affected by a low grade metamorphism process belonging to the prehnite-pumpellite facies as it happens in Chile (Levi, 1969, Contr. Mineral. and Petrol. 24-1, p. 30--49). Electron microprobe analysis shows that plagioclase (An55-57) is partly transformed into albite (An7-9); clinopyroxene shows a variation in composition from Wo33En41Fs17 to Wo40En44Fs24 and it is transformed towards the margin first into amphibole and then into biotite. TO outcrops located at East of Talpa river are affected by a deep rubefaction process. TO is not characterized by the presence of bitumen as it occurs in Northern Chile (Nova-Muñoz et al., 2001, EUG XI Meeting, OS09 Supo09 PO, 606); TO is related in time with albian-cenomanian volcanogenic massive sulphides of Western Mexico

  12. Internal structure of the Supragetic Unit basement in the Serbian Carpathians and its significance for the late Early Cretaceous nappe-stacking

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    Krstekanić Nemanja


    Full Text Available Fault-related folds and hanging-wall structures reflect the geometry of the main thrusts in foldthrust belts. The results of the structural analysis of the Supragetic Unit metamorphic basement in eastern Serbia at map-, outcrop- and thin-section scale, and its importance for the late Early Cretaceous nappe-stacking are presented in this paper. The Supragetic Unit metamorphic basement includes various volcano-sedimentary rocks of Ordovician-Silurian protolith age. They were metamorphosed to the low greenschist facies with temperatures reaching 300-350°C and pressure reaching 0.3-0.5 GPa. The microscale studies show that quartz and albite demonstrate dominantly bulging and locally subgrain rotation recrystallisation, while chlorite, sericite and muscovite define spaced to continuous foliation recognised both at the outcrop- and the thin-section-scale. The statistical analysis based on the available map data shows low- to high-angle west-dipping foliation which is interpreted as an indicator of flat-ramp geometry of the Supragetic thrust, rather than east-vergent tight to isoclinal folding. At the thin-section scale ductile to semi-ductile C’-S structures indicate top to ESE thrusting. Subsequent kinking, recognised both at the outcrop- and the thin-section-scale, deform the older foliation. Those kink bands are the result of WNW-ESE to NW-SE compression and could represent the later stage of a continuous deformation event during which C’-S structures were formed. The youngest, brittle deformation is represented by subvertical joints with no offset recognised in thin-sections. The structural characteristics of the Supragetic Unit low-grade metamorphic basement in the studied areas, combined with tectonothermal events recognised elsewhere in Dacia mega-unit, could imply a possible initiation of the late Early Cretaceous nappe-stacking in the ductile to semi-ductile/semi-brittle domain. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and

  13. Hydrogeochemical Processes of Groundwater Using Multivariate Statistical Analyses and Inverse Geochemical Modeling in Samrak Park of Nakdong River Basin, Korea (United States)

    Chung, Sang Yong


    Multivariate statistical methods and inverse geochemical modelling were used to assess the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in Nakdong River basin. The study area is located in a part of Nakdong River basin, the Busan Metropolitan City, Kora. Quaternary deposits forms Samrak Park region and are underlain by intrusive rocks of Bulkuksa group and sedimentary rocks of Yucheon group in the Cretaceous Period. The Samrak park region is acting as two aquifer systems of unconfined aquifer and confined aquifer. The unconfined aquifer consists of upper sand, and confined aquifer is comprised of clay, lower sand, gravel, weathered rock. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the area is 37 to 59% and 1.7 to 200m/day, respectively. Depth of the wells ranges from 9 to 77m. Piper's trilinear diagram, CaCl2 type was useful for unconfined aquifer and NaCl type was dominant for confined aquifer. By hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), Group 1 and Group 2 are fully composed of unconfined aquifer and confined aquifer, respectively. In factor analysis (FA), Factor 1 is described by the strong loadings of EC, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and Si, and Factor 2 represents the strong loadings of pH and Al. Base on the Gibbs diagram, the unconfined and confined aquifer samples are scattered discretely in the rock and evaporation areas. The principal hydrogeochemical processes occurring in the confined and unconfined aquifers are the ion exchange due to the phenomena of freshening under natural recharge and water-rock interactions followed by evaporation and dissolution. The saturation index of minerals such as Ca-montmorillonite, dolomite and calcite represents oversaturated, and the albite, gypsum and halite show undersaturated. Inverse geochemical modeling using PHREEQC code demonstrated that relatively few phases were required to derive the differences in groundwater chemistry along the flow path in the area. It also suggested that dissolution of carbonate and ion exchange

  14. Neoproterozoic anorogenic magmatism in the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province of NE Brazil: U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages of the blue sodalite syenites (United States)

    Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Conceição, Herbet; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano; Galarza, Marco Antonio; Cunha, Mônica Pringsheim; Menezes, Rita Cunha Leal; Marinho, Moacyr Moura; Filho, Basílio Elesbão da Cruz; Rios, Débora Correia


    Blue sodalite syenite is a rare rock, and the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province (SBAP) is the only place in Brazil where economic deposits are found. This province forms part of the Archaean to Paleoproterozoic São Francisco craton, and contains a few batholiths, a large number of stocks and hundreds of dykes. Its southern part lies close to the tectonic contact between the craton and the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí mobile melt. Blue sodalite-bearing syenites are found in almost all the igneous bodies of the SBAP as dykes or pegmatitic masses hosted by nepheline syenite. Economically viable quantities for the production of dimension stones are found only in the Floresta Azul alkaline complex, the Itaju do Colônia and Rio Pardo stocks and the Itarantim batholith.U-Pb ages obtained for titanite from Itaju do Colônia (732 ± 8 Ma) and Rio Pardo (714 ± 8) and Pb-Pb evaporation ages of zircon from Floresta Azul (696 ± 3 Ma) and Itarantim (722 ± 5 Ma). The geochronology of the SBAP shows that the anorogenic alkaline magmatism persisted for at least 58 Ma, demonstrating an extensional tectonic environment in the southern part of the São Francisco craton at this time. The data show that the rift phase which preceded the formation of the Araçuaí orogen was active until at least 700 Ma. The reported ages are similar to those found for the nepheline syenite host bodies, which supports the conclusions of the previous petrologic study demonstrating that blue sodalite is formed during the crystallization of these bodies. Two different processes are involved. In the magmatic process, sodalite occurs as disseminated and interstitial crystals among alkali feldspar crystals, and is associated with calcite and cancrinite formed by destabilization of nepheline. In the metasomatic process, discontinuous bands of sodalite are in sharp contact with nepheline syenite pegmatite, and its crystal aggregates often contain relict textures of nepheline and albite been replaced by sodalite.

  15. Pressure-temperature evolution of eclogites from the Kechros complex in the Eastern Rhodope (NE Greece) (United States)

    Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Proyer, A.


    The Rhodope Domain in NE Greece consists of different tectonometamorphic complexes involved in the Alpine collisional history between the Eurasian and African plates. In the Kechros Complex, which is the lowermost tectonic unit in the East Rhodope, a lense of kyanite eclogite occurs within orthogneiss and common eclogites are found between serpentinized peridotite and underlying pelitic gneisses. In kyanite eclogite, the high-pressure (HP) mineral assemblage is Grt + Omp (Jd35-55) + Ky + Ph + Qz + Rt + (indirectly inferred Tlc + Law); a Na-rich tremolite and zoisite formed at or near peak metamorphic conditions. In common eclogites, the HP mineral assemblage is Grt + Omp (Jd29-41) + Rt and, with less certainty, Amp (Gln-rich + Brs + Wnc + Hbl) ± Czo. The inclusions in garnet are glaucophane, actinolite, barroisite, hornblende, omphacite, clinozoisite, titanite, rutile and rarely paragonite and albite. In kyanite eclogite, peak P- T conditions are constrained at 2.2 GPa and 615°C using garnet-omphacite-phengite geothermobarometry and very similar values of 585 ± 32°C and 2.17 ± 0.11 GPa with the average P- T method, by which conditions of formation could also be narrowed down for the common eclogite (619 ± 53°C and 1.69 ± 0.17 GPa) and for a retrogressed eclogite (534 ± 36°C and 0.77 ± 0.11 GPa). Ages for the HP metamorphism in the Kechros Complex are not yet available. A Rb-Sr white mica age of 37 Ma from orthogneiss records a stage of the exhumation. The HP event may be coeval with the Eocene HP metamorphism (49-55 Ma) recorded in the Nestos Shear Zone in Central Rhodope and in the Attic-Cycladic crystalline belt, where it is interpreted as the result of subduction and final closure of the Axios/Vardar ocean and subsequent subduction of the Apulian continental crust (a promontory of the Africa continent) under the southern margin of the European continent in the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.

  16. Mineralogy and geochemistry of triassic carbonatites in the Matcha alkaline intrusive complex (Turkestan-Alai Ridge, Kyrgyz Southern Tien Shan), SW Central Asian orogenic belt (United States)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Morova, A. A.; Bukharova, O. V.; Konovalenko, S. I.


    Postorogenic intrusions of essexites and alkaline and nepheline syenites in the Turkestan-Alai segment of the Kyrgyz Southern Tien Shan coexist with dikes and veins of carbonatites dated at ∼220 Ma by the Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr age methods. They are mainly composed of calcite and dolomite (60-85%), as well as sodic amphibole, phlogopite, clinopyroxene, microcline, albite, apatite, and magnetite, with accessory niobate, ilmenite, Nb-rutile, titanite, zircon, baddeleyite, monazite-(Ce), barite, and sulfides. The rocks share mineralogical and geochemical similarity with carbonatites that originated by liquid immiscibility at high temperatures above 500 °C. Alkaline silicate and salt-carbonate melts are derived from sources with mainly negative bulk εNd(t) ∼ from -11 to 0 and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (∼0.7061-0.7095) which may be due to mixing of PREMA and EM-type mantle material. Pb isotopic ratios in accessory pyrrhotite (206Pb/204Pb = 18.38; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.41) exhibit an EM2 trend. The intrusions bear signatures of significant crustal contamination as a result of magma genesis by syntexis and hybridism. Concordant isotope composition changes of δ13C (-6.5 to -1.9‰), δ18O (9.2-23‰), δD (-58 to -41‰), and δ34S (12.6-12.8‰) in minerals and rocks indicate inputs of crustal material at the stage of melting and effect of hot fluids released during dehydration of metamorphosed oceanic basalts or sediments. The observed HFSE patterns of the oldest alkaline gabbro may be due to interaction of the primary mafic magma with IAB-type material. The isotope similarity of alkaline rocks with spatially proximal basalts of the Tarim large igneous province does not contradict the evolution of the Turkestan-Alai Triassic magmatism as the "last echo" of the Tarim mantle plume.

  17. A hot spring in granite of the Western Tianshan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, Kurt; Zhang Lifei; Stober, Ingrid


    and solid inclusions in the granite, which have been introduced to quartz by ductile shearing and faulting related to ongoing orogenesis. The hot water remobilizes the salt that is continuously liberated by the tectonic deformation. Water-granite interaction contributes a thenardite-component (Na 2 SO 4 ) to the major element composition by albite dissolution in H 2 SO 4 . The water-rock interaction along faults and fractures transforms and alters Muza granite to a low-temperature epigranite

  18. Formation And Exhumation Of High Pressure Metamorphic Rocks From Oman: New Constraints From U-Pb Dating Of Zircon And Rutile (United States)

    El-Shazly, A. K.; Walker, J. D.


    Basement and continental shelf units structurally underlying the Semail ophiolite in Saih Hatat, NE Oman were metamorphosed under high pressure, low temperature (high P/T) conditions, and occur in two plates. The lower plate consists of eclogite facies rocks that grade westward into garnet blueschists and crossite epidote schists. The upper plate consists of thrust sheets of lower grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks formed under pumpellyite - actinolite to lawsonite albite facies conditions. The eclogite facies rocks had a clockwise P-T path, with peak conditions of 12 12 kbar to ˜ 4 kbar, and a stage of near isobaric cooling followed by cooling and decompression. High P/T rocks from the upper plate are also characterized by clockwise P-T paths with a segment of near isothermal decompression, and reached peak conditions that ranged from ˜ 310° C, P pile. A distinct pressure gap of > 3 kbar results from the juxtaposition of the lower and upper plates. U-Pb dating of zircon and rutile grains from two lower plate blueschists yield ages ranging from Proterozoic to Late Cretaceous: data cluster near a Late Creatceous age on the younger end of the array and spread to Mesoproterozoic values at the older end. A weighted mean of the 238U/206Pb ages from the youngest and most concordant fractions (one zircon and 2 rutile crystals) yields 80.1 +/- 5 Ma. These results are consistent with Rb/Sr isochron ages of 78 +/- 2 Ma obtained using phengite, clinopyroxene, and epidote from seven eclogite facies samples, and suggest that high P/T metamorphism in Saih Hatat was almost coeval with the emplacement of the Semail ophiolite. We conclude that the lower plate blueschists and eclogites formed by intracontinental thrusting and subduction of the thinned leading edge of the Oman continental margin in an east dipping subduction zone. The upper plate rocks which were part of the hanging wall of this subduction zone, were metamorphosed by tectonic loading by the ophiolite

  19. Quartz and feldspar rheology at mid-crustal conditions: the example of the Pernambuco shear zone (NE Brazil) (United States)

    Ferreira Viegas, Luís Gustavo; Menegon, Luca; Archanjo, Carlos; Vauchez, Alain


    Rheological models that predict the strength of the middle- to upper continental crust are mainly based on the behaviour of the two most common silicate minerals, feldspar and quartz. At natural pressure-temperature conditions typical of the middle crust, quartz is expected to be mechanically weaker than feldspars if deformation is accommodated by crystal plasticity. Dislocation creep in quartz localizes in recrystallized layers while feldspar forms stronger porphyroclasts. However, the presence of mineral reactions may promote a drastic change in feldspar rheology, causing marked grain size reduction and weakening due to activation of diffusion creep. Under such conditions, the feldspar-derived reaction products represent the mechanically weak rheological phase that accommodates most of the bulk strain while quartz deforms via dislocation creep. The Pernambuco shear zone (northeastern Brazil) is a large-scale strike-slip fault that, in its eastern segment, deforms granitoids at upper-greenschist/amphibolite facies conditions, thus representing a preserved section of the middle continental crust. Initially coarse (> 50 µm) grained feldspar crystals are intensively fractured and reduced to an ultrafine-grained mixture consisting of fractured albite and K-feldspar grains (~ 5-8 µm in size) localized in C' oriented shear bands. Detailed microstructural observations and EBSD analysis do not show any evidence of intracrystalline plasticity in feldspars and/or uid-enhanced reaction weakening. Quartz occurs either as thick (~ 1mm) monomineralic bands or as thin ribbons dispersed in the feldspathic mixture. The microstructure and recrystallized grain size (~ 20 µm) are similar in both the thick monomineralic band and in the thin ribbons. Elongated quartz grains form [0001] axis maxima around Y, while recrystallized grains tend to scatter their c-axes between Y and Z in a girdle-like pattern in both the monomineralic band and in the thin ribbons embedded in the

  20. Modern sedimentary facies, depositional environments, and major controlling processes on an arid siliciclastic coast, Al qahmah, SE Red Sea, Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Nabhan, Abdullah I.; Yang, Wan


    The facies and environments along the arid siliciclastic coast of Red Sea in Al Qahmah, Saudi Arabia are studied to establish a depositional model for interpretation of ancient rocks deposited in rift settings. Field and petrographic studies of 151 sediment samples in an area of 20 km2 define seven main facies types: beach, washover fan, tidal channel, dune, sabkha, delta, and wadi (seasonal stream). The wadi and delta facies are composed of poorly to moderately well-sorted, gravelly, medium-to-fine sands. Delta-front sands are redistributed by southward longshore currents to form a beach. Beach facies is composed of well-to-moderately sorted fine sands with minor gravels, which contain high concentrations of magnetite, ilmenite, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, epidote, titanite, and apatite grains, indicating strong winnowing. Crabs and other burrowers destroy primary sedimentary structures and mix sediments in foreshore and backshore of the beaches. Wind and storm surge rework foreshore and backshore sediments to form washover fans. Sabkha facies occurs extensively in supratidal depressions behind beach, are flooded by rainstorms and spring tide, and capped by a 5-cm-thick crust composed of interlaminated halite, quartz, albite, minor gypsum and biotite, and rarely calcium carbonate. Halite occurs as thin sheets and gypsum as nodules with a chicken-wire structure. Clastic fraction in sabkha sediments ranges from coarse silt to coarse sand with moderate sorting, and is transported by currents and wind. Tidal inlets and tidal creeks assume abandoned wadis and are filled by muddy sand. Sand dunes and sand sheets are 1-7 m high and widely distributed due to variable wind directions. Fine-grained dune sands are moderately well sorted, whereas sheet sands are coarser and poorly sorted due to vegetation baffling. Most eolian sands are sourced from beach deposits. This suite of complex riverine, wave, tidal, wind, chemical, and biological processes form the facies mosaic

  1. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail:; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail:, e-mail:


    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U

  2. Complex Diffusion Mechanisms for Li in Feldspar: Re-thinking Li-in-Plag Geospeedometry (United States)

    Holycross, M.; Watson, E. B.


    In recent years, the lithium isotope system has been applied to model processes in a wide variety of terrestrial environments. In igneous settings, Li diffusion gradients have been frequently used to time heating episodes. Lithium partitioning behavior during decompression or cooling events drives Li transfer between phases, but the extent of Li exchange may be limited by its diffusion rate in geologic materials. Lithium is an exceptionally fast diffuser in silicate media, making it uniquely suited to record short-lived volcanic phenomena. The Li-in-plagioclase geospeedometer is often used to time explosive eruptions by applying laboratory-calibrated Li diffusion coefficients to model concentration profiles in magmatic feldspar samples. To quantify Li transport in natural scenarios, experimental measurements are needed that account for changing temperature and oxygen fugacity as well as different feldspar compositions and crystallographic orientation. Ambient pressure experiments were run at RPI to diffuse Li from a powdered spodumene source into polished sanidine, albite, oligoclase or anorthite crystals over the temperature range 500-950 ºC. The resulting 7Li concentration gradients developed in the mineral specimens were evaluated using laser ablation ICP-MS. The new data show that Li diffusion in all feldspar compositions simultaneously operates by both a "fast" and "slow" diffusion mechanism. Fast path diffusivities are similar to those found by Giletti and Shanahan [1997] for Li diffusion in plagioclase and are typically 10 to 20 times greater than slow path diffusivities. Lithium concentration gradients in the feldspar experiments plot in the shape of two superimposed error function curves with the slow diffusion regime in the near-surface of the crystal. Lithium diffusion is most sluggish in sanidine and is significantly faster in the plagioclase feldspars. It is still unclear what diffusion mechanism operates in nature, but the new measurements may impact

  3. Site investigation SFR. Boremap mapping of core drilled borehole KFR106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winell, Sofia (Geosigma AB (Sweden))


    This report presents the result from the Boremap mapping of the core drilled borehole KFR106, drilled from an islet ca 220 m southeast of the pier above SFR. The borehole has a length of 300.13 m, and a bearing and inclination of 195.1 deg and -69.9 deg, respectively. The purpose of the location and orientation of the borehole is to investigate the possible occurrence of gently dipping, water-bearing structures in the area. The geological mapping is based on simultaneous study of drill core and borehole image (BIPS). The two lowermost meters of the drill core was mapped in Boremap without access to complementary BIPS-image. The dominating rock type, which occupies 72% of KFR106, is fine- to medium-grained, metagranite granodiorite (rock code 101057), which is foliated with a medium to strong intensity. Pegmatite to pegmatitic granite (rock code 101061) is the second most common rock type and it occupies 16% of the mapped interval. It is also frequent as smaller rock occurrences (< 1 m) in other rock types throughout the borehole. Subordinate rock types are fine- to medium-grained granite (rock code 111058), felsic to intermediate meta volcanic rock (rock code 103076), fine- to medium-grained metagranitoid (rock code 101051) and amphibolite (rock code 102017). Totally 49% of the rock in KFR106 has been mapped as altered, where muscovitization and oxidation is the two most common. Additional shorter intervals of alterations are in decreasing order of abundance quartz dissolution, epidotization, argillization, albitization, chloritization, laumontization and carbonatization. A total number of 2801 fractures are registered in KFR106. Of these are 1059 open, 1742 sealed and 84 partly open. This result in the following fracture frequencies: 6.0 sealed fractures/m, 3.7 open fractures/m and 0.3 partly open fractures/m. In addition there are 5 narrow brecciated zones, and 20 sealed networks with a total length of 18 m. The most frequent fracture fillings in KFR106 are

  4. Assessment of magmatic vs. metasomatic processes in rare-metal granites: A case study of the Cínovec/Zinnwald Sn-W-Li deposit, Central Europe (United States)

    Breiter, Karel; Ďurišová, Jana; Hrstka, Tomáš; Korbelová, Zuzana; Hložková Vaňková, Michaela; Vašinová Galiová, Michaela; Kanický, Viktor; Rambousek, Petr; Knésl, Ilja; Dobeš, Petr; Dosbaba, Marek


    hydrofracturing of the overlying granite, while the water-poor residuum crystallized in situ in the form of mica-free granite. F- and Li-rich fluids invoked greisenization and created quartz-zinnwaldite veins. Alkalis liberated from feldspars destroyed during the greisenization induced local albitization in the uppermost part of the cupola and K-feldspathisation in its deeper part. The distribution of Sn and W was controlled by fluid processes, while Nb and Ta mainly crystallized from the melt. The results from Cínovec are universally applicable to shallow-intruded rare-metal granites regardless of A- or S-types of the primary magma.

  5. Processing of Vietnamese lithium ores to produce LiCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Thi Thu Hien


    A potential lithium deposit has been discovered in the La Vi mining district, located in Quang Ngai Province, Central Vietnam. The Li-rich rocks (average contents: 1.3±0.9 wt.% Li{sub 2}O) are highly fractionated, peraluminous granites, which are further characterized by high contents of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, F, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, but very low concentrations of all other main components (MgO, CaO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}tot, TiO{sub 2}). The granites exhibit a light pink color and contain mainly albite, quartz, muscovite, lithian muscovite, and lepidolite, with minor amounts of amblygonite-montebrasite, herderite, fluorapatite, topaz, and cassiterite, and accessory beryl and goyazite. Lepidolite from La Vi deposit was extracted to produce lithium chloride by using iron II sulphide (FeS)-CaO roasting and water leaching. The HSC program was applied for the simulation of the behavior of lepidolite and the additives during roasting, confirming the important role of SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} gas for extracting lithium from lepidolite. At optimum conditions roasting at 750 C using FeS/Li and Ca/F molar ratios of 5:1 and 1:1, respectively, followed by leaching at 50 C using water/calcine mass ratios of >5:1 could yield a maximum of ∝85% Li recovery (at <1 g/L Li concentration). Addition of CaO led to a decrease in the liberation of HF gas and insoluble LiF formation. NaOH and BaCl{sub 2} were used for removing the metal and sulphate impurities from the leach liquor by precipitation at ambient temperature. The efficiency of lithium extraction reached ∝100 % with washing of the precipitates after filtering. Alkali salts were separated from the LiCl solution via solar evaporation and isopropanol leaching. 96.3 wt.% LiCl could be produced using an isopropanol/salt mass ratio of 5:1 at ambient temperature in 3 h.

  6. SIMS zircon ages and Nd isotope systematics of the 2.2 Ga mafic intrusions in northern and eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Hanski


    Full Text Available Using the SIMS, ID-TIMS and Sm-Nd isotopic methods and the electron microprobe, we have studied several differentiated mafic intrusions of the c. 2.2 Ga gabbro-wehrlite association (GWA from four Paleoproterozoic schist belts and the Archean Kuhmo Greenstone Belt. Back-scattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses revealed that zircon crystals vary from well-preserved to turbid and highly altered with individual grains often displaying irregular, hydrated, CaO-bearing domains. In the most pristine domains, suitable for establishing the crystallization ages, SIMS 207Pb/206Pb ages fall in the range of 2210–2220 Ma, which is consistent with the most concordant ID-TIMS UPb ages. One of the studied intrusions that had previously yielded a conventional U-Pb date of less than 2.0 Ga, could be shown by spot analysis to belong to the 2.2 Ga family. In contrast to the well-preserved zircon domains, altered domains exhibit a variable and often strong U-Pb discordance up to 70 % and have distinctly lower 207Pb/206Pb ages. Some zircon grains record isotopic resetting at the time of the Svecofennian orogeny(ca. 1.8–1.9 Ga, while the most discordant ones project in the concordia diagram to late Paleozoic lower intercept ages indicating a relative recent Pb loss. The mineral chemistry of zircon suggests that the leakage of radiogenic Pb can be ascribed to an opensystembehavior related to hydrothermal alteration via action of CaCl2-bearing fluids.Common albitization of plagioclase in the GWA intrusions has caused this mineral to behave as an open system with regard to the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics. Despite this uncertainty, our Nd isotopic data indicate that the magma that produced the GWA intrusions in various parts of northern and eastern Finland was isotopically homogeneousand had an initial εNd(2220 Ma value of c. +0.6 precluding significant upper crustal contamination upon emplacement and subsequent fractional crystallization.

  7. Tectonic origin and deformation process of the Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in Central Qiangtang of Tibet (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Liang, X.


    The metamorphic characteristics, deformation process, geochronology of the medium-high pressure metamorphic rocks in blueschist bearing Central Qiangtang Metamorphic belt (CQMB) of Tibet were less well constrained. It is, however, commonly assumed that these rock slices in the margin also contain important implications on the evolution of the entire metamorphic belt. The well-exposed Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in north flank of the CQMB provides an unique opportunity to investigate the outer part of the CQMB, which could facilitate the study on the subduction-exhumation-post orogenic scenarios of the Triassic accretionary orogeny in Central Qiangtang. Field structural analyses indicate the Mayer Kangri metamorphic dome are bounded by low-angle normal faults (LANF) within the hanging wall of low-green schist facies mélange. It majorly consists of epidote-amphibolites, quartz-phengite schist, epidote-albite schist. The outcrop and micro structural observations of footwall metamorphic rocks show an open anticline with multiple foliation replacement, which largely differentiate themselves from the dextral strike-slip shearing of the hanging wall. Well-zoned amphiboles were found within the epidote-amphibolite after micro-structural observations and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA), which indicate that the amphibole zonation demonstrates a Hastingsite core, a Ferro-actinolite mantle and a Ferro-winchite rim in most cases. The mean temperature and pressure estimates of the zoned amphibolites change from 544 °, 0.98Gpa in the core, to 426°, 0.34Gpa in the mantle, and to ca.364° and 0.70 GPa in the rim. The detailed analyses on the stepwise-heating Ar-Ar results of the zoned amphiboles provide good constrains on the episodic deformation process of the CQMB. For Hast-cores, we obtained near plateau ages of 242.4-241.2 Ma, indicating the onset of the oceanic subduction is earlier than the Anisian stage of Middle Triassic. The subsequent

  8. Distal Limits and Composition of a Late Ordovician (Mohawkian) Biotite-Bearing Volcanic ash, Foreland Carbonate Platform (Verulam Formation), Ottawa Embayment: Helping to Define Magmatic Change in Volcanism Following Later Platform Foundering (United States)

    Al-Delami, M.; Dix, G. R.


    Two thin (~3 cm) biotite-bearing clay beds that are separated by a 1-cm thick crinoidal-brachiopod floatstone can be traced in two cores through the Upper Ordovician Verulam Formation (Ottawa Group) along a 25-km transect in the western portion of the Ottawa Embayment, eastern Ontario. Only a further 3 km to the northwest, neither the beds nor related mineralogy are recognized in either core or outcrop,. The beds contain abraded fragments (5-10 %) of partially chlorite- and illite-altered biotite that floats within a soft, friable clay-mineral matrix of kaolinite, illite, chlorite, and minor smectite. Accessory mineralogy includes phenocrystic apatite, feldspar (orthoclase and albite), amphibole, and magnetite. In the lower bed, biotite grains decrease in both abundance (influence from volcanic input. The Verulam altered ash deposits represent the distal margin of a double volcanic eruption, the source mostly likely within the developing Taconic volcanic arc that once lay along the Late Ordovician foreland basin of eastern Laurentia. Geochemical proxies (Zr/TiO2 and Nb/Y) identify a trachyandesitic to rhyodacitic parent magma. Chlorite alteration may indicate minimum burial temperatures of 130oC, in keeping with burial temperature estimates according to conodont alteration indices (CAI = 3) for the host carbonate platform succession. The MgO and FeO % of biotites from these beds plot within the same field as the slightly older Millbrig and Deike bentonites that also represent ash deposition within shallow-water carbonate platform environments from widespread Late Ordovician eruptions that occurred along the foreland basin margin. Collectively, these compositions are higher in FeO and lower in MgO % values compared those associated with a bentonite within the overlying Taconic foreland shale succession of the Ottawa Embayment, and bentonites in Lower Silurian successions of western Europe. This contrast strengthens a previous hypothesis (Sharma et al., 2005) that

  9. Structural controls on Neoproterozoic mineralization in the South Eastern Desert, Egypt: an integrated field, Landsat TM, and SIR-C/X SAR approach (United States)

    Kusky, Timothy M.; Ramadan, Talaat M.


    The Arabian-Nubian Shield represents a complex amalgam of arcs and microcontinents assembled during Neoproterozoic closure of the Mozambique Ocean. The 750-720 Ma Allaqi suture is an arc/arc collision zone, formed when the Gerf terrane in the north overrode the circa 830-720 Ma Gabgaba terrane in the south, prior to closure of the Mozambique Ocean. Neoproterozoic rocks include ophiolitic ultramafic-mafic rocks, metasediments, intermediate metavolcanic rocks, intrusive gabbro-diorite rocks, granodiorites, biotite granites, and leucocratic granites. High-pressure/low-temperature metamorphism has been documented in rocks of the suture zone. Mineral deposits include nickel-copper-platinum and podiform chromite in ultramafic rocks, marble, gold-bearing quartz-veins in D 2 and D 3 shear zones, and radioactive mineralization associated with late leucocratic granitic rocks. Integrated field mapping and remote sensing techniques are used to distinguish and map the relationships between rock units, structures, and alteration zones associated with mineral deposits along the Allaqi suture of Egypt's SE Desert. Landsat TM images processed using a band ratioing technique show different rock types remarkably well, and are able to distinguish between alteration zones associated with ultramafic rocks (listwaenites) and those associated with leucocratic granitic rocks (greisenization, silicification and albitization). Black and white L-band SIR-C/X SAR images outline foliations, faults and folds that control mineralization at several deposits in the area, whereas color composite multiband Chh-Lhh-Lhv SIR-C/X SAR images reveal some elliptical granitic bodies that host radioactive mineralization. E-trending, tight to isoclinal, gently dipping folds, thrust faults and subvertical shear zones related to the Allaqi suture are overprinted by N-oriented structures related to the Wadi Ungate shear zone, formed during collision of east and west Gondwana during closure of the Mozambique Ocean

  10. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 1: Chemical evolution and water-rock interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, Peter, E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), Gerencia de Geotermia, Av. Reforma 113, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62490 (Mexico); Garcia, Bernardo Martinez; Milland Padron, Carlos M. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur, Activo Integral Bellota-Jujo, Diseno de Explotacion, Cardenas, Tabasco (Mexico)


    The origin and evolution of formation water from Upper Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous mudstone-packstone-dolomite host rocks at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, located onshore in SE-Mexico at a depth from 5200 to 6200 m.b.s.l., have been investigated, using detailed water geochemistry from 12 producer wells and six closed wells, and related host rock mineralogy. Saline waters of Cl-Na type with total dissolved solids from 10 to 23 g/L are chemically distinct from hypersaline Cl-Ca-Na and Cl-Na-Ca type waters with TDS between 181 and 385 g/L. Bromine/Cl and Br/Na ratios suggest the subaerial evaporation of seawater beyond halite precipitation to explain the extreme hypersaline components, while less saline samples were formed by mixing of high salinity end members with surface-derived, low salinity water components. The dissolution of evaporites from adjacent salt domes has little impact on present formation water composition. Geochemical simulations with Harvie-M{phi}ller-Weare and PHRQPITZ thermodynamic data sets suggest secondary fluid enrichment in Ca, HCO{sub 3} and Sr by water-rock interaction. The volumetric mass balance between Ca enrichment and Mg depletion confirms dolomitization as the major alteration process. Potassium/Cl ratios below evaporation trajectory are attributed to minor precipitation of K feldspar and illitization without evidence for albitization at the Jujo-Tecominoacan reservoir. The abundance of secondary dolomite, illite and pyrite in drilling cores from reservoir host rock reconfirms the observed water-rock exchange processes. Sulfate concentrations are controlled by anhydrite solubility as indicated by positive SI-values, although anhydrite deposition is limited throughout the lithological reservoir column. The chemical variety of produced water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil field is related to a sequence of primary and secondary processes, including infiltration of evaporated seawater and original meteoric fluids, the subsequent

  11. Solid oxide electrolyser cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejgaard Jensen, S.


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) produced at Riso National Laboratory was tested as steam electrolysers under various current densities, operating temperatures and steam partial pressures. At 950 deg. C and a cell voltage of 1.48V the current density was -3.6 A/cm{sup 2} with app. 30% H{sub 2} + 70% H{sub 2}O in the inlet gas and a H{sub 2}O utilization of app. 40%. The tested SOECs were also used for CO{sub 2} electrolysis. Economy studies of CO and H2 production show that especially H{sub 2} production can be competitive in areas with cheap electricity. Assuming the above described initial performance and a lifetime of 10 years it is possible to achieve a production price of 0.7 US dollar/kg H{sub 2} with an electricity price of 1.3 US cent/kWh. The cell voltage was measured as function of time. In test of about two month of duration a long-term degradation was observed. At 850 deg. C, -0.5 A/cm{sup 2} with 50 vol% H{sub 2} the degradation rate was app. 20 mV/1000h. It was shown that the degradation happens at Ni/YSZ-electrode. The long term degradation is probably caused by coarsening of the Ni-particles. After onset of electrolysis operation a transient passivation/reactivation phenomena with duration of several days was observed. It was shown that the phenomenon is attributed to the SiO{sub 2} contamination at the Ni/YSZ electrode-electrolyte interface. The SiO{sub 2} arises from the albite glass sealing (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) that surrounds the electrode. Si may enter the Ni/YSZ electrode via the reaction Si(OH){sub 4}(g) {r_reversible} SiO{sub 2}(l)+H{sub 2}O(g). At the active sites of the Ni/YSZ electrode steam is reduced via the reaction H{sub 2}O - 2e {yields} H{sub 2}+O{sup 2-} . This shifts the equilibrium of the first reaction to form SiO{sub 2}(l) at the active sites. After a certain time the sealing crystallizes and the SiO{sub 2}(l) evaporates from the active sites and the cell reactivates. The passivation is shown to relate to a build up of a

  12. Integrated Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Phenomena Associated with Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste (United States)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Kihm, Jung-Hwi


    A series of numerical simulations was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydro-chemical numerical model to predict integratedly and evaluate quantitatively thermo-hydro-chemical phenomena due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The average mineralogical composition of the fifteen unweathered igneous rock bodies, which were classified as granite, in Republic of Korea was adopted as an initial (primary) mineralogical composition of the host rock of the repository of high-level radioactive waste in the numerical simulations. The numerical simulation results show that temperature rises and thus convective groundwater flow occurs near the repository due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Under these circumstances, a series of water-rock interactions take place. As a result, among the primary minerals, quartz, plagioclase (albite), biotite (annite), and muscovite are dissolved. However, orthoclase is initially precipitated and is then dissolved, whereas microcline is initially dissolved and is then precipitated. On the other hand, the secondary minerals such as kaolinite, Na-smectite, chlorite, and hematite are precipitated and are then partly dissolved. In addition, such dissolution and precipitation of the primary and secondary minerals change groundwater chemistry (quality) and induce reactive chemical transport. As a result, in groundwater, Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations initially decrease, whereas K+, AlO2-, and aqueous SiO2 concentrations initially increase. On the other hand, H+ concentration initially increases and thus pH initially decreases due to dissociation of groundwater in order to provide OH-, which is essential in precipitation of Na-smectite and chlorite. Thus, the above-mentioned numerical simulation results suggest that thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulation can provide a better understanding of heat transport, groundwater flow, and reactive

  13. Mica-feldspar equilibria in supercritical alkali chloride solutions (United States)

    Gunter, W. D.; Eugster, H. P.


    The equilibrium position of the reaction 410_2005_Article_BF01166763_TeX2GIFE1.gif begin{gathered} 1.5 KAlSi_3 O_8 + HCl = 0.5 KAl_3 Si_3 O_{10} (OH)_2 \\ + 3SiO_2 + KCl \\ has been located at 1 and 2 kb pressure and temperatures between 600° and 670° C using the Ag-AgCl buffer. These data can be combined with information on the dissociation of KC1, HC1 and H2O to determine species abundances in supercritical aqueous fluids in equilibrium with muscovite — K-feldspar — quartz assemblages. Chloride species become increasingly associated with increasing T, increasing total molality, ( m tot orm_{Cl_{tot} } ), and decreasingP_{H_2 O} . Master variable diagrams indicate that the pH of the solutions may vary from near neutral to quite acid. Published data on the paragonite-albite-quartz reaction and exchange reactions involving feldspars and micas were included to calculate speciation in mica-feldspar-NaCl-KCl-HCl-H2O fluids at 2kb pressure and temperatures between 300° and 600° C. The data are not accurate enough to distinguish different feldspar structural states. Concentration gradients were calculated for individual species between K-feldspar+quartz, muscovite+quartz and andalusite+quartz assemblages at 500° C, 2 kb. Assuming that the proton diffuses most rapidly and that there are no [H+] gradients, the molality of the solution must vary 30-fold, with feldspar+quartz at the more concentrated side. The data on mica-feldspar-chloride equilibria are used to interpret the spacial distribution of micas, feldspar and quartz in microfolds. This distribution can be accounted for by pressure solution, due to the fact that non-hydrostatic pressure affects congruently dissolving minerals, auch as quartz, differently from minerals which dissolve incongruently, such as micas and feldspars. We postulate, that during folding at constantP_{H_2 O} , T andm_{Cl - } , gradients in KC1 and SiO2 are created by stress differences between hinge and limb of a microfold, such that

  14. Physical volcanology, geochemistry and basin evolution of the Ediacaran volcano-sedimentary succession in the Bas Draâ inlier (Ouarzazate Supergroup, Western Anti-Atlas, Morocco) (United States)

    Karaoui, Brahim; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Youbi, Nasrrddine


    New geologic mapping, lithofacies and granulometric analysis, and geochemistry from the volcano-sedimentary successions of the central part of the Bas Draâ inlier, Western Anti-Atlas, constrain the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup evolution during the post-collisional stage of the Pan-African orogeny. Volcanosedimentary facies analysis is the key aspect of the present contribution. We distinguished sixteen terrestrial volcanosedimentary lithofacies in the Bas Draâ succession (BDS), which reaches a total thickness of 2000 m. BDS evolution can be grouped into four units (Aouinet Aït Oussa I to IV, AO I-AO IV). The earliest volcanic activity produced rhyolitic ignimbrite sheets (AO I), which had been considered as lava flows by previous workers, and which were presumably related to caldera system(s). During AO II, a complex of high-silica andesitic and rhyolitic lavas formed, punctuated by the explosive eruption of a high-temperature silica-rich magma leading to the formation of parataxitic ignimbrite. AO III consists of basalt and andesite lava fields and small explosive, in parts phreatomagmatic volcanic vents. It is dissected by fluvial systems depositing external non-volcanic and local volcanic debris. BDS evolution terminated with the formation of a large SiO2-rich lava dome complex (AO IV), accompanied by small basalt effusive event. Volcanosedimentary facies analysis infers that the BDS evolved in a continental extensional setting developing in a low topography under humid paleoclimatic conditions. Alteration textures are dominated by a piemontite-calcite-albite-quartz (+ iron oxides) assemblage. Chemical analysis of BDS volcanic and subvolcanic rocks belongs to high-k calc-alkaline and alkali-calcic to alkaline magmatic trend typical for a post-collision setting. Trace elements spidergrams show a pattern typical for subduction-related suites of orogenic belts. REE patterns show moderate enrichment in LREE relative to flat HREE, with strong negative Eu

  15. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.


    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (deposition. The stable isotope data support a sedimentary source of carbon (δ13Cfluid = ˜-21 to -10 ‰), a magmatic source for water (δ18OH2O = +7.4 to +7.7 ‰), and dominantly crustal-derived source of sulfur (δ34S = -4.6 to -2.9 ‰) in the hydrothermal fluids. This is consistent with the development of larger, longer crystallizing crustal intermediate to felsic magma chambers in the late to post-collisional tectonic environment, with their protracted magmatic evolution advancing magmatic differentiation and partitioning of W into magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The dominating role of the crustal-derived magmatic water, sulfur, and carbon appears to be an

  16. Evidence for intense hydrothermal alteration associated with flood basalt volcanism during the birth of the Azores Plateau (United States)

    Bach, W.; Busch, A.; Genske, F. S.; Beier, C.; Krumm, S.


    A stratigraphic section comprising >1000 m of upper crust in the Princess Alice Bank (PAB) of the western Azores Plateau was sampled during RV Meteor cruise M128 in July of 2016, using the ROV MARUM Quest 4000m. Twenty-two samples were recovered between 2484 and 1439 m water depth from the southfacing footwall of the Master fault bounding a prominent NW-SE striking rift zone within the PAB. Our geochemical and petrographic results show that virtually all samples are pervasively altered. The deeper part of the section (up to 1750 m water depth) was altered under greenschist-facies conditions to assemblages that include epidote, chlorite, albite, titanite, and actinolite. These rocks show 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7036 and 0.7050. The topmost section was altered under lower metamorphic grades to chlorite/smectite-quartz-anatase. These rocks show severe losses of Ca and Sr, and gains in Mg, Li, and B, with 87Sr/86Sr ratios as high as 0.708. These geochemical signatures indicate an intensity of hydrothermal exchange between seawater and crust that is unmatched by any in situ section of upper ocean crust sampled by ocean drilling to date. Oxygen isotope data for epidote-calcite veins indicate temperatures of 250-300°C. Later quartz gives about 200°C. The implications of the intense hydrothermal alteration for crust-seawater exchange budgets can be evaluated in the light of the geological evolution of the PAB. Based on immobile element ratios of whole rocks and REE characteristics of relict clinopyroxene in the only incompletely altered sample, an E-type MORB primary composition of the basalts can be reconstructed. Our data suggest that the degrees of mantle melting were much higher than during extrusion of the <4 Ma old alkali-basalts recovered from the top of PAB (Beier et al., 2015, doi:10.1130/2015.2511(02)), and even higher than modern MORB at the adjacent mid-Atlantic Ridge. These results lead us to suggest that the deeper sections of the PAB formed during the

  17. A new Martian meteorite from Morocco: the nakhlite North West Africa 817 (United States)

    Sautter, V.; Barrat, J. A.; Jambon, A.; Lorand, J. P.; Gillet, Ph.; Javoy, M.; Joron, J. L.; Lesourd, M.


    North West Africa (NWA 817) is a single stone of 104 g found in the Sahara (Morocco) by meteorite hunters in November 2000. The meteorite is an unbrecciated, medium-grained olivine-bearing clinopyroxenite with a cumulate texture. It consists of zoned euhedral subcalcic augite (Wo 42En 38-22Fs 20-36), olivine spanning a wide range of compositions (from Fa 56 in the core to Fa 86) with rare magmatic inclusions and an intercumulus mesostasis made of Fe-bearing albitic plagioclase, Si-rich glass, Ti-magnetite with unusual skeletal growth morphologies containing ilmenite exsolutions, acicular pyroxene, olivine and cristobalite. Trace minerals are sulfide droplets and Cl-apatite. Mineral modes (in vol%) are augite 69%, olivine 10%, mesostasis 20% and Fe-Ti oxides 1%. Pervasive alteration produced a reddish clay mineral (hydrous ferrous silicate) in both olivine crystals and the mesostasis. The major element composition of NWA 817 is very similar to that of the other nakhlites: high FeO, MgO and CaO concentrations reflect the abundance of cumulus augite and olivine. Key element ratios such as FeO/MnO (=37), Na/Al (=0.40), K/La (=449), Ga/Al (=3.9×10 -4) and oxygen isotopic composition (Δ 17O=+0.37‰) are clear evidence for a Martian origin. The incompatible trace element pattern as in Nakhla displays a strong light rare earth element enrichment relative to chondrite (La n/Yb n=4.89). However, when compared to the other nakhlites, NWA 817 has specific features: (1) a higher modal proportion of mesostasis; (2) quench textures of Ti-magnetite and Fe-rich clinopyroxene; (3) more Mg-rich olivine core compositions whereas the augite core composition is identical for all nakhlites; (4) a stronger Fe enrichment toward crystal rims of these cumulus minerals. The intercumulus minerals (Ti-magnetite with skeletal growth morphology, acicular chains of clinopyroxene and Fe 3+-rich feldspar) indicate rapid crystallization in response to a high degree of undercooling at the end of

  18. Static and fault-related alteration in the lower ocean crust, IODP Expedition 345, Hess Deep (United States)

    McCaig, Andrew; Faak, Kathrin; Marks, Naomi; Nozaka, Toshio; Python, Marie; Wintsch, Robert; Harigane, Yumiko; Titarenko, Sofya


    IODP Expedition 345 drilled the first holes in the lower plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge, recovering primitive layered gabbros (Gillis et al 2014). Alteration can be subdivided into two series: 1) a largely static pseudomorphic alteration affecting predominantly olivine. This began in the amphibolite facies with minor secondary cinopyroxene and hornblendic amphibole replacing primary pyroxene, and sporadically developed corona textures with tremolite and chlorite replacing olivine and plagioclase respectively, but was predominantly in the greenschist and sub-greenschist facies with talc, serpentine, clay minerals,oxides andsulphides replacing olivine, and prehnite and locally other calcsilicates replacing plagioclase, commonly in micro-vein networks. Albitic plagioclase is sporadically developed, and locally zeolite and carbonate. 2) An overprinting metasomatic alteration under sub-greenschist or perhaps lowermost greenschist conditions(textures suggesting replacement of previous secondary minerals such as talc and serpentine. Chlorite also ubiquitously occurs as patches replacing plagioclase along grain boundaries, locally associated with carbonate and amphibole needles. Metamorphosed dykes show chilled margins within the cataclasites, and are affected by cataclastic deformation. Faults, dykes and overprinting alteration are all inferred to be related to the westward propagation of Cocos-Nazca spreading that formed Hess Deep. Samples of different alteration and cataclastic domains were cut out of this section chips for isotopic analysis. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of cataclasites and dyke rocks are in the range 0.7037 - 0.7048, indicating alteration by seawater at moderate integrated fluxes. The highest values were in cataclasites overprinted by prehnite. δ18O values range from +1 to + 6 per mil, indicating alteration at temperatures generally >200 °C. Preliminary modelling using Comsol Multiphysics suggests that the temperatures of the overprinting alteration

  19. Inclusions in Minerals: the Importance of Host Mineral Composition, Pressure and Temperature for Potential Inclusion Alteration (United States)

    Marquardt, K.; Markl, G.


    Inclusions in minerals are used to decipher details of the host mineral/rock history. They frequently originate from the time of mineral formation; be it diamond, garnet or `common' feldspar. Thus protected they survive changing pressure and temperature for different durations compared to their non-enclosed counterparts. Inclusions may (partially) equilibrate at a later point in history, and thus provide complementary information on past processes and alteration pathways less commonly discussed. The study investigates partially altered pyroxene inclusions in feldspars indicative of high-p-T fluid transport during granulite facies metamorphism in charnockites from the Lofoten Islands in Northern Norway. The protoliths formed about 1750 Ma ago, at about 800 - 900°C and 4 kbar. During crustal thickening, they reached high-pressure granulite-facies conditions of about 8-11 kbar at 700°C (1). While this event caused large magmatic pyroxenes to react with an infiltrating fluid to form corona textures of amphibole; pyroxenes inside feldspars behaved very differently. Pyroxenes enclosed in orthoclase-rich feldspar were partially hydrated to amphiboles. Contrastingly, feldspar with lower orthoclase content protected the magmatic pyroxenes efficiently. Transport and transformation mechanisms recorded in these µm to nm textures were studied by EMPA and TEM. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) prepared TEM-foils revealed that pyroxenes, when spatially connected to albite exsolution lamellae, show dissolution features. Based on composition, nanostructures and the known p-T-history, we propose the following succession of events. Ternary feldspar containing small magmatic pyroxenes began to exsolve between about 800 and 700°C. The exsolution changed from coherent to incoherent and a fluid infiltrated the feldspar accompanied by a formation of nanotunnels. Gradually the tunnels grew larger so that finally whole film perthites acted as pathways. When the fluid had access to pyroxene

  20. Crystallization conditions and petrogenesis of the lava dome from the ˜900 years BP eruption of Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia (United States)

    Laeger, Kathrin; Halama, Ralf; Hansteen, Thor; Savov, Ivan P.; Murcia, Hugo F.; Cortés, Gloria P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter


    The last known eruption at Cerro Machín Volcano (CMV) in the Central Cordillera of Colombia occurred ˜900 years BP and ended with the formation of a dacitic lava dome. The dome rocks contain both normally and reversely zoned plagioclase (An24-54), unzoned and reversely zoned amphiboles of dominantly tschermakite and pargasite/magnesio-hastingsite composition and olivine xenocrysts (Fo = 85-88) with amphibole/clinopyroxene overgrowth, all suggesting interaction with mafic magma at depth. Plagioclase additionally exhibits complex oscillatory zoning patterns reflecting repeated replenishment, fractionation and changes in intrinsic conditions in the magma reservoir. Unzoned amphiboles and cores of the reversely zoned amphiboles give identical crystallization conditions of 910 ± 30 °C and 360 ± 70 MPa, corresponding to a depth of about 13 ± 2 km, at moderately oxidized conditions (f = +0.5 ± 0.2 ΔNNO). The water content in the melt, calculated based on amphibole chemistry, is 7.1 ± 0.4 wt.%. Rims of the reversely zoned amphiboles are relatively enriched in MgO and yield higher crystallization temperatures (T = 970 ± 25 °C), slightly lower melt H2O contents (6.1 ± 0.7 wt.%) and overlapping pressures (410 ± 100 MPa). We suggest that these rims crystallized following an influx of mafic melt into a resident magma reservoir at mid-crustal depths, further supported by the occurrence of xenocrystic olivine. Crystallization of biotite, albite-rich plagioclase and quartz occurred at comparatively low temperatures (probably during early stages of ascent or storage at shallower levels. Based on amphibole mineral chemistry, the felsic resident melt had a rhyolitic composition (71 ± 2 wt.% SiO2), whereas the hybrid magma, from which the amphibole rims crystallized, was dacitic (64 ± 3 wt.% SiO2). The bulk rock chemistry of the CMV lava dome dacites is homogenous. They have elevated (La/Nb)N ratios of 3.8-4.5, typical for convergent margin magmas, and display several

  1. Study on Gold and base metal occurrence in Uluwai Prospect, Western Latimojong Mountain, South Sulawesi (United States)

    Maulana, Adi; Jaya, Asri; Imai, Akira


    Uluwai Prospect is located in the northern part of South Arm of Sulawesi along the eastern part of the Kalosi Fold Belt and Latimojong Mountain. The area is generally characterized by moderate to rugged topography area with elevation in the range of 700 to 1400 m above sea level in the mountainous complex called Latimojong Mountain Complex. The mineralization is characterized by a relatively simple sulphide ore mineral assemblage consists of pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Samples were collected in areas showing abundant sulphide minerals where younger faults cut the bedding and foliation of country rocks. A number of silicified zones have been observed, as well as float material containing disseminated pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite with hematite, goethite and limonite. Some alteration types have been observed including sericitization, albitization, carbonatization and silisification. The samples collected indicated that the mineralisation is contained within metasedimentary (sandstone to mudstone) and greenschist. Geochemical analyses from 16 samples including 5 stream sediment samples indicated that the most promising mineralization occur in the prospect area are copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). This is also supported by the abundance of chalcopyrite and sphalerite in some highly altered samples. Assaying of the collected samples revealed most of samples contain relatively low gold (Au) concentration. However, two samples contain 0.007 and 0.01 ppm of Au. In the mineralized area, Zn concentrations are up to 134 ppm, Cu up to 120 ppm and Pb up to 18 ppm and As up to 70 ppm. There is no clear relationship that exists between Au and the base metals except that one of the samples with highest Au values tend to have high Zn and As. This unclear pattern also shown by Cu, Pb and Zn. Base metal concentration in stream sediment samples show a relatively stable pattern than in rock samples. Arsenic tends to be elevated in base metal rich samples. Sb and Mo are

  2. CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICO-MINERALÓGICAS DE FONTES DE PIGMENTOS MINERAIS EM DEPÓSITOS NATURAIS DO ENTORNO DO SÍTIO ARQUEOLÓGICO PEDRA DO CANTAGALO I, EM PIRIPIRI, PIAUÍ, BRASIL (Chemical-Mineralogical Features of Mineral Pigments Sources in Natural Deposits Surrounding the Pedra do Cantagalo I Archaeological Site, in Piripiri, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heralda Kelis Sousa Bezerra da Silva


    , which are assignable to superparamagnetic species, more likely including goethite, of small particle sizes, or the paramagnetic iron in the crystalline structure of aluminosilicates. The XRD patterns show characteristic reflections of quartz, muscovite, kaolinite, illite, albite, hematite, rutile and anatase.

  3. Geotectonic significance of Neoproterozoic amphibolites from the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt: A possible dismembered sub-ophiolitic metamorphic sole (United States)

    Farahat, E. S.


    Supra-subduction zone ophiolites in the Egyptian Central Eastern Desert (CED) occur as clusters in its northern (NCEDO) and southern (SCEDO) parts, displaying abundant island arc-boninitic and MORB/island-arc geochemical affinities, respectively. An amphibolite belt, including the investigated massive to slightly foliated Wadi Um Gheig (WUG) amphibolites, is exposed in the southeast most of the NCEDO thrusting over the El Sibai gneissic association and intruded by late- to post-orogenic granitoids and gabbros. The WUG rocks are metamorphosed under epidote amphibolite to common amphibolite facies. The amphiboles are calcic and represented by actinolitic hornblende to magnesio-hornblende in the epidote amphibolites and magnesio- to ferro-hornblende in the amphibolites. Plagioclase composition varies from pure albite (An3-8) in the epidote amphibolites to andesine and labradorite (An36-65) in the amphibolites. The estimated P-T conditions are in favor of their metamorphism under epidote amphibolite (c. 550-600 °C and 2-3 ± 1.5 kbar) and amphibolite (c. 618-720 °C and 3-6 ± 1.5 kbar) facies. The peak metamorphic conditions point to a burial depth of c.15-20 km. Geochemically, the WUG amphibolites show basaltic to andesitic compositions of tholeiitic affinity. They display LILE-enriched MORB-normalized patterns with negative Nb anomalies characteristic of the subduction-related rocks. However, their chondrite-normalized rare-earth element (REE) patterns vary from LREE-depleted (LaN/YbN = 0.29 to 0.49) to LREE-enriched (LaN/YbN = 2.97 to 3.74). Few samples show major and trace element contents typical of boninitic rocks, including U-shaped REE pattern. On the standard tectonic discrimination diagrams the WUG amphibolites plot mostly in the island-arc fields with some samples of MORB and boninitic affinities. Greenschist facies metamorphosed NCEDO obviously share these geochemical characteristics, implying formation in the same tectonic environment, i.e. forearc basin

  4. Characterization of the Fault Core and Damage Zone of the Borrego Fault, 2010 M7.2 Rupture (United States)

    Dorsey, M. T.; Rockwell, T. K.; Girty, G.; Ostermeijer, G.; Mitchell, T. M.; Fletcher, J. M.


    We collected a continuous sample of the fault core and 23 samples of the damage zone out to 52 m across the rupture trace of the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapa earthquake to characterize the physical damage and chemical transformations associated with this active seismic source. In addition to quantifying fracture intensity from macroscopic analysis, we cut a continuous thin section through the fault core and from various samples in the damage zone, and ran each sample for XRD analyses for clay mineralogy, XRF for bulk geochemical analyses, and bulk and grain density from which porosity and volumetric strain were derived. The parent rock is a hydrothermally-altered biotite tonalite, with biotite partially altered to chlorite. The presence of epidote with chlorite suggests that these rocks were subjected to relatively high temperatures of 300-400° C. Adjacent to the outermost damage zone is a chaotic breccia zone with distinct chemical and physical characteristics, indicating possible connection to an ancestral fault to the southwest. The damage zone consists of an outer zone of protocataclasite, which grades inward towards mesocataclasite with seams of ultracataclasite. The fault core is anomalous in that it is largely composed of a sliver of marble that has been translated along the fault, so direct comparison with the damage zone is impaired. From collected data, we observe that chloritization increases into the breccia and damage zones, as does the presence of illite. Porosity reaches maximum values in the damage zone adjacent to the core, and closely follows trends in fracture intensity. Statistically significant gains in Mg, Na, K, Mn, and total bulk mass occurred within the inner damage zone, with losses of Ca and P mass, which led to the formation of chlorite and albite. The outer damage zone displays gains in Mg and Na mass with losses in Ca and P mass. The breccia zone shows gains in mass of Mg and Mn and loss in total bulk mass. A gain in LOI in both the

  5. A middle Permian ophiolite fragment in Late Triassic greenschist- to blueschist-facies rocks in NW Turkey: An earlier pulse of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation in the Tethyan belt (United States)

    Topuz, Gültekin; Okay, Aral I.; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Sunal, Gürsel; Altherr, Rainer; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.


    The Eastern Mediterranean region within the Tethyan belt is characterised by two main pulses of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation during the Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Despite vast exposures of the Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes, related suprasubduction-zone ophiolites and the timing of subduction initiation leading to the formation of Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes are unknown so far. Here we report on a 40 km long and 0.3 to 1.8 km wide metaophiolite fragment within transitional greenschist- to blueschist-facies oceanic rocks from NW Turkey. The metaophiolite fragment is made up mainly of serpentinite and minor dykes or stocks of strongly sheared metagabbro with mineral assemblages involving actinolite/winchite, chlorite, epidote, albite, titanite and phengite. The metagabbro displays (i) variable CaO and MgO contents, (ii) anomalously high Mg# (= 100 ∗ molar MgO/(MgO + FeOtot)) of 75-88, and (iii) positive Eu anomalies, together with low contents of incompatible elements such as Ti, P and Zr, suggesting derivation from former plagioclase cumulates. The serpentinites comprise serpentine, ± chlorite, ± talc, ± calcite and relict Cr-Al spinel surrounded by ferrichromite to magnetite. Relict Cr-Al spinels are characterised by (i) Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios of 0.45-0.56 and Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +) ratio of 0.76-0.22, (ii) variable contents of ZnO and MnO, and (iii) extremely low TiO2 contents. Zn and Mn contents are probably introduced into Cr-Al spinels during greenschist- to blueschist metamorphism. Compositional features of the serpentinite such as (i) Ca- and Al-depleted bulk compositions, (ii) concave U-shaped, chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns (REE) with enrichment of light and heavy REEs, imply that serpentinites were probably derived from depleted peridotites which were refertilised by light rare earth element enriched melts in a suprasubduction-zone mantle wedge. U-Pb dating on igneous zircons from three metagabbro

  6. Uranium mobility in mine areas: evaluation of the water-rock interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuddas, P. [UFR Sciences de la Terre. PEPS. Universite Claude Bernard. Lyon (France); Rocha Scislewski, A.; Faivre, D.; Lopez, O. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France)


    Full text of publication follows: Toxicity and natural radioactivity of uranium are among the main environmental concerns for exploitation and processing of uranium ore. Weathering processes and potential contamination paths of these areas have to be identified to preserve the water resources. In this work, leaching experiments were carried out in flow-through reactors. Approximately 750 g of crushed rock of selected grain size between 0.35 and 0.80 mm were introduced into a Pyrex column. Distilled and deionized water, saturated with 5% CO{sub 2}/95% air mixture, was introduced through a glass inlet fitted at the base of the column. Input solution pH was constantly equal to 4.2 while the low flow rate was obtained from a peristaltic pump. The output solution was sampled periodically for about 1 year. Three different rock samples were used: an untreated granite rock with high levels of uranium minerals, a rock with low uranium content and a rock rejected after the lixiviation process for uranium industrial extraction. For untreated rocks pH and silica decrease by 1-2 orders of magnitude while sodium decreases by 2-3 orders of magnitude. This indicates the strong albitite dissolution. Total dissolved uranium has a rather constant level indicating the constant dissolution rate of the uranium mineral assemblage. Thermodynamic modelling of the interacting output solutions indicates that 80% of the dissolved uranium content is under the form of two main carbonate complexes (i.e. UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 2-} and UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4-}), while solutions are saturated on chalcedony, kaolinite and calcium clay minerals. Solutions are under saturated with respect to uraninite and low-temperature albite. In experiments where material was treated with sulphuric acid in the plant, pH is constantly equal to 4 indicating the lack of rock buffering properties. Na, Ca, and SO{sub 4} decrease by several orders of magnitude (from some initial mmol/kg) reaching

  7. Nanogranitoids in garnet clinopyroxenites of the Granulitgebirge (Bohemian Massif): evidence for metasomatism and partial melting? (United States)

    Borghini, Alessia; Ferrero, Silvio; Wunder, Bernd; O'Brien, Patrick J.; Ziemann, Martin A.


    Primary nanogranitoids occur in garnet from the garnet clinopyroxenites of the Granulitgebirge, Bohemian Massif. They form clusters in the inner part of the garnet, and may occur both as polycrystalline and glassy inclusions with size from 5 to 20 µm. Because of their random distribution in garnet these inclusions are interpreted as primary inclusions, thus formed during the growth of the garnet. Garnet does not show any major element zoning. Nanogranitoids were identified in garnet clinopyroxenites from two different locations and show slightly different mineral assemblages. Kumdykolite or albite, phlogopite, osumilite, kokchetavite and a variable amount of quartz occur in both locations. However, osumilite is more abundant in one locality and kokchetavite in the other. All these phases are identified using Raman Spectroscopy. Both assemblages are consistent with the origin of these inclusions as former droplets of melt. Nanogranitoids from one locality have been re-homogenized at 1000°C and 22 kbar to a hydrous glass of granodioritic/quartz-monzonitic composition in a piston cylinder apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions correspond to the formation of the host garnet (O'Brien & Rötzler, 2003) and thus of melt entrapment. Nanogranitoid-bearing garnet clinopyroxenites occur in bodies of serpentinized peridotites, hosted in turn in felsic granulites. The garnet clinopyroxenites show granoblastic texture dominated by garnet and clinopyroxene porphyroblasts with a variable amount of interstitial plagioclase, biotite, two generations of amphiboles (brown and green) and rutile and opaque minerals as accessories. The bulk rock composition is basic to intermediate, and the garnet chemistry varies from 24% Alm, 65% Prp and 11% Grs to 38% Alm, 36% Prp and 26 % Grs between one outcrop and the other. The origin of the investigated inclusions could be due to different processes: localized melting of metasomatized mafic rocks with simultaneous production of garnet or

  8. Caracterización geoquímica y estudio comparativo de plagiogranitos de las Zonas Surportuguesa y Ossa-Morena (SO del Macizo Ibérico, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellido, F.


    Full Text Available Plagiogranites and albitic rocks belonging to contrasted magmatic associations of different ages and geodynamic environments outcrop in Ossa-Morena (OMZ and Surportuguese (SPZ Zones. OMZ plagiogranites are related with Cambrian-Ordovician rifting and represent a part of the felsic members of a bimodal magmatic suite and show oceanic plagiogranites affinities. SPZ plagiogranites are related with a Carboniferous volcano-plutonic calc-alkaline suite related with Variscan Orogeny. Both plagiogranites show many similar petrological and geochemical characteristics but display some different immobile elements ratios as La/Nb, Th/Nb, Th/La that are unaltered by metamorphism, magmatic differentiation and alteration processes and prove differences in their sources. SPZ plagiogranites show a more compositional homogeneity than OMZ ones. This is interpreted as a proof of cogenetic origin for SPZ plagiogranites and heterogeneous origin for OMZ plagiogranites, derived from the mix of different sources (astenospheric, lithospheric and crustal.

    En la Zona de Ossa-Morena (ZOM y en la Zona Surportuguesa (ZSP se encuentran plagiogranitos pertenecientes a asociaciones magmáticas y ambientes geodinámicos muy contrastados. Los primeros pertenecen a una asociación bimodal máfica-félsica relacionada con el rifting cámbrico-ordovícico y presentan bastantes afinidades con plagiogranitos oceánicos. Los segundos forman parte de una asociación volcánico-plutónica calcoalcalina carbonífera relacionada con la Orogenia Varisca. Ambos plagio-granitos son semejantes en diversos aspectos petrológicos y geoquímicos pero muestran diferencias en algunas relaciones de elementos inmóviles tales como La/Nb, Th/Nb, Th/La poco sensibles a los procesos de evolución magmática, metamorfismo y alteración y que son reflejo de la composición de las fuentes. Los plagiogranitos de la ZSP presentan una mayor homogeneidad composicional que los de la ZOM. Esto se

  9. Estimations of durability of fracture mineral buffers in the Olkiluoto bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkonen, A.


    This study attempts to make scenarios for the geochemical effects that the underground excavations in the Olkiluoto bedrock have on naturally occurring fracture mineral buffers. The excavations of underground research facilities and final repository galleries probably cause steep hydraulic gradients in some bedrock fractures. These gradients likely draw surficial waters within the fracture network and activate weathering processes deeper in rock fractures than in the natural undisturbed conditions. The present studies concentrate on the meteoric infiltration in a single rock fracture, and on the selected set of minerals believed to be significant buffers against pH/redox variations in groundwater. The modelling considers the possibility that the infiltrating meteoric water is soil water rich in dissolved inorganic carbon. Calcite, pyrite, quartz, amorphous silica, cordierite, hornblende, albite, K-feldspar, kaolinite, and illite are taken into account as reacting minerals. Simulations are done by varying the flow rate of water from 1 L/h to 100 L/h. The effects of mineral reactions onto porosity and permeability values are monitored as well. In the present study, however, the changes in physical properties of the fracture channel do not affect the flow rate of water. Furthermore, calculations also describe how cation exchange affects the studied fracture channel system. The simulations coupling the hydraulic flow and water-rock interaction were done with TOUGHREACT V1.0 code and with the EQ3/6-database implemented in the code. In part, the simulations were evaluation of the code capabilities, and verification of results to earlier PHREEQC-2 simulation results. The calculation results confirm the assumption that principal buffer against pH changes is calcite. All silicate reactions, with considered reactive surface areas, are by comparison of marginal importance. The only redox buffer in the calculations is pyrite, and consequently significant amounts of oxygen runs

  10. Mineralogical and Crystal Chemical Characterization of Dust Particles From Antarctica Ice Cores (United States)

    Sala, M.; Dapiaggi, M.; Artioli, G.; Marino, F.; Delmonte, B.; Maggi, V.; Frezzotti, M.


    each mineral phase, which combined to the quantitative phase analysis obtained by XRPD allows for proper assessment of the PIXE data. Successful identification and analysis has been performed on smectite, illite, kaolinite, talc, K-feldspar, albite, quartz and calcite of a few samples from the EPICA (EPICA - Dome C; 75°06' S, 123°24' E, 3233 m a.s.l., mean annual accumulation rate 2.5 g cm-2 yr-1 and Talos Dome (TDC, 159°04'E, 72°46'S, 2316 m a.s.l., mean annual accumulation rate 8 g cm-2 yr-1 ice cores. The procedure is now being applied systematically to the investigation of all dust components from the ice of these drillings.

  11. Zoning and exsolution in cumulate alkali feldspars from the eruption (12.9 Ka) of Laacher see volcano (Western Germany) as an indicator of time-scales and dynamics of carbonate-silicate unmixing (United States)

    Sourav Rout, Smruti; Wörner, Gerhard


    Time-scales extracted from the detailed analysis of chemically zoned minerals provide insights into crystal ages, magma storage and compositional evolution, including mixing and unmixing events. This allows having a better understanding of pre-eruptive history of large and potentially dangerous magma chambers. We present a comprehensive study of chemical diffusion across zoning and exsolution patterns of alkali feldspars in carbonatite-bearing cognate syenites from the 6.3 km3 (D.R.E) phonolitic Laacher See Tephra (LST) eruption 12.9 ka ago. The Laacher See volcano is located in the Quaternary East Eifel volcanic field of the Paleozoic Rhenish Massif in Western Germany and has produced a compositionally variable sequence in a single eruption from a magma chamber that was zoned from mafic phonolite at the base to highly evolved, actively degassing phonolite magma at the top. Diffusion chronometry is applied to major and trace element compositions obtained on alkali feldspars from carbonate-bearing syenitic cumulates. Methods used were laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) in combination with energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe analyses (EDS & WDS-EMPA). The grey scale values extracted from multiple accumulations of back-scattered electron images represent the K/Na ratio owing to the extremely low concentrations of Ba and Sr (grey scale profiles and the quantitative compositional profiles are anatomized using three different fitting models in MATLAB®, Mathematica® and Origin® to estimate related time-scales with minimized error for a temperature range of 750 deg C to 800 deg C (on the basis of existing experimental data on phase transition and phase separation). A distinctive uphill diffusive analysis is used specifically for the phase separation in the case of exsolution features (comprising of albite- and orthoclase-rich phases) in sanidines. The error values are aggregates of propagated error through

  12. Processing of Vietnamese lithium ores to produce LiCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Thi Thu Hien


    A potential lithium deposit has been discovered in the La Vi mining district, located in Quang Ngai Province, Central Vietnam. The Li-rich rocks (average contents: 1.3±0.9 wt.% Li 2 O) are highly fractionated, peraluminous granites, which are further characterized by high contents of Al 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, K 2 O, F, and P 2 O 5 , but very low concentrations of all other main components (MgO, CaO, Fe 2 O 3 tot, TiO 2 ). The granites exhibit a light pink color and contain mainly albite, quartz, muscovite, lithian muscovite, and lepidolite, with minor amounts of amblygonite-montebrasite, herderite, fluorapatite, topaz, and cassiterite, and accessory beryl and goyazite. Lepidolite from La Vi deposit was extracted to produce lithium chloride by using iron II sulphide (FeS)-CaO roasting and water leaching. The HSC program was applied for the simulation of the behavior of lepidolite and the additives during roasting, confirming the important role of SO 2 /SO 3 gas for extracting lithium from lepidolite. At optimum conditions roasting at 750 C using FeS/Li and Ca/F molar ratios of 5:1 and 1:1, respectively, followed by leaching at 50 C using water/calcine mass ratios of >5:1 could yield a maximum of ∝85% Li recovery (at <1 g/L Li concentration). Addition of CaO led to a decrease in the liberation of HF gas and insoluble LiF formation. NaOH and BaCl 2 were used for removing the metal and sulphate impurities from the leach liquor by precipitation at ambient temperature. The efficiency of lithium extraction reached ∝100 % with washing of the precipitates after filtering. Alkali salts were separated from the LiCl solution via solar evaporation and isopropanol leaching. 96.3 wt.% LiCl could be produced using an isopropanol/salt mass ratio of 5:1 at ambient temperature in 3 h.

  13. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard


    The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite

  14. Don Quixote Pond Sediments: Surface and Subsurface Chemistry and Mineralogy (United States)

    Englert, P. A. J.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.


    Don Quixote Pond, like Don Juan Pond in the South Fork of Wright Valley, Antarctica, is a model for calcium and chlorine weathering and distribution on Mars. It is located in the western part of the North Fork about 100 m above Mean Seawater Level; its brine is seasonally frozen [1]. Field observations show zones of discoloration which grow lighter with distance from the pond edges. Four sediment cores, a set of radial surface samples, special surface samples, and samples of local rocks were obtained [2]. We report on chemical and mineral analyses of traverse samples and on two cores. Core DQ20 is a northeastern shoreline core. Its soluble salt concentration exceeds 200 micromoles/g in the top 5 cm, and then falls to less than 70 micromoles/g at the permafrost depth of 15 cm. These concentrations are low when compared to similarly positioned locations at Don Juan Pond and to cores from Prospect Mesa close to Lake Vanda, Wright Valley. Halite, soda niter, tachyhydrite and/bischovite are suggested from the ionic molar relationships Measured halite concentrations of surface samples, collected along a traverse of 35 m from the pond outwards, range from over 5% to trace amounts, decreasing with distance. Gypsum is also present in almost all of these samples ranging from 0.2% to 2.6%, but does not exhibit a trend. However, in core DQ35, located at a distance of 15 m along the traverse, gypsum decreases from 2.5% to 0.6% from the surface to the permafrost depth of 12 cm. While DQ35 and radial samples show high quartz and albite abundance, samples that contained visible encrustations and evaporites are low in these minerals and rich in highly diverse alteration products. Don Juan Basin ponds may have formed by a complex surface water mobilization of weathering products [3] and local groundwater action [4,5]. In contrast, Don Quixote pond mineralogy and chemistry may be consistent with a less complex shallow and deep groundwater system origin [1]. [1] Harris H

  15. Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 1: Chemical evolution and water-rock interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkle, Peter; Garcia, Bernardo Martinez; Milland Padron, Carlos M.


    The origin and evolution of formation water from Upper Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous mudstone-packstone-dolomite host rocks at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil reservoir, located onshore in SE-Mexico at a depth from 5200 to 6200 m.b.s.l., have been investigated, using detailed water geochemistry from 12 producer wells and six closed wells, and related host rock mineralogy. Saline waters of Cl-Na type with total dissolved solids from 10 to 23 g/L are chemically distinct from hypersaline Cl-Ca-Na and Cl-Na-Ca type waters with TDS between 181 and 385 g/L. Bromine/Cl and Br/Na ratios suggest the subaerial evaporation of seawater beyond halite precipitation to explain the extreme hypersaline components, while less saline samples were formed by mixing of high salinity end members with surface-derived, low salinity water components. The dissolution of evaporites from adjacent salt domes has little impact on present formation water composition. Geochemical simulations with Harvie-Mφller-Weare and PHRQPITZ thermodynamic data sets suggest secondary fluid enrichment in Ca, HCO 3 and Sr by water-rock interaction. The volumetric mass balance between Ca enrichment and Mg depletion confirms dolomitization as the major alteration process. Potassium/Cl ratios below evaporation trajectory are attributed to minor precipitation of K feldspar and illitization without evidence for albitization at the Jujo-Tecominoacan reservoir. The abundance of secondary dolomite, illite and pyrite in drilling cores from reservoir host rock reconfirms the observed water-rock exchange processes. Sulfate concentrations are controlled by anhydrite solubility as indicated by positive SI-values, although anhydrite deposition is limited throughout the lithological reservoir column. The chemical variety of produced water at the Jujo-Tecominoacan oil field is related to a sequence of primary and secondary processes, including infiltration of evaporated seawater and original meteoric fluids, the subsequent mixing of

  16. The effect of aluminium and sodium impurities on the in vitro toxicity and pro-inflammatory potential of cristobalite (United States)

    Nattrass, C.; Horwell, Claire J.; Damby, David; Brown, David; Stone, Vicki


    BackgroundExposure to crystalline silica (SiO2), in the form of quartz, tridymite or cristobalite, can cause respiratory diseases, such as silicosis. However, the observed toxicity and pathogenicity of crystalline silica is highly variable. This has been attributed to a number of inherent and external factors, including the presence of impurities. In cristobalite-rich dusts, substitutions of aluminium (Al) for silicon (Si) in the cristobalite structure, and impurities occluding the silica surface, have been hypothesised to decrease its toxicity. This hypothesis is tested here through the characterisation and in vitro toxicological study of synthesised cristobalite with incremental amounts of Al and sodium (Na) dopants. MethodsSamples of synthetic cristobalite with incremental amounts of Al and Na impurities, and tridymite, were produced through heating of a silica sol-gel. Samples were characterised for mineralogy, cristobalite purity and abundance, particle size, surface area and surface charge. In vitro assays assessed the ability of the samples to induce cytotoxicity and TNF-α production in J774 macrophages, and haemolysis of red blood cells. ResultsAl-only doped or Al+Na co-doped cristobalite contained between 1 and 4 oxide wt% Al and Na within its structure. Co-doped samples also contained Al- and Na-rich phases, such as albite. Doping reduced cytotoxicity to J774 macrophages and haemolytic capacity compared to non-doped samples. Al-only doping was more effective at decreasing cristobalite reactivity than Al+Na co-doping. The reduction in the reactivity of cristobalite is attributed to both structural impurities and a lower abundance of crystalline silica in doped samples. Neither non-doped nor doped crystalline silica induced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in J774 macrophages. ConclusionsImpurities can reduce the toxic potential of cristobalite and may help explain the low reactivity of some cristobalite-rich dusts. Whilst further work

  17. High salinity volatile phases in magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element deposits (United States)

    Hanley, J. J.; Mungall, J. E.


    The role of "deuteric" fluids (exsolved magmatic volatile phases) in the development of Ni-Cu-PGE (platinum group element) deposits in mafic-ultramafic igneous systems is poorly understood. Although considerable field evidence demonstrates unambiguously that fluids modified most large primary Ni-Cu-PGE concentrations, models which hypothesize that fluids alone were largely responsible for the economic concentration of the base and precious metals are not widely accepted. Determination of the trace element composition of magmatic volatile phases in such ore-forming systems can offer considerable insight into the origin of potentially mineralizing fluids in such igneous environments. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis allows researchers to confirm the original metal budget of magmatic volatile phases and quantify the behavior of trace ore metals in the fluid phase in the absence of well-constrained theoretical or experimental predictions of ore metal solubility. In this study, we present new evidence from major deposits (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; Stillwater Complex, Montana, U.S.A.) that compositionally distinct magmatic brines and halide melt phases were exsolved from crystallizing residual silicate melt and trapped within high-T fluid conduits now comprised of evolved rock compositions (albite-quartz graphic granite, orthoclase-quartz granophyre). Petrographic evidence demonstrates that brines and halide melts coexisted with immiscible carbonic phases at the time of entrapment (light aliphatic hydrocarbons, CO2). Brine and halide melt inclusions are rich in Na, Fe, Mn, K, Pb, Zn, Ba, Sr, Al and Cl, and homogenize by either halite dissolution at high T ( ˜450-700° C) or by melting of the salt phase (700-800° C). LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions demonstrate that high salinity volatile phases contained abundant base metals (Cu, Fe, Sn, Bi) and precious metals (Pt, Pd, Au, Ag) at the time of entrapment. Notably, precious metal concentrations in the inclusions

  18. Hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite in altered granitic plutons and its implications for magnetite classification schemes: Insights from the Handan-Xingtai iron district, North China Craton (United States)

    Wen, Guang; Li, Jian-Wei; Hofstra, Albert H.; Koenig, Alan E.; Lowers, Heather A.; Adams, David


    Magnetite is a common mineral in igneous rocks and has been used as an important petrogenetic indicator as its compositions and textures reflect changing physiochemical parameters such as temperature, oxygen fugacity and melt compositions. In upper crustal settings, igneous rocks are often altered by hydrothermal fluids such that the original textures and compositions of igneous magnetite may be partly or completely obliterated, posing interpretive problems in petrological and geochemical studies. In this paper, we present textural and compositional data of magnetite from variably albitized granitoid rocks in the Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton to characterize the hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite. Four types of magnetite have been identified in the samples studied: pristine igneous magnetite (type 1), reequilibrated porous magnetite (type 2), reequilibrated nonporous magnetite (type 3), and hydrothermal magnetite (type 4). Pristine igneous magnetite contains abundant well-developed ilmenite exsolution lamellae that are largely replaced by titanite during subsequent hydrothermal alteration. The titanite has a larger molar volume than its precursor ilmenite and thus causes micro-fractures in the host magnetite grains, facilitating dissolution and reprecipitation of magnetite. During sodic alteration, the igneous magnetite is extensively replaced by type 2 and type 3 magnetite via fluid-induced dissolution and reprecipitation. Porous type 2 magnetite is the initial replacement product of igneous magnetite and is subsequently replaced by the nonoporous type 3 variety as its surface area is reduced and compositional equilibrium with the altering fluid is achieved. Hydrothermal type 4 magnetite is generally euhedral and lacks exsolution lamellae and porosity, and is interpreted to precipitate directly from the ore-forming fluids. Hydrothermal reequilibration of igneous magnetite has led to progressive chemical purification, during which trace

  19. Origin and evolution of ore-forming fluids in the Hemushan magnetite-apatite deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China, and their metallogenic significance (United States)

    Luo, Gan; Zhang, Zhiyu; Du, Yangsong; Pang, Zhenshan; Zhang, Yanwen; Jiang, Yongwei


    The Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt in the northern Yangtze Block is one of the most important economic mineral districts in China. The Hemushan deposit is a medium-class Fe deposit located in the southern part of the Ningwu iron ore district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt. The Fe-orebodies are mainly hosted in the contact zone between diorite and Triassic marble. The actinolite-phlogopite-apatite-magnetite ore shows metasomatic/filling textures and disseminated/mesh-vein structures. Based on evidences and petrographic observations, the ore-forming process can be divided into three distinct periods-the early metallogenic period (albite-diopside stage), the middle metallogenic period (magnetite stage and hematite stage), and the late metallogenic period (quartz-pyrite stage and carbonate stage). Fluid inclusion studies show four types of inclusions: type I daughter mineral-bearing three-phase inclusions (L + V + S), type II vapor-rich two-phase inclusions (L + V), type III liquid-rich two phase inclusions (L + V), and minor type IV liquid-phase inclusions (L). Apatites from the magnetite stage contain type I, type II and type III inclusions; anhydrites from the hematite stage mainly contain abundant type II inclusions and relatively less type I inclusions; quartz and calcite from the late metallogenic stage are mainly characterized by type III inclusions. Laser Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry of fluid inclusions show that the ore-forming fluids broadly correspond to unsaturated NaCl-H2O system. From the magnetite stage to the carbonate stage, the ore-forming fluids evolved from moderate-high temperature (average 414 °C), moderate salinity (average 25.01 wt.% NaCl equiv.) conditions to low temperature (average 168 °C), low salinity (average 6.18 wt.% NaCl equiv.) conditions. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic studies indicate that the ore-forming fluid during the early stage of middle metallogenic period was mainly of magmatic

  20. A Ta-rich low-P peraluminous granite: the Rechla cupola (Hoggar, Algeria) and associated pegmatites, the result of extreme fractionation of a A2-type magma. (United States)

    Kesraoui, M.; Marignac, C.; Hamis, A.; Cuney, M.


    In the c. 525 Ma RMG province of the Laouni terrane of the Pan-African Tuareg Shield (Hoggar), the small N20°E elliptic Rechla cupola (200x100 m) is particularized by a rim of Qtz-Kfs-Znw pegmatite. It is a medium-grained Na-Li-F granite, with quartz, albite (An01), rare microcline, topaz, Mn-lepidolite (≤ 8% MnO) and Hf-zircon, and: 71.4 % SiO2, 0.93% FeO+MgO+MnO (Mg # 0.19, Mg/Mg+Fe+Mn 0.09), 9.22% Na2O+K2O (Na # 0.7), Al-Na-K-2Ca from 55 to 85, and low P2O5 (0.05%) and ∑ REE (23 ppm) contents, with a pronounced tetrad effect and <0 Eu anomaly in the REE pattern. Such a composition is typical of a low-P peraluminous RMG deriving from highly potassic calcalkaline suites (A2 type) (Linnen & Cuney 2005), enriched in F (1.6%), Li (1,600 ppm), Zn (300 ppm), Be (7 ppm), Sn (740 ppm), W (40 ppm) and specially Ta (165 ppm, Ta/Nb between 2.4 and 2.6), the latter as columbo-tantalite and Mn-wodginite (Ta # 0.8). The pegmatite rim comprises, towards the intrusion (i) thick Kfs lenses (palissadic crystals ≥ 50 cm), (ii) a laminated quartz-zinnwaldite-(beryl) sequence , and (iii) a discontinuous band of fine-grained granite, with quartz, albite, topaz, Mn-lepidolite and beryl, equally fractionated: 69.4% SiO2, 0.85% FeO+MgO+MnO (Mg# 0.06, Mg/Mg+Fe+Mn 0.02), Al-Na-K-2Ca = 32, F 0.4%, Li 610 ppm, Ta 240 ppm (Ta/Nb = 2.4), Be 500 ppm. The laminated sequence overprints the Kfs lenses. It comprises thick (≤ 20 m) quartz lenses cross-cut by 10 cm-sized alternating bands of euhedral quartz and Mn-zinnwaldite (≤ 6.5% MnO). REE-patterns of the Mn-Znw display a clear inverse tetrad effect, symmetrical of the granite pattern. At the boundary with the fine-grained internal band, euhedral quartz crystals are projecting toward the inner wall. The Rechla body and its surrounding pegmatites are intrusive into a porphyritic biotite-granite representative of the evolved magmas of the A2-type Taourirt suite (Azzouni-Sekkal & Boissonnas 1993), with a classical "seagull" pattern and a

  1. Petrogenesis of Oxidized Arfvedsonite Granite Gneiss from Dimra Pahar, Hazaribagh, Eastern India: Constraints from Mineral Chemistry and Trace Element Geochemistry (United States)

    Basak, Ankita; Goswami, Bapi


    The arfvedsonite granite gneiss of Dimra Pahar occurs along the North Purulia Shear Zone (NPSZ) which pivots the Proterozoic Chotannagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC), Eastern India. Although minerals like arfvedsonite and aegirine depict the peralkaline nature of the pluton, the geochemistry of the rock reflects its composition varying from peralkaline to mildly peraluminous. K-feldspar, quartz, arfvedsonite, albite with accessory aegirine, titaniferous iron oxides and zircon form the dominant mineralogy of this alkali feldspar granite (IUGS, 2000) gneiss. The zircon saturation temperature corresponds to 747oC-1066oC. The granitic magma contains low water content evidenced by the absence of any pegmatite associated with this pluton. Geochemically these granites are classified as ferroan and alkalic (cf. Frost et al., 2001). These highly evolved granites possess enrichment of SiO2, Na2O + K2O, FeO(t)/MgO, Ga/Al, Zr, Nb, Ga, Y, Ce and rare earth elements (REE) with low abundance of CaO, MgO, Ba and Sr which characterize their A-type nature while standard discrimination diagrams ( cf. Eby, 1992; Grebennikov, 2014) help to further discriminate them as A1 type. Tectonic discriminations diagrams (Pearce et al., 1984; Maniar and Piccoli, 1989; Batchelor and Bowden, 1985) constrain the tectonic setting of the magma to be anorogenic, within plate, rift-related one. The REE compositions show moderately fractionated patterns with (La/Yb)N 2.57-10.5 and Eu/Eu* 0.16-0.70. Multielement spider diagram and various trace element ratio together with oxidized nature (ΔNNO: +2) of these granites further suggest that these have been derived from OIB-type parental magma. The peralkaline nature of the granite and its lack of subduction- related geochemical features are consistent with an origin in a zone of regional extension. The extremely high Rb/Sr ratios combined with the extreme Sr, Ba, P, Ti and Eu depletions clearly indicate that these A-type granites were highly evolved and require

  2. Ages and sources of components of Zn-Pb, Cu, precious metal, and platinum group element deposits in the goodsprings district, Clark County, Nevada (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; Browne, Quentin J.; Fleck, Robert J.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Wooden, Joseph L.


    in ore breccias and relatively low S and Pb isotope values (δ34S values vary from 0–~4‰; 206Pb/204Pb metal-PGE deposits (Cu, Co, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt) consist of Cu carbonate minerals (after chalcocite and chalcopyrite) and fine-grained quartz that have replaced breccia clasts and margins of fissures in Paleozoic limestones and dolomites near porphyritic intrusions. Gold ± silver deposits occur along contacts and within small-volume stocks and dikes of feldspar porphyry, one textural variety of porphyritic intrusions. Lead isotope compositions of copper ± precious metal-PGE, gold ± silver, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits are similar to those of Mojave crust plutons, indicating derivation of Pb from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement or from Late Proterozoic siliciclastic sedimentary rocks derived from 1.7 Ga crystalline basement.Four texturally and modally distinctive porphyritic intrusions are exposed largely in the central part of the district: feldspar quartz porphyry, plagioclase quartz porphyry, feldspar biotite quartz porphyry, and feldspar porphyry. Intrusions consist of 64 to 70 percent SiO2 and variable K2O/Na2O (0.14–5.33) that reflect proportions of K-feldspar and albite phenocrysts and megacrysts as well as partial alteration to K-mica; quartz and biotite phenocrysts are present in several subtypes. Albite may have formed during emplacement of magma in brine-saturated basinal strata, whereas hydrothermal alteration of matrix, phenocrystic, and megacrystic feldspar and biotite to K-mica, pyrite, and other hydrothermal minerals occurred during and after intrusion emplacement. Small volumes of garnet-diopside-quartz and retrograde epidote-mica-amphibole skarn have replaced carbonate rocks adjacent to one intrusion subtype (feldspar-quartz porphyry), but alteration of carbonate rocks at intrusion contacts elsewhere is inconspicuous.Uranium-lead ages of igneous zircons vary inconsistently from ~ 180 to 230 Ma and are too imprecise to

  3. Mineral-deposit model for lithium-cesium-tantalum pegmatites (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; McCauley, Andrew D.; Stillings, Lisa L.


    Lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites comprise a compositionally defined subset of granitic pegmatites. The major minerals are quartz, potassium feldspar, albite, and muscovite; typical accessory minerals include biotite, garnet, tourmaline, and apatite. The principal lithium ore minerals are spodumene, petalite, and lepidolite; cesium mostly comes from pollucite; and tantalum mostly comes from columbite-tantalite. Tin ore as cassiterite and beryllium ore as beryl also occur in LCT pegmatites, as do a number of gemstones and high-value museum specimens of rare minerals. Individual crystals in LCT pegmatites can be enormous: the largest spodumene was 14 meters long, the largest beryl was 18 meters long, and the largest potassium feldspar was 49 meters long.Lithium-cesium-tantalum pegmatites account for about one-fourth of the world’s lithium production, most of the tantalum production, and all of the cesium production. Giant deposits include Tanco in Canada, Greenbushes in Australia, and Bikita in Zimbabwe. The largest lithium pegmatite in the United States, at King’s Mountain, North Carolina, is no longer being mined although large reserves of lithium remain. Depending on size and attitude of the pegmatite, a variety of mining techniques are used, including artisanal surface mining, open-pit surface mining, small underground workings, and large underground operations using room-and-pillar design. In favorable circumstances, what would otherwise be gangue minerals (quartz, potassium feldspar, albite, and muscovite) can be mined along with lithium and (or) tantalum as coproducts.Most LCT pegmatites are hosted in metamorphosed supracrustal rocks in the upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies. Lithium-cesium-tantalum pegmatite intrusions generally are emplaced late during orogeny, with emplacement being controlled by pre-existing structures. Typically, they crop out near evolved, peraluminous granites and leucogranites from which they are inferred to be

  4. Characterization and modes of occurrence of elements in feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Cathcart, James D.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A.; O'Connor, Joseph T.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Bullock, John H.; Hower, James C.; Meeker, Gregory P.


    The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana utility company to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products from a coal-fired power plant. The Indiana power plant utilizes a low-sulfur (0.23 to 0.47 weight percent S) and lowash (4.9 to 6.3 weight percent ash) subbituminous coal from the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Based on scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of feed coal samples, two mineral suites were identified: (1) a primary or detrital suite consisting of quartz (including beta-form grains), biotite, feldspar, and minor zircon; and (2) a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The primary mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be of volcanic origin, whereas the authigenic mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be the result of the alteration of the volcanic minerals. The mineral suites have contributed to the higher amounts of barium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, strontium, and titanium in the Powder River Basin feed coals in comparison to eastern coals. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that (1) fly ash is mostly aluminate glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals; and (2) bottom ash is predominantly quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite, and spinel group minerals. Microprobe and scanning electron microscope analyses of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, and monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, wollastonite, and periclase. The abundant calcium and

  5. Mineralogical indicators of intrachamber magma degassing and oxidation in Shiveluch (Kamchatka) (United States)

    Salova, T.; Simakin, A.


    can be unambiguously attributed to degassing coupled with heating are met at the study of Shiveluch volcanic rocks. In Karan extrusion there are amphibole phenocrysts demonstrating relatively reduced fO2 = NNO cores overgrown with higher temperature zones formed at fO2 = NNO+1. Due to amphibole stability anticipated degassing would occur at the relatively high water content. Variations of the plagioclase composition from Karan extrusion often follow positive correlation between albite and iron content. In the view of high water content (above 2.5 wt.%) water loss coupled with heating will result in the more sodic plagioclase. Iron content rise in this case may be prescribed to the local oxidation of the magma. In spite of the failure to find experimental evidences (Burkhard, 2005) these data suggest that degassing can cause oxidation of magma. References. Burkhard D.J.M.(2005) Mineralogical Magazine, 69(2), 103-117. Putirka K.D.(2005) American Mineralogist, 90, 336-346. Simakin A.G., Salova T.P., Babansky A.D. (2009) Petrology, in press (in Russian)

  6. Isotope age of the rare metal pegmatite formation in the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt (Kola region of the Fennoscandian shield): U-Pb (TIMS) microlite and tourmaline dating (United States)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay; Lyalina, Ludmila; Mokrushin, Artem; Zozulya, Dmitry; Groshev, Nikolay; Steshenko, Ekaterina; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy


    The Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt is located in the central suture zone, which separates the Murmansk block from the Central-Kola and the Keivy blocks. The belt is represented by volcano-sedimentary rocks of Archaean age of 2.9-2.5 Ga. Rare metal pegmatites (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be) occur among amphibolite and gabbroid intrusions in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the belt. According to the Rb-Sr data, the age of pegmatites was considered to be 2.7 Ga. Until recently there was no generally accepted point of view on the origin of pegmatites. Now we have isotopic data for a range of rock complexes that could pretend to be parental granites for the rare metal pegmatites. These are granodiorites with the zircon age of 2733±Ma, and microcline and tourmaline granites, which Pb-Pb isochronal age on tourmaline from the tourmaline granite located near the deposit is estimated to be 2520±70 Ma. The pegmatite field of the Vasin Myl'k deposit with the lepidolite--albite--microcline--spodumene--pollucite association is located among amphibolites in the northwestern part of the belt. The deposit is represented by subparallel low-angle zoned veins up to 220 m long and 5 m thick dipping in the southeastern direction at an angle of 10° too 30°. The minerals of the columbite--tonalite group from Vasin Myl'k deposit include microlite, simpsonite, and torolite, and are the oldest among different minerals represented by several generations in pegmatites under consideration. Zircons from the pegmatites are mostly represented by crystals with the structure affected by the action of fluids that put certain restrictions on its use as a geochronometer of the crystallization process. Microlite from the pegmatite taken from the dump of a prospecting drill hole was used for U--Pb (TIMS). The mineral is represented by 0.5--1.0 mm long euhedral octahedral crystals. It is brown in color, and transparent. The microlite crystals were preliminarily cleaned from

  7. A geochemical and petrological study of the Late Cretaceous banatites from the Apuseni Mountains, Romania (United States)

    Vander Auwera, Jacqueline; Berza, Tudor; Dupont, Alain; Gesels, Julie; Pin, Christian


    Banatites from western Romania belong to the more than 1000 km long and 30 to 70 km wide Late Cretaceous magmatic belt that spreads across southeastern Europe (Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie). These banatites (Apuseni Mts. in the north and Banat in the south) occupy a particularly important area as they were emplaced across a major boundary between the Tisza and Dacia mega-units. Given their calc-alkaline signature and depletion in HFSE, they are interpreted as subduction related. Mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic (Sr, Nd) data were acquired on a series of samples from a selection of intrusions of the Apuseni Mountains in order to model their possible differentiation processes and to compare them with published results on banatites from Banat and Serbia (Timok and Ridanj-Krepolijn). Samples from the Apuseni Mts. display high-K calc-alkaline differentiation trends of decreasing FeOt, MgO, CaO, P2O5, TiO2, Sr, Zn, Co, V and increasing Rb and Th with increasing SiO2 (54.4 wt. % to 72 wt. %). Mixing is a plausible differentiation process as mingling relationships have been observed between microdiorites and granodiorites in Pietroasa but is not supported by geochemical data. These are better predicted by fractional crystallization but phenocrysts unmixing cannot be precluded. The fractional crystallization process has been modelled in three steps using the least square regression method : a gabbronoritic cumulate is subtracted in the first step whereas apatite-bearing dioritic cumulates are subtracted in the two later steps with a more albitic plagioclase in the third cumulate. The trace elements composition of the samples support the proposed model. The composition of the least differentiated samples collected in the Apuseni Mts. preclude them as being primary magmas in equilibrium with a mantle source. We however suggest that these least differentiated compositions were derived by limited differentiation of a mantle-derived magma that either was trapped in the

  8. Predictive modeling of CO2 sequestration in deep saline sandstone reservoirs: Impacts of geochemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balashov, Victor N.; Guthrie, George D.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Lopano, Christina L.; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Brantley, Susan L.


    maximum CO{sub 2} sequestration, 34.5 kg CO{sub 2} per m{sup 3} of sandstone, is attained by 4000 years even though the system does not achieve chemical equilibrium until ~25,000 years. This maximum represents about 20% CO{sub 2} dissolved as CO{sub 2},aq, 50% dissolved as HCO{sub 3}{sup -}{sub ,aq}, and 30% precipitated as calcite. The extent of sequestration as HCO{sub 3}{sup -} at equilibrium can be calculated from equilibrium thermodynamics and is roughly equivalent to the amount of Na+ in the initial sandstone in a soluble mineral (here, oligoclase). Similarly, the extent of trapping in calcite is determined by the amount of Ca2+ in the initial oligoclase and smectite. Sensitivity analyses show that the rate of CO{sub 2} sequestration is sensitive to the mineral-water reaction kinetic constants between approximately 10 and 4000 years. The sensitivity of CO{sub 2} sequestration to the rate constants decreases in magnitude respectively from oligoclase to albite to smectite.

  9. Experimental determination of liquidus H2O contents of haplogranite at deep-crustal conditions (United States)

    Makhluf, A. R.; Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.


    The liquidus water content of a haplogranite melt at high pressure ( P) and temperature ( T) is important, because it is a key parameter for constraining the volume of granite that could be produced by melting of the deep crust. Previous estimates based on melting experiments at low P (≤0.5 GPa) show substantial scatter when extrapolated to deep crustal P and T (700-1000 °C, 0.6-1.5 GPa). To improve the high-P constraints on H2O concentration at the granite liquidus, we performed experiments in a piston-cylinder apparatus at 1.0 GPa using a range of haplogranite compositions in the albite (Ab: NaAlSi3O8)—orthoclase (Or: KAlSi3O8)—quartz (Qz: SiO2)—H2O system. We used equal weight fractions of the feldspar components and varied the Qz between 20 and 30 wt%. In each experiment, synthetic granitic composition glass + H2O was homogenized well above the liquidus T, and T was lowered by increments until quartz and alkali feldspar crystalized from the liquid. To establish reversed equilibrium, we crystallized the homogenized melt at the lower T and then raised T until we found that the crystalline phases were completely resorbed into the liquid. The reversed liquidus minimum temperatures at 3.0, 4.1, 5.8, 8.0, and 12.0 wt% H2O are 935-985, 875-900, 775-800, 725-775, and 650-675 °C, respectively. Quenched charges were analyzed by petrographic microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA). The equation for the reversed haplogranite liquidus minimum curve for Ab36.25Or36.25Qz27.5 (wt% basis) at 1.0 GPa is T = - 0.0995 w_{{{H}_{ 2} {O}}}^{ 3} + 5.0242w_{{{H}_{ 2} {O}}}^{ 2} - 88.183 w_{{{H}_{ 2} {O}}} + 1171.0 for 0 ≤ w_{{{H}_{ 2} {O}}} ≤ 17 wt% and T is in °C. We present a revised P - T diagram of liquidus minimum H2O isopleths which integrates data from previous determinations of vapor-saturated melting and the lower pressure vapor-undersaturated melting studies conducted by other workers on

  10. Thermal structure of pumpellyite-actinolite facies regions in the Sanbagawa belt, Shikoku, SW Japan (United States)

    Sakaguchi, M.


    On the basis of the mineral assemblages of pelitic rocks, the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku, SW Japan, has been divided, from low- to high-grade parts, into the chlorite, garnet, albite-biotite and oligoclase-biotite zones (Higashino, 1990). Also, the mineral assemblage of pumpellyite + actinolite + epidote + chlorite or epidote + actinolite + hematite + chlorite, which defines the pumpellyite-actinolite (PA) facies (e.g., Banno, 1998), is widely recognized in metabasites in the chlorite zone (e.g. Banno & Sakai, 1989). However, the detailed study on the PA facies regions has been done only in the Omoiji-Nagasawa area (Nakajima et al., 1977) and Asemigawa-Shirataki area (Nakajima, 1982) in central Shikoku, and thus, it is still hard to solve the regional thermal structure of the PA facies region. This study is aimed to reveal the thermal structure of the PA facies region of the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku by analyzing the mineral assemblages and mineral chemistries of metabasites from the nine newly studied areas. The studied areas studied belong to the chlorite zone in the Oboke and Besshi units; the Oboke unit structurally underlay the Besshi unit. The mineral assemblages include pumpellyite + epidote + actinolite, epidote + actinolite _ hematite and epidote + Na-amphibole + actinolite + hematite. The metabasites from some areas involve Na-pyroxene-bearing assemblages, but the analyses of the Schreinemakers bundle of Tagiri et al. (1992) show that these assemblages do not define the Na-pyroxene-chlorite subfacies. As the low-grade metamorphic rocks do not have the hematite + pumpellyite paragenesis, its metamorphic temperature is estimated to be higher than the discontinuous reaction temperature of pumpellyite + hematite + quartz = epidote + actinolite + H2O, as shown by Nakajima et al. (1977). It is difficult to detect the difference in temperature in the PA facies regions by analyzing mineral assemblages. To detect the difference in temperature, and then to reveal

  11. Geochemistry and origin of piemontite-quartz schists in the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt, central Shikoku, Japan (United States)

    Izadyar, J.; Tomita, K.; Shinjoe, H.


    to much detailed research and also contains talc-bearing and talc-free piemontite-quartz schists, it provides the best opportunity to find an explanation for the occurrence of talc in some types of piemontite schist and its absence from others. Mineralogical and geochemical evidences show that the oxygen fugacity for talc-bearing and talc-free types is similar. Oxygen fugacity is so high that almost all of the iron is present as Fe 3+ in hematite. Pressure and temperature is considered to have been constant for talc-bearing and talc-free types in each locality because the samples were collected from a known metamorphic context. The talc absent/present problem is discussed using phase relations of the samples with the greatest number of phases in each locality. Consideration of talc, clinochlore, piemontite and garnet in the system Al 2O 3-Mn 2O 3/MnO-MgO-CaO(ACMMn), with excess phases albite, quartz, hematite, phengite and water, shows that talc coexists with piemontite and garnet which are richer in the piemontite and spessartine end-members, respectively.

  12. Siudaite, Na8(Mn2+ 2Na)Ca6Fe3+ 3Zr3NbSi25O74(OH)2Cl·5H2O: a new eudialyte-group mineral from the Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula (United States)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Kruszewski, Łukasz; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Vozchikova, Svetlana A.


    The new eudialyte-group mineral siudaite, ideally Na8(Mn2+ 2Na)Ca6Fe3+ 3Zr3NbSi25O74(OH)2Cl·5H2O, was discovered in a peralkaline pegmatite situated at the Eveslogchorr Mt., Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The associated minerals are aegirine, albite, microcline, nepheline, astrophyllite, and loparite-(Ce). Siudaite forms yellow to brownish-yellow equant anhedral grains up to 1.5 cm across. Its lustre is vitreous, and the streak is white. Cleavage is none observed. The Mohs' hardness is 4½. Density measured by hydrostatic weighing is 2.96(1) g/cm3. Density calculated using the empirical formula is equal to 2.973 g/cm3. Siudaite is nonpleochroic, optically uniaxial, negative, with ω = 1.635(1) and ɛ = 1.626(1) (λ = 589 nm). The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of siudaite is (wt%; electron microprobe, H2O determined by HCN analysis): Na2O 8.40, K2O 0.62, CaO 9.81, La2O3 1.03, Ce2O3 1.62, Pr2O3 0.21, Nd2O3 0.29, MnO 6.45, Fe2O3 4.51. TiO2 0.54, ZrO2 11.67, HfO2 0.29, Nb2O5 2.76, SiO2 47.20, Cl 0.54, H2O 3.5, -O = Cl - 0.12, total 99.32. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy data, all iron is trivalent. The empirical formula (based on 24.5 Si atoms pfu, in accordance with structural data) is [Na7.57(H2O)1.43]Σ9(Mn1.11Na0.88Ce0.31La0.20Nd0.05Pr0.04K0.41)Σ3(H2O)1.8(Ca5.46Mn0.54)Σ6(Fe3+ 1.76Mn2+ 1.19)Σ2.95Nb0.65(Ti0.20Si0.50)Σ0.71(Zr2.95Hf0.04Ti0.01)Σ3Si24.00Cl0.47O70(OH)2Cl0.47·1.82H2O. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The new mineral is trigonal, space group R3m, with a = 14.1885(26) Å, c = 29.831(7) Å, V = 5200.8(23) Å3 and Z = 3. Siudaite is chemically related to georgbarsanovite and is its analogue with Fe3+-dominant M2 site. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 6.38 (60) (-114), 4.29 (55) (-225), 3.389 (47) (131), 3.191 (63) (-228). 2.963 (100) (4-15), 2.843 (99) (-444), 2.577 (49) (3-39). Siudaite is named after the Polish

  13. The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data (United States)

    Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros


    The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mélange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mélange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt≡12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand

  14. Epidotisation and fluid flow in sheeted dyke complex : new field and experimental constraints (United States)

    Coelho, Gabriel; Sizaret, Stanislas; Arbaret, Laurent; Branquet, Yannick; Champallier, Rémi


    Hydrothermal system in oceanic crust is usually studied via dredge samples and drilled holes but their equivalent are also found in ophiolitic complexes (Oman, Cyprus). In the deepest zone, the fluids react with the sheeted diabase dikes at 400°C and 400 bars to form epidosites by enrichment in epidote and quartz [1]. Mineralogy and chemistry of epidosites have been widely studied on fields [1] and hydrology is generally studied using numerical models [2]. However, the relations and the timing of the emplacement of diabase dikes, their alteration in epidosite and the regional deformation remain unclear. We performed experiments on diabase sampled in the Troodos complex (Cyprus), 1) to stress the P-T-fO2-fluid composition conditions of the reaction of epidotisation and, 2) to quantify interrelations between the permeability and the epidotisation during deformation. In Troodos, we observed two major types of epidosite: 1) a pervasive epidosite in the core of dikes and a banding which is parallel to chilled margins and, 2) assemblages of epidote and quartz as alteration fronts in cooling joints or in the form of veins cross-cutting non-epidotised dikes. This last type of epidotisation clearly appears to be a hydrothermal veining process. We synthesized epidote in a static autoclave with external heating at 500°C and 2500 bars. Epidote was formed by the following reaction: 6 albite + 2 hematite + anorthite + 7 Ca2+ + 6 H2O → 4 epidote + 8 quartz + 6 Na+ + 8 H+. The calculated variation of the molar volume is about -3% (creation of porosity). Two parameters are essential to synthesize epidote from diabase: the oxygen fugacity and the composition of the fluid (enriched in Ca and Fe). However, there is an obvious problem of nucleation at 400°C and 400 bars. In order to understand how fluid flows throughout sheeted dikes, in situ measurements of permeability during coaxial deformation have been performed in a Paterson apparatus by infiltration of Argon and water. The

  15. Petrogenetic and geodynamic origin of the Neoarchean Doré Lake Complex, Abitibi subprovince, Superior Province, Canada (United States)

    Polat, Ali; Frei, Robert; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Woods, Ryan


    The Neoarchean (ca. 2728 Ma) anorthosite-bearing Doré Lake Complex in the northeastern Abitibi subprovince, Quebec, was emplaced into an association of intra-oceanic tholeiitic basalts and gabbros known as the Obatogamau Formation. The Obatogamau Formation constitutes the lower part of the Roy Group, which is composed of two cycles of tholeiitic-to-calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, siliciclastic and chemical sedimentary rocks, and layered mafic-to-ultramafic sills. In this study, we report major and trace element results, and Nd, Sr, Pb and O isotope data for anorthosites, leucogabbros, gabbros and mafic dykes from the Doré Lake Complex and spatially associated basalts and gabbros of the Obatogamau Formation to assess their petrogenetic origin and geodynamic setting. Field and petrographic observations indicate that the Doré Lake Complex and associated volcanic rocks underwent extensive metamorphic alteration under greenschist facies conditions, resulting in widespread epidotization (20-40%) and chloritization (10-40%) of many rock types. Plagioclase recrystallized mainly to anorthite and albite endmembers, erasing intermediate compositions. Metamorphic alteration also led to the mobilization of many elements (e.g., LILE and transition metals) and to significant disturbance of the Rb-Sr and U-Pb isotope systems, resulting in 1935 ± 150 and 3326 ± 270 Ma errorchron ages, respectively. The Sm-Nd isotope system was less disturbed, yielding an errorchron age of 2624 ± 160 Ma. On many binary major and trace element diagrams, the least altered anorthosites and leucogabbros, and the gabbros and mafic dykes of the Doré Lake Complex plot in separate fields, signifying the presence of two distinct magma types in the complex. The gabbros and mafic dykes in the Doré Lake Complex share the geochemical characteristics of tholeiitic basalts and gabbros in the Obatogamau Formation, suggesting a possible genetic link between the two rock associations. Initial

  16. Effects of glacial/post-glacial weathering compared with hydrothermal alteration - implications for matrix diffusion. Results from drillcore studies in porphyritic quartz monzodiorite from Aespoe SE Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstroem, Ove [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Eriksson, Gunda; Sandell, Yvonne [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    The effects of hydrothermal + subsequent low temperature alteration and glacial/post-glacial weathering have been studied in two cores of quartz monzodiorite. One core (YA 1192) was drilled into the hydrothermally altered wall rock of a water-conducting fracture exposed at 170 m depth in the access tunnel to the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The other one (Bas 1) was drilled from an outcrop with a glacially polished surface, 1 km north of the YA 1192 site. Both drill cores were sectioned into mm-thick slices perpendicular to the core axis. The fracture filling of the YA 1192 core, the weathered surface of the BAS 1 core and the different slices were analysed for major and trace elements and isotopes of U and Th. The altered zone of the YA 1192 core extends to approx. 2.5 cm from the fracture surface. The alteration (mainly plagioclase {yields} albite + sericite + epidote) has resulted in a higher porosity and formation of sorbing secondary minerals (e.g. sericite), favouring matrix diffusion. Increased Br concentrations in the altered zone are indicative of saline water in pores and micro fractures i.e. the presence of a diffusion medium. 234U/238U activity ratios > 1 and increased Cs in the altered zone are then interpreted as diffusion of U and Cs from fracture groundwater and subsequent sorption. The U migration is geologically recent (< 1 Ma). The 2.5 cm altered zone (corresponding to the zone of active matrix diffusion) significantly exceeds the visible red staining zone (0.5 cm) caused by hematite/FeOOH micrograins, emphasizing the need of microscopy to identify zones of alteration. The conspicuous weathering at the BAS 1 site is confined to a narrow rim of the bedrock surface (approx. 0.2-0.5 cm thick). Mass balance calculations for this rim (based on immobility of K) indicate that mechanical erosion has dominated over chemical dissolution processes (is roughly 10 times greater). The chemical weathering has affected mainly plagioclase and chlorite resulting

  17. Organic petrology and geochemistry of mudrocks from the lacustrine Lucaogou Formation, Santanghu Basin, northwest China: Application to lake basin evolution (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Fishman, Neil; Wu, Tao; Baugher, Gregory


    inertinite is present in the upper section, indicating greater terrestrial influx and consistent with higher quartz and plagioclase content (dominantly authigenic chalcedony and albite). Laminated mudstones in the upper section indicate anoxia prevented bioturbation from benthic grazing, also indicating stratified water column conditions. A decrease upsection in authigenic dolomite with reciprocal increase of ankerite/siderite is consistent with decreasing salinity, as is an overall decrease in gammacerane index values. These observations suggest evolution from a shallow, stratified evaporative (saline) setting to a deeper, stratified freshwater basin with higher water input during Lucaogou deposition. The evolution from an under-filled to balance-filled lake in Santanghu Basin is similar to Lucaogou deposition in Junggar Basin, suggesting similar tectonic and climatic controls. Paleoclimate interpretations from other researchers in this area suggested an evolution from semi-arid to humid conditions during the Roadian; we interpret that the evolution from an under-filled to balanced-filled lake seen in our data is in response to climate change, and may represent increased groundwater delivery to the Santanghu Basin.

  18. Spatial and temporal zoning of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: Paragenesis and stable isotope constraints (United States)

    Monteiro, Lena V.S.; Xavier, R.P.; Carvalho, E.R.; Hitzman, M.W.; Johnson, C.A.; Souza, Filho C.R.; Torresi, I.


    The Sossego iron oxide–copper–gold deposit (245 Mt @ 1.1% Cu, 0.28 g/t Au) in the Carajás Mineral Province of Brazil consists of two major groups of orebodies (Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano and Sossego–Curral) with distinct alteration assemblages that are separated from each other by a major high angle fault. The deposit is located along a regional WNW–ESE-striking shear zone that defines the contact between metavolcano–sedimentary units of the ∼2.76 Ga Itacaiúnas Supergroup and tonalitic to trondhjemitic gneisses and migmatites of the ∼2.8 Ga Xingu Complex. The deposit is hosted by granite, granophyric granite, gabbro, and felsic metavolcanic rocks. The Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano orebodies have undergone regional sodic (albite–hematite) alteration and later sodic–calcic (actinolite-rich) alteration associated with the formation of massive magnetite–(apatite) bodies. Both these alteration assemblages display ductile to ductile–brittle fabrics. They are cut by spatially restricted zones of potassic (biotite and potassium feldspar) alteration that grades outward to chlorite-rich assemblages. The Sossego–Curral orebodies contain weakly developed early albitic alteration and very poorly developed subsequent calcic–sodic alteration. These orebodies contain well-developed potassic alteration assemblages that were formed during brittle deformation that resulted in the formation of breccia bodies. Breccia matrix commonly displays coarse mineral infill suggestive of growth into open space. Sulfides in both groups of deposits were precipitated first with potassic alteration and more importantly with a later assemblage of calcite–quartz–epidote–chlorite. In the Sequeirinho orebodies, sulfides range from undeformed to deformed; sulfides in the Sossego–Curral orebodies are undeformed. Very late, weakly mineralized hydrolytic alteration is present in the Sossego/Currral orebodies. The sulfide assemblage is dominated by chalcopyrite with

  19. The Itataia phosphate-uranium deposit (Ceará, Brazil) new petrographic, geochemistry and isotope studies (United States)

    Veríssimo, César Ulisses Vieira; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Parente, Clóvis Vaz; Oliveira, Claudinei Gouveia de; Cavalcanti, José Adilson Dias; Nogueira Neto, José de Araújo


    The Itataia phosphate-uranium deposit is located in Santa Quitéria, in central Ceará State, northeastern Brazil. Mineralization has occurred in different stages and involves quartz leaching (episyenitization), brecciation and microcrystalline phase formation of concretionary apatite. The last constitutes the main mineral of Itatiaia uranium ore, namely collophane. Collophanite ore occurs in massive bodies, lenses, breccia zones, veins or episyenite in marble layers, calc-silicate rocks and gneisses of the Itataia Group. There are two accepted theories on the origin of the earliest mineralization phase of Itataia ore: syngenetic (primary) - where the ore is derived from a continental source and then deposited in marine and coastal environments; and epigenetic (secondary) - whereby the fluids are of magmatic, metamorphic and meteoric origin. The characterization of pre- or post-deformational mineralization is controversial, since the features of the ore are interpreted as deformation. This investigation conducted isotopic studies and chemical analyses of minerals in marbles and calc-silicate rocks of the Alcantil and Barrigas Formations (Itataia Group), as well as petrographic and structural studies. Analysis of the thin sections shows at least three phosphate mineral phases associated with uranium mineralizaton: (1) A prismatic fluorapatite phase associated with chess-board albite, arfvedsonite and ferro-eckermannite; (2) a second fluorapatite phase with fibrous radial or colloform habits that replaces calcium carbonate in marble, especially along fractures, with minerals such as quartz, chlorite and zeolite also identified in calc-silicate rocks; and (3) an younger phosphate phase of botryoidal apatite (fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite) related with clay minerals and probably others calcium and aluminum phosphates. Detailed isotopic analysis carried out perpendicularly to the mineralized levels and veins in the marble revealed significant variation in isotopic

  20. Geochemical and technological characterization of clays of Corumbataí Formation, Paraná Basin, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil for the application in the ceramic industry. (United States)

    Christofoletti, Sergio Ricardo; Torres Moreno, Maria Margarita; Batezelli, Alessandro; Zanardo, Antenor


    The Corumbataí Formation is a geological unit of the Paraná Basin comprises a range of predominantly argillaceous facies. These clays are important from an economic point of view, because they represent important mineral deposits suppliers of raw materials for the ceramic industry in the production of ceramic tiles.The study presents preliminary results of a research that aims to study the clays municipalities Tambaú, Ferreira and Santa Rosa of Viterbo in the State of São Paulo for their application and diversification of ceramic products. The methodology used was based on a detailed description of facies using the methodology in principles of analysis of Basin Miall (1984), followed by mineralogical identification by X-ray Diffraction, chemical analysis of major elements by X-ray Fluorescence and technological tests ceramic. According to the geological surveys of mines studied through columnar sections were identified the following lithofacies from base to top: Massive, Laminated, Intercalated and Altered. The mineralogy present on these lithofacies is composed by minerals: quartz, microclineo, albite, calcite, dolomite and hematite and by clay minerals illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The quartz represents the mineral more present in diffraction and occurs with d001 of 3.33Å in all lithofacies studied. The illite clay mineral represents the most frequent in studied samples presenting d 001 10Å in three conditions (natural, heated and treated with ethylene glycol) in which the blade was subjected to the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the presence of kaolinite or montmorillonite occurs or not in samples. It was observed a increased frequency of some minerals in the lithofacies studied, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), hematite and feldspar occurring in the intermediate portions of the profile with a predominance in lithofacies Intercalated. The illita clay mineral occurs throughout the profile, but with greater frequency in the lithofacies Massive and

  1. The origin of life near deep-sea hydrothermal systems during the Cambrian explosion: data from the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit (Central Asia) (United States)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Terleev, Alexander; Safonova, Inna; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey; Tokarev, Dmitry


    On Earth the solar radiation and the hydrothermal circulation both affect life evolution. Recent extensive studies of the World Ocean have shown that the biodiversity of Earth is linked with hydrothermal activity on the oceanic floor. These deep-sea ecosystems use chemical energy, not solar radiation. In the last quarter of the XX century, a new type of hydrothermal systems, so-called black smokers, was discovered in mid-oceanic ridges. As black smokers form sulfide ores and are surrounded by abundant bio-oases or symbioses, identification of their analogues in ancient orogenic belts is necessary for studying life origin and evolution. Of special importance are problems of life associated with deep-sea hydrothermal systems acted at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary - the time of Cambrian explosion (Maruyama et al., 2013). During that explosion life significantly evolved and diversified due to dramatic changes of Earth's environment. Consequently, the early Cambrian - late Precambrian Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit of East Tuva in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is of special interest. This deposit was formed on the bottom of ancient back-arc deep-sea basin as a result of black smoker hydrothermal activity and is hosted by volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks altered by the high temperature solutions. The altered Kyzyl Tashtyg basalts have an amygdules (filled by albite, epidote and carbonates), contain brown-green microfossils, often attached to their walls. The microfossils are thin tubes 5 to 25 microns in diameter and 500 microns long. This tubes are empty and have straight, curved or branching shape. Chemically, the tube material is close to epidote. In consideration of microscopic dimensions, simple morphology and similarity with modern tubular microorganisms, the studied tube-shaped microfossils can be related to cyanobacteria. Almost the same fossils, associated with oceanic basalt complexes, were described earlier (Furnes et al., 2007; Mcloughlin et al., 2007

  2. Central Ukraine Uranium Province: The genetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emetz, A.; Cuney, M.


    Ukraine produces ~1,100 t U per year from the Michurinske, Centralne, Novokostantynivske and Vatutinske U deposits in the Kirovograd U district of the Central Ukraine Uranium Province (CUUP) consisting of about 20 deposits and numerous showings related to ~1.8 Ga sodium metasomatites developed in the Lower Paleoproterozoic granite-gneiss and iron formations of the Ingul Megablock of the Ukrainian Shield. Two deposits (the Zhovta Richka and Pervomayske) were mined out tens kilometers eastward in iron formations of the Kryvy Rig – Kremenchug mining district. Nametasomatite fields with scarce sub-economical U-mineralization were revealed by geophysical (magnetometry and gravimetry) and drilling programs northward in granitised gneisses around the younger Korsun-Novomyrgorod rapakivi pluton consisting of A2-type within plate granitoids which were emplaced during decompression melting at ~1.75 Ga. The present work aims to demonstrate structural and geochemical factors related to Na-metasomatism, and to mark out geochemical and tectonical parameters which were favorable for U-accumulation using data on deep seismic survey, geological structure analysis, and mineralogical and geochemical investigations of metasomatites. In the Ingul Megablock, Na-metasomatites occur along shear fault zones mostly oriented N-S. Metasomatites form complicate systems of plate- and lens-like bodies of aegirine-riebeckite albitites surrounded by dequartzified host rocks. Elemental alteration during Na-metasomatism demonstrates simple exchange of Si, K, Rb, Ba and Cs by Na, Ca, and locally V and U. δ 18 O H 2 O (300-400ºC) for albitizing hydrothermal solutions is near “zero”, typically for surficial water. These data suggest host rock interaction with hot marine waters. Persistent Na-metasomatic alterations extend along major tectonic faults for several kilometres with variable thicknesses reaching some hundreds meters in the zones of intense brecciation developed in the places of fault

  3. Ilyukhinite (H3O,Na)14Ca6Mn2Zr3Si26O72(OH)2 • 3H2O, a New Mineral of the Eudialyte Group (United States)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Rozenberg, K. A.; Aksenov, S. M.; Pekov, I. V.; Belakovsky, D. I.; Kristiansen, R.; Van, K. V.


    A new eudialyte-group mineral, ilyukhinite, ideally (H3O,Na)14Ca6Mn2Zr3Si26O72(OH)2 · 3H2O, has been found in peralkaline pegmatite at Mt. Kukisvumchorr, Khibiny alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It occurs as brownish orange, with vitreous luster anhedral grains up to 1 mm across in hydrothermally altered peralkaline rock, in association with aegirine, murmanite, albite, microcline, rhabdophane-(Ce), fluorite, sphalerite and molybdenite. The Mohs hardness is 5; cleavage is not observed. D meas 2.67(2), D calc 2.703 g/cm3. Ilyukhinite is optically uniaxial (-): ω = 1.585(2), ɛ = 1.584(2). The IR spectrum is given. The average chemical composition of ilyukhinite (wt %; electron microprobe, ranges given in parentheses; H2O determined by gas chromatography) is as follows: 3.07 (3.63-4.43) Na2O, 0.32 (0.28-0.52) K2O, 10.63 (10.26-10.90) CaO, 3.06 (2.74-3.22) MnO, 1.15 (0.93-1.37) FeO, 0.79 (0.51-0.89) La2O3, 1.21 (0.97-1.44) Ce2O3, 0.41 (0.30-0.56) Nd2O3, 0.90 (0.77-1.12) TiO2, 10.94 (10.15-11.21) ZrO2, 1.40 (0.76-1.68) Nb2O5, 51.24 (49.98-52.28) SiO2, 1.14 (0.89-1.37) SO3, 0.27 (0.19—0.38) Cl, 10.9(5 )H2O,-0.06-O = C1, total is 98.27. The empirical formula is H36.04(Na3.82K0.20)(Ca5.65Ce0.22La0.14Nd0.07)(Mn1.285Fe0.48)(Zr2.645Ti0.34)Nb0.31Si25.41S0.42Cl0.23O86.82. The crystal structure has been solved ( R = 0.046). Ilyukhinite is trigonal, R3 m; a = 14.1695(6) Å, b = 31.026(1) Å, V = 5394.7(7) Å3, Z = 3. The strongest XRD reflections [ d, Å (I, %) ( hkl)] are 11.44 (82) (101), 7.09 (70) (110), 6.02 (44) (021), 4.371 (89) 205), 3.805 (47) (303, 033), 3.376 (41) (131), 2.985 (100) (315, 128), 2.852 (92) (404). Ilyukhinite was named in memory of Vladimir V. Ilyukhin (1934-1982), an outstanding Soviet crystallographer. The type specimen of ilyukhinite has been deposited in the collection of the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway.

  4. Steatite and schist as contenders for the Global Heritage Stone Resource due to their importance in Brazil's natural stone built heritage (United States)

    Gilberto Costa, Antônio


    In Brazil, European natural stones, such as marble and limestone, were used as building material at historically important buildings and monuments, mainly in coastal cities, as well as in contemporary urban centers. However, in the country's central region, these Italian and Portuguese marbles and limestones were scarcely used. Instead, they were substituted for soapstone and several types of schist. As of 1755, the former was employed because of the ease with which it can be worked, essentially in the sculptural art and in the production of ornamental elements. Characterized by the presence of talc, steatite can feature other minerals such as serpentine, chlorite, carbonate, amphiboles, oxides like hematite and magnetite, and sulfites like pyrite, all in broadly variable amounts, which can result in modification of its technological properties (Volumetric Weight, Porosity, Water Absorption, Uniaxial Compression, Abrasion Resistance, Thermal Expansion etc.). In such rocks, talc content will be a decisive factor in their coloration. The higher its talc content is the clearer and softer the stone type will be, which ends up being known as talc stone. In such cases, the rock can display different hues of green, blue and gray. When compared to other rocks, texture patterns containing talc crystals, chlorite and carbonate contribute to low absorption and porosity for steatites. Schists were equally used at historical buildings in the Brazilian inland, especially in constructions in Minas Gerais towns, both in the production of structural elements such as bases, corners, pillars and foundations and in the creation of ornaments. Featuring different compositions, such rocks - which almost always occur interlayered with other ones such as quartzite - display coloration ranging from hues of gray to green to blue. They can be quartz-sericite-albite-chlorite schists featuring great or no amounts of carbonate, magnetite, epidote and tourmaline, sometimes with garnet, such as in

  5. Mineralisation footprints and regional timing of the world-class Siguiri orogenic gold district (Guinea, West Africa) (United States)

    Lebrun, Erwann; Thébaud, Nicolas; Miller, John; Roberts, Malcolm; Evans, Noreen


    expressed as fracture zones of higher V3S vein density. A composite geochemical cross section across fracture zones from the Kosise deposit indicates that gold mineralisation in the Siguiri district is associated with enrichments in Ag, Au, As, Bi, Co, Mo, (Sb), S, Te and W relative to background. Geochemical variations associated with the ore shoots in the Siguiri district are consistent with petrographic observations and highlight an albite-carbonate-sulphide-sericite alteration. The fourth and last hydrothermal event is associated with the development of a late penetrative S4S cleavage during D4S deformation, which overprints all pre-existing hydrothermal features and is associated with the deposition of free gold, chalcopyrite and galena along fractures in V3A pyrite and V3B pyrite and arsenopyrite. Mineralogical and geochemical footprints as well as timing of the gold-mineralising events in the Siguiri district, when compared with other deposits of the West African Craton, highlight the synchronicity of gold mineralisation in Siguiri (syn-D3S and syn-D4S events) with other similar events in this part of the craton, such as the early Au-Sb-Bi-(Te-W) mineralisation at the Morila deposit in Southeast Mali. Our results support the hypothesis that late Eburnean-age gold mineralisation in the Siguiri district and in the West African Craton as a whole was polyphase.

  6. Solid oxide electrolysis cells - Performance and durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauch, A.


    In this work H2 electrode supported solid oxide cells (SOC) produced at Risoe National Laboratory, DTU, have been used for steam electrolysis. Electrolysis tests have been performed at temperatures from 650AeC to 950AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) from 0.99/0.01 to 0.30/0.70 and current densities from -0.25 A/cm2 to -2 A/cm2. The solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) have been characterised by iV curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at start and end of tests and by EIS under current load during electrolysis testing. The tested SOCs have shown the best initial electrolysis performance reported in literature to date. Area specific resistances of 0.26 Oecm2 at 850AeC and 0.17 Oecm2 at 950AeC were obtained from electrolysis iV curves. The general trend for the SOEC tests was: 1) a short-term passivation in first few hundred hours, 2) then an activation and 3) a subsequent and underlying long-term degradation. The transient phenomenon (passivation/activation) was shown to be a set-up dependent artefact caused by the albite glass sealing with a p(Si(OH)4) of 1.10-7 atm, leading to silica contamination of the triple-phase boundaries (TPBs) of the electrode. The long-term degradation for the SOECs was more pronounced than for fuel cell testing of similar cells. Long-term degradation of 2%/1000 h was obtained at 850AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) = 0.5/0.5 and -0.5 A/cm2, whereas the degradation rate increased to 6%/1000h at 950AeC, p(H2O)/p(H2) = 0.9/0.1 and -1.0 A/cm2. Both the short-term passivation and the long-term degradation appear mainly to be related to processes in the H2 electrode. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs show that only limited changes occur in the Ni particle size distribution and these are not the main degradation mechanism for the SOECs. Micro and nano analysis using energy dispersive spectroscopy in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM reveals that glassy phase impurities have accumulated at the TPBs as a result of

  7. Mixing of fluids in hydrothermal ore-forming (Sn,W) systems: stable isotope and rare earth elements data (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, T. M.; Popova, J. A.; Velivetskaya, T. A.; Ignatiev, A. V.; Matveeva, S. S.; Limantseva, O. A.


    Experimental and physico-chemical modeling data witness to important role of mixing of different type of fluids during tin and tungsten ore formation in hydrothermal systems. Mixing of magmatogeneous fluids, exsolved from granite melts, with exogenic, initially meteoric waters in hydrothermal ore-forming systems may change chemical composition of ore-forming fluid, causing cassiterite and/or wolframite precipitation (Heinrich, 1990; Sushchevskaya, Ryzhenko, 2002). We studied the process of genetically different fluids mixing for two economic Sn-W deposits, situated in the Iultin ore region (North-East of Russia, Chukotka Penninsula). The Iultin and Svetloe deposits are located in the apical parts of close situated leucogranite stocks, formed at the final stage of the Iultin complex emplacement. Both deposits are composed of a series of quartz veins among the flyschoid rocks (T 1-2), cut by the dikes (K1) of lamprophyre, granodiorite porphyre and alpite. The veins of the deposits are dominated by the productive quartz-wolframite-cassiterite-arsenopyrite-muscovite mineral assemblage. Topaz, beryl, fluorite, and albite occur sporadically. The later sulfide (loellingite-stannite-chalcopyrite) and quartz-fluorite-calcite assemblages show insignificant development. The preore quartz veinlets in host hornfels contain disseminated iron sulfides, chalcopyrite, muscovite. Isotopic (H, O, Ar) study of minerals, supplemented by oxygen isotope data of host granites and metamorphic rocks gave us possibility to conclude, that at the Iultin and the Svetloye deposits fluid mixing was fixed on the early stages of deposit formation and could be regarded as probable cause of metal (W, Sn) precipitation. During postore time the intensive involvement of isotopically light exogenic waters have changed: a) the initial character of oxygen isotope zonality; b) the initial hydrogen isotope composition of muscovites, up to meteoric calculated values for productive fluid (while the δ18O

  8. Evaluation of ASR potential of quartz-rich rocks by alkaline etching of polished rock sections (United States)

    Šachlová, Šárka; Kuchařová, Aneta; Pertold, Zdeněk; Přikryl, Richard


    standard AMBT (folowing ASTM C1260). The etching experiment is regarded to be feasible method to quantify ASR potential of quartz- (resp. SiO2-) rich rocks. Employement of the method: (1) decreases potential error from less experienced operator; (2) minimizes the volume of the rock need to be analyzed; (3) enables to visualize microscopic features where ASR originates; and (4) enables to identify alkali-reactive components in the rocks. The main disadvatage of the method is regarded in the restriction to quartz- (resp. SiO2-) rich rocks. If other minerals are included in the rocks their role in ASR should be considered. These minerals can be excluded from the analysis in case they are not reactive and if their content is very low (e.g. accesory minerals). If the minerals contribute to ASR (e.g. albite, micas), these mineral phases should be included in the analysis. Then the application of PIA needs to be modified in respect to different grey shades of individual minerals.

  9. Carbonate-silicate melt immiscibility, REE mineralising fluids, and the evolution of the Lofdal Intrusive Suite, Namibia (United States)

    Bodeving, Sarah; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.; Swinden, Scott


    The Lofdal Intrusive Suite, Namibia, consists of calcio-carbonatite and silica-undersaturated alkaline intrusive rocks ranging in composition from phono-tephrite to phonolite (and nepheline syenite). The most primitive of these rocks is the phono-tephrite, which, on the basis of its Y/Ho and Nb/Ta ratios, is interpreted to have formed by partial melting of the mantle. Roughly linear trends in major and trace element contents from phono-tephrite to phonolite and nepheline syenite indicate that the latter two rock types evolved from the phono-tephrite by fractional crystallisation. The nepheline syenite, however, has a lower rare earth element (REE) content than the phonolite. The carbonatite has a primitive mantle-normalised REE profile roughly parallel to that of the silica-undersaturated alkaline igneous rocks, although the absolute REE concentrations are higher. Like the phono-tephrite, it also has a mantle Y/Ho ratio. However, the Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios are significantly higher. Moreover, the carbonatite displays strong negative Ta, Zr and Hf anomalies on spidergrams, whereas the silicate rocks display positive anomalies for these elements. Significantly, this behaviour is predicted by the corresponding carbonatite-silicate melt partition coefficients, as is the behaviour of the REE. Based on these observations, we interpret the carbonatite to represent an immiscible liquid that exsolved from the phono-tephrite or possibly the phonolite melt. The result was a calcio-carbonatite that is enriched in the heavy REE (HREE) relative to most other carbonatites. Fluids released from the corresponding magma are interpreted to have been the source of the REE mineralisation that is currently the target of exploration. 2. The composition of feldspar in nepheline syenite, fenite, calcio-carbonatite and phonolite plotted on the feldspar ternary classification diagram modified after Schairer (1950) in terms of the components albite (Ab), orthoclase (Or) and anorthite (An

  10. Los sistemas geotermales del Pirineo central. I. Caracteres geoquímicos y fisicoquímicos de los manantiales termales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, J.


    Full Text Available The compositional characters of selected hot springs from the Panticosa, Benasque, Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Luchon and Cauterets geothermal systems in the Central Pyrenees have been studied. All the springs have the same global geochemical features (high pH, low total dissolved solids, very low Mg concentrations, Na as the dominant cation, and absence of a dominant anion and belong to the same granite-related alkaline thermal waters group. Chemical composition of the springs is similar to each other, and to that found in other Pyrenean geothermal systems. A more detailed comparison shows, however, that Panticosa and Benasque systems have the lowest sodium and potassium concentrations found in any water belonging to the group of alkaline waters. Differences in pH values among the springs are related to emergence temperature as it occurs in the Pyrenean geothermal systems. According to the high pH of these waters, speciation calculations at emergence temperature show a very low CO2 partial pressure, dissolved silica partially ionized as H3Si04-, and Al(OH4- as the dominant aluminium species. Saturation indexes show that almost al1 the waters are highly oversaturated with quartz (close to equilibrium with chalcedony, potassium feldspar, and albite, which are the minerals equilibrated at depth with the solutions. Furthermore, all waters are in equilibrium with kaolinite and ca1cite at emergence conditions, showing the existence of a reequilibrium process during their ascent to the surface. This process happens to be one of the most important in the geochemical evo1ution of these alkaline systems.Las aguas de los sistemas geotermales de Panticosa, Benasque, Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Luchon y Cauterets en el Pirineo Central presentan rasgos geoquímicos similares (valores de pH elevados, bajo contenido de sólidos disueltos, muy bajas concentraciones de Mg, sodio como catión dominante y sin un anión en proporciones preponderantes sobre los dem

  11. Los sistemas geotermales del Pirineo Central. II. Resultados de la aplicación de técnicas geotermométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimeno, M. J.


    Full Text Available Reservoir temperatures are calculated for six geothermal systems in the Central Pyrenees (Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Benasque, Panticosa, Luchon and Cauterets using different geothermometrical methods. In general, the selected hot springs have similar geochemical features belonging to the group of alkaline thermal systems installed in granitic environments. More in detail, however, it is important to note that Na and K concentrations of Panticosa and Benasque thermal springs are the lowest found in this water group to date. Both classical geothermometers and modeling calculations agree within a few degrees for the Arties, Caldas and Luchon geothermal systems: thermal waters are in equilibrium in their reservoirs with a common mineral association (quartz, albite, K-feldspar, caolinite and some calc-aluminum silicate at 103, 107 and 127° C, respectively. Cauterets, Panticosa and Benasque thermal waters appear to be equilibrated with the same mineral association at 98, 107 and 94° C, respectively as deduced from silica and Na-K geothermometers. Na-K-Ca and Ca-K geothermometers provide lower temperatures for these systems, probably because of some exchange of calcium between rock and water during the ascent of solutions. Nevertheless, the modeling calculations fail to represent the composition of Panticosa and Benasque thermal springs: these waters are out of equilibrium with the selected mineral association at the temperatures given by Na-K and SiO2-quartz geothermometers Therefore, the agreement between these geothermometers appear to be fortuitous, specially for Benasque thermal waters.Mediante la utilización de distintas técnicas geotermométricas se han estimado las temperaturas en el reservorio de seis sistemas geotermales (Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Benasque, Panticosa, Luchon y Cauterets instalados en los materiales graníticos del Pirineo Central. Los manantiales seleccionados para realizar los cálculos muestran similares caracteres

  12. Pressure variations in the Monte Rosa nappe, Western Alps (United States)

    Luisier, Cindy; Vaughan-Hammon, Joshua; Baumgartner, Lukas; Schmalholz, Stefan


    The Monte Rosa nappe is part of the Penninic nappe stack of the Western Alps. It represents the southern-most European continental basement involved in the alpine orogeny. It consists of a pre-Variscan basement complex, made of mostly metapelites and paragneisses, which were intruded by a Permian-age granitic body (Pawlig, 2001). The nappe is heterogeneously deformed, with localized high strain domains separating low strain domains. The metamorphic record is tightly linked to deformation. Different thermodynamic data bases and approaches were used in the past to estimate the peak alpine metamorphic conditions. They range from 1.2 to 2.7 GPa and 490 to 650˚C, based on metagranite, metapelite, metamafic and whiteschist assemblages. The peak alpine metamorphic assemblage of zoisite, phengite and albite symplectites pseudomorphing magmatic plagioclase is preserved only in the less deformed portions of the nappe. Phengite, garnet and titanite coronas surrounding biotite, quartz and igneous K-feldspar make up the rest of the rock. The metagranite locally grades into 10 to 50 meters whiteschist bodies, consisting of talc-chloritoid-kyanite-phengite-quartz, which can contain carbonate and garnet. Their chemistry is interpreted as a metasomatic product of the late magmatic hydrothermal alteration of the granite, whereas their mineralogy results from the alpine high pressure metamorphism (Pawlig and Baumgartner, 2001; Luisier et al., 2015). We performed a phase petrology and textural study to consistently estimate peak alpine metamorphic conditions in the granite and the related whiteschists. Textural observations were used to select the best-preserved high-pressure metagranite samples. Inherited magmatic feldspar textures indicate that jadeite was never formed in these granites, confirmed independently by Si in phengite barometer (1.2 to 1.5 GPa). Note that the granite contains the phengite buffer assemblage of Massonne and Schreyer (1987). Thermodynamic calculations using

  13. Multistage metasomatism in ultrahigh-pressure mafic rocks from the North Dabie Complex (China) (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Hermann, Jörg; Scambelluri, Marco; Compagnoni, Roberto


    Release of metamorphic fluids within the slab and/or from the slab to the mantle wedge in subduction environments can produce important metasomatic effects. Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metasomatised rocks represent ideal materials to study the element exchange at pressures corresponding to sub-arc depths in subduction zones. We present a petrologic and geochemical study of eclogites (s.l.) from the Dabie Mountains (China). The investigated samples were collected in the North Dabie Complex, where eclogite-facies rocks are significantly overprinted by granulite-facies metamorphism and partial melting. The studied eclogites are included in meta-lherzolitic bodies, which are in turn hosted by leucocratic gneisses. The textural relations among the various rock-forming minerals enabled us to identify several re-crystallisation stages. The peak (UHP) paragenesis consists of garnet, clinopyroxene and rutile. UHP garnet and clinopyroxene display oriented inclusions of polycrystalline rods of rutile + ilmenite and of albite, K-Ba-feldspar and quartz, respectively. Garnet and clinopyroxene are both rimmed by an inclusion free zone that formed after the peak, still at high-pressure conditions. Such optical zoning does not correspond to a difference in major element concentrations between garnet core and rim. This observation provides evidence that the major element composition of garnet was reset during exhumation, thus preventing thermobarometric determination of peak metamorphic conditions. Further decompression is documented by the formation of limited ilmenite + amphibole and granulite-facies coronas consisting of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase and amphibole around garnet. In order to investigate the stability of observed mineral parageneses, a series of reconnaissance piston cylinder synthesis experiments were carried out in an identical bulk composition. The experimental study indicates that the peak metamorphic paragenesis is stable at P˜3.5 GPa and T ≥ 750

  14. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Itokawa Regolith Grains (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Berger, E. L.


    Introduction: In a remarkable engineering achievement, the JAXA space agency successfully recovered the Hayabusa space-craft in June 2010, following a non-optimal encounter and sur-face sampling mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa. These are the first direct samples ever obtained and returned from the surface of an asteroid. The Hayabusa samples thus present a special op-portunity to directly investigate the evolution of asteroidal sur-faces, from the development of the regolith to the study of the effects of space weathering. Here we report on our preliminary TEM measurements on two Itokawa samples. Methods: We were allocated particles RA-QD02-0125 and RA-QD02-0211. Both particles were embedded in low viscosity epoxy and thin sections were prepared using ultramicrotomy. High resolution images and electron diffraction data were ob-tained using a JEOL 2500SE 200 kV field-emission scanning-transmission electron microscope. Quantitative maps and anal-yses were obtained using a Thermo thin-window energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrometer. Results: Both particles are olivine-rich (Fo70) with µm-sized inclusions of FeS and have microstructurally complex rims. Par-ticle RA-QD02-0125 is rounded and has numerous sub-µm grains attached to its surface including FeS, albite, olivine, and rare melt droplets. Solar flare tracks have not been observed, but the particle is surrounded by a continuous 50 nm thick, stuctur-ally disordered rim that is compositionally similar to the core of the grain. One of the surface adhering grains is pyrrhotite show-ing a S-depleted rim (8-10 nm thick) with nanophase Fe metal grains (<5 nm) decorating the outermost surface. The pyrrhotite displays a complex superstructure in its core that is absent in the S-depleted rim. Particle RA-QD02-0211 contains solar flare particle tracks (2x109 cm-2) and shows a structurally disordered rim 100 nm thick. The track density corresponds to a surface exposure of 103-104 years based on the track production rate

  15. Rheological property of mafic schist and geological interpretation to the subduction dynamics (United States)

    Okazaki, K.; Hirth, G.


    To understand the spatial and temporal distribution of deformation (e.g., underplating and exhumation of metamorphic rocks) and earthquakes in subduction zones, it is important to constrain the rheological properties of metamorphic rocks (i.e., altered oceanic crust and sediments), and how they evolve during metamorphic reactions following hydration, carbonation and dehydration of the down-going slab. Metamorphism of oceanic crust has stimulated hypotheses on the relationship between intra-slab earthquakes and slab-wedge coupling along plate boundaries in subduction zone. While it is well known that metamorphisms have important effects on material circulation and arc volcanisms at subduction system, it remains unclear how the formation of metamorphic minerals followed by fluid release on the subduction dynamics influences rheology. Past experimental studies on mafic metamorphic rocks were mostly concentrated on phase equilibrium of mineral, thus there are very few reports on the mechanical data for these metamorphic rocks. We conducted triaxial deformation experiments on a mafic greenschist using Griggs-type solid pressure-medium apparatus installed in Brown University. Mafic schist (chlorite - amphibole - epidote - albite schist) containing calcite and quartz veins from Sambagawa metamorphic belt (Japan), which is metamorphosed at the condition of nearly the corner of mantle wedge in hot subduction (1 GPa of pressure and 520C of temperature), was used as experimental samples for typical metamorphic rocks composing oceanic crust in warm subduction zones. Constant strain rete experiments and strain rate step experiment were conducted at 1.0 GPa of confining pressure, 400 ~ 500C of temperature and 10-5 ~ 5×10-7 1/s of strain rate. At stable conditions of samples (1 GPa of confining pressure and 400 and 500C of temperature), differential stresses were higher than 1 GPa. Microstructure of recovered samples showed backing and several localized shear zones. Although

  16. Mineral-microbial interaction in long term experiments with sandstones and reservoir fluids exposed to CO2 (United States)

    Kasina, Monika; Morozova, Daria; Pellizzari, Linda; Würdemann, Hilke


    %), whereas after the second sampling it decreased (to 31 relative %) in comparison to the reservoir fluid sample. This may suggest dissolution of silicate minerals at first, and secondary precipitation at second stage of experiment. In addition, immobilization of heavy metals dispersed within silicate minerals was also detected. An increase of Ca (3.2 up to 13% relative), SO4 (up to 14 relative %) and Fetot (47 and 24% relative) were also detected after first and second sampling respectively and may suggest dissolution of cements and iron rich minerals. The concentration of organic acids increased relatively by 12.5 % and 25% after first and second sampling respectively might be an indication for metabolic activity of microorganism or an effect of mobilisation due to CO2 exposure. The presence of newly formed mineral phases was detected using SEM-EDS. Quartz, albite and illite precipitation is a common process in all studied samples. However only illite is considered to be of bacterial origin, nevertheless its crystallization can also occur as a consequence of inorganic diagenetic processes. Further analyses of the microbial community composition, quantity and activity will bring a more insight into the CO2 exposure processes. Daria Morozova, Dagmar Kock, Martin Krüger, and Hilke Würdemann. Biogeochemical and microbial characterization of reservoir fluids from a gas field (Altmark). Geotechnologien 2011

  17. Volcanic facies and mineral chemistry of Tertiary volcanics in the northern part of the Eastern Pontides, northeast Turkey: implications for pre-eruptive crystallization conditions and magma chamber processes (United States)

    Yücel, Cem; Arslan, Mehmet; Temizel, İrfan; Abdioğlu, Emel


    Tertiary volcanics in the northern zone of the Eastern Pontides are characterized by subaerial and shallow-subaqueous facieses, and are divided into three volcanic suites: Eocene aged (1) basalt-trachybasalt-basaltic trachyandesite (BTB) and (2) trachyte-trachyandesite (TT), and Miocene aged (3) basanite-tephrite (BT) suites. Clinopyroxene is a common phase in all three volcanic suites, and has different compositions with Mg# varying from 0.57 to 0.91 in BTB suite and 0.57-0.84 in TT suite to 0.65-0.90 in BT suite. Feldspars in all suites generally exhibit wide range of compositions from sanidine to albite or anorthite and have weak normal and reverse compositional zoning. Olivines in BTB and BT suites have Fo60-92. Hornblendes in BTB, TT and BT suites are commonly magnesio-hastingsite and rare pargasite in composition (Mg#: 0.67-0.90). Brown mica is mainly phlogopite with Mg# ranging from 0.56 to 0.92 in the BTB suite, 0.59-0.84 in the TT suite, and 0.75-0.93 in the BT suite. Analcime is present only in the BT suite rocks. Fe-Ti oxides in all suites are mainly composed of magnetite and titanomagnetite. Textural petrographic and mineral chemical data suggest that magmas had undergone hydrous and anhydrous crystallizations in deep-, mid-, and shallow-crustal magma chambers. Clinopyroxene thermobarometric calculations show that Eocene magma chambers were characterized by temperature ranging from 1,100 to 1,244 °C and pressure ranging from 1.84 to 5.39 kbar. Similarly, the Miocene magma chambers were characterized by temperature ranging from 1,119 to 1,146 °C and pressure ranging from 4.23 to 4.93 kbar. Hornblende thermobarometry, oxygen fugacity, and hygrometer reveal that the crystallization temperature of Eocene volcanics range from 956 to 959 °C at pressure ranging from 6.49 to 6.52 kbar. Eocene volcanics were characterized by water content ranging from 7.83 to 8.57 wt.% and oxygen fugacity of 10-9.36 to 10-9.46 (ΔNNO+2). Miocene volcanics had crystallization

  18. Strongly foliated garnetiferous amphibolite clasts in ophiolitic melanges, Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Tibet; Early Cretaceous disruption of a back-arc basin? (United States)

    Guilmette, C.; Hebert, R.; Wang, C.; Indares, A. D.; Ullrich, T. D.; Dostal, J.; Bedard, E.


    Metre to decameter-size clasts of amphibolite are found embedded in ophiolitic melanges underlying the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone Ophiolites, South Tibet, China. These ophiolites and melanges occur at the limit between Indian and Tibetan-derived rocks and represent remnants of an Early Cretaceous intraoceanic supra-subduction zone domain, the Neo-Tethys. In the Saga-Dazuka segment (500 km along-strike), we discovered new occurrences of strongly foliated amphibolites found as clasts in the ophiolitic melange. In garnet-free samples, hornblende is green-blue magnesio-hornblende and cpx is low-Al diopside. In garnet- bearing samples, garnet is almandine with a strong pyrope component (up to 30 mol%) whereas coexisting hornblende is brown Ti-rich tschermakite and clinopyroxene is Al-diopside. Plagioclase composition was ubiquitously shifted to albite during a late metasomatic event. Geochemistry of these rocks indicates that their igneous protoliths crystallized from a slightly differentiated tholeiitic basaltic liquid that did not undergo major fractionation. Trace element patterns reveal geochemical characteristics identical to those of the overlying ophiolitic crust. These are 1) trace element abundances similar to that of N-MORBs or BABBs, 2) a slight depletion of LREE and 3) a moderate to strong Ta-Nb negative anomaly and a slight Ti anomaly. Such characteristics suggest genesis over a spreading center close to a subduction zone, possibly a back-arc basin. Step-heating Ar/Ar plateau ages were obtained from hornblende separates. All ages fall in the range of 123-128 Ma, overlapping the crystallization ages from the overlying ophiolite (126-131 Ma). Pseudosections were built with the THERMOCALC software in the system NCFMASH. Results indicate that the observed assemblage Hb+Pl+Gt+Cpx is stable over a wide range of P-T conditions, between 10-18 kbars and at more than 800°C. Measured mineral modes and solid solution compositions were successfully modeled, indicating

  19. Effect of the background solution and material composition on the transport of silver nanoparticles in saturated aquifer materials (United States)

    Adrian, Yorck; Schneidewind, Uwe; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Azzam, Rafig


    Engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are used in various consumer products such as cloth or personal care products due to their antimicrobial properties (Benn et al., 2010). Their transport behavior in the environment is still under investigation. Previous studies have been focusing on the transport of AgNP in simple test systems with glass beads or soil materials (Braun et al., 2015), but studies investigating aquifer material are rare. However, the protection of fresh water resources in the subsurface is an important part in the protection of human health and the assurance of future economic activities. Therefore, expert knowledge regarding the transport and fate of engineered nanoparticles as potential contaminants in aquifers is essential. Within the scope of the research project NanoMobil funded by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the transport and retention behavior of AgNP in aquifer material was investigated under saturated conditions in laboratory columns for different flow velocities, ionic strengths (IS) and background solutions. The used aquifer material consisted mainly of quartz and albite. The quartz grains were partially coated with iron hydroxides and oxides. Furthermore, 1% hematite was present in the silicate dominated aquifer material. The experiments were conducted using NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2 background solutions to examine the effects of monovalent and divalent cations on the transport of AgNP. Flow velocities in the columns were chosen to represent typical flow velocities of groundwater in the subsurface. For the experiments two mean grain sizes of 0.3 and 0.7 mm were used to investigate the effect of the grain size on the transport behavior. Particle concentration was measured using ICP-MS and particle size was determined using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF). HYDRUS-1D (Šimůnek et al., 2013) was used to elucidate the transport and retention processes of the AgNP in the aquifer material. The obtained results show

  20. Alteration and arenization processes of granitic waste rock piles from former uranium Mines in Limousin, France. (United States)

    Kanzari, Aisha; Boekhout, Flora; Gérard, Martine; Galoisy, Laurence; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael


    concentrated in uranium compared to the 200 000 tons of waste rock piles in the Limousin. The composition of clay minerals and the uranium content of the samples were investigated by XRD, ICP-MS, Optical microscopy, EDS and WDS punctual measurements or element mapping and SEM on both thin sections and on rock chips. The initial granite paragenesis (quartz, albite, sanidine, microcline, biotite, muscovite, apatite, rutile, zircon and monazite) was identified. Chlorite, smectite, kaolinite and secondary phosphates and sulfates are the main secondary minerals of the different stage of hydrothermal alteration and weathering. In the clay fraction, smectites are the main mineral phases. U-bearing minerals are different according to the alteration state of mine tailings. The mean content in uranium for selected samples is about 800 ppm and rises up to 5000 ppm for the separated clay fraction of the same samples. Initially and mainly hosted by monazite, uranium is found in phosphates such as autunite, or associated with smectites. Micromorphological studies reveal: • The formation of protosoils from weathering processes. • Different degrees of alteration in the rocks, smectite or kaolinite alteromorphose. • U oxy-hydroxides, nanometric minerals or coatings associated with smectite. • A complex paregenesis of submicrometric - nanometric U phosphates, suggesting uranium stabilization.

  1. Genesis of a zoned granite stock, Seward Peninsula, Alaska (United States)

    Hudson, Travis


    A composite epizonal stock of biotite granite has intruded a diverse assemblage of metamorphic rocks in the Serpentine Hot Springs area of north-central Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The metamorphic rocks include amphibolite-facies orthogneiss and paragneiss, greenschist-facies fine-grained siliceous and graphitic metasediments, and a variety of carbonate rocks. Lithologic units within the metamorphic terrane trend generally north-northeast and dip moderately toward the southeast. Thrust faults locally juxtapose lithologic units in the metamorphic assemblage, and normal faults displace both the metamorphic rocks and some parts of the granite stock. The gneisses and graphitic metasediments are believed to be late Precambrian in age, but the carbonate rocks are in part Paleozoic. Dating by the potassium-argon method indicates that the granite stock is Late Cretaceous. The stock has sharp discordant contacts, beyond which is a well-developed thermal aureole with rocks of hornblende hornfels facies. The average mode of the granite is 29 percent plagioclase, 31 percent quartz, 36 percent K-feldspar, and 4 percent biotite. Accessory minerals include apatite, magnetite, sphene, allanite, and zircon. Late-stage or deuteric minerals include muscovite, fluorite, tourmaline, quartz, and albite. The stock is a zoned complex containing rocks with several textural facies that are present in four partly concentric zones. Zone 1 is a discontinuous border unit, containing fine- to coarse-grained biotite granite, that grades inward into zone 2. Zone 2 consists of porphyritic biotite granite with oriented phenocrysts of pinkish-gray microcline in a coarse-grained equigranular groundmass of plagioclase, quartz, and biotite. It is in sharp, concordant to discordant contact with rocks of zone 3. Zone 3 consists of seriate-textured biotite granite that has been intruded by bodies of porphyritic biotite granite containing phenocrysts of plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite in an

  2. Mianningite, (□,Pb,Ce,Na) (U{sup 4+},Mn,U{sup 6+}) Fe{sup 3+}{sub 2}(Ti,Fe{sup 3+}){sub 18}O{sub 38}, a new member of the crichtonite group from Maoniuping REE deposit, Mianning county, southwest Sichuan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Xiangkun; Fan, Guang; Chen, Zhangru; Ai, Yujie [Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China); Li, Guowu [China Univ. of Geosciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Crystal Structure; Shen, Ganfu [Chengdu Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Chengdu (China)


    Mianningite (IMA 2014-072), ideally (□,Pb,Ce,Na)(U{sup 4+},Mn,U{sup 6+}) Fe{sup 3+}{sub 2}(Ti,Fe{sup 3+}){sub 18}O{sub 38}, is a new member of the crichtonite group from the Maoniuping REE deposit, Mianning county, Sichuan province, China. It was found in fractures of lamprophyre veins and in the contact between lamprophyre and a later quartz-alkali feldspar syenite dyke with REE mineralization, and is named after its type locality. Associated minerals are microcline, albite, quartz, iron-rich phlogopite, augite, muscovite, calcite, baryte, fluorite, epidote, pyrite, magnetite, hematite, galena, hydroxylapatite, titanite, ilmenite, rutile, garnet-group minerals, zircon, allanite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce), bastnaesite-(Ce), parisite-(Ce), maoniupingite-(Ce), thorite, pyrochlore-group minerals and chlorite. Mianningite occurs as opaque subhedral to euhedral tabular crystals, up to 1-2 mm in size, black in color and streak, and with a submetallic luster. Mianningite is brittle, with a conchoidal fracture. Its average micro-indentation hardness is 83.8 kg/mm{sup 2} (load 0.2 kg), which is equivalent to ∝6 on the Mohs hardness scale. Its measured and calculated densities are 4.62 (8) g/cm{sup 3} and 4.77 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. Under reflected light, mianningite is grayish white, with no internal reflections. It appears isotropic and exhibits neither bireflectance nor pleochroism. The empirical formula, calculated on the basis of 38 O atoms per formula unit (apfu), is [□{sub 0.322}(Pb{sub 0.215}Ba{sub 0.037}Sr{sub 0.036}Ca{sub 0.010}){sub Σ0.298}(Ce{sub 0.128}La{sub 0.077}Nd{sub 0.012}){sub Σ0.217} (Na{sub 0.127}K{sub 0.036}){sub Σ0.163}]{sub Σ01.000}(U{sup 4+}{sub 0.447}Mn{sub 00.293}U{sup 6} {sup +}{sub 0.112}Y{sub 0.091}Zr{sub 0.023}Th{sub 0.011}){sub Σ0.977}(Fe{sup 3+}{sub 1.224}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 0.243}Mg{sub 0.023}P{sub 0.008}Si{sub 0.006} □{sub 0.496}){sub Σ2.000}(Ti{sub 12.464}Fe{sup 3+}{sub 5.292}V{sup 5+}{sub 0.118}Nb{sub 0.083}Al{sub 0.026}Cr{sup 3

  3. Black and red granites in the Egyptian Antiquity Museum of Turin. A minero-petrographic and provenance study. (United States)

    Serra, M.; Borghi, A.; Vaggelli, G.; D'Amicone, E.; Vigna, L.


    materials used for two of the best known masterpieces of Egyptian art. As regards to red granites, it has been observed that most of the exposed sculptures were made of rocks closely akin to Aswan granite. Just in one case, the Ram headed sphinx (cat. 836), macroscopic differences in colour index, grain size and isoorientation of feldspar phenocrysts, suggested a different provenance of the source material and determined the choice of picking up a small fragment for minero-petrographic analysis. The sample collected from the sarcophagus of Nefertari (suppl. 5153) during the recent restoration of the sculpture, was analysed in order to test the accuracy of the results, as the provenance of the material used for its realization was already certain. Petrographic observations and chemical analysis were undertaken by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer. Minero-petrographic data primarily showed that all samples vary in composition from granite (red granites) to granodiorite and tonalite (black granites). The main sialic phases are represented by plagioclase (albite to oligoclase), alkali-feldspar (microcline) and quartz, while femic phases are amphibole (green horneblende) and biotite (Fe- to Mg-biotite), always coexisting in variable relative percentages. Minor amount of apatite (≈ 1 wt.%), magnetite, ilmenite, often associated to sphene, zircon, pyrite and allanite also occur. The identification of some compositional markers in all samples suggested a common provenance for all the rocks used for the sculptures. Thus, it was supposed that they could all have been quarried in the famous district of Aswan, well known at least since Dynastic period. This provenance hypothesis was confirmed by geological literature and archeological evidences, considering the relative proximity of Aswan quarries to Nile river and to the key centres of power in the New Kingdom. Therefore, several geological samples were collected in Aswan area, in order

  4. Multi-stage barites in partially melted UHP eclogite: implications for fluid/melt activities during deep continental subduction in the Sulu orogenic belt (United States)

    Wang, Songjie; Wang, Lu


    . Zr-in-rutile thermometry shows their formation temperature to be 586-664 oC at 1.5-2.5 GPa. Barite-bearing MS inclusions with Ba-bearing K-feldspar (type-II) connected by Kfs+Pl+Bt veinlets of in-situ phengite breakdown and thin barite veinlets along grain boundaries (type-III) are products of phengite breakdown and induced fluid flow during exhumation. These barites have witnessed the gradational separation process of melt/ fluid from miscibility on/above the second critical endpoint during UHP metamorphism, to immiscibility along the exhumation path of the subducted slab. Associated reactions from pyrite to hematite and goethite with the type-III barite ring surrounding the pyrite provide evidence for a local high oxygen fugacity environment during eclogite partial melting and subsequent melt/fluid crystallization processes. Moreover, large grain barite aggregations (type-IV) modified by amphibole+albite symplectite are most likely formed by release of molecular and hydroxyl water from anhydrous minerals of eclogite during high-grade amphibolite-facies retrogression. The growth of multi-stage barites in UHP eclogite further advances our understanding of fluid/melt transfer, crystallization processes along the subduction-exhumation path of the partially melted eclogite, broadening our knowledge of melt/fluid evolution within subduction-collision zones worldwide. REFERENCES Chen Y.X., et al., 2014, Lithos, 200, 1-21. Liu J.B., et al., 2000, Acta Petrologica Sinica 16(4), 482-484. Zeng L.S., et al., 2007, Chinese Science Bulletin, 52(21), 2995-3001. Gao X.Y., et al., 2012, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 30(2), 193-212.

  5. Chemical composition of gahnite and degree of pegmatitic fractionation in the Borborema Pegmatitic Province, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight R. Soares


    Full Text Available Gahnite electron probe microanalyses from three pegmatites (Mirador, Capoeira and Quintos of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in northeastern Brazil allowed to determine molar compositions ranging from 86.22 to 95.41 mol% gahnite (ZnAl2O4, 1.51 to 6.62 mol% hercynite (Fe2+Al2O4, 0.11 to 5.89 mol% spinel (MgAl2O4, 1.48 to 2.74 mol% galaxite (MnAl2O4, and Zn/FeTotal atomic ratios ranging from 11.53 to 60.87. These data compared with gahnite compositions from albite subtype pegmatites from Cap de Creus, Spain (Zn/FeTotal between 10 and 60 and from the source granite of the Separation Rapids pegmatite field, Ontario, Canada (Zn/FeTotal =3.5 indicate a high degree of fractionation of the studied pegmatites. This interpretation agrees with conclusions based on compositional data of tourmaline (vacancy in X-site 0.42 to 0.49, white mica (K/Rb between 8 and 33, feldspar (K/Rb between 8 and 109, garnet (Mn/(Mn+Fe2+between 0.93 and 0.97 and in Nb-Ta oxides (Mn/(Mn+Fe2+>0.5 in the same pegmatites.Análises via microssonda eletrônica de gahnita de três pegmatitos (Mirador, Capoeira e Quintos da Província Pegmatítica da Borborema, no Nordeste do Brasil, permitiram estabelecer uma composição molar variando entre 86,22 e 95,41 mol% de gahnita (ZnAl2O4, 1,51 e 6,62 mol% de hercinita (Fe2+Al2O4, 0,11 e 5,89 mol% de espinélio (MgAl2O4, 1,48 e 2,74 mol% de galaxita (MnAl2O4 e relação Zn/FeTotal variando entre 11,53 e 60,87. Estes dados comparados com os de gahnita dos pegmatitos subtipo albita de Cap de Creus, Espanha (Zn/FeTotal variando entre 10 e 60 e gahnita de fonte granítica do campo pegmatítico Separation Rapids, Ontário, Canadá (Zn/FeTotal = 3,5 indicam um alto grau de fracionamento dos pegmatitos estudados. Esta interpretação está de acordo com conclusões baseadas em dados de turmalina (vacância no sítio X variando entre 0,42 a 0,49, mica clara (K/Rb variando entre 8 e 33, feldspato (K/Rb variando entre 8 e 109, granada (Mn/(Mn+Fe2

  6. Enrichment of trace elements in garnet amphibolites from a paleo-subduction zone: Catalina Schist, southern California (United States)

    Sorensen, Sorena S.; Grossman, J.N.


    The abundance, P-T stability, solubility, and element-partitioning behavior of minerals such as rutile, garnet, sphene, apatite, zircon, zoisite, and allanite are critical variables in models for mass transfer from the slab to the mantle wedge in deep regions of subduction zones. The influence of these minerals on the composition of subduction-related magmas has been inferred (and disputed) from inverse modelling of the geochemistry of island-arc basalt, or by experiment. Although direct samples of the dehydration + partial-melting region of a mature subduction zone have not been reported from subduction complexes, garnet amphibolites from melanges of circumpacific and Caribbean blueschist terranes reflect high T (>600??C) conditions in shallower regions. Such rocks record geochemical processes that affected deep-seated, high-T portions of paleo-subduction zones. In the Catalina Schist, a subduction-zone metamorphic terrane of southern California, metasomatized and migmatitic garnet amphibolites occur as blocks in a matrix of meta-ultramafic rocks. This mafic and ultramafic complex may represent either slab-derived material accreted to the mantle wedge of a nascent subduction zone or a portion of a shear zone closely related to the slab-mantle wedge contact, or both. The trace-element geochemistry of the complex and the distribution of trace elements among the minerals of garnet amphibolites were studied by INAA, XRF, electron microprobe, and SEM. In order of increasing alteration from a probable metabasalt protolith, three common types of garnet amphibolite blocks in the Catalina Schist are: (1) non-migmatitic, clinopyroxene-bearing blocks, which are compositionally similar to MORB that has lost an albite component; (2) garnet-amphibolite blocks, which have rinds that reflect local interaction between metabasite, metaperidotite, and fluid; and (3) migmatites that are extremely enriched in Th, HFSE, LREE, and other trace elements. These trace-element enrichments

  7. Thermodynamic assessment of hydrothermal alkali feldspar-mica-aluminosilicate equilibria (United States)

    Sverjensky, D.A.; Hemley, J.J.; d'Angelo, W. M.


    The thermodynamic properties of minerals retrieved from consideration of solid-solid and dehydration equilibria with calorimetric reference values, and those of aqueous species derived from studies of electrolytes, are not consistent with experimentally measured high-temperature solubilities in the systems K2O- and Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-HCl (e.g., K-fs - Ms - Qtz - K+ - H+). This introduces major inaccuracies into the computation of ionic activity ratios and the acidities of diagenetic, metamorphic, and magmatic hydrothermal fluids buffered by alkali silicate-bearing assemblages. We report a thermodynamic analysis of revised solubility equilibria in these systems that integrates the thermodynamic properties of minerals obtained from phase equilibria studies (Berman, 1988) with the properties of aqueous species calculated from a calibrated equation of state (Shock and Helgeson, 1988). This was achieved in two separate steps. First, new values of the free energies and enthalpies of formation at 25??C and 1 bar for the alkali silicates muscovite and albite were retrieved from the experimental solubility equilibria at 300??C and Psat. Because the latter have stoichiometric reaction coefficients different from those for solid-solid and dehydration equilibria, our procedure preserves exactly the relative thermodynamic properties of the alkali-bearing silicates (Berman, 1988). Only simple arithmetic adjustments of -1,600 and -1,626 (??500) cal/mol to all the K- and Na-bearing silicates, respectively, in Berman (1988) are required. In all cases, the revised values are within ??0.2% of calorimetric values. Similar adjustments were derived for the properties of minerals from Helgeson et al. (1978). Second, new values of the dissociation constant of HCl were retrieved from the solubility equilibria at temperatures and pressures from 300-600??C and 0.5-2.0 kbars using a simple model for aqueous speciation. The results agree well with the conductance-derived dissociation

  8. Geochemistry of Giuncana eclogite, North Sardinia (Italy) and comparison with coeval Sardinian eclogites (United States)

    Franceschelli, Marcello; Cruciani, Gabriele; Langone, Antonio; Scodina, Massimo; Puxeddu, Mariano


    The Giuncana eclogites are massive to poorly foliated, medium-to fine-grained rocks. The eclogites are embedded within Grt + St + Ky-bearing micaschist and paragneisses. Based on microstructural relationships and mineral assemblages, four stages of mineralogical re-equilibration have been distinguished in the Giuncana retrogressed eclogites. The stage I is characterized by the occurrence of omphacite enclosed in garnet porphyroblasts along with rutile, epidote, quartz, pargasitic amphibole and plagioclase. The stage II is defined by the breakdown of omphacite and formation of two types of symplectitic microstructures: (i) amphibole + quartz symplectite, and (ii) clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± amphibole symplectite. The stage III is documented by the widespread formation of amphibole as zoned porphyroblasts in the matrix, or as corona-type microstructure around garnet. The stage IV is characterized by the growth of actinolite at the rim of matrix amphibole, and by the growth of albite, chlorite, and epidote in the matrix. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon data on retrogressed eclogites sampled in the Giuncana locality from the Sardinian Medium Grade Metamorphic Complex yielded a weighted average age of 454 ± 6 Ma, in agreement with U-Pb zircon ages of 453-460 Ma obtained on eclogites from the High Grade Metamorphic Complex. The Giuncana eclogites are very similar to the other well known Sardinian eclogites. Taken as a whole the Ordovician eclogites from N Sardinia mostly plot in the fields of back-arc basins and continental flood basalts and near the boundary between basaltic andesites and subalkaline basalts. All the Sardinian eclogites show positive anomalies of K, Rb, Ba, U and Pb and negative anomalies of Nb, La, Ce and Sr. Th is depleted in the Giuncana eclogites and enriched in the Punta de li Tulchi and Punta Tittinosu eclogites. All these data reveal a clear crustal contamination of the Sardinian Ordovician mantle. Downgrading LREE and flat HREE patterns typical of N

  9. Structure, petrology and U-Pb zircon age of Mesoproterozoic nepheline syenites from the Rengali Province, eastern India: Implications for their petrogenesis and geodynamic evolution (United States)

    Sheikh, Janisar M.; Champati, Anil K.; Patel, Suresh C.; Prabhakar, Naraga; Gerdes, Axel


    Three Mesoproterozoic nepheline syenite intrusions, namely Chhatabar, Lodhajhari and Baradangua intrusions, have been concordantly emplaced within a polydeformed and amphibolite facies metamorphosed sedimentary sequence (quartzites and mica schists) in the Rengali Province, eastern India. The metasedimentary sequence and the nepheline syenite intrusions both record three phases of folding (F1, F2 and F3). The penetrative fabric in quartzites is a schistosity (S1SS), while that in mica schists is a crenulation cleavage (S2SS), which has transposed to S1SS. The nepheline syenite intrusions exhibit magmatic to solid state deformation structures and microstructures. Magmatic layering in the rocks is commonly transposed by a prominent schistosity (S1NN). Fold geometries and deformation fabrics of the metasedimentary sequence and the nepheline syenites indicate that the latter were emplaced syntectonically during F1 folding of the metasedimentary sequence. The dominant rock type in the intrusions is nepheline syenite, while nepheline monzosyenite and nepheline monzodiorite occur in subordinate amounts in the form of centimeter to metre scale layers. Essential felsic minerals in the rocks are microcline (Or88-92Ab8-12) and nepheline, while sodic plagioclase (Ab88-96An4-12Or0.3-1.4) is additionally present in nepheline monzosyenite and nepheline monzodiorite. End member compositions of nephelines (Ne77-80Ks17-20Qtz1.6-3.6An0.5-2.6) fall below the 500oC isotherm in the nepheline-kalsilite-quartz projection from anorthite which indicates low temperature re-equilibration of the mineral after magmatic crystallization. Common mafic minerals in the rocks include biotite and amphibole, the latter being taramite in nepheline syenite, and hastingsite in nepheline monzosyenite and nepheline monzodiorite. Melt-present deformation microstructures which indicate syntectonic emplacement of the intrusions include late magmatic grains of nearly pure albite (Ab98-99An0.8-1.5Or0.2-0.6) and

  10. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California (United States)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, David A.


    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at

  11. Classification, U-Pb (TIMS) age and sources of the Kolmozero-Keivy rare-element pegmatites (NE Baltic Shield) (United States)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay; Zozulya, Dmitry; Lyalina, Ludmila; Mokrushin, Artem; Steshenko, Ekaterina; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy


    Kolmozero-Keivy zone, NE Baltic shield, is composed mainly from basic-intermediate-acid metavolcanic suites of 2.83-2.87 Ga age and metamorphosed at amphibolitic facies during 1.8-1.7 Ga. Younger igneous events are represented by voluminous intrusions of 2.73 Ga plagio-microcline granites and of 2.65 Ga peralkaline A-type granites, and small stocks of 2.52 Ga tourmaline granites. Four pegmatite fields with total amount of more than 100 bodies are confined to Kolmozero subzone. The pegmatites intrude amphibolites and rarely associated gabbro-anorthosite and are of 50-700m long and of 10-35m thickness. The Kolmozero pegmatites are of complex type, spodumene subtype with Li, Cs, Be, Ta, Sn geochemical signature and belong to LCT family by classification of Cerny and Ercit [1]. They crystallized at relatively high pressure (3-4 kbar) with peralumunious S-type granite as the source magma. The Vasin Myl'k pegmatite field with the lepidolite-albite-microcline-spodumene-pollucite association is located among amphibolites in the northwestern part of the Kolmozero zone. The minerals of the columbite-tantalite group from Vasin Myl'k field include microlite, simpsonite, and torolite, and are the earliest within the rare-element mineral sequence. Microlite from the pegmatite taken from the dump of a prospecting drill hole was used for U-Pb (TIMS) age determination. The discordia constructed for seven measured microlite samples is characterized by upper intercept with concordia at 2454±8 Ma, which probably reflects the time of rare-element pegmatite crystallization, coeval with the age of tourmaline granites. Several tens of pegmatite bodies from Keivy subzone are confined to inner and outer apical parts of peralkaline granite intrusions. They are of few tens meters long and of several meters thickness, sometimes are of oval and irregular shape (so-called quartzolites). Keivy pegmatites are subdivided on quartz-microcline, quartz-feldspar-astrophylite and quartz

  12. Voloshinite, a new rubidium mica from granitic pegmatite of Voron'i Tundras, Kola Peninsula, Russia (United States)

    Pekov, I. V.; Kononkova, N. N.; Agakhanov, A. A.; Belakovsky, D. I.; Kazantsev, S. S.; Zubkova, N. V.


    Voloshinite, a new mineral of the mica group, a rubidium analogue of lepidolite, has been found from the rare-element granitic pegmatite at Mt. Vasin-Myl'k, Voron'i Tundras, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It is closely associated with pollucite and lepidolite and commonly with muscovite, albite, and quartz; K,Rb-feldspar, rubicline, spodumene, montebrasite, and elbaite are among associated minerals as well. Voloshinite, a late mineral that formed after pollucite, commonly fills polymineralic veinlets and pods within the pollucite aggregates. It occurs as rims up to 0.05 mm thick around lepidolite, as intergrowths of tabular crystals up to 0.25 mm in size, and occasionally replaces lepidolite. The new mineral is colorless, transparent, with vitreous luster. Cleavage is eminent parallel to {001}; flakes are flexible. The calculated density is 2.95 g/cm3. The new mineral is biaxial (-), with 2 V = 25°, α calc = 1.511, β = 1.586, and γ = 1.590. The optical orientation is Y = b, Z = a. The chemical composition of the type material determined by electron microprobe (average of five point analyses; Li has been determined with ICP-OES) is as follows (wt %): 0.03 Na2O, 3.70 K2O, 12.18 Rb2O, 2.02 Cs2O, 4.0 Li2O, 0.03 CaO, 0.02 MgO, 0.14 MnO, 21.33 Al2O3, 53.14 SiO2, 6.41 F, -O = F2 2.70, total is 100.30. The empirical formula is: (Rb0.54K0.33Cs0.06)Σ0.93(Al1.42Li1.11Mn0.01)Σ2.54(Si3.68Al0.32)Σ4O10 (F1.40(OH)0.60)Σ2. The idealized formula is as follows: Rb(LiAl1.5□0.5)[Al0.5Si3.5O10]F2. Voloshinite forms a continuous solid solution with lepidolite. According to X-ray single crystal study, voloshinite is monoclinic, space group C2/ c. The unit-cell dimensions are: a = 5.191, b = 9.025, c = 20.40 Å, β = 95.37°, V= 951.5 Å3, Z = 4. Polytype is 2 M 1. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are: 10.1-60[001]; 4.55-80[020, 110, 11 bar 1 ]; 3.49-50[11 bar 4 ]; 3.35-60[024, 006]; 3.02-45[025]; 2.575-100[11 bar 6 , 131, 20 bar 2 , 13

  13. Compilation of kinetic data for geochemical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.C.; Savage, D.; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu


    physical properties of the fracture must be homogeneous over a characteristic length that is greater than or equal to the equilibration length. If these conditions are met, calculations suggest local equilibrium would be a valid assumption in groundwater evolution models applied to the Kamaishi site if: it applies to reactions involving calcite, stilbite (assuming its dissolution / precipitation behavior is similar to that of heulandite), laumontite, albite and prehnite, but not quartz; Darcy flow velocities are relatively low (e.g., less than about 0.1 m yr-1), and it is based on the assumption that equilibrium corresponds to an uncertainty in the saturation index of 0.0±0.4. If, however, actual reaction rates in the field are lower than expected, possibly because reactive surface areas are overestimated, the modeling approach may be inappropriate because it is probably unrealistic to assume that fracture mineralogy is homogeneous over fracture lengths exceeding a few meters or tens of meters. An analytical model of redox-front migration behavior based on the stationary-state approximation, and JNC's conceptual model of a natural events scenario involving the migration of oxidizing surface waters in fractures, suggests that oxidizing solutions could travel from the surface to the depth of a repository in crystalline rock within 400 to 50,000 years. These estimates are relatively short compared with time periods considered in safety assessments of repository performance, which suggests that time-dependent variations in the redox environment of both the near field and geosphere may need to be accounted for in these assessments. The flow velocities and concentrations of reducing minerals assumed in JNC's conceptual model may be overly conservative, however. (author)

  14. Compilation of kinetic data for geochemical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C. [Monitor Scientific, LLC., Denver, Colorado (United States); Savage, D. [Quintessa, Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works


    mineralogical and physical properties of the fracture must be homogeneous over a characteristic length that is greater than or equal to the equilibration length. If these conditions are met, calculations suggest local equilibrium would be a valid assumption in groundwater evolution models applied to the Kamaishi site if: it applies to reactions involving calcite, stilbite (assuming its dissolution / precipitation behavior is similar to that of heulandite), laumontite, albite and prehnite, but not quartz; Darcy flow velocities are relatively low (e.g., less than about 0.1 m yr-1), and it is based on the assumption that equilibrium corresponds to an uncertainty in the saturation index of 0.0{+-}0.4. If, however, actual reaction rates in the field are lower than expected, possibly because reactive surface areas are overestimated, the modeling approach may be inappropriate because it is probably unrealistic to assume that fracture mineralogy is homogeneous over fracture lengths exceeding a few meters or tens of meters. An analytical model of redox-front migration behavior based on the stationary-state approximation, and JNC's conceptual model of a natural events scenario involving the migration of oxidizing surface waters in fractures, suggests that oxidizing solutions could travel from the surface to the depth of a repository in crystalline rock within 400 to 50,000 years. These estimates are relatively short compared with time periods considered in safety assessments of repository performance, which suggests that time-dependent variations in the redox environment of both the near field and geosphere may need to be accounted for in these assessments. The flow velocities and concentrations of reducing minerals assumed in JNC's conceptual model may be overly conservative, however. (author)

  15. Large-scale recumbent isoclinal folds in the footwall of the West Cycladic Detachment System (Greece) (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard


    The Pindos Zone in the Cyclades underwent Eocene high-pressure metamorphism and syn-orogenic exhumation, overprinted by Miocene low-angled extension. Although this represents a combination of likely high-strain-events, structural evidence of large-scale folding is rare. Here potential examples of such folding on Kea and Kythnos, in the Western Cyclades, are evaluated. These islands lie within the Cycladic Blueschist Nappe (lower nappe) of the Pindos Zone and in the footwall of the top-to-SSW West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). On Kea, no lithostratigraphy can be established in the 450 m thick greenschist facies mixed sedimentary-volcanoclastic-marble mylonite/phyllonite succession. On the east side of the island, lensoid marble layers frequently bifurcate, which might be reflecting early, sheared-out isoclinal folding, although no evidence of folded compositional layering has been found in potential fold-hinge zones and the bifurcation points are not arranged in a way suggestive of a fold axes parallel to the NNE-SSW oriented stretching lineation. However, at two localities, medium-scale recumbent isoclinal folding has been mapped, with NNE-SSW fold-axes exposed for up to 250 m and amplitudes of up to 170 m. On Kythnos, stretching lineations in greenschist facies rocks show a rotation from ENE-WSW in the north to NNE-SSW in the south, taken to represent a reorientation of the Eocene exhumation strain during block rotation coincident with top-to-SSW movement of the WCDS. The distribution of the three marble units that crop out in central/southern Kythnos suggest large-scale, likely isoclinal folding occurred. (1) Petroussa Lithodeme - a blue-grey calcite (BGC) marble with quartz-calcite-white-mica (QCWM) schists, forming a continuous outcrop around the island, thinning from >16m in the SE to <8m thick mylonites in the SW, overlain by grey sericite-albite-graphite-schists (Flabouria Lithodeme); (2) Rizou Lithodeme - massive grey to BGC marble, with abundant

  16. Influence of liquid structure on diffusive isotope separation in molten silicates and aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, J.M.; DePaolo, D.J.; Ryerson, F.J.; Peterson, B.


    Molecular diffusion in natural volcanic liquids discriminates between isotopes of major ions (e.g., Fe, Mg, Ca, and Li). Although isotope separation by diffusion is expected on theoretical grounds, the dependence on mass is highly variable for different elements and in different media. Silicate liquid diffusion experiments using simple liquid compositions were carried out to further probe the compositional dependence of diffusive isotopic discrimination and its relationship to liquid structure. Two diffusion couples consisting of the mineral constituents anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}; denoted AN), albite (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}; denoted AB), and diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}; denoted DI) were held at 1450°C for 2 h and then quenched to ambient pressure and temperature. Major-element as well as Ca and Mg isotope profiles were measured on the recovered quenched glasses. In both experiments, Ca diffuses rapidly with respect to Si. In the AB–AN experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 20 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Ca is much greater than in natural liquid experiments where D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 1. In the AB–DI experiment, D{sub Ca}/D{sub Si} ~ 6 and the efficiency of isotope separation is between that of the natural liquid experiments and the AB–AN experiment. In the AB–DI experiment, D{sub Mg}/D{sub Si} ~ 1 and the efficiency of isotope separation for Mg is smaller than it is for Ca yet similar to that observed for Mg in natural liquids. The results from the experiments reported here, in combination with results from natural volcanic liquids, show clearly that the efficiency of diffusive separation of Ca isotopes is systematically related to the solvent-normalized diffusivity—the ratio of the diffusivity of the cation (D{sub Ca}) to the diffusivity of silicon (D{sub Si}). The results on Ca isotopes are consistent with available data on Fe, Li, and Mg isotopes in silicate liquids, when considered in terms of the parameter D{sub cation

  17. Domain structure and texture in fine grained symplectite from garnet breakdown in peridotite xenoliths (Zinst, Bavaria, Bohemian Massif) (United States)

    Habler, G.; Špaček, P.; Abart, R.


    changes continuously along subdomain boundaries and perpendicular to the grain elongation. Type B symplectite has the same phase content and topotactic relations as type A, but the aspect ratio of the grains is smaller, and straight phase boundary segments occur. Furthermore, changes in lattice orientations differ from symplectite A. The crystallographic orientation of Opx and Spl shows a discontinuous scatter around the elongation (=growth) direction. Besides there is a continuous lattice orientation change in growth direction. Changes in crystallographic orientations have significantly larger rotation angles than the SPO changes within a single domain. In type C symplectite the Pl content is increased at the expense of Opx. Plagioclase has a higher albite component indicating that these domains had interacted with fluid or melt. Spinel displays rounded grain shapes and occurs both within Opx and Pl. All phases recrystallized with isometric grain shapes. Whereas symplectite A and B reflect reaction microstructures of garnet breakdown, symplectite C is a retrogression product of precursor symplectites A and B. The changes in crystallographic orientation along and across the SPO are interpreted as due to plastic deformation during symplectite growth. The formation of Opx + Pl + Spl from garnet has a positive reaction volume of about 10%. As the area of the reaction front is supposed not to change during a reaction increment, this volume increase leads to a mechanically driven outward flow of symplectite material. It is hypothesized, that reaction induced strain may have led to plastic deformation and modulation of the crystallographic orientation during propagation of the reaction front.

  18. Kyanoxalite, a new cancrinite-group mineral species with extraframework oxalate anion from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula (United States)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Olysych, L. V.; Massa, W.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Vigasina, M. F.


    Kyanoxalite, a new member of the cancrinite group, has been identified in hydrothermally altered hyperalkaline rocks and pegmatites of the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It was found at Mount Karnasurt (holotype) in association with nepheline, aegirine, sodalite, nosean, albite, lomonosovite, murmanite, fluorapatite, loparite, and natrolite and at Mt. Alluaiv. Kyanoxalite is transparent, ranging in color from bright light blue, greenish light blue and grayish light blue to colorless. The new mineral is brittle, with a perfect cleavage parallel to (100). Mohs hardness is 5-5.5. The measured and calculated densitiesare 2.30(1) and 2.327 g/cm3, respectively. Kyanoxalite is uniaxial, negative, ω = 1.794(1), ɛ = 1.491(1). It is pleochroic from colorless along E to light blue along O. The IR spectrum indicates the presence of oxalate anions C2O{4/2-} and water molecules in the absence of CO{3/2-} Oxalate ions are confirmed by anion chromatography. The chemical composition (electron microprobe; water was determined by a modified Penfield method and carbon was determined by selective sorption from annealing products) is as follows, wt %: 19.70 Na2O, 1.92 K2O, 0.17 CaO, 27.41 Al2O3, 38.68 SiO2, 0.64 P2O5, 1.05 SO3, 3.23 C2O3, 8.42 H2O; the total is 101.18. The empirical formula (Z = 1) is (Na6.45K0.41Ca0.03)Σ6.89(Si6.53Al5.46O24)[(C2O4)0.455(SO4)0.13(PO4)0.09(OH)0.01]Σ0.68 · 4.74H2O. The idealized formula is Na7(Al5-6Si6-7O24)(C2O4)0.5-1 · 5H2O. Kyanoxalite is hexagonal, the space group is P63, a = 12.744(8), c = 5.213(6) -ray powder diffraction pattern are as follows, [ d, [A] ( I, %)( hkl)]: 6.39(44) (110), 4.73 (92) (101), 3.679 (72) (300), 3.264 (100) (211, 121), 2.760 (29) (400), 2.618 (36) (002), 2.216, (29) (302, 330). According to the X-ray single crystal study ( R = 0.033), two independent C2O4 groups statistically occupy the sites on the axis 63. The new mineral is the first natural silicate with an additional organic anion and is the most

  19. Gneiss wastes as secondary raw material for the ceramic industry: an example from the Verbano Cusio Ossola district (Piedmont, north-western Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro


    -feldspathic rocks (i.e. Serizzo and Beola), are potential sources of secondary raw materials for the ceramic industry. To assess the feasibility of a reuse of these waste materials, an extensive sampling was performed on the main quarry dumps. The waste rocks were characterized by polarized light optical microscopy (OM) on thin sections, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), quantitative X-ray powder diffraction (XRD-QPA with the Rietveld method), electron microprobe (WDS and EDS) and whole-rock geochemistry (ICP-AES, ICP-MS and LECO®). The performed analyzes show a marked mineralogical and chemical heterogeneity (e.g. highly variable content of phyllosilicates, FeOtot content between 0.39 and 6.99 wt.%), as well as important textural and granulometric differences. On the other hand, the composition of feldspars is quite homogeneous, with the plagioclase ranging from almost pure albite to oligoclase (An 25 - 30%). Some varieties of Serizzo and Beola (Serizzo Sempione, Serizzo Formazza and Beola Bianca) are preferable because of their relatively low FeOtot content, but granulometric and textural factors should never be overlooked, as they have an important feedback in the efficiency and feasibility of the industrial treatments (e.g. magnetic separation). Specifically, some Beola varieties with particularly fine grain size and mylonitic texture, are poorly-suited to industrial ore treatments. On the contrary, the Serizzo varieties, although with a generally higher FeOtot content, have a coarser and homogeneous (and therefore preferable) grain size. Waste materials with different composition could be mixed properly until reaching the desired "ideal" compositions for the following industrial treatments. In any case, an accurate characterization of the waste materials from each of quarry dump is of fundamental importance.

  20. Sedimentary carbonate-hosted giant Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit of Inner Mongolia, China; a cornerstone example for giant polymetallic ore deposits of hydrothermal origin (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Tatsumoto, M.; Junwen, Wang; Conrad, J.E.; McKee, E.H.; Zonglin, Hou; Qingrun, Meng; Shengguang, Huang


    Detailed, integrative field and laboratory studies of the textures, structures, chemical characteristics, and isotopically determined ages and signatures of mineralization of the Bayan Obo deposit provided evidence for the origin and characteristics favorable for its formation and parameters necessary for defining giant polymetallic deposits of hydrothermal origin. Bayan Obo is an epigenetic, metasomatic, hydrothermal rare earth element (REE)-Fe-Nb ore deposit that is hosted in the metasedimentary H8 dolostone marble of the Middle Proterozoic Bayan Obo Group. The metasedimentary sequence was deposited on the northern continental slope of the North China craton. The mine area is about 100 km south of the suture marking Caledonian subduction of the Mongolian oceanic plate from the north beneath the North China craton. The mineralogy of the deposit is very complex, consisting of more than 120 different minerals, some of which are epigenetic minerals introduced by hydrothermal solutions, and some of which are primary and secondary metamorphic minerals. The major REE minerals are monazite and bastnaesite, whereas magnetite and hematite are the dominant Fe-ore minerals, and columbite is the most abundant Nb mineral. Dolomite, alkali amphibole, fluorite, barite, aegirine augite, apatite, phlogopite, albite, and microcline are the most widespread gangue minerals. Three general types of ores occur at Bayan Obo: disseminated, banded, and massive ores. Broad zoning of these ore types occurs in the Main and East Orebodies. Disseminated ores are in the outermost zone, banded ores are in the intermediate zone, and massive ores are in the cores of the orebodies. On the basis of field relations, host rocks, textures, structures, and mineral assemblages, many varieties of these three types of ores have been recognized and mapped. Isotopic dating of monazite, bastnaesite, aeschynite, and metamorphic and metasomatic alkali amphiboles associated with the deposit provides constraints

  1. Prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism in the Cenozoic Abanico Formation, Andes of central Chile (33°50'S: chemical and scale controls on mineral assemblages, reaction progress and the equilibrium state Metamorfismo de facies prehnita-pumpellyita en la Formación Abanico del Cenozoico, Andes centrales de Chile (33°50'S: controles químicos y de escala sobre las asociaciones minerales, el progreso de la reacción y el estado de equilibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Muñoz


    Full Text Available In the El Volcan and Rodeo de los Bueyes areas, Andean Principal Cordillera (east of Santiago; 33°50'S, an Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene volcanic series belonging to the Abanico Formation (Late Eocene-Early Miocene is exposed. The rock successions outcropping in both areas, ca. 3,300 m total thickness, have been affected by very low-grade, non-deformative metamorphism in the prehnite-pumpellyite facies. This is represented by the widespread development of secondary mineral assemblages composed of epidote, mixed-layer chlorite-smectite, albite, quartz, white mica, and titanite. These mineral assemblages also contain pumpellyite, prehmte or prehnite+actinolite in a few samples. Chemical characteristics, such as low compositional variability of mixed-layer chlorite-smectite and actino-lite independent from the metadomain where these phases are hosted, along with a high proportion of chlorite layers in the former, suggest that these phases closely represent the whole rock effective bulk composition. On the contrary, pumpellyite compositions show a higher variability and a strong metadomain control evidencing its lower equilibration kinetics and leaving only those that grow in the rock matrix as the more closely representative of a whole rock effective bulk compositional control. Mineral assemblages from both areas show evidence of having been formed during the same metamorphic event where reactions have ocurred equivalently between them. However, local differences in chemical variables controlling this process are recognizable. A higher CO2 concentration in the fluids during the metamorphism in the El Volcán area than in the Rodeo de los Bueyes area is suggested by the scarce development of prehnite and the ubiquitous presence of calcite in the metamorphic assemblages of the former. Pressure and temperature of this metamorphic event have been roughly estimated to be lower than 2-3 kbar and 320°C, respectively.En las areas de El Volcán y Rodeo de

  2. Changes on the mineralogical and physico-chemical properties of a compacted bentonite in contact with hyperalkaline pore fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Melon, A.; Sanchez, D.M.


    in the Na-smectite and K-smectite type particles (increasing the percentage of illite/smectite mixed-layers up to 40%); and a tri-octahedral smectite (saponite) was observed. Accessory minerals, such as feldspars (anorthite and albite) and quartz, do not present any dissolution signs; and the precipitation of CSH minerals, CASH-phases were not detected. However, zeolites were identified by XRD. It seems that at these experimental conditions, the montmorillonite has undergone an alteration that seems to affect the total length of the sample (2.5 cm). (authors)

  3. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus


    discharge. Most lines of evidence support that the sulphur system, microbiologically mediated, is the main redox controller in the deepest and most saline groundwaters. On the other hand, Littorina-rich brackish groundwaters show variable and very high iron contents, in agreement with what has been observed in similar groundwaters elsewhere. The microbial analyses only found trace amounts of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in these samples, but very high numbers of iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). However, there is no correlation between Fe 2+ concentration and the number of IRB in these groundwaters. Moreover, they show very low but detectable contents of dissolved S 2- and the δ 34 S values are very homogeneous (around 2.5%) and clearly higher than in the present Baltic Sea, indicating that sulphate reduction has operated. These observations could support the existence of an iron-sulphide precipitation process during the Littorina Sea phase of these groundwaters but not intense enough to effectively limit Fe 2+ solubility. A modelling approach was used to simulate the obtained groundwater in the Forsmark area by introducing Littorina Sea water. These results indicate that re-equilibrium reaction processes are important in the control of some parameters such as pH (as well as Eh, and some minor trace elements), moving the waters towards the adularia-albite boundary. However, the main compositional changes, and even the extent of re-equilibration processes, are controlled by the extent of the mixing process. Coupled transport modelling was used to model the measured water conservative elements, tritium contents and the water recharge into the granitic bedrock. The simulations indicate that quaternary sediments may play a significant role since most of the infiltrated water could flow through the conductive layers in the sediment to discharge zones, mainly associated with lakes and the Baltic Sea coast line. Based on this hypothesis, the effective recharge into the granitic

  4. Response to the contribution: On Neolithic authenticity of finds from Belica by Dragana Antonović and Slaviša Perić

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    Stojić Milorad


    types of stone which are not found in the region, such as serpentine and albite, and to make several dozen objects from them; to find animal bones (Bos/Cervus, from the protostarčevo period and make a large number of figurines exclusively of this material; then using baked clay (as A-P state, also from the protostarčevo period, make anthropomorphic figurines. He would then have to put all these objects into a pit which he dug out in the centre of the Neolithic site, surrounded by a trench 75 m in diameter and then cover it with a great quantity of ochre. To fill up the pit clay of specific content would have to be transport from somewhere else. He would also need to have excellent knowledge of the religious symbols of Neolith, (particularly the connection of the symbolism of woman and moon, as well as the symbolism of moon, woman, snake etc., to shape such objects which stylistically, typologically, chronologically and symbolically completely correspond with the cultural tradition of the Stone Age of Europe, Asia Minor, Near and Middle East, including the ambivalent figures (which represent at the same time man and woman, i.e. male and female symbols, otherwise a recent term in archaeology and to know how the vulva looks immediately before birth which was depicted on all figurines of woman in childbirth in Belica. The statement by A-P that 'there are no analogies' is not correct because numerous analogies are known in Serbia and other parts of the Balkan Peninsula as well as in Asia Minor, the Near and Middle East. As geomagnetic investigations confirm, the protostarčevo settlement in Belica, contrary to the opinion of A-P that it is 'a small Neolithic settlement', is one of the largest settlements from the Early Neolith in Serbia, covering an area of more than 7 ha. Also the statement, that parallel traces, such as those which exist on the surface and in grooves on the stone objects, are the remains of work with 'contemporary grind tools with a large number of

  5. Análise da co-utilização do resíduo do beneficiamento do caulim e serragem de granito para produção de blocos e telhas cerâmicos Analysis of the use of kaolin processing waste and granite sawing waste together for the production of ceramic bricks and roof tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes


    high amounts of wastes. This work has as aim the characterization of the kaolin processing waste and granite sawing waste and the evaluation of their use together for the production of bricks and roof tiles. The wastes were characterized by chemical composition determination, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and gravimetric analyses, particle size distribution determination, and morphological analysis by electronic scanning microscopy. Several formulations were prepared and samples bodies were prepared by extrusion. The sample bodies were fired at 800, 900 and 1000 ºC. Fired samples were characterized in terms of water absorption and mechanical strength. The results showed that the kaolin waste is composed by kaolinite, mica and quartz and that the granite waste is composed by quartz, mica, albite and calcite, and that, the wastes have significantly distinct particles size distributions. It could also be concluded that are possible incorporations of up to 50% of wastes in formulation for the production of ceramic bricks and roof tiles, and that, the use of the kaolin waste and granite waste together provide better physical properties than those observed in samples bodies with incorporations of only kaolin waste.

  6. Phase relations in the hydrous CMAS pyrolite in presence of KCl at 2 GPa (United States)

    Safonov, O.


    In the upper mantle, chlorides are constituents of concentrated aqueous solutions (brines), as well as chloride-carbonate and carbonatite melts. Mineral assemblages coming from diverse depth levels show that mobile (K, Na)Cl-bearing fluids are able to provoke intensive metasomatism of the peridotitic mantle accompanied by melting. Scarce experimental studies on influence of brines on mineral equilibria in the peridotitic mantle (Stalder et al., 2008; Chu et al., 2011) indicate that influence of chlorides on water activity in a fluid equilibrated with forsterite enstatite at pressures above 2 GPa is very similar to their effect at lower "crustal" pressures (e.g. Aranovich, Newton, 1997): decrease of the H2O activity with an increase of the salt content results in an increase of the melting temperature of silicates. Nevertheless, these experiments were performed in the Al-free systems. Presence of Al would provoke an active interaction of alkali chlorides, namely KCl, with silicates with formation of new K-Al-bearing phases, such as phlogopite (in presence of H2O), which would influence on the melting of complex assemblages. In order to investigate an effect of KCl on phase relations in the Al2O3, CaO, Na2O-rich hydrous peridotite and on stability of garnet, pyroxenes, and amphiboles, in particular, experiments on interaction of the model CMAS pyrolite Fo57En17Prp14Di12 (+0.3 wt. % of Na2O) with the H2O-KCl fluid were performed at 2 GPa in the temperature interval 900-1200. Mixtures of synthetic forsterite, diopside, enstatite and pyrope in the above weight ratio were mixed with 14 wt. % of Mg(OH)2 corresponding to 4.4 wt. % of H2O in the system. 2.4, 3.7, 5 and 10 wt. % of KCl were added to silicate-H2O mixture. Experiments were performed using a piston-cylinder apparatus with ½-inch talc high-pressure cells calibrated via brucite = periclase + H2O and albite = jadeite + quartz equilibria curves. Temperature was controlled with accuracy ?1 with the W95Re5/W80Re20

  7. Usefulness of NIR spectroscopy for the estimation of the mineral composition and texture of soils and heavy metal uptake (United States)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Gómez, I.; Jordán, M. M.; Guerrero, C.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Meseguer, S.; Sanfeliu, T.


    The accumulation of heavy metals in soils from different sources (atmospheric deposition, agricultural practices, urban-industrial activities, etc.) is of a great environmental concern. In this sense, there is a consensus in the literature that the total heavy metals in soil are not a suitable tool for risk assessment regarding heavy metal mobility and bioavailability. Several approaches have been proposed to estimate this bioavailability but controversy exists to define an universal method. The bioavailability is influenced, apart from other properties like pH, organic matter, etc., by the mineral fraction and texture of a soil. However, the determination of these parameters, especially the mineral composition, is laborious, expensive, and time consuming. Thus, the objectives of this work are the estimation of the texture and mineral components of contrasting soils and the heavy metal uptake (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd) by barley after sewage sludge application using NIR spectroscopy. A set of 70 contrasting soils from different parts of Spain were used for the analysis of the texture and mineral composition. The mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using whole soil random powder, oriented clay on ceramic plates, and clay random powder. Chung method was used for semi-quantitative interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns of soils, obtaining the percentage of Calcite (Ca), Quartz (Q), Albite (Ab), Potassium Feldspar (FK), phyllosilicates (PS). For the prediction of heavy metal uptake, the 70 soils were divided in two separate sets of 36 (experiment 1) and 34 (experiment 2) soils. The methodology for both experiments, separated in time, was the same. The soils were amended with the same dose of sewage sludge (15.71 g dry weight kg-1) and placed in pots. In these pots, a bioassay with barley, under greenhouse conditions, was carried out. Eight weeks after sowing, the plants were harvested. Roots were dried in an

  8. Ore genesis constraints on the Idaho Cobalt Belt from fluid inclusion gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratio analyses (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; Landis, Gary P.


    38Ar produced by nucleogenic production from 41K. In contrast, some ore and gangue minerals yield significant SO2 and have low RH and RS values of a more oxidized fluid. Three extracts from gangue quartz have high helium R/RA values indicative of a mantle source and neon isotope compositions that require nucleogenic production of 22Ne in fluorite from U ± Th decay. Two extracts from gangue quartz have estimated 40K/40Ar that permit a Precambrian age. Extracts from gangue quartz in three different ore zones are biased toward the hypersaline population of inclusions and have a tight range of ion ratios (Na, K, NH4, Cl, Br, F) suggestive of a single fluid. Their Na, Cl, Br ratios suggest this fluid was a mixture of magmatic and basinal brine. Na-K-Ca temperatures (279°-347°C) are similar to homogenization temperatures of hypersaline inclusions. The high K/Na of the brine may be due to albitization of K silicate minerals in country rocks. Influx of K-rich brines is consistent with the K metasomatism necessary to form gangue biotite with high Cl. An extract from a post-ore quartz vein is distinct and has Na, Cl, Br ratios that resemble metamorphic fluids in Cretaceous silver veins of the Coeur d'Alene district in the Belt Basin. The results show that in some samples, for certain components, it is possible to "see through" the Cretaceous metamorphic overprint. Of great import for genetic models, the volatiles trapped in gangue quartz have 3He derived from a mantle source and 22Ne derived from fluorite, both of which may be attributed to nearby ~1377 Ma basalt-rhyolite magmatism. The brine trapped in gangue quartz is a mixture of magmatic fluid and evaporated seawater. The former requires a granitic intrusion that is present in the bimodal intrusive complex, and the latter equatorial paleolatitudes that existed in the Mesoproterozoic. The results permit genetic models involving heat and fluids from the neighboring bimodal plutonic complex and convection of basinal brine


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, A.; Edwards, Tommy


    transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperature (Tg) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and was recorded to be 443 ± 3 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as guidance, subsamples of the glass were isothermally heat treated for 0.5 to 768 hours at temperatures between 400 C to 1100 C. Each of the 56 heat treated samples, along with quenched and centerline canister cooled (CCC) treated samples, were analyzed using Xray diffraction (XRD) and the PCT. Crystallization was detected only in samples treated at 600 C for more than 192 hours, and 700, 800, and 900 C for more than 48 hours. Phases crystallized were similar in composition if not the same as those found in the previous TTT studies. Six different crystalline phases were detected, including nepheline, acmite, lithium silicate, trevorite, krinovite, and albite. Overall, phases were spinel (iron) based, lithium metasilicate, sodium aluminosilicate or sodium transition metal silicate in composition. No new crystalline families were detected. Durability, as measured by the PCT, decreased when lithium silicate or nepheline crystals were present. Only one heat treated sample had a measured PCT response exceeding the benchmark EA glass, which was a sample treated at 600 C for 768 hours. During normal processing at the DWPF these conditions would be highly unlikely to occur, even in an extreme accident scenario. In order to continue to meet the requirements of the WCP, a simplified strategy is suggested for the generation of future TTT diagrams. A strategy has been developed that would require completing two more TTT diagrams for two averaged, future, predicted waste types. By creating diagrams for the resulting glass compositions of encompassing waste types, it will give insight to the crystallization regions possible for those averages. As discussed in the report, 'Initial MAR Assessments to Access the Impact of Al-Dissolution on DWPF Operating Windows

  10. Estudo colorimétrico de fritas feldspáticas Colorimetric study of feldsphatic frits

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    S. F Santos


    minerals at high temperatures (about 1500 ºC. Glazes prepared exclusively from frits are used to manufacture ceramic pieces where the aesthetic component is more important than structural features, such as in the case of tiles, decorative ceramics and dental restorations. To improve the decorative effect the ceramic tile has to be colorimetrically stable in order to preserve the color provided by the pigment. In this context, the present work presents the results obtained in a color study carried out by application of ceramic pigments in transparent frits, produced with feldspar from Borborema-Seridó (PB/RN region, Brazil. The chemical analysis of feldspar evidenced that this mineral present the requested characteristics for the application as glaze, once its impurities content (iron and other colorant oxides are low grade. The mineral was characterized by X-ray diffraction (albite and orthoclase and size distribution was determined by screening (Tyler sieves, as being less than 100 µm. The colorimetric evaluation by using CIELab standards and reflectance measurements allowed characterizing the color of the ceramic tiles obtained under different light sources and illuminants. The results indicated that the feldspar from Seridó presents potential for application as colored ceramic tile and hereafter it could be applied in the area of dental restorations, since that mineral is one of the main components of the dental porcelains, however, until the present, all dental restorative material used in Brazil is of foreign origin.

  11. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    groundwater discharge. Most lines of evidence support that the sulphur system, microbiologically mediated, is the main redox controller in the deepest and most saline groundwaters. On the other hand, Littorina-rich brackish groundwaters show variable and very high iron contents, in agreement with what has been observed in similar groundwaters elsewhere. The microbial analyses only found trace amounts of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in these samples, but very high numbers of iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). However, there is no correlation between Fe{sup 2+} concentration and the number of IRB in these groundwaters. Moreover, they show very low but detectable contents of dissolved S{sup 2-} and the {delta}{sup 34}S values are very homogeneous (around 2.5%) and clearly higher than in the present Baltic Sea, indicating that sulphate reduction has operated. These observations could support the existence of an iron-sulphide precipitation process during the Littorina Sea phase of these groundwaters but not intense enough to effectively limit Fe{sup 2+} solubility. A modelling approach was used to simulate the obtained groundwater in the Forsmark area by introducing Littorina Sea water. These results indicate that re-equilibrium reaction processes are important in the control of some parameters such as pH (as well as Eh, and some minor trace elements), moving the waters towards the adularia-albite boundary. However, the main compositional changes, and even the extent of re-equilibration processes, are controlled by the extent of the mixing process. Coupled transport modelling was used to model the measured water conservative elements, tritium contents and the water recharge into the granitic bedrock. The simulations indicate that quaternary sediments may play a significant role since most of the infiltrated water could flow through the conductive layers in the sediment to discharge zones, mainly associated with lakes and the Baltic Sea coast line. Based on this hypothesis, the

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Jurassic coals from the Gheshlagh mine, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Shamanian


    -bearing formation in the Ghashlagh mine belongs to the clastic unit of the Shemshak Formation, consisting mainly of about 2400 m sandstone, siltstone, shale. The middle part of this formation includes the economic coal beds. Petrographic and mineralogical investigations indicate that the dominant mineral phases of the Gheshlagh coals are quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, albite, muscovite, illite and pyrite. Pyrite occurs as euhedral to anhedral crystals and locally as framboids which are disseminated in the coal. Oxidation products consist mainly of iron hydrosulfate resulting from the oxidation of pyrite. The organic/inorganic affinity of elements in coal was determined using the correlation coefficient between the elements and ash yeild. Si, Al, Ti, Fe, K, Na, Ga, Zr, Rb and Nb are mainly associated with minerals. Sr, Pb and Ni have a dual association. The concentrations of most trace elements in the Gheshlagh coal samples are high when compared with the usual reported range in the world. The contents of Pb and Ni show the highest concentrations. Discussion The Gheshlagh coals are characterized by relatively low amount of sulfur indicating deposition in lacustrine and swamp environments (Goodarzi et al., 2006. The concentration of Ni, V, Sr, Ba and Ce in the Gheshlagh coals are relatively higher than the Shahroud and Lushan coals (Yazdi and Esmaeilnia, 2004. The comparison of the concentration of trace elements in the Gheshlagh coals and worldwide concentrations (Swaine, 1990 indicates the enrichment of Ni and Pb in the Gheshlagh coals. Gluskoter et al. (1977 used a value of six times the Clarke value to determine if an element is enriched in the whole coal. By these criteria, the concentration of Ni and Pb are enriched in the Gheshlagh coals when compared with the Clarke values. Generally, the distribution and abundance of reacting mineral species in the coal mines can be used to predict the extent of acidification and neutralization in particular area. In the Gheshlagh coal

  13. Metallogenetic systems associated with granitoid magmatism in the Amazonian Craton: An overview of the present level of understanding and exploration significance (United States)

    Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Juliani, Caetano; Xavier, Roberto P.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Bastos Neto, Artur C.; Klein, Evandro L.; Assis, Rafael R.; Leite, Washington Barbosa, Jr.; Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Fernandes, Carlos Marcello Dias; Pereira, Vitor Paulo


    íder and Teles Pires suites). The Transamazonas Province corresponds to a N-S-trending orogenic belt, consolidated during the Transamazonian cycle (2.26-1.95 Ga), comprising the Lourenço, Amapá, Carecuru, Bacajá, and Santana do Araguaia tectonic domains. They show a protracted tectonic evolution, and are host to the pre-, syn-, and post-orogenic to anorogenic granitic magmatism. Gold mineralization associated with magmatic events is still unclear. Greisen and pegmatite Sn-Nb-Ta deposits are related to 1.84 to 1.75 Ga late-orogenic to anorogenic A-type granites. The Pitinga Tin Province includes the Madeira Sn-Nb-Ta-F deposit, Sn-greisens and Sn-episyenites. These are associated with A-type granites of the Madeira Suite (1.84-1.82 Ga), which occur within a cauldron complex (Iricoumé Group). The A-type magmatism evolved from a post-collisional extension, towards a within-plate setting. The hydrothermal processes (400 °C-100 °C) resulted in albitization and formation of disseminated cryolite, pyrochlore columbitization, and formation of a massive cryolite deposit in the core of the Madeira deposit. The Rondônia Tin Province hosts rare-metal (Ta, Nb, Be) and Sn-W mineralization, which is associated with the São Lourenço-Caripunas (1.31-1.30 Ga), related to the post-collisional stage of the Rondônia San Ignácio Province (1.56-1.30 Ga), and to the Santa Clara (1.08-1.07 Ga) and Younger Granites of Rondônia (0.99-0.97 Ga) A-type granites. The latter are linked to the evolution of the Sunsás-Aguapeí Province (1.20-0.95 Ga). Rare-metal polymetallic deposits are associated with late stage peraluminous granites, mainly as greisen, quartz vein, and pegmatite types.

  14. Au-bearing magnetite mineralizaion in Kashmar (alteration, mineralization, geochemistry, geochemistry and fluid inclusions;

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    Alireza Almasi


    amounts of sulfide minerals in Kashmar, all represent the oxidized conditions of hydrothermal fluid and the impact of CO2-bearing chloride complex in transport, non-interference of meteoric waters and precipitation of metallic elements with reducing of temperature. Discussion Most important IOCG deposits of south America (Candelaria, Mantoverde and Raul Condstable have Au-bearing massive magnetite bodies accompanied with Potassium (actinolite, biotite and K-feldspar alterations with high temperatures (500-700 O C and salinities (>40%wt NaCl at deepest parts (Sillitoe, 2003. At the upper levels, there are magnetite changes to hematite (Specular and the possibility of coarse calcite (± silver mineralisation. Hematite zone may display hydrothermal/tectonic brecciation. The hematite-rich veins tend to contain sericite and/or chlorite, with or without K-feldspar or albite, and to possess alteration haloes characterized by these same minerals. Both the magnetite- and specular hematite-rich IOCG veins contain chalcopyrite and generally subordinate Pyrite (Fuller et al., 1965. References Almasi, A., Karimpour, M.H., Ebrahimi Nasrabadi, Kh., Rahimi, B. and KlÖtzli, U, 2016. Geology and geochemistry of sub-volcanic and plutonic bodies of Kashmar (North of Lut Block. Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy, 24 (3: 539-556. (in Persian Fuller, R.C., Corvala´n, J., Klohn, C., Klohn, E. and Levi, B., 1965. Geologı´a y yacimientos metalı´feros de Chile. Instituto de Investigaciones Geolo´ gicas, Santiago, 305 pp. Sillitoe, R.H., 2003. Iron oxide-copper-gold deposits: An Andean view. Mineralium Deposita, 38(7: 787–812.

  15. Editorial - Arquivologia 10.5007/1518-2924.2011v16nesp1pi

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    José Maria Jardim


    contribuíram com artigos para este número especial.Convidamos um conjunto de autores que, pela sua diversidade de interesses e inserção institucional, poderiam oferecer ao público interessado reflexões sobre alguns temas de interesse arquivístico. Ao lado de profissionais com carreira consolidada no campo, buscamos viabilizar a participação de arquivistas que estão em construção do seu percurso profissional, aventurando-se pela pós-graduação. A Profa. Angélica Marques, do Curso de Arquivologia da Universidade de Brasília (UnB, oferece-nos um rico estudo sobre temáticas arquivísticas na Ciência da Informação. Diretora do TEAM Brasil no Projeto de pesquisa internacional InterPARES 3, Claudia Lacombe, do Arquivo Nacional, apresenta-nos reflexões sobre a complexa tarefa de tradução do Glossário multilíngue do Projeto InterPARES 3. A Profa. Anna Carla Almeida Mariz, do Curso de Arquivologia da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO, convida-nos ao debate sobre parâmetros para análise de sites de instituições arquivísticas sob a perspectiva da transferência da informação no ambiente da internet e suas demandas ao arquivista. Claudio Muniz Viana, arquivista da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, aborda um tema de interesse crescente, os arquivos de arquitetura, a partir da experiência do Núcleo de Pesquisa e Documentação da Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da UFRJ. Arquivista da FIOCRUZ, Rose Tenório de Oliveira, apresenta-nos várias correlações entre a inexistência de políticas arquivísticas e a preservação de acervos documentais. O uso da microfilmagem e da digitalização para a preservação e acesso de documentos arquivísticos num contexto de opções tecnológicas à disposição dos arquivistas é contemplado com profundidade pelo Prof. Sérgio Conde de Albite Silva, do Curso de Arquivologia da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO. As professoras Eliana Maria dos


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Jardim


    artigos para este número especial. Convidamos um conjunto de autores que, pela sua diversidade de interesses e inserção institucional, poderiam oferecer ao público interessado reflexões sobre alguns temas de interesse arquivístico. Ao lado de profissionais com carreira consolidada no campo, buscamos viabilizar a participação de arquivistas que estão em construção do seu percurso profissional, aventurando-se pela pós-graduação.A Profa. Angélica Marques, do Curso de Arquivologia da Universidade de Brasília (UnB, oferece-nos um rico estudo sobre temáticas arquivísticas na Ciência da Informação. Diretora do TEAM Brasil no Projeto de pesquisa internacional InterPARES 3, Claudia Lacombe, do Arquivo Nacional, apresenta-nos reflexões sobre a complexa tarefa de tradução do Glossário multilíngue do Projeto InterPARES 3. A Profa. Anna Carla Almeida Mariz, do Curso de Arquivologia da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO, convida-nos ao debate sobre parâmetros para análise de sites de instituições arquivísticas sob a perspectiva da transferência da informação no ambiente da internet e suas demandas ao arquivista. Claudio Muniz Viana, arquivista da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, aborda um tema de interesse crescente, os arquivos de arquitetura, a partir da experiência do Núcleo de Pesquisa e Documentação da Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da UFRJ. Arquivista da FIOCRUZ, Rose Tenório de Oliveira, apresenta-nos várias correlações entre a inexistência de políticas arquivísticas e a preservação de acervos documentais. O uso da microfilmagem e da digitalização para a preservação e acesso de documentos arquivísticos num contexto de opções tecnológicas à disposição dos arquivistas é contemplado com profundidade pelo Prof. Sérgio Conde de Albite Silva, do Curso de Arquivologia da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO. As professoras Eliana Maria dos Santos Bahia e

  17. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

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    Meckel, Timothy [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes); Trevino, Ramon [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes)


    m) of data allowed for the identification and mapping of unconformable surfaces including what is probably a surface associated with the last Pleistocene glacial lowstand. The identification of a previously unrecognized (in commercial seismic data) gas chimney that was clearly defined in the 2013 HR3D survey, indicates that HR3D surveys may be useful as both a characterization tool for the overburden of a potential carbon sequestration site and as an additional monitoring tool for future engineered injection sites. Geochemical modeling indicated that injection of CO₂ would result in minor dissolution of calcite, K-feldspar and albite. In addition, modeling of typical brines in Miocene age rocks indicate that approximately 5% of injection capacity would result from CO₂ dissolution into the brine. After extensive searches, no rock samples of the Marginulina A and Amphistegina B seals (“caprocks”) were obtained, but analyses of available core samples of other Miocene age mudrocks (seals or caprocks) indicate that they have sealing ability sufficient for potential CO2 storage in underlying sandstone units.

  18. Petrography, Mineral Chemistry and Geothermobarometry of Andalusite- Bearing Schists North of Azna (Northern Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran

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    Karim Abdollahi Silabi


    deformation that hasproduced the current morphologyof the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (Shabanian Borujeni, 2008. In this paper we focused on petrography and mineral chemistry and thermodynamic conditions of the metapelites. Materials and methods The chemical compositions of minerals were determined by a CAMECA SX100 electron microprobe (EMP at Universität Stuttgart (Germany. The instrument is equipped with five wavelength dispersive spectrometers. The beam current and acceleration voltage were 15 nA and 15 kV, respectively. v Discussion and Results The Azna regional metamorphic rocks include quartz-feldspar schists, mica schists, andalusite-bearing schists and quartzites. The Azna metapelites are schists, containing quartz, feldspars, andalusite, muscovite, biotite, muscovite, chlorite and garnet, in variable proportions, characterized byporphyroblastic and lepidoblastic textures. Based on mineralogy, minerals of these rocks contain andalusite, garnet, feldspar, muscovite, biotite, quartz and chlorite. Microprobe analyses show that the mineral compositions are as follows: White micas in the andalusite-bearing schists are muscovite, plagioclases are albite-oligoclase, garnets are almandine-spessartine with weak chemical zoning and biotites are siderophylite-annite. Based on geothermobarometry, these rocks formed in the hornblende-hornfels facies and the low pressure part of the amphibolite facies,with temperatures about 562-692 °C and pressures1.07-4.12 kbar. After the regional metamorphism of these rocks,granitoidintrusions causedthermal metamorphism of these rocks and the formation of andalusite-bearing schists. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the Office of Graduate Studies of the University of Isfahan for their support. We also thank Prof. Hans-JoachimMassonne, who played major roles during the microprobe analysis of minerals at the InstitutfürMineralogie und Kristallchemie, Universität Stuttgart (Germany. References Aghanabati, A., 2004. Geology of Iran. Geological

  19. Thermal expansion behavior of fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions (United States)

    Hovis, G.; Harlov, D.; Gottschalk, M.; Hudacek, W.; Wildermuth, S.


    diagnostics. Mineralogical Magazine 61, 65-77. Hovis, G.L., Brennan, S., Keohane, M., Crelling, J. (1999) High-temperature X-ray investigation of sanidine - analbite crystalline solutions: Thermal expansion, phase transitions, and volumes of mixing. The Canadian Mineralogist 37, 701-709. Hovis, G.L., Crelling, J., Wattles, D., Dreibelbis, B., Dennison, A., Keohane, M., and Brennan, S. (2003) Thermal expansion of nepheline - kalsilite crystalline solutions. Mineralogical Magazine 67, 535-546. Hovis, G.L. and Graeme-Barber, A. (1997) Volumes of K-Na mixing for low albite - microcline crystalline solutions at elevated temperature: A test of regular solution thermodynamic models. American Mineralogist 82, 158-164. Hovis, G.L., Harlov, D.E., Hahn, A., and Steigert, H. (2007) Enthalpies and volumes of F-Cl mixing in fluorapatite - chlorapatite crystalline solutions. Geophysical Research Abstracts 9, abstract 01748. Hovis, G.L., Morabito, J.R. Spooner, R., Mott, A. Person, E.L., Henderson, C. Michael B., Roux, J., and Harlov, D. (2008) A simple predictive model for the thermal expansion of AlSi3 feldspars. American Mineralogist 98, 1568-1573. Hovis, G.L., Person, E., Spooner, A., and Roux, J. (2006) Thermal expansion of highly silicic nepheline - kalsilite crystalline solutions. Mineralogical Magazine 70, 383-396. O'Reilly, S.Y. and Griffin, W.L. (2000) Apatite in the mantle: implications for metasomatic processes and high heat production in Phanerozoic mantle. Lithos 53, 217-232. Parrish, W. (1953) X-Ray reflection angle tables for several standards. Technical Report No. 68, Philips Laboratories Incorporated, Irvington on Hudson, New York.

  20. Porphyry-Style Petropavlovskoe Gold Deposit, the Polar Urals: Geological Position, Mineralogy, and Formation Conditions (United States)

    Vikentyev, I. V.; Mansurov, R. Kh.; Ivanova, Yu. N.; Tyukova, E. E.; Sobolev, I. D.; Abramova, V. D.; Vykhristenko, R. I.; Trofimov, A. P.; Khubanov, V. B.; Groznova, E. O.; Dvurechenskaya, S. S.; Kryazhev, S. G.


    Geological and structural conditions of localization, hydrothermal metasomatic alteration, and mineralization of the Petropavlovskoe gold deposit (Novogodnenskoe ore field) situated in the northern part of the Lesser Ural volcanic-plutonic belt, which is a constituent of the Middle Paleozoic island-arc system of the Polar Urals, are discussed. The porphyritic diorite bodies pertaining to the late phase of the intrusive Sob Complex play an ore-controlling role. The large-volume orebodies are related to the upper parts of these intrusions. Two types of stringer-disseminated ores have been revealed: (1) predominant gold-sulfide and (2) superimposed low-sulfide-gold-quartz ore markedly enriched in Au. Taken together, they make up complicated flattened isometric orebodies transitory to linear stockworks. The gold potential of the deposit is controlled by pyrite-(chlorite)-albite metasomatic rock of the main productive stage, which mainly develops in a volcanic-sedimentary sequence especially close to the contacts with porphyritic diorite. The relationships between intrusive and subvolcanic bodies and dating of individual zircon crystals corroborate a multistage evolution of the ore field, which predetermines its complex hydrothermal history. Magmatic activity of mature island-arc plagiogranite of the Sob Complex and monzonite of the Kongor Complex initiated development of skarn and beresite alterations accompanied by crystallization of hydrothermal sulfides. In the Early Devonian, due to emplacement of the Sob Complex at a depth of approximately 2 km, skarn magnetite ore with subordinate sulfides was formed. At the onset of the Middle Devonian, the large-volume gold porphyry Au-Ag-Te-W ± Mo,Cu stockworks related to quartz diorite porphyry—the final phase of the Sob Complex— were formed. In the Late Devonian, a part of sulfide mineralization was redistributed with the formation of linear low-sulfide quartz vein zones. Isotopic geochemical study has shown that the

  1. The evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of the Nasrand Plutonic complex by using mineral composition

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    Fatemeh Sarjoughian


    Full Text Available Introduction Mineral composition is sensitive to variations in the composition of the magma and can be used to characterize the physical conditions of crystallization such as temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity and water content. The studies have demonstrated that geobarometery by amphibole provides a tool for determining the depth of crystallization and knowledge of the depth of crystallization of hornblende through to solidification of calc-alkaline plutons (Anderson and Smith, 1995. The composition of pyroxene can be used as crystallization pressure and temperature indicators of pyroxene too. Anlytical methods The mineral compositions of the Nasrand intrusion were determined by electron microprobe, with special emphasis on the amphibole, feldspar, and pyroxene at the Naruto University, Japan, the EPMA (Jeol- JXA-8800R was used at operating conditions of 15 kV, 20 nA acceleration voltage and 20s counting time. Results The Nasrand intrusion (33°13'–33°15' N, 52°33'–52°34'E with an outcrop area of about 40 km2 is situated in the Urumieh–Dokhtar magmatic belt, SE of Ardestan. It is composed of granite and granodiorite and various dikes of diorite and gabbro which are intruded in it. It is intruded into Eocene volcanic rocks, including andesite, rhyolite, and dacite. The petrographical studies indicate that the granitic and granodioritic rocks contain major minerals such as quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and amphibole, which are in an approximate equilibrium state. The gabbroic-dioritic dikes usually show microgranular porphyric texture. They mainly consist of plagioclase, amphibole, and pyroxene. The plagioclase shows variable composition from albite to oligoclase in the granitoid rocks and from oligoclase to bytownite in dioritic and gabbroic dikes (Deer et al., 1991. The amphiboles are calcic and their composition varies from hornblende to actinolite, whereas the composition of the basic dikes is inclined to hastingsite (Leake et

  2. Investigation on the oxygen transport mechanisms in the Sarcheshmeh waste rock dumps

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    Saeed Yousefi


    Full Text Available Introduction Pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage (AMD are the serious environmental problems associated with the mining activities in sulphide ores. The rate of pyrite oxidation is governed by the availability of oxygen (Borden, 2003. Therefore, the identifying oxygen supplying mechanism is one of the most important issues related to the environmental assessment of waste rock dumps (Cathles and Apps, 1975; Jaynes et al., 1984; Davis and Ritchie, 1986. Although comprehensive researches were performed on the mathematical description of oxygen transport processes using the numerical modeling (Morin et al., 1988; Blowes et al., 1991; Wunderly et al., 1986; Elberling et al., 1994; Jannesar Malakooti et al., 2014, so far, the interactions between these processes and geochemical and mineralogical characteristics has not been studied especially in waste rock dumps. Therefore the main objective of this study is to identify the evidences for knowing the oxygen transport mechanisms in the waste dumps and also, its role in intensity of pyrite oxidation. It is expected that such these structural studies could be useful for better understanding of dominant processes in numerical modeling and also providing environmental management strategies in the study area and other sites by similar characteristics. Materials and Methods In this study, thirty solid samples were collected from six excavated trenches in the waste rock dumps No. 19 and 31 of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine. Collected samples were studied using several methods such as XRD, ASTM-D2492, paste pH and grain size distribution. The results obtained from these methods were used with the field observations in order to characterize some detail information about oxygen supplying mechanisms for oxidation reactions in the waste rock dumps. Result The main minerals found by the XRD analysis were quartz and muscovite which were present in all samples. Pyrite, orthose, albite, and chlorite were also

  3. Chemical Compositions of Fluid Inclusions in the Jalal –Abad iron oxide deposit, North West of Zarand, Using LA-ICP-MS Microanalysis

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    Behrouz Karimi Shahraki


    forms being massive, disseminated, replacement, open space filling, veins and breccias. Immediate host rocks include sandy siltstone, acidic volcanic rocks and dolomite. The Jalal Abad deposit mainly consists of iron oxides (magnetite, hematite and goethite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and malachite that occur in massive, brecciated, open space filling, disseminated and vein forms. Hematite mostly occurs close to the surface and along fractured zones, formed as a secondary mineral due to magnetite oxidation and it is rare at depth. Pyrite is the most important sulphide mineral and is associated with magnetite, calcite, quartz, talc, dolomite, actinolite and chlorite. Copper mineralization at shallow levels is mainly in oxides formed from sulphide oxidation and at deeper levels primary chalcopyrite is also associated with magnetite. Cu mineralization is formed as disseminated or in veins form. Native gold was detected as inclusions smaller than 50 µm in chalcopyrite. Common alteration minerals are goethite, pyrite, talc, actinolite, chlorite, tremolite, dolomite, quartz, calcite, albite and sericite. The earliest hydrothermal alteration includes Na-Ca alteration which is associated with actinolite, magnetite and pyrite. Multiphase fluid inclusions (L+V+S in quartz are abundant and homogenization temperatures are in the range of 260 to 440◦C. Salinities vary between 30 to 52 wt% NaCl equivalents. The concentrations of Na and K are in the range 26906 to 140716 ppm and 2372 to 70484 ppm, respectively. Fe content varies from 576 to16076 ppm with an average of 6914 ppm and Cu contents vary from 51 to 3204 ppm with a mean of 792 ppm. The Na/Ca values for fluid inclusions vary from 0.38 to 37.51 with a mean of 3.79. The average content of Na is 61511 ppm which is in agreement with salinity of fluid inclusions measured by microthermometry techniques. Magmatic fluids normally yield K > Ca, with Ca/K ratios between 0.01 to 1, whereas non magmatic fluids are often richer in Ca with Ca