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Sample records for albifasciatus diptera culicidae

  1. Prevalence of parasitism and adult survival time of Aedes albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) parasitized by Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae).

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    Di Battista, Cristian M; Fischer, Sylvia; Campos, Raúl E

    2015-12-01

    We described the carryover of Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Poinar and Camino) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) from mosquito larvae, the primary site of maturation, to adults. We analyzed the survival time of male and female Aedes albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae) parasitized by S. spiculatus, the time of emergence of nematodes from adult mosquitoes, and the state of parasitism in the same mosquito cohorts during the immature stages. Mosquito larvae with single and multiple parasitism (up to 11 parasites) were observed. The mortality of mosquito larvae and adults was produced in all cases where at least one mermithid emerged. The mortality of S. spiculatus showed an increasing trend in mosquito larvae with larger numbers of nematodes and was higher in larvae parasitized by eight or more nematodes. Maximum survival of parasitized adult females of Ae. albifasciatus was 38 days, while non-parasitized adult males and females survived 39 and 41 days, respectively. Strelkovimermis spiculatus mortality was observed in Ae. albifasciatus larvae with single or multiple parasitisms. The spread of mermithid parasitism in adult mosquito populations is discussed. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. The biology of Aedes (Ochlerotatus albifasciatus Macquart, 1838 (Diptera: Culicidae in Central Argentina

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    Francisco F. Ludueña Almeida

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albifasciatus is a flood water mosquito ocurring in the southern countries of South America. It is a competent vector of the Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE and causes important losses on milk and beef production in central Argentina. Field work was carried out from December 1990 to March 1993, on a monthly basis during the dry season and biweekly during the rainy season. Larvae were collected using the 'dipping' technique and females with CDC traps baited with CO2. Field collected larvae were used to build laboratory cohorts, from which basic population parameters were estimated. Eggs survived up to six months on dry soil, although there was a linear decrease of viability with time. At 23ºC, larval development time was around nine days, and all adults emerged within one week. The estimation of larval development in the laboratory seems to be very near the development on the field, as larvae have been collected on average eight days after a rainfall. Egg to adult survival was 83%, with the highest mortality on fourth larval instar (6%. In the laboratory studies, sex proportion among the adults was 1:1, females lived longer than males (median 13 and five days, respectively, and adult survival pattern showed a constant number of individuals dying per unit time. Field collected females layed an average of 84 eggs per batch, and completing up to five gonotrophic cycles, suggesting an estimated survival of up to 35-50 days.

  3. Variation in the hatching response of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus egg batches (Diptera: Culicidae in temperate Argentina

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    Raúl Ernesto Campos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Egg hatching of winter-collected Ochlerotatus albifasciatus was studied for six months. Batches of eggs were divided into two groups, one of them was stored in the laboratory at 23°C and 12:12 photoperiod, and the other in the field under dead leaves. Every month, from July to December, eggs from the two groups were flooded under both laboratory and field conditions. Unhatched eggs were returned to the original condition and flooded two more times separated by ten-day intervals. Results show that egg diapause is expressed in different intensities, not only on eggs exposed to different conditions but also in those exposed to the same condition, even when they were laid by the same female. Successive inundations yielded incomplete hatches of eggs, and favored the hatching response in the next flooding. Low environmental temperatures before and during the flooding depressed hatching response. This shows that eggs need a warm period before flooding as well as warm temperatures during flooding, to hatch. As drought period was longer hatching response increased, but this was also accompanied by warmer environmental conditions. The experiment performed in laboratory did not show that increment. Field studies showed that a layer of dead leaves protected eggs from extreme temperatures.

  4. Effect of diet composition on the development of the floodwater Mosquito Ochlerotatus (Ochletotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Sy, Victoria E.; Campos, Raul E.

    2008-01-01

    One important step for the colonization of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) is to determine the optimal conditions for larval rearing, which makes possible the development of experiments comprising larval rearing in the laboratory. In this research the effect of diet composition on the development of O. albifasciatus was studied. For this purpose, cohorts of 20 fi rst instars were reared using fi ve diets: 1:1 mix of yeast and TetraMin R , 1:1 mix of fi ne and coarse organic matter, grass cuts soaked in water for 1 h or 24 h before larvae incorporation, and 1:1:1 mix of grass cuts, fi ne organic matter and coarse organic matter. Survival was recorded for each cohort, while development time from first instar to pupa, and adult wing length were recorded for each individual. The effects of the diet on the observed traits were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Both survival and wing length were affected by diet, being significantly higher (79-100% and ∼ 4.46 mm) on diets consisting of organic matter or organic matter plus grass than on those consisting of yeast plus TetraMin R or grass. Development time was not affected by the diet, although the shortest time (8.1 to 8.3 days) and lower variation between replicates were recorded when larvae were reared using organic matter or organic matter plus grass. Thus, it is concluded that the diets consisting of organic matter or a mix of it and grass are the most effective for O. albifasciatus rearing. (author)

  5. Effect of diet composition on the development of the floodwater Mosquito Ochlerotatus (Ochletotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Sy, Victoria E.; Campos, Raul E. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Limnologia Dr. Raul A. Ringuelet]. E-mails: victoriasy9@yahoo.com.ar; rcampos@ilpla.edu.ar

    2008-11-15

    One important step for the colonization of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) is to determine the optimal conditions for larval rearing, which makes possible the development of experiments comprising larval rearing in the laboratory. In this research the effect of diet composition on the development of O. albifasciatus was studied. For this purpose, cohorts of 20 fi rst instars were reared using fi ve diets: 1:1 mix of yeast and TetraMin{sup R}, 1:1 mix of fi ne and coarse organic matter, grass cuts soaked in water for 1 h or 24 h before larvae incorporation, and 1:1:1 mix of grass cuts, fi ne organic matter and coarse organic matter. Survival was recorded for each cohort, while development time from first instar to pupa, and adult wing length were recorded for each individual. The effects of the diet on the observed traits were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Both survival and wing length were affected by diet, being significantly higher (79-100% and {approx} 4.46 mm) on diets consisting of organic matter or organic matter plus grass than on those consisting of yeast plus TetraMin{sup R} or grass. Development time was not affected by the diet, although the shortest time (8.1 to 8.3 days) and lower variation between replicates were recorded when larvae were reared using organic matter or organic matter plus grass. Thus, it is concluded that the diets consisting of organic matter or a mix of it and grass are the most effective for O. albifasciatus rearing. (author)

  6. Effects of continuous drought and immersion on hatchability of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae eggs stored at low temperature Efecto de la sequía continua y la inmersión sobre la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos de Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae almacenados a baja temperatura

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    Raúl E Campos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors on the hatching response of O. albifasciatus (Macquart eggs is studied by simulating winter conditions in the laboratory. The hypothesis tested was that hatching response is affected by: (1 time that eggs remain at low temperature, (2 storage conditions, and (3 acclimatization time. Eggs were stored at 5ºC in drought and immersion conditions during 7, 21, 35, 90 and 146 days, immediately after, they were acclimatized at 22ºC during 24, 72, and 168 hours, and then eggs were flooded to induce hatching. Percent of hatched eggs was analyzed with a Generalized Lineal Model with a binomial distribution. Results show that: (1 a long storage period at cold temperature and long acclimatization periods improve the hatching response; (2 storage conditions have a moderate effect on hatching, being more evident in eggs stored dry; (3 a long time of acclimatization favors the hatching response in submerged eggs more than in eggs stored dry; (4 long time at cold favors the hatching response in eggs stored dry more than in submerged eggs; (5 the hatching response of eggs that remain for a long time at low temperature is higher when the time of acclimatization is long.Se estudió el rol de los factores ambientales sobre la eclosión de los huevos de O. albifasciatus (Macquart, simulando condiciones de invierno. La hipótesis planteada fue que la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos depende de: (1 tiempo de permanencia a baja temperatura, (2 condiciones de almacenamiento, y (3 tiempo de aclimatación. Los huevos fueron almacenados a 5º C en condiciones de sequía y sumergidos durante 7, 21, 35, 90 y 146 días; luego fueron aclimatados a 22º C durante 24, 72, y 168 horas y posteriormente inundados para inducir la eclosión. El porcentaje de huevos eclosionados se analizó con un Modelo Lineal Generalizado con distribución binomial. Los resultados mostraron que: (1 largos períodos de almacenamiento en frío y largos tiempos

  7. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Paula Rozo-Lopez; Ximo Mengual

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes ( Diptera : Culicidae ) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 reco...

  8. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

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    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  9. An Algal Diet Accelerates Larval Growth of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Tuno, N; Kohzu, A; Tayasu, I; Nakayama, T; Githeko, A; Yan, G

    2018-01-21

    The population sizes of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) increase dramatically with the onset of the rainy season in sub-Saharan Africa, but the ecological mechanisms underlying the increases are not well understood. As a first step toward to understand, we investigated the proliferation of algae, the major food of mosquito larvae, in artificial fresh water bodies exposed to sunlight for a short period, and old water bodies exposed to sunlight for a long period, and the effects thereof on the development of these anopheline larvae. We found that an epizoic green algal species of the genus Rhopalosolen (Chlorophyta: Chlorophyceae) proliferated immediately after water freshly taken from a spring was placed in sunlight. This alga proliferated only briefly (for ~10 d) even if the water was repeatedly exposed to sunlight. However, various algal species were observed in water that remained under sunlight for 40 d or longer (i.e., in old water bodies). The growth performance of larvae was higher in sunlight-exposed (alga-rich) water than in shade-stored (alga-poor) water. Stable isotope analysis suggested that these two anopheline species fed on Rhopalosolen algae in fresh water bodies but hardly at all on other algae occurring in the old water bodies. We concluded that freshly formed ground water pools facilitate high production of anopheline species because of the proliferation of Rhopalosolen algae therein, and the increase in the number of such pools in the rainy season, followed by rapid increases in A. gambiae and A. arabiensis numbers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Larval Mosquito Habitat Utilization and Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    2012-01-01

    Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) Author(s): Kristen Bartlett-Healy, Isik Unlu, Peter Obenauer, Tony Hughes...japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) KRISTEN BARTLETT-HEALY,1,2,3 ISIK UNLU,1,3,4 PETER OBENAUER,5 TONY HUGHES,6

  11. Exploring New Thermal Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    2014-07-01

    Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae ) JAMES F. HARWOOD,1,2 MUHAMMAD FAROOQ,1 ALEC G. RICHARDSON,1 CARL W. DOUD,1 JOHN L. PUTNAM,3 DANIEL E...Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...gypti (Diptera: Culicidae ) control with community par- ticipation using a new fumigant formulation. J. Med. Entomol. 48: 577Ð583. Kittayapong, P., and

  12. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  13. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil Note on the culicidae (Diptera: Culicidae of the River Purus Basin, Acre, Amazonian, Brazil

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    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae collections were made on the Pedro Peixoto Colonization Project in the State of Acre, Brazil. Four thousand, five hundred and eighty-eight (4,588 specimens were collected and fifty-three (53 species or group recognised. The occurrence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi is given special emphasis.

  14. Revalidation of Culex (Melanoconion) invocator Pazos with a Redescription of Adults and Illustration of Male Genitalia (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    1978-01-01

    invoeator of Dyar ( 1920 :64). CuZex (MoehZostyraxl inhibitator (in part) of Dyar (1928:317). CuZex (Mezanoeonionb inhibitator (in part) of Edwards (1932...Calif. Press, vi + 360 p., 127 pl. Dyar , H. G. 1920 . The species of Choc:roporpa, a subgenus of Cdex (Diptera, Culicidae). Inset. Inscit. Menst. 8...Diptera: Culicidae)l 239 Pazos of Male Sunthorn Sirivanakarn2 ABSTRACT. Culex (Melanoconion) invocator Pazos, originally described from Cu- ba

  15. Identification and Transcription Profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): Developmental Regulation and Environmental Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Identification and transcription profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus ( Diptera : Culicidae): developmental regulation and environmental response...mtDNA-encoded ND6 gene mutation.14 Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann, a nuisance species, has attracted much attention recently.9,15–20 The aim of...taeniorhynchus ( Diptera : Culicidae): Developmental Regulation and Environmental Response 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  16. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers Readily Distinguish Cryptic Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles)

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    1993-01-01

    DNA isolation. Individual larvae or adults were ground with a strong diagnostic bands and simple patterns. Primers pro- plastic pestle in...V. (1988) Com- peninsular Malaysia and Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq parison of DNA probe and cytogenic methods for identifying field Syst 20

  17. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

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    In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...

  18. List of abbreviations for currently valid generic-level taxa in family Culicidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    A list of two letter abbreviations for all genera and three letter abbreviations for all subgenera of mosquitoes (family Culicidae, order Diptera) is given. This information on generic-level taxa of mosquitoes is useful in reducing printed space in publications, tables and lists. The work was comp...

  19. Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en Venezuela

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    Juan-Carlos Navarro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera

  20. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

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    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Smir marshes (northwest of Morocco): inventory and biotypology].

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    El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O

    2014-02-01

    The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.

  2. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Mila 26 – Maliuc area (Danube Delta, Romania – preliminary data

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    PRIOTEASA Florian-Liviu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the preliminary results of the survey of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae in Maliuc - Mila 26 area, in 2006. A number of 1,255 mosquitoes, belonging to 14 species have beencaptured in three investigation sites. The results of the data-analysis were used for drawing up the annual dynamics of the various mosquito species from a specific location in Maliuc - Mila 26 area for the period April –September.

  3. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: a review of their biodiversity, distribution and medical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Mint Mohamed Lemine, Aichetou; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Hasni Ebou, Moina; Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ould Bouraya, Issa Nabiyoullahi; Brengues, Cecile; Trape, Jean-Fran?ois; Basco, Leonardo; Bogreau, Herv?; Simard, Fr?d?ric; Faye, Ousmane; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Although mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important disease vectors, information on their biodiversity in Mauritania is scarce and very dispersed in the literature. Data from the scientific literature gathered in the country from 1948 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Overall 51 culicid species comprising 17 Anopheles spp., 14 Aedes spp., 18 Culex spp. and two Mansonia spp. have been described in Mauritania among which Anopheles arabiensis, Aedes vexans, Culex poicilipes and Culex anten...

  4. Potential Use of Pyriproxyfen for Control of Aedes aegypti Diptera: Culicidae) in Iquitos, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-20

    ecdysteroid peak in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera ). Arthropod Struct. Dev. 29: 111Ð119. Received 16 January 2005; accepted 20 January 2005. 630 JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 42, no. 4 ...horizontal transfer Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a perido- mestic mosquito species that exhibits a diurnal, bi- modal feeding pattern in...were col- lected in cups and returned to the large polystyrene/ gauze cages to emerge, mate, blood- feed , and con- tinue the rearing cycle. The colony was

  5. Culicidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha from the western Brazilian Amazon: Juami-Japurá Ecological Station

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    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With 312 trap-hours of sampling effort, 1554 specimens of Culicidae (Diptera were collected, using CDC and Malaise traps, in nine different locations along the Juami River, within the Juami-Japurá Ecological Station, Amazonas State, Brazil. A list of mosquito species with 54 taxa is presented, which includes three new distributional records for the state of Amazonas. The species found belong to the genera Anopheles, Aedeomyia, Aedes, Psorophora, Culex, Coquillettidia, Sabethes, Wyeomyia and Uranotaenia.

  6. Expectoration of Flaviviruses during sugar feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Johnson, Petrina H; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judy A; Simmons, Russell J; Jansen, Cassie C; Frances, Stephen P; Smith, Greg A; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Biological transmission of arboviruses to a vertebrate host occurs when virions are expelled along with saliva during blood feeding by a hematophagous arthropod. We undertook experiments to determine whether mosquitoes expectorate flaviviruses in their saliva while sugar feeding. Batches of Culex annulirostris Skuse and Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) were orally infected with Japanese encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), Kunjin (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, KUNV; a subtype of West Nile virus), and Murray Valley encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, MVEV) viruses. After a 7-d extrinsic incubation, these mosquitoes were offered sucrose meals via cotton pledgets, which were removed daily and processed for viral RNA by using real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. JEV, MVEV, and KUNV RNA was detected in all pledgets removed from batches of Cx. gelidus on days 7-14 postexposure. In contrast, detection rates were variable for Cx. annulirostris, with KUNV detected in 0.3 M sucrose pledgets on all days postexposure, and JEV and MVEV detected on 57 and 50% of days postexposure, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in the pledget did not increase virus detection rates. When individual JEV-infected Cx. gelidus were exposed to the sucrose pledget, 73% of mosquitoes expectorated virus with titers that were detectable by TaqMan RT-PCR. These results clearly show that flaviviruses are expectorated by infected mosquitoes during the process of sugar feeding on artificial pledgets. Potential applications of the method for arboviral bioassays and field surveillance are discussed.

  7. Updated Distribution Records for Anopheles vagus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Republic of Philippines, and Considerations Regarding Its Secondary Vector Roles in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    181 Tropical Biomedicine 28(1): 181–187 (2011) Research Note Updated distribution records for Anopheles vagus ( Diptera : Culicidae) in the Republic of...Anopheles vagus ( Diptera : Culicidae) in the Republic of Philippines, and considerations regarding its secondary vector roles in Southeast Asia 5a...on cows and water buffalos and was usually ranked the least attracted to humans of all the Anopheles tested (Reid, 1961, 1968; Bruce-Chwatt et al

  8. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

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    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  9. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal Delsio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  10. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  11. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  12. Oviposition responses of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) and identification of volatiles from bacteria-containing solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindh, J.M.; Kännaste, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Faye, I.; Borg-Karlson, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a dual-choice oviposition bioassay was used to screen responses of gravid An. gambiae toward 17 bacterial species, previously isolated from Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) midguts or oviposition sites. The 10 isolates from oviposition sites have been identified by

  13. An Annotated Bibliography of the Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases of Guam (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    where epidemics of dengue fever occur repeatedly. Bagg, C.P. 1917. from Guam). (Collection record for Reties caZopu8 (Cedes aegypt In L.O. Howard...Guam, Marianas Islands (Diptera: Culicidae). Philipp. Ent. 2(1):57-61. Aedes (Stegomyia) bwwi n.sp., p. 58; Anophdes bueaai, A. test&, and A...are identified. Aedes gt&~me?28ɠ and A. pan&n4 account for 75% of the 5,831 mosquitoes identified. Bohart, G.E. and 3.L. Gressitt. 1951. Filth

  14. [PHENOLOGY OF MALARIAL MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE) AND THEIR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL VALUE IN THE SOUTHERN TOMSK PROVINCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltoratskaya, N V; Pankina, T M; Istratkina, S V; Poltoratskaya, T N; Shikhin, A V

    2016-01-01

    The article provides the data on the incidence of malaria in Tomsk Province since 1935 till present. The results of phenological observations of malarial mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) performed in 2005—2014 in southern Tomsk Province are given. Key dates in life of mosquitoes are determined, including the beginning of departure from wintering sites, emergence of the first preimaginal stages, departure of the first generation of imagoes, the beginning of the 54rr7yu6t' diapause. Terms of the period of possible transfer of malaria in southern Tomsk Province are retrospectively calculated.

  15. Wing diagnostic characters for Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex nigripalpus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Oliveira Vidal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wing diagnostic characters for Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex nigripalpus (Diptera, Culicidae. Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex nigripalpus are mosquitoes of public health interest, which can occur sympatrically in urban and semi-urban localities. Morphological identification of these species may be difficult when specimens are not perfectly preserved. In order to suggest an alternative taxonomical diagnosis, wings of these species were comparatively characterized using geometric morphometrics. Both species could be distinguished by wing shape with accuracy rates ranging from 85-100%. Present results indicate that one can identify these species relying only on wing characters when traditional taxonomical characters are not visible.

  16. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  17. Experimental Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by a Strain of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    and transmission. Any hamster that survived 21 d af- guinea pigs (Davis et al. 1991). ter being fed upon by a mosquito with a dissem- Serial 10-fold...AD-A259 565 Experimental Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by a Strain of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) S1 ls from...Gentilly strain of Ae. albopictus after ingestion of 1 0o. PFU of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (combined data from two infectious feeding

  18. Identification of Species Related to Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    plified polymorphic DNA in the population genet- ics and systematics of grasshoppers . Genome 35: 569-574. Galvgo ALA, Damesceno RG 1942. Sobre urn...iynchus) albitarsis by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA -Polymerase Chain Reaction (Diptera: Culicidae) Richard C Wilkerson/+, Thomas V Caffigan, Jo...Instituto de Biologia do ExCrcito, Rua Francisco Manuel 102, 2091 l-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Species-specific Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA

  19. Mosquito Fauna (Diptera: Culicidae of Hamedan County, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zahirnia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and determine the larval and adult mosquitoes (Culicidae fauna in Hamedan County, western Iran.It was a cross-sectional study which took place in four area of the Hamedan County. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and adults were dipping, hand catch, night catch and total catch. Larvae and adult mosquitoes collected and were sent to laboratory of Medical Entomology, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran for further identification to species level to determination of fauna. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version19.Three genera and eight species of family Culicidae were collected and identified in Hamedan County, Hamedan Province, West Iran, during May to October 2013. These species included: Culex theileri, Cx. pipiens, Cx. antennatus, Culiseta subochrea, Cs. langiareolata, Anopheles superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. stephensi. The species Cx. antennatus and An. stephensi were reported for the first time in Hamedan County.An. stephensi and Cx. antennatus caught had not been previously recorded in Hamedan Province. Due to vast agricultural activities in the province which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes and since many of them are potential vectors of human and domesticated animal pathogens, their ecology needs to be studied extensively.

  20. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus striatus, a new species of the Strodei Subgroup (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Denise Cristina Sant'Ana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of the genus Anopheles Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus striatus n. sp., preliminary designated as Anopheles CP Form, from Brazil, is here validated and described using morphological characteristics of the egg, fourth-instar larva, pupa, female and male genitalia. The species is morphologically more similar to species of the Strodei Subgroup of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus than to any other species of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus Blanchard. However, adult female that can be misidentified with Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane if the identification is mainly based on the ratio of dark and white scales of the hindtarsomere 2. In addition, the characterization of the new species includes aspects of its bionomics, and geographical distribution. The new species is known from Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais and Paraná states, in Brazil. Diagnostic characters for the identification of the species are provided.

  1. Sindbis virus infection alters blood feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F

    2012-03-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination.

  2. Microsporidiosis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) alters blood-feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Donald R; Xue, Rui-De; Rotstein, Margaret A; Becnel, James J

    2007-11-01

    Infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) with Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) reduced mean human host attraction and landing/probing rates in female mosquitoes by 53 and 62%, respectively, compared with rates in microsporidia-free females. Infection with E. aedis reduced the average weight of unfed female mosquitoes by 4%, caused them to imbibe 23% less blood, and to lay 30% fewer eggs than healthy females. In contrast, E. aedis-infected mosquitoes required 20% more time (>1 h) than healthy females to bite skin treated with 15% DEET. Statistically significant morbidity in E. aedis-infected females was indicated by reductions in host attraction and landing/probing responses, the mass of unfed and blood-engorged females, and fecundity, and by increased DEET repellency.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis and temporal diversification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on nuclear genes and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic analyses provide a framework for examining the evolution of morphological and molecular diversity, interpreting patterns in biogeography, and achieving a stable classification. The generic and suprageneric relationships within mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are poorly resolved, making these subjects difficult to address. Results We carried out maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood, including Bayesian, analyses on a data set consisting of six nuclear genes and 80 morphological characters to assess their ability to resolve relationships among 25 genera. We also estimated divergence times based on sequence data and fossil calibration points, using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. Strong support was recovered for the basal position and monophyly of the subfamily Anophelinae and the tribes Aedini and Sabethini of subfamily Culicinae. Divergence times for major culicid lineages date to the early Cretaceous. Conclusions Deeper relationships within the family remain poorly resolved, suggesting the need for additional taxonomic sampling. Our results support the notion of rapid radiations early in the diversification of mosquitoes. PMID:20028549

  4. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study.

  6. Presence and Potential Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Katja; Ivovic, Vladimir; Glasnovic, Peter; Buzan, Elena

    2017-11-07

    In Slovenia, two invasive mosquito species are present, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae). In this study, we examined their actual distribution and suitable habitats for new colonizations. Data from survey of species presence in 2013 and 2015, bioclimatic variables and altitude were used for the construction of predictive maps. We produced various models in Maxent software and tested two bioclimatic variable sets, WorldClim and CHELSA. For the variable selection of A. albopictus modeling we used statistical and expert knowledge-based approach, whereas for A. j. japonicus we used only a statistically based approach. The best performing models for both species were chosen according to AIC score-based evaluation. In 2 yr of sampling, A. albopictus was largely confined to the western half of Slovenia, whereas A. j. japonicus spread significantly and can be considered as an established species in a large part of the country. Comparison of models with WorldClim and CHELSA variables for both species showed models with CHELSA variables as a better tool for prediction. Finally, we validated the models performance in predicting distribution of species according to collected field data. Our study confirms that both species are co-occurring and are sympatric in a large part of the country area. The tested models could be used for future prevention of invasive mosquitoes spreading in other countries with similar bioclimatic conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Landscape structure affects distribution of potential disease vectors (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittra, Carina; Vitecek, Simon; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Eigner, Barbara; Zechmeister, Thomas; Waringer, Johann; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-04-26

    Vector-pathogen dynamics are controlled by fluctuations of potential vector communities, such as the Culicidae. Assessment of mosquito community diversity and, in particular, identification of environmental parameters shaping these communities is therefore of key importance for the design of adequate surveillance approaches. In this study, we assess effects of climatic parameters and habitat structure on mosquito communities in eastern Austria to deliver these highly relevant baseline data. Female mosquitoes were sampled twice a month from April to October 2014 and 2015 at 35 permanent and 23 non-permanent trapping sites using carbon dioxide-baited traps. Differences in spatial and seasonal abundance patterns of Culicidae taxa were identified using likelihood ratio tests; possible effects of environmental parameters on seasonal and spatial mosquito distribution were analysed using multivariate statistical methods. We assessed community responses to environmental parameters based on 14-day-average values that affect ontogenesis. Altogether 29,734 female mosquitoes were collected, and 21 of 42 native as well as two of four non-native mosquito species were reconfirmed in eastern Austria. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in mosquito abundance between sampling years and provinces. Incidence and abundance patterns were found to be linked to 14-day mean sunshine duration, humidity, water-level maxima and the amount of precipitation. However, land cover classes were found to be the most important factor, effectively assigning both indigenous and non-native mosquito species to various communities, which responded differentially to environmental variables. These findings thus underline the significance of non-climatic variables for future mosquito prediction models and the necessity to consider these in mosquito surveillance programmes.

  8. Genomic and Bioinformatic Analysis of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanchaichinda, C.; Brattsten, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system. PMID:25368081

  9. A review of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Seth R; Al-Amin, Hasan Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Harbach, Ralph E

    2016-10-22

    Diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens remain an important source of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. To better control the vectors that transmit the agents of disease, and hence the diseases they cause, and to appreciate the diversity of the family Culicidae, it is important to have an up-to-date list of the species present in the country. Original records were collected from a literature review to compile a list of the species recorded in Bangladesh. Records for 123 species were collected, although some species had only a single record. This is an increase of ten species over the most recent complete list, compiled nearly 30 years ago. Collection records of three additional species are included here: Anopheles pseudowillmori, Armigeres malayi and Mimomyia luzonensis. While this work constitutes the most complete list of mosquito species collected in Bangladesh, further work is needed to refine this list and understand the distributions of those species within the country. Improved morphological and molecular methods of identification will allow the refinement of this list in years to come.

  10. The Susceptibility and Behavioral Response of Anopheles Albimanus Weidemann and Anopheles Vestitipennis Dyar and Knab (Diptera: Culicidae) to Insecticides in Northern Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Chavez, A. Orozco , E.G. Loyola and A. Martinez-Palomo. 1992b. Scanning election microscopic observations ofAnopheles albimanus (Diptera; Culicidae) eggs...source (Blak-ray Lampl\\ model UVL-56, UVP, San Gabriel , CAl, floor, walls and ceiling ofhuts were carefully inspected for position and numbers ofmarked

  11. A New Subgenus of Wyeomyia (Diptera: Culicidae), with the Reclassification and Redescription of Wyeomyia (Davismyia) Arborea, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) Tarsata and Sabethes (Sabethes) Carrilloi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Sabethes) carriLLoi sp. n. de Venezuela. Bo!. Dir. Malariol. Saneamiento Ambiental 18:199- 204. Ward, RA 1984. Second supplement to "A catalog of the mosquitoes of the world" (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 16:227- 270.

  12. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  13. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-04-01

    To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  14. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera.

  15. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From the Northwestern Brazilian Amazon: Padauari River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, R S G; Hutchings, R W; Menezes, I S; Motta, M de A; Sallum, M A M

    2016-11-01

    The mosquito fauna (Culicidae) from remote northern areas of the State of Amazonas were sampled using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shannon, Malaise, and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. One hundred and seven collections were performed in five localities along the Padauari River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during June 2010. The 20,557 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 17 genera, representing 117 different species, of which four are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are 10 morphospecies that may represent undescribed new taxa, eight of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. The genus Culex had the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Aedes and Psorophora both represented 10% of the total sample and had the second highest number of species and individuals. The most abundant species was Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Hutchings & Ferreira, followed by Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), Culex (Melanoconion) vaxus Dyar, Culex (Melanoconion) portesi Senevet & Abonnenc, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) amazonica Cerqueira, Culex (Culex) mollis Dyar & Knab, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu (Peryassú), and Culex (Melanoconion) theobaldi Lutz. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results represent the most diverse standardized inventory of mosquitoes along the Padauari River, with the identification of 127 species-level taxa distributed in five localities, within two municipalities (Barcelos and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of Mayotte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Le Goff

    Full Text Available A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species

  17. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiang-Yu; Peng, Heng; Ma, Ya-Jun

    2017-10-02

    Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of Plasmodium vivax and Brugia malayi in most regions of China. In addition, its phylogenetic relationship with the cryptic species of the Hyrcanus Group is complex and remains unresolved. Mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers for phylogenetic studies of mosquito species complexes, of which mitochondrial genome data of An. sinensis is not available. An. sinensis samples was collected from Shandong, China, and identified by molecular marker. Genomic DNA was extracted, followed by the Illumina sequencing. Two complete mitochondrial genomes were assembled and annotated using the mitochondrial genome of An. gambiae as reference. The mitochondrial genomes sequences of the 28 known Anopheles species were aligned and reconstructed phylogenetic tree by Maximum Likelihood (ML) method. The length of complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis was 15,076 bp and 15,138 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and an AT-rich control region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the J strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the N strand. The bootstrap value was set as 1000 in ML analyses. The topologies restored phylogenetic affinity within subfamily Anophelinae. The ML tree showed four major clades, corresponding to the subgenera Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia of the genus Anopheles. The complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis were obtained. The number, order and transcription direction of An. sinensis mitochondrial genes were the same as in other species of family Culicidae.

  18. Larval Habitats Characteristics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in North-East of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofizadeh, Aioub; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Dehghan, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are unorganized, published documents about the ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern part of Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and characteristics of larval habitats of Culicidae in Kalaleh County. Methods: Larvae were collected using dipping method and adults by human landing catch technique during April–October, 2012. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded such as vegetation status, and sunlight, water situation. Lacto-phenol and de Faure’s media were used for conserving and mounting samples. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, version 11.5. Results: Out of the 395 larvae collected, 332 were adult mosquitoes comprising; Culiseta, Culex, Anopheles and Ochlerotatus genera and 14 species including An. superpictus, An. maculipennis s.l., An. hyrcanus, An. psudopictus, An. claviger, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. perexiguus, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. subochrea, Ochlerotatus caspius, Oc. echinus and Oc. geniculatus. Culex pipiens larvae were predominant (27.6%) and Cs. subochrea (1%) was found as the lowest species in terms of number. In the adult form, Cx. pipiens (28.9%) was predominant whereas, Cs. subochrea and Cx. perexiguus were reported to have had the lowest frequency. Conclusion: The larvae of An. superpictus and An. maculipennis species as the main vectors of malaria in north of Iran were reported in permanent habitats with clear water and vegetation, full and partial sunlight situations and muddy as well as sandy substrates that are important in larvicide application programs. Exclusive studies are necessary to diagnose An. maculipennis species complex using molecular and morphological analysis in the future. PMID:29062846

  19. An updated checklist of the Culicidae (Diptera) of Morocco, with notes on species of historical and current medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trari, Bouchra; Dakki, Mohamed; Harbach, Ralph E

    2017-06-01

    An updated checklist of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) recorded in Morocco from 1916 to 2016 is provided, including synonyms and synonymous usage for each species. Forty-three species belonging to seven genera are recorded so far: Anopheles (9), Aedes (12) Coquillettidia (2), Culex (12), Culiseta (5), Orthopodomyia (1) and Uranotaenia (2). Traditional and equivalent names in the polyphyletic concept of Aedes are provided for the aedine species. The historical importance and current potential threat of mosquitoes to human health in Morocco is reviewed. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  20. Determination of Mosquitoes Fauna (Culicidae: Diptera in Poldokhtar County of Lorestan Province, 2015

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    Zahirnia A H

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insects as the largest category of arthropods include numerous groups and families that the most important of them belong to order Diptera, family Culicidae. Because of feeding on the human's blood, a number of species of this family have been known as responsible for the transmission of pathogens for many diseases such as malaria, filariasis, encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue fever in the world. Given that no research has been conducted to determine the fauna of existing mosquitoes in the city of Poldokhtar, Lorestan Province, the present study aimed to exactly determine the mosquitoes' fauna in this city to perform appropriate prevention measures. Methods: In this faunistic and cross-sectional descriptive study, four urban areas and four rural areas in four geographic directions in the city of Poldokhtar were determined. In each urban area, two places and in each designated rural area, four places including two human places and two animal places were selected. From the early of April 2015 to the early of January 2016, larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes of the Culicidae family were collected. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and mature were ladling, night catch, total and hand catch with an aspirator. Characteristics including the name of the collector, date of collection, code related to habitat, habitat status (permanent or temporary, type of vegetation cover, type of substrate, and the situation of sunlight were recorded in the related form. The samples were identified by resources and valid identification keys. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally, 5392 mosquito adults of the Culicidae family including 1818 mosquito adults and 3574 larvae in designated areas in the city as well as four rural areas were collected. The three genera Anopheles (21.9%, Culex (64.6%, and Culiseta (13.5% were diagnosed. Also, from three genera, 12 species were identified as follows: Culex theiler, Cx

  1. Nuevos registros de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina New records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in La Pampa Province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Diez; Víctor J. Breser; Estela M. Quirán; Gustavo C. Rossi

    2011-01-01

    Se reporta la primer captura de Culex interfor Dyar, Culex lahillei Bachmann y Casal, Culex pipiens Linneo, Culex saltanensis Dyar, Culex tatoi Casal & García y Psorophora discrucians Walker, para la provincia de La Pampa. Estos registros elevan el número de especies conocidas en la provincia de 10 a 16. Se amplía, además, la distribución geográfica de Aedes aegypti Linneo, Culex apicinus Philippi, Culex brethesi Dyar, Culex maxi Dyar, Culex quinquefasciatus Say y Ochlerotatus albifasciatus M...

  2. Artificial activation of mature unfertilized eggs in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.

  3. Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Koliopoulos, George; Giatropoulos, Athanasios; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (enantiomers of alpha- and beta-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). The chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Citrus essential oils contained in high proportion limonene and in lower quantities p-menthane molecules and pinenes. The insecticidal action of these essential oils and enantiomers of their pinenes on mosquito larvae was evaluated. Plant essential oils exhibited strong toxicity against larvae with the LC(50) values ranging from 30.1 (lemon) to 51.5 mg/L (orange) depending on Citrus species and their composition. Finally, the LC(50) value of pinenes ranging from 36.53 to 66.52 mg/L indicated an enantioselective toxicity only for the beta-pinene enantiomer.

  4. Examination of a Miniaturized Funnel Trap for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larval Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, R.; Kluchinsky, T.; Lewis, M.; Claborn, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Funnel traps are often used to sample for the presence of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in subterranean aquatic habitats. These traps are generally ≥15 cm in diameter, making them impractical for use in subterranean sites that have narrow (10-cm) access ports, such as those in standard-sized septic tanks. Recent research indicates septic tanks may be important habitats for Ae. aegypti in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. To sample mosquito larval populations in these sites, a miniaturized funnel trap was necessary. This project describes the use of a smaller funnel trap for sampling larval populations. The effects of larval instar (third and fourth) and population density on trap efficacy also are examined. The trap detected larval presence 83% of the time at a larval density of 0.011 larvae per cm2 and 100% of the time at densities ≥0.022 larvae per cm2. There was a significant trend of increasing percentage of recaptured larvae with higher larval population densities. Although the miniaturized funnel trap is less sensitive at detecting larval presence in low population densities, it may be useful for sampling aquatic environments with restricted access or shallow water, particularly in domestic septic tanks. PMID:21175077

  5. Ecophysiological characterization and molecular differentiation of Culex pipiens forms (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beji, Marwa; Rhim, Adel; Roiz, David; Bouattour, Ali

    2017-07-10

    The Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) includes the most widespread mosquito species in the world. Members of this complex are the primary enzootic and epidemic vectors of the West Nile virus (genus Flavivirus) in several countries. The two recognized forms of Cx. pipiens (Linnaeus, 1758) - pipiens and molestus - exhibit behavioral and physiological differences. Natural populations of Cx. pipiens were investigated in several sites in Tunisia to evaluate the ecophysiological and molecular characteristics of their forms. The analysis showed the sympatric presence of Cx. pipiens forms and hybrids in all studied sites. Of all the tested larvae of Cx. pipiens, 33.5% were identified as pipiens, 30.8% were identified as molestus, and 35.6% were identified as hybrids. The molestus and hybrid forms were positively correlated with urban habitats and belowground sites while the pipiens form was positively correlated with rural habitats and aboveground sites. Autogeny was expressed in all types of habitats and breeding sites. By contrast with the microsatellite CQ11, the two molecular markers, ace-2 and cytb, did not allow differentiation between the Cx. pipiens forms. Our study shows the ubiquitous distribution and the plasticity of the different forms of Cx. pipiens in a wide range of ecological conditions. It suggests that the behavioral traits assigned to the forms of Cx. pipiens seem to be more flexible than previously assumed. Our analysis also proves that the microsatellite CQ11 remains an efficient tool for distinguishing between Cx. pipiens forms.

  6. Host use and seasonality of Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis (Diptera: Culicidae) from eastern Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Erik M; Stenn, Tanise; Acevedo, Carolina; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D

    2016-12-01

    Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis (Dyar, 1918) is a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species found throughout much of tropical America, including southern Florida. Relatively few reports are available regarding the ecology of Cx. iolambdis, despite its widespread distribution and putative involvement in transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. To quantify habitat and host utilization, adults of Cx. iolambdis were sampled from resting shelters at a field site in Vero Beach, Florida, over a 12-month period. Culex iolambdis (1109 males, 3072 females) constituted more than half (56.76%) of all mosquitoes sampled (24 species) and was active year-round. Unfed females and gravid females of Cx. iolambdis were significantly more abundant in mangrove habitat, while males and blood-fed females were not. PCR-based bloodmeal analysis of 305 females revealed that Cx. iolambdis has very wide host breadth, feeding on birds (37.0% overall), reptiles (26.6%), amphibians (23.3%) and mammals (13.1%). Green heron (Butorides virescens), Southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephala) and American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) were the most commonly fed upon hosts. Bloodmeals from different host classes varied significantly with season, suggesting that Cx. iolambdis may play a role in the amplification and epidemic transmission of zoonotic arboviruses affecting human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Activity of a lipid synthesis inhibitor (spiromesifen in Culiseta longiareolata (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Hayette Bouabida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the activity of spiromesifen against the most abundant and investigated mosquito species, Culiseta longiareolata Aitken, 1954 (Diptera, Culicidae. Methods: Culiseta longiareolata larvae were collected from untreated areas located at Tébessa (Northeast Algeria. A commercial formulation of spiromesifen (Oberon® 240 SC was tested at different concentrations ranging between 238 and 1428 μg/L on newly molted fourth-instar larvae under standard laboratory conditions according to Word Health Organization recommendations. The effects were examined on the mortality, the morphometric measurements, two biomarkers (catalase and malondialdehyde, and the biochemical composition of larvae, respectively. Results: The compound exhibited insecticidal activity. Moreover, it disturbed growth and several morphological aberrations were observed. It also affected body volume, biomarkers and contents of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. A marked effect on lipids and malondialdehyde was noted, confirming its primary mode of action on lipid synthesis. Conclusions: Spiromesifen appears less potent than other insecticides tested such as the insect growth disruptors. Keywords: Culiseta longiareolata, Spiromesifen, Toxicity, Biochemical composition, Biomarkers

  8. Aedes aegypti survival in the presence of Toxorhynchites violaceus (Diptera: Culicidae fourth instar larvae

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    Daniel S Albeny

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Different methods have been used to control A. aegypti, including chemical and biological tools. However, chemical control can lead to a subsequent increase in the mosquitoes' insecticide resistance, and biological control represents an important method as an alternative to insecticide usage. Larvae from the Toxorhynchites genus (Diptera: Culicidae are predators of other mosquitoes and represent a potential natural biocontrol agent of A. aegypti larvae. In the present work, A. aegypti larval survival was studied in the presence of the neotropical Toxorhynchites violaceus (Wiedemann, 1821 fourth instar larvae. Toxorhynchites violaceus consumption of A. aegypti increased during the 192 hours of the experiment and was more marked in the intervals between 96 and 120 hours and between 168 and 192 hours, when the A. aegypti survival reached 0%. During the fourth instar, T. violaceus increased its predation on A. aegypti larvae, possibly in order to increase its nutrient storage prior to pupation. Otherwise, low prey consumption can lead to a nutritional deficit for the larvae, delaying the adult's sexual development and reducing its egg production. Here we show that A. aegypti survival can be reduced by the T. violaceus fourth larvae predation under laboratory conditions

  9. Feeding patterns of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from eastern Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; de Oliveira, Luis Claudio Motta; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Morone, Fernanda; Lorosa, Elias Seixas

    2012-07-01

    Blood-feeding sources of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the eastern region of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina were analyzed by precipitin technique. One hundred fifty-four female mosquitoes collected by CDC traps in the Navegantes municipality 13-15 February 2005 reacted to one or more of eight antisera, including chicken, dog, goat, sheep, horse, opossum, human and rodent antisera. One hundred thirty-seven specimens (89%) reacted to only one source, and 17 (11%) specimens reacted to two sources. Among the 137 specimens reacting to only one source, reactions to rodent (50.4%), sheep (5.8%), chicken (5.1%), goat (5.1%), dog (2.2%), horse (3.6%), and human (3.6%) antisera were observed. The analyzed species demonstrated a high degree of opportunistic feeding behavior in relation to host preference. Results are compared with results from similar studies, and the low proportion of reactions to human antisera is discussed.

  10. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB’s Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr PMID:26692809

  11. Sexual chemoecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Current knowledge and implications for vector control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males. We reviewed the current knowledge on mosquito sexual chemical ecology and other key cues affecting courtship and mating behavior. The information available on the aggregation and sex pheromones in mosquito males is rather limited. To the best of our knowledge, the components of the aggregation pheromone stimulating swarming mechanisms have been fully characterized only for Aedes aegypti, while evidence for aggregation pheromones in other mosquito species remains elusive. Further research on this issue is needed, as well as to dissect the relative importance of visual (with special reference to swarming landmarks), vibrational, olfactory and tactile cues perceived during swarming and mate. On the other hand, more knowledge is available for cuticular hydrocarbons, which modulate mating behavior in several species of economic importance. These compounds, coupled with volatile aggregation components, have potential interest for the development of monitoring and trapping systems. In addition, the analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons are essential for discrimination between closely related mosquito species and/or populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sampling Outdoor, Resting Anopheles gambiae and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Western Kenya with Clay Pots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiere, M.; Bayoh, M. N.; Gimnig, J.; Vulule, J.; Irungu, L.; Walker, E.

    2014-01-01

    Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them. PMID:17294916

  13. Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Potential of Squamocin on the Midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marilza S.; Cossolin, Jamile F. S.; Pereira, Mônica J. B.; Sant’Ana, Antônio E. G.; Lima, Milena D.; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenins are secondary metabolites exclusively produced by Annonaceae, which have antitumor, cytotoxic, and pesticide activities. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal and cytotoxic effect of squamocin from Annona squamosa on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) midgut. The compound was solubilized in 2% Tween 20 at 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 ppm. The assay was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, each with 20 third-instar larvae. Larval mortality was assessed every hour until total mortality, and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. Cellular damage was evaluated every 30 min in groups comprising five larvae subjected to squamocin at 50 and 100 ppm for 240 min. The total larval mortality occurred after 360 min following application of 50, 80, and 100 ppm squamocin, and 600 min after applying other concentrations with LC50 at 6.4 ppm. Both 50 and 100 ppm of squamocin showed cytotoxic activity in the midgut epithelium of A. aegypti after 240 min with 50 ppm resulting in midgut cells with light cytoplasm containing small vacuoles, whereas at 100 ppm were found cells with cytoplasm highly vacuolated, damaged apical surface and cell protrusion toward the gut lumen. In conclusion, squamocin has the potential to control A. aegypti. PMID:24674934

  14. Aedeomyia squamipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Florida, USA, a New State and Country Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Blosser, Erik M

    2017-05-01

    Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga) is a tropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) found throughout most of the American Tropics, from eastern Mexico through Argentina, including several Caribbean islands. Larvae are typically associated with bodies of water with dense growths of aquatic vegetation, particularly Pistia stratiotes L., water lettuce. Adult females feed predominantly on the blood of birds and seek hosts in forest canopies. Aedeomyia squamipennis is considered an important vector of Gamboa virus and avian malaria, and is also suspected of transmitting Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Collections from Florida City, FL, near the southern tip of the Florida peninsula, yielded larvae, adult males, and females of Ad. squamipennis, constituting a new genus and species record for Florida and the United States. The widespread availability of larval habitat and suitable hosts in Florida will likely lead to expansion of Ad. squamipennis in Florida, and perhaps into neighboring states. In South America, Ad. squamipennis is found as far south as Buenos Aires, Argentina, at ∼35° S latitude, which is equivalent in N latitude to coastal North Carolina. The northern limit of expansion of Ad. squamipennis in North America will likely be limited by winter temperatures and availability of larval habitat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

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    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  16. Does autocthonous primary production influence oviposition by Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in container habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Amanda R; Walker, Edward D; Kaufman, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues.

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes ( Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Westphal-Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae. Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus Theobald individuals vary considerably in size and color of the reflections of the scales on their thorax, abdomen, antepronotal lobes and occiput. The goal of this study was to investigate and to characterize the differences in the color of the scales among preserved specimens and to analyze the differences in the microstructures of the scales that cover their bodies using near-infrared spectroscopy, and to evaluate whether the latter is efficient in distinguishing the populations. A total of 201 adult females were analyzed for the characterization of color patterns. In addition, absorbance spectra and scanning electron microscope images were obtained from them. As a result of color analysis, two variations were identified, one represented by specimens with yellow or green scales and the other with blue or purple scales. The same two variations were corroborated using NIRS. Analysis of the microstructure of the scales lining the mesonotum, occiput and antepronotal lobes resulted in the same variations. The three methodologies, near-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and coloration of the reflections of the scales revealed two variations within Sa. albiprivus.

  18. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  19. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae in a Brazilian tropical dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleandson Ferreira Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil.METHODS: Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models.RESULTS: Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition.CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate the impact of cattle removal on Culicidae community structure in Brazil and demonstrates the importance of assessing ecological parameters such as community species composition.

  20. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Brazilian tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cleandson Ferreira; Borges, Magno

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil. Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models. Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition. This is the first study to evaluate the impact of cattle removal on Culicidae community structure in Brazil and demonstrates the importance of assessing ecological parameters such as community species composition.

  1. Redescription of the Holotype of Culex (Culex) Peus Speiser and Taxonomy of Culex (Culex) Stigmatosoma Dyar and Thriambus Dyar (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-12

    American species of Culex on the male genitalia. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 6: 86-l 11. -. 192 1. Ring-legged Cufex in Texas. Insecutor ...United States. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 5: 170-l 83. Edwards, F. W. 1932. Genera Insectorum (P. Wyts- man). Diptera Fam. Culicidae. Louis Desmet... Inscitiae Menstruus 9: 32-33. -. 1922. The mosquitoes of the United States. Proceedings of the United States National Mu- seum 62: 1-119. -. 1928. The

  2. Genetic Characterization of Spondweni and Zika Viruses and Susceptibility of Geographically Distinct Strains of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to Spondweni Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to Spondweni virus Andrew D . Haddow1,2*, Farooq Nasar1,2, Hilda Guzman1, Alongkot Ponlawat3...antimouse immunoglobulin G (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) 180 [32,33]. 181 182 TR-16-162 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public...of Thailand. 303 304 Contributor information 305 306 Andrew D . Haddow, Email: adhaddow@gmail.com or andrew.d.haddow.ctr@mail.mil 307 308

  3. Reduced Insecticide Susceptibility in Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Where Agricultural Pest Management Overlaps With Mosquito Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Bachmann, Amanda; Varenhorst, Adam J

    2018-01-21

    Mosquito abatement programs in Midwestern communities frequently exist within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Although separately managed, both agricultural pests and mosquitoes are targeted by similar classes of insecticides. As a result, there is the potential for unintended insecticide exposure to mosquito populations from agricultural pest management. To determine the impact that agricultural management practices have on mosquito insecticide susceptibility we compared the mortality of Aedes vexans (Meigen; Diptera: Culicidae) between populations sampled from locations with and without mosquito abatement in South Dakota, a region dominated by agricultural production. Collection locations were either within towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; Brookings and Sioux Falls, SD) or located > 16 km from towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; areas near Harrold and Willow Lake, SD). WHO bioassays were used to test susceptibly of adults to differing insecticide classes relative to their respective controls; 1) an organochlorine (dieldrin 4%), 2) an organophosphate (malathion 5%), and 3) a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%). Corrected mortality did not significantly differ between locations with or without abatement; however, when locations were analized by proportion of developed land within the surrounding landscape pyrethroid mortality was significantly lower where crop production dominated the surrounding landscape and mosquito abatement was present. These data suggest that agricultural pest management may incidentally contribute to reduced mosquito susceptibility where overlap between agricultural pest management and mosquito abatement exists. Decoupling insecticide classes used by both agricultural and public health pest management programs may be necessary to ensure continued efficacy of pest management tools. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For

  4. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.

  5. Microgeographic Population Structuring of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) From São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2017-11-07

    The continuing worldwide increase in urbanization can potentially have a major impact on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases, as anthropogenic changes to the environment are known to favor a few species of mosquitoes that can thrive in urban environments. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is found extensively in urban habitats, where it lives in degraded, polluted areas and is often the only species of mosquito capable to surviving under such conditions. Traditional mosquito control strategies no longer have the desired effect due to the several factors such as insecticide resistance, abundance of breeding sites, lack of proper sewage and sanitation, and absence of natural predator, leading Cx. quinquefasciatus populations to increase its numbers in cities. In this study, five Cx. quinquefasciatus populations were analyzed using 12 microsatellite markers to investigate whether the dynamics of these populations are being modulated by urbanization and how they are structured in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Our results indicate that only one of the study populations (the population from Anhanguera Park) exhibited evidence of expansion. The populations from Ibirapuera Park and Piqueri Park, the most urbanized regions of the areas studied, did not show signs of expansion. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the dispersal of Cx. quinquefasciatus and its colonization of new areas, as well as the species' demographic patterns and how these are associated with urbanization, particularly in areas undergoing a rural-to-urban transformation, such as Anhanguera Park, is of great importance for mosquito control. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: a review of their biodiversity, distribution and medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Mohamed Lemine, Aichetou; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Hasni Ebou, Moina; Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ould Bouraya, Issa Nabiyoullahi; Brengues, Cecile; Trape, Jean-François; Basco, Leonardo; Bogreau, Hervé; Simard, Frédéric; Faye, Ousmane; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2017-01-19

    Although mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important disease vectors, information on their biodiversity in Mauritania is scarce and very dispersed in the literature. Data from the scientific literature gathered in the country from 1948 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Overall 51 culicid species comprising 17 Anopheles spp., 14 Aedes spp., 18 Culex spp. and two Mansonia spp. have been described in Mauritania among which Anopheles arabiensis, Aedes vexans, Culex poicilipes and Culex antennatus are of epidemiological significance. Anopheles arabiensis is widely distributed throughout the country and its geographic distribution has increased northwards in recent years, shifting its northern limit form 17°32'N in the 1960s to 18°47'N today. Its presence in the central region of Tagant highlights the great ecological plasticity of the species. Conversely, the distribution of Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and Anopheles melas has shrunk compared to that of the 1960s. Anopheles rhodesiensis and An. d'thali are mainly confined in the mountainous areas (alt. 200-700 m), whereas Anopheles pharoensis is widely distributed in the Senegal River basin. Culex poicilipes and Cx. antenattus were naturally found infected with Rift valley fever virus in central and northern Mauritania following the Rift valley outbreaks of 1998 and 2012. Recently, Ae. aegypti emerged in Nouakchott and is probably responsible for dengue fever episodes of 2015. This paper provides a concise and up-to-date overview of the existing literature on mosquito species known to occur in Mauritania and highlights areas where future studies should fill a gap in knowledge about vector biodiversity. It aims to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes particularly in the field of medical entomology to inform evidence-based decision-making for vector control and management strategies.

  7. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Silbermayr, Katja; Obwaller, Adelheid; Berer, Dominik; Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Pinior, Beate; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Rubel, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. As large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. In this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of Vienna, Austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes were captured using different sampling techniques at 17 sites in the city of Vienna. Species belonging to the Culex pipiens complex (78.8 %) were most abundant, followed by Coquillettidia richiardii (10.2 %), Anopheles plumbeus (5.4 %), Aedes vexans (3.8 %), and Ochlerotatus sticticus (0.7 %). Individuals of the Cx. pipiens complex were found at 80.2 % of the trap sites, while 58.8 % of the trap sites were positive for Cq. richiardii and Ae. vexans. Oc. sticticus was captured at 35.3 % of the sites, and An. plumbeus only at 23.5 % of the trap sites. Cx. pipiens complex is known to be a potent vector and pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Plasmodium sp., and Dirofilaria repens can be transmitted by this species. Cq. richiardii is a known vector species for Batai virus (BATV), SINV, TAHV, and WNV, while Ae. vexans can transmit TAHV, USUV, WNV, and Dirofilaria repens. An. plumbeus and Oc. sticticus seem to play only a minor role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Vienna. WNV, which is already wide-spread in Europe, is likely to be the highest threat in Vienna as it can be transmitted by several of the most common species, has already been shown to pose a higher risk in cities, and has the possibility to cause severe illness.

  8. Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae to Synthetic and Natural Attractants and Repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases: dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes. In this study, we evaluated a few compounds in a sensitive behavioral assay with Ae. aegypti larvae. The orientation of larvae to different compounds was surveyed using a performance index (PI). The PI represents the response to each odorant, where a value of +1 is indicative of full attraction and -1 represents complete repulsion. The widely used insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide elicited a significantly negative PI, as did acetophenone and indole. A yeast extract, a known food source, elicited a significantly positive PI, as did 2-methylphenol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylphenol, and fish food. On the other hand, no response was observed for the essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis at the concentration evaluated. Pretreatment of larvae with N-ethylmaleimide and ablation of the antennae resulted in a suppression of behavioral responses. The overall mobility of ablated larvae was indistinguishable from unablated controls, and absence of any visible locomotor dysfunction was observed. This work is a contribution to the study of the chemical ecology of disease vectors with the aim of developing more efficient tools for surveillance and control.Natural and synthetic compounds attractive to Ae. aegypti larvae should be incorporated into integrated pest management programs through the use of baited traps or by improving the efficacy of larvicides commonly used in control campaigns. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Exploring genetic variation in haplotypes of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) through DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Del Serrone, Paola; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of many pathogens and parasites of humans, as well as domestic and wild animals. In urban and semi-urban Asian countries, Cx. quinquefasciatus is a main vector of nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis. In the African region, it vectors the Rift Valley fever virus, while in the USA it transmits West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis virus. In this study, DNA barcoding was used to explore the genetic variation of Cx. quinquefasciatus populations from 88 geographical regions. We presented a comprehensive approach analyzing the effectiveness of two gene markers, i.e. CO1 and 16S rRNA. The high threshold genetic divergence of CO1 (0.47%) gene was reported as an ideal marker for molecular identification of this mosquito vector. Furthermore, null substitutions were lower in CO1 if compared to 16S rRNA, which influenced its differentiating potential among Indian haplotypes. NJ tree was well supported with high branch values for CO1 gene than 16S rRNA, indicating ideal genetic differentiation among haplotypes. TCS haplotype network revealed 14 distinct clusters. The intra- and inter-population polymorphism were calculated among the global and Indian Cx. quinquefasciatus lineages. The genetic diversity index Tajima' D showed negative values for all the 4 intra-population clusters (G2-4, G10). Fu's FS showed negative value for G10 cluster, which was significant and indicated recent population expansion. However, the G2-G4 (i.e. Indian lineages) had positive values, suggesting a bottleneck effect. Overall, our research firstly shed light on the genetic differences among the haplotypes of Cx. quinquefasciatus species complex, adding basic knowledge to the molecular ecology of this important mosquito vector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lista das espécies de Culicidae (Diptera depositadas na Coleção de Entomologia Pe. J. S. Moure Species list of the Culicidae (Diptera deposited at the Entomological Collection "Pe. J. S. Moure"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Tissot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Coleção de Entomologia do Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP abriga cerca de 5.000.000 de exemplares de insetos. A coleção de Diptera está representada por aproximadamente 2.000.000 de exemplares, sendo Muscidae; Culicidae e Syrphidae as famílias mais representativas. A ordem Diptera possui cerca de 150.000 espécies descritas e a coleção conta com cerca de 103.000 exemplares representantes de 78 famílias. A lista das espécies pertencentes à família Culicidae conta com 9.579 exemplares, distribuídos em 2 subfamílias, 7 tribos, 17 gêneros, 26 subgêneros e 85 espécies. A maioria dos exemplares foi coletado em remanescentes de mata localizados em áreas urbanas e rurais, ambientes silvestres e urbanos de regiões litorâneas ou áreas urbanas pertencentes a diferentes cidades do Estado do Paraná, e algumas espécies incluídas foram capturadas nos Estados de São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina e no Distrito Federal. As informações específicas de cada exemplar, como local de coleta, latitude, longitude, coletor, data de coleta, método de coleta e nome do pesquisador que identificou, e também informações taxonômicas como ordem, tribo, gênero, subgênero e espécie, foram informatizados em um banco de dados.The Entomological Collection of Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP accommodates about 5,000,000 insect specimens. The collection of Diptera is represented by approximately 2,000,000 specimens, being Muscidae, Culicidae and Syrphidae the most representative families. The Diptera order consists of approximately 150,000 described species and in the Collection about 103,000 specimens within 78 families are registered. The list of species of the family Culicidae presents 9,579 specimens within 2 subfamilies, 7 tribes, 17 genera, 26 subgenera and 85 species. Most specimens were captured in forest remnants in urban and rural areas, wild and urban environments in

  11. Nuevos registros de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando DIEZ; Víctor J. BRESER; Estela M. QUIRÁN; Gustavo C. ROSSI

    2011-01-01

    Se reporta la primer captura de Culex interfor Dyar, Culex lahillei Bachmann y Casal, Culex pipiens Linneo, Culex saltanensis Dyar, Culex tatoi Casal & García y Psorophora discrucians Walker, para la provincia de La Pampa. Estos registros elevan el número de especies conocidas en la provincia de 10 a 16. Se amplía, además, la distribución geográfica de Aedes aegypti Linneo, Culex apicinus Philippi, Culex brethesi Dyar, Culex maxi Dyar, Culex quinquefasciatus Say y Ochlerotatus albifasciatus M...

  12. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Modeling the Environmental Suitability for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammi L; Haque, Ubydul; Monaghan, Andrew J; Eisen, Lars; Hahn, Micah B; Hayden, Mary H; Savage, Harry M; McAllister, Janet; Mutebi, John-Paul; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2017-11-07

    The mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.)(Diptera:Culicidae) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae) transmit dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses and represent a growing public health threat in parts of the United States where they are established. To complement existing mosquito presence records based on discontinuous, non-systematic surveillance efforts, we developed county-scale environmental suitability maps for both species using maximum entropy modeling to fit climatic variables to county presence records from 1960-2016 in the contiguous United States. The predictive models for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus had an overall accuracy of 0.84 and 0.85, respectively. Cumulative growing degree days (GDDs) during the winter months, an indicator of overall warmth, was the most important predictive variable for both species and was positively associated with environmental suitability. The number (percentage) of counties classified as environmentally suitable, based on models with 90 or 99% sensitivity, ranged from 1,443 (46%) to 2,209 (71%) for Ae. aegypti and from 1,726 (55%) to 2,329 (75%) for Ae. albopictus. Increasing model sensitivity results in more counties classified as suitable, at least for summer survival, from which there are no mosquito records. We anticipate that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus will be found more commonly in counties classified as suitable based on the lower 90% sensitivity threshold compared with the higher 99% threshold. Counties predicted suitable with 90% sensitivity should therefore be a top priority for expanded mosquito surveillance efforts while still keeping in mind that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may be introduced, via accidental transport of eggs or immatures, and potentially proliferate during the warmest part of the year anywhere within the geographic areas delineated by the 99% sensitivity model. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work

  14. Passage of Ingested Mansonella ozzardi (Spirurida: Onchocercideae) Microfilariae Through the Midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughan, Jefferson A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Turell, Michael J; Chadee, Dave D

    2006-01-01

    .... Mansonella ozzardi (Manson) is a benign filarial nematode parasite of humans in Latin America and is transmitted by black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Because M...

  15. Overwintering biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Brittany M; Macedo, Paula A; Kothera, Linda; Savage, Harry M; Reisen, William K

    2013-07-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar under field, seminatural, and experimental conditions. All Culex spp. remained vagile throughout winter, enabling the collection of 3,174 females and 1,706 males from diverse habitats during the winters of 2010-2012. Overwintering strategies included both quiescence and diapause. In addition, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl females remained reproductively active in both underground and aboveground habitats. Some blood-fed, gravid, and parous Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens complex females were collected throughout the winter period. Under both field and experimental conditions, Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females exposed to autumnal conditions arrested primary follicular maturation at previtellogenic stage I, with primary to secondary follicular ratios or=stage I-II (host-seeking arrest) or were found in various stages of degeneration. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females by mid-late October and was terminated after the winter solstice, but host-seeking seemed limited by temperature. An accrual of 97.52 +/- 30.7 and 162.85 +/- 79.3 degree-days after the winter solstice was estimated to be necessary for diapause termination in Cx. tarsalis under field and seminatural conditions, respectively. An increase in the proportion of blood-fed Culex females in resting collections occurred concurrently with diapause termination in field populations based on ovarian morphometrics. WNV RNA was detected in one pool of 18 males and in a

  16. Overwintering Biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    NELMS, BRITTANY M.; MACEDO, PAULA A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2014-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar under field, seminatural, and experimental conditions. All Culex spp. remained vagile throughout winter, enabling the collection of 3,174 females and 1,706 males from diverse habitats during the winters of 2010–2012. Overwintering strategies included both quiescence and diapause. In addition, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl females remained reproductively active in both underground and aboveground habitats. Some blood-fed, gravid, and parous Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens complex females were collected throughout the winter period. Under both field and experimental conditions, Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females exposed to autumnal conditions arrested primary follicular maturation at previtellogenic stage I, with primary to secondary follicular ratios <1.5 (indicative of a hormonally induced diapause). In contrast, most Cx. pipiens complex females did not enter reproductive diapause and ovarian follicles matured to ≥stage I–II (host-seeking arrest) or were found in various stages of degeneration. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females by mid-late October and was terminated after the winter solstice, but host-seeking seemed limited by temperature. An accrual of 97.52 ± 30.7 and 162.85 ± 79.3 degree-days after the winter solstice was estimated to be necessary for diapause termination in Cx. tarsalis under field and seminatural conditions, respectively. An increase in the proportion of blood-fed Culex females in resting

  17. A Redescription of Aedes (Stegomyia) amaltheus De Meillon and Lavoipierre with a Note on its Assignment to the aegypti Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    the aegypt ; Group of Spec’es (Diptera: Culicidae) $ Yiau-Min Huang Southeast Asia Mosquito Project Department of Entomology Smithsonian...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1974 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1974 to 00-00-1974 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Redescription of Aedes ...subgenus %@amqia Theobald (Groups A, B and D). Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. London. 67 pp. Mosquito Sys tematics Vol. 6(l) 1974 Aedes (Siegomyia)amaNheus De Meillon and Lavoipierre 31

  18. Primeiro registro do gênero Toxorhynchites Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae) em Mata Atlântica, Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Albeny, Daniel Simões; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Ataíde, Lívia Maria Silva; Vilela, Evaldo Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Durante os meses de março e abril de 2007 foi verificada a presença do gênero Toxorhynchites (Diptera, Culicidae) em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. No experimento foram utilizadas 500 armadilhas de oviposição. Registrando-se, pela primeira vez na região de Viçosa o gênero Toxorhynchites, sendo as espécies T. pusillus (Costa Lima, 193 1) e T. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab, 1906) encontradas pela primeira vez no Estado de Minas Gerais. As espécies relatadas ...

  19. Primeiro registro do gênero Toxorhynchites Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae) em Mata Atlântica, Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Simões Albeny; Cassiano Sousa Rosa; Lívia Maria Silva Ataíde; Evaldo Ferreira Vilela

    2010-01-01

    Durante os meses de março e abril de 2007 foi verificada a presença do gênero Toxorhynchites (Diptera, Culicidae) em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. No experimento foram utilizadas 500 armadilhas de oviposição. Registrando-se, pela primeira vez na região de Viçosa o gênero Toxorhynchites, sendo as espécies T. pusillus (Costa Lima, 193 1) e T. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab, 1906) encontradas pela primeira vez no Estado de Minas Gerais. As espécies relata...

  20. The Identity of Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus Dyar and Knab and Related Species with Notes on the Synonymy and Description of a New Species (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Dyar ( 1920 :54; 1923:178); Bonne and Bonne-Wepster (1925:296-8). CuZex (Moehlostyrax) taeniopus in part of Dyar (1925:171; 1928:293-4). CuZex...Entomol. Argent. 16:99-121. Dyar , H. G. 1920 . The species of Choeroporpa, a subgenus of CuZex (Diptera, Culicidae). Inset. Inscit. Menst. 8:54-81. 1922...Mosquito Systematics Vol. 12(l) 1980 7 The Identity of CuZex (MeZanoconion) taeniopus Dyar and Knab and Related Species with Notes on the Synonymy

  1. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Cantrell, Charles L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Duke, Stephen O; Schneider, John C; Agramonte, Natasha M; Khan, Ikhlas

    2012-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti (L), yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) using the K & Dbioassay module system. Saturated (C6:0 to C16:0 and C18:0) and unsaturated fatty acids (C11:1 to C14:1, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2) showed biting deterrence index (BDI) values significantly greater than ethanol, the negative control. Among the saturated fatty acids, mid chain length acids (C10:0 to C13:0) showed higher biting deterrence than short (C6:0 to C9:0) and long chain length acids (C14:0 to C18:0), except for C8:0 and C16:0 that were more active than the other short and long chain acids. The BDI values of mid chain length acids (C10:0 to C13:0) were not significantly less than N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), the positive control. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, C11:1 showed the highest activity (BDI = 1.05) and C18:2 had the lowest activity (BDI = 0.7). In C11:1, C12:1, and C14:1 BDI values were not significantly less than DEET. After the preliminary observations, residual activity bioassays were performed on C11:0, C12:0, C11:1, and C12:1 over a 24-h period. All the fatty acids (C11:0, C12:0, C11:1, and C12:1) and DEET showed significantly higher activity at all test intervals than the solvent control. At treatment and 1-h posttreatment, all fatty acids showed proportion not biting (PNB) values not significantly less than DEET. At 3-, 6-, and 12-h posttreatment, all fatty acids showed PNB values significantly greater than DEET. At 24-h posttreatment, only the PNB value for C12:0 was significantly higher than DEET. The dose-responses of C12:0 and DEET were determined at concentrations of 5-25 nmol/cm2. As in the residual activity bioassays, the PNB values for C12:0 and DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) were not significantly different. However, at lower concentrations, the PNB values for C12:0 were significantly greater than DEET. These results clearly indicate that mid

  2. [English and Russian terminology for the thoracic skeletal structures of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae): a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalin, A V; Aĭbulatov, S V

    2013-01-01

    The authors analyze different names of thoracic skeletal structures in mosquitoes (Dip- tera: Culicidae), used by various authors (Kirkpatrick, 1925; Edwards, 1932; Stackelberg, 1937; Sazonova, 1958; Belkin, 1962a, b: Maslov, 1967: Gutsevich et al., 1970; Knight, Laffoon, 1970; McAlpine, 1981; Becker et al., 2010). In the abovementioned publications, a small number of skeletal structures, morphologically very important for the identification of species and genera of the family Culicidae, are denoted by multiple synonymic names, while certain completely different skeletal structures are represented under a single homonymous name. Duplicated synonymic names for thoracic sclerites, setae, and scales on sclerites considerably hamper the work of specialists determining species of the family Culicidae. In some cases, this fact results in erroneous diagnostics of species. We provide a detailed description of the thoracic morphology of mosquitoes, pointing to existing synonymic Russian and English names for each skeletal structure and also recommend the use of a single Russian term for each structure.

  3. The Cretaceous Fossil Burmaculex antiquus Confirmed as the Earliest Known Lineage of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkent, Art; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-02-15

    A second female of mid-Cretaceous Burmaculex antiquus Borkent & Grimaldi, preserved in 99 myo Burmese amber, and the oldest known member of the Culicidae, is described in detail. Although generally opaque and distorted, some character states are added or refined. The discovery of well-developed scales on the legs shows that this feature must now be considered a synapomorphy of both the fossil and all extant members of the family. Previously described synapomorphies and further interpretation here confirm the phylogenetic position of this fossil as the sister group to extant and all known fossil Culicidae. It is placed in the new subfamily Burmaculicinae.

  4. INVENTORY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE IN CONSERVATION UNITS IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleandson Ferreira SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state.

  5. INVENTORY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN CONSERVATION UNITS IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY FORESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cleandson Ferreira; Silva, Alex Chavier; Rodrigues, Raquel Andrade; de Jesus, Jamilli Sanndy Ramos; Borges, Magno Augusto Zazá

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF) fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state.

  6. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  7. Patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) infestation and container productivity measured using pupal and Stegomyia indices in northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelli, F M; Espinosa, M O; Weinberg, D; Coto, H D; Gaspe, M S; Gürtler, R E

    2009-09-01

    A citywide control program of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mainly based on the use of larvicides reduced infestations but failed to achieve the desired target levels in Clorinda, northeastern Argentina, over 5 yr of interventions. To understand the underlying causes of persistent infestations and to develop new control tactics adapted to the local context, we conducted two pupal surveys in a large neighborhood with approximately 2,500 houses and recorded several variables for every container inspected in fall and spring 2007. In total, 4,076 lots and 4,267 containers were inspected over both surveys, and 8,391 Ae. aegypti pupae were collected. Large tanks used for potable water storage were the most abundant and the most productive type of container, accounting for 65-84% of all the pupae collected. Therefore, large tanks were key containers and candidates for improved targeted interventions. Multivariate analysis showed that containers located in the yard, at low sun exposure, unlidded, filled with rain water, and holding polluted water were all more likely to be infested by larvae or pupae. When only infested containers were considered, productivity of pupae was most closely associated with large tanks and rain water. A stochastic simulation model was developed to calculate the expected correlations between pupal and Stegomyia indices according to the characteristics of the distribution of larvae and pupae per container and the spatial scale at which the indices were computed. The correlation between pupal and Stegomyia indices is expected to increase as infestation levels decline.

  8. The Effect of Larval Diet on Adult Survival, Swarming Activity and Copulation Success in Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Bethan J; Idugboe, Stefano; McManus, Kirelle; Drury, Florence; Qureshi, Alima; Cator, Lauren J

    2018-01-10

    Control of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations is vital for reducing the transmission of several pervasive human diseases. The success of new vector control technologies will be influenced by the fitness of laboratory-reared transgenic males. However, there has been relatively little published data on how rearing practices influence male fitness in Aedes mosquitoes. In the laboratory, the effect of larval food availability on adult male fitness was tested, using a range of different fitness measures. Larval food availability was demonstrated to be positively correlated with adult body size. Larger males survived longer and exhibited greater swarming activity. As a consequence, larger males may have more mating opportunities in the wild. However, we also found that within a swarm larger males did not have an increased likelihood of copulating with a female. The outcome of the mating competition experiments depended on the methodology used to mark the males. These results show that fitness assessment can vary depending on the measure analyzed, and the methodology used to determine it. Continued investigation into these fitness measures and methodologies, and critically, their utility for predicting male performance in the field, will increase the efficiency of vector control programs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Bloodmeal hosts of Anopheles species (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria-endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Robert H; Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Lounibos, L Philip; Arruda, M; Wirtz, R

    2006-09-01

    Hosts of blood-fed anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) were determined in three riverine villages, 1.5-7.0 km apart, along the Matapí River, Amapá state, Brazil, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay midgut analysis for IgG of common vertebrates. Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damsceno and Anopheles darlingi Root had higher human blood indices (HBI) than Anopheles nuneztovari Gabaldón, Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva and Pinto), and Anopheles intermedius (Chagas), which were relatively zoophilic. HBIs of An. darlingi varied significantly among villages, attributable to a low proportion of human-fed mosquitoes in Santo Antônio. Significantly higher incidence of An. marajoara and An. nuneztovari fed on pig blood at two villages, associated with a low number of pigs in Santo Antônio. The incidences of bovine blood varied significantly among villages for all three of the most common anopheline species. The incidence of mixed meals ranged from 7.1 to 27.6% among common species, and, for An. marajoara, varied significantly among villages. This study demonstrates differences in host selection patterns among villages only a few kilometers apart, which may be influenced by host availability and have important epidemiological consequences.

  10. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

  11. Changes in the fat body during the post-embryonic development of the predator Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Dyar & Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascini, T V; Albeny, D S; Ramalho-Ortigão, M; Vilela, E F; Serrão, J E; Martins, G F

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have focused on understanding the biochemistry and morphology of the fat body of the hematophagous mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). In contrast, few studies, if any, have focused on morphological characters of the fat body in other mosquitoes, especially non-hematophagous taxa such as the culicid Toxorhynchites. Larvae of Toxorhynchites prey upon the larvae of other mosquito species and are used in vector mosquito control. We investigated aspects of the fat body trophocytes, including the morphometric analyses of the lipid droplets, protein granules and nuclei, during Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Dyar & Knab) post-embryonic development. Following the body weight increase from larval stage L2 to L4, the size of lipid droplets within the trophocytes also increase, and are likely the result of lipogenesis. Lipid droplets decrease in size during L4 to the female pupal stage and increase once again during the period from newly-emerged to mature adult females. Protein granules are observed for the first time in female pupae, and their appearance might be related to protein storage during metamorphosis. The size of the nucleus of trophocytes also increases during larval development, followed by a decrease during metamorphosis and an additional increase as adult female ages. In conclusion, the morphology of the fat body of T. theobaldi changes according to the developmental stage. Our study provides for the first time important insights into T. theobaldi fat body development and contributes to understand this species biology.

  12. Spatial variation in host feeding patterns of Culex tarsalis and the Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, T C; Lemenager, D A; Kluh, S; Carroll, B D; Lothrop, H D; Reisen, W K

    2012-07-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) is now endemic in California across a variety of ecological regions that support a wide diversity of potential avian and mammalian host species. Because different avian hosts have varying competence for WNV, determining the blood-feeding patterns of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors is a key component in understanding the maintenance and amplification of the virus as well as tangential transmission to humans and horses. We investigated the blood-feeding patterns of Culex tarsalis Coquillett and members of the Culex pipiens L. complex from southern to northern California. Nearly 100 different host species were identified from 1,487 bloodmeals, by using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). Cx. tarsalis fed on a higher diversity of hosts and more frequently on nonhuman mammals than did the Cx. pipiens complex. Several WNV-competent host species, including house finch and house sparrow, were common bloodmeal sources for both vector species across several biomes and could account for WNV maintenance and amplification in these areas. Highly competent American crow, western scrub-jay and yellow-billed magpie also were fed upon often when available and are likely important as amplifying hosts for WNV in some areas. Neither species fed frequently on humans (Cx. pipiens complex [0.4%], Cx. tarsalis [0.2%]), but with high abundance, both species could serve as both enzootic and bridge vectors for WNV.

  13. Influence of Bloodmeal Source on Reproductive Output of the Potential West Nile Vector, Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Berna; Durmaz, Esra; Alten, Bulent

    2014-11-01

    Culex theileri Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) has a wide Afrotropical, southern Palaearctic, northern Oriental, and European distribution. It is mainly considered as a mammophilic mosquito and also feeds on birds and serves as a vector for various zoonotic diseases including West Nile virus. Despite its broad distribution and evidence indicating that Cx. theileri is a competent vector of human and domestic animal pathogens, basic biological and ecological features of this species have not been well investigated. We evaluated the impact of bloodmeal source (human, chicken, cow, and a double bloodmeal such as human and cow or chicken and cow and mixed bloodmeals [cow, chicken, and human] via artificial feeding) on fecundity, hatching rates, developmental times, and viability from egg to adult for laboratory colonized Cx. theileri. Fecundity in mosquitoes that took a chicken bloodmeal, a double bloodmeal and mixed bloodmeals was significantly higher than in females fed on a single cow or single human blood. This is the first study about the bloodmeal sources effect on laboratory-reared Cx. theileri populations and these findings contribute to our understanding of the impact of bloodmeal source on reproduction in Cx. theileri. As it is known that Cx. theileri is a vector for West Nile virus, the potential impacts of bloodmeal source on virus transmission are discussed. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  14. Characterizing environmental suitability of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mexico based on regional and global niche models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez-Arenas, Carlos; Rioja-Nieto, Rodolfo; Martín, Gerardo A; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Chiappa-Carrara, Xavier; Buenfil-Ávila, Aura; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Correa-Morales, Fabián; Díaz-Quiñónez, José Alberto; Pérez-Rentería, Crescencio; Ordoñez-Álvarez, José; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Huerta, Herón

    2018-01-10

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), is an invasive species and a vector of numerous human pathogens, including chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. This mosquito had been reported from 36 geographic locations in Mexico by 2005, increasing to 101 locations by 2010 and 501 locations (spanning 16 states) by 2016. Here we modeled the occupied niche for Ae. albopictus in Mexico to characterize the environmental conditions related to its presence, and to generate updated environmental suitability maps. The predictors with the greatest contribution to characterizing the occupied niche for Ae. albopictus were NDVI and annual mean temperature. We also estimated the environmental suitability for Ae. albopictus in regions of the country where it has not been documented yet, by means of: 1) transferring its occupied niche model to these regions and 2) modeling its fundamental niche using global data. Our models will help vector control and public health institutions to identify areas where Ae. albopictus has not yet been recorded but where it may be present. We emphasize that most of Mexico has environmental conditions that potentially allow the survival of Ae. albopictus, which underscores the need for systematic mosquito monitoring in all states of the country. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  16. A Method to Evaluate Isotopic and Energy Turnover Rates in Larval Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Using Stable Isotope Labeled Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kristen

    2018-03-14

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of stable isotope labeled compounds to better understand factors influencing energy turnover in larval Culex quinquefasciatus (Say; Diptera: Culicidae). Three isotope labeled compounds were evaluated in this study, including 15N-labeled potassium nitrate, 13C-labeled glucose, and 13C-labeled leucine. Conditions were first optimized in the laboratory to determine the most appropriate concentration of isotope, as well as the half-life of enrichment. Once optimum conditions were established we used standard equations to predict and determine temperature and density-dependent energy turnover rates. Our results showed that higher concentrations of isotope had an impact on mosquito survivability, overall enrichment, and adult wing length. We predicted the half-life of to be around 0.614 to 0.971 d, and our observed half-lives were determined to be 0.72 to 1.44 d depending on temperature, larval density, and isotope compound. Both density and temperature had a strong influence on isotopic turnover rates in all isotopes evaluated. Our results suggest that stable isotopes can provide a useful tool in understanding how different stress factors influence energy turnover in larval Cx. quinquefasciatus. These data can also help lay a foundation on ways to improve larvicide efficacy under different biotic and abiotic conditions.

  17. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Noleto Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul. A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50 ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

  18. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Waseem Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the den­gue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was eval­uated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter.Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01. However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05. Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56 followed by A. parthenope (n=47 and B. geminate (n=46. The number of larvae consumed was decreased with in­creasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume.Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. 

  19. Mitochondrial markers for molecular identification of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) involved in transmission of arboviral disease in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Shelley; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A; Cooper, Alan; Holmes, Edward C

    2005-01-01

    Correct classification of the insect vector is central to the study of arboviral disease. A simple molecular method for identification of the main vectors of the mosquito-borne viruses, dengue, yellow fever, and Rift Valley fever in Senegal, West Africa, was developed. We present a system in which the five mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) responsible for the majority of flaviviral disease transmission in Senegal can be reliably identified using small amounts of DNA coextracted during flaviviral screening procedures, via an easy amplification of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit I or II (COI or COII, respectively). We observed that despite very similar morphology, the two cryptic disease vector species Aedes furcifer Edwards and Aedes taylori Edwards are highly divergent at the molecular level. This sequence variation was used as a basis for the development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism system for the differentiation of the two species. We also present the first investigation of the phylogeny of the culicine mosquitoes based on all COI and COII sequences currently available. There seems to be very low intraspecific variation in both genes, whereas interspecific variation is high. As a consequence, COI and COII are ideal candidates for the molecular identification of disease vectors to species level, whereas deeper divergences remain equivocal by using these genes. This system provides a new technique for the accurate identification of culicine disease vectors in West Africa and provides a basis for the expansion of such methods into the study of a range of diseases.

  20. Classification of immature stage habitats of Culicidae (Diptera collected in Córdoba, Argentina

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    Walter R Almirón

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to classify mosquito immature stage habitats, samples were taken in 42 localities of Córdoba Province, Argentina, representing the phytogeographic regions of Chaco, Espinal and Pampa. Immature stage habitats were described and classified according to the following criteria: natural or artificial; size; location related to light and neighboring houses; vegetation; water: permanence, movement, turbidity and pH. Four groups of species were associated based on the habitat similarity by means of cluster analysis: Aedes albifasciatus, Culex saltanensis, Cx. mollis, Cx. brethesi, Psorophora ciliata, Anopheles albitarsis, and Uranotaenia lowii (Group A; Cx. acharistus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. bidens, Cx. dolosus, Cx. maxi and Cx. apicinus (Group B; Cx. coronator, Cx. chidesteri, Mansonia titillans and Ps. ferox (Group C; Ae. fluviatilis and Ae. milleri (Group D. The principal component analysis (ordination method pointed out that the different types of habitats, their nature (natural or artificial, plant species, water movement and depth are the main characters explaining the observed variation among the mosquito species. The distribution of mosquito species by phytogeographic region did not affect the species groups, since species belonging to different groups were collected in the same region.

  1. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina

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    Almirón Walter R.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.

  2. Aportaciones al conocimiento de los mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae de alta montaña presentes en la Península Ibérica

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    Jiménez Peydró, R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several larval samplings of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in different mountainous regions of the peninsular Spain were carried out. A total of 2796 specimens belonging to 18 species were collected, nevertheless the 72.5 % of these finds includes only three of them (Cx. hortensis hortensis, Cx. pipiens and Cs. longiareolata. The adaptation capacity to a varied typology of water bodies together with the marked multivoltinism that characterizes their biotic cycles are postulated as two of the principal reasons that explain their abundances. The altitudinal distribution as well as some information about the bioecology of all the species captured are also exposed.Se realizaron diversos muestreos larvarios de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae en varias regiones montañosas de la España peninsular. Pese a que se recolectaron un total de 2796 ejemplares pertenecientes a 18 especies, el 72.5 % de estos hallazgos engloba únicamente a tres de ellas (Cx. hortensis hortensis, Cx. pipiens y Cs. longiareolata. La capacidad de adaptación a un variado elenco de cuerpos de agua de diferente tipología, unida al marcado multivoltinismo que caracteriza sus ciclos bióticos, se postulan como dos de las principales razones que explican sus abundancias. La distribución altitudinal así como diversa información acerca de la bioecología de todas las especies capturadas también se exponen en el presente trabajo.

  3. City-Dwellers and Country Folks: Lack of Population Differentiation Along an Urban–Rural Gradient in the Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) occur in natural, urban, and peri-urban areas throughout the globe. Although the characteristics of urban and peri-urban habitats differ from those of natural habitats in many ways (e.g., fragmentation, pollution, noise, and light), few studies have examined the population connectivity of mosquitoes in urban areas. To obtain an overview of the species composition, we sampled mosquitoes from 23 sites in and around the city of Berlin, Germany. Of 23 species, five occurred in urban, 10 in peri-urban, and 20 in rural areas. Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae) was the most common species collected (75% of all individuals) and occurred in all habitats. Hence this species was selected to be analysed at 10 microsatellite markers. There was no significant differentiation (FST = 0.016, P = 0.9) or isolation by distance (P = 0.06) among Cx. pipiens populations along an urban–rural gradient. The only significant differences detected were between Cx. pipiens and a laboratory population of Cx. pipiens f. molestus (pairwise FST = 0.114–0.148, P ≤ 0.001 in all comparisons), suggesting that the markers chosen were suitable for the identification of population differentiation. Our results indicate that Cx. pipiens gene flow is widespread within and among urban, peri-urban, and rural areas and that urban habitat does not necessarily impede or enhance gene flow among these populations. PMID:29117382

  4. [Culicidae (Diptera) in a dam construction area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Marcia Bicudo de; Gomes, Almério de Castro

    2007-04-01

    To describe the culicidae fauna in an area impacted by environmental changes caused by the construction of a dam. The studied area was the Porto Primavera dam construction site in Southeastern Brazil. Monthly culicidae samples were taken in six exploratory sites in the pre-filling period and in one fixed site, one year before (1997-1998) and after the first filling (1999-2000). Adult mosquitoes were captured in the morning with an aspirator and with Shannon and CDC traps during the evening twilight period. Immature stages were captured using a ladle in the larger breeding sites and with a pipette in the smaller ones. In the pre-filling period of the dam, a total of 944 immature culicidae specimens, from ten species, were captured. A total of 14,932 adults were captured, including 7,031 mosquitoes from ten species in the exploratory points and 7,901 specimens from eight genera in the fixed site. After the first stage of the dam filling, the immature stages total was 1,201, from four genera, and the captured mosquitoes total was 5,912, from nine genera. There was a population reduction of the genera Aedes and Psorophora and an increase of the following species populations: Aedeomyia, Anopheles, Culex (Melanoconion), Mansonia and Uranotaenia. The environmental changes caused due to the construction of the Porto Primavera Dam contributed to an increase in the population density of some culicidae vectors, causing a nuisance and the potential risk of the transmission of pathogens to humans.

  5. Culicidae (Diptera: Culicomorpha) from the central Brazilian Amazon: Nhamundá and Abacaxis Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchings,Rosa Sá Gomes; Honegger,Roger William Hutchings; Sallum,Maria Anice Mureb

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito fauna (Culicidae) from remote areas along the geographical limits of the State of Amazonas were assessed by employing CDC, Shannon, Malaise and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. Two hundred and six collections were performed in seven localities along the Nhamundá and Abacaxis Rivers, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during May and June 2008. The northernmost locality was 120 km from Nhamundá, whereas the southernmost locality was 150 km from the mouth of...

  6. First record of Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis (Rondani, 1872) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittra, Carina; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Wimmer, Victoria; Berer, Dominik; Eigner, Barbara; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-06-01

    During a three-year mosquito monitoring from 2014 to 2016, the strictly ornithophilic, originally Mediterranean species Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis (Rondani, 1872) was collected as single specimen for the first time in Austria in the district of Penzing in Vienna. Morphological species determination was confirmed by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. We thus not only confirm the existence of another mosquito species in Austria, but also add a new genus to the Austrian Culicidae taxa list.

  7. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

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    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  8. Sugar Deprivation Reduces Insemination of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae), Despite Daily Recruitment of Adults, and Predicts Decline in Model Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    STONE, C. M.; TAYLOR, R. M.; ROITBERG, B. D.; FOSTER, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Our research tests the hypothesis that the inability to sugar-feed reduces the insemination rate in mosquito populations. To test this, we measured the effects of sugar availability on cumulative insemination performance of male Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) during 10-d periods of continual emergence of equal numbers of both sexes, and we evaluated the implications at the population level with a matrix population model. On each day of each of four replicates, 20 newly emerged mosquitoes of each sex were recruited into the populations within two mesocosms, large walk-in enclosures with simulated natural conditions. Each mesocosm contained a cage to replicate the experiment on a small scale. Scented sucrose was absent or present (control). A human host was available nightly as a bloodmeal source in both mesocosms. Sugar availability and enclosure size significantly influenced female insemination. In the mesocosms, with sugar 49.7% of the females were inseminated, compared with 10.9% of the females without sugar. In the small cages, the insemination rates were 76.0 and 23.5%, respectively. In the mesocosms, cumulative survival of females after 10 d was 51.6% with sugar and 25.6% without sugar. In the cages, female survival was 95 and 73%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis of the population projection matrix shows that both reduced male survival and reduced mating capability due to a lack of sugar contributed to lower insemination rates in females, and in the absence of sugar the insemination rate was lowered to an extent that led to population decline. PMID:19960677

  9. Attractiveness of MM-X Traps Baited with Human or Synthetic Odor to Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    QIU, YU TONG; SMALLEGANGE, RENATE C.; TER BRAAK, CAJO J. F.; SPITZEN, JEROEN; VAN LOON, JOOP J. A.; JAWARA, MUSA; MILLIGAN, PAUL; GALIMARD, AGNES M.; VAN BEEK, TERIS A.; KNOLS, BART G. J.; TAKKEN, WILLEM

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to which carbon dioxide (CO2) was added were tested in four sets of experiments. In a second series of experiments, MM-X traps with 14 odor blends without CO2 were tested. A blend of ammonia and l-lactic acid with or without CO2 was used as control odor in series 1 and 2, respectively. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps were placed in a traditional house and an experimental house to monitor mosquito densities during the experiments. The MM-X traps caught a total number of 196,756 mosquitoes, with the most abundant species belonging to the genera Mansonia (70.6%), Anopheles (17.5%), and Culex (11.5%). The most abundant mosquito species caught by the CDC traps (56,290 in total) belonged to the genera Mansonia (59.4%), Anopheles (16.0% An. gambiae s.l. Giles, and 11.3% An. ziemanni Grünberg), and Culex (11.6%). MM-X traps baited with synthetic blends were in many cases more attractive than MM-X traps baited with human odors. Addition of CO2 to synthetic odors substantially increased the catch of all mosquito species in the MM-X traps. A blend of ammonia + L-lactic acid + CO2 + 3-methylbutanoic acid was the most attractive odor for most mosquito species. The candidate odor blend shows the potential to enhance trap collections so that traps will provide better surveillance and possible control. PMID:18047195

  10. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  11. Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de los parques naturales de la Comunidad Valenciana

    OpenAIRE

    Bernués Bañeres, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    La familia Culicidae incluye algunas de las especies de dípteros más relevantes en el ámbito de la Salud Pública, no solo por las molestias que son capaces de causar debido a su tipo de alimentación hematófaga, sino por su capacidad para actuar como vectores de enfermedades de afección humana. Por este motivo, los mosquitos han sido, desde siempre, una de las dianas predilectas en los programas de control establecidos para la regulación de sus poblaciones y, por tanto, como medida profiláctic...

  12. The Previously Undetected Presence of Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central America, with Notes on Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Culicidae). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 120 (3557): 122 pp. Carpenter , S.J. and W.J. LaCasse . 1955. Mosquitoes of North America (north of Mexico). Univ...specimens HONC- 30G, GUA 118-l 1, and GUA 118-27 were similar to the distinctive form of this structure described by Carpenter and La Casse (1955) and...specimens from Virginia examined by Bram. Larvae and adults closely resembled descriptions by Carpenter and La Casse (1955) and by Bohart and Washino (1978

  13. Especificidade da armadilha Adultrap para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae Specificity of the Adultrap for capturing females of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A Adultrap é uma nova armadilha feita para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti. Foram realizados testes para avaliar sua especificidade tendo como referência a técnica da aspiração da espécie em abrigos artificiais. A Adultrap ficou exposta por 24 horas no intradomicílio e peridomicílio de 120 casas sorteadas em dois bairros da Cidade de Foz do Iguaçu, Estado do Paraná. O teste estatístico foi o modelo log-linear de Poisson. O resultado foi a captura de 726 mosquitos Culicidae, dos quais 80 eram Aedes aegypti. A Adultrap capturou apenas fêmeas desta espécie, enquanto o aspirador os dois sexos de Aedes aegypti e mais cinco outras espécies. A Adultrap capturou Aedes aegypti dentro e fora das casas, mas a análise indicou que no peridomicílio a armadilha capturou significantemente mais fêmeas do que a aspiração. Também, ficou evidenciada a sensibilidade da Adultrap para detectar Aedes aegypti em situação de baixa freqüência.The Adultrap is a new trap built for capturing females of Aedes aegypti. Tests were carried out to evaluate the specificity of this trap in comparison with the technique of aspiration of specimens in artificial shelters. Adultraps were kept for 24 hours inside and outside 120 randomly selected homes in two districts of the city of Foz do Iguaçú, State of Paraná. The statistical test was Poisson’s log-linear model. The result was 726 mosquitoes captured, of which 80 were Aedes aegypti. The Adultrap captured only females of this species, while the aspiration method captured both sexes of Aedes aegypti and another five species. The Adultrap captured Aedes aegypti inside and outside the homes, but the analysis indicated that, outside the homes, this trap captured significantly more females than aspiration did. The sensitivity of the Adultrap for detecting females of Aedes aegypti in low-frequency situations was also demonstrated.

  14. [Mosquito fauna (Diptera:Culicidae) from Falcon State, Venezuela. I. New records and current checklist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J C; Bastidas, R J; Zavala, Y

    1994-01-01

    A total of 16 new species records of Culicidae from Falcon State was collected at the "Juan Crisostomo Falcon National Park" (Sierra de San Luis), Natural Monument "Cerro Santa Ana", Coro, and La Vela. Species of Sabethini, Culicini and Toxorhynchitini Tribes were found in natural breeding sites (Phytotelmata), with special occurrence in plants belonging to Tillandsia, Vriesea, Guzmania, Aechmea (Bromelianceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae) and Colocasia (Araceae). Aedini and Mansonini were collected only as adults. A specie of Culex (Carrollia) was collected from an artificial container. The Culicidae species belong to 6 genera out of the 23 genera reported from Venezuela (Culex, Wyeomyia, Johnbelkinia, Aedes, Psorophora, Mansonia and Coquillettidia) and to 5 Tribes out of the 9 present in the country. The Aedini, Sabethini and Culicini Tribes were richer in species with 5, 4 and 4 species, respectively, than the Mansonini (2 species) and Toxorhynchitini (1 species) Tribes. We discuss some bioecological aspects regarding the 16 new-species records in Falcon State and give a checklist of the mosquito species previously reported in the literature.

  15. The quantitative structure-insecticidal activity relationships from plant derived compounds against chikungunya and zika Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Laura M; Romanelli, Gustavo P; Rozo, Ciro E; Duchowicz, Pablo R

    2018-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of a series of 62 plant derived molecules against the chikungunya, dengue and zika vector, the Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) mosquito, is subjected to a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) analysis. The Replacement Method (RM) variable subset selection technique based on Multivariable Linear Regression (MLR) proves to be successful for exploring 4885 molecular descriptors calculated with Dragon 6. The predictive capability of the obtained models is confirmed through an external test set of compounds, Leave-One-Out (LOO) cross-validation and Y-Randomization. The present study constitutes a first necessary computational step for designing less toxic insecticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Primeiro registro do gênero Toxorhynchites Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae em Mata Atlântica, Viçosa, Minas Gerais

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    Daniel Simões Albeny

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante os meses de março e abril de 2007 foi verificada a presença do gênero Toxorhynchites (Diptera, Culicidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. No experimento foram utilizadas 500 armadilhas de oviposição. Registrando-se, pela primeira vez na região de Viçosa o gênero Toxorhynchites, sendo as espécies T. pusillus (Costa Lima, 193 1 e T. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab, 1906 encontradas pela primeira vez no Estado de Minas Gerais. As espécies relatadas como primeiro registro e sua distribuição são citadas e discutidas.

  17. Bloodmeal Host Congregation and Landscape Structure Impact the Estimation of Female Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance Using Dry Ice-Baited Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    THIEMANN, TARA; NELMS, BRITTANY; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency. PMID:21661310

  18. Ecology of Anopheline (Diptera, Culicidae, malaria vectors around the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil: 1 - Frequency and climatic factors

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    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    Full Text Available The ecology of anopheline species (Diptera, Culicidae was studied in the vicinity of the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil. Climatic factors and frequency of anopheline populations were analyzed. Bimonthly human-bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted for 36 consecutive months (January 1997 through December 1999. A total of 5,205 adult anophelines belonging to five species were collected. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequently collected anopheline (61.4%, followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (35.4%, An. triannulatus. (2.5%, An. oswaldoi (0.4%, and An. evansae (0.2%. The water level and vegetation along the banks of the reservoir were crucial to the frequency of the various anopheline species. Climatic factors had a secondary influence. The reservoir's water-level stability, increased frequency of An. darlingi, and the arrival of gold prospectors were responsible for the increase in malaria cases.

  19. Bloodmeal host congregation and landscape structure impact the estimation of female mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance using dry ice-baited traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Tara; Nelms, Brittany; Reisen, William K

    2011-05-01

    Vegetation patterns and the presence of large numbers of nesting herons and egrets significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps. The numbers of females collected per trap night at traps along the ecotone of Eucalyptus stands with and without a heron colony were always greater or equal to numbers collected at traps within or under canopy. No Cx. tarsalis were collected within or under Eucaplytus canopy during the peak heron nesting season, even though these birds frequently were infected with West Nile virus and large number of engorged females could be collected at resting boxes. These data indicate a diversion of host-seeking females from traps to nesting birds reducing sampling efficiency.

  20. Biodiversity and influence of climatic factors on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) around the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme in the state of Tocantins, Brazil.

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    Silva, Júlia Dos Santos; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2010-03-01

    The influence of climatic factors on the seasonal frequency of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme (Tocantins, Brazil) was evaluated in the present paper. Mosquito surveys were conducted in the municipality of Peixe and in areas surrounding the reservoir in the municipalities of Paranã and São Salvador do Tocantins during two daytime periods (10 am-12 noon and 2 pm-4 pm) and two night-time periods (6 pm-8 pm and 6 pm-10 am) over 14 months. In total, 10,840 specimens from 42 species were captured, 84.5% of which belonged to the Culcinae. The most common species were Anopheles darlingi, Psorophora albipes and Sabethes chloropterus. The number of Culicidae specimens was higher in months with higher rainfall and air humidity than during the drier months. The large population of Ps. albipes and the presence of both An. darlingi (primary vector for human malaria parasites) and Haemagogus janthinomys (primary vector for yellow fever virus) are highlighted.

  1. Biodiversity and influence of climatic factors on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae around the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme in the state of Tocantins, Brazil

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    Júlia dos Santos Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of climatic factors on the seasonal frequency of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae at the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme (Tocantins, Brazil was evaluated in the present paper. Mosquito surveys were conducted in the municipality of Peixe and in areas surrounding the reservoir in the municipalities of Paranã and São Salvador do Tocantins during two daytime periods (10 am-12 noon and 2 pm-4 pm and two night-time periods (6 pm-8 pm and 6 pm-10 am over 14 months. In total, 10,840 specimens from 42 species were captured, 84.5% of which belonged to the Culcinae. The most common species were Anopheles darlingi, Psorophora albipes and Sabethes chloropterus. The number of Culicidae specimens was higher in months with higher rainfall and air humidity than during the drier months. The large population of Ps. albipes and the presence of both An. darlingi (primary vector for human malaria parasites and Haemagogus janthinomys (primary vector for yellow fever virus are highlighted.

  2. [Detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Easter Island-Chile].

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    Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña, Cindy M

    2015-02-01

    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island.

  3. Mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties of botanical extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A

    2011-08-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of E. coronaria against the larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 79.08, 89.59, and 96.15 ppm and 150.47, 166.04, and 174.10 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h posttreatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The leaf extract of E. coronaria was found to be most effective than Caesalpinia pulcherrima against eggs/egg rafts of three vector mosquitoes. For E. coronaria, the benzene extract exerted 300, 250, and 200 ppm against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of benzene and ethyl acetate extract of E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the

  4. Ciclo de vida de Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1826 (Diptera: Culicidae bajo condiciones no controladas en Bogotá.

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    Myriam Janeth Salazar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar varios aspectos del crecimiento y el desarrollo de los estadios inmaduros de Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1826 (Diptera: Culicidae, especie antropofílica frecuentemente encontrada en Bogotá. Con este fin, se realizaron dos experimentos en diferentes épocas del año 2001 (enero-febrero y septiembre-octubre, bajo condiciones no controladas (luz, temperatura y humedad relativa. Se colocaron recipientes plásticos transparentes con agua de charca a la que se le adicionó concentrado para perro; se tomaron cuatro balsas al azar para estudiar el ciclo de vida utilizando los parámetros de la tabla de vida: mortalidad y supervivencia. Las hembras ovipositaron entre cinco y ocho días después de la ingestión de sangre. El número de huevos por balsa varió entre 152 y 203. La eclosión de larvas L1 fue de 50% en el primer experimento y de 75% en el segundo. Se destacó la naturaleza no sincrónica de la eclosión de las L1, la menor duración proporcional del estadio de pupa (11% del tiempo del desarrollo total y la eficiencia del cambio pupa-adulto (98,61%. Se reporta una menor duración del ciclo de lo informado previamente. Además, los altos porcentajes de eclosión (83,58%, pupación (86,63% y emergencia (98,61% con las condiciones presentes para estos experimentos (temperatura media 14,8°C y 15,1°C y humedad relativa del 72,5% y 74,1%, respectivamente indican el alto grado de adaptación de C. quinquefasciatus al ambiente bogotano. Estas características, más la capacidad vectorial y la resistencia a los insecticidas, hacen de esta especie un problema de salud pública.

  5. Adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal properties of indigenous plant extracts against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2013-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plants Andrographis paniculata, Cassia occidentalis, and Euphorbia hirta against the medically important mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata followed by C. occidentalis and E. hirta against the adults of A. stephensi with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 210.30, 225.91, and 263.91 ppm and 527.31, 586.36, and 621.91 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol extract of A. paniculata, C. occidentalis, and E. hirta plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these three plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts

  6. Molecular Characterization of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northwestern Iran by Using rDNA-ITS2.

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    Khoshdel-Nezamiha, Farahnaz; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Mianroodi, Reza Arabi; Dabiri, Farrokh; Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2016-07-22

    Several mosquito species are vectors of disease; however, to understand their role in disease transmission, accurate species identification is of particular importance. Morphological identification is the main method used, but molecular techniques have emerged as a tool for the identification of closely related species. In this study, mosquitoes from the West Azerbaijan Province in northwestern Iran were characterized on the basis of their rDNA-ITS2 sequences. Nine populations of 6 species of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus were studied. To the best of our knowledge, ITS2 sequences of Culiseta longiareolata and Culex hortensis have been reported for the first time. In addition, ITS2 sequences of Culex theileri and Ochlerotatus caspius have been reported for the first time in Iran. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS2 showed that subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae of the family Culicidae could be differentiated successfully and subgenera Anopheles and Cellia of the genus Anopheles were separated. The analysis showed that the genera Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus have diverged separately.

  7. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) and their medical importance for Portugal: challenges for the 21st century].

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    Gouveia de Almeida, A Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are dipterous insects, responsible for the transmission of several pathogenic agents to humans, causing vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, lymphatic and other filariasis, and several arboviral diseases such as yellow fever and dengue. In this revision, Culicidae or mosquitoes are summarily characterized, as well as their bioecology, internal morphology, digestive and egg maturation physiology, and the main methods for their collection and control. The epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases depends on parameters such as Vectorial efficiency, Vector competence and Vectorial capacity, the concepts of which are presented. Forty one species of mosquitoes have been detected so far in mainland Portugal. Malaria was endemic till 1959, yellow fever outbreaks were registered in the XIX century, and human cases of dirofilarisis and West Nile fever have been detected. In face of the current climate changes in course and the threat of the (re)-introduction of exotic mosquito species, not only new cases of some of these diseases may occur, increasing their risk, but also other mosquito-borne diseases may be introduced constituting challenges for the XXI century, demanding a continued surveillance in a Public Health perspective.

  8. Mosquito Records from Mexico: The Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Tamaulipas State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Zavortink, Thomas J; Huerta-Jiménez, Herón; Sánchez-Rámos, Francisco J; Valdés-Perezgasga, Ma Teresa; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Siller-Rodríguez, Quetzaly K; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-03-01

    To document the diversity and distribution of mosquito species inhabiting the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, collection trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Grand Northamerican Plains, Coastal Plain of North Gulf, and Sierra Madre Oriental) and subregions across the state. Additionally, we re-examined mosquito specimens in two Mexican entomological collections: the Collection of Insects and Mites of Medical Importance and the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance. In total, 3,931 specimens were collected. These represent the two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 10 tribes, 17 genera, 27 subgenera, 80 named species, and 2 undescribed species. Of these, 3 tribes, 6 genera, 7 subgenera, and 20 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Tamaulipas. Fourteen species recorded in the historical records were not found in collections made for this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution limits, and comments about the medical importance of some of the species collected are reported. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from crepuscular period in an Atlantic Forest area in Southern Brazil.

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    Orlandin, E; Santos, E B; Piovesan, M; Favretto, M A; Schneeberger, A H; Souza, V O; Muller, G A; Wagner, G

    2017-03-01

    Crepuscular period is one of the factors that may influence the biting activity of mosquitoes. Many of these insects have a peak activity in this period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the afternoon crepuscular activity of Culicidae in a remaining area of Atlantic Forest in western Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Moreover, the possible influence of abiotic factors, the abundance and species richness were verified. In order to better analyze the influence of crepuscular period in specific composition and abundance of mosquitoes, the dusk was divided into three periods: pre-sunset, sunset and post-sunset. At the end of the study, nine hundred and eight four specimens distributed in 12 genera and 23 species were collected. Trichoprosopon pallidiventer (Lutz, 1905) (59.76%), Aedes crinifer (Theobald, 1903) (8.13%), Ae. scapularis (Rondani, 1848) (5.89%) were the most abundant species. Spring time presented the greatest abundance and species richness. During the study, among the three periods evaluated, pre-sunset had the greatest abundance and post-sunset the lowest. Pre-sunset and sunset had the greatest similarity between species. Regarding to the abiotic factors evaluated seven and 15 days before sampling, they did not present significant correlation for the three most abundant species. However, temperature had a positive correlation to these species. Moreover, the correlation between collected species and its possible role as vectors of etiological agents of diseases was discussed.

  10. Culicidae (Diptera: Culicomorpha from the central Brazilian Amazon: Nhamundá and Abacaxis Rivers

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    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito fauna (Culicidae from remote areas along the geographical limits of the State of Amazonas were assessed by employing CDC, Shannon, Malaise and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. Two hundred and six collections were performed in seven localities along the Nhamundá and Abacaxis Rivers, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during May and June 2008. The northernmost locality was 120 km from Nhamundá, whereas the southernmost locality was 150 km from the mouth of the Abacaxis River. The 5,290 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 16 genera, representing 109 different species, of which eight are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are nine morphospecies which may represent undescribed new taxa, five of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. Culex presented the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Anopheles, which represents 3% of the total sample, had the second highest number of species, followed by Wyeomyia. Psorophora and Aedes, represent the third and fourth largest number of individuals. The most abundant species was Cx. (Mel. vaxus Dyar, 1920 followed by Cx. (Mel. eknomios Forattini & Sallum, 1992, Cx. (Cux. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906, Cx. (Mel. theobaldi Lutz, 1904, and Cx. (Cux. declarator Dyar & Knab, 1906. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results presented represent the largest standardized inventory of mosquitoes of the Nhamundá and Abacaxis rivers, with the identification of 118 species level taxa distributed in seven localities, within four municipalities (Nhamundá, Maués, Borba, Nova Olinda do Norte, of which we have only few or no records in the published literature.

  11. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Salivary gland proteins of the human malaria vector, Anopheles dirus B (Diptera: Culicidae Proteínas das glândulas salivares do Anopheles dirus B (Diptera: Culicidae, vetor da malária humana

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    Narissara Jariyapan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland proteins of the human malaria vector, Anopheles dirus B were determined and analyzed. The amount of salivary gland proteins in mosquitoes aged between 3 - 10 days was approximately 1.08 ± 0.04 µg/female and 0.1 ± 0.05 µg/male. The salivary glands of both sexes displayed the same morphological organization as that of other anopheline mosquitoes. In females, apyrase accumulated in the distal regions, whereas alpha-glucosidase was found in the proximal region of the lateral lobes. This differential distribution of the analyzed enzymes reflects specialization of different regions for sugar and blood feeding. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that at least seven major proteins were found in the female salivary glands, of which each morphological region contained different major proteins. Similar electrophoretic protein profiles were detected comparing unfed and blood-fed mosquitoes, suggesting that there is no specific protein induced by blood. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analysis showed the most abundant salivary gland protein, with a molecular mass of approximately 35 kilodaltons and an isoelectric point of approximately 4.0. These results provide basic information that would lead to further study on the role of salivary proteins of An. dirus B in disease transmission and hematophagy.Proteínas das glândulas salivares do Anopheles dirus B (Diptera: Culicidae, vetor da malária humana foram determinadas e analisadas. A quantidade de proteínas das glândulas salivares em mosquitos com três a 10 dias de idade foi de aproximadamente 1,08 ± 0,04 µg/ fêmea e de 0,1 ± 0,05 µg/macho. As glândulas salivares de ambos os sexos mostraram organização morfológica semelhante à de outros mosquitos anofelinos. Em fêmeas, apirase acumula-se nas regiões distais, enquanto alfa-glucosidase foi encontrada na região proximal dos lóbulos laterais. Esta distribuição diferencial das enzimas analisadas reflete a especialização de

  13. Species composition and fauna distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and its importance for vector-borne diseases in a rural area of Central Western - Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Fábio Alexandre Leal-Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study describes ecological data obtained in a rural area in the State of Mato Grosso, including the insects belonging to the family Culicidae, especially those framed as potential vectors of tropical diseases. In 2015, we collected adult mosquitoes in fragments of forest in a rural area located in Mato Grosso Central West of Brazil. We captured 18,256 mosquitoes of the sub-families Culicinae and Anophelinae and have identified 34 species belonging to 12 genera: Aedes (1 species, Anopheles (8 species, Coquillettidia (1 species, Haemagogus (1 species, Culex (5 species, Psorophora  (5 species, Ochlerotatus (4 species, Deinocerites (1 species,  Mansonia (4 species, Sabethes (2 species, Limatus (1 species, Wyeomyia (1 species. The family Culicidae presented high richness and abundance, established by diversity indexes (Margalef α =3.26; Shannon H' = 2.09; Simpson D = 0.19 with dominance of the species Anopheles (Nyssorhyncus darlingi Root (89.8%. This species has considerable epidemiological value, considered the main vector of malaria in Mato Grosso. Many species of mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans and domestic animals, transmitting pathogens including viruses (arboviruses, filaria worms (helminths and protozoa. Composição de espécies e distribuição da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae e sua importância para doenças transmitidas por vetores em uma área rural do centro-ocidental - Mato Grosso, Brasil Resumo. Este estudo descreve dados ecológicos de uma área rural do Estado de Mato Grosso e dos insetos da família Culicidae especialmente aqueles enquadrados como vetores potenciais de doenças tropicais. Em 2015, coletamos mosquitos adultos em fragmentos de floresta em localidades de áreas rurais no Mato Grosso região Centro Oeste do Brasil. Foram capturados 18.256 exemplares alados de mosquitos das subfamílias Culicinae e Anophelinae e identificadas 34 espécies pertencentes a 12 g

  14. [Morphology and cytochemistry of Aedes aegypti's cell cultures (Diptera: Culicidae) and susceptibility to Leishmania panamensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alfonso Arturo; Sarmiento, Ladys; Caldas, María Leonor; Zapata, Cristina; Bello, Felio Jesús

    2008-06-01

    Morphology and cytochemistry of Aedes aegypti's cell cultures (Diptera: Culicidae) and susceptibility to Leishmania panamensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). The first cellular line of Aedes aegypti was developed by Grace in 1966; afterwards, other cellular lines of this species have been generated. These have been used for the study of pathogenic organisms like viruses, bacteria and parasites, which demonstrates their importance in biomedical applications. This research describes, for the first time, some cytochemical characteristics of A. aegypti cell cultures, that were infected with (MHOM/CO/87CL412) strain of Leishmania panamensis. A morphological study of the cell culture was also carried out. Maintenance of the cell culture, parasites and infection in vitro were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology, Cell Biology and Genetics of the Universidad de La Salle. The cell cultures infected with the parasite were maintained in a mixture of mediums Grace/L15, supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) at pH 6.8 and a temperature of 26 degrees C, during 3, 6 and 9 post-infection days. After this, these cell cultures were processed through High Resolution Light Microscopy (HRLM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) based on standard protocols defined by the Group of Microscopy and Image Analyses of the Instituto Nacional de Salud. Semi-fine slices of 1 microm colored with toluidine blue were used for the morphological analysis of the culture, and ultra fine cuts of 60 to 90 nm stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate where used for the ultrastructural study. In addition, PAS and peroxidase staining was carried out in cells fixed with methanol. The morphometric study was analyzed with software ImageJ (NIH). In the semi-fine slices, small cells were observed showing fibroblastic appearance 10.84 +/- 2.54 microm in length and 5.31 +/- 1.26 microm wide; other cells had epithelial appearance with a great peripheral nucleus, voluminous and

  15. Occurence of larval Culicidae (Diptera in water retained in Aquascypha hydrophora (Fungus: Stereaceae in Central Amazônia, Brazil

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    Ruth LM Ferreira

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of insects, especially mosquito larvae, in water held in the fungus Aquascypha hydrophora (Berk. Reid (Stereaceae is reported. The study was done in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, 26 km east of Manaus, AM, Brazil, from September 1998 through November 1999. The most abundant entomofauna were immature Culicidae (n = 121 91.7%, followed by adult Dytiscidae (n = 3 2.3%, immature Chironomidae (n = 5 3.8% and immature Tipulidae (n = 3 2.3%. Culicidae associated with A. hydrophora comprised species of the subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae.

  16. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera que habitan en fi totelmata en el Parque Nacional Iguazú, provincia de Misiones, Argentina subtropical

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    Raúl E. Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A list of the most common phytotelmata and their Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae inhabitants from Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, Argentina, is presented, and biological and behavioral observations are also included. Species of Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, and Arecaceae, were identified as phytotelmata. Twenty six species of Culicidae and nine of Ceratopogonidae were identified. The highest species richness of culicids and ceratopogonids was recorded from the bamboo Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae and treeholes, respectively. Fourteen species of Culicidae and three of Ceratopogonidae inhabit bamboo, two and five treeholes, seven and three bromeliads, and nine and one, other less known phytotelmata, respectively.Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  17. In vitro evaluation of the effect of botanical formulations used in the control of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae on liver enzymes.

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    Karla Rejane de Andrade Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti Linn. (1792 (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito, which is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Alternative methods for the control of the vector include botanical insecticides, which offer advantages such as lower environmental contamination levels and less likelihood of resistant populations. Thus, in this study, the ability of botanical insecticide formulations to inhibit the activity of the liver enzymes serum cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase was evaluated. METHODS: Inhibition profiles were assessed using in vitro assays for cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase activity and quantitated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at 410nm to 340nm. RESULTS Insecticide products formulated from cashew nutshell liquid [A] and ricinoleic acid [B] showed cholinesterase activity levels of 6.26IU/mL and 6.61IU/mL, respectively, while the control level for cholinesterase was 5-12IU/mL. The products did not affect the level of 0.44IU/mL established for malate dehydrogenase, as the levels produced by [A] and [B] were 0.43IU/mL and 0.45IU/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that in vitro testing of the formulated products at concentrations lethal to A. aegypti did not affect the activity of cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase, indicating the safety of these products.

  18. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae in Comparison with Citrus paradisi

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    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bioactive agents against mosquito vectors.Methods: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae under laboratory condition. Then chemical com­position of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS.Results: The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62% constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81.Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.

  19. The Climate Range Expansion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Asia Inferred From the Distribution of Albopictus Subgroup Species of Aedes (Stegomyia).

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    Mogi, M; Armbruster, P A; Tuno, N; Aranda, C; Yong, H S

    2017-11-07

    We compared climatic distribution ranges between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and the five wild (nondomesticated) species of Albopictus Subgroup of Scutellaris Group of Aedes (Stegomyia) in southern Asia. Distribution sites of the wild species concentrate in seasonal forest and savannah climate zones in India, Indochina, and southern China. The distribution of Ae. albopictus is broader than the wild species under 1) tropical rain-forest climate, 2) steppe and temperate savannah climate, and 3) continental climate with large seasonal temperature variation (hot summer and cold winter) at temperate lowlands (northernmost sites 40°N in Ae. albopictus vs 32°N in the wild species). However, the distribution of Ae. albopictus is more limited at tropical and subtropical highlands where the climate is cool but less continental (small seasonal variation, mild summer, and winter). We discuss a possibility that the broader climate ranges of Ae. albopictus are ecological or eco-evolutionary consequences of adaptation to human habitats. We also propose a general scenario for the origin, dispersal, and adaptation of Ae. albopictus in Asia as a hypothesis for future research. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Larvicidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Flamini, Guido; Fiore, Giulia; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Conti, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The essential oils of many Apiaceae species have been already studied for their insecticidal and repellent properties against insect pests. In this research, the essential oil (EO) extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) was evaluated for the first time for its larvicidal and repellent activities against the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of C. sativum EO was investigated by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. Coriander EO was mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool (83.6 %) as the major constituent. C. sativum EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae: LC(50) was 421 ppm, while LC(90) was 531.7 ppm. Repellence trials highlighted that C. sativum EO was a good repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.0001565 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.002004 μL/cm(2). At the highest dosage (0.2 μL/cm(2) of skin), the protection time achieved with C. sativum essential oil was higher than 60 min. This study adds knowledge about the chemical composition of C. sativum EO as well as to the larvicidal and repellent activity exerted by this EO against A. albopictus. On this basis, we believe that our findings could be useful for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  1. Cloning and expression of cry2Aa from native Bacillus thuringiensis strain SY49-1 and its insecticidal activity against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Semih; Azizoglu, Ugur; Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Temizgul, Ridvan; Atciyurt, Zehra Büşra; Karabörklü, Salih

    2017-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) is well known for having toxicity against pest insects because of their ability to form endospores and broad-range activity of their parasporal inclusions. In this study, a new member of cry2A gene from previously characterized native B. thuringiensis SY49-1 strain was cloned, expressed and used for its activity against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The sequence analysis of the cloned cry2A gene revealed that it encodes a polypeptide of 633 aa residues with 99% identity to Cry2Aa protein with expected molecular weight of 70.7 kDa. Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin nomenclature committee designed our sequence as Cry2Aa18 being a new member of Bt toxins. Bioassays against last instar larvae of C. pipiens indicated that Cry2Aa18 has considerable toxicity with LC 50 of 630 μg ml -1 . In order to prevent the spread of infectious diseases mediated by C. pipiens, this newly characterized cry2Aa18 gene could constitute as an important biological control tool for controlling mosquito larvae living in freshwater systems and can be used as a good alternative for minimizing the use of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Field efficacy of BG-Sentinel and industry-standard traps for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and West Nile virus surveillance.

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    Farajollahi, Ary; Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Price, Dana C; Williams, Gregory M; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Nelder, Mark P

    2009-07-01

    Standard surveillance traps in North America for adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), an invasive mosquito with public health implications, are currently ineffective. We compared the efficacy of the BG-Sentinel trap (BGS) with and without lures (BG-lure, octenol, and CO2), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap (CDC) with and without lures, and the gravid trap (GT) for Ae. albopictus collection in two urban sites in New Jersey. The BGS with or without lures collected more Ae. albopictus compared with other trap configurations and was more specific for Ae. albopictus. In Camden County, the BGS with lures collected three times more Ae. albopictus than the CDC (with CO2 only) and five times more than the GT. In Mercer County, BGS with lures collected the most mosquitoes, with 3 times more Ae. albopictus than the CDC with all lures and 50 times more than the GT. The BGS collected more male Ae. albopictus than other traps in both counties, providing further population monitoring. The GT and BGS provided a relative measure of the enzootic activity of West Nile virus in Culex spp. and the potential epidemic activity of WNV in Ae. albopictus. The BGS provides effective chemical and visual cues for host-seeking Ae. albopictus and should be used as a part of existing surveillance programs and new initiatives targeting this mosquito.

  3. Baseline Susceptibility of Filarial Vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Cu-licidae to Five Insecticides with Different Modes of Action in Southeast of Iran

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    Yaser Salim-Abadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae is an important vector for many human diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility level of larval and adult stages of Cu. quinquefasciatus to different groups of WHO recommended insecticides for vector control.Methods: Larval stages of the Culex mosquitoes were collected from their natural habitats in Rafsanjan County at Kerman Province, southeast of Iran in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility status of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus against DDT (4%, deltamethrin (0.05%, malathion 5%, and bendiocarb (0.1% were determined using WHO stand­ard insecticide susceptibility test. Additional test was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to temephos. Bioassay data were analyzed by Probit program.Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus adults showed resistance to all four groups of the tested insecticides according to the WHO criteria for resistance evaluation. The lethal concentrations for 50% mortality (LC50 and 90% mortality (LC90 of temephos against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were 0.18mg/l and 0.78mg/l, respectively. This finding also con­firms resistance to temephos based on the WHO recommended instructions for resistance evaluation.Conclusion: Resistance to all groups of the tested insecticides should be considered for future vector control investi­gations in the study area.

  4. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution

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    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

  5. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential of Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria

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    Jackson, Bryan T.; Stone, Christopher M.; Ebrahimi, Babak; Briët, Olivier J.T.; Foster, Woodbridge A.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for experiments on behaviour, reproduction, and adult survivorship of the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m3) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito’s energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately, using a method that accounts for a proportion of bodies being lost. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single-cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition, and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes where space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. PMID:25294339

  6. Feeding patterns of Haemagogus capricornii and Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae) in two Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro and Goiás).

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    Alencar, Jeronimo; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2008-09-01

    We present the identification of bloodfeeding sources of Haemagogus (Haemagogus) capricornii Lutz and Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon) (Diptera: Culicidae) from different regions of Brazil, as analyzed by precipitin tests. Anti-sera for bird, bovine, equine, human, opossum, and rodent were used. Two hundred one mosquitoes were examined (147 Hg. leucocelaenus and 54 Hg. capricornii), of which 177 reacted for some anti-serum. For Hg. leucocelaenus, 86 (68.3%) reacted to one blood source, 38 (30.2%) to two sources, and two (1.6%) to three sources; the combinations of bird + human (18.4%), bird + rodent (15.8%), and bird + marsupial (15.8%) were the most frequent. For Hg. capricornii, 34 (66.7%) reacted to one blood source; combinations bird + rodent (37.5%) and bird + marsupial (25%) were the most frequent combinations. Mosquito preference for bloodfeeding sources was different in these areas, possibly because of the availability of sources. This diversity of sources can have important epidemiological implications.

  7. Sequence, secondary structure, and phylogenetic analyses of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) in members of the North American Signifera Group of Orthopodomyia (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Byrd, Brian D; Harrison, Bruce A; Zavortink, Thomas J; Wesson, Dawn M

    2012-11-01

    Mosquitoes of the genus Orthopodomyia (Diptera: Culicidae) are little known and of uncertain epidemiological importance. In the United States, there are three Orthopodomyia species (i.e., Or. signifera (Coquillett), Or. alba Baker, and Or. kummi Edwards); they are all members of the Signifera Group based on the current morphological taxonomy. In the course of identifying recently collected specimens, a problem was found with the current key morphological characters for separating the fourth instar larvae of Or. signifera and Or. kummi. Internal transcribed spacer two sequences of the rDNA were obtained to resolve the identities. The Orthopodomyia internal transcribed spacer two ranged in size from 193 (Or. kummi) to 244 bp (Or. signifera) (mean = 218 bp) and were slightly Adenine/Thymine enriched (44.7% Guanine/Cytosine on average). Putative secondary structures reveal structural homologies (four domains) consistent between species that also feature conserved sequences specific to mosquitoes (e.g., a conserved motif on the 3' aspect of the longest helix: GARTACATCC). Sequence analyses suggest that in certain areas of southwestern North America, hybridization may occur between Or. kummi and Or. signifera. Furthermore, our analyses confirm that Or. californica (a junior synonym of Or. signifera) is indeed Or. signifera. To our knowledge, this is the first sequence-based phylogenetic and molecular analysis of the Orthopodomyia.

  8. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.

  9. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis of plant-derived compounds with larvicidal activity against Zika Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) vector using freely available descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Laura M; Romanelli, Gustavo P; Duchowicz, Pablo R

    2018-01-04

    We have developed a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for predicting the larvicidal activity of 60 plant-derived molecules against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae), a vector of several diseases such as dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika. The balanced subsets method (BSM) based on k-means cluster analysis (k-MCA) was employed to split the data set. The replacement method (RM) variable subset selection technique coupled with multivariable linear regression (MLR) proved to be successful for exploring 18 326 molecular descriptors and fingerprints calculated with PaDEL, Mold 2 and EPI Suite open-source softwares. A robust QSAR model (Rtrain2=0.84, S train  = 0.20 and Rtest2=0.92, S test  = 0.23) involving five non-conformational descriptors was established. The model was validated and tested through the use of an external test set of compounds, the leave-one-out (LOO) and leave-more-out (LMO) cross-validation methods, Y-randomization and applicability domain (AD) analysis. The QSAR model surpasses previously published models based on geometrical descriptors, thereby representing a suitable tool for predicting larvicidal activity against the vector A. aegypti using a conformation-independent approach. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and Its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) in Comparison with Citrus paradisi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bio-active agents against mosquito vectors. Methods: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory condition. Then chemical composition of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results: The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62%) constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81). Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds. PMID:28032110

  11. Larvicidal activity of essential oils of Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium (Rutaceae cultivated in Morocco against the malaria vector Anopheles labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Fouad El-Akhal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the larvicidal activity of essential oils of two aromatic and medicinal plants, Citrus aurantium (C. aurantium and Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis (Rutaceae cultivated in North Eastern Morocco, against the larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles labranchiae (An. labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC 90 values were calculated. Results: Bioassays revealed that these oils had remarkable larvicidal properties. The minimum levels necessary to achieve 100% mortality of An. labranchiae larvae were evaluated at 160 mg/L for C. aurantium and 640 mg/L for C. sinensis. Essential oil of C. aurantium remained the most efficient (LC50 = 22.64 mg/L, LC90 = 83.77 mg/L, while those of C. sinensis was the least (LC50 = 77.55 mg/L, LC90 = 351.36 mg/L. Conclusions: These results suggest that the essential oils isolated from Citrus plants have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control An. labranchiae.

  12. Bioefficacy of ecbolin A and ecbolin B isolated from Ecbolium viride (Forsk. Alston on dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Appadurai Daniel Reegan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecbolin A and ecbolin B were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Ecbolium viride (Forsk. Alston root and evaluated for larvicidal and growth disturbance activities against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae. For larvicidal activity, the third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 ppm for each compound. Among the two compounds screened, ecbolin B recorded highest larvicidal activity with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.70 and 1.42 ppm, respectively. In control, the larval behaviour was normal. The active compound ecbolin B was tested for growth disruption activity at sub lethal concentrations viz., 0.5, 1.0 ppm and observed for malformation like larval gut elongation, larval longevity, intermediates, malformed adults, failed adult emergence and compared with methoprene. The results showed significant level of larva–pupa intermediates, pupa–adult intermediates, malformed adult emergence and less adult formation against A. aegypti. The histopathological results revealed a severe damage on the midgut epithelial columnar cells (CC and cuboidal cells (CU in ecbolin B treated larvae of A. aegypti. Similarly peritrophic membrane (pM was also observed to be damaged in the treated larvae. The present results suggest that, ecbolin B could be used as a larvicidal agent against dengue vector A. aegypti.

  13. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  14. A Description of Scutomyia, a Subgenus Resurrected from the Albolineatus Group of the Genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    199; in part of Stegomyia Theobald in part of Brunetti 1914:71, 1920 :125; Senior-White 192x60; Barraud 1927:553. Aedes (Steganyia) in part of...Culicidae. Rec. Indian Mus. (Calcutta) 10: 15-73. 1920 . Catalogue of Oriental and south Asiatic Nemocera. Rec. Indian Mus. (Calcutta) 17: l-300...Contrib. Am. Entamol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 5(4): l-43. 130 Baisas, a synonym of Aedes _- 1973a. Aedes wainwrighti (Steganyia) meronephada ( Dyar and Shannon

  15. Ecological aspects of Microsporidia parasitizing in natural populations of the Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) blood-suking mosquitoes in Western Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    SIMAKOVA ANASTASIA V.; PANKOVA TAMARA F.; ISSI IRMA V.; ANDREEVA YULIA V.

    2016-01-01

    We examined microsporidia (1976-2014) in natural populations of blood-sucking Aedes mosquitoes of Western Siberia with the focus on their biodiversity and ecology. In total, we recorded 3' species of Culicidae family mosquitoes in Western Siberia; 22 species of them belong to the univoltine genus Aedes, producing one generation per year (spring). As it has been shown, microsporidians infect '3 mosquito species. In this study, we isolated 26 microsporidian species representing five genera (Amb...

  16. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.Atividade crepuscular de culicídeos (Diptera, Culicidae no peridomicílio e remanescentes de matas ciliares do Rio Tibagi. Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Mosquitos atraídos por humanos foram coletados por uma hora em torno do crepúsculo vespertino (meia hora antes e meia hora depois, de abril a dezembro de 2006, em dois locais (mata ciliar e peridomicílio na bacia do Rio Tibagi, município de Palmeira, Estado do Paraná. Foram capturados 749 mosquitos distribuídos em 13 espécies. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42,86% e Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40,59% foram as espécies mais freqüentes. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas entre as médias de indivíduos capturados entre os pontos de mata ciliar e peridomicílio para Ps. champerico (t = -0,792; g.l. = 16; p = 0

  17. Host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to vapors of geraniol, citral, citronellal, eugenol, or anisaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huiling; Wei, Jianrong; Dai, Jianqing; Du, Jiawei

    2008-05-01

    The changes of the host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) surviving in a space containing vapors of the spatial repellents geraniol, eugenol, citral, anisaldehyde, or citronellal were evaluated using an arm-in-cage test and a bioassay of bloodmeals on a shaved mouse. The mosquitoes surviving concentrations of geraniol, citral, eugenol, or anisaldehyde at 0.013, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100, and 0.250 microg/cm3 for 24 and 48 h all showed different degrees of reduction in host-seeking ability. After 48 h of exposure to 0.250 microg/cm3 geraniol, almost 100% of the mosquitoes lost their host-seeking ability. The next most potent spatial repellent, anisaldehyde, stopped host seeking by > 85.5%. Citronellal did not result in a significant reduction in the host-seeking ability at any concentration level after either 24 or 48 h of treatment. We also found that reduction of host-seeking ability recovered after various times. The longest recovery time (144 h) was observed for geraniol after 24 h at 0.250 microg/cm3. In the study, geraniol, eugenol, and citral all significantly affected the activation and orientation stages of the blood-feeding behavior. However, only anisaldehyde significantly interrupted the normal blood-feeding of mosquitoes in all stages of behavior. These initial laboratory results clearly showed that anisaldehyde and geraniol could be promising spatial repellents against Ae. albopictus that they could play a major role in new repellent technology.

  18. Comparison of fatty acid contents and composition in major lipid classes of larvae and adults of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from a steppe region.

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    Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Yurchenko, Yuri A; Gladyshev, Michail I; Belevich, Olga E; Kalachova, Galina S; Kolmakova, Angelika A

    2013-10-01

    Emerging aquatic insects, including mosquitoes, are known to transfer to terrestrial ecosystems specific essential biochemicals, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We studied fatty acid (FA) composition and contents of dominant mosquito populations (Diptera: Culicidae), that is, Anopheles messeae, Ochlerotatus caspius, Oc. flavescens, Oc. euedes, Oc. subdiversus, Oc. cataphylla, and Aedes cinereus, inhabited a steppe wetland of a temperate climate zone to fill up the gap in their lipid knowledge. The polar lipid and triacylglycerol fractions of larvae and adults were compared. In most studied mosquito species, we first found and identified a number of short-chain PUFA, for example, prominent 14:2n-6 and 14:3n-3, which were not earlier documented in living organisms. These PUFA, although occurred in low levels in adult mosquitoes, can be potentially used as markers of mosquito biomass in terrestrial food webs. We hypothesize that these acids might be synthesized (or retroconverted) by the mosquitoes. Using FA trophic markers accumulated in triacylglycerols, trophic relations of the mosquitoes were accessed. The larval diet comprised green algae, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates and provided the mosquitoes with essential n-3 PUFA, linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids. As a result, both larvae and adults of the studied mosquitoes had comparatively high content of the essential PUFA. Comparison of FA proportions in polar lipids versus storage lipids shown that during mosquito metamorphosis transfer of essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids from the reserve in storage lipids of larvae to functional polar lipids in adults occurred. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. The roles of predators, competitors, and secondary salinization in structuring mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages in ephemeral water bodies of the Wheatbelt of Western Australia.

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    Carver, Scott; Spafford, Helen; Storey, Andrew; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-06-01

    Studies that consider both biotic and abiotic determinants of organisms are rare, but critical to delineate underlying determinants of community richness (number of taxa) and abundance (number of larvae per water body). In this study, we consider the importance of disturbance (salinity) and predator and competitor variables on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in small ephemeral water bodies across the Wheatbelt of Western Australia. Similar to mosquitoes, and contrary to general perceptions, nonculicid aquatic fauna (aquatic fauna) had a common occurrence (number or percentage of water bodies occupied) and were abundant (average density) in ephemeral water bodies, albeit with a simplified trophic structure. The occurrence and density (number per unit area) of aquatic fauna between water bodies were highly variable, but general relationships of aquatic fauna with rainfall, water body surface area, salinity, and mosquitoes were apparent. In contrast to mosquitoes, the density of aquatic fauna declined with recent rainfall, implying mosquitoes may colonize newly created water bodies more quickly than aquatic fauna. Assemblages (richness and density of taxa) of aquatic fauna changed along a salinity gradient, as did mosquitoes, and this was pronounced for predator groups. Densities of mosquitoes were not limited by any single taxonomic group, by a negative relationship. However, the density and richness of mosquitoes generally declined in association with increased richness of predators and density of all other taxa (taxa not specifically classified as predators or competitors of mosquitoes). These relationships may account for higher densities of mosquitoes in smaller water bodies, where richness of predators is reduced and the density of other taxa does not differ from larger water bodies. Our results also suggest salinity in the Western Australia Wheatbelt may facilitate greater abundance of halotolerant mosquitoes, Aedes alboannulatus Macquart and Aedes

  20. Evaluation of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi for Control of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Underground Storm Drains in the Coachella Valley, California, United States.

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    Popko, David A; Henke, Jennifer A; Mullens, Bradley A; Walton, William E

    2017-12-22

    Commercially available formulations of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), were assessed for control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in underground storm drain systems (USDS) in the Coachella Valley of southern California. Each of three treatments, the two fungi or a water control, was applied to 1 m2 of vertical wall at eight USDS sites in spring and autumn of 2015. Fungal infectivity and lethality were assessed at 1 d and 1, 2, and 4 wk post-application. Overnight bioassays using adult lab-reared female mosquitoes were carried out on the treated USDS wall areas and then mosquitoes were held in the laboratory for up to 21 d to allow fungal infections to be expressed. Postmortem fungal sporulation was assessed up to 2 wk at 100% humidity. Mosquito-fungal interactions also were assessed in bioassays of the three treatments on filter paper exposed to USDS conditions during autumn. Metarhizium anisopliae killed mosquitoes faster than B. bassiana; nevertheless, both freshly applied formulations caused greater than 80% mortality. Fungal persistence declined significantly after 1 wk under USDS conditions, but some infectivity persisted for more than 4 wk. Beauveria bassiana was more effective against Cx. qinquefasciatus in the spring, while M. anisopliae was more effective in the cooler conditions during autumn. USDS environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, standing water) influenced fungal-related mortality and infection of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The utility of these fungal formulations for mosquito abatement in the Coachella Valley and implications for fungal control agents in USDS environments are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Efficacy of essential oils of aromatic plants as larvicide for the management of filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae with special reference to Foeniculum vulgare

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    Inder Singh Rana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils derived from ten aromatic plants with special reference to Foeniculum vulgare (F. vulgare against early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from plant materials through hydro distillation and efficacy was determined through bioassay method. Two of the effective oils were evaluated further for the determination of their LC 50 and LT50 values based on Probit analysis.Essential oils of one plant was analyzed through TLC and HPLC. Results: Most of the essential oils caused 100% mortality within 120 min at 250 ppm. Oil of Tagetes patula (T. patula and F. vulgare gave more than 90% mortality within 40 min. LC 50 values calculated after 60 min of treatment were (84.80 暲 7.65 and (24.69 暲 1.24 ppm for T. patula and F. vulgare respectively. At the same exposure period positive control temephos yielded (22.13暲2.39 ppm LC50 value. At 50 ppm T. patula, F. vulgare and temephos exhibited LT 50 values (113.71 暲 10.29, (11.02 暲 3.31 and (38.15 暲 5.90 mins respectively. Presence of high quantity of trans anethole in the essential oils of F. vulgare was confirmed by TLC and HPLC results. Conclusions: Present study indicates that essential oils of spices/aromatic medicinal plants particularly F. vulgare and T. patula carry huge potential as a mosquito larvicide. This potential could be exploited for the development of safer and effective botanical mosquito larvicidal tool for the management of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  2. SITUACIÓN ACTUAL EN ESPAÑA Y ECO-EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LAS ARBOVIROSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR MOSQUITOS CULÍCIDOS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE

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    Rubén Bueno Marí

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente manuscrito se analiza la posible emergencia y/o reemergencia en España de algunas de las arbovirosis transmitidas por mosquitos culícidos (Diptera: Culicidae de mayor incidencia a nivel mundial en los últimos años. Los datos faunísticos, bioecológicos y de distribución de los culícidos en nuestro país permiten discernir entre especies con capacidad de mantener la enzootia de algunas de estas arbovirosis de otras que pueden actuar como vectores puente de la virosis hasta el ser humano. Los resultados revelan la existencia de especies, algunas de ellas muy frecuentes en los humedales de nuestro país y fuertemente antropófilas como Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens u Ochlerotatus caspius, con una elevada capacidad para transmitir flavivirus como el virus West Nile o el virus Usutu. Además, la reciente introducción, establecimiento y expansión del mosquito tigre, Aedes albopictus, abre una preocupante vía para la aparición de posibles brotes, probablemente incluso de tipo epidémico, de arbovirosis habitualmente importadas a nuestro país por personas inmigrantes y turistas, como el Dengue o Chikungunya. Por último, también se discute el interés epidemiológico de especies propias de nuestro entorno como Aedes vittatus u Ochlerotatus geniculatus, debido a su capacidad vectorial constatada para la transmisión de algunas de estas virosis típicamente tropicales.

  3. Encontro de Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae, no Município de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Finding of Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae, in the municipality of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro de 2006, foi realizada uma investigação entomológica numa mata nativa do município de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O resultado foi a captura de várias espécies Culicidae, incluindo o primeiro registro da presença de Haemagogus leucocelaenus na localidade. Esta espécie é considerada vetora do vírus da febre amarela em alguns municípios do Estado, motivando esta comunicação para alertar sobre o potencial da área para circulação do agente etiológico desta doença.In November 2006, an entomological investigation was carried out in a native forest in the municipality of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The result was the capture of several Culicidae species, including the first recording of the presence of Haemagogus leucocelaenus in this locality. This species is considered to be a vector for the yellow fever virus in some municipalities of this State, and this was the motivation for the present communication, in order to warn regarding the potential of this area for circulation of the etiological agent for this disease.

  4. Culicidae (Diptera) community structure, spatial and temporal distribution in three environments of the province of Chaco, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Marina; Santana, Mirta; Galindo, Liliana María; Etchepare, Eduardo; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the composition of the Culicidae community in three environments with different degrees of anthropic disturbance in the province of Chaco. The nonparametric richness estimator ACE was calculated to measure the completeness of the sampling in each environment, and the diversity of each environment (α-diversity) were estimated. The composition, abundance and uniformity of species from the different environments were compared by means of range-species curves. β-diversity was measured as species complementarity, which allowed us to know the degree of dissimilarity among the environments. The synanthropic index was estimated, identifying urban environment (synanthropic) species, eusynanthropic species, and wild species. The influence of climatic factors (mean temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on the monthly and annual variations of the identified mosquito species was analysed using multilevel Poisson models with over-dispersion. The wild environment showed higher diversity and the semi-urban environment higher species richness. Despite having lower S and abundance, the urban environment showed greater diversity than semi-urban environment, although it also showed lower completeness, which means S could increase. Anthropogenic disturbance can lead to the elimination and/or modification or substitution of habitats, with the subsequent loss of richness in the more sensitive species of Culicidae fauna, although the conditions are also favourable for the settling of opportunistic and exotic species well-adjusted to disturbed environments. Most of the species abundances were positively influenced by the analysed climatic variables. The study area showed a rich Culicidae fauna of public health significance, with a risk of pathogen transmission, suggesting the need of further studies and the febrile and entomological surveillance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New Records of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Bolívar State in South Eastern Venezuela, with 27 New Species for the State and 5 of Them New in the Country

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    Berti, Jesús; Guzmán, Hernán; Estrada, Yarys; Ramírez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This is the first part of a series of studies related to mosquito ecological and biogeographic aspects. A total of 69 mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) was collected in 16 localities sampled in the Gran Sabana Municipality, Canaima National Park, and Venezuela. Twenty-seven mosquito species are recorded for the first time from Bolívar State, Venezuela. Five of them species are reported for the first time in Venezuela: Anopheles malefactor Dyar and Knab (1907); Chagasia bonneae Root (1927); Chagasia ablusa Harbach (2009); Culex anduzei Lane (1944), and Uranotaenia leucoptera Theobald (1907). Their medical importance is commented, and ecological and epidemiological aspects are discussed. A checklist of the mosquito species reported in the Gran Sabana County is given. PMID:25853113

  6. Changes in species richness and spatial distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inferred from museum specimen records and a recent inventory: a case study from Belgium suggests recent expanded distribution of arbovirus and malaria vectors.

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    Dekoninck, W; Hendrickx, F; Versteirt, V; Coosemans, M; De Clercq, E M; Hendrickx, G; Hance, T; Grootaert, P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) distribution data from a recent inventory of native and invading mosquito species in Belgium were compared with historical data from the period 1900-1960 that were retrieved from a revision of the Belgian Culicidae collection at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Both data sets were used to investigate trends in mosquito species richness in several regions in Belgium. The relative change in distribution area of mosquito species was particularly important for species that use waste waters and used tires as larval habitats and species that recently shifted their larval habitat to artificial larval habitats. More importantly, several of these species are known as vectors of arboviruses and Plasmodium sp. and the apparent habitat shift of some of them brought these species in proximity to humans. Similar studies comparing current mosquito richness with former distribution data retrieved from voucher specimens from collections is therefore encouraged because they can generate important information concerning health risk assessment at both regional and national scale.

  7. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina

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    Raúl E. CAMPOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  8. Daily pattern of flight activity of Aedes albifasciatus in Central Argentina

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    Francisco F. Ludueña Almeida

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albifasciatus is an important common mosquito in Central Argentina. Its a confirmed vector of the Western Equine Encephalitis and is responsible for loss of milk production in dairy cattle during peak populations. This paper reports the flight activity pattern of Ae. albifasciatus for different seasons, in the southern coast of the Mar Chiquita Lake (Central Argentina. Data were collected by sampling two sites between 1992 and 1993 with CDC traps and human-bait captures. Adult mosquito population density, estimated by CDC trapping and human-bait, were highly correlated. However, when compared to other species, the proportion of Ae. albifasciatus was higher in human-bait collections. Adult female populations were active only when temperature were higher than 6§C. Two daily biting peaks were observed (dusk and dawn during the spring, summer and autumn, and only one peak during winter (around 15:00 pm. Adult abundance was significantly correlated (R²= 0.71; p<0.01 with temperature and illumination.

  9. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  10. Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae a potential malaria vector in Southern France

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    Roger François

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although malaria disappeared from southern France more than 60 years ago, suspicions of recent autochthonous transmission in the French Mediterranean coast support the idea that the area could still be subject to malaria transmission. The main potential vector of malaria in the Camargue area, the largest river delta in southern France, is the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae. In the context of recent climatic and landscape changes, the evaluation of the risk of emergence or re-emergence of such a major disease is of great importance in Europe. When assessing the risk of emergence of vector-borne diseases, it is crucial to be able to characterize the arthropod vector's spatial distribution. Given that remote sensing techniques can describe some of the environmental parameters which drive this distribution, satellite imagery or aerial photographs could be used for vector mapping. Results In this study, we propose a method to map larval and adult populations of An. hyrcanus based on environmental indices derived from high spatial resolution imagery. The analysis of the link between entomological field data on An. hyrcanus larvae and environmental indices (biotopes, distance to the nearest main productive breeding sites of this species i.e., rice fields led to the definition of a larval index, defined as the probability of observing An. hyrcanus larvae in a given site at least once over a year. Independent accuracy assessments showed a good agreement between observed and predicted values (sensitivity and specificity of the logistic regression model being 0.76 and 0.78, respectively. An adult index was derived from the larval index by averaging the larval index within a buffer around the trap location. This index was highly correlated with observed adult abundance values (Pearson r = 0.97, p An. hyrcanus larval and adult populations from the landscape indices. Conclusion This work shows that it is possible to use

  11. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Apperson, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. The host-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in Wake County, Raleigh, NC. Hosts of blood-fed Ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in New Zealand White rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic habitats. Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on mammalian hosts (83%). Common mammalian hosts included humans (24%), cats (21%), and dogs (14%). However, a notable proportion (7%) of bloodmeals also was taken from avian hosts. Some bloodmeals taken from birds were identified to species by a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay (PCR-HDA). Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on chickens and a northern cardinal. PCR-HDA failed to produce detectable products for 29 (58%) of 50 bloodmeals for which DNA had been amplified, indicating that these mosquitoes took mixed bloodmeals from avian and nonavian hosts. Ae. albopictus preference for humans, dogs, and cats was determined by calculating host-feeding indices for the three host pairs based on the proportion of host specific blood-fed mosquitoes collected in relation to the number of specific hosts per residence as established by a door-to-door survey conducted in 2003. Estimates of the average amount of time that residents and their pets (cats and dogs) spent out of doors were obtained. Host-feeding indices based only on host abundance indicated that Ae. albopictus was more likely to feed on domestic animals. However, when feeding indices were time-weighted, Ae. albopictus fed preferentially upon humans. Ae. albopictus blood feeding on humans was investigated using a STR/PCR-DNA profiling technique that involved amplification of three short tandem repeats loci. Of 40 human bloodmeals, 32 (80%) were from a single human, whereas

  12. The effects of blood feeding and exogenous supply of tryptophan on the quantities of xanthurenic acid in the salivary glands of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Okech, Bernard; Arai, Meiji; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2006-03-24

    Xanthurenic acid (XA), produced as a byproduct during the biosynthesis of insect eye pigment (ommochromes), is a strong inducer of Plasmodium gametogenesis at very low concentrations. In previous studies, it was shown that XA is present in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito salivary glands and that during blood feeding the mosquitoes ingested their own saliva into the midgut. Considering these two facts together, it is therefore likely that XA is discharged with saliva during blood feeding and is swallowed into the midgut where it exerts its effect on Plasmodium gametocytes. However, the quantities of XA in the salivary glands and midgut are unknown. In this study, we used high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to detect and quantify XA in the salivary glands and midgut. Based on the results of this study, we found 0.28+/-0.05 ng of XA in the salivary glands of the mosquitoes, accounting for 10% of the total XA content in the mosquito whole body. The amounts of XA in the salivary glands reduced to 0.13+/-0.06 ng after mosquitoes ingested a blood meal. Approximately 0.05+/-0.01 ng of XA was detected in the midgut of nonblood fed An. stephensi mosquitoes. By adding synthetic tryptophan as a source of XA into larval rearing water (2 mM) or in sugar meals (10 mM), we evaluated whether XA levels in the mosquito (salivary glands, midgut, and whole body) were boosted and the subsequent effect on infectivity of Plasmodium berghei in the treated mosquito groups. A female specific increase in XA content was observed in the whole body and in the midgut of mosquito groups where tryptophan was added either in the larval water or sugar meals. However, XA in the salivary glands was not affected by tryptophan addition to larval water, and surprisingly it reduced when tryptophan was added to sugar meals. The P. berghei oocyst loads in the mosquito midguts were lower in mosquitoes fed tryptophan treated sugar meals than in mosquitoes

  13. Spatiotemporal variation of mosquito diversity (Diptera: Culicidae) at places with different land-use types within a neotropical montane cloud forest matrix.

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    Abella-Medrano, Carlos Antonio; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego

    2015-09-24

    Land-use change has led to a dramatic decrease in total forest cover, contributing to biodiversity loss and changes of ecosystems' functions. Insect communities of medical importance can be favored by anthropogenic alterations, increasing the risk of novel zoonotic diseases. The response of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance and richness to five land-use types (shade coffee plantation, cattle field, urban forest, peri-urban forest, well-preserved montane cloud forest) and three seasons ("dry", "rainy" and "cold") embedded in a neotropical montane cloud forest landscape was evaluated. Standardized collections were performed using 8 CDC miniature black-light traps, baited with CO2 throughout the year. Generalized additive mixed models were used to describe the seasonal and spatial trends of both species richness and abundance. Rank abundance curves and ANCOVAs were used to detect changes in the spatial and temporal structure of the mosquito assemblage. Two cluster analyses were conducted, using 1-βsim and the Morisita-Horn index to evaluate species composition shifts based on incidences and abundances. A total of 2536 adult mosquitoes were collected, belonging to 9 genera and 10 species; the dominant species in the study were: Aedes quadrivittatus, Wyeomyia adelpha, Wy. arthrostigma, and Culex restuans. Highest richness was recorded in the dry season, whereas higher abundance was detected during the rainy season. The urban forest had the highest species richness (n = 7) when compared to all other sites. Species composition cluster analyses show that there is a high degree of similarity in species numbers across sites and seasons throughout the year. However, when considering the abundance of such species, the well-preserved montane cloud forest showed significantly higher abundance. Moreover, the urban forest is only 30 % similar to other sites in terms of species abundances, indicating a possible isolating role of the urban environment. Mosquito

  14. Population Dynamics and Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) Infectivity Rates for the Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) at Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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    Dandalo, Leonard C; Brooke, Basil D; Munhenga, Givemore; Lobb, Leanne N; Zikhali, Jabulani; Ngxongo, Sifiso P; Zikhali, Phineas M; Msimang, Sipho; Wood, Oliver R; Mofokeng, Mohlominyana; Misiani, Eunice; Chirwa, Tobias; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-11-07

    Anopheles arabiensis (Patton; Diptera: Culicidae) is a major malaria vector in the southern African region. In South Africa, effective control of this species using indoor-based interventions is reduced owing to its tendency to rest outdoors. As South Africa moves towards malaria elimination there is a need for complementary vector control strategies. One of the methods under consideration is the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Key to the successful implementation of an SIT programme is prior knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the target population. Understanding mosquito population dynamics for both males and females is critical for efficient programme implementation. It is thus necessary to use outdoor-based population monitoring tools capable of sampling both sexes of the target population. In this project mosquito surveillance and evaluation of tools capable of collecting both genders were carried out at Mamfene in northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, during the period January 2014 to December 2015. Outdoor- and indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled in three sections of Mamfene over the 2-yr sampling period using modified plastic buckets, clay pots and window exit traps. Morphological and molecular techniques were used for species identifications of all samples. Wild-caught adult females were tested for Plasmodium falciparum (Welch; Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) infectivity. Out of 1,705 mosquitoes collected, 1,259 (73.8%) and 255 (15%) were identified as members of either the Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles funestus group respectively. An. arabiensis was the most abundant species contributing 78.8% of identified specimens. Mosquito density was highest in summer and lowest during winter. Clay pots yielded 16.3 mosquitoes per trap compared to 10.5 for modified plastic buckets over the 2-yr sampling period. P. falciparum infection rates for An. arabiensis were 0.7% and 0.5% for 2014 and 2015, respectively

  15. The Role of Detoxification Enzymes in the Adaptation of the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae (Giles; Diptera: Culicidae) to Polluted Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sandra A; Onayifeke, Bibian; Akorli, Jewelna; Sibomana, Isaie; Chabi, Joseph; Manful-Gwira, Theresa; Dadzie, Samuel; Suzuki, Takashi; Wilson, Michael D; Boakye, Daniel A; de Souza, Dziedzom K

    2017-11-07

    The main malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, the Anopheles gambiae (Giles; Diptera: Culicidae), normally breed in clean water sources. However, evidence suggests an on-going adaptation of Anopheline species to polluted breeding habitats in urban settings. This study aimed at understanding the adaptation to breeding in water bodies with different qualities, in five selected mosquito breeding sites in urban Accra, Ghana. The study sites were also evaluated for the WHO water-quality parameters as a measure of pollution, and insecticide residues. Field mosquitoes were evaluated for five genes; CYP6P3, CYP4H19, CYP4H24, GSTD1-4, and ABCC11-associated with insecticide detoxification-using quantitative RT-PCR, as well as Mono-oxygenase, Alpha Esterase, Glutathione S-transferase, and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using biochemical enzyme assays. The lab-reared, insecticide susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain was bred in the most polluted water source for 10 generations and evaluated for the same genes and enzymes. The results revealed that the fold expression of the genes was higher in the larvae compared with the adults. The results also suggest that detoxification enzymes could be involved in the adaptation of An. gambiae to polluted breeding sites. Correlation analysis revealed a highly positive significant correlation between calcium levels and all five genes (P < 0.05). Stepwise linear regression to understand which of the variables predicted the expression of the genes revealed that sulphate was responsible for ABCC11 and CYP4H24, alkalinity for GSTD1-4, and calcium for CYP4H19 and CYP6P3. The detailed genetic basis of this adaptation need to be further investigated. A further understanding of this adaptation may provide outlooks for controlling malaria and other disease vectors adapted to polluted breeding water sources. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For

  16. Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Benelli, Giovanni; Leonardi, Michele; Afifi, Fatma U; Cervelli, Claudio; Profeti, Raffaele; Pistelli, Luisa; Canale, Angelo

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) has been one of the fastest spreading insects over the past 20 years. Its medical importance is due to the aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and the ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, Eastern Equine encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In this research, the essential oils (EOs) extracted from fresh air dried leaves of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) were evaluated for their repellent activity against A. albopictus by using the human-bait technique. The EOs chemical composition was also investigated, and EOs were divided in three different profiles on the basis of their chemical composition: EO with large amount of monoterpenes from S. sclarea, EO rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes from S. dorisiana, and S. longifolia EO characterized by similar percentages of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The efficacy protection from S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs, at dosages ranging from 0.004 to 0.4 μL cm(-2) of skin, was evaluated during 120 min of observation. Results indicated that S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs had a significant repellent activity (RD(50) =0.00035, 0.00049, and 0.00101 μL cm(-2), respectively), with differences in repellency rates, as a function of oil, dosage, and observation time. S. dorisiana was the most effective oil: at the two higher dosages, it gave almost complete protection (with a protective efficacy of 90.99% and 95.62%, respectively) for 90 min. The best protection time was achieved with S. dorisiana essential oil. It ranged from 9.2 to 92.4 min. Protection times of S. longifolia and S. sclarea oils ranged from 3.2 to 60 min, and from 3.6 to 64.2 min, respectively. Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  17. Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondônia state, western Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Antunes Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

  18. Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondônia state, western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Sirlei Antunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Kuniy, Adriana Akemi; Moresco, Gilberto Gilmar; Fernandes, Aristides; Nagaki, Sandra Sayuri; Natal, Delsio

    2012-12-01

    This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

  19. Culicidae (Diptera) selection of humans, chickens and rabbits in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Marina; Zalazar, Laura; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almeida, Francisco Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the selection of humans, chickens and rabbits by Culicidae in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly using cylindrical metal traps containing animal bait (chickens and rabbits). The mosquitoes were collected between June 2001-May 2002. During the same period and with the same frequency, mosquitoes biting the human operators of the traps were collected during the first 15 min of exposure within different time intervals: from 09:00 am-11:00 am, 01:00 pm-03:00 pm, 05:00 pm-07:00 pm and 09:00 pm-10:00 pm. A total of 19,430 mosquitoes of 49 species belonging to 10 genera were collected. Culex species mainly selected chicken bait and Wyeomyia species selected rabbit bait. Ochlerotatus and Psorophora species were more abundant in rabbit-baited traps. Anopheles triannulatus, Coquillettidia nigricans, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Mansonia titillans and Psorophora albigenu showed a strong attraction for human bait. The Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex and Mansonia species were more active between 05:00 pm-09:00 pm, while Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Haemagogus and Wyeomyia were most active from 09:00 am-07:00 pm. This study provides additional information about the biology and ecology of arbovirus vectors in Chaco.

  20. [Registry and distribution update of the species of the Haemagogus (Diptera: Culicidae) genus in the Caribbean region of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre-Serrano, Ronald; Cochero, Suljey; Bello, Betsy; Ferro, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    The mosquitoes of the Haemagogus (Williston, 1896) genus are relevant in public health because of the involvement of some species as vectors of yellow fever in its sylvan cycle. To update the distribution of the species of the Haemagogus genus in urban and periurban areas in the departments of Atlántico and Sucre in the Caribbean region of Colombia. The entomological material was collected in the departments of Atlántico and Sucre by means of larval traps during 2010 to 2011. Eighty per cent of the immature forms were preserved in 70% alcohol. Some were kept alive for the sake of obtaining entomological series. Taxonomical determination was done with Arnell's keys and description, 1973. In Atlántico, 2.32% of 37.573 immature Culicidae (871) were larvae of the Haemagogus genus. In Sucre, 44 larvae of the same genus were collected (1.22% of 3.611). The species collected in both regions were Hg. equinus, Hg. anastasionis , and Hg. celeste . The Haemagogus genus was most abundant during the months of heaviest rainfall, from June to November. The presence of Hg. anastasionis, Hg. celeste and Hg. equinus was detected in artificial containers, in urban and periurban areas of Atlántico and Sucre. Their distribution in the Caribbean region of Colombia has widened.

  1. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Tatiani C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil. Methods Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. Results A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04, bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03 and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. Conclusions One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The bromeliad factor that influenced mosquito abundance and assemblage structure was fullness. The findings of the current

  2. Diptera. Chapter 10

    OpenAIRE

    Skuhravá,Marcela; Martinez,Michel; Roques,Alain

    2010-01-01

    Of the 19,400 native species and 125 families forming the European diptera fauna, 98 species (less than 0.5%) in 22 families are alien to Europe. These aliens constitute 66 species (18 families) of the suborder Brachycera and 32 species (4 families) of the suborder Nematocera. By family in this category, there are 23 Cecidomyiidae species, 18 Drosophilidae, nine Phoridae, eight Tachinidae and seven Culicidae. Another 32 fly species belonging to five families are considered to be alien in Euro...

  3. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil). Methods Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop) based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. Results A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04), bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03) and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p < 0.01) influenced mosquito assemblage structure. Renyi diversity index show that lowland possesses the highest diversity indices. The presence of An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. Conclusions One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The

  4. The influence of the area of the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Plant, State of Goiás, on the frequency and diversity of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae): a study on the effect of a reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, Vanessa; Alencar, Jerônimo; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2015-01-01

    Bioecological aspects of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) near areas under the direct influence of the hydroelectric plant reservoir of Serra da Mesa in Goiás, Brazil, were analyzed. Samples were collected at the surrounding dam area during the phases before and after reservoir impoundment. The influence of climatic and environmental factors on the occurrence of Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albitarsis, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles evansae was assessed using Pearson's correlations with indicators for richness and diversity as well as the index of species abundance (ISA) and the standardized index of species abundance (SISA). The highest anopheline density occurred during the phase after filling the tank; however, no direct correlation with the climatic factors was observed during this stage. The reservoir formation determined the incidence of the anopheline species. An. darlingi was the predominant species (SISA = 1.00). The significant difference (p < 0.05) observed between the species incidence during the different reservoir phases demonstrates the environmental effect of the reservoir on anophelines.

  5. Diptera Community In The Littoral Zone Of A North East Arid Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maiduguri, Nigeria, were studied between January and June 2002. Dipteran samples were collected every 2 weeks from five different stations. Five groups of diptera organisms simulidae, chironomidae, centrapogo nidae, culicidae and chaoboridae were found in analyzable numbers. The diptera assemblage was ...

  6. [The presence of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in flood containment reservoirs in the eastern region of the City of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvério, Edna de Cássia; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in the environment contribute to changes in weather patterns, which cause an increase in rainfall, which causes flooding. Flooding has been addressed by building reservoirs, called piscinões, to contain the excess rain. In this report, we evaluated the Culicidae fauna of epidemiological importance in the reservoirs of Caguaçu and Inhumas. Monthly collections were performed in both reservoirs, which are situated in the Eastern section of the City of São Paulo. Monthly collections of Culicidae were undertaken using the entomological scoop method and a battery aspirator during the period between March 2006 and February 2007. Descriptive statistical and simple linear regression analyses of the data were carried out. A total of 8,917 Culicidae mosquitoes were collected. The majority of the insects captured were of Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus, representing 98.9% of the specimens identified in the Inhumas and 95.2% of those identified in Caguaçu. In the Caguaçu reservoir, the greatest frequency of immature mosquitoes was observed in the spillway (61%). In the Inhumas reservoir, the greatest occurrence of immature Culicidae was detected in the channel (42.6%). The linear regression analysis showed that 87% of the larvae in the third and fourth stages and 60% of the pupae were collected during periods of rainfall. In the Inhumas reservoir, 36% of the larvae and 18% of the pupae were collected during periods of rainfall. Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector for agents of filariasis and arbovirus diseases and a nuisance to the human population, was frequent in both environments. Methods of control of the species in the studied dams are necessary to reduce their epidemiological potential.

  7. Influência do período de quiescência dos ovos sobre o ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório

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    Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.

  8. A New Species of Culex (Eumelanomyia) from India with Descriptions of Pupae and Larvae of Cx. pluvialis Barraud and Cx. iphis Barraud (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    crown composed of 4,5 flat and blunt spicules laterally and several dark, spinelike spicules mesally; basal sternal process absent; cereal setae 3,4...filament well developed. DISTRIBUTION. In addition to the previous records from India and Peninsu- lar Malaysia (Sirivanakarn 1972; Sirivanakarn and...Ramalingam. 1976. A new species of CuZex (EwneZunoymial Theobald with notes on three other species from Malaysia (Diptera: Culici- dae). Mosq

  9. Immature culicidae (Diptera collected from the Igapó lake located in the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

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    José Lopes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Igapó lake dam is located in an urban area in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. A one year study of the Culicidae immature forms was conducted in this ecosystem. From a total of 962 collected larvae following genera were identified: Anopheles (59.36%, Culex (19.65% Aedeomyia (19.23% Aedes (1.50%, and Uranotaenia (0.10%. The 10 most abundant species were Anopheles strodei, Aedeomyia squamipennis, Culex (Melanoconium spp., Culex mollis, Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles evansae, Culex coronator, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles argyritarsis and Aedes terrens respectively. An. strodei prevailed with greater averages during July and September, showing a significant negative lineal correlation in relation to the rainfall. Ad. squamipennis showed a positive lineal correlation with the temperature with smaller population averages during June, August and September of 1997. Cx. (Melanoconium spp. populations were constant throughout the year. High Culicidae population density could bring problems to quality of human life, thus strong measures to avoid and control of mosquito population growth in the lake are recommended.O lago Igapó é um conjunto de quatro represas localizadas na área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil, com condições propícias para procriação de culicídeos. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a culicideofauna de imaturos neste lago, monitorando possíveis vetores de agentes patogênicos. Durante um ano coletou-se 962 imaturos que se distribuíram nos seguintes gêneros: Anopheles (59,36%, Culex (19,65% Aedeomyia (19,23% Aedes (1,50%, and Uranotaenia (0,10%. As espécies mais abundantes foram Anopheles strodei, Aedeomya squamipennis, Culex. (Melanoconium spp., Culex mollis, Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles evansae, Culex coronator, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles argyritarsis e Aedes terrens respectivamente. An. strodei, prevaleceu com grandes médias populacionais de Julho a Setembro, mostrando uma correlação linear

  10. Molecular identification of host feeding patterns of snow-melt mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae): potential implications for the transmission ecology of Jamestown Canyon virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, C C; Olival, Kevin J; Perkins, Susan L

    2010-03-01

    We collected blood-fed, snow-melt mosquitoes (Culicidae: Culiseta and Aedes) to describe the feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors of Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV, Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus). JCV is an arthropod-borne, zoonotic virus with deer as the primary amplifying host in western alpine ecosystems. We collected mosquitoes from natural resting areas, fiber pots, and carbon-dioxide baited miniature light traps in the Colorado Rocky Mountains in 2007. We conducted two polymerase chain reactions to amplify and sequence vertebrate DNA extracted from blood-fed mosquitoes, which yielded comparable, but not identical, results. Mammal-specific primers found mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) as the source of all bloodmeals. To determine if unamplified bloodmeals were from nonmammalian sources, we screened all samples with conserved vertebrate primers, which confirmed the initial polymerase chain reaction results, but also found porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) and human (Homo sapiens) as additional bloodmeal sources. We consistently found that mule deer were the primary hosts for mosquitoes in this system. These results suggest that snow-melt mosquitoes, in particular A. cataphylla, may be important vectors in western JCV alpine systems and may also act as a bridge vector for JCV from cervid virus reservoirs to humans.

  11. Molecular approaches for blood meal analysis and species identification of mosquitoes (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae) in rural locations in southern England, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis Miguel; Brugman, Victor Albert; Prosser, Sean Williams John; Weland, Chris; Nikolova, Nadya; Thorne, Leigh; Marco, Mar Fernández DE; Fooks, Anthony Richard; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-04-03

    Thirty-four species of Culicidae are present in the UK, of which 15 have been implicated as potential vectors of arthropod-borne viruses such as West Nile virus. Identification of mosquito feeding preferences is paramount to the understanding of vector-host-pathogen interactions which, in turn, would assist in the control of disease outbreaks. Results are presented on the application of DNA barcoding for vertebrate species identification in blood-fed female mosquitoes in rural locations. Blood-fed females (n = 134) were collected in southern England from rural sites and identified based on morphological criteria. Blood meals from 59 specimens (44%) were identified as feeding on eight hosts: European rabbit, cow, human, barn swallow, dog, great tit, magpie and blackbird. Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mtDNA barcoding region and the internal transcribed spacer 2 rDNA region of the specimens morphologically identified as Anopheles maculipennis s.l. revealed the presence of An. atroparvus and An. messeae. A similar analysis of specimens morphologically identified as Culex pipiens/Cx. torrentium showed all specimens to be Cx. pipiens (typical form). This study demonstrates the importance of using molecular techniques to support species-level identification in blood-fed mosquitoes to maximize the information obtained in studies investigating host feeding patterns.

  12. Flight height preference for oviposition of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus near the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; De Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Dégallier, Nicolas; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; de Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the oviposition behavior of mosquito species exhibiting acrodendrophilic habits was investigated. The study was conducted near the Simplicio Hydroelectic Reservoir (SHR) located on the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected using oviposition traps installed in forest vegetation cover between 1.70 and 4.30 m above ground level during the months of April, June, August, October, and December of 2011. Haemagogus janthinomys (Dyar), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and Aedes terrens (Walker) specimens were present among the collected samples, the first two of which being proven vectors of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) in Brazil and the latter is a vector of dengue in mainland Asia. As the data set was zero-inflated, a specific Poisson-based model was used for the statistical analysis. When all four species were considered in the model, only heights used for egg laying and months of sampling were explaining the distribution. However, grouping the species under the genera Haemagogus Williston and Aedes Meigen showed a significant preference for higher traps of the former. Considering the local working population of SHR is very large, fluctuating, and potentially exposed to SYF, and that this virus occurs in almost all Brazilian states, monitoring of Culicidae in Brazil is essential for assessing the risk of transmission of this arbovirus.

  13. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium macrostemon Bunge and its selected major constituent compounds against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background During the screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the essential oil of dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) was found to possess larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and its major constituent compounds against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Methods Essential oil of A. macrostemon was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its two major constituents were evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 9.0 - 150 μg/ml. Results The essential oil of A. macrostemon exhibited larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with an LC50 value of 72.86 μg/ml. The two constituent compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyl propyl disulfide possessed strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with LC50 values of 36.36 μg/ml and 86.16 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion The results indicated that the essential oil of A. macrostemon and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural larvicides. PMID:24731297

  14. Culicidae (Diptera em área sob influência de construção de represa no Estado de São Paulo Culicidae (Diptera in a dam construction area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marcia Bicudo de Paula

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a fauna Culicidae em área sob impacto da modificação ambiental causada pela construção de represa. MÉTODOS: Foi estudada a área onde estava sendo construída a Represa Porto Primavera no município de Presidente Epitácio, SP. As capturas dos culicídeos foram realizadas mensalmente, em seis pontos exploratórios antes do seu enchimento e em um ponto fixo, um ano antes (1997-1998 e outro depois do primeiro enchimento (1999-2000. Mosquitos adultos foram capturados com aspirador, no período matutino, e com armadilhas de Shannon e CDC, no período crepuscular vespertino. Os imaturos foram coletados por meio de conchadas nos criadouros maiores e com pipeta, nos menores. RESULTADOS: No período anterior ao enchimento da represa foram coletados 944 exemplares de culicídeos imaturos, distribuídos em dez gêneros. O total de adultos foi de 14.932, dos quais 7.031 mosquitos (em dez gêneros foram capturados nos pontos exploratórios e 7.901 espécimes, distribuídos em oito gêneros, no ponto fixo. Após a primeira etapa de enchimento da represa, o total de imaturos foi de 1.201 exemplares, distribuídos em quatro gêneros, e o total de mosquitos capturados foi de 5.912, distribuídos em nove gêneros. Houve redução populacional de espécies dos gêneros Aedes e Psorophora e aumento no número de espécimes dos gêneros Aedeomyia, Anopheles, Culex (Melanoconion, Mansonia e Uranotaenia. CONCLUSÕES: As mudanças ambientais decorrentes da construção da Represa Porto Primavera favoreceram o aumento da densidade de algumas populações de culicídeos vetores e que geram incômodo, com riscos potenciais de transmissão de patógenos para humanos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the culicidae fauna in an area impacted by environmental changes caused by the construction of a dam. METHODS: The studied area was the Porto Primavera dam construction site in Southeastern Brazil. Monthly culicidae samples were taken in six exploratory sites in

  15. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. V. Coleta de larvas em recipientes artificiais instalados em mata ciliar Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology of natural and artificial rural breeding places in horthern Parana, Brazil. V. Larvae captured in artificial reservoirs installed in ciliary forest

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    José Lopes

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização pelos Culicidae de recipientes contendo água para a colocação de seus ovos, em área antropogênica, pode indicar plasticidade genética que os direcione evolutivamente no sentido da domiciliação. Nesse sentido, foram coletadas as diferentes espécies de Culicidae que colonizam recipientes alocados em mata ciliar, na área rural. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram instalados recipientes de pneu, plástico, lata e bambu, em mata ciliar, em área rural no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se larvas de Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion secção Spissipes, Cx. tatoi, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Ae. terrens, Cx. mollis, Cx. bigoti, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii e Toxorhynchites sp. As cinco primeiras espécies foram específicas de pneus. As duas espécies de Trichoprosopon ficaram restritas a bambu. Ae. terrens e Cx. mollis foram caletadas em pneu e bambu, Cx. bigoti foi coletada em pneu, lata e bambu, enquanto que Hg. leucocelaenus só não foi encontrada em lata. As quatro últimas espécies foram coletadas em todos os tipos de recipientes. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi, Li. durhamii tiveram significante flutuação populacional. CONCLUSÕES: O pneu caracterizou-se como o recipiente mais aceito pelos culicídeos. As áreas onde a mata ciliar esteve mais densa e o locais onde o solo esteve mais úmido foram os pontos com maior número de capturas. A mata ciliar, mesmo muito reduzida e alterada, foi suficiente para abrigar várias espécies de culicídeos. As espécies caputradas podem ser portadoras de plasticidade gênica que as capacitem a colonizar ambientes antropogênicos.INTRODUCTION: The use of receptacles containing water for the laying of the Culicidae eggs in an anthropogenic area, may indicate a genetic plasticity thet leads them evolutionarily towards domiciliation. Thus, the varions species of Culicidae which

  16. Population Structure and Distribution Patterns of the Sibling Mosquito Species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium (Diptera: Culicidae) Reveal Different Evolutionary Paths

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    Werblow, Antje; Klimpel, Sven; Bolius, Sarah; Dorresteijn, Adriaan W. C.; Sauer, Jan; Melaun, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays a number of endemic mosquito species are known to possess vector abilities for various diseases, as e.g. the sibling species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium. Due to their morphological similarity, ecology, distribution and vector abilities, knowledge about these species' population structure is essential. Culicidae from 25 different sampling sites were collected from March till October 2012. All analyses were performed with aligned cox1 sequences with a total length of 658 bp. Population structure as well as distribution patterns of both species were analysed using molecular methods and different statistical tests like distance based redundancy analysis (dbDRA), analysis of molecular variances (AMOVA) or McDonald & Kreitman test and Tajima's D. Within both species, we could show a genetic variability among the cox1 fragment. The construction of haplotype networks revealed one dominating haplotype for Cx. pipiens, widely distributed within Germany and a more homogeneous pattern for Cx. torrentium. The low genetic differences within Cx. pipiens could be a result of an infection with Wolbachia which can induce a sweep through populations by passively taking the also maternally inherited mtDNA through the population, thereby reducing the mitochondrial diversity as an outcome of reproductive incompatibility. Pairwise population genetic differentiation (FST) ranged significantly from moderate to very great between populations of Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium. Analyses of molecular variances revealed for both species that the main genetic variability exists within the populations (Cx. pipiens [88.38%]; Cx. torrentium [66.54%]). Based on a distance based redundancy analysis geographical origin explained a small but significant part of the species' genetic variation. Overall, the results confirm that Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium underlie different factors regarding their mitochondrial differentiation, which could be a result of endosymbiosis, dispersal

  17. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  18. Spatial distribution of Culicidae (Diptera larvae, and its implications for Public Health, in five areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rafael Piovezan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In view of the adaptive ability of mosquitoes and their role in the transport of infective agents, entomological surveys undertaken in transitional environments are very important for the determination of the risk they represent for Public Health. Among the principal vectors of the infectious agents involved in the occurrence of important arboviruses, such as dengue, for example, are the Culicidae-insects capable of installing themselves in the urban nuclei, which exist within areas containing vestigial forests. This present study conducted a survey of mosquito species by means of traps to catch their larvae installed in five rural areas within the Atlantic Forest domain and containing its vestigial vegetation in the municipality of Santa Bárbara D'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 13,241 larvae belonging to six mosquito species were collected on 920 occasions (32.52% of positive collections. Aedes albopictus (64.23% and Aedes aegypti (32.75% were the most frequent, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (1.32%, Aedes fluviatilis (1.04%, Culex Complex Coronator (0.40% and Toxorhynchites theobaldi (0.22%. Three areas were analyzed by means of Simpson's diversity index and the spatial analysis showed that the sites with the greatest abundance of Ae. aegypti presented lower diversity values and were associated with more highly consolidated urban nuclei. The vector of dengue, chikungunya and zika has great infesting ability in urban areas, which means that the early implementation of entomological surveillance and control activities in specific areas - such as transitional ones - is highly important.

  19. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  20. Imaturos de Culicidae (Diptera encontrados em recipientes instalados em mata residual no munícipio de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Immature specimens of Culicidae (Diptera found in installed recipients in forest fragments in the Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

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    João A. C. Zequi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentos de mata na área urbana ou periurbana podem ser locais favoráveis a procriação de Culicidae. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo levantar as espécies de culicídeos que utilizam criadouros artificiais, suas coexistência e as flutuações populacionais em uma reserva de mata localizada em Londrina - PR. Realizou-se coletas quinzenais de outubro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 em pneus e internódios de bambu armadilha que foram instalados ao nível do solo e outros internódios instalados a 2 m de altura. Coletou-se 12.656 espécimes, pertencentes a cinco gêneros e 11 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes nos criadouros foram Limatus durham Theobald, 1901, Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia, 1968, Aedes terrens (Walker, 1856, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 e Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894. O maior número de indivíduos foi coletado em pneus, sendo que Limatus durham e Aedes terrens, apresentaram preferência nesse criadouro. A presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, Aedes albopictus e Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon, 1924 em diferentes coletas indica que esse tipo de ambiente não deve ser ignorado nas ações de controle de vetores, merecendo constante monitoramento.Forest fragments in an urban area were found to be a situable site for Culicidae breeding. This research aims to inventory the Culicidae species that use artificial breeding sites, their coexistence, and the population variation in a fragment forest in the Londrina City, Paraná State. Biweekly collecting efforts were performed from October 1995 to September 1996 using tires and bamboo internodes traps installed at a ground level and bamboo internodes traps at two 2 m height. A total of 12,656 culicid specimens belonging to five genus and 11 species were collected. The most abundant species in those artificial breeding sites were Limatus durhami Theobald, 1901, Culex eduardoi Couple & Garcia, 1968, Aedes terrens (Walker, 1856, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 and

  1. Mitochondrial genomes and comparative analyses of Culex camposi, Culex coronator, Culex usquatus and Culex usquatissimus (Diptera:Culicidae), members of the coronator group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demari-Silva, Bruna; Foster, Peter G; de Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Bergo, Eduardo S; Sanabani, Sabri S; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2015-10-21

    The Coronator Group currently encompasses six morphologically similar species (Culex camposi Dyar, Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex covagarciai Forattini, Culex usquatus Dyar, Culex usquatissimus Dyar, and Culex ousqua Dyar). Culex coronator has been incriminated as a potential vector of West Nile Virus (WNV), Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLEV), and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). The complete mitochondrial genome of Cx. coronator, Cx. usquatus, Cx.usquatissimus, and Cx. camposi was sequenced, annotated, and analyzed to provide genetic information about these species. The mitochondrial genomes of Cx. coronator, Cx. usquatus, Cx.usquatissimus, and Cx. camposi varied from 15,573 base pairs in Cx. usquatus to 15,576 in Cx. coronator. They contained 37 genes (13 protein-encoding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and the AT-rich control region. Comparative analyses of the 37 genes demonstrated the mitochondrial genomes to be composed of variable and conserved genes. Despite the small size, the ATP8, ATP6 plus NADH5 protein-encoding genes were polymorphic, whereas tRNAs and rRNAs were conserved. The control region contained some poly-T stretch. The Bayesian phylogenetic tree corroborated that both the Coronator Group and the Culex pipens complex are monophyletic taxa. The mitochondrial genomes of Cx. coronator, Cx. usquatus, Cx. usquatissimus and Cx. camposi share the same gene composition and arrangement features that match to those reported for most Culicidae species. They are composed of the same 37 genes and the AT-rich control region, which contains poly-T stretches that may be involved in the functional role of the mitochondrial genome. Taken together, results of the dN/dS ratios, the sliding window analyses and the Bayesian phylogenetic analyses suggest that ATP6, ATP8 and NADH5 are promising genes to be employed in phylogenetic studies involving species of the Coronator Group, and probably other species groups of the subgenus Culex

  2. [Comparison of taxonomic importance of morphological and molecular-genetic characters in systematics of Microsporidia (Microsporidia) of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakova, A V

    2014-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the taxonomic position of microsporidians from mosquitoes of the family Culicidae, for which SSU rDNA sequences data were obtained, demonstrates partial contradiction of systems based on morphological and phylogenetic characteristics. Representatives of the genera Anncaliia Issi. et al., 1993 and Vavraia Weiser, 1977 constitute separate evolutionary branches of the phylogenetic tree of microsporidians of blood-sucking mosquitoes. Representatives of other genera, for which the SSU rRNA sequences data were obtained (Amblyospora Hazard, Oldacre, 1975, Andreanna Simakova et al., 2008, Culicospora (Kudo, 1921), Weiser, 1977, Culicosporella Hazard, Savage, 1970, Edhazardia (Kudo, 1930), Sprague, Fucuda, 1989, Hazardia Weiser, 1977, Hyalinocysta Hazard, Oldacre, 1975, Novothelohania Andreadis et al., 2012, Parathelohania Codreanu, 1966, Senoma Simakova et al., 2005, and Trichoctosporea Larsson, 1994), form a separate, monophyletic group in the tree of Microsporidia. They are closely related and probably possess a common ancestor. The genera Amblyospora, Culicospora, Edhazardia, and Trichoctosporea were placed in the family Amblyosporidae with the revision of the diagnosis. On the basis of the obtained data on morphology and molecular phylogeny we placed Intrapredatorus barri Chen et al:, 1998 into the genus Amblyospora as Amblyospora barri, comb. nov., and also the species Amblyospora bakcharia Andreadis et al., 2012, A. kazankia Andreadis et al., 2012, A. mocrushinia Andreadis et al., 2012, and A. rugosa Simakova, Pankova, 2005 into the genus Trichoctosporea as Trichoctosporea bakcharia comb. nov., T. kazankia comb. nov., T. mocrushinia comb. nov., and T. rugosa comb. nov. Microsporidians of blood-sucking mosquitoes originally possessed complicated life cycles with transovarial and oral transmissions and with the presence of intermediate hosts (lower crustaceans). Later, some microsporidians had lost a part of their life cycle, either during

  3. Micro x-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis of arsenic localization and biotransformation in Chironomus riparius Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae) and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogren, Christina L.; Webb, Samuel M.; Walton, William E.; Trumble, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and speciation of arsenic (As) were analyzed in individuals of various life stages of a midge, Chironomus riparius, and the mosquito Culex tarsalis exposed to 1000 μg/l arsenate. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed that C. riparius larvae accumulate As in their midgut, with inorganic arsenate [As(V)] being the predominant form, followed by arsenite [As(III)] and an As-thiol. Reduced concentrations of As in pupal and adult stages of C. riparius indicate excretion of As between the larval and pupal stages. In adults, As was limited to the thorax, and the predominant form was an As-thiol. In Cx. tarsalis, As was not found in high enough concentrations to determine As speciation, but the element was distributed throughout the larva. In adults, As was concentrated in the thorax and eyes of adults. These results have implications for understanding the biotransformation of As and its movement from aquatic to terrestrial environments. -- Highlights: •C. riparius larvae reduced arsenate to arsenite in the midgut. •C. riparius larvae accumulated As in the midgut, with 27% as a transformed As-thiol. •C. riparius adults retained As in the thorax, with 53% as As-thiol. •Larvae of Cx. tarsalis did not have a specific site of As accumulation. •Low concentrations of As in adults suggest reduced terrestrial transfer potential. -- Arsenic accumulation and biotransformation in aquatic insects is variable, but the location and speciation of As provides insight into the detoxification mechanisms of aquatic Diptera

  4. Eficiência e Persistência de Três Produtos Comerciais à Base de Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis e Bacillus sphaericus no controle de Culicidae (Diptera em Lagoas de Tratamento de Efluentes

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    Jose Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. The hematofagic effect caused by females belonging to some species of Culicidae on humans and animals can be directly related to pathogen transmission, allergic reactions and uneasiness. The emergence of populations resistant to chemical insecticides has fostered the use of alternative methods, mainly biological control. The trials were conducted in three effluent treatment lagoons, on larvae of Culicidae to test the efficiency and persistence of commercial products whose active principles are based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner and Bacillus sphaericus Neide. The products tested were Vectolex (a granulated formulation of B. sphaericus, Sphaericus (a liquid formulation of B. sphaericus and Bt-horus (a liquid formulation of B. thuringiensis. The products were applied biweekly and evaluations were conducted 0, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after each application. The lagoons were colonized by Culex nigripalpus Theobald (1.5%, Culex saltanensis Dyar (2.25%, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (96.25%. Bt-horus reduced larvae by 89.06%, 83.97% and 89.96% at 24, 48 and 72 hours after product application, respectively. The granulated and the liquid formulations containing B. sphaericus reduced larvae by 98.89 % and 98.34% 24 hours after application, and by 99.79% and 99.78% after 48 hours, respectively. The products and the different formulations were effective in controlling larvae of all three Culicidae species in lagoons with high levels of organic matter, but the persistence was recorded in two and three days for products containing respectively B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis israelensis.

  5. [Anophelines of Santa Catarina (Diptera: culicidae), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Maria da Graça Teixeira; Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Nascimento, João Cezar do; Zeccer, Suzana; Silva, Luis Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region of Brazil is endemic for malaria. In the State of Santa Catarina, malaria was eliminated in the 1980s. Since then, a few sporadic isolated autochthonous cases have occurred. However, because malaria vectors are present within Brazilian territory and extensive endemic areas exist in this country, along with the great mobility of people in tourist areas of Santa Catarina, there is the likelihood of reintroduction of the disease. The following data were used: the database of the Entomology Group of the National Health Foundation, Santa Catarina (ACCES, 1997-2000); the epidemiological surveillance information system of the Health Surveillance Department (Malaria/SC); and the notifiable disease information system (SINAN/SC). These data were transferred to and analyzed in the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. Collections were carried out in 48 municipalities and 159 localities, and 12,310 culicids, 11,546 anophelines (93.7%) and 764 others (6.2%) were identified. Three subgenera and 13 species of anophelines were identified. Given that in the municipalities investigated, important vectors such as Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles albitasis were found to be present, with movements of infected individuals from endemic areas, these areas can be considered to be receptive and vulnerable to malaria. These species are suspected of being responsible for malaria transmission in this region, especially in the municipalities of Gaspar, Indaial and Rodeio.

  6. Characterization of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera:Culicidae larval habitats near the Amazon River in Colombia Caracterización preliminar de los sitios de cría de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae en el municipio de Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

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    Víctor Alberto Olano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Because the role of Aedes albopictus as an incriminated vector of several viral pathogens, its control is important to human health. To establish appropriate control methods, characterization of the larval habitats is a necessary first step.
    Objective. Habitats of the immature stages of Ae. albopictus were characterized with respect to physical-chemical parameters and by floral and faunal arrays present.
    Materials and methods. Leticia is located at the southernmost tip of Colombia on the banks of the Amazon River. In the urban area, 154 houses were inspected in December 2002 and January 2003. Physical-chemical data were collected, including exposure to sunlight, location, container size and material, water conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. Macroinvertebrates and plankton samples were taken at each positive larval site. The results were compared using descriptive analysis, principal component analysis, classification dendrograms, and diversity indexes.
    Results. Twenty-one habitats were found positive for Diptera, and 13 were positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Most of the positive habitats (92% were located near the houses--they were small or medium size receptacles located in the shade. This water generally had low conductivity and low turbidity, although high values of these parameters were also identified. The habitats had low diversity indexes for macroinvertebrates and high diversity indexes for plankton. In the principal component analysis, significant correlation was found with mites, oligochaetes and hemipterans (the macroinvertebrates and with bacilarophyceaes, clorophyceaes and cianophyceas (the algal forms.
    Conclusion. In Leticia, females of Ae. albopictus were found in newly established habitats with sufficient availability of resources, low conductivity, and turbidity, lower intra-and interspecific competition.Introducción. Dada la importancia de Aedes albopictus en la salud pública, es necesario

  7. Medical Entomolgy Studies - VI. A Revision of the Subgenus Lophoceraomyia of the Genus Culex in the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 13, Number 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Bohart 1944: 220 (d*); Delfinado 1966: 107 (d*, ?); Baisas 1974: 112 (d*, 9, P*, L*). Culex fidelis Dyar 1920 : 180 (in part). FEMALE. Wing: 2.8 mm...types and some topotypic specimens of the species des- cribed by Ludlow (1909), Dyar ( 1920 ) and Baisas (1935) from the Philippines. Among the recent...Proc. Linn. Sot. N. S. W. 82: 317-21. DYAR , H. G. 1920 . A collection of mosquitoes from the Philippine Islands (Diptera, Culic idae). Inset. Inscit

  8. Medical Entomology Studies - VI. A Revision of the Subgenus Lophoceraomyia of the Genus Culex in the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, Volume 13, Number 4, 1977)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Bohart 1944: 220 (d*); Delfinado 1966: 107 (d*, ?); Baisas 1974: 112 (d*, 9, P*, L*). Culex fidelis Dyar 1920 : 180 (in part). FEMALE. Wing: 2.8 mm...types and some topotypic specimens of the species des- cribed by Ludlow (1909), Dyar ( 1920 ) and Baisas (1935) from the Philippines. Among the recent...Proc. Linn. Sot. N. S. W. 82: 317-21. DYAR , H. G. 1920 . A collection of mosquitoes from the Philippine Islands (Diptera, Culic idae). Inset. Inscit

  9. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. V. Coleta de larvas em recipientes artificiais instalados em mata ciliar

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    Lopes José

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização pelos Culicidae de recipientes contendo água para a colocação de seus ovos, em área antropogênica, pode indicar plasticidade genética que os direcione evolutivamente no sentido da domiciliação. Nesse sentido, foram coletadas as diferentes espécies de Culicidae que colonizam recipientes alocados em mata ciliar, na área rural. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram instalados recipientes de pneu, plástico, lata e bambu, em mata ciliar, em área rural no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se larvas de Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion secção Spissipes, Cx. tatoi, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Ae. terrens, Cx. mollis, Cx. bigoti, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii e Toxorhynchites sp. As cinco primeiras espécies foram específicas de pneus. As duas espécies de Trichoprosopon ficaram restritas a bambu. Ae. terrens e Cx. mollis foram caletadas em pneu e bambu, Cx. bigoti foi coletada em pneu, lata e bambu, enquanto que Hg. leucocelaenus só não foi encontrada em lata. As quatro últimas espécies foram coletadas em todos os tipos de recipientes. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi, Li. durhamii tiveram significante flutuação populacional. CONCLUSÕES: O pneu caracterizou-se como o recipiente mais aceito pelos culicídeos. As áreas onde a mata ciliar esteve mais densa e o locais onde o solo esteve mais úmido foram os pontos com maior número de capturas. A mata ciliar, mesmo muito reduzida e alterada, foi suficiente para abrigar várias espécies de culicídeos. As espécies caputradas podem ser portadoras de plasticidade gênica que as capacitem a colonizar ambientes antropogênicos.

  10. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. V. Coleta de larvas em recipientes artificiais instalados em mata ciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização pelos Culicidae de recipientes contendo água para a colocação de seus ovos, em área antropogênica, pode indicar plasticidade genética que os direcione evolutivamente no sentido da domiciliação. Nesse sentido, foram coletadas as diferentes espécies de Culicidae que colonizam recipientes alocados em mata ciliar, na área rural. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram instalados recipientes de pneu, plástico, lata e bambu, em mata ciliar, em área rural no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se larvas de Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion secção Spissipes, Cx. tatoi, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Ae. terrens, Cx. mollis, Cx. bigoti, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii e Toxorhynchites sp. As cinco primeiras espécies foram específicas de pneus. As duas espécies de Trichoprosopon ficaram restritas a bambu. Ae. terrens e Cx. mollis foram caletadas em pneu e bambu, Cx. bigoti foi coletada em pneu, lata e bambu, enquanto que Hg. leucocelaenus só não foi encontrada em lata. As quatro últimas espécies foram coletadas em todos os tipos de recipientes. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi, Li. durhamii tiveram significante flutuação populacional. CONCLUSÕES: O pneu caracterizou-se como o recipiente mais aceito pelos culicídeos. As áreas onde a mata ciliar esteve mais densa e o locais onde o solo esteve mais úmido foram os pontos com maior número de capturas. A mata ciliar, mesmo muito reduzida e alterada, foi suficiente para abrigar várias espécies de culicídeos. As espécies caputradas podem ser portadoras de plasticidade gênica que as capacitem a colonizar ambientes antropogênicos.

  11. Anofelinos de Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brasil Anophelines of Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brazil

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    Maria da Graça Teixeira Portes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, a Região Amazônica é endêmica em malária. Em Santa Catarina, a malária foi eliminada na década de 80. A partir daí, ocorreram poucos casos autóctones isolados, e esporádicos. No entanto, em função da existência do vetor em seu território, da existência de extensa área endêmica no Brasil e da grande mobilidade de pessoas em áreas turísticas no estado, existe a probabilidade de reintrodução da doença. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se os seguintes dados: Banco de Dados do Núcleo de Entomologia da Fundação Nacional de Saúde, Santa Catarina (ACCES,1997-2000; Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde (Malária/SC e Sistema de Informação de Notificação e Agravo(SINAN/SC. Os mesmos foram transportados e analisados, no programa Microsoft Office Excel 2007. RESULTADOS: As coletas foram realizadas em 48 municípios, 159 localidades, sendo identificados 12.310 Culicídeos, 11.546 (93,7% Anopheles e 764 (6,2% como outros. Foram identificados três subgêneros e 13 espécies de anofelinos. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando que nos municípios pesquisados, foi identificada a presença de importantes vetores como Anopheles cruzii e Anopheles albitasis e há circulação de pessoas infectadas provenientes de áreas endêmicas, pode-se considerar que os mesmos são áreas receptivas e vulneráveis à malária. Essas espécies são suspeitas de serem responsáveis pela transmissão de malária na região, principalmente nos municípios de Gaspar, Indaial e Rodeio.INTRODUCTION: The Amazon region of Brazil is endemic for malaria. In the State of Santa Catarina, malaria was eliminated in the 1980s. Since then, a few sporadic isolated autochthonous cases have occurred. However, because malaria vectors are present within Brazilian territory and extensive endemic areas exist in this country, along with the great mobility of people in tourist areas of Santa Catarina, there is the likelihood of reintroduction of the disease. METHODS: The following data were used: the database of the Entomology Group of the National Health Foundation, Santa Catarina (ACCES, 1997-2000; the epidemiological surveillance information system of the Health Surveillance Department (Malaria/SC; and the notifiable disease information system (SINAN/SC. These data were transferred to and analyzed in the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. RESULTS: Collections were carried out in 48 municipalities and 159 localities, and 12,310 culicids, 11,546 anophelines (93.7% and 764 others (6.2% were identified. Three subgenera and 13 species of anophelines were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Given that in the municipalities investigated, important vectors such as Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles albitasis were found to be present, with movements of infected individuals from endemic areas, these areas can be considered to be receptive and vulnerable to malaria. These species are suspected of being responsible for malaria transmission in this region, especially in the municipalities of Gaspar, Indaial and Rodeio.

  12. Preferência por local de oviposição de Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, em relação à presença de imaturos da própria espécie, sob condições de laboratório Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, preference for oviposition site related with homospecific immatures presence, under laboratory conditions

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    Andreia Aparecida Barbosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 is an exotic Culicidae species in Brazil. Since its first report in this country, the mosquito has been increasing its geographic distribution. This mosquito is a natural dengue and Japanese Encephalitis virus vector in Asia. The females preference for oviposition sites related with homospecific immature presence was assessed. The experiment was performed with Aedes albopictus from laboratory colony since March ]999, in the Laboratório de Entomologia Médica e Veterinária, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná. The preferred container was the one that kept pupae for 24 hours, with 643 eggs, 30,6% at total. The eggs recipients received 11,45% from total set by the females, and the following numbers to the others: larva 1 (15,79%, larva 2 (14,69%, pupa 1 (20,74%, pupa 2 (30,58%, control (6,75%. Although the ANOVA did not detect significant difference among the treatments, the data possibly indicate that Aedes albopictus prefer laying eggs in containers previously colonized by immature.

  13. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 3- Survey of adult stages at the rice irrigation system and the emergence of Anopheles albitarsis in South-Eastern, Brazil Estudos sobre mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae e ambiente antrópico: 3 - Coleta de formas adultas no sistema de irrigação artificial para cultivo de arroz e emergência de Anopheles albitarsis na região sudeste do Brasil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of adult Culicidae ecology was carried out from January 1992 through January 1993 at the rice irrigation system of the Ribeira Valley Experimental Station. The adaptation of Anopheles albitarsis to the anthropic environment became evident through the adult collections made at its various habitats represented by the irrigation system and the edge of the residual pond, as well as at those made within the local patchy residual woods. Other potential disease vectors were prevalent in the irrigated system too. There were Aedes scapularis, Culex nigripalpus and Cx. ribeirensis that were collected at various habitats. Remarkable differences among their prevalences were obtained such as between the natural forest and anthropic environments. In the former An. albitarsis was practically non-existent, thus suggesting that it might be considered as eusynathropic. As the populations of other species seemed to increase in the anthropic environment, they may be regarded as hemisynanthropes. Observations suggest the hypothesis that the development of irrigated land may be a factor in the emergence of An. albitarsis, and some other species, as well as the possibility of an increase in the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria.Relatam-se os resultados obtidos com a coleta regular de Culicidae adultos no período de janeiro de 1992 a Janeiro de 1993, levadas a efeito no sistema artificialmente irrigado da Estação Experimental do Vale do Ribeira, SP -Brasil. Evidenciou-se a emergência de Anopheles albitarsis como uma das espécies de mosquitos prevalentes no sistema irrigado. Esse aspecto, acrescido da sua prática ausência no meio natural primitivo ou mesmo nas matas residuais locais, levou à hipótese de se tratar de culicídeo eusinantrópico. As condições artificiais aparentemente favoreceram também Aedes scapularis, Culex nigripalpus e Cx. ribeirensis. A comparação das biodiversidades encontradas nos ambientes, antrópico e

  14. α-Humulene and β-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious pathogens and parasites to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to the development of resistance in mosquito vector populations and serious non-target effects on human health and the environment. Myrtaceae plants can be a useful reservoir of natural products effective against Culicidae young instars. In this research, we evaluated the mosquitocidal potential of the essential oil (EO) from Syzygium zeylanicum leaves against larvae of three mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance, the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus, and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the S. zeylanicum EO contained at least 18 compounds. The major chemical components were α-humulene (37.8.5 %) and β-elemene (10.7 %). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 83.11, 90.45, and 97.96 μg/ml, respectively. The two major constituents extracted from the S. zeylanicum EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the three mosquito vectors. α-Humulene and β-elemene appeared highly effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 6.19 and 10.26 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 6.86 and 11.15 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 7.39 and 12.05 μg/ml). Furthermore, the EO and its major components was safe towards the non-target fish Gambusia affinis; LC50 values were 20374.26, 1024.95, and 2073.18 μg/ml, respectively for EO, α-humulene and β-elemene. Overall, this study highlighted that the acute toxicity of S. zeylanicum EO towards mosquito larvae was mainly due to the presence of α-humulene and β-elemene. Furthermore, we pointed

  15. Diptera: Drosophilidae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... [Sarswat M., Dewan S. and Fartyal R. S. 2016 Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Drosophilid species (Diptera: Drosophilidae) along altitudinal gradient from central Himalayan region of India. ... 2500 species belonging to 55 genera in this family (Wheeler. 1981) with two subfamilies, Steganinae and ...

  16. Diptera: Drosophilidae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... biological research. Drosophilidae is a large family of acalyptrate diptera with worldwide distribution. The first catalogue listed more than. 2500 species ... Although researchers in this region have documented several novel ..... distance estimates than most other methods when the rates of transitional and ...

  17. Diptera: Agromyzidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's.

  18. Culicideofauna (Diptera encontrada em entrenós de taquara de uma mata residual na área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Fauna of Culicidae (Diptera found in the internodes of the bamboo in a residual forest in the urban area of Londrina - Paraná, Brazil

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    João Antonio Cyrino Zequi

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A fragment of a forest, located in the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, was chosen to represent the area for this study. Many Merostachys Spreng, 1824 bamboo, which were naturally perforated and, therefore, ready to retain water, were found in the interior of this forest. Bamboo were collected every fifteen days during field actions. They were then measured and cut meter by meter before their contents were analyzed in the laboratory. A total of 542 specimens from the following species were collected during one year: Sabethes aurescens (Lutz, 1905, Sabethes melanomymphe Dyar, 1924, Sabethes identicus Dyar & Knab, 1907, Wyeomyia rooti (Del Ponte, 1939, Wyeomyia limai Lane & Cerqueira, 1942, Wyeomyia sp., Trichoprosopon pallidiventer (Lutz, 1905, Trichoprosopon humboldti Lane & Cerqueira, 1942, Toxorhynchites sp. e Shannoniana schedocyclium (Dyar & Knab, 1908. Wyeomyia limai and Sabethes aurescens were the most frequently found species. The first specie had the highest population index in february whereas the Sabethes aurescens, had its highest index in july, february and november. The largest number of larvae were obtained in the months of february and march. As for stratification, the greatest quantity of larvae was found at two meters. The specie Wyeomyia limai predominated in all heights, being most abundant at three meters high whereas the Sabethes was most abundant at one meter high. The presence of bamboo in small forest spots in urban areas is enough to host a certain variety of Culicidae of the Sabethini tribe which are considered wild mosquito. These same mosquito, due to their hematophagus habitat, can be hazardous to public health.

  19. Diptera: Tephritidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae). Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira1*, José Bruno Malaquias2, Wennia Rafaelly de Souza Figueiredo3,. Jacinto de Luna Batista4, Eduardo Barbosa Beserra1 and Robério de Oliveira4. 1Universidade Estadual da Paraíba (UEPB), campus I/Campina Grande, Bodocongó, Paraíba, ...

  20. Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae): Neotype Designation and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Especiales de Salud , Bogota, Colombia (DMB), Instituto Biologie “Juan Noe,” Santiago, Chile (IZC), Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires...fountains, well holes), rice paddies, and marshy meadows. Larvae are found in habitats with acidic, neutral and alkaline water ( pH 4.5Ð8.8), freshwater to

  1. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Captured in the Iquitos Area of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Air Station, Jacksonville, FL 32212.0043. 2 P.O. Box 114. Villa Grande, CA 95486. Trapping in the sylvan sites was conducted SMinisterio de Salud ...However, the dry-ice and light-baited CDC traps worked well, Barreto, Mauro Pereira & J. 0. Coutinho. 1940. Pro- required considerably less labor , and were

  2. Susceptibility Status of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    susceptible 'Kisumu' strain, both Korle-Bu and Airport populations were highly resistant to DDT and gave resistance levels which were over nine-fold for permethrin and over 2.5-fold for deltamethrin. Both wild and susceptible populations showed full susceptibility to malathion. The S and M forms of A. gambiae s.s. were ...

  3. Resistance Mechanisms of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae to Temephos

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    Aboozar Soltani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anopheles stephensi is a sub-tropical species and has been considered as one of the most important vector of human malaria throughout the Middle East and South Asian region including the malarious areas of southern Iran. Current reports confirmed An. stephensi resistance to temephos in Oman and India. However, there is no comprehensive research on mechanisms of temephos resistance in An. stephensi in the literature. This study was designed in order to clarify the enzymatic and molecular mechanisms of temephos resistance in this species.Methods: Profile activities of α- and ß-esterases, mixed function oxidase (MFO, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, insensitive acetylcholinesterase, and para-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA-esterase enzymes were tested for An. stephensi strain with resistance ratio of 15.82 to temephos in comparison with susceptible strain.Results: Results showed that the mean activity of α-EST, GST and AChE enzymes were classified as altered indicating metabolic mechanisms have considerable role in resistance of An. stephensi to temephos. Molecular study using PCR-RFLP method to trace the G119S mutation in ACE-1 gene showed lack of the mutation responsible for organophosphate insecticide resistance in the temephos-selected strain of An. stephensi.Conclusion: This study showed that the altered enzymes but not targets site insensitivity of ACE-1 are responsible for temephos resistance in An. stephensi in south of Iran.

  4. New records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Gustavo Carlos; Lestani, Eduardo Ariel

    2016-01-01

    The following species represent first records for Argentina: Culex (Anoedioporpa) canaanensis Lane & Withman, Culex (Anoedioporpa) originator Gordon & Evans, Culex (Culex) declarator Dyar & Knab, Culex (Melanoconion) ribeirensis Forattini & Sallum, Culex (Microculex) neglectus Lutz, Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus Theobald, Orthopodomyia fascipes (Coquillett) and Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) medioalbipes Lutz. The species Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) guarani Shannon and Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) rhya...

  5. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

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    Muhammad Ashfaq

    Full Text Available Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications.Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection. The genus Aedes (Stegomyia comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments.As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  6. New records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo C. ROSSI; Eduardo A. LESTANI

    2014-01-01

    Las siguientes especies representan el primer registro de la Argentina: Culex (Anoedioporpa) canaanensis Lane & Withman, Culex (Anoedioporpa) originator Gordon & Evans, Culex (Culex) declarator Dyar & Knab, Culex (Melanoconion) ribeirensis Forattini & Sallum, Culex (Microculex) neglectus Lutz, Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus Lutz, Orthopodomyia fascipes Coquillett y Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) medioalbipes Lutz. Las especies Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) guarani Shannon y Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) rh...

  7. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Madagascar

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    Tantely Michaël Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species. This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species, Aedes (35 species, Anopheles (26 species, Coquillettidia (3 species, Culex (at least 50 species, Eretmapodites (4 species, Ficalbia (2 species, Hodgesia (at least one species, Lutzia (one species, Mansonia (2 species, Mimomyia (22 species, Orthopodomyia (8 species, Toxorhynchites (6 species, and Uranotaenia (73 species. Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%. Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27% with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.

  8. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. PMID:27101839

  9. Lista dos mosquitos da Bolívia: (Diptera, Culicidae

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    N. L. Cerqueira

    1943-08-01

    Full Text Available Em quinze gêneros, cento e vinte e seis espécies de mosquitos foram constatadas no material capturado pelo Servicio de Fiebre Amarilla desde 1933 até 1942. Êste número, três vezes mais elevado do que o existente na literatura para o país, seria ainda maior se possível fôsse identificar sem o auxílio de machos inúmeras fêmeas das espécies de Culex. Tôdas as espécies estudadas apresentavam suas distribuições geográficas nos departamentos e províncias onde casos de Febre Amarela foram observados. Algumas cosiderações foram feitas em torno de espécies que não correspondiam exatamente com as descrições existentes, assim como descrições de outras foram dadas, cujos sexos opostos apenas eram conhecidos.One hundred and twenty-six species of mosquitoes, corresponding fifteen genera, have been found in material collected by the Bolivian Yellow Fever Service between 1933 and 1942. This number is three times that given for the country in existing literature and would be even largar if it were possible to identify a consierable group of Culex mosquitoes composed principally of female specimens. All species studied come from Departmetns and Provinces where cases of yellow fever have been found. Consideration has been given to certain species which do not agree exactly with existing descriptions, and supplementary descriptions have been made for the male or female of two additional species for which only description of the opposite sex had existed.

  10. Studies on Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    internal transcribed spacer 2-based polymerase chain reaction primes. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 100, 495–500. Li, C., Lee, J.S., Groebnerr... Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 100, 155–160. Sallum, M.A.M., Marrelli, M.T., Nagaki, S.S., Laporta, G.Z. & Santos, C.L.S. (2008) Insights into

  11. Susceptibility status of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance in malaria vectors is likely to be caused by the massive use of insecticides in agriculture. Anopheles gambiae s.l. collected from breeding grounds in two cabbage growing areas within Accra were assessed for levels of resistance to 0.75% permethrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, 5% malathion and 4% DDT using ...

  12. New species of Toxorhynchites (Diptera: Culicidae) from Macau (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, H

    1997-09-01

    The male holotype and female allotype of Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynchites) macaensis Ribeiro, a new mosquito species from Macau, southern China, are described on the basis of the examination of a type series of 6 males and 7 females. Similarities of the new species with the other species of the Splendens group, to which the new taxon belongs, are discussed and keys to identification of males and females of all the species of the group are provided.

  13. Prey density effect on cannibalism by Toxorhynchites towadensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, H; Hashimoto, T

    1995-09-01

    The effect of prey density on cannibalism by the larvae of Toxorhynchites towadensis (Matsumura) was studied in the laboratory. Frequency of cannibalism was compared among pairs of all possible instar combinations of Tx. towadensis in the presence and absence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse). Cannibalism occurred despite the presence of prey larvae, but more frequently between different instars than the same instars. Cannibalized larvae were always younger than or the same age as their attackers. Six predatory larvae were reared in a container with 30, 60, or 120 prey throughout their development, and cannibalism and development were observed. No cannibalism was observed when prey density was 120. However, in the continuous presence of 30 prey, cannibalism occurred on 8 occasions. Cannibalism at a prey density of 60 was intermediate in frequency. Most (92%) cannibalism occurred when 1st or 2nd instars attacked the same or younger instars. The time in cohabitation of different instars was shorter with increasing prey density.

  14. Cannibalism and carnivory in Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalraj, D D; Das, P K

    1992-09-01

    Laboratory reared larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens, which were previously starved for 24 hours, cannibalized eggs of their own kind or preyed upon the eggs of other species (Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi) present on the surface of water in small containers. Second and third instars consumed eggs faster than first and fourth instars. The first instar consumed larvae of its own kind faster than the other instars, in the absence of other prey. However, when prey larvae were provided, there was a significant fall in the rate of cannibalism.

  15. First record of Toxorhynchites rutilus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, J J; Livdahl, T

    1999-09-01

    The 1st recorded capture of Toxorhynchites rutilus in Massachusetts, USA, is reported. This capture represents the northernmost record of Tx. rutilus. The implications of this capture are discussed in the context of range expansion, evolution, and climatic change.

  16. New records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae from Misiones Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. ROSSI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las siguientes especies representan el primer registro de la Argentina: Culex (Anoedioporpa canaanensis Lane & Withman, Culex (Anoedioporpa originator Gordon & Evans, Culex (Culex declarator Dyar & Knab, Culex (Melanoconion ribeirensis Forattini & Sallum, Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus Lutz, Orthopodomyia fascipes Coquillett y Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia medioalbipes Lutz. Las especies Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus guarani Shannon y Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus rhyacophilus (Da Costa Lima fueron recientemente rescatadas de la sinonimia de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus lutzii Cruz y Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus scapularis (Rondani. Las siguientes especies corresponden a nuevos registros de la provincia de Misiones: Anopheles (Anopheles neomaculipalpus Curry, Coquillettidia (Rhynchotaenia fasciolata (Lynch Arribalzaga, Culex (Culex acharistus Root, Culex (Culex tatoi Casal & García, Culex (Culex usquatus Dyar y Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab. Con estos nuevos registros el número de especies citadas se eleva a 189 de la provincia de Misiones y 242 de Argentina.

  17. Genetic Structure of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Salud , Bogotá DC, Colombia; Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogotá DC, Colombia; Division of Entomology...Colombia . Manual de Manejo integral de la malaria. Instituto Nacional de Salud Ed . Bogotá, Columbia: Instituto Nacional de Salud . 3. Herrera...Control Assoc 21: 182 – 186 . 7. Servicio de Erradicación de la Malaria (SEM) , 1957 . Plan de erradi- cación de la

  18. Multiple blood meals in Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Paolucci Pimenta, Paulo Filemon; Marinotti, Osvaldo

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of human malaria in the Amazon. Adult females of this mosquito species require a blood meal to develop eggs, preferring humans to other blood sources. Although gonotrophic concordance has been described as the norm for An. darlingi, here we report An. darlingi female mosquitoes taking two or more blood meals within their first gonotrophic cycle. Only half of field-captured adult females fed one blood meal developed follicles to Christophers' stage V. This outcome is dependent on larval nutrition, as 88% of laboratory-raised well-nourished females completed the first gonotrophic cycle with only one blood meal, while less nourished females needed additional blood meals. Half of the field-captured blood-seeking An. darlingi females had follicles in intermediate (IIIa and IIIb) and final (V) stages of the gonotrophic cycle, supporting the conclusion that An. darlingi blood feed more than once during a gonotrophic cycle. Additionally, we observed females attempting to blood feed a second time during the same day. Additional studies of An. darlingi biting behavior are necessary to accurately estimate Plasmodium sp. entomologic inoculation rates throughout the An. darlingi vast geographical distribution. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. First record of Aedes koreicus (Diptera, Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Katja; Šušnjar, Jana; Ivović, Vladimir; Buzan, Elena

    2017-08-01

    The first record of Aedes koreicus was made in the village of Lovrenc na Dravskem Polju, north-eastern part of the country. The discovery of Ae. koreicus in various continental European countries motivated us to revise samples of the collected Aedes japonicus japonicus. We found Ae. koreicus in samples from 2013, where the larvae were misidentified as Ae. j. japonicus. The species was identified morphologically and molecularly. The first discovery of Ae. koreicus advocates an urgent need for a nationwide mosquito surveillance programme.

  20. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae) diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D N; Mirza, Jawwad H; Khan, Arif M; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  1. Physical characteristics and reproductive performance in Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dieng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Body size is a physical factor of crucial importance underlying important traits of the reproductive dynamics of both sexes in mosquitoes. Most studies on the influence of body size in mating success of dengue vectors addressed sperm transfer to females and did not consider egg production, a prerequisite for population maintenance; male body size impact on reproduction has attracted little research interest with respect to sterile insect technique. In experiments involving differently sized adults, we examined whether the body size of the mates is a source of variation in reproductive outcome in Aedes aegypti. In the absence of male partners, large females (LF showed better fecundity than small females (SF. In intraclass mating trials, egg production was much greater in largesized than smallsized pairs. There were comparable fecundities in large females mated with small males and large pairs. [SF•SM] and [SF•LM] pairs showed equivalent fecundity. Nonmating did not result in the production of viable eggs by either small or large females. We also observed that eggs produced by largesized females mated with small males had better hatching success than those from either small or large pairs. Mating between small females and large males resulted in poor egg viability.

  2. Characterization of mitochondrial genome of Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Poliana da Silva; Monteiro, Hamilton Antônio de Oliveira; Castro, Francisco Corrêa; Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva de; Silva, Daisy Elaine Andrade da; Vasconcelos, Janaína Mota de; Oliveira, Layanna Freitas de; Silva, Sandro Patroca da; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    Haemagogus janthinomys is a mosquito of high importance in public health due its involvement on natural wild cycles of two important arboviruses in the Brazilian Amazon region: Yellow Fever virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Mayaro virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). Here, we have sequenced and described all the mitochondrial genes for the Hg. janthinomys species. The complete coding sequence is14 937 bp long and includes 37 functional genes, of which 13 codes for proteins, 22 for tRNA and 2 for ribosomal subunits. Region A + T (control region) is not presented here. The data should be helpful on further taxonomic and evolutionary studies of this important arbovirus vector.

  3. Updated Checklist of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dejean, Alain; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain

    2015-09-01

    The incredible mosquito species diversity in the Neotropics can provoke major confusion during vector control programs when precise identification is needed. This is especially true in French Guiana where studies on mosquito diversity practically ceased 35 yr ago. In order to fill this gap, we propose here an updated and comprehensive checklist of the mosquitoes of French Guiana, reflecting the latest changes in classification and geographical distribution and the recognition of current or erroneous synonymies. This work was undertaken in order to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes in a broad range of disciplines such as ecology, biogeography, and medical entomology. Thirty-two valid species cited in older lists have been removed, and 24 species have been added including 12 species (comprising two new genera and three new subgenera) reported from French Guiana for the first time. New records are from collections conducted on various phytotelmata in French Guiana and include the following species: Onirion sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (2000), Sabethes (Peytonulus) hadrognathus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) paradoxus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) soperi Lane and Cerqueira, Sabethes (Sabethinus) idiogenes Harbach, Sabethes (Sabethes) quasicyaneus Peryassú, Runchomyia (Ctenogoeldia) magna (Theobald), Wyeomyia (Caenomyiella) sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (1990), Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) ypsipola Dyar, Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia) lamellata (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne), Wyeomyia (Miamyia) oblita (Lutz), and Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab). At this time, the mosquitoes of French Guiana are represented by 235 species distributed across 22 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Updated checklist of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, Slimane; Dekoninck, Wouter; Versteirt, Veerle; Schaffner, Francis; Coosemans, Marc; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic

    2015-12-01

    Most information about the systematics and bioecology of Belgian mosquitoes dates back from before 1950, and only scattered information was produced during the last decades. In this paper we review and update the list of mosquito species recorded in Belgium, from first report (1908) to 2015. Six genera and 31 species were recorded so far, including 28 autochthonous species and three invasive alien species recently recorded in Belgium: Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894), Ae. japonicus japonicus (Theobald 1901), and Ae. koreicus (Edwards 1917). The six genera are Anopheles (five species), Aedes (sixteen species), Coquillettidia (one species), Culex (four species), Culiseta (four species), and Orthopodomyia (one species). © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. Analyzing Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Diversity in Pakistan by DNA Barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, Jawwad H.; Khan, Arif M.; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M. Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Background Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010–2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0–2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3–17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. Conclusions As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations. PMID:24827460

  6. The phylogenetic relationships of known mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) mitogenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongliang; Li, Chunxiao; Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Hengduan; Luo, Peng; Wu, Zhonghua; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Tongyan

    2018-01-01

    The known mosquito mitogenomes, containing a total of 34 species, which belong to five genera, were collected from GenBank, and the practicality and effectiveness of the variation in the complete mitochondrial DNA genome and portions of mitochondrial COI gene were assessed to reconstruct the phylogeny of mosquitoes. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed on the basis of parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian (BI) methods. It is concluded that: (1) Both mitogenomes and COI gene support the monophly of following taxa: Subgenus Nyssorhynchus, Subgenus Cellia, Anopheles albitarsis complex, Anopheles gambiae complex, and Anopheles punctulatus group; (2) Genus Aedes is not monophyletic relative to Ochlerotatus vigilax; (3) The mitogenome results indicate a close relationship between Anopheles epiroticus and Anopheles gambiae complex, Anopheles dirus complex and Anopheles punctulatus group, respectively; (4) The Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) within phylogenetic tree reconstructed by mitogenomes is higher than COI tree. The results show that phylogenetic relationships reconstructed using the mitogenomes were more similar to those based on morphological data.

  7. Reduced productivity in adult yellowfever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, P.H.; Hamm, W.J.; Garcia, F.; Garcia, M.; Schirf, V.

    1989-04-01

    Male and female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes of the laboratory strain ROCK were irradiated with 130 mw of argon 514.5 nm laser microbeams for 0.04, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s, respectively. Egg production, percentage hatch, and productivity (average number of adults surviving after 3 wk) were used to assess mutagenic effects. Mortality was high for males in all laser radiation groups and increased with time of exposure. Except for the group treated for 0.25 s, significant reductions in total F1 progeny also were demonstrated for all other experimentals when male parents were exposed to laser radiation. Females showed a high mortality when subjected to 0.4- and 0.5-s laser radiation. No F1 progeny were produced when parental females were exposed for 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s. Numbers of F1 progeny from females exposed to 0.04 s of laser radiation were significantly reduced. A comparison of weekly mean number of progeny showed that the important differences in productivity occurred during the first and second week, respectively, when either male or female adult parents were subjected to laser radiation.

  8. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. © M.L. Tantely et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  9. Characterization of anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, O Ahmedou Salem Mohamed; Khadijetou, M Lekweiry; Moina, M Hasni; Lassana, Konate; Sébastien, Briolant; Ousmane, Faye; Ali, O Mohamed Salem Boukhary

    2013-12-01

    Despite the increasing number of reported autochthonous malaria cases in Nouakchott and the identification of Anopheles arabiensis as the major malaria vector in this Saharan city, anopheline larval habitats have never been identified so far. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize anopheline larval habitats in Nouakchott. During September and October 2012, samples from pools of rainwater, water discharged from standpipes and household drinking water tanks in the districts of Dar Naim, Teyarett and Arafat were analyzed for the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and physicochemical characterization of breeding habitats. Of the 51 prospected water bodies, eight consisting of seven water discharged from standpipes and one household drinking water tank were productive for Anopheles sp. All emerged anopheline mosquitoes from the positive dipping were morphologically identified as members of the An. gambiae complex. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a salinity up to 0.1 g/l and a shaded situation were respectively protective factors against high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI [0.44-0.87], p = 0.0052 and adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI [0.44-0.71, p <0.0001] and a pH up to 7.61 was a risk factor for high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56, 95% CI [1.25-1.95], p = 0.0001). The study demonstrated in Nouakchott that despite an arid and dry climate, human practices have contributed to the establishment of favourable environmental conditions for the development of anopheline mosquitoes and, therefore, maintaining malaria transmission in this Saharan city. The core malaria vector control intervention as the use of long-lasting insecicidal nets (LLINs) could be complemented in Nouakchott by larval source control. In this area, appropriate larval control measures may be recommended in line with an integrated vector management (IVM) approach.

  10. Population genetics of neotropical Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2014-10-05

    Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes can be found in almost every major city of Brazil and are vectors of filariasis and several arboviruses. Microsatellite markers have been widely used to uncover the genetic structure of various groups of insect populations. The aim of this study was to glimpse the genetic structure of Cx. quinquefasciatus in Brazil. Nine populations were sampled across Brazil (one of them from a laboratory colony - COL) and another one from Argentina and process regarding the variability of six microsatellite loci. The analyzed loci revealed moderate population genetic structure (mean Fst = 0.12). Dendrograms of genetic distances evidenced two major population clusters, respectively corresponding to the northern and southern populations. The hybrid population Cx. pipiens/quinquefasciatus (from La Plata, Argentina) and the colony population fell outside the major clusters. Those clusters were substructured and there was a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances and environmental variables (r = 0.51; p > 0.001 and r = 0.46; p > 0.004). Multilocus cluster Bayesian analysis confirmed that populations are mutually distinct, and the set of results point to genetic differences among populations. The presumable low gene flow among them may be due to the large geographic distances (>1000 km) and to the environmental heterogeneity of the sampled areas. The genetic structure observed in this study may lead to the best understanding of Cx. quinquefasciatus demographical diversity as well as their genetic variations patterns in Brazil so far unknown.

  11. Effects of Wolbachia on fitness of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera; Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fábio de; Moura, Alexandre S; Cardoso, André F; Winter, Carlos E; Bijovsky, A Tania; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2011-12-01

    Wolbachia are α-proteobacteria that were first reported in Culex pipiens mosquitoes early in the twentieth century. Since then, the effect of Wolbachia on their host's reproduction has drawn attention and has been increasingly investigated. Given the extreme complexity of this interaction, new study cases are welcomed to enhance its understanding. The present work addressed the influence of Wolbachia on Cx. quinquefasciatus, the cosmopolitan member of the Cx. pipiens complex. Samples of a Cx. quinquefasciatus colony (wPip(+)) originated from individuals naturally infected by Wolbachiapipientis B strain, were cured with tetracycline, yielding a Wolbachia-free colony (wPip(-)). Both the presence of bacteria and the efficiency of bacterial elimination were checked by PCR of the wsp gene. Total reproductive unidirectional incompatibility occurred when wPip(-) females were crossed with wPip(+) males, whereas the other three types of reciprocal crosses were viable. Reproductive aspects were also comparatively evaluated between colonies. Concerning oviposition time during the first gonotrophic cycle, wPip(+) females developed and laid eggs earlier than did wPip(-) females. Reproductive fitness was higher among wPip(-) than wPip(+) females regarding the following parameters: fertility: egg rafts/fed females; fecundity: eggs/raft, and viability: larvae/eggs. Conversely, longevity of wPip(-) females was lower. Summarising, although the infected mosquitoes have the advantage of a higher longevity, they have lower reproductive fitness. Our results are partly distinct from all other reports on Aedes and Culex mosquitoes previously published. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Population Genetic Structure of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Multini

    Full Text Available Although Aedes fluviatilis is an anthropophilic mosquito found abundantly in urban environments, its biology, epidemiological potential and genetic characteristics are poorly understood. Climate change and urbanization processes that result in environmental modifications benefit certain anthropophilic mosquito species such as Ae. fluviatilis, greatly increasing their abundance in urban areas. To gain a better understanding of whether urbanization processes modulate the genetic structure of this species in the city of São Paulo, we used eight microsatellite loci to genetically characterize Ae. fluviatilis populations collected in nine urban parks in the city of São Paulo. Our results show that there is high gene flow among the populations of this species, heterozygosity deficiency and low genetic structure and that the species may have undergone a recent population expansion. There are two main hypotheses to explain these findings: (i Ae. fluviatilis populations have undergone a population expansion as a result of urbanization; and (ii as urbanization of the city of São Paulo occurred recently and was quite intense, the structuring of these populations cannot be observed yet, apart from in the populations of Ibirapuera and Piqueri parks, where the first signs of structuring have appeared. We believe that the expansion found in Ae. fluviatilis populations is probably correlated with the unplanned urbanization of the city of São Paulo, which transformed green areas into urbanized areas, as well as the increasing population density in the city.

  13. Population Genetic Structure of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multini, Laura Cristina; Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Although Aedes fluviatilis is an anthropophilic mosquito found abundantly in urban environments, its biology, epidemiological potential and genetic characteristics are poorly understood. Climate change and urbanization processes that result in environmental modifications benefit certain anthropophilic mosquito species such as Ae. fluviatilis, greatly increasing their abundance in urban areas. To gain a better understanding of whether urbanization processes modulate the genetic structure of this species in the city of São Paulo, we used eight microsatellite loci to genetically characterize Ae. fluviatilis populations collected in nine urban parks in the city of São Paulo. Our results show that there is high gene flow among the populations of this species, heterozygosity deficiency and low genetic structure and that the species may have undergone a recent population expansion. There are two main hypotheses to explain these findings: (i) Ae. fluviatilis populations have undergone a population expansion as a result of urbanization; and (ii) as urbanization of the city of São Paulo occurred recently and was quite intense, the structuring of these populations cannot be observed yet, apart from in the populations of Ibirapuera and Piqueri parks, where the first signs of structuring have appeared. We believe that the expansion found in Ae. fluviatilis populations is probably correlated with the unplanned urbanization of the city of São Paulo, which transformed green areas into urbanized areas, as well as the increasing population density in the city.

  14. Revision of the Leucosphyrus Group of Anopheles (Cellia) (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    21 Dec. 1977, 1F. Propinsi Jambi: Bukit Baru (near Muarabungo) (1o28’S 102o7’E), [ID1-B], 7 Apr. 1986, 18F; [ID1-002, -003, -005, -007, -011, -018...leucosphyrus were attracted to human bait in Bukit Baru , near Muarabungo, in Bungo Tebo Regency, Jambi Province, Sumatra. The collections were carried

  15. Susceptibility Status of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Resistance in malaria vectors is likely to be caused by the massive use of insecticides in agriculture. Anopheles ... resistance in A. gambiae larvae in these breeding sites contaminated with agricultural insecticides may have occurred over time ..... Molecular identification of A. gambiae s.l. revealed only A. gambiae s.s. as.

  16. Effects of developmental asynchrony between Aedes triseriatus (Diptera:Culicidae) and its predator Toxorhynchites rutilus (Diptera:Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, M A; Juliano, S A

    1997-07-01

    Newly hatched Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillet) were added to experimental populations of Aedes triseriatus (Say) at varying days after prey hatch to test the hypothesis that a developmental asynchrony of Ae. triseriatus and Tx. rutilus leads to escape from predation by Ae. triseriatus in small water bodies. Presence of Tx. rutilus significantly affected prey survivorship. Regression of survivorship [log10 (x + 1) transformed] versus days head start for prey yielded a small, but significant positive slope, indicating that survivorship increased slightly with an increasing number of days head start. For females, mean weight at emergence was not significantly affected by treatments; however, median days to emergence differed significantly between the treatments, with females taking significantly longer to emerge with Tx. rutilus absent than when the predator was present. For males, neither mean mass nor median days to emergence was significantly affected by treatments. Treatments had no significant effect on the frequency of deaths or on mean weight of Tx. rutilus. Thus, a developmental asynchrony between Tx. rutilus and Ae. Triseriatus appears to have no effects on the predator, but does have a weak effect on prey performance at high hatch densities.

  17. The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Hammond, John I; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for "natural" DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the efficacy of eight commercially available products, two fragrances, and a vitamin B patch. The products were tested using a human hand as attractant in a Y-tube olfactometer setup with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), both major human disease vectors. We found that Ae. albopictus were generally less attracted to the test subject's hand compared with Ae, aegypti. Repellents with DEET as active ingredient had a prominent repellency effect over longer times and on both species. Repellents containing p-menthane-3,8-diol produced comparable results but for shorter time periods. Some of the DEET-free products containing citronella or geraniol did not have any significant repellency effect. Interestingly, the perfume we tested had a modest repellency effect early after application, and the vitamin B patch had no effect on either species. This study shows that the different active ingredients in commercially available mosquito repellent products are not equivalent in terms of duration and strength of repellency. Our results suggest that products containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol have long-lasting repellent effects and therefore provide good protection from mosquito-borne diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. The neotype of anopheles albitarsis (Diptera: culicidae O neótipo de Anopheles albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles albitarsis neotype is described from specimens collected in Baradero, Argentina, in Shannon's trap, in horse and pig stables and on the progeny of engorded females. The description includes illustrations of adult female, male and female genitalias, scanning electron miscroscopy of the eggs and complete chaetotaxy of pupa and larva. The importance for electing a neotype is based on the realization that An. albitarsis is a complex of cryptic species. It is an attempt to provide typt-locality specimens with which other memebers of the group can be compared.O neótipo de Anopheles albitarsis é descrito a partir de espécimens coletados em armadilha tipo Shannon, em estábulos de cavalos e porcos e progênies de fêmeas ingurgitadas em Baradero, Argentina, localidade-tipo da espécie. A descrição inclui ilustrações da fêmea adulda, genitálias masculina e feminina, ovos em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e da quetotaxia completa das larvas de 4º estádio e pupas. A eleição de um neótipo para albitarsis baseia-se em dados recentes que apontam a espécie como um complexo de espécies crípticas, o que evidencia a importância de uma descrição detalhada de espécimens da localidade-tipo com o qual outros membros do grupo possam ser comparados.

  19. Toxicity and synergistic activities of Chalcones against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito-borne illnesses are of great concern throughout the world, and chemical insecticides are commonly employed to decrease mosquito populations. However, the developmental insecticide pipeline for vector control has primarily been filled by repurposed agricultural products, and is hampered by t...

  20. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  1. X-ray diffraction pattern from the flight muscle of Toxorhynchites towadensis reveals the specific phylogenic position of mosquito among Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Diptera are a group of insects with only a single pair of wings (forewings), and are considered monophyletic (originating from a common ancestor). The flight muscle in Diptera has features not observed in other insects, such as the long Pro-Ala-rich peptide associated with tropomyosin, not with troponin-I as in other insects, and the formation of a superlattice by myosin filaments analogous to that in vertebrate skeletal muscle. Here we describe X-ray diffraction patterns from the flight muscle of a mosquito, Toxorhynchites towadensis (Culicidae), belonging to a primitive group of Diptera. The diffraction pattern indicates that myosin filaments in the flight muscle of this species do not form a superlattice. X-ray diffraction also shows meridional reflections that are not observed in other dipterans, but are present in the patterns from bumblebee (Hymenoptera) flight muscle. These observations suggest that the superlattice structure evolved after the common ancestor of Diptera had diverged from other insects. The flight muscle of mosquito may retain primitive structural features that are shared by Hymenoptera.

  2. Variation in Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I DNA Can Successfully Identify Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex (Melanoconion) ribeirensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, A S; Maia, D A; Gil-Santana, H R; de Mello, C F; Martins, A de J; Alencar, J

    2017-03-01

    Culex (Melanoconion) pedroiSirivanakarn & Belkin 1980 and Culex (Melanoconion) ribeirensisForattini & Sallum 1985 are two morphologically very similar species of the Pedroi subgroup of mosquitoes in the Spissipes section of the subgenus Melanoconion of the genus Culex L. 1758. We carried out an analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA variation between these two species. The recent observation of sympatric coexistence in a forested area of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) triggered the need to validate these two species previously identified based on morphology. We concluded that the COI is a useful tool for identification of Cx. pedroi and Cx. ribeirensis. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Redescripción de la Larva y la Pupa de Toxorhynchites ( Lynchiella guadeloupensis (Diptera: Culicidae Redescription of the larva and pupa of Toxorhynchites ( Lynchiella guadeloupensis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia M. Augier

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente contribución es redescribir, en forma completa, la quetotaxia de larva y pupa de Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab. Además se describe por primera vez el aparato bucal de la larva. El material estudiado procede de la provincia de Tucumán en el noroeste argentino.The objetive of the present contribution is to redescribe the quetotaxia of the larva and the pupa of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab. The larval mouthpart is described for the first time. The material examined is from Tucumán province in the Argentina northwestern.

  4. Primeiro registro de Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae em Roraima, Brasil First record of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in the state of Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducineia Barros Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus é registrado pela primeira vez no estado de Roraima, Brasil. Entre junho de 2006 e maio de 2007 foram coletadas três pupas e dez larvas, duas das quais chegaram à fase adulta, durante atividades de vigilância rotineiras em três bairros urbanos da cidade de Boa Vista. Embora essa espécie não seja incriminada como vetor primário do dengue, a sua presença pode favorecer a ligação entre os ciclos silvestre e urbano da febre amarela e de outras arboviroses no Brasil.Aedes albopictus is registered for the first time in Roraima, Brazil. From June 2006 to May 2007, three pupae and ten larvae of Ae. albopictus were collected, during routine surveillance work in three urban neighborhoods in the city of Boa Vista. Two larvae reached adulthood as females. Although Ae. albopictus is not presently considered of primary importance in dengue transmission, its occurrence could favor a linkage between urban and forest cycles of yellow fever and other arboviruses in Brazil.

  5. Nuevos registros y distribución de mosquitos de la Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae New records and distribution of mosquitoes from Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Rossi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 21 nuevos registros de especies y se amplía la distribución de otras 12 especies de los géneros Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach y Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald. Se incluyen comentarios y cambios de estatus para especies de Howardina Theobald, Ochlerotatus y Lutzia (Theobald. Actualmente, en la Argentina se hallan presentes 226 especies distribuidas en 23 géneros.Twenty one new records and 12 new distributional records of species of the genus Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach & Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald are reported. Comments and changes in the status of species of Howardina Theobald, Ochelrotatus and Lutzia Theobald are included. Currently, in Argentina are present 226 species distributed in 23 genera.

  6. Geographical Distribution of Malaria Vectors in Culicidaes Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Province of Khemisset (Morocco) and its climate are very diverse landforms, these offers a wide variety of breeding places of mosquitoes. 95 stations surveyed in the province are home to 10 species of Culicidae (4. Anopheles, Culex and 5 species of Aedes). Anopheles labranchaie is widespread in the study area.

  7. Establishment and characterisation of a new cell line derived from Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidya A Segura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Insect cell cultures are an important biotechnological tool for basic and applied studies. The objective of this work was to establish and characterise a new cell line from Culex quinquefasciatus embryonic tissues. Embryonated eggs were taken as a source of tissue to make explants that were seeded in L-15, Grace's, Grace's/L-15, MM/VP12, Schneider's and DMEM culture media with a pH range from 6.7-6.9 and incubated at 28ºC. The morphological, cytogenetic, biochemical and molecular characteristics of the cell cultures were examined by observing the cell shapes, obtaining the karyotypes, using a cellulose-acetate electrophoretic system and performing random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. The Grace's/L-15 medium provided the optimal nutritional conditions for cell adhesion and proliferation. Approximately 40-60 days following the explant procedure, a confluent monolayer was formed. Cellular morphology in the primary cultures and the subcultures was heterogeneous, but in the monolayer the epithelioid morphology type predominated. A karyotype with a diploid number of six chromosomes (2n = 6 was observed. Isoenzymatic and molecular patterns of the mosquito cell cultures matched those obtained from the immature and adult forms of the same species. Eighteen subcultures were generated. These cell cultures potentially constitute a useful tool for use in biomedical applications.

  8. Water surface area and depth determine oviposition choice in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, Michael H; Zarrabi, Ali A

    2012-01-01

    Oviposition choice is a well-studied aspect of the mosquito life cycle, and offers a potential avenue for species-specific surveillance and control. In container inhabiting mosquitoes, there has been a focus on how the components of the aquatic media determine choice, with little work on the physical characteristics of the containers themselves. We performed five experiments examining the effect of physical container parameters on oviposition choice by Aedes albopictus. We examined containers of three different surface areas (small, 496 cm2; medium, 863 cm2; and large, 1,938 cm2) at the same water depth and the same or different heights in a series of binary choice assays. We also examined different depths with the same surface area in clear containers (where the depth may be perceived by the darkness of the water) and in opaque containers, which appear uniformly dark at different depths. We found a significant preference for medium containers over large containers, whether the containers were different or the same heights, and a trend toward a preference for small containers over medium containers. There was a preference for deeper water regardless of whether containers were clear or opaque. These behaviors suggest mosquitoes take into account physical aspects of their habitats and their oviposition choices are consistent with minimizing the risk of habitat drying.

  9. [The distribution of the mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera, Culicidae, Anophelinae) in Central Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvantsov, A B; Gordeev, M I; Goriacheva, I I; Ezhov, M N

    2014-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, cytogenetic analysis, and investigation of egg exochorion have indicated that three representatives of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (subgenus Anopheles): An artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Falleroni, and An. marinius Shingarev. An. messeae is a European-Siberian species that has extended the southern border of its habitat and has been distributed in the south of Kazakhstan and in the north of Kyrgyzstan. In, Kyrgyzstan, An. messeae inhabiting the plains of Europe and Siberia is encountered rather high up in the mountains: the highest point where this species is found is at 1,879 m above sea level. An. artemievi is present in the highland and piedmont regions of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan, and northern Tajikistan) and in the intermountain basins (Naryn and Fergana ones). The single finding of this species is in south-eastern Turkmenistan. On the contrary, An. martinius tends to be in the plains and occurs in north-eastern Turkmenistan, Karakalpakstan, and Kazakhstan (Kzyl-Orda). On the other hand, a population of this species is found in proximity to the foothills of the Gissar Range in the east of Uzbekistan. An.maculipennis s.str. is not seen in Central Asia. Early evidence for the presence of both An. maculipennis s.str. and An. martinius in Kopet Dag (Southern Turkmenistan) is rather questionable. It is not improbable that these data are appropriate for either the newly described species An.persiensis or the scientifically new representative of the An. maculipennis complex.

  10. [Behavioral features of the imago of malaria mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae, Anopheles) in uzbekistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakhongirov, Sh M; Ponomarev, I M; Zvantsov, A B; Goriacheva, I I; Gordeev, M I; Fatullaeva, A A; Saĭfiev, Sh T; Ezhov, M N; Abdiev, T A

    2015-01-01

    Morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic analyses made in the Fergana, Chirchik-Akhangaran, Mirzachul, and Zarafshan physicogeographical districts of Uzbekistan revealed the closely related species An. artemievi malaria mosquito from the An. maculipennis complex. In the human settlements and natural biotopes under their canopy of 7 physicogeographical districts of Uzbekistan, there were 6 Anopheles mosquito species (An. artemievi, An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, An.martinius, An. pulcherrimus, and An. superpictus); An. superpictus is a dominant species in the human settlements and An. artemievi in subdominant. An.pulcherrimus was dominant and An. superpictus was subdominant under natural canopy conditions. The latter is of widespread occurrence in the mountain and piedmont areas of Uzbekistan. It is encountered in all the physicogeographical districts. An. artemievi is distributed in the river valleys in the Fergana, Chirchik-Akhangaran, Mirzachul, and Zarafshan physicogeographical districts. An. pulcherrimus is common in the plain river valleys, except in the Qashqadaryo physicogeographical district. An. martinius is found in the Qashqadaryo and Nizhneamudryo physicogeographical districts. Livestock houses are the most attractive day's rests for mosquitoes; utility rooms rank next in mosquito density. Housing premises are slightly occupied by mosquitoes. The maximum size of aggressive mosquitoes is noted in July, August, and early September.

  11. [Chromosomal polymorphism in the populations of malaria mosquito Anopheles messeae (Diptera, Culicidae) in the Volga region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, M I; Moskaev, A V

    2016-06-01

    We studied the species composition and chromosomal variability of malaria mosquitoes in the Volga Basin (Upper, Middle, and Lower Volga regions). We investigated larvae karyotypes of sibling species of the Anopheles maculipennis group. We calculated the frequencies of chromosomal inversions in the local populations of the dominant species An. messeae. We discovered that karyotypic structure of An. messeae populations depends on landscape-climatic zones. Populations of the Upper, Middle and Lower Volga differ in frequency of chromosome inversions XL, 2R, 3R, and 3L.

  12. Phylogeny of Anophelinae (Diptera: Culicidae) Based on Nuclear Ribosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Entomologia M•dica, Departamento de Epidemiologia , Faculdade de Safide Pfiblica, Universidade de S•o Paulo, Brazil, -• Department of Systematic...Departamento de Epidemiologia , Faculdade de Safide Pfiblica, Universidade de Sgo Paulo, Av. Dr Arnaldo 715, CEP 01246-904, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. E

  13. Mosquitocidal activities of thyme oil (Thymus vulgaris L.) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 8 (2009), s. 1365-1370 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Thymus vulgaris L. * mosquitocidal * Culex quinquefasciatus * thyme oil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.721, year: 2009

  14. First report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Oran, West of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benallal, K E; Allal-Ikhlef, A; Benhamouda, K; Schaffner, F; Harrat, Z

    2016-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of trades, human movements and environmental changes facilitate the introduction and the establishment of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus outside its native geographical area. Alerted by the complaints about mosquito biting which occurred daytime for the inhabitants of the seaside town Ain Turk (West of Algeria), an entomological survey was conducted in December 2015 to determine the origin of this nuisance. Among the collected mosquitoes, specimens of Ae. albopictus (2 males, 3 females and 3 pupae) were collected. This is the first observation of that invasive mosquito in the west of Algeria which confirms its presence and establishment in Mediterranean Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular characterization of Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes from eight geographical locations of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeraratne, Thilini C; Surendran, Sinnathambi N; Reimer, Lisa J; Wondji, Charles S; Perera, M Devika B; Walton, Catherine; Parakrama Karunaratne, S H P

    2017-06-02

    Genus Anopheles is a major mosquito group of interest in Sri Lanka as it includes vectors of malaria and its members exist as species complexes. Taxonomy of the group is mainly based on morphological features, which are not conclusive and can be easily erased while handling the specimens. A combined effort, using morphology and DNA barcoding (using the markers cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region, was made during the present study to recognize anophelines collected from eight districts of Sri Lanka for the first time. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and ITS2 regions of morphologically identified anopheline mosquitoes from Sri Lanka were sequenced. These sequences together with GenBank sequences were used in phylogenetic tree construction and molecular characterization of mosquitoes. According to morphological identification, the field-collected adult mosquitoes belonged to 15 species, i.e., Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles karwari, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles pallidus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles pseudojamesi, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus, and Anopheles varuna. However, analysis of 123 COI sequences (445 bp) (16 clades supported by strong bootstrap value in the neighbour joining tree and inter-specific distances of >3%) showed that there are 16 distinct species. Identity of the morphologically identified species, except An. subpictus, was comparable with the DNA barcoding results. COI sequence analysis showed that morphologically identified An. subpictus is composed of two genetic entities: An. subpictus species A and species B (inter-specific K2P distance 0.128). All the four haplotypes of An. culicifacies discovered during the present study belonged to a single species. ITS2 sequences (542 bp) were obtained for all the species except for An. barbirostris, An. subpictus species B, An. tessellatus, and An. varuna. Each of these sequences was represented by a single species-specific haplotype. The present study reflects the importance and feasibility of COI and ITS2 genetic markers in identifying anophelines and their sibling species, and the significance of integrated systematic approach in mosquito taxonomy. Wide distribution of malaria vectors in the country perhaps indicates the potential for re-emergence of malaria in the country.

  16. Three sympatric clusters of the malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies E (Diptera: Culicidae) detected in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harischandra, Iresha Nilmini; Dassanayake, Ranil Samantha; De Silva, Bambaranda Gammacharige Don Nissanka Kolitha

    2016-01-04

    The disease re-emergence threat from the major malaria vector in Sri Lanka, Anopheles culicifacies, is currently increasing. To predict malaria vector dynamics, knowledge of population genetics and gene flow is required, but this information is unavailable for Sri Lanka. This study was carried out to determine the population structure of An. culicifacies E in Sri Lanka. Eight microsatellite markers were used to examine An. culicifacies E collected from six sites in Sri Lanka during 2010-2012. Standard population genetic tests and analyses, genetic differentiation, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, linkage disequilibrium, Bayesian cluster analysis, AMOVA, SAMOVA and isolation-by-distance were conducted using five polymorphic loci. Five microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic with high allelic richness. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was significantly rejected for four loci with positive F(IS) values in the pooled population (p Sri Lanka as the dividing line. Three sympatric clusters were detected among An. culicifacies E specimens isolated in Sri Lanka. There was no effect of geographic distance on genetic differentiation and the central mountain ranges in Sri Lanka appeared to be a barrier to gene flow.

  17. Combined Toxicity of Three Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Ramirez, Jose L; Doll, Kenneth M; Bowman, Michael J

    2017-11-07

    Essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. Twenty-one essential oils were initially screened for their toxicity against Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae and three out of the seven most toxic essential oils (Manuka, oregano, and clove bud essential oils) were examined for their chemical composition and combined toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with oregano essential oil and antagonistically with clove bud essential oil. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 21 components in Manuka essential oil and three components each in oregano and clove bud essential oils. Eugenol (84.9%) and eugenol acetate (9.6%) were the principal constituents in clove bud essential oil while carvacrol (75.8%) and m-isopropyltoluene (15.5%) were the major constituents in oregano essential oil. The major constituents in Manuka essential oil were calamenene (20%) and 3-dodecyl-furandione (11.4%). Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with eugenol acetate and antagonistically with eugenol, suggesting that eugenol was a major contributor to the antagonistic interaction between Manuka and clove bud essential oils. In addition, Manuka interacted synergistically with carvacrol suggesting its contribution to the synergistic interaction between Manuka and oregano essential oils. These findings provide novel insights that can be used to develop new and safer alternatives to synthetic insecticides. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Brazilian Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) Clusters by Major Biogeographical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Kevin J; Conn, Jan E; Bergo, Eduardo S; Randel, Melissa A; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2015-01-01

    The major drivers of the extensive biodiversity of the Neotropics are proposed to be geological and tectonic events together with Pliocene and Pleistocene environmental and climatic change. Geographical barriers represented by the rivers Amazonas/Solimões, the Andes and the coastal mountain ranges in eastern Brazil have been hypothesized to lead to diversification within the primary malaria vector, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi Root, which primarily inhabits rainforest. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we analyzed 786 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 populations of An. darlingi from across the complex Brazilian landscape. Both model-based (STRUCTURE) and non-model-based (Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis) analysis of population structure detected three major genetic clusters that correspond with newly described Neotropical biogeographical regions: 1) Atlantic Forest province (= southeast population); 2) Parana Forest province (= West Atlantic forest population, with one Chacoan population - SP); and 3) Brazilian dominion population (= Amazonian population with one Chacoan population - TO). Significant levels of pairwise genetic divergences were found among the three clusters, allele sharing among clusters was negligible, and geographical distance did not contribute to differentiation. We infer that the Atlantic forest coastal mountain range limited dispersal between the Atlantic Forest province and the Parana Forest province populations, and that the large, diagonal open vegetation region of the Chacoan dominion dramatically reduced dispersal between the Parana and Brazilian dominion populations. We hypothesize that the three genetic clusters may represent three putative species.

  19. Germline transformation of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae with the piggyBac transposable element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Guimarães Rodrigues

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The technique to generate transgenic mosquitoes requires adaptation for each target species because of aspects related to species biology, sensitivity to manipulation and rearing conditions. Here we tested different parameters on the microinjection procedure in order to obtain a transgenic Neotropical mosquito species. By using a transposon-based strategy we were able to successfully transform Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, which can be used as an avian malaria model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the piggyBac transposable element as a transformation vector for Neotropical mosquito species and opens up new research frontiers for South American mosquito vectors.

  20. Population genetic structure of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakhar, S K; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Arvind

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is a complex disease that afflicts human today. Malaria epidemiology is associated with drug resistance in parasite and differential distribution and insecticide resistance in vector. Efforts are being made to eradicate malaria but burden of malaria is still increasing. Vector control is essential for malaria prevention strategies. Knowledge of population genetic structure is pre-requisite for determining prevention strategies particularly using transgenic mosquitoes. Population genetic study can predict level of gene flow between different populations. Anopheles stephensi Liston is urban vector of malaria in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. About 12% of malaria cases of malaria in India are contributed by A. stephensi. Studies conducted on population genetics of A. stephensi using various markers in different parts of the world are discussed in this communication.

  1. Artificial Selection for Different Host Preferences in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    Most mosquito species display host preferences that are a crucial determinant of the transmission rate of mosquito-borne pathogens. Although a transgenic approach, based on driving genes for zoophily into vector populations, has been advocated as a malaria control strategy by the World Health Organization since 1982, the genes involved in mosquito host choice remain poorly understood. Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet mosquitoes were artificially selected for two different host preferences in a specially designed experimental enclosure. Of 3,035 mosquitoes obtained from larvae and pupae collected from the wild (the F0 generation), 27% preferentially fed on pigeons and 16% fed on mice. Following artificial selection for these host preferences over successive generations, the percentage of mosquitoes that preferred to feed on pigeons or mice gradually increased, eventually stabilizing at ∼55 and 34%, respectively, after the sixth generation. Intergenerational differences in host preferences were significant (P mosquitoes selected to prefer pigeons and those selected to prefer mice were both significant and consistent over almost six generations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Dynamics of breeding containers formation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae Larvae

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    Jonny E. Duque L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos la construcción y la simulación de un modelo matemático, del tipo SIRS (Susceptible–Infeccioso– Removido-Susceptible. Se utilizaron cuatro ecuaciones diferenciales para mostrar los parámetros más relevantes que deben ser seguidos en lucha contra vectores del dengue: θ (tasa de control cultural y ϕ (tasa de protección de los criaderos con la aplicación de tratamiento biológico o químico por un tiempo determinado, dentro del control de criaderos que influencian directamente el número de mosquitos que está relacionado con los aspectos ambientales representados por la función Sen2. Intengrando el control cultural y el tratamiento convencional, se puede mantener el número de criaderos en niveles bajos y con ello, la población de mosquitos. Debe utilizarse un control integrado para disminuir el número de criaderos de mosquitos y así reducir la cantidad de los mismos

  3. Catalog of the subgenus Melanoconion of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) for South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2015-10-07

    Species of Culex (Melanoconion) Theobald are recognized as vectors of arboviruses. The species of this subgenus pose a real taxonomic challenge. The current classification of the subgenus recognizes a total of 160 species divided in two major sections, Melanoconion and Spissipes; and several non-formal groupings within each section. We gathered bibliographic records of the subgenus in South America, with particular focus on the period of time after the publication of the Catalog by Pecor et al. (1992) until present time. This compilation included 139 species occurring in South American countries with all the relevant bibliographic sources, including the corresponding information for those medically important species.

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates entomopathogenic for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae and Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    V. Gobatto

    Full Text Available Samples of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt were collected from soil and insects. Eight isolates were selected from rural soil, 15 from urban soil and 11 from insects. These were evaluated for entomopathogenicity against larvae of Anticarsia gemmatalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The pathogenicity tests showed that a higher percentage of isolates were active against A. gemmatalis (60% compared to C. quinquefasciatus (31%. Probit analysis (LC50 indicated that against A. gemmatalis four of the isolates presented values similar to the reference strain against A. gemmatalis, while against C. quinquefasciatus one isolate showed an LC50 similar to the reference strain (IPS-82. SDS-PAGE characterisation of two isolates showed a 27 kDa protein fraction related to the Bt subspecies israelensis cytolytic toxin (cyt gene. One 130 kDa protein, possibly related to the Bt crystal inclusions (cry1 gene, was identified in the other two isolates, which were more toxic for lepidoptera; another isolate presented a protein of 100 kDa. Some new local Bt isolates had similar LC50 probit values to the reference strains.

  5. Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) to temephos in Venezuela.

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    Alvarez, Leslie C; Ponce, Gustavo; Oviedo, Milagros; Lopez, Beatriz; Flores, Adriana E

    2014-08-01

    Temephos is an insecticide widely used in Venezuela to control the proliferation of the larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.), the principal vector of dengue virus. The aim of this study was to identify the susceptibility to temephos of Ae. aegypti in four locations in western Venezuela: Lara, Tres Esquinas, Ureña and Pampanito. Larval bioassays were conducted on samples collected in 2008 and 2010, and the levels of α- and β-esterases, mixed-function oxidases, glutathione-S-transferase and insensitive acethyl cholinesterase were determined. Larval populations from western Venezuela obtained during 2008 and 2010 were found to be susceptible to temephos, with low resistance ratios and without overexpression of enzymes. The low RR values reveal the effectiveness of temephos in controlling the larval populations of Ae. aegypti. Control strategies must be vigorously monitored to maintain the susceptibility to temephos of these populations of Ae. aegypti. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  7. Biochemical mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field population of Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.

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    R. Muthusamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance has been known to be prevalent in several insect species including mosquito. It has become a major problem in vector control programme due to pesticide resistance through detoxification enzymes. The present study investigated the toxicity of Ae. aegypti to organophosphates and pyrethroid insecticide and biochemical mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in larval population. Larval bioassay revealed an LC50 value of 0.734 ppm for dichlorvos and 1.140 ppm for λ-cyhalothrin exposure. Biochemical assay revealed increased activity of AChE (0.3 µmole/mg protein and GST in dichlorvos (1-1.5 µmole/mg protein treatment and esterase activity in λ-cyhalothrin treated compared to control activity. These studies suggest that AChE and GST is associated with organophosphate and esterase associated with pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti.

  8. Natural infection of Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae) with Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) on Madeira Island, Portugal.

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    Santa-Ana, Marta; Khadem, Manhaz; Capela, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were performed to verify whether Culex theileri Theobald functions as a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) on Madeira Island, Portugal. CO2-baited light traps (EVS traps) were use to sample mosquitoes monthly basis between February 2002 and February 2003 in the area of Quebradas (Funchal). Three mosquito species were captured, including 58 Culex pipiens L., 790 Cx. theileri, and three Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart). Only C. theileri tested positive for D. immitis. The presence of this filarial worm was detected by direct observation, infectivity assay dissection technique, and polymerase chain reaction methods. Infected mosquitoes were recovered in October and December 2002 and January 2003. These data provide evidence that Cx. theileri could be the main vector of D. immitis in Funchal, Madeira.

  9. Comparative effectiveness of monomolecular surface film on Aedes aegypti (L. and Anopheles minimus (Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Chutipong Sukkanon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Silicone-based surfactants have become of interest for mosquito control in Thailand. When this non-ionic surfactant is applied in mosquito habitats, a monomolecular film (MMF forms on the water surface and disrupts the ability of larvae and pupae to breathe. In this study, a laboratory bioassay was conducted to determine the mosquito control potential of MMF against Aedes aegypti (L. and Anopheles minimus (Theobald, and to compare its efficacy with other larvicides consisting of temephos (an organophosphate, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti and pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator. It was determined that the percentage mortality of Ae. aegypti and An. minimus treated with MMF at a recommended dosage of 1 mL/m2 was significantly greater in pupae (99.2% and 100%, respectively than old stage larvae (L3–L4, age 46 d; 70.8% and 97.5%, respectively and young stage larvae (L1–L2, age 1–2 d; 8.3% and 58.0%, respectively. Small larvae and prolonged stage transformations indicated MMF growth inhibition activity. MMF also displayed oviposition deterrence behavior and caused female mosquitoes to drown during egg laying. In comparison, temephos and Bti were highly effective in larval control while pyriproxyfen and MMF provided excellent control effects against the pupal stage. Based on the results, MMF showed promise as an alternative larvicide for mosquito control in Thailand. Further studies on the environmental effects of MMF are needed.

  10. De novo transcriptome sequencing and sequence analysis of the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Anopheles sinensis is the major malaria vector in China and Southeast Asia. Vector control is one of the most effective measures to prevent malaria transmission. However, there is little transcriptome information available for the malaria vector. To better understand the biological basis of malaria transmission and to develop novel and effective means of vector control, there is a need to build a transcriptome dataset for functional genomics analysis by large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Methods To provide a more comprehensive and complete transcriptome of An. sinensis, eggs, larvae, pupae, male adults and female adults RNA were pooled together for cDNA preparation, sequenced using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into unigenes. These unigenes were then analyzed in their genome mapping, functional annotation, homology, codon usage bias and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Results Approximately 51.6 million clean reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 38,504 unigenes with an average length of 571 bp, an N50 of 711 bp, and an average GC content 51.26%. Among them, 98.4% of unigenes could be mapped onto the reference genome, and 69% of unigenes could be annotated with known biological functions. Homology analysis identified certain numbers of An. sinensis unigenes that showed homology or being putative 1:1 orthologues with genomes of other Dipteran species. Codon usage bias was analyzed and 1,904 SSRs were detected, which will provide effective molecular markers for the population genetics of this species. Conclusions Our data and analysis provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource and characteristics currently available for An. sinensis, and will facilitate genetic, genomic studies, and further vector control of An. sinensis. PMID:25000941

  11. Chemical Constituents and Combined Larvicidal Effects of Selected Essential Oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Jitrawadee Intirach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.

  12. Pyrethroid Susceptibility Has Been Maintained in the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby-Harshman, Nancy M; Wuliandari, Juli Rochmijati; Harshman, Lawrence G; Frohn, Verena; Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2017-11-07

    Although pesticide resistance is common in insect vectors of human diseases, the evolution of resistance might be delayed if management practices are adopted that limit selection of resistance alleles. Outbreaks of dengue fever have occurred in Queensland, Australia, since the late 1800s, leading to ongoing attempts to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (L.). Since the 1990s, pyrethroid insecticides have been used for this purpose, but have been applied in a strategic manner with a variety of delivery methods including indoor residual spraying, lethal ovitraps, and use of insect growth regulators as larvicides. Separate selection experiments on mosquitoes from Queensland using Type I and Type II pyrethroids did not produce resistant lines of Ae. aegypti, and bioassays of field material from Queensland showed only weak tolerance in comparison with a susceptible line. There was no evidence of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in Ae. aegypti from Queensland, in stark contrast to the situation in nearby southeast Asia. We suspect that careful management of pyrethroid insecticide use combined with surveillance and interception of exotic incursions has helped to maintain pyrethroid (and particularly kdr-based) susceptibility in Ae. aegypti in Australia. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Wolbachia and dengue virus infection in the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae.

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    Jéssica Barreto Lopes Silva

    Full Text Available Dengue represents a serious threat to human health, with billions of people living at risk of the disease. Wolbachia pipientis is a bacterial endosymbiont common to many insect species. Wolbachia transinfections in mosquito disease vectors have great value for disease control given the bacterium's ability to spread into wild mosquito populations, and to interfere with infections of pathogens, such as dengue virus. Aedes fluviatilis is a mosquito with a widespread distribution in Latin America, but its status as a dengue vector has not been clarified. Ae. fluviatilis is also naturally infected by the wFlu Wolbachia strain, which has been demonstrated to enhance infection with the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. We performed experimental infections of Ae. fluviatilis with DENV-2 and DENV-3 isolates from Brazil via injection or oral feeding to provide insight into its competence for the virus. We also examined the effect of the native Wolbachia infection on the virus using a mosquito line where the wFlu infection had been cleared by antibiotic treatment. Through RT-qPCR, we observed that Ae. fluviatilis could become infected with both viruses via either method of infection, although at a lower rate than Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue vector. We then detected DENV-2 and DENV-3 in the saliva of injected mosquitoes, and observed that injection of DENV-3-infected saliva produced subsequent infections in naïve Ae. aegypti. However, across our data we observed no difference in prevalence of infection and viral load between Wolbachia-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes, suggesting that there is no effect of wFlu on dengue virus. Our results highlight that Ae. fluviatilis could potentially serve as a dengue vector under the right circumstances, although further testing is required to determine if this occurs in the field.

  14. Molecular identification of two Culex (Culex) species of the neotropical region (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurito, Magdalena; Ayala, Ana M; Almirón, Walter R; Gardenal, Cristina N

    2017-01-01

    Culex bidens and C. interfor, implicated in arbovirus transmission in Argentina, are sister species, only distinguishable by feature of the male genitalia; however, intermediate specimens of the species in sympatry have been found. Fourth-instar larvae and females of both species share apomorphic features, and this lack of clear distinction creates problems for specific identification. Geometric morphometric traits of these life stages also do not distinguish the species. The aim of the present study was to assess the taxonomic status of C. bidens and C. interfor using two mitochondrial genes and to determine the degree of their reproductive isolation using microsatellite loci. Sequences of the ND4 and COI genes were concatenated in a matrix of 993 nucleotides and used for phylogenetic and distance analyses. Bayesian and maximum parsimony inferences showed a well resolved and supported topology, enclosing sequences of individuals of C. bidens (0.83 BPP, 73 BSV) and C. interfor (0.98 BPP, 97 BSV) in a strong sister relationship. The mean K2P distance within C. bidens and C. interfor was 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively, and the interspecific variation was 2.3%. Bayesian clustering also showed two distinct mitochondrial lineages. All sequenced mosquitoes were successfully identified in accordance with the best close match algorithm. The low genetic distance values obtained indicate that the species diverged quite recently. Most morphologically intermediate specimens of C. bidens from Córdoba were heterozygous for the microsatellite locus GT51; the significant heterozygote excess observed suggests incomplete reproductive isolation. However, C. bidens and C. interfor should be considered good species: the ventral arm of the phallosome of the male genitalia and the ND4 and COI sequences are diagnostic characters.

  15. Decreased Flight Activity in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Naturally Infected With Culex flavivirus.

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    Newman, Christina M; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-01-01

    Insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs) commonly infect vectors of mosquito-borne arboviruses. To investigate whether infection with an ISFV might affect mosquito flight behavior, we quantified flight behavior in Culex pipiens L. naturally infected with Culex flavivirus (CxFV). We observed a significant reduction in the scotophase (dark hours) flight activity of CxFV-positive mosquitoes relative to CxFV-negative mosquitoes, but only a marginal reduction in photophase (light hours) flight activity, and no change in the circadian pattern of flight activity. These results suggest that CxFV infection alters the flight activity of naturally infected Cx. pipiens most dramatically when these vectors are likely to be host seeking and may therefore affect the transmission of medically important arboviruses. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Bionomics and Vector Potential of Culex thriambus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in Lake County, California.

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    Nelms, Brittany M; Thiemann, Tara C; Bridges, Danielle N; Williams, Alan E; Koschik, Michelle L; Ryan, Bonnie M; Scott, Jamesina J

    2016-11-01

    California statewide West Nile virus (WNV) minimum infection rates in Culex thriambus Dyar mosquitoes are high; however, few specimens are submitted and tested each year, as their distribution seems limited to larval habitats along riparian systems. To evaluate the role of Cx. thriambus in the amplification, maintenance, and overwintering of WNV in Lake County, CA, the bionomics and vector potential of the species was investigated during 2014 and 2015. Culex thriambus was the most abundant mosquito species, with 1,153 adults and 7,624 immatures collected by vacuum aspiration and dip sampling, respectively, at the primary study site. Detection of WNV in four mosquito pools during September through November coincided with peak seasonality. Females entered and maintained a reproductive diapause during winter under field and seminatural conditions. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. thriambus females by October and was terminated by 30 March. Some parous females (7.1%) and those in host-seeking arrest (7.1%) were collected throughout the winter period. An accrual of 679.51 degree-days (°D) was necessary for diapause termination under seminatural conditions. Culex thriambus females fed on 16 different avian species during spring and summer, and no mammalian feeds were detected. West Nile viral RNA was detected in four of 42 Cx. thriambus pools tested during June through November and infection rates ranged from 3.53-28.15/1,000 tested. In summary, WNV transmission may be increased along riparian corridors throughout California where Cx. thriambus mosquitoes remain relatively abundant. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus megaterium against malarial and dengue vector (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C

    2015-11-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has provoked nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellular method using Bacillus megaterium. The AgNPs formations were confirmed initially through color change, and the aliquots were characterized through UV-visible spectrophotometer, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The surface plasmon resonance band was shown at 430 nm in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The bioreduction was categorized through identifying the compounds responsible for the AgNP synthesis, and the functional group present in B. megaterium cell-free culture was scrutinized using FTIR. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using SEM. In addition, this biosynthesized AgNPs were found to show higher insecticidal efficacy against vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 were found to be 0.567, 2.260; 0.90, 4.44; 1.349, 8.269; and 1.640, 9.152 and 0.240, 0.955; 0.331, 1.593; 0.494, 2.811; and 0.700, 4.435 with respect to the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. All the calculated χ (2) values are highly significant compared with the tabulated value. Therefore, B. megaterium-synthesized silver nanoparticles would be used as a potent larvicidal agent against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.

  18. Susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations to the chemical insecticide temephos in Pernambuco, Brazil.

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    Amorim, Liliane Barbosa; Helvecio, Elisama; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira

    2013-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector of many agents of human diseases, including Wuchereria bancrofti, the parasite that causes bancroftian filariasis, an endemic disease in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Although temephos is not currently used to control C. quinquefasciatus, the species might be under a selection process from incidental exposure to this compound. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility status of C. quinquefasciatus to temephos, using bioassays, and to investigate its putative resistance mechanisms through biochemical assays and screening of the G119S mutation in the acetylcholinesterase gene, which is associated with organophosphate resistance, carried out by PCR and sequencing. The results showed that only mosquitoes from Santa Cruz do Capibaribe (SC) had an alteration in their susceptibility status (RR = 7.2-fold), while the other populations were all susceptible to the insecticide. Biochemical assays showed increased activity for all esterases in SC, as well as evidence of acetylcholinesterase insensitivity. The G119S mutation was detected in this population with a frequency of 0.11, but it was not found in the remaining populations. These data show that mechanisms of temephos resistance have been selected in natural C. quinquefasciatus populations from Pernambuco, which could undermine future control actions. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A Pictorial Key for Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae In Iran

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    Hossein Dehghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to design pictorial key and taxonomic literature of Culex pipiens complex in Iran.Methods: Larvae were collected using standard dipping methods in 13 randomly selected areas of Bushehr, Hame­dan, Kerman, Khorasan-e-Razavi, Khuzistan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Sistan and Baluchistan and Yazd Provinces from April 2009 to October 2010. The data were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 11.5.Results: Culex pipiens larvae were identified based on the Seta 1 of the abdominal segments III–IV in north and central parts of Iran. This diagnostic character had some variation among the Cx. quinquefasciatus collected from south of the country. The identification value of intersection of costa, subcosta and bifurcation of R2+3 of female veins, was calculated as 90–100 % for Cx. pipiens. This diagnostic character was varied among the Cx. quinquefas­ciatus specimens. The male genitalia found as the main characters to distinguish of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Cx. pipiens.Conclusion: It is necessary more studies on the behavior and genetic variations of Cx. pipiens complex in Iran.

  20. Ecological Distribution and CQ11 Genetic Structure of Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Marco; Toma, Luciano; Boccolini, Daniela; Severini, Francesco; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Minelli, Giada; Bongiorno, Gioia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Arnoldi, Daniele; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Romi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are considered to be involved in the transmission of a range of pathogens, including West Nile virus (WNV). Although its taxonomic status is still debated, the complex includes species, both globally distributed or with a more limited distribution, morphologically similar and characterised by different physiological and behavioural traits, which affect their ability as vectors. In many European countries, Cx. pipiens and its sibling species Culex torrentium occur in sympatry, exhibiting similar bionomic and morphological characters, but only Cx. pipiens appears to play a vector role in WNV transmission. This species consists of two biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which can interbreed when in sympatry, and their hybrids can act as WNV-bridge vectors, due to intermediate ecological features. Considering the yearly WNV outbreaks since 2008 and given the morphological difficulties in recognising species and biotypes, our aim was to molecularly identify and characterised Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium in Italy, using recently developed molecular assays. Culex torrentium was not detected; as in other European countries, the pipiens and molestus biotypes were widely found in sympatry with hybrids in most environments. The UPGMA cluster analysis applied to CQ11 genotypic frequencies mainly revealed two groups of Cx. pipiens populations that differed in ecological features. The high propensity of the molestus biotype to exist in hypogean environments, where the habitat’s physical characteristics hinder and preclude the gene flow, was shown. These results confirmed the CQ11 assay as a reliable diagnostic method, consistent with the ecological and physiological aspects of the populations analysed. Since the assessment of the actual role of three biotypes in the WNV circulation remains a crucial point to be elucidated, this extensive molecular screening of Cx. pipiens populations can provide new insights into the ecology of the species and may give useful indications to plan and implement WNV surveillance activities in Italy. PMID:26741494

  1. piRNA-3312: A Putative Role for Pyrethroid Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juxin; Ye, Wenyun; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Xueli; Guo, Qin; Huang, Yun; Ma, Lei; Sun, Yan; Shen, Bo; Zhou, Dan; Zhu, Changliang

    2017-07-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a newly identified class of small noncoding RNAs. They are associated with chromatin organization, messenger RNA stability, and genome structure. Although the overexpression of piRNA-3312 in deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain of Culex pipiens pallens (L.) was observed in our previous large-scale transcriptome data, the roles of piRNA in insecticide resistance have not been clearly defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate how piRNA-3312 is involved in insecticide resistance. The lower expression level of piRNA-3312 in deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain of Cx. pipiens pallens was confirmed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Overexpression of piRNA-3312 in the DR strain made the mosquitoes more sensitive to deltamethrin, whereas inhibiting the expression of piRNA-3312 in the DS strain made the mosquitoes more resistant to deltamethrin. Piwi-interacting RNA-3312 was also found to bind 3' UTR (Untranslated Regions) of gut esterase 1 gene and could induce its degradation. In addition, knockdown of gut esterase 1 gene increased the sensitivity of DR strain to deltamethrin. In conclusion, we found that piRNA-3312 targeted the gut esterase 1 gene to negatively regulate the insecticide resistance. This finding facilitates the understanding of various functions of piRNAs and their association with insecticide resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Venom allergen 5 is Associated With Deltamethrin Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Hong, Shanchao; Wang, Weijie; Zhang, Donghui; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-07-01

    The mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens (L.), is an important vector of encephalitis and filariasis in northern China. The control of these mosquitoes occurs primarily via the use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin. The widespread and improper application of pyrethroid has resulted in the evolution of pyrethroid resistance amongst many mosquito populations, including Cx. pipiens pallens. Previous studies using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing have identified that the venom allergen 5 gene is differentially expressed between deltamethrin-susceptible and deltamethrin-resistant Cx. pipiens pallens. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that venom allergen 5 was significantly overexpressed in adult females of both deltamethrin-resistant laboratory populations and two field populations. The transcriptional level of venom allergen 5 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Full-length cDNAs of the venom allergen 5 gene were cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens, and contained an open reading frame of 765 bp, encoding a protein with 254 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 100% identity with the ortholog in Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The overexpression of venom allergen 5 decreased the susceptibility of mosquito cells to deltamethrin, while knockdown of this gene by RNAi increased the susceptibility of mosquitoes to deltamethrin. This study provides the first evidence of the association between the venom allergen 5 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Wing geometry of Culex coronator (Diptera: Culicidae) from South and Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demari-Silva, Bruna; Suesdek, Lincoln; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2014-04-09

    The Coronator Group encompasses Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, Culex camposi Dyar, Culex covagarciai Forattini, Culex ousqua Dyar, Culex usquatissimus Dyar, Culex usquatus Dyar and Culex yojoae Strickman. Culex coronator has the largest geographic distribution, occurring in North, Central and South America. Moreover, it is a potential vector-borne mosquito species because females have been found naturally infected with several arboviruses, i.e., Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus. Considering the epidemiological importance of Cx. coronator, we investigated the wing shape diversity of Cx. coronator from South and Southeast Brazil, a method to preliminarily estimate population diversity. Field-collected immature stages of seven populations from a large geographical area in Brazil were maintained in the laboratory to obtain both females and males linked with pupal and/or larval exuviae. For each individual female, 18 landmarks of left wings were marked and digitalized. After Procrustes superimposition, discriminant analysis of shape was employed to quantify wing shape variation among populations. The isometric estimator centroid size was calculated to assess the overall wing size and allometry. Wing shape was polymorphic among populations of Cx. coronator. However, dissimilarities among populations were higher than those observed within each population, suggesting populational differentiation in Cx. coronator. Morphological distances between populations were not correlated to geographical distances, indicating that other factors may act on wing shape and thus, determining microevolutionary patterns in Cx. coronator. Despite the population differentiation, intrapopulational wing shape variability was equivalent among all seven populations. The wing variability found in Cx. coronator populations brings to light a new biological problem to be investigated: the population genetics of Cx. coronator. Because of differences in the male genitalia, we also transferred Cx. yojoae to the Apicinus Subgroup.

  4. Notes on Culex (Culex) neovishnui Lien, 1968 from the Ryukyus and Japan proper (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyagi, Ichiro; Iha, Shigeo

    1970-01-01

    日本産の所謂シロハシイエカ"Culex vishnui"は研究者によってCulex vishnui Theobald, 1901あるいわ,Culex pseudovishnui Colless, 1957と呼ばれていたが,著者等が琉球及び日本本土各地から得た幼虫標本226個体につき主要な形態的特長を調べた結果,最近Lien (1968)によって記載されたCulex (Culex) neovishnui Lien, 1968によく一致するので琉球及び日本本土に関する限りではシロハシイエカCulex (Culex) neovishnui Lien, 1968と呼ぶことが適当であると思われる....

  5. Dispersal of Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From a Wastewater Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciota, Alexander T.; Drummond, Cori L.; Ruby, Meghan A.; Drobnack, Jason; Ebel, Gregory D.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    A mark-recapture project examined dispersal and flight distances of Culex mosquitoes from a wastewater treatment plant in Albany, NY, during 2007 and 2008. A self-marking device was constructed to mark egressing mosquitoes with fluorescent marking powder. Mosquitoes were recaptured using 30 CDC miniature light traps located within a 2.0 km radius of the marking site. A total of 13 and 10 marked Culex mosquitoes were recaptured in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Culex mosquitoes traveled a minimum of 0.16 km, a maximum of 1.98 km and, following correction for decreasing trap density with distance, had a mean distance traveled of 1.33 km. Characterizing the dispersal patterns of these mosquitoes is important for understanding the distribution of West Nile virus and other pathogens. PMID:22308769

  6. Potential for Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From Florida to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker), Culex nigri- palpusTheobald,MansoniadyariBelkin,Heinemann, andPage, andPsorophora...ferox (VonHumboldt) from Florida to determine which of these species should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in...species should be considered as potential vectors and would need to be controlled if RVFV were introduced into an area where they were found

  7. High Insecticides Resistance in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae from Tehran, Capital of Iran

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    Yaser Salim-Abadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent years transmission of Dirofilaria immitis (dog heart worm by Culex pipiens and West Nile virus have been reported from Iran. The present study was preformed for evaluating the susceptibility status of Cx. pipiens collected from capital city of Tehran, Iran.Methods: Four Insecticides including: DDT 4%, Lambdacyhalothrin 0.05%, Deltamethrin 0.05% and Cyfluthrin 0.15 % according to WHO standard  methods were used for evaluating the susceptibility status of Cx. pipiens from Tehran moreover  For comparison susceptibility status a Laboratory strain also was used.  Bioassay data were ana­lyzed using Probit program. The lethal time for 50% and 90% mortality (LT50 and LT90 values were calculated from regression line.Results: The susceptibility status of lab strain of Cx. pipiens revealed that it is susceptible to Lambdacyhalothrin, Deltamethrin, Cyfluthrin and resistant to DDT. Moreover cyfluthrin with LT50=36 seconds and DDT with LT50=3005 seconds had the least and most LT50s. Field population was resistance to all tested insecticides and DDT yielded no mortality.Conclusion: Highly resistance level against all WHO recommended imagicides were detected in field populations. We suggest more biochemical and molecular investigations to detect resistance mechanisms in the field population for further decision of vector control.

  8. An Update on the Potential of North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit West Nile Virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turell, Michael J; Dohm, David J; Sardelis, Michael R; O 'Guinn, Monica L; Andreadis, Theodore G; Blow, Jamie A

    2004-01-01

    .... To develop appropriate surveillance and control strategies, the identification of which mosquito species are competent vectors and how various factors influence their ability to transmit this virus must be determined...

  9. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Khoshdel-Nezamiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.

  10. Larvicidal activity of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae leaf extracts against important human vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagarmalai JEYASANKAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of Phyllanthus emblica leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against two vector mosquito species at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 72 hours. Results: The leaf extracts of P. emblica was found to be more susceptible against the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus with a LC50 value of 78.89 ppm. Conclusions: These results suggested that the leaf extracts of P .emblica showed potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

  11. Population Genetic and Admixture Analyses of Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in California, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothera, Linda; Nelms, Brittany M.; Reisen, William K.; Savage, Harry M.

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to genetically characterize 19 Culex pipiens complex populations from California. Two populations showed characteristics of earlier genetic bottlenecks. The overall FST value and a neighbor-joining tree suggested moderate amounts of genetic differentiation. Analyses using Structure indicated K = 4 genetic clusters: Cx. pipiens form pipiens L., Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl, and a group of genetically similar individuals of hybrid origin. A Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components indicated that the latter group is a mixture of the other three taxa, with form pipiens and form molestus contributing somewhat more ancestry than Cx. quinquefasciatus. Characterization of 56 morphologically autogenous individuals classified most as Cx. pipiens form molestus, and none as Cx. pipiens form pipiens or Cx. quinquefasciatus. Comparison of California microsatellite data with those of Cx. pipiens pallens Coquillett from Japan indicated the latter does not contribute significantly to genotypes in California. PMID:23958909

  12. Stable chromosomal inversion polymorphisms and insecticide resistance in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, B D; Hunt, R H; Chandre, F; Carnevale, P; Coetzee, M

    2002-07-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles has been implicated as a major vector of malaria in Africa. A number of paracentric chromosomal inversions have been observed as polymorphisms in wild and laboratory populations of this species. These polymorphisms have been used to demonstrate the existence of five reproductive units in West African populations that are currently described as incipient species. They have also been correlated with various behavioral characteristics such as adaptation to aridity and feeding preference and have been associated with insecticide resistance. Two paracentric inversions namely 2La and 2Rb are highly ubiquitous in the wild and laboratory populations sampled. Both inversions are easily conserved during laboratory colonization of wild material and one shows significant positive heterosis with respect to Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Inversion 2La has previously been associated with dieldrin resistance and inversion 2Rb shows an association with DDT resistance based on this study. The stability and maintenance of these inversions as polymorphisms provides an explanation for the transmission and continued presence of DDT and dieldrin resistance in a laboratory strain of An. gambiae in the absence of insecticide selection pressure. This effect may also be operational in wild populations. Stable inversion polymorphism also provides a possible mechanism for the continual inheritance of suitable genetic factors that otherwise compromise the fitness of genetically modified malaria vector mosquitoes.

  13. [Genetic variability in Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations using RAPD markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiragi, Cassia; Simões, Kenya; Martins, Erica; Queiroz, Paulo; Lima, Luzia; Monnerat, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is an important vector of diseases such as the yellow fever and dengue, present in tropical and subtropical regions. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of different A. aegypti populations using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers as a basic study to support the use of biocontrol strategies. DNA of ten collected larvae from three different populations were analyzed using ten RAPD primers. The results indicated the existence of genetic variability inter and intrapopulation. This was confirmed by a dendrogram that grouped the populations in two main clusters with a genetic similarity of 24%. In one of these clusters, it was possible to distinguish two populations that showed 50% similarity. The molecular variance analysis indicated that the interpopulation genetic diversity (55,01%) was higher than the intrapopulation genetic diversity (44,99%). A high genetic polymorphism (Ht = 0.2656) and high levels of genetic differentiation between populations (Gst = 0.3689) were found. The adopted DNA extraction protocol proved to be efficient regardless the insect development stage used, avoiding the addition of reagents or additional stages of processing. Future experiments can be performed to confirm if the detected variability is related to the resistance characteristics of each population to a determined pesticide.

  14. Toxicity of Beauveria bassiana-28 Mycelial Extracts on Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Vivekanandhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-based pest control is an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides. The present study sought to evaluate the toxicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana-28 ethyl acetate extracts on different larval stages and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extracts produced mosquitocidal activity against larvae and pupae which was comparable to that of the commercial insecticide B. bassiana-22 extract. The LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae values of B. bassiana-28 extracts for 1st to 4th instar larvae and pupae were 11.538, 6.953, 5.841, 3.581 and 9.041 mg/L respectively. Our results show that B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extract has strong insecticidal activity against larval and pupal stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fourier transform infrared spectrum study of B. bassiana-28 extract shows peaks at 3226.91; 2927.94; 1593.13; 1404.18; 1224.18; 1247.94; 1078.21; 1018.41; 229.69; and 871.82 cm−1. Major spectral peaks were observed at 3226.91 cm−1, assigned to N–H stretching, 2927.94 cm−1 assigned to C–H bonding and 1595.13 cm−1 assigned to C–O stretching. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry studies of B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate crude extract showed presence of six major compounds viz. N-hexadecanoic acids (13.6040%; Z,Z-9,12 octadecadienic acid (33.74%; 9-eicosyne (10.832%; heptacosane (5.148%; tetrateracontane (5.801%; and 7 hexyleicosane (5.723%. Histology of mosquito midgut tissue shows tissue lysis as a result of B.bassiana-28 extract exposure. The study shows that bioactive molecules obtained from B. bassiana-28 mycelial extract has insecticidal properties and can be used as alternative for mosquito control.

  15. A newly recognized species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) from Puerto Carreno, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochero, Helena H L; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2007-06-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mosquito species from eastern Colombia belonging to the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex. We provisionally name this taxon An. albitarsis species "F." Until now, the only members of the Albitarsis Complex recorded from north of the Amazon River have been An. marajoara and a putative phylogenetic species, An. albitarsis "E." As with the other largely monomorphic species in the complex, we were able to detect its presence using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2) and partial white gene sequences. Unlike An. marajoara, but in common with other species in the complex, An. albitarsis F lacks the white gene fourth intron. This species is sympatric with An. marajoara in a malaria-endemic area in Puerto Carreño, Vichada Department, Colombia. It could be an important current and/or historical vector of human malaria parasites at this locality and, depending on its actual distribution, elsewhere in Colombia and Venezuela.

  16. Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) malaria vectors in the municipality of Puerto Carreno, Vichada, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Pilar; Conn, Jan E.; Wirtz, Robert; Brochero, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The study of the biological aspects of Anopheles spp., strengthens the entomological surveillance. Objective To determine biological aspects and behavior of adult Anopheles mosquitoes in the urban area of Puerto Carreño municipality, Vichada, Colombia. Materials and methods Wild anophelines were collected landing on humans both indoors and outdoors between 18:00h and 06:00h for 50 min/h during two consecutive nights/month for eight months in the urban area of Puerto Carreño. The biting rate activity, the natural infection by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax VK247 and VK210 using ELISA, and the annual entomological inoculation rate were determined for each species. The members of the Albitarsis complex were determined by amplificacion of the white gene by polymerase chain reaction. Results In order of abundance the species found were An. darlingi (n=1,166), An. marajoara sensu stricto (n=152), An. braziliensis (n=59), An. albitarsis F (n=25), An. albitarsis sensu lato (n=16), An. argyritarsis (n=3) and An. oswaldoi sensu lato (n=2). An. darlingi showed two activity peaks between 21:00 to 22:00 and 05:00 to 06:00 hours outdoors and between 21:00 to 22:00 and 04:00 to 05:00 indoors. Natural infection of this species was found with P. vivax VK210 and its annual entomological inoculation rate was 2. Natural infection of An marajoara sensu stricto with P. falciparum was found, with an annual entomological inoculation rate of 5 and a peak biting activity between 18:00 to 19:00 hrs both indoors and outdoors. Conclusion Transmission of malaria in the urban area of Puerto Carreño, Vichada, can occur by An. darlingi and An. marajoara s. s. PMID:23235809

  17. Geographic distribution, evolution, and disease importance of species within the Neotropical Anopheles albitarsis Group (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Desmond H; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Ruiz-Lopez, J Freddy; Conn, Jan E; Sallum, Maria Anice M; Póvoa, Marinete M; Bergo, Eduardo S; Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Sucupira, Izis; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    The Anopheles albitarsis group of mosquitoes comprises eight recognized species and one mitochondrial lineage. Our knowledge of malaria vectorial importance and the distribution and evolution of these taxa is incomplete. We constructed ecological niche models (ENMs) for these taxa and used hypothesized phylogenetic relationships and ENMs to investigate environmental and ecological divergence associated with speciation events. Two major clades were identified, one north (Clade 1) and one south (Clade 2) of the Amazon River that likely is or was a barrier to mosquito movement. Clade 1 species occur more often in higher average temperature locations than Clade 2 species, and taxon splits within Clade 1 corresponded with a greater divergence of variables related to precipitation than was the case within Clade 2. Comparison of the ecological profiles of sympatric species and sister species support the idea that phylogenetic proximity is related to ecological similarity. Anopheles albitarsis I, An. janconnae, and An. marajoara ENMs had the highest percentage of their predicted suitable habitat overlapping distribution models of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and warrant additional studies of the transmission potential of these species. Phylogenetic proximity may be related to malaria vectorial importance within the Albitarsis Group. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. Laboratory Colonization of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) by Induced Copulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, N F; Sousa-Lima, A S; Gallardo, A K R; Lima, J B P

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a serious public health problem, the control of which involves actions directed against its vector, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles Meigan, 1818. The study of insect biology, ecology, and behavior is simplified when these insects are maintained at the laboratory. However, many of the species are eurygamic and require induced mating. Females of Anopheles marajoara Galvão e Damasceno, 1942 were collected at Mazagão county, State of Amapá, Brazil. F1 eggs were obtained through forced oviposition and raised until mosquito emergence. Around 300 mosquitoes were maintained in each cage and were fed with a 10% sugar solution. Induced mating was made to obtain the other generations. Females had their spermathecae examined for the presence of sperm. The efficacy of coupling in each generation was evaluated. The viability of a sample of generations F5, F9, F12, and F14 was followed from larvae to adult. Two free mating attempts were done. The results demonstrate adaptation of An. marajoara to laboratory conditions over 21 generations, with viability rates temporally increasing. There was no evidence of adaptation to free mating. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Lineage divergence detected in the malaria vector Anopheles marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae in Amazonian Brazil

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    Povoa Marinete M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptic species complexes are common among anophelines. Previous phylogenetic analysis based on the complete mtDNA COI gene sequences detected paraphyly in the Neotropical malaria vector Anopheles marajoara. The "Folmer region" detects a single taxon using a 3% divergence threshold. Methods To test the paraphyletic hypothesis and examine the utility of the Folmer region, genealogical trees based on a concatenated (white + 3' COI sequences dataset and pairwise differentiation of COI fragments were examined. The population structure and demographic history were based on partial COI sequences for 294 individuals from 14 localities in Amazonian Brazil. 109 individuals from 12 localities were sequenced for the nDNA white gene, and 57 individuals from 11 localities were sequenced for the ribosomal DNA (rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2. Results Distinct A. marajoara lineages were detected by combined genealogical analysis and were also supported among COI haplotypes using a median joining network and AMOVA, with time since divergence during the Pleistocene (COI sequences at the 3' end were more variable, demonstrating significant pairwise differentiation (3.82% compared to the more moderate 2.92% detected by the Folmer region. Lineage 1 was present in all localities, whereas lineage 2 was restricted mainly to the west. Mismatch distributions for both lineages were bimodal, likely due to multiple colonization events and spatial expansion (~798 - 81,045 ya. There appears to be gene flow within, not between lineages, and a partial barrier was detected near Rio Jari in Amapá state, separating western and eastern populations. In contrast, both nDNA data sets (white gene sequences with or without the retention of the 4th intron, and ITS2 sequences and length detected a single A. marajoara lineage. Conclusions Strong support for combined data with significant differentiation detected in the COI and absent in the nDNA suggest that the divergence is recent, and detectable only by the faster evolving mtDNA. A within subgenus threshold of >2% may be more appropriate among sister taxa in cryptic anopheline complexes than the standard 3%. Differences in demographic history and climatic changes may have contributed to mtDNA lineage divergence in A. marajoara.

  20. Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae Rood 1926: Morphometric variations in wings and legs of populations from Colombia

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    Miguel Alfonso Pacheco

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions. We registered 11 new wing spot patterns in the costal vein and the dominance of the patterns I and VI for populations of An. darlingi from Colombia. We confirmed DSIII2/TaIII2 ratio as a robust diagnostic character for the taxonomy of this species. We found differences between the size and shape of the wings of An. darlingi populations in accordance to their geographical distribution, which constitute important bionomic aspects for this malaria vector.

  1. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Ammi visnaga Linn. (Apiaceae) seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 165, mar (2016), s. 51-57 ISSN 0014-4894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : botanical larvicide * Furanochromenes * Visnagin * Khellin * Sublethal effect * Mosquito Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2016

  2. Photoperiodic Diapause and the Establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The invasion and range expansion of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in North America represents an outstanding opportunity to study processes of invasion, range expansion, and climatic adaptation. Furthermore, knowledge obtained from such research is relevant to developing novel strategies to control this important vector species. Substantial evidence indicates that the photoperiodic diapause response is an important adaptation to climatic variation across the range of Ae. albopictus in North America. Photoperiodic diapause is a key determinant of abundance in both space and time, and the timing of entry into and exit out of diapause strongly affects seasonal population dynamics and thus the potential for arbovirus transmission. Emerging genomic technologies are making it possible to develop high-resolution, genome-wide genetic markers that can be used for genetic mapping of traits relevant to disease transmission and phylogeographic studies to elucidate invasion history. Recent work using next-generation sequencing technologies (e.g., RNA-seq), combined with physiological experiments, has provided extensive insight into the transcriptional basis of the diapause response in Ae. albopictus. Applying this knowledge to identify novel targets for vector control represents an important future challenge. Finally, recent studies have begun to identify traits other than diapause that are affected by photoperiodism. Extending this work to identify additional traits influenced by photoperiod should produce important insights into the seasonal biology of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27354438

  3. A list of mosquito species of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, including the first report of Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae, yellow fever vector and 14 other species (Diptera: Culicidae Lista de espécies de mosquitos do Estado de Pernambuco e primeiro relato de Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae vetor de febre amarela silvestre e outras 14 espécies (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Consuelo Aragão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Besides mosquito species adapted to urban environments (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, only 15 species of Anopheles had been recorded in the State of Pernambuco. METHODS: Human-landing mosquitoes were collected in Dois Irmãos Park, in Recife. RESULTS: The first report for the state of Haemagogus janthinomys, an important vector of yellow fever virus, and 14 other species, including Trichoprosopon lampropus, a first reported for Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The mosquito fauna in the area is diversified and has potential medical and veterinary importance.INTRODUÇÃO: Além de mosquitos adaptados ao ambiente urbano (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti e Ae. albopictus, apenas 15 espécies de Anopheles haviam sido relatadas no Estado de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: Mosquitos que pousavam em humanos no Parque Dois Irmãos, em Recife foram coletados. RESULTADOS: Haemagogus janthinomys, importante vetor de vírus de febre amarela, e outras 14 espécies são relatadas pela primeira vez no estado, incluindo Trichoprosopon lampropus, relatado pela primeira vez no Brasil. CONCLUSÕES: A fauna de mosquitos na área é muito diversificada e tem potencial importância médica e veterinária.

  4. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of essential oils and their mixtures against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Natalia Ríos

    Full Text Available Abstract The search for new insecticides to control dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika vectors has gained relevance in the past decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal action of essential oils (EOs from Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon martinii, Lippia alba, Pelargonium graveolens, Turnera diffusa, and Swinglea glutinosa on Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The chemical components of the EOs were identified by linear retention indices and mass spectra. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 were determined by probit analysis using larvae of Ae. aegypti between the third and the fourth instars. All EOs achieved larvicidal activity at LC50 values lower than 115 mg/L. The lowest LC50 value (45.73 mg/L corresponded to T. vulgaris EO, whereas C. martinii EO showed the highest LC50 (LC50 = 114.65 mg/L. Some EO mixtures showed lower LC50 than oils used individually, such as the mixtures of L. origanoides + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 38.40 mg/L, T. diffusa + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 63.71 mg/L, and L. alba + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 48.87 mg/L. The main compounds of the EOs with highest larvicidal activity were thymol (42% and p-cymene (26.4%.

  5. Efficacy of larvicidal botanical extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahuman, A A; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Saravanan, E; Zahir, A A; Elango, G

    2009-06-01

    The present study explored the effects of crude leaf acetone, chloroform, hot water, methanol, petroleum ether (60-80 degrees C), and water extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br., Canna indica L., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ipomoea carnea Jacq. spp. fistulosa Choisy, and Sarcostemma brevistigma Wight that were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against second and fourth instar larvae of the laboratory-reared mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, in which the major lymphatic filariasis was used. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone, chloroform, methanol, and petroleum ether of C. indica (LC(50) = 29.62, 59.18, 40.77, and 44.38 ppm; LC(90) = 148.55, 267.87, 165.00, and 171.91 ppm) against second instar larvae (LC(50) = 121.88, 118.25, 69.76, and 56.31 ppm; LC(90) = 624.35, 573.93, 304.27, and 248.24 ppm) and against fourth instar larvae and acetone, hot water, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of I. carnea (LC(50) = 61.17, 41.07, 41.82, and 39.32 ppm; LC(90) = 252.91, 142.67, 423.76, and 176.39 ppm) against second instar larvae (LC(50) = 145.37, 58.00, 163.81, and 41.75 ppm; LC(90) = 573.30, 181.10, 627.38, and 162.63 ppm) and against fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. These results suggest that the acetone, methanol extracts of C. indica and hot water, petroleum ether extracts of I. carnea have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the major lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  6. Evaluation of repellent properties of botanical extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2010-08-01

    In recent times, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. The present study explored the effects of crude leaf ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. on repellent activity against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of A. marmelos, ethyl acetate extracts of A. lineata, C. hirsutus, and E. prostrata and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with the different extracts tested. The ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata showed 100% repellency in 120 min; acetone extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus and methanol extract of T. erecta showed complete protection in 90 min at 250 ppm, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and C. hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the C. tritaeniorhynchus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the repellent activity against Japanese encephalitis, C. tritaeniorhynchus of plant extracts from Southern India.

  7. Mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of botanical extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2011-12-01

    To determine the adulticidal and repellent activities of different solvent leaf extracts of Eclipta alba (E. alba) and Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Adulticidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of E. alba and A. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the five to six day old adult female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h under the laboratory conditions. The repellent efficacy was determined against An. stephensi mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm(2) under laboratory conditions. Among the tested solvents the maximum efficacy was observed in the methanol extract. The LC(50) and LC(90) values of E. alba and A. paniculata against adults of An. stephensi were 150.36, 130.19 ppm and 285.22, 244.16 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The chi-square values were significant at Pextract of E. alba and A. paniculata was produce maximum repellency against An. stephensi. From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of E. alba and A. paniculata was an excellent potential for controlling An. stephensi mosquitoes. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [The mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of the environs of the Sayan-Shushenskoe hydroelectric power station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornostaeva, R M

    1999-01-01

    Among females and larvae of mosquitoes collected in 1969, 1981-1984 in the area of the Sayan-Shushenskoe hydroelectric power station (140 km up the Yenisei River from the Abakan city) 5 genera and 30 species were recorded. Based on recent collections and reference data (Gornostaeva e. a., 1969; Gornostaeva, Danilov, 1986) the fauna of the region in question includes 31 species of mosquitoes (Anopheles--1, Culiseta--2, Coquillettidia--1, Aedes--22, Culex--5).

  9. New report on the bionomics of Coquillettidia venezuelensis in temporary breeding sites (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Jeronimo Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Findings of immature forms of Coquillettidia venezuelensis in temporary breeding sites, without the presence of aquatic plants or other submerged plant tissue are reported. METHODS: A systematic scooping technique to collect specimens was used at the breeding site. RESULTS: Immature forms of Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Anopheles rangeli, An. evansae and Culex sp. were collected from areas of the hydroelectric power station of São Salvador, State of Goiás. CONCLUSIONS This is a novel finding relating to the bioecology of Cq. venezuelensis, a species of medical interest that has been found naturally infected with arboviruses, including Oropouche and West Nile virus.

  10. The Morphological Variations of Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Yazd Province, Central Iran

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    H Dehghan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract "nBackground: Culex pipiens complex shows variations in morphological and biological characters including differ­ent biological forms and has medical and veterinary importance. Because of having morphological variations, some­times it is not easy to separate this species from Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. torrentium. The aim of this study was to  identify the  Culex pipiens complex species in order to use in control programs in the future. "nMethods: This study was carried out in two randomly selected rural villages in Yazd County, eastern Iran using dip­ping technique from April to October 2009. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. "nResults: Average of siphon index in fourth-instrar larvae was 3.86±0.03, the minimum and maximum were calculated 2.43 and 5.14, respectively. Siphon/Saddle index was measured as average, minimum and maximum 3.2±0.2, 2.78, and 4.42 respectively. In our study, only 4 specimens had single seta 1 on segments III and VI (2.5% and the remaining beard double seta (97.5%. The maximum 3-6 branches seta 1a-S and 1b-S (95% were observed on siphon. "nConclusion: More populations of Culex pipiens from different areas of Iran need to be studied to gain complete informa­tion about the taxonomy and ecology of the species in the country. "n  "nKeywords: Culex pipiens complex, larvae, taxonomy, Iran

  11. Molecular Comparison of Topotypic Specimens Confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Colombian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Causey was first described from Tefé, Amazonas (AM), Brazil (Causey 1945), but was placed in synonymy with the malaria vec- tor Anopheles nuneztovari...collected in four departments in Colombia (Antio- quia, Amazonas , Caquetá and Norte de Santander) in 2006 as part of the PhD study of Ruiz (2010). Of...574 mosquitoes collected in Amazonas , where An. nunezto- vari s.l. is unreported, two specimens were keyed out as An. nuneztovari s.l. using the

  12. Resistance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations to Deltamethrin, Permethrin, and Temephos in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Sébastien; Lopes, Sergio; Prasetyo, Didot; Hustedt, John; Sarady, Ay Sao; Doum, Dyna; Yean, Sony; Peng, Borin; Bunleng, Sam; Leang, Rithea; Fontenille, Didier; Hii, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health concern, including 185,000 annual cases in Cambodia. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector for dengue transmission and is targeted with insecticide treatments. This study characterized the insecticide resistance status of Ae aegypti from rural and urban locations. The susceptibility to temephos, permethrin, and deltamethrin of Ae aegypti was evaluated in accordance with World Health Organization instructions. All the field populations showed lower mortality rate to temephos compared with the sensitive strain with resistance ratio 50 (RR 50 ) varying from 3.3 to 33.78 and RR 90 from 4.2 to 47 compared with the sensitive strain, demonstrating a generalized resistance of larvae to the temephos in Cambodia. Ae aegypti adult populations were highly resistant to permethrin regardless of province or rural/urban classification with an average mortality of 0.02%. Seven of the 8 field populations showed resistance to deltamethrin. These results are alarming for dengue vector control, as widespread resistance may compromise the entomological impact of larval control operations. Innovative vector control tools are needed to replace ineffective pesticides in Cambodia.

  13. Venom allergen 5 is Associated With Deltamethrin Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Hong, Shanchao; Wang, Weijie; Zhang, Donghui; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens (L.), is an important vector of encephalitis and filariasis in northern China. The control of these mosquitoes occurs primarily via the use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin. The widespread and improper application of pyrethroid has resulted in the evolution of pyrethroid resistance amongst many mosquito populations, including Cx. pipiens pallens. Previous studies using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing have identified that the venom allergen 5 gene is differentially expressed between deltamethrin-susceptible and deltamethrin-resistant Cx. pipiens pallens. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that venom allergen 5 was significantly overexpressed in adult females of both deltamethrin-resistant laboratory populations and two field populations. The transcriptional level of venom allergen 5 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Full-length cDNAs of the venom allergen 5 gene were cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens, and contained an open reading frame of 765 bp, encoding a protein with 254 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 100% identity with the ortholog in Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The overexpression of venom allergen 5 decreased the susceptibility of mosquito cells to deltamethrin, while knockdown of this gene by RNAi increased the susceptibility of mosquitoes to deltamethrin. This study provides the first evidence of the association between the venom allergen 5 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. PMID:26335474

  14. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Fouad El-Akhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens.

  15. Larvicidal properties of two asclepiadaceous plant species against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Amal Elsayed Edriss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain mosquito species are important vectors of fatal human diseases, among which Anopheles arabiensis is known to be associated with malaria transmission in different tropical and subtropical areas. Since chemical control of mosquitoes was linked with numerous drawbacks, like resistance development, the search for effective environmentally sound alternatives is urgently needed. Therefore, it was aimed by this study to evaluate some extracts prepared from two asclepiadaceous plants, viz., Solenostemma argel “Hargel” (seeds and leaves and Calotropis procera “Usher” (leaves and flowers, as natural larvicides against An. arabiensis. The main parameters included bioassays of treatments for knockdown and residual effects, besides phytochemical analysis of the tested extracts. The results revealed variable groups of secondary metabolites in the two plants, with S. argel seemed to be the richest one. Hence, S. argel extracts caused higher larval mortalities than those of C. procera. This could be ascribed to some potent secondary metabolites in the former plant, which needs further studies. Almost all the high concentrations of S. argel extracts exerted the highest knockdown effect (90% mortality after 24 h, which were comparable with those obtained by two standard insecticides. The highest doses of petroleum ether and water extracts of this plant also manifested significantly higher residual effects than the other extracts after three days following treatments, but were surpassed by the chemical insecticides thereafter. However, S. argel seed petroleum ether extract at 0.5% was the most effective of all botanicals up to three weeks of exposure. This extract needs to be evaluated under field conditions for proper exploitation as mosquito larvicide.

  16. Larvicidal activity of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae flower extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

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    R. Raveen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector responsible for serious disease filariasis among human beings. Plant derived products have received increased attention from scientists as they serve as a rich source for novel natural substances possessing insecticidal properties which are safe to human and ecosystem. During the last decade, various studies on natural plant products against vector mosquito indicate them as possible alternatives to chemical and synthetic insecticides for mosquito control. In the present study, the crude hexane and aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers were reported for larvicidal activity against the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Mortality was observed for 24 and 48 hours. Hexane flower extract exhibited highest larvicidal activity with a LC50 value of 102.54 ppm and 61.11ppm after 24 and 48 hours respectively. Further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredient(s of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  17. Third Supplement to ’A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World’ (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    world (male). 9 (female), P (pupa). L ( larva ). E (egg). catalog of mosquitoes (Ward 1984). Since Pe (pupal exuviae) and Le (larval exuviae). there...holotype d: change A to USNM). tibialis Taylor Lee et al. 1989c:290 (2 syntypes: change to ANIC). Subfamily Toxorhynchitinae Genus Toxorhynchites Theobald...Subgenus Toxorhynchites Theobald angustiplatus Evenhuis and Steffan 1986:548 (6*. 9, P*. L*). Type loc.: Pacific Tin, Berjuntai, Batang, Selangor

  18. Laboratory Studies of Larval Cannibalism in ’Toxorhynchites amboinensis’ (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    representative of many of those found in natural al. 1985) cohabitation ly Toxorhynchites is rela- habitats of Toxorhynchites larvae . tixel\\ rare. However...tained Toxorhynchites larvae averaged 8.1, 12.7, (Iuent in tires as in jars and tins. Similarly, in a and 17.7 Aedes larvae per container, respectively...study involving releases of Toxorhynchites adults We have found that 10-15 ml of water is a typical for biological control, an accumulation of larvae

  19. A new densovirus isolated from the mosquito Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanakitsakul, Sa-Nga; Boonnak, Kobporn; Auethavornanan, Kusuma; Jairungsri, Aroonroong; Duangjinda, Thaneeya; Puttatesk, Punjaporn; Thongrungkiat, Supatra; Malasit, Prida

    2007-03-01

    A new densovirus was isolated and characterized in laboratory strains of Toxorhynchites splendens. The virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from mosquitoes reared in our laboratory. PCR fragments from each mosquito were compared by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay and found to be indistinguishable. Thus, it is likely the densoviruses from these mosquitoes contain homologous nucleotide sequences. The PCR fragment corresponding to a 451 bp densovirus structural gene segment from each of 5 mosquitoes had 100% identical nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the structural gene sequence suggests the newly isolated densovirus is more closely related to Aedes aegypti densovirus (AaeDNV) than to Aedes albopictus densovirus (AalDNV). Analysis of offspring and predated larvae suggests that vertical and horizontal transmission are responsible for chronic infections in this laboratory strain of Toxorhynchites splendens. The virion DNA is 4.2 kb in size, is closely related to, but distinct from, known densoviruses in the genera Brevidensovirus and Contravirus. Thevirus is tentatively named Toxorhynchites splendens densovirus (TsDNV).

  20. Behavior on approach to surface prey by larvae of Toxorhynchites amboinensis and T. brevipalpis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, J R

    1995-01-01

    Behavior of Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Doleschall) and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis (Theobald) larvae (starved 48 h) as they approach and capture surface prey is described quantitatively from videotaped records. Of 106 T. amboinensis and 82 T. brevipalpis larvae observed, 84.9 and 97.6%, respectively, responded to the presence of surface prey within 2 min (most Toxorhynchites larvae are able to assess both the angle to surface prey and its distance and that they interpolate this information to optimize the approach path. The degree of refinement in this behavior indicates that it is well adapted to take advantage of the important surface food source in nature. In this phase of their feeding, Toxorhynchites larvae are active hunters and are not entirely the passive ambush predators they have seemed to be from many studies that have used other mosquito larvae as (subsurface) prey.

  1. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honório, Nildimar A; de Barros, Fábio S M; Tsouris, Pantelis; Rosa-Freitas, Maria G

    2007-01-01

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program.

  2. Efficiency of the induced mating technique for Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Albeny-Simões

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxorhynchites mosquitoes play important ecological roles in aquatic microenvironments, and are frequently investigated as potential biological control agents of mosquito disease vectors. Establishment of Toxorhynchites laboratory colonies can be challenging because for some species, mating and insemination either do not occur or require a prohibitive amount of laboratory space for success. Consequently, artificial insemination techniques have been developed to assist with mass rearing of these species. Herein we describe an adapted protocol for colony establishment of T. theobaldi, a species with broad distribution in the Neotropics. The success of the technique and its implications are discussed.

  3. Nuevos registros y distribución de mosquitos de la Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Gustavo C. ROSSI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 21 nuevos registros de especies y se amplía la distribución de otras 12 especies de los géneros Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach y Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald. Se incluyen comentarios y cambios de estatus para especies de Howardina Theobald, Ochlerotatus y Lutzia (Theobald. Actualmente, en la Argentina se hallan presentes 226 especies distribuidas en 23 géneros.

  4. Laboratory infection of the mosquito, Toxorhynchites brevipalpis (Diptera, Culicidae), with bluetongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, M; Boorman, J; Mellor, P S

    1984-01-01

    The use of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis as a system for the propagation and isolation of bluetongue virus (BTV) was investigated. BTV was found to multiply in T. brevipalpis after infection by intrathoracic inoculation. Virus concentrations of up to 6.9 log 10 TCID50 per mosquito were found within 7 days of infection and were maintained for at least 6 days. Virus could be detected by an indirect fluorescent antibody test applied to head and thorax tissue smears. These results are comparable to those obtained after inoculation of Culicoides variipennis with the same virus. Comparison of T. brevipalpis and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells as systems for isolation of BTV showed that there was little difference in sensitivity between the two systems for the stock BTV used. Field samples were not available for test. It was concluded that the use of T. brevipalpis as an isolation system for BTV would have no apparent advantage if BHK cells were available.

  5. Olfactory cues for oviposition behavior in Toxorhynchites moctezuma and Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, L E; Blackwell, A

    2002-01-01

    In laboratory tests gravid female Toxorhynchites moctezuma (Dyar & Knab) and Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Doleschall) were offered the choice of black oviposition jars containing a diethyl ether extract of water collected from a natural oviposition site for these species (i.e., used tires), a dilution series of 4-methylcyclohexanol, 3-methylindole, 2-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol and 4-methylphenol, or solvent. Tire water extract and all test compounds acted as oviposition attractants and stimulants for both species, with the threshold amounts required to elicit these behaviors varying between the species and among the compounds tested.

  6. Efficiency of the induced mating technique for Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Albeny-Simões,Daniel; Cassol,Angélica Soligo; Breaux,Jennifer A.; Andrade,Mateus R.; Lima,Eraldo; Vilela,Evaldo

    2015-01-01

    Toxorhynchites mosquitoes play important ecological roles in aquatic microenvironments, and are frequently investigated as potential biological control agents of mosquito disease vectors. Establishment of Toxorhynchites laboratory colonies can be challenging because for some species, mating and insemination either do not occur or require a prohibitive amount of laboratory space for success. Consequently, artificial insemination techniques have been developed to assist with mass rearing of the...

  7. Life tables of Toxorhynchites rutilus (Diptera: Culicidae) in nature in southern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, R E; Lounibos, L P

    2000-05-01

    Stage-specific survivorship curves were constructed for the immature stages of a native, predatory mosquito, Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillet), by regular censuses in the summer and fall of water-holding treeholes and tires. Survival from egg to adult ranged from 1.8 to 5.6%, and survivorship patterns were significantly heterogeneous between seasons and container types. The probability of death was highest in the first and fourth larval instars. Rainfall and drought were relatively unimportant risk factors during this study, but the probabilities of disappearance of eggs and first and fourth instars were significantly higher in the presence of large conspecifics, suggesting that cannibalism is a major source of mortality.

  8. A new species of Toxorhynchites mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, T; Miyagi, I; Tanaka, K

    1990-05-01

    Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynchites) okinawensis Toma, Miyagi, and Tanaka, n. sp., from Okinawajima, the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, is described and illustrated. Its taxonomy, bionomics, and zoogeography are discussed briefly.

  9. Three new species and one new subspecies of Toxorhynchites (Diptera: Culicidae) of the afrotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Henrique

    2005-05-01

    Three new species and one new subspecies in the subgenus Afrorhynchus of the genus Toxorhynchites are described from the Afrotropical region. With the addition of these four new taxa, 14 species and two subspecies of subgenus Afrorhynchus are presently known in the region. Keys are provided for the identification of adult males and females of the subgenus Afrorhynchus in Africa.

  10. Time to death from starvation and compulsive killing by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalraj, D D; Das, P K

    1994-11-01

    Time to death from starvation and compulsive killing without eating of the prey by larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens were studied in the laboratory. The first and second instars survived without food for 3 days while third and fourth instars survived for 7.8 and 14 days, respectively. When the corresponding instars of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi or Culex quinquefasciatus were offered, the number of prey killed but not eaten ranged from 0 to 15 per 40 prey larvae. Compulsive killing of Ae. aegypti was mainly at its third instar by 9- and 10-day old T. splendens. Compulsive killing of An. stephensi was mainly at its second and third instars by young and older ages of T. splendens but older T. splendens also killed fourth instar of An. stephensi. Compulsive killing of Cx. quinquefasciatus was of all its instars and mainly by young T. splendens. There was a significant negative correlation between the amount of food eaten per predator and the number of prey killed compulsively. The number of larvae killed and eaten were much larger than number killed compulsively, except in the case of third instar Ae. aegypti and 9-10-day old T. splendens.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) for predation of Aedes albopictus mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, T; Miyagi, I

    1992-07-01

    Biology of the mosquito Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) was studied in the laboratory to provide baseline data for using the predatory larvae of this species against those of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in a biological control programme. The mean incubation time of Tx.splendens eggs was 43.8 h and the time required for newly-hatched larvae to initiate predation was 2.5 h. Mean numbers of prey larvae consumed and killed by each Tx.splendens larva totalled 389 and 345 respectively. The larval period of Tx.splendens was not significantly different for rearing individually or in groups of nine, with equal prey density, and duration of larval development was proportional to prey density. In mass rearing, larval cannibalism was usually observed during days 1-3 post-eclosion. The incidence of cannibalism decreased sharply on the fourth day after hatching when some larvae became fourth-instar. Adult female Tx.splendens usually commenced oviposition on day 4 after emergence. The number of eggs laid daily increased on day 7 and the peak oviposition of 6.3 eggs/female/day occurred on day 11. When oviposition containers were provided only intermittently, gravid females of Tx.splendens scattered most of their eggs on the dry floor of the cage. Viability of eggs laid by females aged 4-14 days was high (60-90%) but decreased to less than 40% as the females aged.

  12. Salivary gland of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae): ultrastructural morphology and electrophoretic protein profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapan, Narissara; Choochote, Wej; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Bates, Paul A

    2004-07-01

    The salivary glands of male and female Toxorhynchites splendens have the same morphology, and they are paired organs lying on either side of the esophagus. Each gland is composed of two identical tubular lobes, joined together at the end of the proximal region. In the gland, a salivary duct extends through the length of each lobe. The general cellular architecture of the salivary gland of this mosquito is unique. No secretory cavity was found in any cell, and the salivary materials are secreted from long microvilli and collect in a periductal space surrounding the duct. In addition, a number of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a very large nucleus were observed, suggesting a high energy requirement for producing the salivary proteins involved in sugar feeding. The size of the gland is approximately 50 microm in diameter and 1.5 mm in length. These dimensions correlate with high protein content of these salivary glands (2.88+/-0.14 microg/gland pair). Sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic protein profiles of the male and female salivary glands were identical. No dominant major proteins were found. Compared with Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, the protein profile of T. splendens was similar to that observed in the males of these other species but different to that shown by the females, thus making T. splendens an excellent organism for studying the biochemistry of sugar feeding in mosquitoes.

  13. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E.; Avendaño, Adrián; Beier, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100×100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. PMID:20073347

  14. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olger Calderón-Arguedas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii. Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.. A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1223-1234. Epub 2009 December 01.La riqueza de especies de mosquitos urbanos de la Gran Puntarenas (Puntarenas, Costa Rica fue evaluada por medio de análisis larvales. Dos encuestas entomológicas fueron realizadas en siete localidades de la Gran Puntarenas durante un año. Una de las encuestas fue realizada en la estación seca y la otra se llevó a cabo en la estación lluviosa. Las áreas evaluadas fueron determinadas aplicando un muestreo por conglomerados usando imágenes satelitales. Veintiséis celdas (100x100m fueron seleccionadas en las comunidades elegidas y en éstas fueron realizadas las evaluaciones entomológicas. El número de celdas por localidad fue proporcional al área de cada localidad. La presencia de larvas o pupas fue determinada en contenedores con agua (naturales y artificiales. La infestación se expresó por medio índices de diversidad por tipo de contenedor (Ii. La asociación entre contenedores positivos por especies particulares y localidades fue evaluada mediante pruebas de Chi-cuadrado (α=0.05. Ocho de los tipos de larvas encontrados fueron identificados a nivel de especie (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, C. interrogator, C. nigripalpus, C. corniger, C. tarsalis, Limatus durhamii, Toxorhynchites theobaldi y dos se identificaron a nivel de género (Culex sp., y Uranotaenia sp. A aegypti fue la especie más frecuente en la Gran Puntarenas. C. quinquefasciatus fue la segunda en frecuencia. Algunas localidades como Carrizal mostraron una importante diversidad de ambientes acuáticos que promovieron la ocurrencia de diferentes especies de culícidos. La distribución de los contenedores positivos por localidad en función de las especies encontradas no mostró homogeneidad (p>0.05. Aunque A. aegypti es el único vector documentado en la zona, otros mosquitos como C. quinquefasciatus y otras especies de Culex podrían ser potenciales vectores de otros agentes etiológicos (virus del Nilo occidental, virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, virus de la encefalitis equina del este. Los resultados obtenidos indican la necesidad considerar la presencia y la ecología de todas las especies de mosquitos en las campañas preventivas por dengue en el área, y en la vigilancia epidemiológica por otras enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos.

  15. Population interaction of Toxorhynchites splendens and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalraj, D D; Das, P K

    1994-12-01

    Population interaction of Toxorhynchites splendens and Aedes aegypti in relation to the complexity of the breeding habitats and their initial number was studied in the laboratory. The predator and the prey were introduced in different ratios in the colony cages (1 m3) with different oviposition structures. Predator-prey interaction lasted for 5-9 weeks without structural complexity of the oviposition containers. When there was a structural complexity, their interaction lasted for 18 weeks. During the interaction period, Ae. aegypti number was at a lower level. Therefore, both structural complexities of the breeding sites and initial predator and prey number play a crucial role in establishing stable interaction between them at a lower threshold level for a longer period.

  16. Search behavior associated with egg cannibalism in Toxorhynchites amboinensis and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, J R; Darling, K

    1993-05-01

    Observations based on time-lapse video recordings were used to study behavior associated with egg cannibalism in fourth-instar Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Doleschall) and Tx. r. rutilus (Coquillett). Analysis indicated that, once triggered by finding of the first egg, larvae of both species engaged in a systematic search of the water surface in an attempt to find additional eggs, which were often seized and eaten. Seven behavioral elements were identified in the search repertoire, and their relationships studied by analysis of a matrix of preceding and succeeding behaviors. The pivotal behavior was "sweep-adjust," which accounted for 87.2% of the time budget in Tx. amboinensis and 73.3% in Tx. r. rutilus. Activity in sweep-adjust consisted predominantly of side-to-side sweeps of the head, held just below the surface, punctuated by small forward adjustments of position. Quantitative aspects of the sweep arcs, in terms of angular and linear velocity, were determined for the two species. Eggs encountered during search probably were detected by mechanoreception, only within a very limited, kidney-shaped zone (area approximately 9.8 mm2) centered at the anterior margin of the head. Eggs were seized with the lateral palatal brushes but without head extension as seen in strikes at subsurface prey.

  17. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract.

  18. Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex stigmatosoma (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhatter, Lee P; Su, Tianyun; Williams, Greg; Cheng, Min-Lee; Dhillon, Major; Gerry, Alec C

    2017-11-07

    Knowledge of the blood-feeding patterns exhibited by arthropod vectors is essential for understanding the complex dynamics of vector-borne disease transmission. Some species of mosquitoes belonging to the genus Culex have been implicated as having major roles in the transmission of arboviruses such as West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus. Although the host-feeding patterns for many of these Culex species are well studied, the host-feeding patterns of Culex stigmatosoma Dyar are relatively poorly studied, even though this species is suspected to be an important maintenance vector for West Nile virus and other arboviruses. In the current study, bloodmeals from 976 blood-engorged Cx. stigmatosoma, collected from 30 sites in southern California from 2009-2012, were processed for vertebrate host identification by nucleotide sequencing following polymerase chain reaction to amplify portions of the cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b genes of vertebrate animals. Vertebrate DNA was amplified, sequenced, and identified from a total of 647 Cx. stigmatosoma bloodmeals, revealing that 98.6% of bloodmeals were from birds, 1.2% from three mammal species, and a single bloodmeal was from a reptile species. In total, 40 different host species were identified. The greatest number of bloodmeals identified was from domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) (38% of bloodmeals), house sparrow (Passer domesticus L.) (23%), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus Müller) (17%), American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos L.) (4%), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura L.) (3%). However, chicken bloodmeals were identified almost entirely from a single site where mosquito collection devices were placed in the near vicinity of confined domestic chickens. The strongly ornithophilic feeding behavior shown in this study for Cx. stigmatosoma supports the hypothesis that this mosquito species may be an important maintenance (or endemic) vector for arboviruses that circulate among susceptible birds. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera : Culicidae) in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Kamgang, Basile; Nchoutpouen, Elysée; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine ...

  20. La Crosse virus infection alters blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan T; Brewster, Carlyle C; Paulson, Sally L

    2012-11-01

    The effects of La Crosse virus (LACV) infection on blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were investigated in the laboratory by measuring the size of the bloodmeal imbibed and the extent of refeeding by virus-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. LACV-infected Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus took significantly less blood compared with uninfected mosquitoes. Twice as many virus-infected Ae. triseriatus mosquitoes refed compared with uninfected individuals (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.05); however, virus infection had no significant effect on the refeeding rate of Ae. albopictus. Reduction in bloodmeal size followed by an increased avidity for refeeding may lead to enhanced horizontal transmission of the LACV by its principal vector, Ae. triseriatus.

  1. Multiple blood feeding and host-seeking behavior in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjana, Thahsin; Tuno, Nobuko

    2013-07-01

    The body size of mosquitoes can influence a number of bionomic factors, such as their blood-feeding ability, host attack rate, and fecundity. All of these traits are important determinants of their potential to transmit diseases. Among abiotic and biotic factors, high temperature and low nutrition in the developing stages of mosquitoes generally result in small adults. We studied the relationship between body size and multiple feeding in a gonotrophic cycle and some fecundity attributes by using three strains of two competent vector species, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). We raised small and large mosquitoes under low and high food conditions in the laboratory to measure parameters of fecundity and blood-feeding behavior. Fecundity was positively correlated with body size in both species, whereas the number of bloodmeals, the frequency of host-seeking behavior, and egg retention were negatively correlated with body size in the Ae. albopictus Nagasaki strain. We found that multiple feeding and host-seeking behavior were negatively correlated with body size, i.e., small mosquitoes tended to have more contact with hosts. We found that two mechanisms that inhibit engorged mosquitoes from seeking out hosts, distension-induced and oocyte-induced inhibition, were not strong enough to limit host-seeking behavior, and multiple feeding increased fecundity. Size-dependent multiple feeding and host-seeking behavior affect contact frequency with hosts and should be considered when predicting how changes in mosquito body size affect disease transmission.

  2. Effects of blood meal source on the reproduction of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Sheri L; Yost, Samantha A

    2012-06-01

    Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were fed blood meals from a live chicken (LC), chicken blood in Alsever's (AC) solution, defibrinated bovine blood (DB), or bovine blood in citrate (CB) and incubated at 28° C. The effects of different blood meal sources were evaluated with respect to rates of blood feeding and reproduction (i.e., fecundity and fertility) over two gonotrophic cycles. Mosquitoes that fed on the first blood meal were subjected to a second blood meal as follows (first blood meal / second blood meal): LC/LC, LC/DB, DB/DB, CB/CB, AC/AC. Fecundity and fertility of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were significantly (P blood; however, fecundity and fertility in different treatment groups varied by gonotrophic cycle. These results contribute to our understanding of the impact of blood meal source on feeding and reproduction in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. The potential impacts of blood meal source on virus transmission experiments are discussed. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. The Ecological Aspects of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae in Central Iran.

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    Hossein Dehghan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to survey the specific factors, which cause to decrease blood feeding of mosquitoes important to succeed vector control.Larval collection was carried out from fixed and variable breeding places of Yazd County, central Iran in 2009. Autogeny-Anautogeny, Stenogamy-Eurygamy, and blood preference of Culex pipiens were studied using standard mosquito cages blood meal source for Cx. pipiens females considered as the chickens and human and fed females were kept in insectary condition (16:8 L: D, 27±3 °C and 70±10% RH. The data were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 11.5 soft ware.Totally, 96 females' mosquitoes were tested for Stenogamy versus Eurygamy and 122 for blood preference assay. In the small cages (20 × 20 × 20cm and large cage (60 × 40 × 60cm, the ability of mating and insemination rates were 60.0 and 67.0%, respectively. In spite of Cx. pipiens fed from sucrose 5%, none of them laying eggs in 60 × 40 × 60 cages during the study. This finding indicated the Anautogeny behavior of this species. This species was found of low tendency to human blood and almost 4 fold fed on chicken.The occurrence of Steno-Eurygamy, Anautogeny, and Ornithophilic behaviors of Cx. Pipiens was noted. More studies need to be carried out about the bionomics of this species to gain more data about the ecophysiological and behavioral characteristics in other parts of Iran.

  4. Seasonal abundance and blood feeding activity of Anopheles minimus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Bangs, Michael J; Aum-Aung, Boonserm

    2003-11-01

    Anopheline mosquito larvae and adults were sampled at Ban Pu Teuy, Tri-Yok District, Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand, from January 2000 to December 2001. Over the period of 2 yr, Anopheles minimus sensu lato was the most commonly collected species, followed by Anopheles swadiwongporni and Anopheles dirus sensu lato; all three species are important vectors of malaria in Thailand. Attempted blood feeding by An. minimus occurred throughout the night, with two distinct feeding peaks: strong activity immediately after sunset (1800-2100 hours), followed by a second, less pronounced, rise before sunrise (0300-0600 hours). Anopheles minimus were more abundant during the wet season compared with the dry and hot seasons, although nocturnal adult feeding patterns were similar. Anopheles minimus fed readily on humans inside and outside of houses, showing a slight preference for exophagy. The human-biting peak of An. minimus in our study area differed from other localities sampled in Thailand, indicating the possible existence of site-specific populations of An. minimus exhibiting different host-seeking behavior. These results underscore the importance of conducting site-specific studies to accurately determine vector larval habitats and adult activity patterns and linking their importance in malaria transmission in a given area.

  5. Culex annulirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) host feeding patterns and Japanese encephalitis virus ecology in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Jansen, Cassie C; Cheah, Wai Yuen; Montgomery, Brian L; Hall, Roy A; Ritchie, Scott A; Van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2012-03-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) transmission in northern Australia has, in the past, been facilitated by Culex annulirostris Skuse feeding on domestic pigs, the primary amplifying hosts of the virus. To further characterize mosquito feeding behavior in northern Australia, 1,128 bloodmeals from Cx. annulirostris were analyzed using a double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, Cx. annulirostris obtained > 94% of blood meals from mammals, comprising marsupials (37%), pigs (20%), dogs (16%), and cows (11%), although the proportion feeding on each of these host types varied between study locations. Where JEV activity was detected, feeding rates on pigs were relatively high. At the location that yielded the first Australian mainland isolate of JEV from mosquitoes, feral pigs (in the absence of domestic pigs) accounted for 82% of bloodmeals identified, representing the first occasion that feeding on feral pigs has been associated with JEV transmission in Australia. Interestingly, blood meals identified, or infected mosquitoes immigrating from areas where domestic pigs are housed, may have contributed to transmission at this location. Because Cx. annulirostris is both an opportunistic feeder and the primary JEV vector in the region, environmental characteristics and host presence can determine JEV transmission dynamics in northern Australia.

  6. Potential for North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit rift valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, Michael J; Wilson, William C; Bennett, Kristine E

    2010-09-01

    To determine which arthropods should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America, we evaluated Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex erythrothorax Dyar, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex pipiens L., Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Aedes dorsalis (Wiedemann), Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones from the western, midwestern, and southern United States for their ability to transmit RVFV. Female mosquitoes were allowed to feed on adult hamsters inoculated with RVFV, after which engorged mosquitoes were incubated for 7-21 d at 260C, then allowed to refeed on susceptible hamsters, and tested to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Other specimens were inoculated intrathoracically, held for 7 d, and then allowed to feed on a susceptible hamster to check for a salivary gland barrier. When exposed to hamsters with viremias > or =10(8.8) plaque-forming units/ml blood, Cx. tarsalis transmitted RVFV efficiently (infection rate = 93%, dissemination rate = 56%, and estimated transmission rate = 52%). In contrast, when exposed to the same virus dose, none of the other species tested transmitted RVFV efficiently. Estimated transmission rates for Cx. erythrothorax, Cx. pipiens, Cx. erraticus, and Ae. dorsalis were 10, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively, and for the remaining species were feeding preference, longevity, and foraging behavior should be considered when determining the potential role that these species could play in RVFV transmission.

  7. A simple and affordable membrane-feeding method for Aedes aegpyti and Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Catherine; Saingamsook, Jassada; Somboon, Pradya

    2015-12-01

    This study developed an artificial feeding (AF) method to replace direct host feeding (DHF) for the maintenance of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus mosquito colonies. The procedure can be adopted by all laboratories due to its simple and affordable materials and design. The apparatus consists of heparinized cow blood contained in a 5cm diameter glass petri dish with 5cm(2) Parafilm M (Bemis(®)) stretched thinly over the top, with a pre-heated bag of vegetable oil placed underneath to keep the blood warm. Both parts are contained within an insulated Styrofoam™ box with a hole in the lid for mosquitoes to access the membrane. Mosquitoes are fed by AF for 15min at a time. Feeding rate and fecundity of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes feeding on the AF device were compared to those feeding on a live rat (DHF(r)), and of Anopheles minimus mosquitoes feeding on the AF device compared to those feeding on a human arm (DHF(h)). Aedes aegypti mosquitoes fed by AF or DHF(r) had similar feeding rates (38.2±21.5% and 35.7±18.2%, respectively) and overall egg production (1.5% difference). Anopheles minimus mosquitoes fed by the AF method had a lower feeding rate (52.0±1.0% for AF compared to 70.7±20.2% for DHF(h)) and overall egg production (40% reduction compared to DHF(h)). However, the number of eggs produced by AF-fed mosquitoes (1808 eggs per 100 mosquitoes) was still sufficient for colony maintenance, and with increased feeding time both parameters are expected to increase. Reduced feeding rate and overall egg production was observed when Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were fed on blood refrigerated for over two weeks. In conclusion, an AF device has been developed which can replace DHF for Ae. aegypti and An. minimus colony maintenance when using blood refrigerated for a maximum of two weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae in Virus Transmission in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Brugman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, a range of mosquito-borne viruses that threaten public and veterinary health have emerged or re-emerged in Europe. Mosquito surveillance activities have highlighted the Culex pipiens species complex as being critical for the maintenance of a number of these viruses. This species complex contains morphologically similar forms that exhibit variation in phenotypes that can influence the probability of virus transmission. Critical amongst these is the choice of host on which to feed, with different forms showing different feeding preferences. This influences the ability of the mosquito to vector viruses and facilitate transmission of viruses to humans and domestic animals. Biases towards blood-feeding on avian or mammalian hosts have been demonstrated for different Cx. pipiens ecoforms and emerging evidence of hybrid populations across Europe adds another level of complexity to virus transmission. A range of molecular methods based on DNA have been developed to enable discrimination between morphologically indistinguishable forms, although this remains an active area of research. This review provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the understanding of the ecology, behaviour and genetics of Cx. pipiens in Europe, and how this influences arbovirus transmission.

  9. Effects of temperature on development, mortality, mating and blood feeding behavior of Culiseta incidens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, T; Mulla, M S

    2001-06-01

    Culiseta incidens Thomson is distributed over most of the western USA and Canada northward to Alaska. Because this mosquito is difficult to colonize, its biology has not been well investigated. We colonized this species in 1998 and studied the effects of temperature on various aspects of its life cycle. The time required for egg melanization and the duration of the egg stage were negatively correlated with temperature. The proportion of fertile egg rafts was temperature-independent. An inverse relationship existed between temperature and egg hatch. Molting and stadium duration after hatching were temperature-dependent, with higher temperature accelerating development and molting. Larvae and pupae experienced lower mortality and higher molting success at lower temperatures. Survivorship of adult mosquitoes fed on sugar solution was inversely proportional to temperature, lethal times for 50% mortality (LT50) were greater at the lower temperature than at the higher temperature. Females survived longer than did males at all test temperatures. Because this species is eurygamous, mating only occurred in large cages. Mating success was also affected by temperature. At the test temperatures, 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C, mating started from 3-5 days after emergence and reached a peak on days 13-15 after emergence. Maximum mating rates at 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C were higher than at 30 degrees C. Blood feeding, as indicated by cumulative feeding rates, was affected by cage size, mosquito age and temperature. Mosquitoes in large cages exhibited a much higher feeding rate than in small cages. With age, the cumulative blood feeding rate increased, with the highest rate at 25 degrees C, followed by 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C. At all temperatures tested, most of the blood fed females were mated.

  10. Feeding Patterns of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Araújo, Andressa Nunes; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird + rodent and bird + frog (17.4%), followed by bird + human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Seasonal blood-feeding behavior of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Weld County, Colorado, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Rebekah; Juliusson, Lara; Weissmann, Michael; Evans, Sara; Komar, Nicholas

    2009-03-01

    Studies on Culex tarsalis Coquillett in Colorado have shown marked seasonal variation in the proportion of blood meals from birds and mammals. However, limitations in the specificity of antibodies used in the precipitin test and lack of vertebrate host availability data warrant revisiting Cx. tarsalis blood feeding behavior in the context of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission. We characterized the host preference of Cx. tarsalis during peak WNV transmission season in eastern Colorado and estimated the relative contribution of different avian species to WNV transmission. Cx. tarsalis preferred birds to mammals each month, although the proportion of blood meals from mammals increased in July and August. The distribution of blood meals differed significantly across months, in part because of changes in the proportion of blood meals from American robins, a preferred host. The estimated proportion of WNV-infectious vectors derived from American robins declined from 60 to 1% between June and August. The majority of avian blood meals came from doves, preferred hosts that contributed 25-40% of the WNV-infectious mosquitoes each month. Active WNV transmission was observed in association with a large house sparrow communal roost. These data show how seasonal patterns in Cx. tarsalis blood feeding behavior relate to WNV transmission in eastern Colorado, with the American robin contributing greatly to early-season virus transmission and a communal roost of sparrows serving as a focus for late-season amplification.

  12. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Cameroon

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    Kamgang Basile

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Findings Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood. Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. Conclusion This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  13. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Raquel S M; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo F

    2015-10-30

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes.

  14. Features of reproduction in laboratory-reared Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Cônsoli

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on 100 female Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz maintained individually from the first blood meal onwards and allowed one blood meal during each oviposition cycle, 5% dextrose solution been supplied throughout life. The average length of live was 49.9 ± 17.8 days; the logarithm of the mortality rate increased proportionately to physiological age. The insects took an average of 7.3 ± 3.2 blood meals and produced a mean of 7.9 ± 3.7 clutches of eggs. There was a progressive decrease, proportional to advancing physiological age, in the mean numbers of eggs laid in successive oviposition cycles, in the intervals between blood feeding oviposition, and in the numbers of larvae that hatched. Delayed oviposition, transient sterility and a total loss of fertility were also recorded.De 100 fêmeas de Aedese fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 individualmente observadas foram obtidos 45.475 ovos em um total de 790 posturas. As médias de desovas produzidas e de repastos sangüíneos ingeridos por fêmea, foram respectivamente 7,9 ± 3,7 e 7,3 ± 3,2 e a longevidade média foi de 49,9 ± 17,8 dias. Em análise de regressão linear, foi observado um progressivo decréscimo das médias de ovos por postura, larvas eclodidas e número de dias entre repasto sangüíneo e postura, proporcional ao aumento da idade fisiológica. Foram ainda observadas ocorrências de ingestão de sangue durante o desenvolvimento dos ovos, recusa de alimentação sangüínea entre desovas sucessivas, retenção espontânea de ovos por períodos apreciáveis, esterilidade transitória e esgotamento de fecundidade.

  15. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Nchoutpouen, Elysée; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2012-03-21

    The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood). Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  16. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Raquel S. M.; Fernandes, Kenner M.; Martins, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructu...

  17. Evaluation of Isotope 32P Method to Mark Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae in a Laboratory

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    Chongxing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the current study was to develop a marking technique as an internal marker to mark post blood meal mosquitoes by using stable phosphate isotope 32P and determine the optimal concentration of it.Methods: An isotonic physiological saline solution, containing different concentration of radioactive isotope 32P-labeled disodium phosphate (Na2H32PO4 was injected into rabbits via the jugular vein in the laboratory. Emerged Cx. pipiens were marked after feeding on rabbit. At the same time, the labeled conditions of emerged Cx. pipiens were also measured by placing feces of No. 6 rabbit into containers with mosquito larvae and pupae inside.Results: According to the label condition of Cx. pipiens after taking blood and the effect of different dosage Na2H32PO4 on rabbit health, the optimal concentration of radioactive isotope was determined, that is, 0.1211 mCi/kg. By placing feces of No. 6 rabbit into containers with mosquito larvae and pupae inside, the emerged mosquitoes were also labeled. Therefore, feeding mosquitoes on the animal injected with radioactive Na2H32PO4 was more prac­tical for detecting and tracing mosquitoes.Conclusion: The method was less time-consuming, more sensitive and safer. This marking method will facilitate post-bloodmeal studies of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects.

  18. Different blood and sugar feeding regimes affect the productivity of Anopheles arabiensis colonies (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, D; Soliban, S M; Balestrino, F; Alsir, R; Vreysen, M J B; Gilles, J R L

    2013-03-01

    The success of the sterile insect technique for the management of mosquito populations depends on the release of large numbers of competitive sterile male insects. Sustainable mosquito production can only be obtained when proper mass-rearing equipment and adequate methods are available, including those to feed blood to the female mosquitoes. The blood feeding apparatus Hemotek consists of a small aluminum plate to which a collagen membrane is fixed and filled with blood kept warm by an electric heating element. A larger aluminum plate was developed to feed a larger number of female mosquitoes with blood that is kept at a constant temperature. The effect of different blood feeding regimes (feeding frequency and time the blood is kept in the Hemotek) and sugar deprivation before blood feeding on egg production of female Anopheles arabiensis Patton was tested. Egg production was higher when blood was offered to the mosquitoes every day as compared with every 2 or 4 d. Sugar deprivation for 7 h before blood feeding enhanced egg production by 50% compared with female mosquitoes that had continuous access to sugar. Neither male nor female survival was impaired. Finally, we showed that the same blood could be kept warm and used over several hours to feed mosquitoes in multiple cages without any impact on egg production or hatch rate. Being able to use the same blood over extended periods would save considerable time, handling, and funds.

  19. The bionomics of Anopheles merus (Diptera: Culicidae along the Kenyan coast

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    Kipyab Pamela C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles merus, a sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex occurs along the East African coast but its biology and role in malaria transmission in this region is poorly understood. We evaluated the blood feeding pattern and the role of this species in malaria transmission in Malindi district, Coastal Kenya. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors by CDC light traps and Pyrethrum Spray Catch and outdoors by CDC light traps. Anopheles females were identified to species by morphological characteristics and sibling species of An. gambiae complex distinguished by rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Screening for host blood meal sources and presence or absence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins was achieved by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA. Results Anopheles merus comprised 77.8% of the 387 Anopheles gambiae s.l adults that were collected. Other sibling species of Anopheles gambiae s.l identified in the study site included An. arabiensis(3.6%, and An. gambiae s.s. (8%. The human blood index for An. merus was 0.12, while the sporozoite rate was 0.3%. Conclusion These findings suggest that An. merus can play a minor role in malaria transmission along the Kenyan Coast and should be a target for vector control which in turn could be applied in designing and implementing mosquito control programmes targeting marsh-breeding mosquitoes; with the ultimate goal being to reduce the transmission of malaria associated with these vectors.

  20. Feeding patterns of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in six Brazilian environmental preservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Silva, Júlia; Alencar, Jeronimo; Costa, Janira Martins; Seixas-Lorosa, Elias; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2012-12-01

    Feeding patterns of mosquitoes in six Brazilian environmental preservation areas were analyzed by the precipitin technique. The mosquito populations were captured using Shannon traps during different time periods. Bird, cow, dog, horse, opossum, human, and rodent antisera diagnostic tests were employed and results were analyzed by calculating the Sørensen similarity index and using the null-model test. Of the 647 analyzed specimens, 443 reacted to the utilized antisera, of which 331 reacted to one blood source, with the most frequent being birds (49.4%); and 112 specimens reacted to two blood sources, with the most frequent combination from birds + rodents (14.3%). The feed profiles demonstrated that Anopheles albitarsis, An. evansae, Aedes fulvus, Psorophora albigenu, Ps. albipes, Ps. ferox, and Mansonia titillans fed predominantly on birds. The similarity index showed that in some localities An. cruzii, Chagasia fajardi, Ae. scapularis, Ae. serratus, Haemagogus leucocelaenus, Ps. albigenu, and Ps. ferox presented similar dietary habits. The null-models test indicated that species from SMSP, INP, CGNP, and THP demonstrated an aggregate pattern, while species from SONP and SBNP showed a random pattern. The mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds, but from an epidemiological standpoint, the eclectic feeding habits were found to be constant among the mosquitoes analyzed. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  1. Host feeding pattern of Japanese encephalitis virus vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Kuttanadu, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Samuel, P; Arunachalam, N; Hiriyan, J; Tyagi, B K

    2008-09-01

    Identification of blood meals of vector mosquitoes is an important tool in the epidemiological investigations of vector-borne diseases. The blood meals of three mosquito species involved in the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) from the Kuttanadu area, Kerala, were determined using the agarose gel diffusion technique. A total of 4959 blood smears belonging to Culex (Culex) tritaeniorhynchus Giles (3273), Cx. (Culex) gelidus Theobald (64), Mansonia (Mnd.) indiana Edwards (735) ,and Ma. (Mnd.) uniformis (Theobald) (887) were tested. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus had predominantly fed on bovids (46.4%), and a good proportion (29%) had fed on more than one host. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was highly zoophagic, and human feeding accounted for only 1.5% of those individuals successfully tested. Cx. gelidus showed bovid feeding at 36% and pig feeding at 12.5%. The test results showed 42.3% Ma. indiana and 12.2% Ma. uniformis had fed on humans. Multiple feeding was observed in Ma. indiana and Ma. uniformis, and most of the double feedings were from bovids and ovids (7.9 and 20.1%, respectively). Pig feeding accounted for 4.8% of the feedings by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 5.3% of Ma. indiana, and 6.4% of Ma. uniformis. This study is significant because of the role played by these mosquitoes in the transmission of JEV in the Kuttanadu area of Kerala, India.

  2. The Role of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Virus Transmission in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis M.; Medlock, Jolyon M.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Carpenter, Simon; Johnson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Over the past three decades, a range of mosquito-borne viruses that threaten public and veterinary health have emerged or re-emerged in Europe. Mosquito surveillance activities have highlighted the Culex pipiens species complex as being critical for the maintenance of a number of these viruses. This species complex contains morphologically similar forms that exhibit variation in phenotypes that can influence the probability of virus transmission. Critical amongst these is the choice of host on which to feed, with different forms showing different feeding preferences. This influences the ability of the mosquito to vector viruses and facilitate transmission of viruses to humans and domestic animals. Biases towards blood-feeding on avian or mammalian hosts have been demonstrated for different Cx. pipiens ecoforms and emerging evidence of hybrid populations across Europe adds another level of complexity to virus transmission. A range of molecular methods based on DNA have been developed to enable discrimination between morphologically indistinguishable forms, although this remains an active area of research. This review provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the understanding of the ecology, behaviour and genetics of Cx. pipiens in Europe, and how this influences arbovirus transmission. PMID:29473903

  3. Molecular comparison of topotypic specimens confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae in the Colombian Amazon

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    Freddy Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys for Colombian mosquitoes. That An. dunhami occurs in Colombia and also possibly throughout the Amazon Basin, is of importance to vector control programs, as this non-vector species is morphologically similar to known malaria vectors including An. nuneztovari, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles trinkae. Species identification of An. dunhami and differentiation from these closely related species are highly robust using either DNA ITS2 sequences or COI DNA barcode. DNA methods are advocated for future differentiation of these often sympatric taxa in South America.

  4. Oral susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal for dengue serotypes 1 and 3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye, Alioune; Faye, Oumar; Diagne, Cheikh T; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Diawo; Weaver, Scott C; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the potential for domestic and wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Dakar and Kedougou to develop a disseminated infection after exposure to DENV-3 and DENV-1. We have exposed sylvatic and urban population of Ae. aegypti from Senegal to bloomeals containing dengue serotype 1 and 3. At different incubation period, individual mosquito legs/wings and bodies were tested for virus presence using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection and dissemination rates. The data indicated low susceptibility to DENV-3 (infection: 2.4-15.2%, and dissemination rates: 0-8.3%) and higher susceptibility to DENV-1 (infection and dissemination rates up to 50%). Aedes aegypti from Senegal seem able to develop a disseminated infection of DENV-1 and DENV-3. Further studies are needed to test their ability to transmit the two serotypes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Feeding behavior of Mimomyia (Etorleptiomyia) luzonensis (Ludlow, 1905) (Diptera, Culicidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braima, Kamil A; Muslimin, M; M Ghazali, Amir-Ridhwan; Wan-Nor, F; Wilson, J J; Jeffery, J; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2017-07-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of various human diseases in the tropics including yellow fever, dengue, malaria and West Nile virus. Mosquitoes can act as vectors between wildlife and humans, which is particularly important for diseases where wild animals serve as reservoirs of parasites in the absence of human infections. Research has mainly focused on the medical impacts of Anopheles, Aedes, Mansonia and Culex, however, very little attention has been directed towards other mosquito genera, especially those which act as vectors of diseases of wildlife. We have observed adults of Mimomyia (Etorleptiomyia) luzonensis (Ludlow, 1905) feeding on a toad, Ingerophrynus parvus, near an oil palm plantation settlement in Setia Alam, Selangor state, Peninsular Malaysia. Mimomyia is known to feed on reptiles and amphibians, and is a documented vector of several arboviruses, including West Nile virus. The observation of Mimomyia feeding on a common toad near a human settlement highlights a need to understand the relationships between mosquitoes, toads and humans from an ecological perspective. We report on-site observations of the feeding habit of Mimomyia; the first records from Malaysia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. New records of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) for Santa Catarina and Paraná (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Müller,Gerson Azulim; Kuwabara,Eduardo Fumio; Duque,Jonny Edward; Navarro-Silva,Mario Antônio; Marcondes,Carlos Brisola

    2008-01-01

    We provide eight new mosquito species records for Santa Catarina (Limatus flavisetosus Oliveira Castro 1935, Mansonia flaveola (Coquillett 1906), Ma. titillans (Walker 1848), Psorophora forceps Cerqueira 1939, Sabethes xyphydes Harbach 1994, Toxorhynchites bambusicolus (Lutz & Neiva 1913), Tx. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab 1906) and Wyeomyia lassalli Bonne-Wepster & Bonne 1921) and three for Paraná (Ochlerotatus argyrothorax Bonne-Wepster & Bonne 1920, Uranotaenia pallidoventer Theob...

  7. New records of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) for Santa Catarina and Paraná (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Gerson Azulim; Kuwabara, Eduardo Fumio; Duque, Jonny Edward; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antônio; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola

    2008-01-01

    We provide eight new mosquito species records for Santa Catarina (Limatus flavisetosus Oliveira Castro 1935, Mansonia flaveola (Coquillett 1906), Ma. titillans (Walker 1848), Psorophora forceps Cerqueira 1939, Sabethes xyphydes Harbach 1994, Toxorhynchites bambusicolus (Lutz & Neiva 1913), Tx. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab 1906) and Wyeomyia lassalli Bonne-Wepster & Bonne 1921) and three for Paraná (Ochlerotatus argyrothorax Bonne-Wepster & Bonne 1920, Uranotaenia pallidoventer Theobald 1903 and Wye...

  8. A Computerized Mosquito Information and Collection Management System for Systematic Research and Medical Entomology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Massachusetts. The system consists of the following units: 1920 data terminal model 162A, model 062T keyboard, model 616A central transmission...have been collected in Ecuador in association with CldZex (Me~anoconion) bastagarius Dyar and Knab 1 2. Where has AnopheZes (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli

  9. Essential oils with insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Sharon Smith; Zambrano, Diego Fernando; Méndez-Sanchez, Stelia Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanabria, Fernando; Stashenko, Elena E; Duque Luna, Jonny E

    2014-07-01

    Insecticidal activity of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Tagetes lucida, Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis, Swinglea glutinosa, and Cananga odorata aromatic plants, grown in Colombia (Bucaramanga, Santander), and of a mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides EOs were evaluated on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Rockefeller larvae. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of the EOs were identified using their linear retention indices and mass spectra. The lethal concentrations (LCs) of the EOs were determined between the third and fourth instar of A. aegypti. LC50 was determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. All essential oils tested showed insecticidal activity. The following values were obtained for C. flexuosus (LC50 = 17.1 ppm); C. sinensis (LC50 = 20.6 ppm); the mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides (LC50 = 40.1 ppm); L. alba (LC50 = 42.2 ppm); C. odorata (LC50 = 52.9 ppm); L. origanoides (LC50 = 53.3 ppm); S. glutinosa (LC50 = 65.7 ppm); T. lucida (LC50 = 66.2 ppm); E. citriodora (LC50 = 71.2 ppm); and C. citratus (LC50 = 123.3 ppm). The EO from C. flexuosus, with citral (geranial + neral) as main component, showed the highest larvicidal activity.

  10. [Historical review of the distribution of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Peruvian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Calderón, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi has been reported since 1931 in border areas of the department of Loreto, mainly along the borders with Brazil and Colombia. In 1994, during an outbreak of malaria, An. darlingi was found in neighboring towns to Iquitos. At present, its distribution has expanded considerably in Loreto. This paper reviews literature available for all possible information on the distribution of mosquitoes, particularly anopheline in the Amazon region of the country, with special emphasis on An darlingi. Entomological collections were also conducted in the departments of Madre de Dios and Ucayali in order to know and verify the distribution of An. darlingi. At present, the distribution of the species is confined to localities in southeastern Peru with Bolivia border towns, in a town near the Abujao River in the department of Ucayali, and widely in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin of Loreto in Peru.

  11. Molecular analysis and genetic diversity of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiling, Zhang; Peien, Leng; Xuejun, Wang; Zhong, Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Aedes albopictus is one of the most invasive species, which can carry Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus and more than twenty arboviruses. Based on mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and samples collected from 17 populations, we investigated the molecular character and genetic diversity of Ae. albopictus from China. Altogether, 25 haplotypes were detected, including 10 shared haplotypes and 15 private haplotypes. H1 was the dominant haplotype, which is widely distributed in 13 populations. Tajima'D value of most populations was significantly negative, demonstrating that populations experienced rapid range expansion recently. Most haplotypes clustered together both in phylogenetic and median-joining network analysis without clear phylogeographic patterns. However, neutrality tests revealed shallow divergences among Hainan and Guangxi with other populations (0.15599 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.75858), which probably due to interrupted gene flow, caused by geographical isolations. In conclusion, Ae. albopictus populations showed low genetic diversity in China.

  12. First record of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the state of Roraima, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Ducineia Barros; Fontão, Almir; Rufino, Pedro; Macedo, Valdenor Alves; Ríos-Velásquez, Cláudia Maria; Castro, Márcia Gonçalves; Honório, Nildimar Alves

    2008-01-01

    Aedes albopictus é registrado pela primeira vez no estado de Roraima, Brasil. Entre junho de 2006 e maio de 2007 foram coletadas três pupas e dez larvas, duas das quais chegaram à fase adulta, durante atividades de vigilância rotineiras em três bairros urbanos da cidade de Boa Vista. Embora essa espécie não seja incriminada como vetor primário do dengue, a sua presença pode favorecer a ligação entre os ciclos silvestre e urbano da febre amarela e de outras arboviroses no Brasil.Aedes albopict...

  13. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...Kazakhstan. A voucher specimen No. 9442/25-1972 was deposited with the Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction herbarium , Almaty, Republic of

  14. Larvicidal efficiency of the mushroom Amanitamuscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae) against the mosquito Culexquinquefasciatus (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Carapeto, Luiz Paiva; Duarte, Jucelio Peter; Bernardi, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha

    2016-02-01

    We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. METHODS The larvicidal activity of aqueous extract and powder from A. muscaria, and the viability of the aqueous extract after storage, were evaluated. RESULTS The aqueous extract caused larval deaths, which varied from 16.4% to 88.4%. The efficiency of the powder varied from 29.2% to 82.8%. Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A. muscaria. CONCLUSIONS These results show the potential of A. muscariato control C. quinquefasciatus.

  15. Effectiveness of synthetic versus natural human volatiles as attractants for Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu stricto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Females of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, use human volatiles to find their blood-host. Previous work has shown that ammonia, lactic acid, and aliphatic carboxylic acids significantly affect host orientation and attraction of this species, In the current study,

  16. Larval habitats and biodiversity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malarious area of southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Charrahy, Z; Haghdoost, A A; Sedaghat, M M; Abedi, F; Soltani, M; Raeisi, A

    2012-06-01

    Malaria is the most important mosquito-borne disease in Iran. It is endemic in south to southeastern part of the country. Knowledge about bio-ecology of vectors will support authorities for appropriate management of the disease. Bashagard district is one of the main endemic areas for malaria in south of Iran. This study was conducted to determine anopheline fauna, diversity and affinity in the area, characterization of larval habitats, and mapping their potential distribution across the district. The potential aquatic habitats for Anopheles larvae were extracted from Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) image and digital elevation model of the area using GIS. Surface water bodies were sampled monthly during 2009–10 for anopheline larvae, while characteristics of their physical environment were recorded and water samples were analyzed. A total of 4511 Anopheles larvae were found during the year with the lowest and highest frequencies in February and April, respectively. Dominant species was Anopheles culicifacies. The Shanon diversity index ranged from 0.570–0.829 at fixed collection sites, while the affinity index was significant among some vector species. Riversides and riverbeds were the main breeding places which provided sandy, rocky, and clay beds for different species. The potential breeding places as well as distribution of collected species were mapped. Knowledge about ecology of malaria vectors provides information to health sector for effective control programs.

  17. Ecology of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Kleber S; Pinto, Israel De S; Leite, Gustavo R; Das Virgens, Thieres M; Dos Santos, Claudiney B; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the fauna composition of anopheline mosquitoes, their ecological aspects and behavior, and influence of climatic variables on their population dynamics can help in understanding the transmission of Plasmodium parasites and thus develop more efficient strategies for the control of malaria. In the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil, foci of introduced malaria have been reported among people returning from the Amazon region, north Brazil. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the anopheline fauna from a preserved environment and an adjacent peridomiciliary modified environment at the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor. We collected anopheline mosquitoes on a monthly basis from June 2004 to May 2006 from both these environments to understand the ecological aspects and their association with the occurrence of malaria. We captured 5,491 anopheline mosquitoes belonging to two subgenera and 11 species and studied the correlations between anopheline mosquito species and climatic variables. We considered Anopheles darlingi (Root) as the principal malaria vector and Anopheles albitarsis s. l. (Arribalzaga) as the secondary vector.

  18. Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffner Francis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. This lead to investigate whether current populations of An. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most deadly form of malaria. Methods Anopheles plumbeus immatures were collected from a liquid manure pit in Switzerland and transferred as adults to the CEPIA (Institut Pasteur, France where they were fed on P. falciparum gametocytes produced in vitro. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes served as controls. Development of P. falciparum in both mosquito species was followed by microscopical detection of oocysts on mosquito midguts and by sporozoite detection in the head/thorax by PCR and microscopy. Results A total of 293 wild An. plumbeus females from four independent collections successfully fed through a membrane on blood containing P. falciparum gametocytes. Oocysts were observed in mosquito midguts and P. falciparum DNA was detected in head-thorax samples in all four experiments, demonstrating, on a large mosquito sample, that An. plumbeus is indeed receptive to P. falciparum NF54 and able to produce sporozoites. Importantly, the proportion of sporozoites-infected An. plumbeus was almost similar to that of An. gambiae (31 to 88% An. plumbeus versus 67 to 97% An. gambiae. However, the number of sporozoites produced was significantly lower in infected An. plumbeus. Conclusion The results show that a sample of field-caught An. plumbeus has a moderate to high receptivity towards P. falciparum. Considering the increased mobility of humans between Europe and malaria endemic countries and changes in environment and climate, these data strongly suggest that An. plumbeus could act as a vector for malaria and thus significantly contribute to increasing the malaria transmission risk in Central-Western Europe. In locations showing high vulnerability to the presence of gametocyte carriers, the risk of transmission of malaria by An. plumbeus should be considered.

  19. Estudios de infectividad de la especie anopheles albimanus wiedemann, 1820 (Diptera: culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alberto Olano

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la infectividad del mosquito Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, 1820, cepa Cartagena, se realizaron infecciones a partir de pacientes naturalmente infectados con Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax y de primates del genero Aotus experimentalmente infectados con ambas especies de Plasmodium. 67 intentos de infección de Anopheles albimanus se realizaron e partir de pacientes con P. falciparum y 36 a partir de pacientes con P. vivax. Se examinaron 654 glándulas salivares en hembras An. albimanus infectadas con P. falciparum de las cuales el 11.9% presentaron esporozoitos, mientras que el 31.2% de 93 glándulas salivares examinadas desarrollaron esporozoitos de P. vivax. Un total de 4 intentos de infección de Anopheles albimanus se realizaron a partir de un Aotus infectado con P. falciparum en los cuales los mosquitos no desarrollaron esporozoitos. A partir de 14 Aotus infectados con P. vivax se realizaron 75 intentos de infección de Anopheles albimanus; solo el 5.2% de un total de 810 glándulas salivares examinadas produjeron esporozoitos. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que esta cepa Anopheles albimanus tiene una baja infectividad en condiciones experimentales.

  20. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia - II. The Genus Culex in Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Res. 10: 473 (taxonomy). Lophocevatomyia Youl> audi Bore1 1926, Arch. Insts. Pasteur Indo-Chine 3-4: 38 (d*, 0, L*); Bore1 1927, Bull. Sot. Pat. exot...Dyar and Knab 1914, Inset. Inscit. menst. 2: 58. Type species: Phalangomyiu debilis Dyar and Knab. Laiomyia Izquierdo 1916, Tesis. Col. Est. Puebla

  1. Modeling the habitat suitability for the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lisa K; Cunze, Sarah; Werblow, Antje; Kochmann, Judith; Dörge, Dorian D; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes raise the risk of re-emergence of arthropod-borne virus outbreaks globally. These viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors, often mosquitoes. Due to increasing worldwide trade and tourism, these vector species are often accidentally introduced into many countries beyond their former distribution range. Aedes albopictus, a well-known disease vector, was detected for the first time in Germany in 2007, but seems to have failed establishment until today. However, the species is known to occur in other temperate regions and a risk for establishment in Germany remains, especially in the face of predicted climate change. Thus, the goal of the study was to estimate the potential distribution of Ae. albopictus in Germany. We used ecological niche modeling in order to estimate the potential habitat suitability for this species under current and projected future climatic conditions. According to our model, there are already two areas in western and southern Germany that appear suitable for Ae. albopictus under current climatic conditions. One of these areas lies in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the other in North-Rhine Westphalia in the Ruhr region. Furthermore, projections under future climatic conditions show an increase of the modeled habitat suitability throughout Germany. Ae. albopictus is supposed to be better acclimated to colder temperatures than other tropical vectors and thus, might become, triggered by climate change, a serious threat to public health in Germany. Our modeling results can help optimizing the design of monitoring programs currently in place in Germany.

  2. Larvicidal efficiency of the mushroom Amanitamuscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae against the mosquito Culexquinquefasciatus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. METHODS The larvicidal activity of aqueous extract and powder from A. muscaria, and the viability of the aqueous extract after storage, were evaluated. RESULTS The aqueous extract caused larval deaths, which varied from 16.4% to 88.4%. The efficiency of the powder varied from 29.2% to 82.8%. Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A. muscaria. CONCLUSIONS These results show the potential of A. muscariato control C. quinquefasciatus.

  3. Mitochondrial Gene Cytochrome b Developmental and Environmental Expression in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    37, and 40C. 1366 JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 46, no. 6 the past decade. The evolution of insecticide resis- tance acts by selection of these...suggest that older mosquitoes have more protection to UV radiation, possibly due to changes in cuticle composition that occurs with age. In conclusion...D. Otsuga, and G. N. Drews. 2006. AGL80 is required for central cell and endosperm development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 18: 1862Ð1872. Pridgeon, J

  4. Bionomics of Aedes aegypti subpopulations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Edmundo Fabricio; Almeida, Francisco Felipe Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Life statistics of four Aedes aegypti subpopulations from the subtropical province of Misiones were studied during autumn and winter, under semi-natural conditions, coming from the localities of Posadas (SW), San Javier (SE), Bernardo de Irigoyen (NE) and Puerto Libertad (NW). The eastern subpopulations are geographically separated by the central mountain system of the province from the western subpopulations. High percentages of larval and pupal survival (97-100%) were recorded, and no significant differences were detected among the four subpopulations. Larvae and pupae lasted approximately 8 days to complete their development, no significant differences being detected among the four subpopulations studied. Sex ratio recorded did not differ significantly from 1:1. Male longevity did not show difference among the different subpopulations, but female longevity was remarkably different among the four subpopulations (F=16.27; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.0009), ranging among 11.45 days for San Javier and 57.87 days for Posadas. Fecundity also varied considerably among subpopulations, the greatest number (307.44 eggs/female) being recorded for Posadas (F=4.13; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.04). Ae. aegypti females of the western subpopulations lived longer than the eastern subpopulations studied, therefore, the risk of dengue outbreak would be greater on the Misiones Province border with Paraguay.

  5. Evidence for Arbovirus Dissemination Conduits from the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Midgut

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romoser, William

    2004-01-01

    .... Experiments using Venezuelan equine encephalitis viral replicon particles, which express the green fluorescent protein gene in cells, indicate the operation of tissue conduits, possibly involving...

  6. Lineage Divergence Detected in the Malaria Vector Anopheles marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Amazonian Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    this region. Clearing of forest, in combination with an increase in human and domestic animal host abundance, may have led to an A. marajoara...with an estimated 14% of all plant and animal species within its boundaries [2]. Because speciation is not always accompanied by mor- phological change...estimate of the time to coalescence is 232,476 - 384,716 years ago, in the Pleistocene. A similar estimate using BEAST, the standard arthropod mtDNA

  7. Potential for Psorophora columbiae and Psorophora ciliata Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, Michael J; Britch, Seth C; Aldridge, Robert L; Xue, Rui-De; Smith, Mike L; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2015-09-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to pose a threat to much of the world. Unlike many arboviruses, numerous mosquito species have been associated with RVFV in nature, and many species have been demonstrated as competent vectors in the laboratory. In this study, we evaluated two field-collected Psorophora species, Psorophora columbiae (Dyar and Knab) and Psorophora ciliata (F.) for their potential to transmit RVFV in North America. Both species were susceptible to infection after feeding on a hamster with a viremia of 10(7) plaque-forming units/ml, with infection rates of 65 and 83% for Ps. columbiae and Ps. ciliata, respectively (with nearly all specimens becoming infected when feeding on a hamster with a higher viremia). However, both species had a significant salivary gland barrier, as only 2/35 Ps. columbiae and 0/3 Ps. ciliata with a disseminated infection transmitted virus by bite. Despite the presence of the salivary gland barrier, due to the very high population that can occur and its propensity to feed on large mammals, Ps. columbiae might play a role in amplifying RVFV should that virus be introduced into an area where this species is common. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Establishment and characterization of two new cell lines from the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Keita; Isawa, Haruhiko; Kuwata, Ryusei; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sasaki, Toshinori

    2015-08-01

    Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) is a medically important mosquito and a model species for immunology research. We successfully established two cell lines from the neonate larvae of A. subalbatus using two different media. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an established Armigeres mosquito cell line. The cell lines, designated as Ar-3 and Ar-13, consist of adherent and diploid cells with compact colonies. Both these cell lines grow slowly after passage at a split ratio of 1:5 and a population doubling time of 2.7 and 3.0 d, respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to confirm that these lines correspond to the species of origin and are clearly distinct from seven other insect cell lines. Furthermore, reverse-transcription PCR was used to demonstrate that the Ar-3 cell line is susceptible to the Japanese encephalitis virus and two insect flaviviruses associated with Culex and Aedes mosquitoes but relatively insensitive to dengue virus. These data indicate that the newly established cell lines are cellular models of A. subalbatus as well as beneficial tools for the propagation of viruses associated with the Armigeres mosquito.

  9. Population dynamics of Armigeres subalbatus (Diptera: Culicidae) across a temperate altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, L F; Imanishi, N; Hoshi, T

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the impacts of weather fluctuations, and environmental gradients, on the abundance of vectors is fundamental to grasp the dynamic nature of the entomological risk for disease transmission. The mosquito Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillet) is a common vector of filariasis. Nevertheless, its population dynamics have been relatively poorly studied. Here, we present results from a season long study where we studied spatio-temporal abundance patterns of Ar. subalbatus across the altitudinal gradient of Mt. Konpira in Nagasaki, Japan. Spatially, we found that abundance of adult Ar. subalbatus decreased with altitude and increased in areas where the ground was rich in leaf litter. Similarly, adult activity was observed only when relative humidity was over 65%. Temporally, we found that peaks in abundance followed large rainfall events. Nevertheless, this mosquito was under significant density dependence regulation. Our results suggest that Ar. subalbatus population peaks following large rainfall events could reflect the recruitment of individuals that were dormant as dry eggs. We did not find a clear signal of temperature on abundance changes of this mosquito, but only on its phenology. Since ground cover seemed more critical than temperature to its spatial distribution, we propose that this mosquito might have some degree of autonomy to changes in temperature.

  10. Structure and formation of egg membranes in Aedes aegypti. (L. ) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, G.; Rai, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrastructural study of mosquito ovarioles reveals that both the vitelline membrane and the endochorion are secreted by the follicular epithelium. The presecretory phase is characterized by the hypertrophy of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex in the follicle cells. Synthesis of vitelline membrane precursors begins immediately after yolk protein uptake by micropinocytosis. Secretory droplets are budded off Golgi cisternae and released into the follicle cell--oocyte interface by exocytosis. The vitelline membrane first appears as dense plaques which eventually fuse to form a single homogeneous layer. Two types of secretory material are identified in the follicle cells prior to the formation of the endochorion. Golgi cisternae bud off small droplets similar in size and appearance to the precursors of the vitelline membrane. These migrate to the apical surface and accumulate between surface folds in the plasma membrane. The second type is a fibrous material formed in endoplasmic reticulum. When fully secreted, the endochorion is a 2-layered structure. The lower layer is comprised of pillar-like structures alternating with fibrous mesh-like areas. The pillars are formed by the coalescence of droplets released from Golgi, while the mesh-like areas presumably arise from the fibrous material. The outer layer is also fibrous. The follicle cells degenerate once the endochorion is laid down. endochorion is laid down.

  11. Wingbeat frequency-sweep and visual stimuli for trapping male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combinations of female wingbeat acoustic cues and visual cues were evaluated to determine their potential for use in male Aedes aegypti (L.) traps in peridomestic environments. A modified Centers for Disease control (CDC) light trap using a 350-500 Hz frequency-sweep broadcast from a speaker as an a...

  12. Natural vertical transmission of Ndumu virus in Culex pipiens (Diptera; Culicidae) mosquitoes collected as larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumu virus (NDUV) is a member of the Family: Togaviridae and Genus: Alphavirus. In Kenya the virus has been isolated from a range of mosquito species but has not been associated with human or animal morbidity. Little is know about the transmission dynamics or vertebrate reservoirs of this virus. We...

  13. Ovicidal efficacy of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the...

  14. Taxonomical and biological notes on Sabethes (Peytonulus) fabricii Lane & Cerqueira (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, J; Gil-Santana, H R

    2015-11-01

    Morphological features that remained uncertain in previous identification keys and descriptions of Sabethes fabricii were evaluated based on species type material and two recently collected males. As a result, the following features of Sa. fabricii should be considered: proboscis with a white ventral spot beyond the middle and variably enlarged to the apex, possibly spatulate in males; setae over root of wing yellowish and may be occasionally brownish, mainly in their basal portion; and proctiger ending in four teeth. Additionally, the first record of bamboo as a natural breeding site for Sa. fabricii as well as the first register of this species in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil are reported here.

  15. Species Composition and Seasonal Distribution of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern New Jersey, Burlington County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    A total of 36,495 larvae consisting of 45 species from 11 genera were collected from 7,189 sites from southern New Jersey, Burlington County between the months of March and October, 2001-2014. Density and seasonal distribution were determined among natural and artificial habitat. The most dominant species collected from natural habitat was Aedes vexans (Meigen) followed by Ochlerotatus canadensis canadensis (Theobald), Culex restuans Theobald, Culex pipiens L., and Culex territans Walker. The most dominant species collected from artificial habitat was Aedes albopictus (Skuse) followed by Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), Cx. restuans, Cx. pipiens, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens were the only species categorized as dominant among both natural and artificial habitat and comprised greater than half the total density. Sympatry was common among dominant species from artificial habitat where a significant percentage of the total collection contained multiple species. The most common types of natural habitats were forested depressions and stream flood plains whereas rimless vehicle tires and various plastic containers were the most common artificial habitats. The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea L. was the only habitat exclusive to one species. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Eclosion rate, development and survivorship of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicidae) under different water temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Laura C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Animal (PPGBA). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Souza, Jose R.B. de; Albuquerque, Cleide M.R. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Animal (PPGBA). Dept. de Zoologia

    2007-11-15

    In tropical areas, where vector insects populations are particularly numerous, temperature usually range between 25 de C and 35 deg C. Considering the importance of such temperature variation in determining mosquitoes population dynamics, in this work the developmental, eclosion and survival rates of the immature stages of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were compared under constant 25, 30 and 35 deg C (using acclimatized chambers) and environmental (25 deg C to 29 deg C) temperatures. The hatching rate was considered as total number of larvae recovered after 24h. The development period as well as larval and pupal survival rate were evaluated daily. Eclosion rate was significantly higher under environmental temperature than under the studied constant temperatures, suggesting that temperature variation may be an eclosion-stimulating factor. The mean eclosion time increased with the temperature, ranging from 2.8 h (25 deg C) to 5.2 h (35 deg C). The larval period was greatly variable inside each group, although it did not differ significantly amongst groups (11.0 +- 4.19 days), with individuals showing longer larval stages in water at 35 deg C (12.0 +- 4.95 days) and environmental temperature (13.6 +- 5.98 days). Oppositely, survival was strongly affected by the higher temperature, where only one individual lived through to adult phase. The results suggest that population of Ae. albopictus from Recife may be adapting to increasing of environmental temperatures and that the limiting temperature to larval development is around 35 deg C. (author)

  17. Combined toxicity of three essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. Twenty one essential oils were ini...

  18. [INFECTION OF BLOOD-SUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) WITH DIROFILARIAE (SPIRURIDA, ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN THE TULA REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Blood-sucking mosquitoes (n = 2277) collected in Tula and its Region in 2013-2014 were examined using a PCR assay for dirofilariae. A total of 12 species from 4 genera (Culiseta, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [foreign character] Culex) out of 18 found mosquito species were infected with Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. The proportion of the infected mosquitoes was 2.5% (D. immitis, 1.5%; D.repens, 1%). According to preliminary data, the most efficient Dirofilaria vectors, in the Tula Region may be Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. cantans, and Cx. pipiens.

  19. Nyctomyia biunguiculata, a new cavernicolous species of tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae) from southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbach, Ralph E; Taai, Kritsana

    2014-12-16

    Nyctomyia biunguiculata, sp. n., is described from a unique male reared from a pupa (exuviae partially decomposed and over cleared) collected from a rimstone pool deep inside Wat Sumano cave located in Phatthalung Province of southern Thailand. The genitalia of the holotype are illustrated, and the species is compared with Nc. pholeocola, the type species of the genus described from a cave in another province of southern Thailand. The species has not been found outside the cave and appears to be a true troglobite.

  20. Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

  1. Temperature effects on the immature development time of Culex eduardoi Casal and Garcia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loetti, V.; Schweigmann, N.J.; Burroni, N.E., E-mail: nburroni@ege.fcen.uba.a [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Grupo de Estudio de Mosquitos

    2011-01-15

    The effect of constant temperatures on the development time from first instar to adult emergence was studied in Culex eduardoi Casal and Garcia reared at 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 or 33 deg C. Data were adjusted to the linear degree-day model and the nonlinear Briere model. According to the linear model, the development time was inversely related to the rearing temperatures between 7 deg C and 25 deg C. Maximum mortality (100%) was recorded at temperatures > 30 deg C. According to the linear model, the development threshold temperature and thermal constant were 5.7 deg C and 188.8 degree days, respectively. The lower and upper threshold temperatures and the optimum temperature for the nonlinear model were -2.3, 30.0 and 28.1 deg C, respectively. (author)

  2. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera: Culicidae from Western and Northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elisa Posso

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze 119 DNA samples of three Colombian Anopheles nuneztovari populations to study genetic variation and structure. Genetic diversity, estimated from heterozygosity, averaged 0.34. Genetic flow was greater between the two populations located in Western Colombia (F ST: 0.035; Nm: 6.8 but lower between these two and the northeastern population (F ST: 0.08; Nm: 2.8. According to molecular variance analysis, the genetic distance between populations was significant (phiST 0.1131, P < 0.001. The variation among individuals within populations (phiST 0.8869, P < 0.001was also significant, suggesting a greater degree of population subdivision, not considered in this study. Both the parameters evaluated and the genetic flow suggest that Colombian An. nuneztovari populations are co-specific.

  3. First record of a mosquito iridescent virus in Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mosquito iridescent viruses (MIVs) are large icosahedral DNA viruses that replicate and assemble in the cytoplasm of the host. Paracrystalline arrangements of virions that accumulate in the cytoplasm produce an iridescent color that is symptomatic of acute infections. In August 2010, we found ...

  4. Pterodon emarginatus oleoresin-based nanoemulsion as a promising tool for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anna E M F M; Duarte, Jonatas L; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Souto, Raimundo N P; Ferreira, Ricardo M A; Peniche, Taires; da Conceição, Edemilson C; de Oliveira, Leandra A R; Faustino, Silvia M M; Florentino, Alexandro C; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2017-01-03

    Preparation of nanoformulations using natural products as bioactive substances is considered very promising for innovative larvicidal agents. On this context, oil in water nanoemulsions develop a main role, since they satisfactorily disperse poor-water soluble substances, such as herbal oils, in aqueous media. Pterodon emarginatus, popularly known as sucupira, has a promising bioactive oleoresin. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies were carried out to evaluate its potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, the main vector of the tropical neglected disease called lymphatic filariasis or elephantiasis. Thus, we aimed to investigate influence of different pairs of surfactants in nanoemulsion formation and investigate if a sucupira oleoresin-based nanoemulsion has promising larvicidal activity against this C. quinquefasciatus. We also evaluated morphological alteration, possible mechanism of insecticidal action and ecotoxicity of the nanoemulsion against a non-target organism. Among the different pairs of surfactants that were tested, nanoemulsions obtained with polysorbate 80/sorbitan monooleate and polysorbate 80/sorbitan trioleate presented smallest mean droplet size just afterwards preparation, respectively 151.0 ± 2.252 and 160.7 ± 1.493 nm. They presented high negative zeta potential values, low polydispersity index (<0.300) and did not present great alteration in mean droplet size and polydispersity index after 1 day of preparation. Overall, nanoemulsion prepared with polysorbate 80/sorbitan monooleate was considered more stable and was chosen for biological assays. It presented low LC 50 value against larvae (34.75; 7.31-51.86 mg/L) after 48 h of treatment and some morphological alteration was observed. The nanoemulsion did not inhibit acetylcholinesterase of C. quinquefasciatus larvae. It was not toxic to green algae Chlorella vulgaris at low concentration (25 mg/L). Our results suggest that optimal nanoemulsions may be prepared with different surfactants using a low cost and low energy simple method. Moreover, this prototype proved to be effective against C. quinquefasciatus, being considered an ecofriendly novel nanoproduct that can be useful in integrated control programs of vector control.

  5. Associative learning of odor with food- or blood-meal by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Rains, Glen C.; Allan, Sandy A.; Sanford, Michelle R.; Lewis, W. Joe

    2006-11-01

    The ability of many insects to learn has been documented. However, a limited number of studies examining associative learning in medically important arthropods has been published. Investigations into the associative learning capabilities of Culex quinquefasciatus Say were conducted by adapting methods commonly used in experiments involving Hymenoptera. Male and female mosquitoes were able to learn a conditioned stimulus that consisted of an odor not normally encountered in nature (synthetic strawberry or vanilla extracts) in association with an unconditioned stimulus consisting of either a sugar (males and females) or blood (females) meal. Such information could lead to a better understanding of the ability of mosquitoes to locate and select host and food resources in nature.

  6. Systematic notes on Anopheles Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae species in the state of Amapá, Brazil

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    Eduardo S Bergo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of Anopheles nuneztovari Gabaldón and An. goeldii Rozeboom and Gabaldón based on the male genitalia traits is discussed. An. goeldii is in the synonymy of An. nuneztovari, however, characters of the aedeagus of male genitalia distinguish both species. We hypothesize that An. goeldii may be a valid species, however, further studies using molecular characters, especially ITS2 rDNA sequences will be necessary to elucidate the taxonomic status of the species. An. konderi Galvão and Damasceno and An. forattinii Wilkerson and Sallum are registered for the first time in the state of Amapá.

  7. Risky behaviors: effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. "Thrashing" and "browsing" activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the "wall" position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Ovicidal activity of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the ovicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extracts of Ageratina adenophora against dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Methods: The ovicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. adenophora with five different solvents (hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) and was ...

  9. Toxicity of thiophenes from echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six known thiophenes, 5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (3), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene (4), 5-(4-acetoxy-3-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (5), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(4-acetoxy-3-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene (6), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3-acetoxy-4-hydr...

  10. Mosquito ovicidal properties of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternativ...

  11. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna in an area endemic for West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Halouzka, Jiří; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Juřicová, Zina; Rudolf, Ivo; Šikutová, Silvie; Svobodová, Petra; Reiter, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2010), s. 156-162 ISSN 1081-1710 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mosquitoes * Anopheles * Aedes * Culex * climate * ecology Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.256, year: 2010

  12. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF Bacillus sphaericus 2362 AGAINST Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles darlingi AND Anopheles braziliensis (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGUES Iléa Brandão

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, preliminary data was obtained regarding the mortality rate of the Amazonian anophelines, Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles braziliensis when subjected to treatment with Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362, the WHO standard strain. Initially, experiments were conducted to test the mortality rate of the three species of anopheline larvae. The third larval instar of An. nuneztovari and the second and third larval instars of An. darlingi proved to be the least susceptible. In other experiments, the same three mosquito species were tested with the standard strain 2362, An. nuneztovari was the least susceptible to this insect pathogen, while An. braziliensis was the most susceptible. This latter species showed a difference in the level of LC50 concentration, when compared to the former, of 2.4, 2.5 and 1.8 in readings taken 24, 48 and 72 hours after exposure to the bacillus.

  13. Descriptions of three new species of Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia) Diptera: Culicidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, R; Rajavel, A R; Jambulingam, P

    2017-02-02

    Female and male adults, male genitalia, pupa and larva of Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia) maikalensis, Ur. (Pfc.) dandakaranyensis and Ur. (Pfc.) satpuraensis, three new mosquito species, are described from India.

  14. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honorio, Nildimar A. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Transmissores de Hematozoarios; Barros, Fabio S.M. de [Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Nucleo Avancado de Vetores; Tsouris, Pantelis; Rosa-Freitas, Maria G. [Freitas and Tsouris Consultants, Spata-Attikis (Greece)]. E-mail: maria@freitas-tsouris.com

    2007-09-15

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program. (author)

  15. A pictorial key to the species of the Aedes (Zavortinkius) in the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiau-Min; Rueda, Leopoldo M

    2015-10-06

    Six species of the subgenus Zavortinkius of Aedes Meigen in the Afrotropical Region are treated in a pictorial key based on diagnostic morphological features. Images of the diagnostic morphological structures of the adult thorax and leg are included.

  16. Snail shells as larval habitat of Limatus durhamii (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Yungas of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangudo, Carolina; Campos, Raúl E; Rossi, Gustavo C; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2017-03-01

    The shells of dead snails collect water from rainfalls producing aquatic microenvironments called gastrotelmata. These habitats are small and hold simple detritus based on animal communities, being rotifers and culicids the most studied. Although a high diversity of aquatic microhabitats has been reported as larval habitats of mosquitoes in Argentina, the shell of snails has not been investigated yet. We report the shells of three species of native Megalobulimus genus as larval habitats of a neotropical mosquito and suspected vector of bunyaviruses, Limatus durhamii, and describe these microhabitats in the Yungas forest of Argentina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Wolbachia and dengue virus infection in the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jéssica Barreto Lopes; Magalhães Alves, Debora; Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Pereira, Thiago Nunes; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Dengue represents a serious threat to human health, with billions of people living at risk of the disease. Wolbachia pipientis is a bacterial endosymbiont common to many insect species. Wolbachia transinfections in mosquito disease vectors have great value for disease control given the bacterium's ability to spread into wild mosquito populations, and to interfere with infections of pathogens, such as dengue virus. Aedes fluviatilis is a mosquito with a widespread distribution in Latin America, but its status as a dengue vector has not been clarified. Ae. fluviatilis is also naturally infected by the wFlu Wolbachia strain, which has been demonstrated to enhance infection with the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. We performed experimental infections of Ae. fluviatilis with DENV-2 and DENV-3 isolates from Brazil via injection or oral feeding to provide insight into its competence for the virus. We also examined the effect of the native Wolbachia infection on the virus using a mosquito line where the wFlu infection had been cleared by antibiotic treatment. Through RT-qPCR, we observed that Ae. fluviatilis could become infected with both viruses via either method of infection, although at a lower rate than Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue vector. We then detected DENV-2 and DENV-3 in the saliva of injected mosquitoes, and observed that injection of DENV-3-infected saliva produced subsequent infections in naïve Ae. aegypti. However, across our data we observed no difference in prevalence of infection and viral load between Wolbachia-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes, suggesting that there is no effect of wFlu on dengue virus. Our results highlight that Ae. fluviatilis could potentially serve as a dengue vector under the right circumstances, although further testing is required to determine if this occurs in the field.

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, chemical extracts of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera were tested for toxicity to larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) for hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts...

  19. Seasonal succession of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of the Chalk River area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, W.F.; Chant, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The results of surveys of adult and larval mosquitoes in the environs of Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) near Chalk River, Ont., are presented. Twenty-six species were identified, and the succession of major species throughout the summer months has been illustrated. Members of the genus Aedes (A. communis, A. punctor, and A. excrucians) dominated the populations in early and late June. Later, mosquitoes such as Mansonia perturbans and Aedes vexans were the most troublesome.

  20. Impact of invasive aquatic macrophytes on the population and behavioral ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field survey, three outdoor cage enclosure experiments, and laboratory studies were conducted to elucidate the impact of the invasive aquatic weeds Eichhornia crassipes (floating water hyacinth), Ludwigia hexapetala (emergent water yellow-primrose), and Egeria densa (submersed Brazilian waterweed)...

  1. Potential for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Florida to transmit rift valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated 8 species of mosquitoes collected in Florida to determine which of these should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America. Female mosquitoes that had fed on adult hamsters inoculated with RVFV were incubated for 7-21 d at 26°C, allowed to...

  2. Oviposition behavior of Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Diptera: culicidae), a vector of wild yellow fever in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tátila-Ferreira, Aline; Maia, Daniele de Aguiar; Abreu, Filipe Vieira Santos de; Rodrigues, William Costa; Alencar, Jeronimo

    2017-08-07

    Haemagogus leucocelaenus, which is considered a major vector of wild yellow fever, exhibits acrodendrophilic habits and mainly deposits its eggs in treeholes and bamboo internodes. The selection of nursery sites is essential in the life history and reproductive success of mosquitoes. The present work investigated the preferred oviposition height and period of Hg. leucocelaenus in an Atlantic forest area in Rio de Janeiro. Sampling was performed using oviposition traps that were placed on plant material at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 m above the ground, from August 2015 to July 2016. Eggs were more abundant during October and May, and the height of traps placement had no significant effect on the eggs number indicating that Hg. leucocelaenus explores different levels of forest habitats, a behavior that may favor the transmission of pathogens among arboreal animals including primates and humans. The findings of the present study are discussed from an ecological and epidemiological point of view.

  3. Taxonomic study and redescription of Culex (Melanoconion theobaldi (Lutz, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on type examination, Culex (Melanoconion theobaldi (Lutz, 1904 is redescribed. The species Cx. (Mel. chrysonotum Dyar & Knab, 1908, was put back as synonym of theobaldi. Besides, examination of Cx. (Mel. chrysothorax (Newstead & Thomas, 1910 type, leads to retiring as synonym of theobaldi and considered it as "species inquirenda".

  4. Christophers’ stage durations and effect of interrupted blood meal in the mosquito Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Carron A.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Christophers’ stages durations and effect of interrupted blood meal were investigated in laboratory to study the gonotrophic cycle of Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771. A first experiment was done with replete females (full blood meal and females with an interrupted blood meal. Females were then regularly dissected, the durations of Christophers’ stages I, II, III, IV, V were up to 8, 8, 32, 8, 48 h, respectively. A second experiment was done with replete females, females with an interrupted blood meal and females with an interrupted blood meal completed 24 h later. Interrupted females matured 21 ± 5 follicles, interrupted-completed females 92 ± 11, and replete females 120 ± 8 follicles.

  5. Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae). Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Dipteros. In Gay, C. Historia fisica y politica de Chile. Zoologia 7:327-468. Blanchard, R. 1902. Nouvelle note sur les moustiques. C. R. Soc. Biol...subespecies, basada en los caracteres de las hembras adultas. Ciencia (Mexico City) 6:69-77. Penido, H. M., N. Azevedo, D. Bustarff Pinto, F. Be" erra...1940b. Clave para identificar las larvas de Anopheles mexicanos. Ciencia (Mexico City) 1:66-68. 1941. Nota sobre los huevecillos do Anopheles mexicanos

  6. A Revision of the Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    742-762. 228 Blanchard, E. 1852. Orden IX. Dipteros. In Gay, C. Historia fisica y politica de Chile. Zoologia 7:327-468. Blanchard, R. 1902...especies y subespecies, basada en 10s caracteres de las hembras adultas. Ciencia (Mexico City) 6:69-77. Penido, H. M., N. Azevedo, D. Bustorff...1:199-203. 1940b. Clave para identificar las larvas de Anopheles mexicanos. Ciencia (Mexico City) 1:66-68. 1941. Nota sobre 10s huevecillos do

  7. Monthly prevalence and diversity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Keshavarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To get new data about the ecology of mosquitoes, which would be valuable to develop programs for future provision of mosquito controls in the study area. Methods: During April to September 2012, larvae of mosquitoes were collected from six counties in south of Fars Province using dipping method. Characteristics of larval breeding places were considered based on water conditions. Species diversity was examined in terms of alpha and beta measures, with the intent of comparing mosquito diversity according to the typology of regions. Results: During this investigation, totally, 5 057 larvae of mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 17 different mosquito species were recognized, namely, Anopheles dthali, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles superpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex mimeticus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex theileri (Cx. theileri, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex sinaiticus, Culex torrentium, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culiseta longiareolata and Aedes vexans (Ae. vexans. This is the first record of Ae. vexans, Culex perexiguus and Culex modestus in the Province. Cx. pipiens (27.3%, Cx. theileri (15.9% and Cx. quinquefasciatus (9.4% were the most abundant species found respectively. Cx. pipiens reached the highest density in August and July, while Cx. theileri, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. vexans were found in high numbers in June. Diversity analysis indicated the highest species diversity in the Mohr County (Margalef index of 1.41 and Shannon index of 1.7 and the lowest species diversity in the Lamerd County (Margalef index of 0.33 and Shannon index of 0.38. Conclusions: Regarding to this research, there are some potential vectors of medical and veterinary importance in Fars Province. Results of the present study may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  8. Assessment of geraniol-incorporated polymers to control Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae

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    Chuaycharoensuk T.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective control of mosquito borne diseases has proven extremely difficult with both vector and pathogen remaining entrenched and expanding in many disease endemic areas. When lacking an effective vaccine, vector control methods targeting both larval habitats and adult mosquito populations remain the primary strategy for reducing risk. Aedes albopictus from Thailand was used as a reference baseline for evaluation of natural insecticides incorporated in polymer disks and pellets and tested both in laboratory and field conditions. In laboratory and field tests, the highest larval mortality was obtained with disks or pellets containing IKHC (Insect Killer Highly Concentrate from Fulltec AG Company. This product is reputed to contain geraniol as an active ingredient. With pellets, high mortality of Ae. albopictus larvae (92% was observed in presence of 1 g of pellets per 500 ml of water at day 1st, and the mortality was 100% at day 1st for larvae in presence of 5 or 10 g of pellets. Fulltec AG Company has not accepted to give us the exact composition of their IKHC product. Therefore, we cannot recommend it, but the principle of using monoterpenes like geraniol, incorporated into polymer disks or pellets as natural larvicide needs more attention as it could be considered as a powerful alternative in mosquito vector control.

  9. The Anopheles (Anopheles) Crucians Subgroup in the United States (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Matheson (1944), Roth (1944), Carpenter et al. (1946) and Carpenter and LaCasse (1955) presented only general illustrations of the male genitalia...may prove to have biological control potential. Distribution. Table 1 depicts the general distribution of the subgroup ( Carpenter and LaCasse 1955...by 16 species (Table 2). Carpenter and LaCasse (1955) summarized the fauna north of Mexico and Carpenter (1968, 1970, 1974) and Darsie (1973) have up

  10. Description of the Pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) Grossbecki Dyar and Knab (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    pub- arising on basal 0.33: 8-CT with 4 branches: lished by Ross (1947) and Carpenter and 10-CT with 8 branches: 12-CT triple. longer LaCasse (1955...MOSQUITO SYSTEMATICS VOL. 21. No. 3 REFERENCES CITED 6(Suppl.): 1- 107. Knight. K.L. and A. Stone. 1977. A catalog Carpenter , S.J. and W.J. LaCasse . 1955

  11. Low genetic diversity in Wolbachia-Infected Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Brazil and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Sirlei Antunes; Almeida, Fábio de; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2012-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is a vector of human pathogens, including filarial nematodes and several viruses. Although its epidemiological relevance is known to vary across geographical regions, an understanding of its population genetic structure is still incipient. In light of this, we evaluated the genetic diversity of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens x Cx. quinquefasciatus hybrids collected from nine localities in Brazil and one site in Argentina. We used mitochondrial genes cox1 and nd4, along with the coxA and wsp genes of the maternally-inherited Wolbachia endosymbiont. The nd4 fragment was invariant between samples, whilst cox1 exhibited four haplotypes that separated two types of Cx. quinquefasciatus, one clustered in southern Brazil. Low sequence diversity was generally observed, being discussed. Both Brazilian and Argentinian mosquitoes were infected with a single Wolbachia strain. As reported in previous studies with these populations, cox1 and nd4 diversity is not congruent with the population structure revealed by nuclear markers or alar morphology. Future Cx. quinquefasciatus research should, if possible, evaluate mtDNA diversity in light of other markers.

  12. Low genetic diversity in Wolbachia-Infected Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae from Brazil and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Antunes Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus is a vector of human pathogens, including filarial nematodes and several viruses. Although its epidemiological relevance is known to vary across geographical regions, an understanding of its population genetic structure is still incipient. In light of this, we evaluated the genetic diversity of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens x Cx. quinquefasciatus hybrids collected from nine localities in Brazil and one site in Argentina. We used mitochondrial genes cox1 and nd4, along with the coxA and wsp genes of the maternally-inherited Wolbachia endosymbiont. The nd4 fragment was invariant between samples, whilst cox1 exhibited four haplotypes that separated two types of Cx. quinquefasciatus, one clustered in southern Brazil. Low sequence diversity was generally observed, being discussed. Both Brazilian and Argentinian mosquitoes were infected with a single Wolbachia strain. As reported in previous studies with these populations, cox1 and nd4 diversity is not congruent with the population structure revealed by nuclear markers or alar morphology. Future Cx. quinquefasciatus research should, if possible, evaluate mtDNA diversity in light of other markers.

  13. Altitudinal population structure and microevolution of the malaria vector Anopheles cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Camila; Marques, Tatiani Cristina; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2014-12-16

    In Brazil, the autochthonous transmission of extra-Amazonian malaria occurs mainly in areas of the southeastern coastal Atlantic Forest, where Anopheles cruzii is the primary vector. In these locations, the population density of the mosquito varies with altitude (5-263 m above sea level), prompting us to hypothesise that gene flow is also unevenly distributed. Describing the micro-geographical and temporal biological variability of this species may be a key to understanding the dispersion of malaria in the region. We explored the homogeneity of the An. cruzii population across its altitudinal range of distribution using wing shape and mtDNA gene analysis. We also assessed the stability of wing geometry over time. Larvae were sampled from lowland (5-20 m) and hilltop (81-263 m) areas in a primary Atlantic Forest region, in the municipality of Cananéia (State of São Paulo, Brazil). The right wings of males and females were analysed by standard geometric morphometrics. Eighteen landmarks were digitised for each individual and a discriminant analysis was used to compare samples from the hilltop and lowland. A 400-bp DNA fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (CO-I) was PCR-amplified and sequenced. Wing shapes were distinct between lowland and hilltop population samples. Results of cross-validated tests based on Mahalanobis distances showed that the individuals from both micro-environments were correctly reclassified in a range of 54-96%. The wings of hilltop individuals were larger. The CO-I gene was highly polymorphic (haplotypic diversity = 0.98) and altitudinally structured (Фst = 0.085 and Jaccard = 0.033). We found 60 different haplotypes but only two were shared by the lowland and hilltop populations. Wing shape changed over the brief study period (2009-2013). Wing geometry and CO-I gene analysis indicated that An. cruzii is vertically structured. Wing shape varied rapidly, but altitude structure was maintained. Future investigations should identify the biotic/abiotic causes of these patterns and their implications in the local epidemiology of malaria.

  14. A multi-locus approach to barcoding in the Anopheles strodei subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Brian Patrick; Oliveira, Tatiane Porangaba; Suesdek, Lincoln; Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2013-04-19

    The ability to successfully identify and incriminate pathogen vectors is fundamental to effective pathogen control and management. This task is confounded by the existence of cryptic species complexes. Molecular markers can offer a highly effective means of species identification in such complexes and are routinely employed in the study of medical entomology. Here we evaluate a multi-locus system for the identification of potential malaria vectors in the Anopheles strodei subgroup. Larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes (n = 61) from the An. strodei subgroup were collected from 21 localities in nine Brazilian states and sequenced for the COI, ITS2 and white gene. A Bayesian phylogenetic approach was used to describe the relationships in the Strodei Subgroup and the utility of COI and ITS2 barcodes was assessed using the neighbor joining tree and "best close match" approaches. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the COI, ITS2 and white gene found support for seven clades in the An. strodei subgroup. The COI and ITS2 barcodes were individually unsuccessful at resolving and identifying some species in the Subgroup. The COI barcode failed to resolve An. albertoi and An. strodei but successfully identified approximately 92% of all species queries, while the ITS2 barcode failed to resolve An. arthuri and successfully identified approximately 60% of all species queries. A multi-locus COI-ITS2 barcode, however, resolved all species in a neighbor joining tree and successfully identified all species queries using the "best close match" approach. Our study corroborates the existence of An. albertoi, An. CP Form and An. strodei in the An. strodei subgroup and identifies four species under An. arthuri informally named A-D herein. The use of a multi-locus barcode is proposed for species identification, which has potentially important utility for vector incrimination. Individuals previously found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax in the southern Amazon basin and reported as An. strodei are likely to have been from An. arthuri C identified in this study.

  15. Wing geometry of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) in five major Brazilian ecoregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Maysa Tiemi; Suesdek, Lincoln; Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2012-08-01

    We undertook geometric morphometric analysis of wing venation to assess this character's ability to distinguish Anopheles darlingi Root populations and to test the hypothesis that populations from coastal areas of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest differ from those of the interior Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, and the regions South and North of the Amazon River. Results suggest that populations from the coastal and interior Atlantic Forest are more similar to each other than to any of the other regional populations. Notably, the Cerrado population was more similar to that from north of the Amazon River than to that collected of south of the River, thus showing no correlation with geographical distances. We hypothesize that environmental and ecological factors may affect wing evolution in An. darlingi. Although it is premature to associate environmental and ecological determinants with wing features and evolution of the species, investigations on this field are promising. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental stochasticity and intraspecific competition influence the population dynamics of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, William T; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M

    2018-02-27

    Members of the Culex pipiens complex (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus in Southern USA) play a critical role in the spillover of urban arboviruses such as West Nile virus or St. Louis encephalitis virus. Field studies have shown strong correlation between the periodicity of rainfall events and larval proliferation. However, mechanistic determinants driving this relationship are poorly understood. We hypothesize that rainfall events decrease strain from intraspecific competition through the associated reduction of immature density and the introduction of detritus. To address our hypothesis, we used laboratory competition experiments to inform a deterministic matrix projection model consisting of an age-structured larval matrix coupled with a stage-structured adult mosquito matrix. Rain events were simulated in a competition-based metabolic age model and compared to a null model including environmental variability. Variable rain delays in two-event simulations showed optimal proliferation occurring with rain delays between 16 and 21 days when including density-dependent effects. These results are comparable to the pattern observed in natural populations, indicating that Cx. quinquefasciatus proliferation rates can be modeled mechanistically as a density-dependent system. The empirical understanding of density-dependence as it relates to environmental stochasticity provides a theoretical platform for the study of larval dynamics and the impact of larval control in this medically relevant disease vector.

  17. Strain specific differences in intraspecific competition in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Afify, Ali; Gaugler, Randy

    2012-09-01

    Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide that is used for the control of adult mosquitoes and agricultural pests. Recent studies have shown that malathion affects competition among mosquitoes in the larval stage. Individuals from laboratory colonies are often used in experiments but it is not known whether there is a difference between laboratory and field strains in their response to competition and malathion. Intraspecific larval competition in the presence of malathion (0.11 mg/liter) was compared between laboratory and field strains of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), a native of Asia that has established in the United States. There was no difference in the responses of the two strains to the presence of malathion. The fitness (finite growth rate) of the field strain decreased at the highest larval density tested but there was no difference in fitness across densities for the laboratory strain. This finding suggests that laboratory rearing could reduce sensitivity to crowding.

  18. Seasonal Genetic Changes of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in Selected Sites of Cebu City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayson, S L; Gloria-Soria, A; Powell, J R; Edillo, F E

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue virus in the Philippines, where dengue is endemic. We examined the genetic changes of Ae. aegypti collected from three selected sites in Cebu city, Philippines, during the relatively wet (2011-2012) and dry seasons (2012 and 2013). A total of 493 Ae. aegypti adults, reared in the laboratory from field-collected larvae, were analyzed using 11 microsatellite loci. Seasonal variation was observed in allele frequencies and allelic richness. Average genetic differentiation (DEST=0.018; FST=0.029) in both dry seasons was higher, due to reduced Ne, than in the wet season (DEST=0.006; FST=0.009). Thus, average gene flow was higher in the wet season than in the dry seasons. However, the overall FST estimate (0.02) inclusive of the two seasons showed little genetic differentiation as supported by Bayesian clustering analysis. Results suggest that during the dry season the intense selection that causes a dramatic reduction of population size favors heterozygotes, leading to small pockets of mosquitoes (refuges) that exhibit random genetic differentiation. During the wet season, the genetic composition of the population is reconstituted by the expansion of the refuges that survived the preceding dry season. Source reduction of mosquitoes during the nonepidemic dry season is thus recommended to prevent dengue re-emergence in the subsequent wet season. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A meta-analysis of the factors influencing development rate variation in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couret, Jannelle; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-02-05

    Development rates of Aedes aegypti are known to vary with respect to many abiotic and biotic factors including temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition. The relative importance of these factors and their interactions are not well established across populations. We performed meta-analysis on a dataset of development rate estimates from 49 studies. Meta-analytic results indicated that the environmental factor of temperature is sufficient to explain development rate variability in Ae. aegypti. While diet and density may greatly impact other developmental phenotypes, these results suggest that for development rate these factors should never be considered to the exclusion of temperature. The effect of temperature on development rate is not homogenous or constant. The sources of heterogeneity of the effect of temperature are difficult to analyze due to lack of consistent reporting of larval rearing methods. Temperature is the most important ecological determinant of development rate in Ae. aegypti, but its effect is heterogeneous. Ignoring this heterogeneity is problematic for models of vector population and vector-borne disease transmission.

  20. Vertical stratification of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) within a tropical rainforest in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Hayley L; Ewers, Robert M; Vythilingam, Indra; Drakeley, Chris; Benedick, Suzan; Mumford, John D

    2016-07-19

    Malaria cases caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, are increasing rapidly in Sabah, Malaysia. One hypothesis is that this increase is associated with changes in land use. A study was carried out to identify the anopheline vectors present in different forest types and to observe the human landing behaviour of mosquitoes. Mosquito collections were carried out using human landing catches at ground and canopy levels in the Tawau Division of Sabah. Collections were conducted along an anthropogenic disturbance gradient (primary forest, lightly logged virgin jungle reserve and salvage logged forest) between 18:00 and 22:00 h. Anopheles balabacensis, a vector of P. knowlesi, was the predominant species in all collection areas, accounting for 70 % of the total catch, with a peak landing time of 18:30-20:00 h. Anopheles balabacensis had a preference for landing on humans at ground level compared to the canopy (p Sabah. This study provides essential data on anthropophily for the principal vector of P. knowlesi which is important for the planning of vector control strategies.

  1. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.

  2. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honorio, Nildimar A.

    2007-01-01

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program. (author)

  3. [Detection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Istmina, Chocó, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, José Joaquín; Honorio, Nildimar Alves; Díaz, Silvia Patricia; Ruiz, Edinso Rafael; Asprilla, Jimmy; Ardila, Susanne; Parra-Henao, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Aedes albopictus is widely distributed around the world. Its introduction to the Americas occurred in 1985 and it is considered a potential vector of dengue viruses and one of the principal vectors of chikungunya virus. In Colombia, this species was reported for the first time in Leticia (Amazonas) in 1998, followed by Buenaventura (Valle del Cauca) in 2001, Barrancabermeja (Santander) in 2010, and Medellín (Antioquia) in 2011. So far, this species has been reported in ten departments of the country. Objective: To report the finding of A. albopictus in the city of Istmina, Chocó, and its implications for public health. Materials and methods: In January 2015, we conducted an inspection of immature stages of Aedes spp. in breeding sites in the neighborhoods of San Agustín, Santa Genoveva and Subestación in Istmina, Chocó. The immature stages collected in this municipality were identified at the Unidad de Entomología of the Laboratorio de Salud Pública Departamental de Chocó, and confirmed by the Laboratorio de Entomología, Red Nacional de Laboratorios, Instituto Nacional de Salud, in Bogotá. In January 2015, twelve A. albopictus larvae were found in the breeding sites located in Subestación and San Agustín neighborhoods. The occurrence of A. albopictus in the municipality of Istmina underlines the importance of strengthening continuous entomological surveillance strategies at national and local levels in the country, especially in Istmina and its surrounding municipalities.

  4. Effects of larval habitat substrate on pyriproxyfen efficacy against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Devi Shankar; Wang, Yi; Dong, Limin; Gaugler, Randy

    2013-11-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analog insect growth regulator (IGR), is a recommended insecticide for the control of container-inhabiting mosquitoes. The effects of eight container substrates (three plastics, wood, tire rubber, clay pot, concrete, and glass) were studied on reduction of bio-efficacy of pyriproxyfen for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the laboratory. Insect growth regulator-bioassay of third instars showed significant increase of LC50 with some substrates compared with control probably because of pyriproxyfen adsorption to the substrate. The LC50 for the control substrate (glass mug) was 0.029 microg/liter. In comparison to the control, LC50 increased 150.1 times with tire rubber (4.354 microg/liter) and 8-10 times with wood and high-density polyethylene plastic containers. Slight increases of LC50 were detected for clay pots, polypropylene, and polystyrene plastics (1.9-2.7 times). Pyriproxyfen efficacy with concrete substrate was higher than with glass containers, which might be caused by high pH. The pH of water with wood (5.6) and concrete (9.8) substrates differed from the other substrates tested (6.3-7.1). There was no pupal mortality at pH 5-11 without pyriproxyfen; however, interaction of pH (5-11) with pyriproxyfen (0.05 microg/liter) showed additive effects at both low and high pH values. Different substrates have variable impacts on pyriproxyfen efficacy, which might be associated with the failure of larval control strategies for the container mosquitoes under certain field conditions.

  5. Impact of dams and irrigation schemes in Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae bionomics and malaria epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sanchez-Ribas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation schemes and dams have posed a great concern on public health systems of several countries, mainly in the tropics. The focus of the present review is to elucidate the different ways how these human interventions may have an effect on population dynamics of anopheline mosquitoes and hence, how local malaria transmission patterns may be changed. We discuss different studies within the three main tropical and sub-tropical regions (namely Africa, Asia and the Pacific and the Americas. Factors such as pre-human impact malaria epidemiological patterns, control measures, demographic movements, human behaviour and local Anopheles bionomics would determine if the implementation of an irrigation scheme or a dam will have negative effects on human health. Some examples of successful implementation of control measures in such settings are presented. The use of Geographic Information System as a powerful tool to assist on the study and control of malaria in these scenarios is also highlighted.

  6. Susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in pyrethroid-resistant populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Beatriz; Ponce, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Jessica A; Gutierrez, Selene M; Villanueva, Olga K; Gonzalez, Gabriela; Bobadilla, Cristina; Rodriguez, Iram P; Black, William C; Flores, Adriana E

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos was evaluated in females from six strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) that expressed high levels of cross-resistance to eight pyrethroid insecticides. Relative to LC50 and LC90 at 24 h of a susceptible New Orleans (NO) strain, three strains were highly resistant to chlorpyrifos (Coatzacoalcos, resistance ratio [RRLC90 = 11.97; Pozarica, RRLC90 = 12.98; and Cosoleacaque, RRLC50 = 13.94 and RRLC90 = 17.57), one strain was moderately resistant (Veracruz, RRLC90 = 5.92), and two strains were susceptible (Tantoyuca and Martinez de la Torre, RRLC50 and RRLC90 < 5) in bottle bioassays according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Furthermore, high levels of alpha- or beta-esterase activity in the sample populations were correlated with resistance, suggesting that esterase activity may be a mechanism causing the development of organophosphate resistance in these populations. Overall, the populations in this study were less resistant to chlorpyrifos than to pyrethroids. Rotation of insecticides used in control activities is recommended to delay or minimize the occurrence of high levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos among local populations of Ae. aegypti. The diagnostic dose and diagnostic time for chlorpyrifos resistance monitoring was determined to be 85 microg per bottle and 30 min, respectively, using the susceptible NO strain.

  7. Role of Anopheles (Kerteszia bellator as malaria vector in Southeastern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available New research concerning Anopheles bellator in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, are reported. Adult females of this mosquito showed remarkable endophily and endophagy which was even greater than An. cruzii. The epidemiological role of this anopheline as a malaria vector is discussed.

  8. Optimizing Collection of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Biogents Sentinel Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David F; Marika, Jake A; Dunford, James C; Irish, Seth R; Geier, Martin; Obermayr, Ulla; Wirtz, Robert A

    2014-11-01

    Surveillance of malaria vectors in Africa is most often accomplished using CDC-type light traps or human landing catches (HLCs). Over the past 30 yr, a variety of commercial and experimental mosquito traps have been developed for residential mosquito control or for improved surveillance of disease vector species, including the BG Sentinel (BGS) trap. To optimize collection of Anopheles gambiae Giles using this trap, BGS traps were modified with an opening (vent) added to the trap base to decrease exhaust airflow. Four traps configurations were tested with colony-reared host-seeking female An. gambiae in free-flying laboratory enclosures. Six attractant treatments (three attractants: BG-Lure, Limburger cheese, and a blank, with and without CO2) were tested concurrently. Across all trap-attractant combinations, significantly more mosquitoes (P attractive than the other attractants tested alone. All attractant combinations collected significantly more mosquitoes than unbaited traps. Field studies are needed to determine if BG-Lure + CO2- or Limburger cheese + CO2-baited BGS traps are comparable with HLCs in collecting host-seeking An. gambiae. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  9. Nepenthes ampullaria (Nepenthaceae) Pitchers Are Unattractive to Gravid Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Lee Yiung; Dykes, Gary A; Wilson, Robyn F; Clarke, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are colonized by a variety of specialized arthropods. As Aedes mosquitoes are container breeders, Nepenthes pitchers are a potential candidate oviposition site for vector species, such as Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). However, Aedes spp. are not commonly encountered in Nepenthes pitchers, and the environment inside the pitchers of some species is lethal to them. One exception is Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, whose pitchers are known to be colonized by Ae. albopictus on very rare occasions. Given that Ae. albopictus larvae can survive in N. ampullaria pitcher fluids, we sought to determine why pitcher colonization is rare, testing the hypothesis that gravid Aedes mosquitoes are deterred from ovipositing into container habitats that have similar characteristics to N. ampullaria pitchers. Using plastic ovitraps of different sizes, colors, and with different types of fluids (based on the characteristics of N. ampullaria pitchers), we compared oviposition rates by Aedes mosquitoes in urban and rural areas within the geographical range of N. ampullaria near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitraps that were black and large (>250-ml capacity) accumulated significantly more eggs than ovitraps that were smaller, or green in color. In terms of size and color, small, green ovitraps are analogous to N. ampullaria pitchers, indicating that these pitchers are not particularly attractive to gravid Ae. albopictus. Although Aedes spp. are capable of colonizing N. ampullaria pitchers, the pitchers are relatively unattractive to gravid females and do not represent a significant habitat for larvae of dengue vectors at present. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A Study on the Bionomics of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    20: 98-271. Lourenco-de-Oliveira, R., Guimaraes, A. E., Arle, M., da Silva, T.F., Castro, M.G., Motta , M.A. and Deane, L.M. 1989. Anopheline...Med. 21: 559-566. Lourenco-de-Oliveira, R., Guimaraes, A. E., Arle, M., da Silva, T.F., Castro, M.G., Motta , M.A. and Deane, L.M. 1989...Plasmodium vivax sporozoite rates from Anopheles albimanus in southern Chiapas, Mexico. J. Parasitol. 80: 489-493. Ramsey, J.M., Bown, D.N., Aron

  11. The spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sogoba

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the biology and ecology and the high level of genetic polymorphism of malaria vectors in Africa highlight the value of mapping their spatial distribution to enhance successful implementation of integrated vector management. The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes in Mali, to assess their association with climate and environmental covariates, and to produce maps of their spatial distribution. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models were fitted to identify environmental determinants of the relative frequencies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis species and to produce smooth maps of their geographical distribution. The frequency of An. arabiensis was positively associated with the normalized difference vegetation index, the soil water storage index, the maximum temperature and the distance to water bodies. It was negatively associated with the minimum temperature and rainfall. The predicted map suggests that, in West Africa, An. arabiensis is concentrated in the drier savannah areas, while An. gambiae s.s. prefers the southern savannah and land along the rivers, particularly the inner delta of Niger. Because the insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr gene is reported only in An. gambiae s.s. in Mali, the maps provide valuable information for vector control. They may also be useful for planning future implementation of malaria control by genetically manipulated mosquitoes.

  12. Resistance Status and Resistance Mechanisms in a Strain of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) From Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Alden S; Sanscrainte, Neil D; Waits, Christy M; Louton, Jessica E; Becnel, James J

    2017-11-07

    Puerto Rico (PR) has a long history of vector-borne disease and insecticide-resistant Aedes aegypti (L.). Defining contributing mechanisms behind phenotypic resistance is critical for effective vector control intervention. However, previous studies from PR have each focused on only one mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. This study examines the contribution of P450-mediated enzymatic detoxification and sodium channel target site changes to the overall resistance phenotype of Ae. aegypti collected from San Juan, PR, in 2012. Screening of a panel of toxicants found broad resistance relative to the lab susceptible Orlando (ORL1952) strain. We identified significant resistance to representative Type I, Type II, and nonester pyrethroids, a sodium channel blocker, and a sodium channel blocking inhibitor, all of which interact with the sodium channel. Testing of fipronil, a chloride channel agonist, also showed low but significant levels of resistance. In contrast, the PR and ORL1952 strains were equally susceptible to chlorfenapyr, which has been suggested as an alternative public health insecticide. Molecular characterization of the strain indicated that two common sodium channel mutations were fixed in the population. Topical bioassay with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) indicated cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification accounts for approximately half of the resistance profile. Transcript expression screening of cytochrome P450s and glutathione-S-transferases identified the presence of overexpressed transcripts. This study of Puerto Rican Ae. aegypti with significant contributions from both genetic changes and enzymatic detoxification highlights the necessity of monitoring for resistance but also defining the multiple resistance mechanisms to inform effective mosquito control. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. [PCR-RFLP and sequencing studies of malaria vectors (Diptera, Culicidae, Anopheles) in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriacheva, I I; Zvantsov, A B; Gordeev, M I; Bezzhonova, O V; Usenbaev, N T; Ezhov, M N

    2011-01-01

    The results of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, obtained after treatment of PCR-products with restriction endonuclease CfoI, could identify two members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex: An. maculipennis and An. artemievi. Treatment of amplification products with restriction endonuclease BsuI gave rise to fragment lengths of 192 and 218 bp, characteristic of An. artemievi, in the populations of the Talas (settlement of Kizil-Adyr, Kara-Bura District), Dzhelalabad (towns of Tashkumyr and Kara-Kul), and Osh (town of Gulcha, Alai District; village of Langar, Kara-Suisky District) Regions. After treatment of PCR-products with restriction endonuclease BstACI, fragment lengths of 292 and 150 bp, characteristic of An. messeae, were obtained for the mosquitoes of Issyk-Kul (town of Balykchi) and Naryn (settlement of Kochkorka, Kochkor District) Regions. To identify the molecular forms of An. superpictus, the investigators sequenced the amplification products obtained by PCR with 5.8S and 28S rRNA gene-specific primers. Analysis of the primary structure of the second internal transcribed spacer, by using the international databases, has indicated that molecular form X is prevalent in the study districts of Kyrgyzstan. The COI-COII region of the mitochondrial genome of the vector also underwent PCR-RFLP analysis. Three new haplotypes with restriction patterns of about 540, 420, 200, 150, 140 bp, about 540, 360, 280, 150, 140 bp, and about 580, 540, and 150, 140 bp have been identified along with the previously described haplotype X characterized by restriction products of 540, 420, 260, 150, and 140 bp in length.

  14. A user friendly method to assess Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) vector fitness: fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Edson; Ogboi, Johnbull; Abay, Solomon; Lupidi, Giulio; Dahiya, Nisha; Habluetzel, Annette; Lucantoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    Fecundity, bloodmeal size, and survival are among the most important parameters in the overall fitness of mosquitoes. Impact of an intervention that affects fecundity can be assessed by directly counting the eggs laid by exposed mosquitoes, which is usually done manually. We have developed a macroinstruction, which can be used to count thousands of Anopheles stephensi Liston eggs in a few minutes, to provide an alternative and adaptable method to egg counting as a measure of fecundity. The macro was developed using a scanner and a computer running AxioVision Rel. 4.8 software, a freely accessible software compatible with Windows XP/7/Vista. Using this semiautomated method, it is possible to reduce time, avoid human error and bias, and obtain improved consistency in studies measuring mosquito fecundity.

  15. Comparative analysis of gut microbiota of Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) females from different parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gut microbiota to impede or enhance pathogen transmission is well-documented but the factors that shape this microbiota in mosquito vectors are poorly understood. We characterized and compared the gut microbiota of adult females of Culex restuans Theobald from different parents. Cu...

  16. Second Supplement to A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    invocator Pazos Sirivanakarn 1978:240 (from synonymy with erraticus). lopesi Sirivanakarn and Jakob 1979:140 (d*). Type-lot: Porto do Ribiera, Iguape, S%o...Progress in medical zoology I. Gakujutsusho Shuppankai, Tokyo. Sirivanakarn, S. 1978. Revalidation of Culex (Melanoconion) invocator Pazos with a

  17. Isoenzymatic analysis of four Anopheles (Kerteszia bellator Dyar & Knab (Diptera: Culicidae populations

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    Carvalho-Pinto Carlos José de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles bellator is a small silvatic bromelia-breeding mosquito and is a primary human malaria vector species in Southern Brazil. The bromelia-breeding habitat of the species should accompany the Atlantic forest coastal distribution, where bromeliads are abundant. Nonetheless, records on An. bellator collections show a gap in the species geographical distribution. An. bellator has been recorded in Southern Brazil and in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Paraíba. It appers again in the island of Trinidad, in Trinidad and Tobago. The aim of this work was to measure gene flow between different populations of An. bellator collected in the northern and southern extremes of the geographic distribution of this species. Mosquitoes were captured in forest borders in Santa Catarina, São Paulo, and Bahia states in Brazil and in the island of Trinidad in Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Genetic distances varied between 0.076 and 0.680, based on enzymatic profiles from 11 distinct isoenzymes. Results indicate the existence of low-level gene flow between Brazilian populations of An. bellator, and a gene flow was even lower between the Brazilian and the Trinidad populations. This finding lead us to hypothesize that An. bellator did not spread along the coast, but reached northeastern areas through inland routes.

  18. Environmental Drivers of Seasonal Patterns of Host Utilization by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) in Florida.

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    Blosser, Erik M; Lord, Cynthia C; Stenn, Tanise; Acevedo, Carolina; Hassan, Hassan K; Reeves, Lawrence E; Unnasch, Thomas R; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D

    2017-09-01

    Field studies were carried out in four Florida counties to investigate winter and spring ecology of host use by Culiseta melanura (Coquillet), the primary vector of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in North America. Bloodmeal analysis by PCR was used to identify 233 host bloodmeals, which mainly originated from birds (78.5%) and reptiles (17.2%), primarily Anolis spp. lizards. Across counties, the percentage of bloodmeals from reptiles (7-37% depending upon county) increased with increasing day length and temperature in the spring. Multiple logistic regression revealed that differences in reptile host use across collection sites were largely explained by differences in average day length and temperature on the day of collection, and is probably owing to environment-driven behavioral patterns of ectothermic animals. Although past studies have demonstrated reptile biting by epizootic vectors of EEEV, including Culex (Melanoconion) spp., this is the first study to demonstrate widespread and common feeding upon ectothermic hosts by Cs. melanura. This work suggests that reptiles, particularly anole lizards, play a role in the ecology of EEEV in Florida either as amplifying hosts or as noncompetent hosts which dilute vector feedings thereby suppressing transmission. Detailed laboratory studies investigating impacts of environmental variables (temperature and photoperiod) on EEEV competence of anoles are needed to assess whether these animals support virus amplification. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Molecular confirmation of the occurrence in Germany of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Kronefeld Mandy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles daciae, a newly described member of the Maculipennis group, was recently reported from western, southern and eastern Europe. Before its recognition, it had commonly been listed under the name of An. messeae, due to its extreme morphological and genetic similarities. As the sibling species of the Maculipennis group are known to differ in their vector competences for malaria parasites and other pathogens, the occurrence of An. daciae in a given region might have an impact on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito collections from different localities in Germany were therefore screened for An. daciae. Methods Adult and immature Maculipennis group mosquitoes were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 at 23 different sites in eight federal states of Germany. A standard PCR assay was used to differentiate the previously known sibling species while the ITS2 rDNA of specimens preliminarily identified as An. messeae/daciae was sequenced and analysed for species-specific nucleotide differences. Results Four hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles specimens were successively identified to Maculipennis group level by morphology and to species level by DNA-based methods. Four species of the Maculipennis group were registered: An. messeae (n = 384, An. maculipennis (n = 82, An. daciae (n = 10 and An. atroparvus (n = 1. Anopheles daciae occurred at four sites in three federal states of Germany, three of the sites being located in north-eastern Germany (federal states of Brandenburg and Saxony while one collection site was situated in the northern Upper Rhine Valley in the federal state of Hesse, south-western Germany. Conclusions The detection of An. daciae represents the first recognition of this species in Germany where it was found to occur in sympatry with An. messeae and An. maculipennis. As the collection sites were in both north-eastern and south-western parts of Germany, the species is probably even more widely distributed in Germany than demonstrated, albeit apparently with low population densities. Research is needed that confirms the species status of An. daciae and elucidates its vector competence as compared to An. messeae and the other species of the Maculipennis group, in order to optimize management of possible future outbreaks of diseases caused by pathogen transmission through Maculipennis group mosquitoes.

  20. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, K; Murugan, K; Nareshkumar, A; Ramasubramanian, N; Bragadeeswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm). Methods M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 100 g of the plant material were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield 122 mg and 110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) from Arcang amara and Ocimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm were prepared. Results Larvicidal activity of M. oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of the A. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were 57.79 ppm and 125.93 ppm for the first instar, 63.90 ppm and 133.07 ppm for the second instar, 72.45 ppm and 139.82 ppm for the third instar, 78.93 ppm and 143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract of M. oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were 67.77 ppm and 141.00 ppm, respectively. Conclusions The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived from M. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs. PMID:23569741