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Sample records for albidus copepoda cyclopidae

  1. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac-Tôha, F A; Velho, L F M; Higuti, J; Takahashi, E M

    2002-02-01

    Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 microns mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  2. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LANSAC-TÔHA F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  3. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. LANSAC-TÔHA

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  4. Leaf litter copepods from a cloud forest mountain top in Honduras (Copepoda: Cyclopidae, Canthocamptidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiers, Frank; Jocque, Merlijn

    2013-01-01

    Five different species of Copepoda were extracted from a leaf litter sample collected on the top (at 2000 m a.s.l.) of a cloud forested mountain in El Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Three of them, one Cyclopidae and two Canthocamptidae are new to science, and are described herein. Olmeccyclops hondo sp. nov. is the second representative thus far known of this New World genus. Moraria catracha sp. nov. and Moraria cusuca sp. nov. are the first formally described members of the genus occurring in Central America. The concept of a "Moraria-group" is considered to be an artificial grouping and is limited here to the genera Moraria and Morariopsis only. The distributional range of this group is essentially Holarctic, with the mountainous regions in Honduras, and probably in west Nicaragua, as the southernmost limits in the New World.

  5. Lernanthropidae: Copepoda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-12-03

    Dec 3, 1996 ... Notes on the postantennal process as a category of cuticular spines of parasitic Copepoda are given. Argu- ments on the status of the postantennal process as an appendage are briefly compared. It is concluded that these structures are cuticular outgrowths and not appendages. The morphology of this ...

  6. Redescription and first records from Brazil of Diacyclops uruguayensis Kiefer (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopidae

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    Janet W. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Diacyclops uruguayensis Kiefer, 1935 is redescribed from specimens from Santa Catarina and Ceará, Brazil. These new records represent a significant range extension from southern Uruguay.

  7. KERAGAAN COPEPODA CYCLOPOIDA: Apocyclops sp. PADA KONDISI KULTUR

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    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Copepoda pada dasarnya adalah udang berukuran mikroskopik yang menjadi rantai pakan alami yang penting di perairan bebas. Investigasi jenis-jenis copepod lokal akan membantu menyiapkan informasi untuk pengembangan budidayanya sebagai jasad pakan alami. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengkoleksi jenis Cyclopoida lokal perairan pantai Gerokgak, Buleleng, Bali, diisolasi dan dikembangbiakkan dengan pakan kombinasi antara alga Nannochloropsis oculatta, tepung terigu, ragi roti, dan hati ayam dalam tangki beton 5 m3. Tiga ratus individu Cyclopoida yang membawa telur ditempatkan pada tiga wadah kultur bervolume satu liter. Pengamatan pada pertumbuhan individu dilakukan dengan sampling setiap hari dan setiap dua hari untuk melihat perkembangan telurnya. Jenis Cyclopoida lokal termasuk famili Cyclopidae dan genus Apocyclops spp. Kecepatan pertumbuhan mencapai 20 µm setiap harinya, dan dari fase copepodit mencapai ukuran dewasa membawa telur dianalisis selama 12 hari, perkembangan telur memerlukan waktu maksimal 10 hari, sehingga estimasi siklus umur minimal adalah 22 hari. Produktivitas rata-rata telur Apocyclops spp. pada penelitian ini diestimasi sebanyak 36 (minimum16-maksimum 65 butir per individu betina. Penelitian kultur lebih lanjut difokuskan pada optimalisasi suhu, salinitas, oksigen terlarut pada media hingga optimalisasi pada jenis pakan. Copepod, a microscopic shrimp, is an important member in natural food chain in waters. Investigating the types of local copepod will provide valuable information for the development of other natural live feed culture. The research was carried out by collecting local Cyclopoida species from Gerokgak coastal waters, Buleleng Regency-Bali, isolated and cultured with combination feed of algae Nannochloropsis oculatta, wheat flour, yeast bread and chicken liver in 5 m3 concrete tank. Three hundred individuals of Cyclopoida carrying eggs were placed in three beaker glasses of one-liter culture volume. An observation

  8. Phylogenetic Information Content of Copepoda Ribosomal DNA Repeat Units: ITS1 and ITS2 Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoskin, Maxim V.; Lazareva, Valentina I.; Grishanin, Andrey K.; Mukha, Dmitry V.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals. PMID:25215300

  9. Phylogenetic Information Content of Copepoda Ribosomal DNA Repeat Units: ITS1 and ITS2 Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Zagoskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea. Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2 were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals.

  10. Copepoda endoparasitic of tropical holothurians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1968-01-01

    A number of Copepoda of the family Lichomolgidae, all endoparasitic in tropical holothurians, has been described. All belong to the group of genera related to Paranthessius, as borne out by the structure of their appendages, although the body-shape often has undergone modifications due to the

  11. Histopathological changes induced by copepoda parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological changes induced by copepoda parasites infections on the gills of economically important fish mugilidae ( Liza falcipinnis and Mugil cephalus ) from Ganvie area of Lac Nokoue, Republic of Benin.

  12. Thermal stability of Cryptococcus albidus α-L-rhamnosidase

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    O. V. Gudzenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yeast as well as micromycetes α-L-rhamnosidases, currently, are the most promising group of enzymes. Improving of the thermal stability of the enzyme preparation are especially important studies. Increase in stability and efficiency of substrate hydrolysis by α-L-rhamnosidase will improve the production technology of juices and wines. The aim of our study was to investigate the rate of naringin hydrolysis by α-L-rhamnosidase from Cryptococcus albidus, and also some aspects of the thermal denaturation and stabilization of this enzyme. We investigated two forms of α-L-rhamnosidase from C. albidus, which were obtained by cultivation of the producer on two carbon sources – naringin and rhamnose. A comparative study of properties and the process of thermal inactivation of α-L-rhamnosidases showed that the inducer of synthesis had no effect on the efficiency of naringin hydrolysis by the enzyme, but modified thermal stability of the protein molecule. Hydrophobic interactions and the cysteine residues are involved in maintaining of active conformation of the α-L-rhamnosidase molecule. Yeast α-L-rhamnosidase is also stabilized by 0.5% bovine serum albumin and 0.25% glutaraldehyde.

  13. Ascospore release from bottle-shaped asci in Dipodascus albidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Ané; Kock, Johan L F; Botes, Piet J; Pohl, Carolina H; Strauss, Catharina J; van Wyk, Pieter W J; Nigam, Santosh

    2005-12-01

    Yeasts utilize different mechanisms to release ascospores of different lengths from bottle-shaped asci. Using electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and digital live imaging, the individual release of oval ascospores from tight-fitting narrow bottle-necks, is reported in the yeast Dipodascus albidus. These ascospores are surrounded by compressible, oxylipin-coated sheaths enabling ascospores to slide past each other when forced by turgor pressure and by possible sheath contractions towards the narrowing ascus-neck. In this paper, the release mechanisms of ascospores of various lengths from bottle-shaped asci and produced by different yeasts are compared. We suggest that different release mechanisms, utilizing compressible sheaths or geared-alignment, have possibly evolved to compensate for variation in ascospore length. Alternatively, sheaths and ridges might be two evolutionary solutions to the same biomechanical problem, i.e. to release ascospores irrespective of length from bottle-shaped asci.

  14. Effect of immobilized rhizobacteria and organic amendment in bulk and rhizospheric soil of Cistus albidus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual, Carmen Maria; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Roldan, Antonio; Schoebitz, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    A field experiment was carried out to assess the effectiveness of the immobilized microbial inoculant and the addition of organic olive residue. The microbial inoculant contained two rhizobacterial species identified as Azospirillum brasilense and Pantoea dispersa immobilized in a natural inert support. Bacterial population densities were 3.5×109 and 4.1×109 CFU g-1 of A. brasilense M3 and P. dispersa C3, respectively. The amendment used was the organic fraction extracted with KOH from composted "alperujo". The raw material was collected from an olive-mill and mixed with fresh cow bedding as bulking agent for composting. The inoculation of rhizobacteria and the addition of organic residue were employed for plant growth promotion of Cistus albidus L. and enhancement of soil physicochemical, biochemical and biological properties in a degraded semiarid Mediterranean area. One year after planting, the available phosphorus and potassium content in the amended soils was about 100 and 70% respectively higher than in the non-amended soil. Microbial inoculant and their interaction with organic residue increased the aggregate stability of the rhizosphere soil of C. albidus (by 12% with respect to control soil) while the organic residue alone not increased the aggregate stability of the rhizosphere of C. albidus. Microbial biomass C content and enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA and alkaline phosphatase) of the rhizosphere of C. albidus were increased by microbial inoculant and organic residue interaction but not by microbial inoculation alone. The microbial inoculant and organic residue interaction were the most effective treatment for stimulating the roots dry weight of C. albidus (by 133% with respect to control plants) and microbial inoculant was the most effective treatment for increase the shoot dry weigh of plants (by 106% with respect to control plants). The combined treatment, involving microbial inoculant and addition of the organic residue

  15. Virulence of Hymenoscyphus albidus and H. fraxineus on Fraxinus excelsior and F. pennsylvanica.

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    Tadeusz Kowalski

    Full Text Available European ash (Fraxinus excelsior is currently battling an onslaught of ash dieback, a disease emerging in the greater part of its native area, brought about by the introduction of the ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (= Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus. The closely-related fungus Hymenoscyphus albidus, which is indigenous to Europe, is non-pathogenic when in contact with F. excelsior, but could pose a potential risk to exotic Fraxinus species. The North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica is planted widely throughout Europe and regenerates naturally within this environment but little is known about the susceptibility of this species to ash dieback. We performed wound inoculations with both fungi (nine strains of H. fraxineus and three strains of H. albidus on rachises and stems of F. excelsior and F. pennsylvanica under field conditions in Southern Poland. Necrosis formation was evaluated after two months on the rachises and after 12 months on the stems. After inoculation of H. albidus, only small lesions (of up to 1.3 cm in length developed on the F. excelsior and F. pennsylvanica rachises, but with no significant distinction from the controls. Hymenoscyphus albidus did not cause necrotic lesions on the stems of either Fraxinus species. In contrast, H. fraxineus induced necroses on all inoculated rachises of both ash species with mean lengths of 8.4 cm (F. excelsior and 1.9 cm (F. pennsylvanica. Necroses also developed on all of the inoculated F. excelsior stems (mean length 18.0 cm, whereas on F. pennsylvanica such lesions only occurred on about 5% of the stems (mean length 1.9 cm. The differences between strains were negligible. No necroses were observed on the control plants. Reisolations of H. albidus were only successful in around 8-11% of the cases, while H. fraxineus was reisolated from 50-70% of the inoculated organs showing necrotic lesions. None of the Hymenoscyphus species were isolated from the control plants. Our data confirm H

  16. Enchytraeus albidus microarray: enrichment, design, annotation and database (EnchyBASE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Sara C; Arrais, Joel; Lopes, Pedro; Vandenbrouck, Tine; De Coen, Wim; Roelofs, Dick; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2012-01-01

    Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) is an ecologically relevant species used as standard test organisms for risk assessment. Effects of stressors in this species are commonly determined at the population level using reproduction and survival as endpoints. The assessment of transcriptomic responses can be very useful e.g. to understand underlying mechanisms of toxicity with gene expression fingerprinting. In the present paper the following is being addressed: 1) development of suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries enriched for differentially expressed genes after metal and pesticide exposures; 2) sequencing and characterization of all generated cDNA inserts; 3) development of a publicly available genomic database on E. albidus. A total of 2100 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were isolated, sequenced and assembled into 1124 clusters (947 singletons and 177 contigs). From these sequences, 41% matched known proteins in GenBank (BLASTX, e-value ≤ 10(-5)) and 37% had at least one Gene Ontology (GO) term assigned. In total, 5.5% of the sequences were assigned to a metabolic pathway, based on KEGG. With this new sequencing information, an Agilent custom oligonucleotide microarray was designed, representing a potential tool for transcriptomic studies. EnchyBASE (http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/enchybase/) was developed as a web freely available database containing genomic information on E. albidus and will be further extended in the near future for other enchytraeid species. The database so far includes all ESTs generated for E. albidus from three cDNA libraries. This information can be downloaded and applied in functional genomics and transcription studies.

  17. Enchytraeus albidus microarray: enrichment, design, annotation and database (EnchyBASE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Novais

    Full Text Available Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta is an ecologically relevant species used as standard test organisms for risk assessment. Effects of stressors in this species are commonly determined at the population level using reproduction and survival as endpoints. The assessment of transcriptomic responses can be very useful e.g. to understand underlying mechanisms of toxicity with gene expression fingerprinting. In the present paper the following is being addressed: 1 development of suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries enriched for differentially expressed genes after metal and pesticide exposures; 2 sequencing and characterization of all generated cDNA inserts; 3 development of a publicly available genomic database on E. albidus. A total of 2100 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs were isolated, sequenced and assembled into 1124 clusters (947 singletons and 177 contigs. From these sequences, 41% matched known proteins in GenBank (BLASTX, e-value ≤ 10(-5 and 37% had at least one Gene Ontology (GO term assigned. In total, 5.5% of the sequences were assigned to a metabolic pathway, based on KEGG. With this new sequencing information, an Agilent custom oligonucleotide microarray was designed, representing a potential tool for transcriptomic studies. EnchyBASE (http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/enchybase/ was developed as a web freely available database containing genomic information on E. albidus and will be further extended in the near future for other enchytraeid species. The database so far includes all ESTs generated for E. albidus from three cDNA libraries. This information can be downloaded and applied in functional genomics and transcription studies.

  18. Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Sara C., E-mail: sara.novais@ua.pt [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gomes, Susana I.L. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gravato, Carlos [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS-Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); De Coen, Wim [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology - E.B.T., Groenenborgerlaan 171 - U.7., B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Amorim, Monica J.B. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    To better understand chemical modes of action, emphasis has been given to stress responses at lower levels of biological organization. Cholinesterases and antioxidant defenses are among the most used biomarkers due to their crucial role in the neurocholinergic transmission and in cell homeostasis preventing DNA damage, enzymatic inactivation and lipid peroxidation. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc and cadmium on survival and reproduction of E. albidus and to assess metals oxidative stress potential and neurotoxic effects at concentrations that affected reproduction. Both metals affected the enchytraeids' survival and reproduction and induced significant changes in the antioxidant defenses as well as increased lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative damage. This study demonstrates that determining effects at different levels of biological organization can give better information on the physiological responses of enchytraeids in metal contamination events and further unravel the mechanistic processes dealing with metal stress. - Highlights: > Zinc and cadmium influence the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus. > Oxidative stress and membrane damage occur at reproduction effect concentrations. > Glutathione seems to be important in the antioxidant defense against metals. > Time intervals (2, 4, 8 days) allowed following the evolution of oxidative events. - Zinc and cadmium cause oxidative stress and membrane damage in Enchytraeus albidus at reproduction effect concentrations.

  19. Avoidance test with Enchytraeus albidus (Enchytraeidae): Effects of different exposure time and soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Monica J.B.; Novais, Sara; Roembke, Joerg; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Enchytraeids are ecologically relevant soil species and are commonly used in standardized toxicity tests. Their rapid reaction to a chemical exposure can be used as a toxicological measurement endpoint that assesses the avoidance behavior. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the effects of soil properties on the avoidance behavior of Enchytraeus albidus and to optimize the duration of avoidance test. The avoidance tests included (1) exposures in OECD artificial soil with standard or modified properties (pH, clay or peat content), and (2) exposures to copper chloride, cadmium chloride, and to the organic pesticides dimethoate and phenmedipham for different time periods. Results showed that alteration of OECD soil constituents significantly affected the avoidance behavior of enchytraeids, and that the 48-h exposure was the optimal duration of the test. Consideration of soil properties is important for selecting appropriate experimental design and interpreting the results of the enchytraeid avoidance test. - Optimal duration of the avoidance tests with potworm Enchytraeus albidus is 48 h; soil properties can affect performance of the test species

  20. Production of mycelial biomass by the Amazonian edible mushroom Pleurotus albidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Larissa de Souza; de Macedo, Ana Júlia Porto; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas

    2016-01-01

    Edible mushroom species are considered as an adequate source of food in a healthy diet due to high content of protein, fiber, vitamins, and a variety of minerals. The representatives of Pleurotus genus are characterized by distinct gastronomic, nutritional, and medicinal properties among the edible mushrooms commercialized worldwide. In the present study, the growth of mycelial biomass of Pleurotus albidus cultivated in submerged fermentation was evaluated. Saccharose, fructose, and maltose were the three main carbon sources for mycelial biomass formation with corresponding yields of 7.28gL(-1), 7.07gL(-1), and 6.99gL(-1). Inorganic nitrogen sources did not stimulate growth and the optimal yield was significantly higher with yeast extract (7.98gL(-1)). The factorial design used to evaluate the influence of saccharose and yeast extract concentration, agitation speed, and initial pH indicated that all variables significantly influenced the production of biomass, especially the concentration of saccharose. The greater amount of saccharose resulted in the production of significantly more biomass. The highest mycelial biomass production (9.81gL(-1)) was reached in the medium formulated with 30.0gL(-1) saccharose, 2.5gL(-1) yeast extract, pH 7.0, and a speed of agitation at 180rpm. Furthermore, P. albidus manifested different aspects of morphology and physiology under the growth conditions employed. Media composition affected mycelial biomass production indicating that the diversification of carbon sources promoted its improvement and can be used as food or supplement. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. KELIMPAHAN COPEPODA (ORDO: CALANOIDA DI TELUK PEGAMETAN, BALI UTARA

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    Gede S. Sumiarsa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan kelimpahan spesies copepoda, ordo Calanoida di Teluk Pegametan, Bali telah dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2007. Teluk Pegametan adalah salah satu wilayah yang potensial untuk budidaya laut yang terletak di bagian barat Laut Bali. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menginventarisasi spesies-spesies copepoda dari ordo Calanoida yang hidup di perairan Teluk Pegametan. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 10 stasiun sampling dengan metode sampling secara horizontal pada permukaan laut. Plankton net berdiameter 31 cm dengan ukuran mesh 40 mm ditarik sepanjang 10 meter dengan menggunakan speed boat di sekitar stasiun pengamatan. Sampel diawetkan dengan formalin 4% untuk diidentifikasi. Dari hasil pengamatan di sepuluh stasiun terdapat 14 spesies copepoda ordo Calanoida yaitu: Acrocalanus gracilis, Calanus minor, C. sinicus, C. tenuicornis, Centropoges abdominalis, Eucalanus attenuatus, Haloptilus longicornis, Lucicutia curta, L. flavicornis, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Pseudocalanus gracilis, Rinchalanus cornutus, Scolecithricella minor, dan Temora turbinata. Spesies dominan adalah Calanus sinicus dengan proporsi 65,6% dari jumlah individu yang dijumpai. Observation on the abundance of copepod species (order: Calanoida in Pegametan Bay has been conducted in April 2007. Pegametan Bay is located on the North West of Bali and is one of several potential areas for mariculture. The purpose of this study was to find out the abundance of copepod (Order: Calanoida in the bay. Research sampling was conducted in 10 sampling points where planktons were collected using plankton net of 40 µm mesh size with diameter of 31 cm dragged horizontally on the sea water surface as far as 10 m each. Samples were preserved in 4% formalin for identification.  There were 14 species of Calanoida copepod species found during the research: Acrocalanus gracilis, Calanus minor, C. sinicus, C. tenuicornis, Centropoges abdominalis, Eucalanus attenuatus, Haloptilus longicornis

  2. A note on chromosomes of Pontellopsis herdmani and Pontella princeps (Copepoda) from the Laccadive sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.; Goswami, S.C.

    Pontellopsis herdmani and Pontella princeps (Pontellidae, Calanoida, Copepoda) showed a diploid number of 20 and a haploid number of 10 chromosomes during the spermatogonial metaphase and metaphase II stages. The chromosomes were in the size range...

  3. Molecular Phylogeny and Revision of Copepod Orders (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodami, Sahar; McArthur, J Vaun; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Martinez Arbizu, Pedro

    2017-08-22

    For the first time, the phylogenetic relationships between representatives of all 10 copepod orders have been investigated using 28S and 18S rRNA, Histone H3 protein and COI mtDNA. The monophyly of Copepoda (including Platycopioida Fosshagen, 1985) is demonstrated for the first time using molecular data. Maxillopoda is rejected, as it is a polyphyletic group. The monophyly of the major subgroups of Copepoda, including Progymnoplea Lang, 1948 (=Platycopioida); Neocopepoda Huys and Boxshall, 1991; Gymnoplea Giesbrecht, 1892 (=Calanoida Sars, 1903); and Podoplea Giesbrecht, 1892, are supported in this study. Seven copepod orders are monophyletic, including Platycopioida, Calanoida, Misophrioida Gurney, 1933; Monstrilloida Sars, 1901; Siphonostomatoida Burmeister, 1834; Gelyelloida Huys, 1988; and Mormonilloida Boxshall, 1979. Misophrioida (=Propodoplea Lang, 1948) is the most basal Podoplean order. The order Cyclopoida Burmeister, 1835, is paraphyletic and now encompasses Poecilostomatoida Thorell, 1859, as a sister to the family Schminkepinellidae Martinez Arbizu, 2006. Within Harpacticoida Sars, 1903, both sections, Polyarthra Lang, 1948, and Oligoarthra Lang, 1948, are monophyletic, but not sister groups. The order Canuelloida is proposed while maintaining the order Harpacticoida s. str. (Oligoarthra). Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida and Cyclopinidae are redefined, while Canuelloida ordo. nov., Smirnovipinidae fam. nov. and Cyclopicinidae fam. nov are proposed as new taxa.

  4. Are phenolic compounds released from the Mediterranean shrub Cistus albidus responsible for changes in N cycling in siliceous and calcareous soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva Castells; Josep Peñuelas; David W. Valentine

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effects of Cistus albidus leaf leachates on nitrogen-cycling processes in two siliceous soils (granite and schist) and one calcareous soil. We compared those effects with gross N-transformation rates in soils sampled underneath Cistus. Our results show that although phenolic compounds leached from green foliage...

  5. Assessing joint toxicity of chemicals in Enchytraeus albidus (Enchytraeidae) and Porcellionides pruinosus (Isopoda) using avoidance behaviour as an endpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Susana; Amorim, Monica J.B.; Campos, Bruno; Rodrigues, Sandra M.G.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Contamination problems are often characterized by complex mixtures of chemicals. There are two conceptual models usually used to evaluate patterns of mixture toxicity: Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA). Deviations from these models as synergism, antagonism and dose dependency also occur. In the present study, single and mixture toxicity of atrazine, dimethoate, lindane, zinc and cadmium were tested in Porcellionides pruinosus and Enchytraeus albidus, using avoidance as test parameter. For both species patterns of antagonism were found when exposed to dimethoate and atrazine, synergism for lindane and dimethoate exposures (with the exception of lower doses in the isopod case study) and concentration addition for cadmium and zinc occurred, while the exposure to cadmium and dimethoate showed dissimilar patterns. This study highlights the importance of dose dependencies when testing chemical mixtures and that avoidance tests can also be used to asses the effects of mixture toxicity. - Avoidance behaviour to binary mixtures of chemicals in two edaphic species

  6. Characterization and immunomodulatory effects of glucans from Pleurotus albidus, a promising species of mushroom for farming and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alves, Victor Costa; Gomes, Daniel; Menolli, Nelson; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira do

    2017-02-01

    Polysaccharides from a number of mushroom species are recognized as functional food ingredients with potential health benefits, including immunomodulatory effects. In this study, polysaccharides extracted from the basidiome with cold water (BaCW), hot water (BaHW), and hot alkali (BaHA) solution, and exo- (MyEX) and endopolysaccharides (MyEN) from the submerged culture of Pleurotus albidus, a promising species for farming and biomass production, were analyzed for their chemical composition and structure and immunomodulatory effects on macrophages. Compositional (HPAEC-PAD and HPSEC-RID/MWD) and structural (FT-IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) analyses identified BaCW and MyEX as β-(1,6)-branched β-(1,3)-glucans, BaHW and MyEN as α-(1,3)-(1,2)-branched α-(1,6)-glucans, and BaHA as a mixture of α-(1,6)- and β-(1,3)-glucans. BaCW and MyEX stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO), but not interleukin-6 (IL-6), and decreased phagocytosis of zymosan particles. In contrast, BaHW and MyEN induced TNF-α, NO and IL-6 production, and increased zymosan phagocytosis, while BaHA displayed intermediary effects in comparison the other polysaccharides. In conclusion, the basidiome and the submerged culture of P. albidus are sources of easily extractable α- and β-glucans with potential immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On the ecological role of Copepoda in the Suez Canal marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the importance of copepods in the marine food web and secondary productivity in the canal water, as well as their response to environmental variations in the Suez Canal ecosystem were discussed. KEY WORDS: Zooplankton, Copepoda, food web, marine ecosystem, Suez Canal Egyptian Journal of Biology ...

  8. Br anchiopoda and Copepoda (Crustacea in Mongolian Saline Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alonso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thi s paper presents a very complete inventory of the branchiopods and copepods that inhabit the salt lakes (salinity >3‰ of Mongolia. The inventory was based on samples collected from 108 salt lakes over the course of seven limnological expeditions in most of the Mongolian territory between 2005 and 2009. The salinity of the lakes ranged from 3.4 to 76‰ S. A total of 43 taxa were identifi ed: 7 Anostraca, 1 Spinicaudata, 1 Notostraca, 1 Leptodoridae, 1 Ctenopoda, 15 Anomopoda and 17 Copepoda. Thirteen taxa are limited to the Asiatic portion and the rest are known throughout the Palearctic region. One taxon, Phallocryptus sp. has not yet been described in scientifi c literature. The taxonomic position of Artemia sp. in Mongolia has still not been clarifi ed. All of the species are eurysaline and, except for Artemia sp. and Cletocamptus retrogressus , which are the most halophile, they can live in waters with less than 10‰ S. Thirty-three species appear only in mesosaline waters (3–20‰ S, fi ve do not exceed the mesosaline level (50‰ S and fi ve can live in hypersaline waters (>50‰ S.

  9. Detection of Airborne Inoculum of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus and H. albidus during Seasonal Fluctuations Associated with Absence of Apothecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milon Dvorak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is an invasive fungal species causing the most serious disease of ashes (Fraxinus spp. in Europe—ash dieback. The biology of this fungus is not totally elucidated, neither its relation to the saprophytic species Hymenoscyphus albidus, native in Europe. Our study is focused on the description of seasonal spore dispersal of both fungi and its relation to meteorological conditions, which is needed for more precise and effective control of the disease. For this experiment one long time infected mixed forest in the SE Czech Republic was chosen. A seven-day automatic volumetric spore trap and a weather station were installed to continuously sample the aerospora from April to October 2014. In seven periods a rotating arm spore trap was also used to obtain 48-h air samples to compare the efficiency of these two types of air samplers. Air samples were evaluated solely by qPCR with a very low detection limit. Results show co-occurrence of inoculum of both fungi throughout the entire sampling period with peak levels in August. The origin of the inoculum sampled in the periods without apothecia is discussed. Air-inoculum occurrence of both fungi is significantly correlated with each other, suggesting their coexistence in this forest.

  10. Fermentation pH Modulates the Size Distributions and Functional Properties of Gluconobacter albidus TMW 2.1191 Levan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharalinee Ua-Arak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial levan has gained an increasing interest over the last decades due to its unique characteristics and multiple possible applications. Levan and other exopolysaccharides (EPSs production are usually optimized to obtain the highest concentration or yield while a possible change of the molecular size and mass during the production process is mostly neglected. In this study, the molar mass and radius of levan samples were monitored during fermentations with the food-grade, levan-producing acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter (G. albidus TMW 2.1191 in shake flasks (without pH control and bioreactors (with pH control at 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5, respectively. In uncontrolled fermentations, the levan size/molar mass continuously decreased concomitantly with the continuous acidification of the nutrient medium. On the contrary, the amount, molar mass and size of levan could be directly influenced by controlling the pH during fermentation. Using equal initial substrate amounts, the largest weight average molar mass and geometric radius of levan were observed at constant pH 6.5, while the highest levan concentration was obtained at constant pH 4.5. Since there is a special demand to find suitable hydrocolloids from food-grade bacteria to develop novel gluten-free (GF products, these differently produced levans were used for baking of GF breads, and the best quality improvement was obtained by addition of levan with the highest mass and radius. This work, therefore, demonstrates for the first time that one bacterial strain can produce specific high molecular weight fractions of one EPS type, which differ in properties and sizes among each other in dependence of the controllable production conditions.

  11. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Luciana Urbano dos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were screened for copepods by collecting 1.5 l of water from each of then. The predatory potential of adults copepods was evaluated over 24 h, in the laboratory, for groups of 5 individuals preying upon 30 first instar Ae. albopictus larvae. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following cyclopid species were found: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. The predatory potential of these copepods ranged from nil to 97.3%. A sample collected in the field containing only M. longisetus var. longisetus showed the best control efficiency with no significant difference from a three-year old laboratory culture (ML-01 of the same species evaluated for comparison. The sample with few M. albidus var. albidus was ranked in second place showing an average 25.9% efficiency. The use of copepods in trap tires as dengue vector controllers is discussed.

  12. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  13. Spatial distribution and secondary production of Copepoda in a tropical reservoir: Barra Bonita, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ. Santos-Wisniewski

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to describe the spatial distribution of zooplankton copepods, their biomass and instantaneous secondary production, in Barra Bonita, a large eutrophic, polymitic reservoir (22° 29' S and 48° 34' W on the Tietê River, of the Paraná basin. Sampling was carried out during two seasons: dry winter and rainy summer. Species composition, age structure and numerical density of each copepod species population were analyzed at 25 sampling stations. Secondary production was calculated for Copepoda, the dominant group in zooplankton communities, taking Calanoida and Cyclopoida separately. Copepoda represented the largest portion of the total zooplankton biomass, the dominant species being Notodiaptomus iheringi among the Calanoida and Mesocyclops ogunnus and Thermocyclops decipiens among the Cyclopoida. The production of Copepoda was higher during the rainy summer (23.61 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in January 1995 than during the dry winter season (14 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in August 1995, following the general pattern of abundance for the whole zooplankton community. Among the copepods, Cyclopoida production was higher than that of Calanoida, a pattern commonly observed for tropical lakes and reservoirs. Barra Bonita copepods are very productive, but there was a great degree of spatial heterogeneity, related to the physical and chemical conditions, particularly the level of nutrients and also to phytoplankton biomass.

  14. Gene expression responses linked to reproduction effect concentrations (EC 10,20,50,90 of dimethoate, atrazine and carbendazim, in Enchytraeus albidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Novais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular mechanisms of response to pesticides are scarce and information on such responses from soil invertebrates is almost inexistent. Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta is a standard soil ecotoxicology model species for which effects of many pesticides are known on survival, reproduction and avoidance behaviour. With the recent microarray development additional information can be retrieved on the molecular effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments were performed to investigate the transcription responses of E. albidus when exposed to three pesticides - dimethoate (insecticide, atrazine (herbicide and carbendazim (fungicide - in a range of concentrations that inhibited reproduction by 10%, 20%, 50% and 90% (EC(10, EC(20, EC(50 and EC(90, respectively. The goal of this study was to further identify key biological processes affected by each compound and if dose-related. All three pesticides significantly affected biological processes like translation, regulation of the cell cycle or general response to stress. Intracellular signalling and microtubule-based movement were affected by dimethoate and carbendazim whereas atrazine affected lipid and steroid metabolism (also by dimethoate or carbohydrate metabolism (also by carbendazim. Response to DNA damage/DNA repair was exclusively affected by carbendazim. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in gene expression were significantly altered after 2 days of exposure in a dose-related manner. The mechanisms of response were comparable with the ones for mammals, suggesting across species conserved modes of action. The present results indicate the potential of using gene expression in risk assessment and the advantage as early markers.

  15. Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Tranchida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis Se hizo una prospección de copépodos en La Plata, Argentina, con los objetivos de caracterizar la comunidad local de copépodos larvívoros en sitios de cría de mosquitos, e identificar nuevas especies depredadoras de los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens. La diversidad de ciclopoides larvívoros fue máxima en charcos permanentes. Se examinó la depredación por sexos y edad, la selectividad por especies de mosquito, y la tasa de depredación diaria durante cinco días en Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus y Mesocyclops longisetus. Los copépodos hembra presentaron la capacidad depredadora más alta. No se encontró preferencia por alguna especie de mosquito. De acuerdo al potencial de depredación en general, los copépodos se ordenan así: D. uruguayensis < A. robustus < M. albidus < M. longisetus. También se evaluó la tolerancia a la desecación del hábitat y la capacidad de resistir en agua de contenedores artificiales. D. uruguayensis y A. robustus sobrevivieron en condiciones de sequía, pero D. uruguayensis presentó menor supervivencia en agua de floreros de cementerio. M. albidus no sobrevivió condiciones de

  16. The combined effect of freeze thaw events and heavy metal pollution leads to distinct lethal synergy in Enchytraeus albidus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Sara Wincentz; Slotsbo, Stine; Holmstrup, Martin

    . Bioaccumulation of copper was also quantified to expose any increase in body burden in freeze-thaw treated worms. Regardless of the physiological responses, it is evident that arctic organisms are negatively affected by the environmental impact of global warming and exploitation of mineral deposits through mining.......Many anthropogenic activities negatively affect the environment and stress the organisms living here in various ways. Due to global warming it is likely that freeze-thaw events will replace permanent freezing of soils in arctic regions. Metals are some of the most common contaminants in soil...... the Icelandic, freeze tolerant annelid worm, Enchytraeus albidus. Worms were exposed to one of three temperature treatments (constant +1.5⁰C, constant -6⁰C, or daily cycles between +1.5 and -6⁰C) in combination with one of several different copper (CuCl2) concentrations in soil. The results showed a distinct...

  17. The Sea of Marmara: New Locality for Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zedam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut and Gabrion, 1988 (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Caligidae from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaş Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut and Gabrion, 1988 (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Caligidae an ectoparasite of flatfishes, was reported for the first time in the Sea of Marmara Coasts.

  18. Feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) using fatty acid trophic markers in seston food in two salt lakes in South Siberia (Khakasia, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolomeev, A.; Sushchik, N.N.; Gulati, R.D.; Makhutova, O.N.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Zotina, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    During two vegetation seasons (2004–2005), we compared feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) populations inhabiting two neighboring salt lakes, Shira and Shunet, Khakasia, Russia, using fatty acid (FA) trophic markers. Sestonic FA composition in two lakes moderately

  19. Breeding biology of the freshwater copepoda, heliodiaptomus viduus (gurney) and its prospects as live food organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaff, K.

    2003-01-01

    The tropical freshwater copepoda, Heliodiaptomus viduus occur commonly in the peninsular India. This species is comparatively bigger (total mean length of female and male is 2.05 plus minus 0.09 mm and 1.7 plus minus 0.04 mm respectively) than other freshwater diaptomids. Aspects of reproductive biology such as sexual dimorphism, organization of female and male reproductive system, oogenesis, spermatogenesis and spermatophore formation are described for the first time. Details pertaining to fertilization, embryonic and post embryonic development of this specie is reported. Studies on live span and reproductive potential of this specie indicate continuous breeding with short interclutch period. Importance of the live food in aquahatcheries and prospects of H. viduus as alternate live food to Artemia nauplii is discussed. (author)

  20. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  1. Ergasilus coatiarus Sp. N. (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Ergasilidae) parasita dos filamentos branquiais de Cichla monoculus spix, 1831 (Perciforme: Cichlidae) da Amazônia Brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    ARAUJO, Cleusa Suzana de; VARELLA, Angela

    1998-01-01

    A fêmea de Ergasilus coatiarussp. n. (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Ergasilidae) é descrita dos filamentos branquiais de Cichla monoculusSpix, 1831, capturado na ilha da Marchantaria, próximo a Manaus, Brasil. A nova espécie difere das demais do gênero por apresentar apenas um segmento no exopódito da 4a perna e um espinho serrilhado na parte distal da articulação entre o 3º e 4º segmento da antena. The female of Ergasilus coatiarussp. n. (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Ergasilidae) is descri...

  2. An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G.A.; Bray, R. A.; Moravec, František; Trilles, J.-P.; Whittington, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 237-262 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Isopoda * Copepoda * Monogenea * Digenea * Cestoda * Nematoda * Serranidae * Epinephelinae * parasite biodiversity * coral reef * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  3. First record of Hamaticolax scutigerulus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae in Brazil, ectoparasite of the spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Mullidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cardoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bomolochidae Claus, 1875 is a copepod family with worldwide distribution that parasitizes marine fishes. This study provides the first report of Hamaticolax scutigerulus (Wilson, 1935 (Copepoda: Bomolochidae in the spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch, 1793, in the coastal waters of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Prevalence of 35%, mean intensity of infestation of 1.9±1.3 and mean abundance of 0.7±1.2 were found. The setae and spines of the leg armor of the Hamaticolax species were analyzed to identify the present species.

  4. Copepoda: Pandaridae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-04

    ,27(1) finely striated marginal membrane is present along the anterior and lateral margins of the cephalothorax of D. latifolia (Figure 1 & 4c), which no doubt fonns an effective seal against the host tissue. Posteriorly, however ...

  5. COPEPODA, THERODAMASIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    defined by Hewitt (1969) (referred to by him as Therodomasidae). This family contains only three genera: Therodamas Kroyer, 1863; Paeonodes Wilson, 1944; and Mugilicola Tripathi,. 1960. Therodamas and Paeonodes are both characterized by four pairs of legs, while Mugi!icola, which included until now only one ...

  6. Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-04-13

    Apr 13, 1987 ... movable (Kabata & Hewitt 1971) it appears probable that the sternal furca may be functional in acting as a supporting strut during attachment, thus enlarging the area under the cephalothorax and consequently the suction, which is necessary for attachment, as suggested by Wilson (1905). The presence of ...

  7. Copepoda: Kroyeriidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-10-28

    Oct 28, 1998 ... Introduction. Kroyeria, with 18 nominal species, is the largest of the three genera of the family Kroyeriidae (Deets 1994). The major host taxon for Kroyeria is the Carcharhiniformes, which con- stitutes an estimated 200 species of sharks. Kroyeria dispar was first described by Wilson (1935) from an ...

  8. Copepoda: Pandaridae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-04

    Mar 4, 1991 ... The second segment of the first antenna contains a number of smooth, short. stout setae (Figure 2a, b). The basal segment, however, lies ventrally under the frontal plates. (Figure 2a) and contains three types of setae (Figure 2c). Lateral setae contain numerous setules, and are bottle-brush-.

  9. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2015-11-18

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation.

  10. Prevalence of Mytilicola intestinalis (Copepoda: Mytilicolidae) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria: Hypotrichinidae) in marketable mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestri Trotti, G; Baccarani, E M; Giannetto, S; Giuffrida, A; Paesanti, F

    1998-03-05

    Marketable mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis traded with commercial certification from production sites in Italy and abroad (France, Spain) were examined for the presence of Mytilicola intestinalis (Copepoda: Mytilicolidae) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria: Hypotrichinidae) from October 1994 to February 1996. The prevalence of M. intestinalis was 4.1% and 4.7% respectively in mussels from Lerici (La Spezia) and S. Pietro in Volta (Venice), whereas it rose to 57.9% in the samples from Spain. M. intestinalis was absent in mussels from Chioggia (Venice), Ganzirri (Messina), Taranto, Trieste and France. The prevalence of U. cyprinae varied considerably, ranging from 0.3% in mussels from Trani (Bari) to 33.2% and 86.3% respectively in those from Chioggia and Trieste. It was 85.7% in samples from France and 63.7% in those from Spain.

  11. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990's and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance

  12. Copepod assemblage structure (Crustacea: Copepoda along a longitudinal environmental gradient in a tropical river-floodplain system, Brazil

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    Welinton Sousa Palhiarini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: In this study, we analyzed the structure of the copepod community along a longitudinal axis of the last undammed stretch of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, downstream of Porto Primavera reservoir. We hypothesized that (i copepod assemblage would show an increase in the abundance of organisms, species richness and specific diversity with the distance from the Porto Primavera reservoir, due to the arrival of species from adjacent lakes and tributaries; (ii copepod abundance and species richness would be higher in tributaries and adjacent lakes located at the floodplain, which show higher environmental heterogeneity and function as a species source; and (iii spatial patterns of copepod assemblage structure are related to the environmental gradient, since copepods show a rapid response to the variation of environmental conditions. Method Sampling was performed quarterly from August 2013 to July 2014, at the subsurface of the pelagic region. Sampling sites were located along the Paraná River, in seven of its tributaries, and in eight lakes located in its floodplain. Results We identified 29 species belonging to two families: Cyclopidae (21 species and Diaptomidae (eight species. On contrary of our first hypothesis, ANOVA results showed a significant decrease in copepod abundance in the downstream direction. Similarly, the tributaries showed higher values of ecological attributes in the upstream stretch. RDA results showed that in axis 1, the Paraná River and the lakes were positively correlated with conductivity, pH, temperature and suspended organic matter, characterized by the most abundant copepod species. The tributaries, on the other hand, were negatively correlated with turbidity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and depth. Axis 2 showed a positive correlation of the Paraná River with conductivity and suspended organic matter, and a higher abundance of Argyrodiaptomus azevedoi, Notodiaptomus iheringi, N. henseni, N

  13. Brasilochondria riograndensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Copepoda, Chondracanthidae a parasite of flounders of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Brasilochondria riograndensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Copepoda, Chondracanthidae a parasite of the flounder, Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1839, is described. The new genus has a spherical head a post-mandibular "neck" and two pairs of modified biramous legs. In these respects, it resembles Argentinochondria patagonensis Etchegoin, Timi & Sardella, 2003. In the Argentine genus, however, the bulbous head has a medial constriction and the posterior of the female lacks the lateral extensions that are present in the new genus. Pseudolernentoma brasiliensis Luque & Alves, 2003, also resembles the new genus but it lacks the lateral extensions of the trunk and the latter is cylindrical rather than flat. The second leg of the new genus is small and the endopod is shorter than the exopod. The other two genera have large second legs with subequal rami.Brasilochondria riograndensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Copepoda, Chondracanthidae, um parasito do linguado, Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1839, é descrito. O novo gênero tem uma cabeça esférica, um "pescoço" pós-mandíbular e dois pares de pernas que são birremes e modificados na fêmea. Nestes aspectos, ela parece com Argentinochondria patagonensis Etchegoin, Timi & Sardella, 2003. Nesta, no entanto, a cabeça é esférica com uma constrição medial e na parte posterior do tronco faltam as extensões póstero-laterais que o novo gênero possui. Pseudolernentoma brasiliensis Luque & Alves, 2003, é também parecido com o novo gênero, mas carece das extensões póstero-laterais e o mesmo tronco é cilíndrico em vez de achatado. A segunda perna no novo gênero é pequena e o endopodito é mais curto que o exopodito. Nos outros dois gêneros, as segundas pernas são grandes e os ramos são sub-iguais.

  14. Ergasilus coatiarus Sp. N. (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Ergasilidae) parasita dos filamentos branquiais de Cichla monoculus spix, 1831 (Perciforme: Cichlidae) da Amazônia Brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    ARAUJO,Cleusa Suzana de; VARELLA,Angela

    1998-01-01

    A fêmea de Ergasilus coatiarussp. n. (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Ergasilidae) é descrita dos filamentos branquiais de Cichla monoculusSpix, 1831, capturado na ilha da Marchantaria, próximo a Manaus, Brasil. A nova espécie difere das demais do gênero por apresentar apenas um segmento no exopódito da 4a perna e um espinho serrilhado na parte distal da articulação entre o 3º e 4º segmento da antena.

  15. Sublittoral Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda from the Magellan Straits and the Beagle Channel (Chile. Preliminary results of abundance and generic diversity

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    Kai Horst George

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of meiofauna were collected with a Multicorer during the Magellan `Victor Hensen´ Campaign of RV `Victor Hensen´ in 1994 at 62 stations along the Magellan Straits and the Beagle Channel. Seventeen samples were analysed in the framework of a larger project. Only 69 species of Harpacticoida are known from Chile so far, all of them inhabiting the littoral zone. The Magellan Campaign of RV `Victor Hensen´ provided the first opportunity to obtain sublittoral samples of meiobenthos of Chilean coasts. In these samples the Copepoda were represented by 4 of its orders: Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Poecilostomatoida and Harpacticoida, the latter exhibiting the highest abundances. Representatives of 19 harpacticoid families (6 of which are new for Chilean waters were identified in the samples. The species found in 15 of these families belong to 28 genera of which 18 are new to the Chilean fauna. With respect to taxa composition and distribution, the following preliminary results can be presented: the number of new families and new genera for the southern tip of South America increased considerably; a relatively high similarity between the Magellan Straits/Beagle Channel and areas of corresponding northern latitudes can be observed; the Magellan Straits and Beagle Channel show considerable differences with respect to taxa composition and diversity of the harpacticoid fauna.

  16. Sublittoral and bathyal Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda of the Magellan region. Composition, distribution and species diversity of selected major taxa

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    Kai Horst George

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Two expeditions, undertaken in 1994 and 1996, provided quantitatively sampled material of sublittoral and bathyal meiobenthos from the Paso Ancho of the Straits of Magellan, the Beagle Channel, and the Patagonian continental slope (Chile. To investigate whether these distinct geographic areas might also be characterised by different harpacticoid assemblages, qualitative and quantitative analyses of Copepoda Harpacticoida were carried out. At supraspecific level 25 harpacticoid families were found, as well as several species that could not yet be assigned to any major harpacticoid taxon. Due to the high amount of collected Harpacticoida, detailed investigations at species level had to be restricted to six taxa, namely the Ancorabolidae, Argestidae, Cletodidae, Diosaccinae, Paramesochridae, and Paranannopinae. The corresponding specimens were assigned to 122 species in 52 genera. More than 80% of them are new to science. Qualitative comparisons of both species composition and species distribution allow the three areas to be distinguished in terms of species richness. However, statistical analyses confirm these results only partly. Similarity analyses applying non-metrical multidimensional scaling, as well as diversity analyses using the rarefaction method, suggest that the observed differences in distribution and diversity patterns are due to small-scale, local conditions, which may overlay possible large-scale ones.

  17. A new species of Wellsopsyllus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Paramesochridae) from the deep Southern Ocean and remarks on its biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, Johanna; Kihara, Terue Cristina; Glatzel, Thomas; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2013-03-01

    The new deep-sea copepod species of the family Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) presented here was collected during the scientific ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity cruise II (ANDEEP II) to the Weddell Abyssal Plain and western Weddell Sea and the CROZet natural iron bloom and EXport experiment (CROZEX cruise) to the Crozet Isles in the Indian Ocean. The new species has been allocated to the subgenus Wellsopsyllus within the genus Wellsopsyllus Kunz, 1981, based on the 1-segmented endopods and 3-segmented exopods of swimming legs 2-4. Furthermore, the new species shows a 1-segmented exopod of the antenna. Wellsopsyllus ( W.) antarcticus sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by its small body size, the presence of two setae on the distal segment of the endopod of the first swimming leg, by the very small furcal rami, the extremely reduced endopods of second and third swimming legs, the reduced mandibular palp and maxillula, as well as by the size and armature of the fifth and sixth swimming legs in both sexes. Difficulties of the placement of the new species into a suitable genus show an insufficiency in the present family classification. In the future, a revision of the genus Wellsopsyllus is essential. With its presence in the western Weddell Sea and the Indian Ocean, the new species may have a wide distribution range. Furthermore, it is the first abyssal species of the genus Wellsopsyllus sampled outside of the Scotia Sea.

  18. Advances in taxonomy, ecology, and biogeography of Dirivultidae (copepoda associated with chemosynthetic environments in the deep sea.

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    Sabine Gollner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Copepoda is one of the most prominent higher taxa with almost 80 described species at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The unique copepod family Dirivultidae with currently 50 described species is the most species rich invertebrate family at hydrothermal vents.We reviewed the literature of Dirivultidae and provide a complete key to species, and map geographical and habitat specific distribution. In addition we discuss the ecology and origin of this family.Dirivultidae are only present at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and along the axial summit trough of midocean ridges, with the exception of Dirivultus dentaneus found associated with Lamellibrachia species at 1125 m depth off southern California. To our current knowledge Dirivultidae are unknown from shallow-water vents, seeps, whale falls, and wood falls. They are a prominent part of all communities at vents and in certain habitat types (like sulfide chimneys colonized by pompei worms they are the most abundant animals. They are free-living on hard substrate, mostly found in aggregations of various foundation species (e.g. alvinellids, vestimentiferans, and bivalves. Most dirivultid species colonize more than one habitat type. Dirivultids have a world-wide distribution, but most genera and species are endemic to a single biogeographic region. Their origin is unclear yet, but immigration from other deep-sea chemosynthetic habitats (stepping stone hypothesis or from the deep-sea sediments seems unlikely, since Dirivultidae are unknown from these environments. Dirivultidae is the most species rich family and thus can be considered the most successful taxon at deep-sea vents.

  19. Variação temporal do zooplâncton da Praia de Tramandaí, Rio Grande do Sul, com ênfase em Copepoda Temporal variation of the zooplankton from Tramandaí Beach, RS, southern Brazil, with emphasis on Copepoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana R. Avila

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a variação temporal da composição, abundância, diversidade e biomassa do zooplâncton da zona de arrebentação da Praia de Tramandaí, Rio Grande do Sul, amostragens quinzenais foram realizadas entre agosto de 2005 e agosto de 2006. Os arrastos foram efetuados com rede cilindro-cônica com 150 cm de comprimento, 50 cm de diâmetro de boca e malha de 300 µm. Dados de clorofila-a, direção do vento, corrente de deriva litorânea, salinidade, temperatura do ar e da água também foram obtidos. O grupo dos Copepoda foi responsável pela maior diversidade de espécies, sendo que Temora turbinata (Dana, 1849 apresentou maior abundância relativa e freqüência de ocorrência. Outras espécies de Copepoda também foram importantes numericamente como Acartia tonsa (Dana, 1849, Subeucalanus pileatus (Glesbrecht, 1888 e Ctenocalanus vanus (Glesbrecht, 1888. O Mysidacea Metamysidopsis elongata atlantica (Bascescu, 1968 apresentou freqüência de 58,33% e abundância relativa de 44%, sendo o pico de biomassa de mesozooplâncton (96 mg.m-3 registrado em setembro de 2005 correspondente ao máximo valor de densidade apresentado pela espécie (3.535 org.m-3. Informações sobre o zooplâncton desta região são muito escassos e os dados levantados servirão de base para o conhecimento dos processos biológicos que ocorrem na coluna d'água da Praia de Tramandaí.The temporal variability of density, species composition, biomass and diversity of the surf zone zooplankton from Tramandaí Beach, RS, Brazil, was studied between August 2005 and August 2006. Samples were taken forthnightly using a zooplankton net of 150 cm total length, 50 cm mouth diameter and 300 μm nylon mesh size. Data on clorofila-a, wind direction, longshore current, salinity, air and water temperature were taken as well. Copepoda presented the highest species diversity, being Temora turbinata (Dana, 1849 the species with higher relative abundance and

  20. INFLUÊNCIA DA ALIMENTAÇÃO NA TAXA DE SOBREVIVÊNCIA E DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Notodiaptomus cearensis WRIGHT, 1936 (CRUSTACEA: COPEPODA E Physiocypria schubarti FARKAS, 1958 (CRUSTACEA: OSTRACODA

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    Fabiana Rodrigues de Arruda Câmara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Os grupos zooplanctônico Copepoda e Ostracoda são constituídos por espécies que apresentam dominância em ecossistemas eutrofizados. O presente estudo baseado em ensaios experimentais teve como objetivo testar a sobrevivência, crescimento e desenvolvimento das espécies Notodiaptomus cearensis Wright, 1936 (Crustacea: Copepoda Calanoida e Physiocypria schubarti Farkas, 1958 (Crustacea: Ostracoda e interpretar a respeito das relações existentes entre Copepoda e Ostracoda. Dois testes experimentais foram realizados, utilizando a água bruta do reservatório Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves (ARG, Assú, Rio Grande do Norte. Para o primeiro ensaio, a espécie Ceriodaphnia dubia foi utilizada como organismo-teste a fim de verificar sua tolerância à toxicidade presumida na água bruta do reservatório e auxiliar nas explicações relacionadas ao crescimento e desenvolvimento de Copepoda e Ostracoda. O segundo teste foi conduzido utilizando as espécies N. cearensis e P. schubarti com o objetivo de verificar uma possível competição por recursos. Os resultados demonstraram uma correlação inversa entre as biomassas de Copepoda Calanoida e Ostracoda no reservatório Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves. Dois tipos de crescimento padrão foram observados: Ostracoda, P. schubarti apresenta taxa de crescimento relativamente constante independentemente do tipo de alimento oferecido, enquanto que Copepoda calanoida, N. cearensis, embora demonstre crescimento satisfatório quando alimentado com cianobactérias filamentosas, apresenta preferência por algas verdes. Portanto, os resultados não apoiam a hipótese de competição por alimento entre as espécies, levando em consideração a ampla variação sazonal de N. cearensis e P. schubarti e sua eventual coexistência na coluna d’água. P. schubarti não afeta o crescimento de N. cearensis, e a redução na densidade de N. cearensis ocorre devido a fatores inerentes à incapacidade de sobrevivência desta esp

  1. Molecular systematic of three species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida from the Atlantic Ocean: comparative analysis using 28S rDNA.

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    Georgina D Cepeda

    Full Text Available Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida are highly abundant, ecologically important, and widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Although there are valid and detailed descriptions of the species, routine species identifications remain challenging due to their small size, subtle morphological diagnostic traits, and the description of geographic forms or varieties. This study examined three species of Oithona (O. similis, O. atlantica and O. nana occurring in the Argentine sector of the South Atlantic Ocean based on DNA sequence variation of a 575 base-pair region of 28S rDNA, with comparative analysis of these species from other North and South Atlantic regions. DNA sequence variation clearly resolved and discriminated the species, and revealed low levels of intraspecific variation among North and South Atlantic populations of each species. The 28S rDNA region was thus shown to provide an accurate and reliable means of identifying the species throughout the sampled domain. Analysis of 28S rDNA variation for additional species collected throughout the global ocean will be useful to accurately characterize biogeographical distributions of the species and to examine phylogenetic relationships among them.

  2. Redescription of Tripaphylus musteli (van Beneden, 1851) (Copepoda: Sphyriidae) and the relegation of Paeon Wilson, 1919 to synonymy with Tripaphylus Richiardi in Anonymous, 1878.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, George W; Boxshall, Geoffrey A

    2017-07-01

    Tripaphylus musteli (van Beneden, 1851) (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Sphyriidae) is redescribed from an adult female collected from the branchial chamber of a starry smooth-hound, Mustelus asterias Cloquet (Carcharhiniformes, Triakidae), captured in the English Channel off Portland, UK. The new account of T. musteli is the first based on a complete adult female and highlighted the lack of a robust distinction separating Tripaphylus Richiardi, in Anonymous, 1878 and Paeon Wilson, 1919 prompting us to relegate Paeon to a junior subjective synonym of Tripaphylus. In the light of this synonymy the eight former species of Paeon are transferred to Tripaphylus as follows: T. ferox (Wilson, 1919) new combination, T. elongatus (Wilson, 1932) new combination, T. vassierei (Delamare Deboutteville & Nuñes-Ruivo, 1954) new combination, T. lobatus (Kirtisinghe, 1964) new combination, T. asymboli (Turner, Kyne & Bennett, 2003) new combination, T. versicolor (Wilson, 1919) new combination, T. australis (Kabata, 1993) new combination, and T. triakis (Castro Romero, 2001) new combination. Comparisons between terminology used in this report and that in the literature indicate that all transformed adult females of Tripaphylus probably possess a full complement of cephalic appendages and maxillipeds. All limbs, with the exception of the maxillae share a general morphological similarity to the corresponding appendages of conspecific males. The maxilla of the transformed adult female of Tripaphylus is a small digitiform protuberance associated with a swelling in some species.

  3. Copepoda:Cyclopoida

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. thermophilus Kiefer, 1929 (type locality, Java), H. spinifer Kiefer, 1935 (type locality India, near Calcutta), H. venezuelaensis Lindberg, 1954 (type locality Lake. Maracaibo, Venezuela), and the new species from Cape. Town. In H. venezuelaensis the spines are very blunt and are directed (in dorsal view) as much laterally ...

  4. Effect of temperature and salinity on egg hatching and description of the life cycle of Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) infecting barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazenor, Alexander K; Hutson, Kate S

    2013-10-01

    The parasite Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) is a major threat to the sustained mariculture of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae). We investigated the effect of water temperature and salinity on egg hatching success of L. latis and describe the life cycle for the first time. Wild and sea-caged L. calcarifer examined in tropical north Australia exhibited similar parasite prevalence (range: 80-100%) and mean parasite intensity (range: 3-6), whereas land-based maricultured fish were not infected. Hatching success and time to first and last hatch was determined for a range of water temperature (22, 30, 32 and 34°C) and salinity (0, 11, 22, 35 and 40‰) combinations representing current and predicted climate conditions. There was a significant interaction between water temperature and salinity on the hatching success of L. latis nauplii. Eggs hatched in all temperature treatments, with the greatest hatching success at 30°C and 32°C (98 and 92% success, respectively) in 35‰. Hatching did not occur at 0‰ and was severely reduced at 11‰ (1.6% success). Hatching began within 6h at all water temperatures with >95% of eggs hatched within 30h at 30, 32 and 34°C and within 60h at 22°C. Adult parasites differed from the original description by the presence of the parabasal flagellum, small setae on the legs and caudal rami and minor incongruences regarding morphological measurements. The life cycle of L. latis includes three free living stages and five parasitic stages. Although L. latis exhibits broad environmental tolerance, freshwater can be used as an effective management strategy to break the life cycle in aquaculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The zooplankton of Santa Catarina continental shelf in southern Brazil with emphasis on Copepoda and Cladocera and their relationship with physical coastal processes El zooplancton de la plataforma continental de Santa Catarina, sur de Brasil con énfasis en Copepoda y Cladocera y sus relaciones con procesos físicos costeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Domingos-Nunes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies have been carried out to exclusively investigate the zooplankton community of Santa Catarina State continental shelf, despite the economic and ecological importance of the area. This coastal region of southern Brazil presents highly relevant oceanographic processes, such as the strong influence of continental inputs, resurgence in the Cabo de Santa Marta Grande and River Plata plume water to the south. Two sampling cruises were carried out, in December 2005 and May 2006, in order to study temporal hydrological variations, and their influence on the biota of the region. Zooplankton samples for analysis were obtained by oblique hauls with Bongo nets at 33 sampling stations arranged in profiles perpendicular to the coast on each cruise. The predominant groups found in the samples were Copepoda, Cladocera, Salpidae and Chaetognatha, which presented higher densities at the stations closer to the coast. In the case of the December 2005 cruise, the salinity and temperature gradients perpendicular to the coast, promoted by the continental inputs to the north of the area and by the upwelling to the south, determined the limits of distribution of Acartia lilljeborgi and Penilia avirostris. However, the temperature and salinity gradients longitudinal to the coast determined on the May 2006 cruise did not explain the species distribution, indicating that biotic forcing mechanisms may have been active in the ecology of the system during this period.A pesar de la importancia económica y ecológica del área todavía no habían sido realizados estudios exclusivamente destinados a la investigación de la comunidad zooplanctónica de la plataforma continental del Estado de Santa Catarina. Esta región costera del sur de Brasil presenta procesos oceanográficos de alta relevancia, tales como fuerte influencia de aportes continentales, resurgencia en el Cabo de Santa Marta Grande y la pluma de agua del río Plata en el sur. Se efectuaron dos

  6. Systematics of the Phyllognathopodidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida: re-examination of Phyllognathopus viguieri (Maupas, 1892 and Parbatocamptus jochenmartensi Dumont and Maas, 1988, proposal of a new genus for Phyllognathopus bassoti Rouch, 1972, and description of a new species of Phyllognathopus

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    Diana Galassi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Phyllognathopodidae (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida is heavily affected by the floating taxonomic status of the type-genus Phyllognathopus. A revision of the different character states displayed by members of the family is presented, and new phylogenetically informative characters are described, enlarging the analysis to the remaining genera of the family, Parbatocamptus and Allophyllognathopus. Phyllognathopus viguieri (Maupas, 1892 and Parbatocamptus jochenmartensi Dumont and Maas, 1988 are redescribed in detail, and Phyllognathopus inexspectatus sp. n. is described from ground water in Italy. The new genus Neophyllognathopus is established to accommodate Phyllognathopus bassoti Rouch, 1972, originally collected from Long Island (Papua - New Guinea, and subsequently recorded also from the Bantayan Island (Philippines, and from the Indian subcontinent. The new genus is presently monotypic and is easily defined by the unique construction and morphology of leg 5 in both male and female, of male leg 6, and by the peculiar ornamentation of male third and fourth urosomites. Biogeographical and ecological considerations are presented for members of the family.

  7. A new genus of Ectinosomatidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from sublittoral sediments in Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil, including an updated key to genera and notes on Noodtiella Wells, 1965

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    Terue Kihara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Both sexes of a new genus and species of Ectinosomatidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from sublittoral sediments collected on the inner continental shelf in Ubatuba, São Paulo State (Brazil are described in detail. Chaulionyx gen. n. (type species: C. paivacarvalhoi sp. n. differs from all known genera in the presence of a conspicuous bifid spine on the prehensile P1 endopod. It can be differentiated from other genera with a prehensile endopod (Halophytophilus Brian, 1919; Bradyellopsis Brian, 1925; Klieosoma Hicks & Schriever, 1985 by the presence of distinctive subrectangular middorsal pores on the urosomites and the unarmed male sixth legs. The genus Lineosoma Wells, 1965 is recognized as a paraphyletic taxon and relegated to a junior subjective synonym of Noodtiella Wells, 1965. Arenosetella pectinata Chappuis, 1954a is removed from its floating position in Ectinosomoides Nicholls, 1945, transferred to the genus Noodtiella as N. pectinata comb. n. and considered the senior subjective synonym of N. toukae Mitwally & Montagna, 2001. Dichotomous keys are provided for the identification of the 18 valid species of Noodtiella and the 21 valid genera of the family Ectinosomatidae. Halophytophilus aberrans Wells & Rao, 1987 is placed species incertae sedis in the family.

  8. (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) from southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-08-22

    Aug 22, 1988 ... The three segments each bear 7-4-10 setae successively. The terminal segment bears one bifid seta. Second antenna three-segmented. (Figure 2a). Basal segment stout and about twice as long as second segment. Third segment transformed into a stout, sclerotized hook articulating laterally with second.

  9. (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1976-12-09

    Dec 9, 1976 ... Republic of South Africa, within the Indian Ocean region. Description. Female. Body bent in a characteristically tegastid manner (Fig. 1). Cephalothorax ventrolaterally pointed (Fig. 2). Posterior edge of the cephalothorax forming a blunt angle (see asterisk). Genital segment rounded in lateral view (Fig. 3).

  10. Expression analysis of the Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα1 and TNFα2 in response to parasites Pseudocycnus appendiculatus (Copepoda) and Didymosulcus katsuwonicola (Digenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Bušelić, Ivana; Trumbić, Željka; Bočina, Ivana; Šprung, Matilda; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-08-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in teleost defence against numerous types of pathogens, therefore are often used as biomarkers during various infections. In order to evaluate Atlantic bluefin tuna IL-1β, TNFα1 and TNFα2 induction by PAMPs, we quantified their expression during in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes by LPS and Poly I:C. Furthermore, their role in acute and chronic parasitic infection was examined during natural infection of Pseudocycnus appendiculatus (Copepoda) and Didymosulcus katsuwonicola (Digenea), as well as during leukocyte exposure to total protein extracts isolated from two parasite species. Induction of ABT IL-1β and TNFα2 by PAMPs and protein extracts from D. katsuwonicola and P. appendiculatus, as well as during natural infection with two parasites, suggests these cytokines play an important role in inflammation, being engaged in controlling parasite infections, in contrast to ABT TNFα1. Cellular innate response to the digenean D. katsuwonicola showed rather chronic character, resulting with parasite encapsulation in connective tissue. Mast cells, eosinophils, goblet cells, and occasional rodlet cells found at the site of infection, along with the induction of TNFα2, suggest the presence of a moderate inflammatory reaction that fails to seriously endanger digenean existence. In contrast, copepod P. appendiculatus, attached to the gill epithelium by clamping, caused direct tissue disruption with undergoing necrotic or apoptotic processes, and extensive proliferation of rodlet and goblet cells. Differential expression patterns of target cytokines in tissue surrounding two parasites and in vitro PBL model suggest that quality and quantity of tuna immune response is conditioned by parasite adaptive mechanisms and pathogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution and biogeography of the Paradiaptominae (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are endemic to Africa with the exception of four species, Metadiaptomus asiaticus (Asia and Mongolia), M. gauthieri (Africa and Madagascar), Paradiaptomus greeni (India and Sri Lanka) and Neolovenula alluaudi (Canary Islands, North Africa, Baltic and Mediterranean countries). The North African species ...

  12. Zur Biologie von Paramphiascella fulvofasciata (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe

    1986-09-01

    The benthic harpacticoid copepod Paramphiascella fulvofasciata Rosenfield & Coull was collected from holdfasts of Laminaria hyperborea from a subtidal area of Helgoland (North Sea). All developmental stages of P. fulvofasciata are raptorial feeders. The feeding of the nauplii is advanced by a marginal setule-crest of the labrum which prevents food-particles from being swept away. The oral appendages of the copepodites circumscribe a frustal space ventral to the mouth which facilitates uptake of food-particles. The nauplii are not able to swim and perform stalking movements with their antennal endopodites. Good swimming ability as well as digging-in-behaviour and negative phototaxis of the copepodites indicate epi- as well as inbenthic mode of life. Several life-cycle characters are described. Precopula lasts ca. one day. The mean egg-number is 27, and mean egg-diameter is 87 × 75 µm. The number of nauplii per egg (double)-sac amounts to 25 30. Developmental time at 19°C is 6 9 days (nauplii) and 20 24 days (copepodites). The whole developmental period lasts 28 days. The maximal lifespan in the laboratory is 193 days. Sex-ratio is almost balanced. Females produce egg-sacs more than 3.5 times during their life period. Seasonal effects on reproductive activity have not been detected in laboratory cultures.

  13. A report of symbiotic Siphonostomatoida (Copepoda) infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collected copepod specimens were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol and studied with the stereo- and light microscopes. Most of the examined hosts (38) were infected with symbiotic siphonostomatoids. Ten different species representing five families were identified. Of these, seven represent new host records while four ...

  14. Histopathological changes induced by copepoda parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-01-13

    Jan 13, 2014 ... feeding involves external digestion (Halisch, 1940;. Kabata, 1970); parasites produce digestive secretions which partially dissolve tissue, allowing easier ingestion. As the number of attached parasites increases, the destruction of respiratory epithelium progresses. Erosion can extend beyond the epithelial ...

  15. Copepoda parasites in economically important fish, Mugilidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FUNMILAYO

    of economically important fish, both from the wild and fish farms, thus making them difficult to market. In this study, copepod parasitic ... Among the parasites, copepode family is commonly found on fishes cultured in brackish ... Sakiti, 1997; Gbankoto et al., 2003) but no work has been carried out on parasites of mugilidae fish ...

  16. The developmental stages of Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-06-15

    Jun 15, 1988 ... reared in the laboratory. These were correlated with animals collected in the field. Nauplii were measured from the anterior margin to the tip of the caudal region, excluding spines. Copepodids were measured from the anterior border to the end of the caudal rami. The upper size limit reported for each stage ...

  17. Evaluation of Mesocyclops aspericornis (Cyclopoida:Cyclopidae) and Toxorhynchites speciosus as integrated predators of mosquitoes in tire habitats in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M D; Hendrikz, J K; Greenwood, J G; Kay, B H

    1996-09-01

    This study addressed biological control of peridomestic Aedes notoscriptus, known to be a highly effective colonizer of tire habitats and a possible vector of Ross River virus. A laboratory trial of the compatibility of the predators Mesocyclops aspericornis and Toxorhynchites speciosus in small container habitats showed that 4th-instar Tx. speciosus did not significantly affect M. aspericornis mortality. Introduced M. aspericornis and naturally occurring Tx. speciosus were found to form a compatible predator pair for reduction of larval Ae. notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus populations in tire habitats. Over 22 months of field survey, 97% of tires without predators contained mosquito larvae, at a median density of 43 larvae/liter. By comparison, 51% of tires containing both predator species held mosquito larvae at a median density of 4 larvae/liter. Predation by Tx. speciosus persisted for the duration of the study. The inability of the Lake Kurwongbah strain of M. aspericornis to tolerate temperatures of < or = 10 degrees C, which are prevalent in Brisbane during winter, resulted in a failure to deliver persistent reduction of mosquitoes in tires. The temperature-dependent population characteristics of M. aspericornis emphasize the long-recognized importance of matching a biological control candidate's physiological requirements to the environment in which control is sought.

  18. Membrane properties of Enchytraeus albidus originating from contrasting environments: a comparative analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fisker, K. V.; Bouvrais, H.; Overgaard, J.; Schöttner, Konrad; Ipsen, J. H.; Holmstrup, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 185, č. 4 (2015), s. 389-400 ISSN 0174-1578 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : membrane fluidity * fluorescence anisotropy * bending rigidity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.884, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00360-015-0895-7

  19. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Spring, MD 20910, visiting the HMS website at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/sfa/hms/ , or by contacting Rick...: Chapter VI PART 600--MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS 1. The authority citation for part 600 continues to... MIGRATORY SPECIES 3. The authority citation for part 635 continues to read as follows: Authority: 16 U.S.C...

  20. Soil salinity increases survival of freezing in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patrício Silva, A. L.; Holmstrup, M.; Košťál, Vladimír; Amorim, M. J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 14 (2013), s. 2732-2740 ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ice content * freeze tolerance * osmolality Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2013

  1. Spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna Risso 1826 (Copepoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The selection of a specific site of attachment by a copepod parasite is determined by a set of mostly unknown factors. The spatial distribution of Nemesis lamna on the gill filaments of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias was investigated. The complete set of left gills of 11 hosts was examined and the location, orientation ...

  2. Notodelphyidae and Botryllophilidae (Copepoda) from the West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1970-01-01

    Notodelphyidae and Botryllophilidae are families of cyclopoid copepods, usually associated with Tunicata. Although SARS (1921) considered the families closely related, and placed them together in his suborder Notodelphyoidea, LANG (1946) showed that this group was polyphyletic. The two families are

  3. Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda) from the Beagle Channel, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez-Morales, E.; Ramírez, F.C.; Derisio, C.

    2008-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods were collected during zooplankton surveys in the Beagle Channel at the southernmost end of South America. These specimens represent two species of Monstrillopsis, one of them undescribed, and one new species of Monstrilla. Monstrillopsis igniterra n. sp. is related to forms of

  4. A new species of Schizopera (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Fuentes-Reinés

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present contribution aims at the description of a new species of the genus Schizopera. Materials and methods. Water samples were collected in littoral areas with mangrove and macrophytes, and in the limnetic zone. Twenty five liters of water were taken. Water samples were filtered with a zooplankton net (45μm and preserved in 70% ethanol. The filtered samples were concentrated to 100 ml and examined in a Bogorov camera. Copepods were separated. Observations and drawings of S. evelynae sp. nov. were made at a magnification of 1000X. Results. Schizopera evelynae sp. nov. seems to be closely related to S. giselae Jiménez -Álvarez 1988 and to S. pratensis Noodt 1958 based on the armature formula of P1-P4, but can be separated from these two species based on the relative length of P1ENP, length/width ratio of P1ENP2, relative length of the outer proximal and distal spines on P4EXP3, shape of the exopod and relative length of the exopodal setae of the female P5, shape and length/width ratio of the male P2ENP2, and male P5 baseoendopodal lobe:exopod length ratio. A key to the species of Schizopera from America is given. Conclusion. A new species of the genus Schizopera is described. The Colombian material shares most characters with S. giselae and S. pratensis.

  5. A checklist of the marine Calanoida (Crustacea, copepoda) of Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on analysis of a total of 725 zooplankton samples collected during series of surveys of the marine ecosystem of the continental shelf along the Nigeria Gulf of Guinea, between 1999 and 2010. The list encompasses a total of 55 species of Calanoida in 14 families and 27 genera. At the genus level, the ...

  6. Two New Species of Clausidiidae (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, Hosung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Clausidiidae, each belonging to the genera Clausidium Kossmann, 1875 and Hippomolgus G. O. Sars, 1917, are described from Korea. Clausidium maximus n. sp. is an associate of a burrowing decapod of the genus Callianassa living on the Korean coast of the Yellow Sea and has, as diagnostic characters, two inner setae on the second endopodal segment of legs 2-4, nine elements on the third exopodal segment of leg 4, an inner seta on the second exopodal segment of male leg 1, and a relatively large body size, exceeding 2.0 mm in the female. Hippomolgus limiticus n. sp. was found in the bottom sediments in the East China Sea. It is similar to H. furcifer G. O. Sars, but distinghuishable from the latter species by having shorter caudal rami, 4-segmented female maxilliped, and inner coxal spine (instead of seta on legs 2 and 3. This is the first record on the genera Clausidium and Hippomolgus in the West Pacific.

  7. Distribution of scolecithricidae (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Devi, K.S.

    was occasionally migrating to the surface. Even though these species were widely distributed in the Indian Ocean, in general, S. danae, S. curtus and S. echinatus were most abundant in the equatorial waters, S. bradyi and S. dentata lived mainly south...

  8. Copepoda associated with West Indian Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1975-01-01

    The present material has been collected at three occasions: during a stay on Curaçao and Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles) in 1958/59, and again in 1973/74, and during a visit in 1963 to La Parguera, Puerto Rico. The copepods recorded here as associates of Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia

  9. First case of superficial infection due to Naganishia albida (formerly Cryptococcus albidus in Iran: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Aghaei Gharehbolagh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: N. albida can be the causative agent of some superficial infections. This is the first report on the successful detection and treatment of a superficial skin infection due to N. albida by oral itraconazole.  

  10. The combined effect of freeze thaw events and heavy metal pollution leads to distinct lethal synergy in Enchytraeus albidus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Sara Wincentz; Slotsbo, Stine; Holmstrup, Martin

    synergy between freeze-thaw cycles and copper stress, leading to an elevated mortality of enchytraeids subjected to these conditions. Enchytraeids subjected to conditions of constant freezing and copper stress were not as severely affected. To examine this synergy an array of analyses were conducted...

  11. Onderzoek naar de geschiktheid van de potwormsoorten Enchytraeus albidus en E. crypticus (Oligochaeta, Annelida) in bodemecotoxicologisch onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven van Breemen EM; Baerselman R; Notenboom J; ECO

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a research on the use of enchytraeids in soil ecotoxicology. Actually many soil ecotoxicological research is restricted to the earthworm Eisenia andrei/fetida limiting possibilities for generalisation and ecologically relevant test results. This study on enchytraeids consits of

  12. Onderzoek naar de geschiktheid van de potwormsoorten Enchytraeus albidus en E. crypticus (Oligochaeta, Annelida) in bodemecotoxicologisch onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven-van Breemen EM; Baerselman R; Notenboom J; ECO

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a research on the use of enchytraeids in soil ecotoxicology. Actually many soil ecotoxicological research is restricted to the earthworm Eisenia andrei/fetida limiting possibilities for generalisation and ecologically relevant test results. This study on enchytraeids consits

  13. Influence of the copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (Crustacea: Cyclopidae on the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in fresh water Influência do copépode Mesocyclops longisetus (Crustacea: Cyclopidae na sobrevivência de Vibrio cholerae O1 em água doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bastos Araújo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In an experimental microcosm, an analysis was performed of the influence exerted by freshwater Mesocyclops longisetus copepods on the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 serovar Inaba. In the State of Ceará, copepods are used in the control of Aedes aegypti larvae. The system consisted of water with a salinity of 0.27‰ and pH 7.5, which after sterilizing filtration was distributed into seven flasks with a volume of 400 ml; in each of six flasks, 10 live copepods were inoculated along with 1 ml of an 8-hour culture of Vibrio cholerae O1 at 37ºC in Alkaline Peptone Water, resulting in a concentration of 3.80x10(4 colony-forming units. The control flask contained only the water with the same bacterial suspension. The system was maintained for six days at room temperature (25-28ºC, and daily duplicate counts were performed in TCBS Agar. Results confirmed a clear association between Vibrio cholerae O1 and the live copepods, based on survival of the bacteria at compatible levels with the initial inoculation until the sixth day of the analysis.Foi analisada num microcosmo experimental a influência exercida por copépodes de água doce da espécie Mesocyclops longisetus na sobrevivência de V. cholerae O1 sorovar Inaba. Os copépodes são utilizados no controle de larvas de Aedes aegypti no Estado do Ceará. O sistema estava constituído de água com salinidade de 0,27‰ e pH 7,5, que após filtração esterilizante foi distribuída em sete frascos em volumes de 400 ml, sendo que em cada um dos seis frascos foram inoculados dez copépodes vivos e 1 ml de uma cultura de oito horas a 37ºC em água peptonada alcalina (pH 8,5 de V. cholerae O1, resultando uma concentração de 3,80x10(4 unidades formadoras de colônias. O controle continha apenas a água com a mesma suspensão bacteriana. O sistema foi mantido durante seis dias à temperatura ambiente (25 ­ 28ºC e, diariamente, foram realizadas as contagens em duplicata em Ágar TCBS. Os resultados evidenciaram uma nítida associação de V. cholerae com os copépodes vivos, através da sobrevivência bacteriana em níveis compatíveis com o inóculo inicial até o sexto dia da análise.

  14. Miocene cyclopid copepod from a saline paleolake in Mojave, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hołyńska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are remarkably few direct fossil records of Copepoda, which implies that current estimates of the lineage divergence times and inferences on the historical biogeography remain highly dubious for these small-sized crustaceans. The Cyclopidae, a predominantly freshwater copepod family with 1000+ species and distributed worldwide, has no fossil record at all. Recent collections from the middle Miocene Barstow Formation in Southern California resulted in ample material of finely preserved cyclopid fossils, including both adult and larval stages. To document the antennulary setation pattern in the adult and copepodid instars we used a coding system that is coherent between sexes and developmental stages. The majority of the cyclopid fossils, coming from saline lake environment, represent the modern genus Apocyclops, a euryhaline, thermophilic group occurring both in the New World and Old World. A new species Apocyclops californicus is described, based on the short medial spine and spiny ornamentation of the free segment of leg 5, spinule ornamentation of pediger 5, and well-developed protuberances of the intercoxal sclerite of leg 4. The presence of antennal allobasis and the features of the swimming legs unambiguously place the Miocene Apocyclops in the A. panamensis-clade, a predominantly amphi-Pacific group. The middle Miocene fossils with clear affinities to a subgroup of Apocyclops imply an early Miocene or Paleogene origin of the genus. Based on the geographic patterns of the species richness and morphology in Apocyclops and its presumed closest relative, genus Metacyclops, we hypothesize that: (i the ancestor of Apocyclops, similar in morphology to some cave-dweller Metacyclops occurring today in the peri-Mediterranean region, might have arrived in North America from Europe via the Thulean North Atlantic bridge in the late Paleocene–early Eocene; (ii Eocene termination of the Thulean land connection might have resulted in the

  15. Işıklı Gölü ve Kaynaklarının (Çivril-Denizli Crustacea Faunası.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aygen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Işıklı Gölü Crustacea faunasının taksonomik açıdan incelenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Bu amaçla Şubat 1998-Ocak 1999 ayları arasında, gölde ve göle akan kaynak bölgesinde belirlenen 6 istasyondan aylık periyotlarla biyolojik örnekler ve su örnekleri alınmıştır. Araştırma sonunda Işıklı Gölü ve Kaynağı’nda bulunan Crustacea faunasının başlıca Cladocera (16 tür, Copepoda (12 tür, Ostracoda (1 tür, Amphipoda (2 tür, Isopoda (1 tür, Mysidacea (1 tür ve Decapoda (1 tür gruplarından oluştuğu saptanmıştır. Tespit edilen türlerden Cladocera grubundan Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Diaphanosoma mongolianum, Ceriodaphnia pulchella, Simocephalus vetulus, Macrothrix laticornis, Alona rectangula, Alona guttata, Graptoleberis testudinaria, Leydigia leydigi, Biapertura affinis, Chydorus sphaericus, Pleuroxus aduncus ve Disparalona rostrata; Copepoda grubundan Macrocyclops albidus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops speratus, Eucyclops macruroides, Metacyclops gracilis, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Cyclops vicinus, Cyclops abyssorum, Cyclops strenuus, Megacyclops viridis, Acanthocyclops robustus, Canthocamptus staphylinus; Ostracoda grubundan Psychrodromus olivaceus; Amphipoda grubundan Gammarus balcanicus, Gammarus obnixus; Isopoda grubundan Asellus aquaticus türleri Işıklı Gölü’nden ilk kez bildirilmektedir

  16. Population dynamics of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda; Harpacticoida) in exploited mass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudy, R.; Guerin, J. P.

    Three cultures of Tisbe holothuriae in 101 tanks were harvested each 7 or 10 to 12 days at a rate of 50%. The most frequently harvested culture showed the highest yield. At lower exploitation rates a higher rate of sea water renewal resulted in a higher production. In the cultures, variations in sex ratio, ovigerous rate, and number of eggs per sac contributed to a stabilization of the egg production. More frequent harvesting favoured the ovigerous rate and a higher renewal rate of the medium resulted in more eggs per sac. The growth rate of the population was estimated from calculated values for birth rate and death rate, and this estimate was compared with the observed growth rate. The quality of the sea water medium in mass cultures was investigated and discussed in its effects on population dynamics.

  17. Ecology of Pleuromamma indica Wolfenden (Copepoda - Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswathy, M.; Iyer, H.K.

    , strong oxygen minimum above 500m depth and a wide range of salinity varying from 32 x 10-3 in Bay of Bengal to more than 37 x 10 -3 in the northern Arabian Sea were characteristics of the study area. P. indica showed a positive correlation with salinity...

  18. Selective feeding of Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda, Calanoida) in temperate estuaries: model and field observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tackx, M.L.M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Gasparini, S.; Irigoien, X.; Billionesa, R.; Daroa, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The copepod Eurytemora affinis generally lives under estuarine conditions, where the suspended particulate matter (SPM) is strongly dominated by non-living particles. This article investigates as to how far E. affinis is capable of feeding selectively on phytoplankton under these extreme

  19. Antennule development during copepodite phase of some representatives of Harpacticoida (Copepoda, Crustacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe

    1989-01-01

    The copepodite antennule development of representatives of 6 harpacticoid families is studied and discussed in detail and that of 8 genera of harpacticoids from 7 families is schematically illustrated. Twenty-seven genera out of 17 harpacticoid families are compared on the basis of own

  20. Copepoda (Siphonostomatoida) associated with Ophiuroidea in Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humes, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Three new siphonostomatoid copepods are associated with Ophiuroidea in the tropical western Atlantic. Collocheres vervoorti spec. nov., from Ophiothrix angulata in Jamaica, has an elongate, gently tapered genital double-somite in the female and the second segment of leg 5 has a distal outer notch.

  1. Mesozooplankton distribution in the Spermonde Archipelago (Indonesia, Sulawesi) with special reference to the Calanoida (Copepoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornils, Astrid; Schulz, Jan; Schmitt, Petra; Lanuru, Mahatma; Richter, Claudio; Schnack-Schiel, Sigrid B.

    2010-12-01

    In September 2005 the mesozooplankton distribution, taxonomic composition and community structure were studied on four cross-shelf and one coastal transects in the Spermonde Archipelago off Makassar (SW Sulawesi). A total of 47 higher taxonomic groups and 89 calanoid copepod species were identified. Copepods outnumbered the other mesozooplankton taxa with 29 to 69%, increasing in importance towards the offshore stations. Appendicularians ranked second (16-24%) followed at the offshore stations by chaetognaths (4.5%) and, at shelf and coastal stations by echinoderm pluteus larvae (11-15%). Within the calanoids, species of the family Paracalanidae, especially Paracalanus cf. parvus, were dominant at all stations. Other abundant families were Temoridae (6.5-17%), Acartiidae (7.2%) and Pontellidae (6.2%) at shelf and coastal stations while Clausocalanidae (8.7%) and Calanidae (6.7) were more abundant at offshore stations. To investigate the mesozooplankton distribution the 25 stations were grouped into 3 geographical zones based on their topographical and hydrographical differences (coastal, shelf and offshore zone). Some higher zooplankton taxa and about half of the calanoid species occurred only in one or two categories. In general the abundant taxa were spread throughout the Archipelago. To investigate their distribution the abundance data were subjected to a multivariate discriminant function analysis (MDFA). The results revealed that the composition of the mesozooplankton community changed from the coastal zone with a high abundance of meroplankton and neritic copepod species to an offshore community with a higher abundance of holoplanktonic organisms and oceanic copepod species.

  2. Copepoda associated with West Indian Invertebrates – II Cancerillidae, Micropontiidae (Siphonostoma)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Humes, Arthur G.; Gooding, Richard U.

    1963-01-01

    Our thanks are due to Mrs. R. E. TEAGLE, British Museum (Natural History), London, and Dr. ELISABETH DEICHMANN, Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, Harvard College, Cambridge, for identifying the echinoderm hosts from Curaçao and Jamaica respectively. Support by grants from the Netherlands Foundation for

  3. Seasonal variability of planktonic copepods (Copepoda: Crustacea in a tropical estuarine region in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Oliveira Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caravelas River estuary and adjacent coastal region were studied during the rainy and dry seasons of 2003-2004 to assess the copepod community structure. Abiotic and biotic parameters were measured, and the total density, frequency and percentage of copepod taxa were determined for each sampling period. Copepod densities showed significant differences between sampling periods, with higher densities in the rainy seasons (Mean: 90,941.80 ind.m-3; S.D.: 26,364.79. The sampling stations located to the north and south, in the coastal region adjacent to the Caravelas River estuary presented the lowest copepod density values. The copepod assemblage was composed mainly of estuarine and estuarine/coastal copepods. The seasonal variations in temperature and salinity influenced the abundance of species during the rainy and dry seasons, with the following dominant species alternating: Paracalanus quasimodo Bowman, 1971 in the rainy season of 2003, Parvocalanus crassirostris Dahl, 1894 in the dry season of 2003 and Acartia lilljeborgii Giesbrecht, 1892 in the rainy and dry seasons of 2004. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling indicated differences in copepod assemblages between sampling periods, but not between sampling stations.

  4. Predation on Mosquito Larvae by Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in the Presence of Alternate Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ram; Ramakrishna Rao, T.

    2003-11-01

    The cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, a dominant invertebrate predator in many shallow ponds and temporary water bodies in northern India, feeds on cladocerans, rotifers, ciliates and when present, on mosquito larvae also. We studied in the laboratory the prey consumption rates of the copepod on first and fourth instar larvae of two species of mosquito (Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus) in relation to their density. We also studied its prey selectivity with mosquito larvae in the presence of an alternate prey (the cladocerans-either Moina macrocopa or Ceriodaphnia cornuta) in different proportions. With either mosquito species, the copepod actively selected Instar-I larvae, avoiding the Instar-IV larvae, and with either instar, selected Anopheles stephensi over Culex quinquefasciatus. When prey choice included the cladoceran as an alternate prey, the copepod selected the cladoceran only when the other prey was Instar-IV mosquito larvae. Our results point to the potential and promise of M. thermocyclopoides as a biological agent for controlling larval populations of vectorially important mosquito species.

  5. Vertical distribution, feeding and vulnerability to tactile predation in Metridia longa (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2013-12-01

    We assessed the vertical distribution and feeding of the calanoid copepod Metridia longa in the Oslofjord, Norway during winter and spring 2006. Adult females of Metridia longa inhabited the whole 200 m deep-water column. Their distribution was shallower at night than during the day. Enumeration of egested faecal pellets suggested that feeding activity was greater at night than during the day and that more pellets were produced by individuals collected at shallow depths vs. by individuals found deeper. There was no pronounced difference between months in feeding activity. Although the hypothesis is that they prey on Calanus eggs and nauplii, scanning of Metridia faecal pellets by PCR using Calanus-specific primers did not confirm the presence of any Calanus prey DNA. Most pellets had a greenish colour, implying herbivorous feeding. Feeding is related to swimming, and the actively swimming Metridia would presumably be vulnerable to tactile invertebrate predators. However, predation experiments where the carnivorous copepod Pareuchaeta norvegica was offered similar-sized Metridia and Calanus proved that Pareuchaeta consumed the less-active Calanus, but not the Metridia. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Primeiro registro de Caligus mutabilis (Copepoda) em cultivos de Mycteroperca microlepis (Perciformes: Serranidae) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches, Eduardo Gomes; Kerber, Claudia Ehlers; Paschoal, Fabiano; Luque, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Sea lice (copepods) are widespread pathogens in marine teleost cultivation around the world. The sea louse Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905, is recorded here for the first time in sea-farmed gag grouper, Mycteroperca microlepis, in Brazil.Os piolhos marinhos (copépodes) são patógenos amplamente difundidos nos cultivos de teleósteos marinhos ao redor do mundo. O copépode Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 é aqui registrado pela primeira vez em cultivos de badejo-de-areia, Mycteroperca microlepis, no...

  7. First record of the Asian diaptomid Neodiaptomus schmackeri (Poppe & Richard, 1892 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Alfonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania, as well as a great part of the Balkan area in general, still suffers a lack of environmental studies especially in limnological research. The Dumre plateau, in Central Albania, is characterized by an extraordinary high number of karst lakes in a small geographic area. Despite their environmental peculiarity, very few biological data are to date available for these lakes, none on the zooplankton. For this reason, 15 water bodies located in the central area of the plateau were selected for a preliminary limnological survey carried out in the years 2008-2011. Neodiaptomus schmackeri (Poppe & Richard, 1892, a diaptomid calanoid copepod characterized by a South-Eastern Palearctic - Oriental distribution, and the most widely spread Neodiaptomus species in Asia, was found in 8 lakes of the Dumre area. This finding represents the first record of the species, and of the entire genus Neodiaptomus, for Europe. Several environmental variables were measured to characterize the lakes, and the co-occurring planktonic crustaceans were also identified. Taxonomical drawings and descriptions of the main morphological features of both sexes are herein provided in order to compare the Albanian populations of N. schmackeri with those of the native distribution area of the species. The possible causes which determined the occurrence of this non-indigenous species in several Dumre lakes are discussed.

  8. Pseudocyclops lakshmi, a new species (Pseudocyclopidae: Calanoidea: Copepoda) from the Laccadives, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haridas, P.; Madhupratap, M.; Ohtsuka, S.

    stream_size 13 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Biol_Soc_Wash_1994_107_151.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Biol_Soc_Wash_1994_107_151.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Molecular phylogeny of Oncaeidae (Copepoda) using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Iole; Maffucci, Fulvio; Pannone, Raimondo; Mazzocchi, Maria Grazia; Biffali, Elio; Amato, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Copepods belonging to the Oncaeidae family are commonly and abundantly found in marine zooplankton. In the Mediterranean Sea, forty-seven oncaeid species occur, of which eleven in the Gulf of Naples. In this Gulf, several Oncaea species were morphologically analysed and described at the end of the XIX century by W. Giesbrecht. In the same area, oncaeids are being investigated over seasonal and inter-annual scales at the long-term coastal station LTER-MC. In the present work, we identified six oncaeid species using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS rDNA) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI). Phylogenetic analyses based on these two genomic regions validated the sisterhood of the genera Triconia and the Oncaea sensu stricto. ITS1 and ITS2 phylogenies produced incongruent results about the position of Oncaea curta, calling for further investigations on this species. We also characterised the ITS2 region by secondary structure predictions and found that all the sequences analysed presented the distinct eukaryotic hallmarks. A Compensatory Base Change search corroborated the close relationship between O. venusta and O. curta and between O. media and O. venusta already identified by ITS phylogenies. The present results, which stem from the integration of molecular and morphological taxonomy, represent an encouraging step towards an improved knowledge of copepod biodiversity: The two complementary approaches, when applied to long-term copepod monitoring, will also help to better understanding their genetic variations and ecological niches of co-occurring species.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Oncaeidae (Copepoda using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Di Capua

    Full Text Available Copepods belonging to the Oncaeidae family are commonly and abundantly found in marine zooplankton. In the Mediterranean Sea, forty-seven oncaeid species occur, of which eleven in the Gulf of Naples. In this Gulf, several Oncaea species were morphologically analysed and described at the end of the XIX century by W. Giesbrecht. In the same area, oncaeids are being investigated over seasonal and inter-annual scales at the long-term coastal station LTER-MC. In the present work, we identified six oncaeid species using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS rDNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI. Phylogenetic analyses based on these two genomic regions validated the sisterhood of the genera Triconia and the Oncaea sensu stricto. ITS1 and ITS2 phylogenies produced incongruent results about the position of Oncaea curta, calling for further investigations on this species. We also characterised the ITS2 region by secondary structure predictions and found that all the sequences analysed presented the distinct eukaryotic hallmarks. A Compensatory Base Change search corroborated the close relationship between O. venusta and O. curta and between O. media and O. venusta already identified by ITS phylogenies. The present results, which stem from the integration of molecular and morphological taxonomy, represent an encouraging step towards an improved knowledge of copepod biodiversity: The two complementary approaches, when applied to long-term copepod monitoring, will also help to better understanding their genetic variations and ecological niches of co-occurring species.

  11. @iPseudocyclops lakshmi@@, a new species (Pseudocyclopidae: Calanoidea: Copepoda) from the Laccadives, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haridas, P.; Madhupratap, M.; Ohtsuka, S.

    @iPseudocyclops lakshmi@@, new species, is described from the Kadmat and Agatti atolls of the Laccadives, India, along with its dimorphic males. Characters separating the new species from the rest of its congeners are discussed. This species...

  12. Parabomolochus globiceps nov. spec. (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from the gills of Austroatherina smitti (Lahille) (Pisces, Atherinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.; Ramirez, F.

    1968-01-01

    The material on which the following note is based was collected by the second author from the gill cavities of Austroatherina smitti (Lahille, 1929) from Mar del Plata, Argentine coastal waters, in the course of 1966 and consists of a number of female and male Bomolochid Copepods. In the course of

  13. Resting eggs of zooplankton (copepoda and cladocera) from the Kiel Bay and adjacent waters (southwestern Baltic)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nehring, S.; Lenz, J.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Biol_125_77.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Biol_125_77.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. Identification of the molecular components of a Tigriopus californicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Katherine T; Christie, Andrew E

    2014-12-01

    Copepods of the genus Tigriopus have been proposed as marine models for investigations of environmental perturbation. One rapidly increasing anthropogenic stressor for intertidal organisms is light pollution. Given the sensitivity of circadian rhythms to exogenous light, the genes/proteins of a Tigriopus circadian pacemaker represent a potential system for investigating the influences of artificial light sources on circadian behavior in an intertidal species. Here, the molecular components of a putative Tigriopus californicus circadian clock were identified using publicly accessible transcriptome data; the recently deduced circadian proteins of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were used as a reference. Transcripts encoding homologs of all commonly recognized ancestral arthropod core clock proteins were identified (i.e. CLOCK, CRYPTOCHROME 2, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS), as were ones encoding proteins likely to modulate the core clock (i.e. CASEIN KINASE II, CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 1, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A, SHAGGY, SUPERNUMERARY LIMBS and VRILLE) or to act as inputs to it (i.e. CRYPTOCHROME 1). PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 was the only circadian-associated protein not identified in Tigriopus; it appears absent in Calanus too. These data represent just the third full set of molecular components for a crustacean circadian pacemaker (Daphnia pulex and C. finmarchicus previously), and only the second obtained from transcribed sequences (C. finmarchicus previously). Given Tigriopus' proposed status as a model for investigating the influences of anthropogenic stressors in the marine environment, these data provide the first suite of gene/protein targets for understanding how light pollution may influence circadian physiology and behavior in an intertidal organism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mating behaviour of Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Copepoda Calanoida) with emphasis on rejection rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, G.; Souissi, S.; Schmitt, F. G.; Hwang, J. S.; Cheng, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Mating behaviour has important consequences at both individual and population levels. Reproductive fitness is of paramount importance to sustain the success of planktonic copepod populations in aquatic environments. The calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei has one of the largest geographical ranges for Indo-Pacific Pseudodiaptomidae. It is also of great importance in fish culture pounds south of Taiwan. However, the mating behavior of this species has never been studied. Mating and predatory behaviour are conceptually the same. In both cases, the encounter and the interactions occur between two individuals with opposite characteristics: predator-prey for predation; male-female for mating. The mating behaviour may be defined as a sequence of encounter, pursuit, capture and copulation. Several observed behaviour suggest that both sexes asses and choose among available mates before the copulation. Pre-copulatory mate choice in copepods may manifest as mate guarding where males attached to CV females until their final moult, complicated pre-copulatory dance and escaping. During our preliminary observations, we notice that P. annandalei females escape by shaking, often violently, the males that have caught them. Consequently for such a species the act of mating may be visualized as a chain of six events (i.e. search, encounter, pursuit, capture, selective dance, copulation).Within this chain, encounter, capture and copulation are conditional events depending on the successful conclusion of their preceding events in the chain. In this study, we examined the different step in the mating behaviour of the scarcely studied sub-tropical copepod, Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, collected from the Danshuei estuary (North Taiwan). The individuals were observed using a 3D optical system to obtain simultaneous front and side views. Males, when placed in the water where females had previously swum in, showed significant increase of their swimming velocities. Additionally, their swimming trajectories are more convoluted, indicating that males explore larger volume of fluid to increase the probability to encounter a female. The mate finding behaviour appears to depend not only on chemical signal but also on hydromechanical signals. Some males exhibited shifts of direction when females were passing by. When male intercepted a chemical trail left by a female, they initiate tracking behaviour racing up the trail with increasing speed. Males pursued pheromone trails up to 24 sec old and 10 mm long. Most studies of mating behaviour have focused on detection and sometimes pursuit, but few have addressed the other components of successful mating, namely, capture and copulation. Moreover, mate choice issue has largely been ignored in regards to pelagic copepods. Consequently very few are known about the plasticity of rejection rates as a function of mate encounter rates. The second aim of this experiment is to describe the process used by female to select their mate and to fill the gap in the quantification of mating success. Once caught by a male, P. annandalei's females entered in intensive dance which sometimes lead to shake off the males suggesting a female mate choice. The three-dimensional trajectories described by the couple during this event were characterized by fast loops and intense jumps. Individual's access to mates may be affected by operational sex ratios, causing strong variation in mating success. We finally manipulated adult sex ratios of the brackish copepod P. annandalei, to examine the influence of population sex ratio on mating success of P. annandalei in a final set of experiment concluding the investigation. It should be notice that, to our knowledge, it the first quantification ever done before. The plasticity of rejection rate was therefore investigated as a function of sex-ratio and mate encounter rate. The encounter rate reached maximum value for balanced proportion of male and female and decreased as the sex ratio unbalanced. Higher value of success was nevertheless observed for a pro-male sex-ratio.

  16. A new species of Afrolemaea (Copepoda:Lemaeidae), a gill parasite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    occupied by the alimentary canal. Posterior sac at least twice the diameter of neck. Oviducal apertures situated approx- imately half-way along dorsal length of posterior sac, each surrounded by a plate of thickened cuticle (Figure 1C). Maturing eggs in ovaries confined to region of posterior sac anterior to oviducal apertures.

  17. Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Karanovic

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies.

  18. Morphometric differences in two calanoid sibling species, Boeckella gracilipes and B. titicacae (Crustacea, Copepoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos Escalante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Calanoid copepods are abundant in South American inland waters and include widespread species, such as Boeckella gracilipes (Daday, 1902, which occurs from the Ecuador to Tierra del Fuego Island. This species occurs under various environmental conditions, and is found in oligotrophic lakes in Patagonia (39-54°S and in shallow mountain lakes north of 39°S. The aim of the present study is to conduct a morphometric comparison of male specimens of B. titicacae collected in Titicaca and B. gracilipes collected in Riñihue lakes, with a third population of B. gracilipes collected in shallow ponds in Salar de Surire. Titicaca and Riñihue lakes are stable environments, whereas Salar de Surire is an extreme environment. These ponds present an extreme environment due to high exposure to solar radiation and high salinity levels. The results of the study revealed differences among the three populations. These results agree well with systematic descriptions in the literature on differences between the populations of Titicaca and Riñihue lakes, and population of Salar de Surire differs slightly from the other two populations. It is probable that the differences between the population of Salar de Surire and the other two populations result from the extreme environment in Salar de Surire. High exposure to solar radiation, high salinity and extreme variations in temperature enhance genetic variations that are consequently expressed in morphology.

  19. Epibiotic ciliates Scyphidia sp. and diatoms on Tigriopus fulvus (Copepoda: Harpacticoida exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several microorganisms – epibionts – can adhere to living supports taking advantage for their survival, feeding and movement. Epibiosis occurs particularly in aquatic environments, on both benthic and planktonic organisms, among which copepods and cladocerans represent an important living support. The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus fulvus, living in the splashpools of rocky coasts, was studied to recognize the occurrence of epibionts on the exoskeleton surface using scanning electon microscopy techniques. The first evidence of ciliate Scyphidia sp. on Tigriopus fulvus has been described and the occurrence of algae Cocconeis sp. has been observed as well. Epibionts were found to adhere to antennae, a site linked to the exploitation of water currents carrying food particles to mouthparts and to swimming legs. The reason of the occurrence on swimming legs is less clear and needs further observations. Pertinent results are described and discussed and the influence of epibionts on life cycle and behavior of Tigriopus fulvus is considered.

  20. Cletocamptus goenchim sp. nov., a new harpacticoid (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gomez, S.; Ingole, B.; Sawant, M.; Singh, R.

    : Harpacticoida) from India. Current Science 48: 45. Richard J. 1897. Entomostracés de l’Amérique du Sud, recuellis par Mm. U. Deiters, H. von Ihering, G. W. Müller et C. O. Poppe. Mémoires de la Société zoologique de France 10: 263–299. Sars, G. O. 1906... of salt and freshwater lakes, and their relation to the surrounding environment. Zapiski Novorossiiskago Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei (Mémoires de la Société des Naturalistes de la Nouvelle Russie, Odessa) 3: 1-391. Schmeil, O. 1894. Einige neue...

  1. A NEW SPECIES OF Rhacodiaptomus Kiefer, 1936, FROM THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON (CRUSTACEA:COPEPODA: CALANOIDA)

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS-SILVA,Edinaldo Nelson dos; ROBERTSON,Barbara

    1993-01-01

    A new species of Calanoid copepod, Rhacodiaptomus besti,is described from material collected in the Igarapé São Pedro, Rio Jamari, State of Rondônia, and Lago Amanã, Rio Japurá, State of Amazonas, in Western Amazonia. A detailed morphological analysis of the species was undertaken in order to provide a basis for future studies on inter and intrageneric relationships.

  2. Size as indicator of origin of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordhagen, J.R.; Heuch, P.A.; Schram, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) from farmed Atlantic salmon have been implicated in the drastic sea trout and salmon stock declines found in Ireland and Norway. Can salmon lice from farmed and wild fish be distinguished? The hypothesis has been advanced that the treatment of

  3. Laophontopsis Sars and the taxonomic concept of the Normanellinae (Copepoda: Harpacticoida): A revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huys, Rony; Willems, Kris A.

    1990-01-01

    The taxonomie concept of the subfamily Normanellinae Lang (Harpacticoida, Laophontidae) is revised. As a result a new family Laophontopsidae is proposed to accommodate Laophontopsis Sars and two new genera Aculeopsis and Telodocus. It is concluded that the presumed boreo-mediterranean distribution

  4. Distribution of Pleuromamma (Copepoda: Metridiidae) along a north-south transect in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Padmavati, G.

    for distribution of Pleuromamma species. P. indica was dominant and was recorded in large numbers in the oxygen deficient waters (0.02 mu ml dm-3). Diel and ontogenetic migrations were noticed for P. xiphias and P. abdominals. The late copepodids (C 4 and C 5) were...

  5. North-south diversity of Scolecithricidae species (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Balachandran, T.

    identified from the zooplankton samples collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition. Ten distinct patterns were noticed in the latitudinal distribution of 25 species based on their occurrence and abundance. Two species had only solitary...

  6. A new species of Acartia (Copepoda, Calanoida) from Cochin Harbour, India, and adjacent areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abraham, S.

    During the course of a study of the family Acartiidae of Cochin harbour and its neighbourhood, a species of Acartia different from all other known species of Acartia, was found. Its characteristics, habitat and seasonal distribution form the theme...

  7. Distribution of some Calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd-Oltmann Brandorff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of 32 samples with totally six species contained calanoid copepods: one estuarine pseudodiaptomid and five freshwater diaptomids. Pseudodiaptomus marshi was found at different salinities. It is confirmed that the commonest diaptomids in the Yucatan Peninsula are Arctodiaptomus dorsalis and Mastigodiaptomus nesus. The former was also recorded from Lake Amatitlan. Mastigodiaptomus nesus is as widespread as A. dorsalis but it is absent from the Lake Peten area in Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae was found in two shallow habitats, these specimens differ from those from the type locality by having a set of peculiar large spine-like processes on the last thoracic and the urosome segments of the females. Leptodiaptomus siciloides was found only in Lake Ayarza with high salinity. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis occurred in the highlands of Guatemala in Lago de Güija and in the Peten area in Laguna Sacpuy. We contributed with our occurrence records to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of some calanoid copepods. Morphological findings in some species are of value for taxonomic differentiation between species.El sur de México y América Central tienen varios cuerpos de agua con diferente morfología, composición química y una interesante fauna de zooplancton procedente de América del Norte o del Sur. Un grupo de 63 muestras, fueron tomadas en 2005 y 2008 para conocer la cantidad de copépodos calanoides en los cuerpos de agua del karst Península de Yucatán, Belice y Guatemala. Se utilizó literatura antigua y reciente para la identificación de los especímenes a nivel de especie y se preparon dibujos con un microscopio y una cámara lúcida. En un total de 32 muestras se obtuvieron seis especies de copépodos calanoides: un pseudodiaptomidos estuarino y cinco diaptomidos de agua dulce. Pseudodiaptomus marshi fue encontrado a diferentes salinidades. Además, se confirmó que los diaptomidos más comunes en la Península de Yucatán fueron: Arctodiaptomus dorsalis y Mastigodiaptomus nesus. El primero se registró también en el lago de Amatitlán. Mastigodiaptomus nesus está ampliamente distribuido al igual que A. dorsalis, pero se encuentra ausente en el área del Lago Petén en Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae fue localizado en dos hábitats poco profundos, éstos especímenes difieren de los tipos de la localidad, por tener un grupo de espinas de gran tamaño en la última parte de la caja toráxica y los segmentos del urosoma de las hembras. Leptodiaptomus siciloides se encontró sólo en el Lago Ayarza, el cual contiene alta salinidad. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis se localizó en las tierras altas de Guatemala en el Lago de Güija y en la zona del Petén en Laguna Sacpuy. Se contribuye con registros de presencia de especies para un mejor conocimiento de la distribución geográfica de algunos copépodos calanoides. De la misma forma, los hallazgos morfológicos en algunas especies son de gran valor taxonómico para la diferenciación de especies.

  8. Redescription of Pseudodiaptomus jonesi (Copepoda: Calanoida) with notes on its distribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Haridas, P.

    Pseudodiaptomus jonesi Pillai 1970 is redescribed; several previously undescribed features are included and a few errors in the original description corrected. This species is assignable to the Ramosus group and Hickmani-subgroup. The present record...

  9. Eight new species of ascidicolous copepods from the eastern coast of Korea (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong

    2011-03-01

    Eight new species of copepods associated with shallow-water ascidians are described from the eastern coast of Korea. They are Ascidicola secundus n. sp. from a Pyura sp., Enteropsis nudus n. sp. from Pyura sacciformis (Drasche), Mycophilus capillatus n. sp. from a compound ascidian, Bonnierilla yangpoensis n. sp. from Phallusia cf. nigra Savigny, Janstockia truncata n. sp. from Chelyosoma siboja Oka, Pholeterides pilosa n. sp. from a compound ascidian, Pachypygus spinosus n. sp. from a solitary ascidian, and Paranotodelphys unguifer n. sp. from Ascidia samea Oka.

  10. On Scambicornus Heegard, 1944, a senior synonym of Preherrmannella Seymour Sewell, 1949 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, J.H.

    1964-01-01

    During the preparation of a report dealing with poecilostomes associated with holothurians, it was found desirable to obtain more information concerning a number of genera formerly described. Through the courtesy of Dr. T.Wolff of the Zoologisk Museum of Copenhagen, I was able to reexamine the

  11. Bathymetric distribution of Pleuromamma (Copepoda, Calanoida) species in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    of water column. Multiple regression analysis of the data suggested that light intensity, further depth stratification, seasonal variations, water currents and the interaction effects of temperature with dissolved oxygen and nutrients could provide a more...

  12. A new genus of Cletopsyllidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Woo Bang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and new species of the family Cletopsyllidae Huys & Willems, 1989 from deep-sea sediment in the Gulf of Mexico, are reported and fully described and illustrated. The new genus Pentacletopsyllus (type species: P. montagni sp. n. can be distinguished from the four known genera of the family by antennule segmentation, length ratio of first and second endopodal segments of P1, and armature pattern on P5 exopod. It also differs from its sister genera by the rostrum being bifid at the tip, third segment of the female antennulea smooth posterior margin, the baseoendopod of P5 with biarticulate outer setophore bearing basal seta, and female caudal rami without lobate expansion. A revised key to species of the family Cletopsyllidae Huys & Willems, 1989 is provided.

  13. To Swim or Not to Swim: Potential Transmission of Balaenophilus manatorum (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in Marine Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Francesc; Tomás, Jesús; Crespo-Picazo, José Luis; García-Párraga, Daniel; Raga, Juan Antonio; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Species of Balaenophilus are the only harpacticoid copepods that exhibit a widespread, obligate association with vertebrates, i.e., B. unisetus with whales and B. manatorum with marine turtles and manatees. In the western Mediterranean, juveniles of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta are the only available hosts for B. manatorum, which has been found occurring at high prevalence (>80%) on them. A key question is how these epibionts are transmitted from host to host. We investigated this issue based on experiments with live specimens of B. manatorum that were cultured with turtle skin. Specimens were obtained from head-started hatchlings of C. caretta from the western Mediterranean. Hatched nauplii crawled only on rough substrates and lacked the ability to swim. Only copepodites IV and V, and adults, were able to perform directional swimming. Legs 2, 3 and 4 played a major role in swimming and were only well-developed in these stages. Nauplii reared in wells with turtle skin readily fed on this item. Late copepodites and adults also fed on turtle skin but did not consume other potential food items such as fish skin, baleen plates or planktonic algae. Evidences suggest that the transmission of B. manatorum should rely on hosts' bodily contacts and/or swimming of late developmental stages between spatially close hosts. The possibility of long-ranged dispersal is unlikely for two reasons. First, all developmental stages seem to depend on turtle skin as a food resource. Second, the average clutch size of ovigerous females was small (turtles that occur at very low densities (turtles·km-2) in the western Mediterranean. The high prevalence of B. manatorum in loggerhead turtles in this area raises the question whether these turtles have contacts, or tend to closely aggregate, more than is currently believed.

  14. The distribution of exocrine glands in Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, S.; Bron, J.E.; Sommerville, C.

    2000-01-01

    The morphology, function and distribution of exocrine glands of copepods have rarely been studied in detail and almost nothing is known about them in the sea lice species L. salmonis and C. elongatus. This study utilised a novel application of a light-microscopy staining technique to reveal a

  15. Exocrine glands of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae): Distribution, developmental appearance, and site of secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Hamre, Lars A; Harasimczuk, Ewa; Dalvin, Sussie; Nilsen, Frank; Grotmol, Sindre

    2016-12-01

    Exocrine glands of blood-feeding parasitic copepods are believed to be important in host immune response modulation and inhibition of host blood coagulation, but also in the production of substances for integument lubrication and antifouling. In this study, we aimed to characterize the distribution of different types of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) exocrine glands and their site of secretion. The developmental appearance of each gland type was mapped and genes specifically expressed by glands were identified. Three types of tegumental (teg 1-3) glands and one labial gland type were found. The first glands to appear during development were teg 1 and teg 2 glands. They have ducts extending both dorsally and ventrally suggested to be important in lubricating the integument. Teg 1 glands were found to express two astacin metallopeptidases and a gene with fibronectin II domains, while teg 2 glands express a heme peroxidase. The labial glands were first identified in planktonic copepodids, with reservoirs that allows for storage of glandular products. The last gland type to appear during development was named teg 3 and was not seen before the preadult I stage when the lice become more virulent. Teg 3 glands have ducts ending ventrally at the host-parasite contact area, and may secrete substances important for the salmon lice virulence. Salmon lice teg 3 and labial glands are thus likely to be especially important in the host-parasite interaction. Proteins secreted from the salmon louse glands to its salmonid host skin or blood represents a potential interface where the host immune system can meet and elicit effective responses to sea lice antigens. The present study thus represents a fundamental basis for further functional studies and identification of possible vaccine candidates. J. Morphol. 277:1616-1630, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Distribution of @iPleuromamma@@ spp (Copepoda-Calanoida) in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Distribution of common marine copepods of genus @iPleuromamma@@ Giesbrecht was studied. Two species, @iP. indica@@ Wolfenden and @iP. gracilis@@ were present in surface and vertical samples (0-500 m). The former was dominant (98.17%) and @i...

  17. Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1991-09-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

  18. Expanded description of Lamproglena monodi (Copepoda: Lernaeidae, parasitizing native and introduced fishes in Brazil Descrição expandida de Lamproglena monodi (Copepoda: Lernaeidae, parasita de peixes nativos e introduzidos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Kozlowiski de Azevedo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An occurrence of the copepod Lamproglena monodi Capart, 1944, parasitizing freshwater fishes in Brazil is presented, along with new morphological data. This crustacean was originally described parasitizing several cichlids in Africa. In the present study, the crustaceans were collected from the body surface and gills of two fish species native to Brazil [Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz, 1831 and Cichla ocellaris Bloch and Schneider, 1801] and two introduced species [Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1897]. The Brazilian specimens exhibited some morphometric intraspecies differences in relation to the specimens from Congo-Kinshasa and Egypt.A ocorrência e novos dados morfológicos do copépode Lamproglena monodi Capart, 1944 parasitando peixes dulcícolas no Brasil são apresentados. Este crustáceo foi originalmente descrito parasitando vários ciclídeos da África. No presente trabalho, os crustáceos foram coletados das brânquias e superfície do corpo dos peixes nativos do Brasil [Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz, 1831 e Cichla ocellaris Bloch e Schneider, 1801 e duas espécies introduzidas Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1897]. Os espécimes coletados no Brasil apresentaram algumas diferenças morfométricas intraespecíficas em relação aos espécimes do Congo-Kinshasa e Egito.

  19. Infestação experimental em girinos de Rana catesbeiana Shaw por copepoditos de Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus (Copepoda, Lernaeidae Experimental, infestation of Rana catesbeiana Shaw tadpoles by copepodids of Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus (Copepoda, Lernaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Laterça Martins

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, 1758 copepodids experimental contamination on the Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 ladpoles was analized. Sixty percent (12 of infested tadpoles was found parasitized. High mortality range, lower appetence, equilibrium loss and apathy were observed. The parasites showed the preference for the mouth and cloaca: in 72 hours lhe egg saes had already developed.

  20. Morphometric differences in two calanoid sibling species, Boeckella gracilipes and B. titicacae (Crustacea, Copepoda Diferencias morfométricas en dos especies hermanas Boeckella gracilipes y Boeckella titicacae (Crustacea, Copepoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos Escalante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Calanoid copepods are abundant in South American inland waters and include widespread species, such as Boeckella gracilipes (Daday, 1902, which occurs from the Ecuador to Tierra del Fuego Island. This species occurs under various environmental conditions, and is found in oligotrophic lakes in Patagonia (39-54°S and in shallow mountain lakes north of 39°S. The aim of the present study is to conduct a morphometric comparison of male specimens of B. titicacae collected in Titicaca and B. gracilipes collected in Riñihue lakes, with a third population of B. gracilipes collected in shallow ponds in Salar de Surire. Titicaca and Riñihue lakes are stable environments, whereas Salar de Surire is an extreme environment. These ponds present an extreme environment due to high exposure to solar radiation and high salinity levels. The results of the study revealed differences among the three populations. These results agree well with systematic descriptions in the literature on differences between the populations of Titicaca and Riñihue lakes, and population of Salar de Surire differs slightly from the other two populations. It is probable that the differences between the population of Salar de Surire and the other two populations result from the extreme environment in Salar de Surire. High exposure to solar radiation, high salinity and extreme variations in temperature enhance genetic variations that are consequently expressed in morphology.Los copépodos calanoideos son abundantes en aguas continentales sudamericanas e incluyen especies de amplia distribución geográfica como Boeckella gracilipes (Daday, 1902 que se encuentra desde Ecuador hasta la isla de Tierra del Fuego. Esta especie vive bajo varias condiciones ambientales, y se encuentra en lagos oligotróficos en la Patagonia (39-54°S y en lagunas superficiales de montaña al norte de los 39°S. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar un estudio comparativo morfométrico de machos de B. titicacae colectado en el lago Titicaca y B. gracilipes colectado en el lago Riñihue, ambos son ambientes estables, con una tercera población colectada en lagunas superficiales en el Salar de Surire. Estas lagunas tienen condiciones ambientales extremas debido a alta exposición a la radiación solar y altos niveles de salinidad. Los resultados del presente estudio encontraron diferencias entre las tres poblaciones. Estos resultados concordarían con las descripciones sistemáticas en la literatura sobre las diferencias de las poblaciones de los lagos Titicaca y Riñihue, y la población del salar de Surire tuvo leves diferencias respecto a las dos poblaciones anteriores. Es probable que las diferencias entre la población del Salar de Surire y las otras dos se deban a alta exposición a la radiación solar, salinidad y condiciones extremas de temperatura que acelera las diferencias genéticas las que se expresan en diferencias morfológicas.

  1. A new record and redescription of Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciidae from north-western Mexico Un registro nuevo y redescripción completa de Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciidae del noroeste de México

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    Samuel Gómez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Schizopera Sars, 1905 were found during sampling in 2 brackish systems in central and southern Sinaloa (north-western Mexico. The specimens turned out to belong to Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni Lang, 1965 which was originally described from Monterey Bay (the type locality and is known from Cocodrie (Louisiana. Amendments to Lang's (1965 original description and Fiers and Rutledge's (1990 partial redescription are given.Durante una serie de muestreos se hallaron ejemplares del género Schizopera Sars, 1905 en 2 sistemas salobres en el centro y sur de Sinaloa (México. El material recolectado resultó ser Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni Lang, 1965, una especie de copépodo harpacticoide originalmente descrita de material recolectado en la Bahía de Monterey (localidad tipo y hallada también en Cocodrie (Louisiana, EUA. Se proporcionan enmiendas a la descripción original de Lang (1965 y a la redescripción parcial de Fiers y Rutledge (1990.

  2. Genome- and transcriptome-assisted development of nuclear insertion/deletion markers for Calanus species (Copepoda: Calanoida) identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolina, I.; Kollias, S.; Poortvliet, M.

    2014-01-01

    Copepods of the genus Calanus are key zooplankton species in temperate to arctic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, species identification remains challenging. Furthermore, the recent report of hybrids among Calanus species highlights the need for diagnostic nuclear markers t......-specific amplicon length. Furthermore, most of the markers were successfully amplified in other Calanus species, allowing the molecular identification of Calanus helgolandicus, Calanus hyperboreus and Calanus marshallae...

  3. Feeding habits of Calanus sinicus (Crustacea: Copepoda during spring and autumn in the Bohai Sea studied with the herbivore index

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    Guang-Tao Zhang

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pigment ingestion rate (PIR and egg production rate (EPR of the dominant copepod Calanus sinicus, as well as chlorophyll-a concentration and phytoplankton assemblages were measured in the Bohai Sea, North China in June 1997, October 1998 and May 1999. A herbivore index (H was also calculated as the carbon specific ratio of PIR and EPR, in order to investigate its feeding habits in the spring and autumn phytoplankton bloom respectively. On average, chlorophyll-a concentration was relatively similar (1-1.34 mg m-3 in the three cruises, but PIR was quite different. It was 3.24 µg C female-1 d-1 in October, equivalent to one half of the PIR for June and one third of the PIR for May. Average EPR was highest in May, and quite similar during the other two months. According to H values, herbivorous feeding contributed 100% of the egg production of C. sinicus in June, 82.5% in May, but only 47.8% in October. It is possible that omnivorous feeding of C. sinicus in October was induced by a prevalence of large-sized diatoms and sufficient non-phytoplankton food resources during the autumn bloom period.

  4. Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi (Guerne and Richard, 1890) in the Canary Islands (Copepoda: Calanoida: Paradiaptominae). Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 19

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Lovenula (Neolovenula) alluaudi is widespread on Lanzarote, where it occurred at 22 of the 105 stations. On Fuerteventura it was found at only 2 of the 53 stations, both in the extreme northwest part of the island. It was also found in a reservoir on the south side of the small island of Alegranza.

  5. Distribution of Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) on the gills of Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Madeira, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2012-06-01

    A population of the gill parasite Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Hesse, 1878) was studied on one of its sparid fish hosts, the blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich), off the coast of Madeira Island, Portugal, northeast Atlantic. Very high infection levels of this copepod were detected, with no significant seasonal differences. Abundance was negatively correlated with fish size. There were significant differences in the distribution of this copepod among the gill arches of the host, which seem to be best explained by differences in water flow within the gill habitat.

  6. Toxicity of antifouling biocides to the intertidal harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Crustacea, Copepoda): Effects of temperature and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, K.W.H.; Leung, K.M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Intertidal harpacticoid copepods are commonly used in eco-toxicity tests worldwide. They predominately live in mid-high shore rock pools and often experience a wide range of temperature and salinity fluctuation. Most eco-toxicity tests are conducted at fixed temperature and salinity and thus the influence of these environmental factors on chemical toxicity is largely unknown. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and salinity on the acute toxicity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus against two common biocides, copper (Cu) and tributyltin (TBT) using a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial design (i.e. two temperatures: 25 and 35 o C; three salinities: 15.0 per mille , 34.5 per mille and 45.0 per mille ; three levels of the biocide plus a control). Copper sulphate and tributyltin chloride were used as the test chemicals while distilled water and acetone were utilised as solvents for Cu and TBT respectively. 96h-LC50s of Cu and TBT were 1024 and 0.149 μg l -1 respectively (at 25 o C; 34.5 per mille ) and, based on these results, nominal biocide concentrations of LC0 (i.e. control), LC30, LC50 and LC70 were employed. Analysis of Covariance using 'concentration' as the covariate and both 'temperature' and 'salinity' as fixed factors, showed a significant interaction between temperature and salinity effects for Cu, mortality increasing with temperature but decreasing with elevated salinity. A similar result was revealed for TBT. Both temperature and salinity are, therefore, important factors affecting the results of acute eco-toxicity tests using these marine copepods. We recommend that such eco-toxicity tests should be conducted at a range of environmentally realistic temperature/salinity regimes, as this will enhance the sensitivity of the test and improve the safety margin in line with the precautionary principle

  7. Ecological parameters of Lamproglena hoi (Copepoda: Lernaeidae infection on the Bushveld smallscale yellowfish, Labeobarbus polylepis (Boulenger, 1907

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    A. Austin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the distribution and aspects of the ecology of Lamproglena hoi. Bushveld smallscale yellowfish, Labeobarbus polylepis (Boulenger, 1907 were collected during June 2006 from the Phongolo and Assegaai rivers, March 2005 and October 2006 from the Elands River, and January 2007 and June 2008 from the Komati River in Mpumalanga, South Africa and examined for the presence of parasites. Lamproglena hoi specimens were collected from the gill filaments of the host. Specimens were fixed with warm AFA (alcohol-formaldehyde-acetic acid and preserved in 70 % ethanol. The identification of parasites took place in the laboratories of the University of Johannesburg. Twenty-five copepods (prevalence 21 %, mean intensity = 4.17, abundance = 0.86 were collected on 29 fish in the Phongolo River and 46 copepods (prevalence 40 %, mean intensity = 3.83, abundance = 1.53 were collected on 30 fish in the Assegaai River. One hundred and sixty eight copepods (prevalence 52 %, mean intensity = 12.92, abundance = 6.72 were collected on 25 fish in 2005, and 527 copepods (prevalence 95 %, mean intensity = 27.74, abundance = 26.35 were collected on 20 fish in the Elands River. One hundred and sixteen copepods (prevalence 75 %, mean intensity = 7.73, abundance = 5.80 were collected on 20 fish in 2007, and 273 copepods (prevalence 63 %, mean intensity = 16.06, abundance = 10.11 were collected on 27 fish in 2008 in the Komati River. Labeobarbus polylepis from these four rivers was found to have a relatively high L. hoi infection. Inseminated L. hoi females (immature attach to the host in winter and their ovaries become conspicuous (mature. In spring fertilized eggs are stored in egg sacs hanging from the body (gravid, indicating that fertilized eggs start to hatch in spring and continued hatching into summer. Parasites prefer the median part of the second gill arch for attachment. No correlation exists between the number of parasites recorded on the gills and the sizes (total lengths of yellowfish sampled.

  8. A new culture system for in situ observation of the growth and development of Eucyclops serrulatus (Copepoda: Cyclopoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hee; Chang, Cheon-Young

    2005-01-01

    A practical and convenient method of rearing Eucyclops serrulatus in a microculture environment is described. A complete life cycle of E. serrulatus was maintained in a narrow space on a microscope slide glass on which a cover glass of 22 x 40 mm in size was mounted at a height of 0.8 mm. The culture medium was constituted by bottled mineral water boiled with grains of Glycine max (soybean). Chilomonas paramecium, a free-living protozoan organism, was provided as live food. Growth of nauplii hatched from eggs to the first stage of copepodite took an average of 7.7 days, and the growth of copepodite 1 to the egg-bearing adult female took an average of 20.1 days in the microculture cell with an average life time of 44.7 days. Continuous passage of copepods was successfully maintained as long as sufficient medium and food were provided. The microculture method enables an in situ microscopic observation on the growth and developmental process of helminth larvae experimentally infected to copepods as well as of copepod itself. Furthermore, it does not require anesthetization and, therefore, minimize the amount of stress exposed to copepods during the handling process. PMID:16340303

  9. A new Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, Eastern Tropical Pacific

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    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several groups of copepods that are teleost parasites, the siphonostomatoid family Caligidae is by far the most widespread and diverse. With more than 108 nominal species, the caligid genus Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann is one of the most speciose. There are no reports of this genus in Costa Rican waters. A new species of Lepeophtheirus is herein described based on female specimens collected from plankton samples in waters off Bahía Wafer, isla del Coco, an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The new species, L. alvaroi sp. nov., has some affinities with other congeners bearing a relatively short abdomen, a wider than long genital complex and a 3-segmented exopod of leg 4. it differs from most of these species by the presence of an unbranched maxillular process and by the relative lengths of the terminal claws of leg 4, with two equally long elements. it is most closely related to two other Eastern Pacific species: L. dissimulatus Wilson, 1905 and L. clarionensis Shiino, 1959. it differs from these species by the proportions and shape of the genital complex, the shape of the sternal furca, the relative length of the maxillar segments, the absence of a pectiniform process on the distal maxillar segment, the length of leg 4 and the armature of leg 5. The new species represents the first Lepeophtheirus described from Costa Rican waters of the Pacific. The low diversity of this genus in this tropi- cal region is explained by its tendency to prefer hosts from temperate latitudes. Until further evidence is found, the host of this Lepeophtheirus species remains unknown.

  10. A new Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several groups of copepods that are teleost parasites, the siphonostomatoid family Caligidae is by far the most widespread and diverse. With more than 108 nominal species, the caligid genus Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann is one of the most speciose. There are no reports of this genus in Costa Rican waters. A new species of Lepeophtheirus is herein described based on female specimens collected from plankton samples in waters off Bahía Wafer, isla del Coco, an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The new species, L. alvaroi sp. nov., has some affinities with other congeners bearing a relatively short abdomen, a wider than long genital complex and a 3-segmented exopod of leg 4. it differs from most of these species by the presence of an unbranched maxillular process and by the relative lengths of the terminal claws of leg 4, with two equally long elements. it is most closely related to two other Eastern Pacific species: L. dissimulatus Wilson, 1905 and L. clarionensis Shiino, 1959. it differs from these species by the proportions and shape of the genital complex, the shape of the sternal furca, the relative length of the maxillar segments, the absence of a pectiniform process on the distal maxillar segment, the length of leg 4 and the armature of leg 5. The new species represents the first Lepeophtheirus described from Costa Rican waters of the Pacific. The low diversity of this genus in this tropi- cal region is explained by its tendency to prefer hosts from temperate latitudes. Until further evidence is found, the host of this Lepeophtheirus species remains unknown.Entre los varios grupos de copépodos que son parásitos de teleósteos, la familia sifonostomatoide Caligidae incluye los más dispersos y diversos. Con más de 108 especies nominales, el género de calígidos Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann es uno de los más diversos. No existen registros previos de este género en aguas de Costa Rica. Se describe una nueva especie de copépodo calígido del género Lepeophtheirus con base en especímenes femeninos recolectados a partir de muestras de plancton en aguas de Bahía Wafer, isla del Coco, una isla oceánica del Pacífico Tropical Oriental. La nueva especie, L. alvaroi sp. nov., tiene algunas afinidades con congéneres que poseen un abdomen relativamente corto, un complejo genital más ancho que largo y un exópodo de la pata 4 con 3 segmentos. Esta especie difiere de la mayoría de estas especies por la presencia de un proceso maxilular no ramificado y por el tamaño relativo de las garras terminales de la pata 4, con dos elementos igualmente largos. Está más cercanamente relacionada con otras dos especies del Pacífico Oriental: L. dissimulatus Wilson, 1905 y L. clarionensis Shiino, 1959. Difiere de estas especies por las proporciones y forma del complejo genital, la forma de la furca esternal, la longitud relativa de los segmentos maxilares, la ausencia de un proceso pectiniforme en el segmento maxilar distal, la longitud de la pata 4 y la armadura de la pata 5. La nueva especie representa el primer Lepeophtheirus descrito en aguas del Pacífico de Costa Rica. La baja diversidad del género en esta región tropical se explica por su tendencia a preferir hospederos de latitudes templadas. Hasta encontrar más evidencia, el hospedero de esta especie de Lepeophtheirus permanece desconocida.

  11. Negative binomial distribution to describe the presence of Trifur tortuosus (Crustacea: Copepoda in Merluccius gayi (Osteichthyes: Gadiformes

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    Giselle Garcia-Sepulveda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the frequency and number of Trifur tortuosus in the skin of Merluccius gayi, an important economic resource in Chile. Analysis of a spatial distribution model indicated that the parasites tended to cluster. Variations in the number of parasites per host can be described by a negative binomial distribution. The maximum number of parasites observed per host was one, similar patterns was described for other parasites in Chilean marine fishes.

  12. The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae): insights into the egg production strategy of parasitic copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, D G; Santos, M J; Cavaleiro, F I

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller O. F., 1776), a caligid copepod, which is commonly found infecting the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), is studied in detail for the first time. Seasonal variation in body dimensions and reproductive effort are analysed. Data for 120 ovigerous females, 30 from each season of the year, were considered in the analyses. Females were larger and produced a larger number of smaller eggs in winter, than during the summer. The relationship between egg number and egg size is similar to that recorded for other copepods exploiting fish hosts. Much of the recorded variation was also similar to that reported for a copepod parasitic on an invertebrate host, which suggests the possibility of a general trend in copepod reproduction. Overall, our results provide further support for the hypothesis that there is an alternation of summer and winter generations.

  13. Identification guide to some Diaptomid species (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae) of "de la Plata" River Basin (South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan; Previattelli, Daniel; Nogueira, Marcos Gomes; da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna

    2015-01-01

    An identification guide is presented for species of calanoid copepod family Diaptomidae from "de la Plata" River Basin (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay). It was based on material collected during the summer and winter of 2010 from 43 sites across the eastern part and the lower stretches of this basin, the second largest in South America and the fourth in the world. The guide contains identification keys and species diagnoses for males and females, richly supported by scanning electronic micrographs and/or line drawings of 19 species. It also includes some general remarks on the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these species. The key was adjusted to be useful for these species only, with separate keys for each sex, and is the first for females of South America. One species classified herein as incertae sedis was not included in the analysis. At least ten other species have previously been recorded in the basin but were not present in our samples. This is the first attempt to compile comprehensive taxonomic information on this group of copepods in this region, and it is expected to become a useful tool for biologists and young taxonomists interested in the crustacean biota of the Neotropical region.

  14. Identification guide to some Diaptomid species (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae) of “de la Plata” River Basin (South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan; Previattelli, Daniel; Nogueira, Marcos Gomes; da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An identification guide is presented for species of calanoid copepod family Diaptomidae from “de la Plata” River Basin (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay). It was based on material collected during the summer and winter of 2010 from 43 sites across the eastern part and the lower stretches of this basin, the second largest in South America and the fourth in the world. The guide contains identification keys and species diagnoses for males and females, richly supported by scanning electronic micrographs and/or line drawings of 19 species. It also includes some general remarks on the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these species. The key was adjusted to be useful for these species only, with separate keys for each sex, and is the first for females of South America. One species classified herein as incertae sedis was not included in the analysis. At least ten other species have previously been recorded in the basin but were not present in our samples. This is the first attempt to compile comprehensive taxonomic information on this group of copepods in this region, and it is expected to become a useful tool for biologists and young taxonomists interested in the crustacean biota of the Neotropical region. PMID:25931959

  15. Diel vertical distribution of planktonic microcrustaceans (Crustacea: Cladocera, Copepoda in a natural shallow lake from Transylvania, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina P. Battes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diel vertical migration (DVM of planktonic cladocerans and copepods was investigated in Lake Ştiucii, a natural shallow lake from north-western Romania. The aim of this study was to test the existence of migration patterns for cladocerans, adult copepods and copepod development stages (copepodites and nauplii in four sampling seasons: October 2004; January, April and July 2005. The main abiotic and biotic factors influencing the microcrustacean day and night distributions were also analyzed: water temperature, dissolved oxygen, transparency; the distribution of planktonic algae at midday and at midnight in July and the number of larvae of the dipteran predator Chaoborus present in the plankton samples. For most microcrustaceans, nighttime biomass exceeded the daylight values in the water column, indicating a strategy of predator avoidance by staying near to the bottom of the lake during the day. Normal DVM patterns (up at night and down during the day were observed for cladocerans and adult copepods, while for copepodites and nauplii no clear patterns were depicted. Negative correlations between daytime vertical profiles of planktonic algae and microcrustacean biomass revealed that both cladocerans and copepods migrated away from phytoplankton-rich waters during the day, to escape visual predators like fish. The return in the water column during the night was influenced by invertebrate predation pressure, exerted by Chaoborus larvae.

  16. A new species of Monstrillopsis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Monstrilloida from the lower Northwest Passage of the Canadian Arctic

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    Aurélie Delaforge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of monstrilloid copepod, Monstrillopsis planifrons sp. n., is described from an adult female that was collected beneath snow-covered sea ice during the 2014 Ice Covered Ecosystem – CAMbridge bay Process Study (ICE-CAMPS in Dease Strait of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Currently, up to six species of this order are known to occur in polar latitudes. The new species described herein shares similarities with Monstrillopsis dubia (Scott, 1904 but differs in its body proportions and cephalothorax ornamentation; the cephalothorax is covered by minute scattered papillae on dorsal and ventral surfaces; this species has a reduced fifth leg endopod, fifth leg exopod armed with three setae, antennule with fused segments 3–4, and the genital double-somite bears unique posterolateral processes. This is the second species of this genus recorded in the Arctic, after Monstrillopsis ferrarii (Suárez-Morales & Ivanenko, 2004, described from the White Sea, and is the first record of Monstrillopsis in Canadian waters. With the addition of this new species and the recognition of Monstrillopsis bernardensis comb. nov. as a member of this genus, the number of nominal species is now 15. Overall, this genus has a tendency to be distributed in temperate and cold waters, while only three species have been found in tropical and subtropical latitudes.

  17. Drought-associated absence of alien invasive anchorworm, Lernaea cyprinacea (Copepoda: Lernaeidae, is related to changes in fish health

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    Rachel L. Welicky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters, 1852 were listed on the IUCN Red List as near-threatened as their populations are at risk due to hybridization. Another factor that potentially contributes to their population decline is that they are regularly infected by the invasive parasitic copepod anchorworm, Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, 1758. Considering anchorworm-infected Mozambique tilapia are common, understanding their condition with respect to infection is difficult as uninfected fish from the same localities have been unavailable for comparison. A severe drought in southern Africa has created hypersaline environments in the Phongolo River floodplain of north-eastern South Africa, such that freshwater parasites cannot survive and uninfected fish are now found. To determine how infection influences host health, infected and uninfected Mozambique tilapia were collected before and during drought conditions, from Nyamiti pan of the Phongolo River floodplain. Anchorworm-infected fish prevalence was recorded, and anchorworms were collected from hosts and identified to the species level using molecular data of the 18S rRNA gene. For each fish, intensity of anchorworm infection, total length, and weights of the gutted body, liver, spleen, and gonads were recorded. Gutted condition factor, hepato-, spleeno-, and gonado-somatic index values per fish, and prevalence of infection per collection were determined. A rapid health assessment was also conducted to determine a health score for each fish. Molecular analyses confirmed the anchorworm studied was L. cyprinacea. Prior to and during drought, prevalence of infection was 100%, and 0%, respectively. Before drought, fish had significantly reduced hepato-, spleeno-, and gonado-somatic index values, and higher health assessment scores, yet significantly higher gutted condition. Anchorworm intensity was indirectly correlated with fish liver and gonad condition. This study demonstrates that host condition and health varies greatly with respect to drought and infection, and provides the necessary data for follow-up studies in post-drought conditions. Keywords: Alien invasive, Cichlidae, Fish parasites, Host condition, Tilapia, 18S ribosomal DNA

  18. Identification and characterisation of the ecdysone biosynthetic genes neverland, disembodied and shade in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda, Caligidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Liv; Kongshaug, Heidi; Horsberg, Tor Einar; Male, Rune; Nilsen, Frank; Dalvin, Sussie

    2018-01-01

    The salmon louse is a marine ectoparasitic copepod on salmonid fishes. Its lifecycle consists of eight developmental stages, each separated by a molt. In crustaceans and insects, molting and reproduction is controlled by circulating steroid hormones such as 20-hydroxyecdysone. Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol through catalytic reactions involving a 7,8-dehydrogenase Neverland and several cytochrome P450 genes collectively called the Halloween genes. In this study, we have isolated and identified orthologs of neverland, disembodied and shade in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) genome. Tissue-specific expression analysis show that the genes are expressed in intestine and reproductive tissue. In addition, levels of the steroid hormones ecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A were measured during the reproductive stage of adult females and in early life stages.

  19. Identification and characterisation of the ecdysone biosynthetic genes neverland, disembodied and shade in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda, Caligidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Sandlund

    Full Text Available The salmon louse is a marine ectoparasitic copepod on salmonid fishes. Its lifecycle consists of eight developmental stages, each separated by a molt. In crustaceans and insects, molting and reproduction is controlled by circulating steroid hormones such as 20-hydroxyecdysone. Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol through catalytic reactions involving a 7,8-dehydrogenase Neverland and several cytochrome P450 genes collectively called the Halloween genes. In this study, we have isolated and identified orthologs of neverland, disembodied and shade in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis genome. Tissue-specific expression analysis show that the genes are expressed in intestine and reproductive tissue. In addition, levels of the steroid hormones ecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A were measured during the reproductive stage of adult females and in early life stages.

  20. Neue marine Cyclopoida Gnathostoma (Crustacea, Copepoda) von Puerto Rico. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 57

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbst, Hans-Volkmar

    1989-01-01

    In the flat littoral of the coast of Puerto Rico (West Indies) at the reef of Cayo Enrique a few Cyclopoida Gnathostoma were collected in colonies of the corallimorpharian Ricordea florida Duch & Mich., which belong to the subfamilies Pterinopsyllinae and Euryteinae. These are the following species:

  1. Ectoparasitic sea lice, Caligus minimus (Otto 1821, Copepoda: Caligidae on Brawn wrasse, Labrus merula L. in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea

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    Tansel T. Tanrikul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the species of Caligus minimus of the genus Caligus (Siphonosto - matoida: Caligidae, parasitic on marine fish, brawn wrasse (Labrus merula, genus Labridae, of Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea. The sea lice, C. minimus, is identified from the gill and external surfaces of the brawn wrasse (total length, 30 cm; weight, 210 gr., particularly on its head. The entire collection of sea lice consists of 11-12 specimens, all of which are female. Ectoparasitic copepods especially belong to the Caligidae family, the most common crustacean parasites on fish. C. minimus can be found in Atlantic coasts, British waters, the North Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. C. minimus ectoparasite is a host and mainly recorded on Perciformes, such as Dicentrarchus labrax, Pagellus bogaraveo, Umbrina cirrosa, and Mugil cephalus. Recently, in both sides of the Aegean Sea, C. minimus has been identified from cultured marine fish, mainly D. labrax. The intensity of the infection is apparent on adult fish, especially during the winter and early spring. C. minimus is the first record on brawn wrasse caught by gill nets from the Urla coasts in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea in March 2010.

  2. Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda of Mussel Beds and Macroalgae on the Rocky Substrates in the North-Western Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portianko V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of harpacticoid copepods in total abundance, biomass and species diversity of meiobenthos on rocky substrates is described. Th e fauna of harpacticoid copepods consists of 19 species in algal beds, 23 species in mussel beds and 24 species in mixed aggregation of molluscs and macrophytes. In the macrophyte aggregation, the maximal abundance was registered in Cladophora vagabunda - 88 750 ind. × m-2, while minimal was on Laurensia paniculata - 8250 ind. × m-2. According to the frequency of occurrence, the habitat preferred by copepods was Ceramium elegans, but according to their percentage in total meiobenthos among macrophytes it was Ulva intestinalis, 56.6 %. The percentage of copepods in the pure mussel beds was higher comparing to mixed aggregation of molluscs and macrophytes.

  3. Observations on feeding behaviour and survival rates in the estuarine calanoid copepods Acartia spinicauda and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srivastava, Y.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    of Tetraselmis gracilis (Chlorophyta) and Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyta), whereas, adults of H. cinctus were fed on five different combinations of phytoplankton feed. Total hourly differences in pigment concentrations indicate that A. spinicauda preferred...

  4. Two new species of Hemicyclops (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Clausidiidae) associated with mud shrimps of the genus Callichirus from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kihara, Terue Cristina; Falavigna da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    Two new clausidiid copepods of the genus Hemicyclops (Poecilostomatoida: Clausidiidae) associated with mud shrimps are described from Brazil: Hemicyclops caissarum sp. n. associated with Callichirus major (Say, 1808) from a beach in Santos and Hemicyclops sebastiani sp. n., in burrows of Callichirus

  5. Size and distribution of Pandarus satyrus (Copepoda: Pandaridae) on the blue shark Prionace glauca (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J R; Rodríguez Solano, O; Morales-Ramírez, A

    2001-03-01

    A total of 80 specimens of Pandarus satyrus, a cosmopolitan ectoparasitic copepod, were taken from fishery catches of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) in the Eastern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens were found in the dorsal surface of pectoral fins (8-30 per shark). Longer specimens were most abundant.

  6. Size and distribution of Pandarus satyrus (Copepoda: Pandaridae on the blue shark Prionace glauca (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 specimens of Pandarus satyrus, a cosmopolitan ectoparasitic copepod, were taken from fishery catches of blue sharks (Prionace glauca in the Eastern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens were found in the dorsal surface of pectoral fins (8-30 per shark. Longer specimens were most abundant.Un total de 80 especímenes de Pandarus satyrus, un copépodo ectoparásito cosmopolita, fueron tomados de tiburones azules (Prionace glauca capturados en la costa del Pacífico Oriental de Costa Rica. Todos los especímenes fueron encontrados en la superficie dorsal de las aletas pectorales (entre 8 y 30 por tiburón. Los parásitos más grandes son los más abundantes.

  7. First record of the Calanoid Copepod Pseudodiaptomus serricaudatus (Scott, T. 1894), (Copepoda: Calanoida: Pseudodiaptomidae) in the equatorial Indian ocean.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rebello, V.; Narvekar, J.; Gadi, P.; Venenkar, A.; Gauns, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    using Golden Software Surfer version 8 and Ferret. Results The salient feature of the thermal structure was the presence of a warm and thick isothermal layer with temperature in excess of 28 oC in the upper ocean, with considerable spatial variability... (Fig.2A). The thermocline showed a continuous shoaling from south to north. The salinity structure showed the presence of a lens of low salinity water, of 30 m thickness, located in the north with salinity as low as 35 psu (Fig.2B). Below the low...

  8. Laboratory evaluation of Mesocyclops annulatus (Wierzejski, 1892 (Copepoda: Cyclopidea as a predator of container-breeding mosquitoes in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V Micieli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In laboratory bioassays we tested the predatory capacity of the copepod Mesocyclops annulatus on Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens larvae. A single adult female of M. annulatus caused 51.6% and 52.3% mortality of 50 first instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively, in a 72 h test period. When alternative food was added to the containers, mortality rates declined to 16% and 10.3% for Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens respectively. When 50 first instar larvae of each of the two mosquito species tested were placed together with a single adult female of M. annulatus, mortality rates were 75.5% for Ae. aegypti larvae and 23.5% for Cx. pipiens larvae in a three day test period. Different density of adult females of M. annulatus ranged from 5 to 25 females produced mortality rates of Ae. aegypti first instar larvae from 50% to 100% respectively. When a single adult female of M. annulatus was exposed to an increasing number of first-instar Ae. aegypti larvae ranging from 10 to 100, 100% mortality was recorded from 1 to 25 larvae, then mortality declined to 30% with 100 larvae. The average larvae killed per 24 h period by a single copepod were 29.

  9. Perulernaea gamitanae (Copepoda: Lernaeidae parasitizing tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum (Characidae and the hybrids tambacu and tambatinga, cultured in northern Brazil

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    M. Tavares-Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The infestation rate in Colossoma macropomum, hybrid tambacu (C. macropomum x Piaractus mesopotamicus and hybrid tambatinga (C. macropomum x Piaractus brachypomum with Perulernaea gamitanae Thatcher and Paredes, 1985 from two fish farms in Amapá State, Brazil was studied. Lernaeid parasites (n=2887 were collected mainly on the tongue and the mouth cavity and also on cartilage of gill arches and filaments. Inflammation and fibrous nodules were observed on the attachment sites of the parasites. The infestation rate varied according to the fish farm and host. The prevalence of P. gamitanae was of 100% in hosts from one fish farm and was lower in the other fish farm. Higher intensity of P. gamitanae occurred in hybrids tambacu and tambatinga, but despite the high prevalence its intensity was moderate. This is the first report on epidemiology of P. gamitanae in cultured fishes from Brazilian Amazonia, and the occurrence of this crustacean parasite in two new hosts, the hybrids tambacu and tambatinga.

  10. First molecular data for Lernaea cyprinacea (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) infesting Odontesthes bonariensis, a commercially important freshwater fish in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Iris Aparecida; Salinas, Víctor; Ponti, Omar Del; Mancini, Miguel Alberto; Luque, José Luis

    2018-02-19

    Parasitic copepods of the family Lernaeidae are often found infesting freshwater fishes worldwide. They cause lernaeosis, a disease that can lead to serious pathogenic effects on their fish hosts. The most common lernaeid is the Lernaea cyprinacea, which has been widely introduced through importation of tropical fishes, e.g. cyprinids. In South America, it is one of the most common parasites both in wild and in farmed fish in the central region of Argentina. The silverside Odontesthes bonariensis is the most important fish of the sport fisheries of Argentina and one of the fish most affected by lernaeosis. Six specimens of copepods were collected from 30 specimens of O. bonariensis collected in a Pampean shallow lake (33°25'28"S 62°53'56"W) of Córdoba (Argentina). The 28S rRNA gene of L. cyprinacea was amplified by means of PCR to obtain the 28S rDNA sequence. The sequence obtained of this parasite from Argentina showed high genetic similarity with those from various geographical origins. The present study provided molecular characterization of L. cyprinacea in South America for the first time.

  11. A new species of Parategastes Sars, 1904 from the Thale Noi Lake, southern Thailand (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Tegastidae

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    Thanida Saetang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parategastes pholpunthini sp. n. is described and illustrated based on material collected in the Thale Noi Lake, Phatthalung province, southern Thailand. This species can be distinguished from its congeners by the number segments of female antennule, the lengths of rami and basis of P1, the shape of middle inner seta of P4 exp-3, shape of P5, and relative lengths of spine at apically of baseoendopod of P5. The differences among Parategastes species are pointed out and they are compared with the new species. An identification key to species of the genus Parategastes are proposed.

  12. De novo assembly of a transcriptome for Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda--the dominant zooplankter of the North Atlantic Ocean.

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    Petra H Lenz

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of global warming on the food web of the North Atlantic will require difficult-to-obtain physiological data on a key copepod crustacean, Calanus finmarchicus. The de novo transcriptome presented here represents a new resource for acquiring such data. It was produced from multiplexed gene libraries using RNA collected from six developmental stages: embryo, early nauplius (NI-II, late nauplius (NV-VI, early copepodite (CI-II, late copepodite (CV and adult (CVI female. Over 400,000,000 paired-end reads (100 base-pairs long were sequenced on an Illumina instrument, and assembled into 206,041 contigs using Trinity software. Coverage was estimated to be at least 65%. A reference transcriptome comprising 96,090 unique components ("comps" was annotated using Blast2GO. 40% of the comps had significant blast hits. 11% of the comps were successfully annotated with gene ontology (GO terms. Expression of many comps was found to be near zero in one or more developmental stages suggesting that 35 to 48% of the transcriptome is "silent" at any given life stage. Transcripts involved in lipid biosynthesis pathways, critical for the C. finmarchicus life cycle, were identified and their expression pattern during development was examined. Relative expression of three transcripts suggests wax ester biosynthesis in late copepodites, but triacylglyceride biosynthesis in adult females. Two of these transcripts may be involved in the preparatory phase of diapause. A key environmental challenge for C. finmarchicus is the seasonal exposure to the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense with high concentrations of saxitoxins, neurotoxins that block voltage-gated sodium channels. Multiple contigs encoding putative voltage-gated sodium channels were identified. They appeared to be the result of both alternate splicing and gene duplication. This is the first report of multiple NaV1 genes in a protostome. These data provide new insights into the transcriptome and physiology of this environmentally important zooplankter.

  13. Utility of 18S rDNA and ITS sequences as population markers for Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitising Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scotland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinn, A.P.; Banks, B.A.; Tange, N.; Bron, J.E.; Sommerville, C.; Aoki, T.; Wootten, R.

    2000-01-01

    Genetic differentiation within the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), was investigated by the sequencing of specific nucleotide regions. Partial sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region from single sea lice were amplified

  14. Lamproglena hepseti n. sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeidae), a gill parasite of the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch) from the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van As, Liesl L; van As, Jo G

    2007-05-01

    During surveys of the biodiversity of fish parasites in the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana, specimens of Lamproglena von Nordmann, 1832 were found associated with the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch). This Lamproglena species distinctly differs from all known species based on morphological features, in particular the cephalothorax and the maxilliped; it is described as L. hepseti n. sp. and is specific to its host, the African pike.

  15. Amended diagnosis of the genus Nannodiaptomus (Copepoda, Calanoida), based on redescription of N. phongnhaensis and description of a new species from caves in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duc Luong; Brancelj, Anton

    2017-01-19

    Nannodiaptomus phongnhaensis Dang & Ho, 2001, an endemic stygobiotic diaptomid from Vietnam and the type species of the genus Nannodiaptomus Dang & Ho, 2001, is redescribed on the basis of a new material from its type locality: Hang Phong Nha Cave, Quang Binh province, central Vietnam. We also designated a neotype, because the type material has been lost. The diagnosis of the genus is amended, based on the description of the neotype. The taxonomic position of the genus in the subfamily Speodiaptominae is proposed, and its relationships with other genera of this subfamily are discussed. A new cave-dwelling species Nannodiaptomus haii sp. nov., from a cave near the type locality of N. phongnhaensis, is also described and illustrated. The new species differs from the type species of the genus, among other things, by the structure of male's left swimming leg 5, where the inner margin of the apical process and the sub-terminal seta on the swimming leg 5 Exp-2 have small serrated membranes, but these bear 3-4 distinct denticular protrusions in N. phongnhaensis.

  16. Two new stygobiotic species of Elaphoidella (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) with comments on geographical distribution and ecology of harpacticoids from caves in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watiroyram, Santi; Brancelj, Anton; Sanoamuang, La-Orsri

    2015-02-16

    Elaphoidella thailandensis sp. nov. and E. jaesornensis sp. nov., collected during an investigation of cave-dwelling copepod fauna in the northern part of Thailand, are described and figured herein. The new species were collected from pools filled by percolating water from the unsaturated zone of a karstic aquifer in Phitsanulok and Lampang Provinces, respectively. Elaphoidella thailandensis, from Tham Khun cave, is distinguished from its congeners by the two-segmented endopod of pediger 1, the absence of endopod on pediger 4, and the setal formula 4, 5, 6 for the distal exopodal segment of pedigers 2-4. Elaphoidella jaesornensis, from Tham Phar Ngam cave, is distinguished from its most closely related species, E. namnaoensis Brancelj, Watiroyram & Sanoamuang, 2010, by the armature formula of the endopod of pedigers 2-5. The geographical distribution and ecology of Harpacticoida from Thai caves is also presented.

  17. Regulation of rotifer community by predation of .i.Cyclops vicinus./i. (Copepoda) in the Římov Reservoir in spring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Seďa, Jaromír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2006), s. 101-112 ISSN 1434-2944 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : rotifer community * Cyclops vicinus * predation impact Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.775, year: 2006

  18. Ergasilus turkayi n. sp. (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Ergasilidae: a gill parasite of Serrasalmus hollandi Jégu, 2003 (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae from the Paragua River, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa M. Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract A new parasitic copepod species, Ergasilus turkayi n. sp., found on the gills of the Holland’s piranha, Serrasalmus hollandi Jégu, 2003, in the Paragua River, Bolivia, is described based on 10 adult females. The new species presents a triangular-shaped cephalothorax, spinules on interpodal plates and aesthetascs on antennule - two aesthetascs on the sixth, and one aesthetasc plus two setae on the fifth segment. Additionally, the second abdominal somite of E. turkayi n. sp. bears an anal pseudoperculum, a dorsal and elongate projection which is usually absent or vestigial in poecilostome families within the Cyclopoida but that was never reported in species of Ergasilidae.

  19. Harpacticoida (Crustacea: Copepoda associated with cold-water coral substrates in the Porcupine Seabight (NE Atlantic: species composition, diversity and reflections on the origin of the fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Gheerardyn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The harpacticoid copepod fauna associated with the coral degradation zone of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758 reefs was investigated for the first time in the Porcupine Seabight (NE Atlantic. The species list of the coral degradation zone includes 157 species, 62 genera and 19 families, and the most species-rich families were Ectinosomatidae (36 species, Ameiridae (29 species and Argestidae (17 species. At least 80% of the species were considered new to science. Most of the 23 known species have been reported from NE Atlantic coastlines and from higher latitudes in northern Subpolar and Polar Seas. At the family level, the harpacticoid fauna in the Porcupine Seabight did not seem to differ markedly from other deep-sea areas, with essentially the same abundant families. However, the presence of typically epifaunal taxa indicates that the hard substrates of the coral degradation zone provide an exceptional habitat. Further, harpacticoid composition and diversity of sediment and coral fragments were compared with similar substrates in a tropical reef lagoon (Zanzibar, Tanzania. Both regions harboured different fauna and the difference between coral and sediment was more obvious in the tropical lagoon. Species richness and evenness of the two microhabitats in the tropical lagoon were lower than in the deep sea.

  20. A review of the genera and species of the Bomolochidae (Crustacea, Copepoda), including the description of some old and new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoolt, W.

    1962-01-01

    During a recent survey of Pacific psammophilous and phycophilous copepods an isolated female Bomolochus was found, the identification of which, in absence of its host, proved to be particularly troublesome. It became necessary to check the descriptions of all species of the genus Bomolochus Von

  1. Two new species of Nitocrella (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida from groundwaters of northwestern Australia expand the geographic range of the genus in a global hotspot of subterranean biodiversity

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    Danny Tang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, the Ameiridae is the most diverse harpacticoid family in groundwater, with 35 species hitherto reported. In this study, we describe two new species belonging to the “vasconica”-group of the ameirid genus Nitocrella based on specimens collected from groundwaters near mine sites in the Pilbara and Great Sandy Desert regions of northwestern Australia. Nitocrella knotti sp. n. can be distinguished from related taxa by having two setae on the antennal exopod, four armature elements on the distal endopodal segment of leg 2, four armature elements on the distal endopodal segment of leg 3, three armature elements on the distal endopodal segment of leg 4, and three setae on the basoendopodal lobe of leg 5. Nitocrella karanovici sp. n. differs from its congeners by having a short outer spine and long inner seta on the distal endopodal segment of leg 2, three armature elements on the distal endopodal segment of leg 3, and four setae on the basoendopodal lobe of leg 5 in the female. This study is of biogeographic interest in providing the first documentation of the genus Nitocrella from the Pilbara and Great Sandy Desert regions. Both new species of Nitocrella are recorded from restricted localities and appear to be short-range endemics, thus making them potentially vulnerable to environmental changes and threatening processes such as mining. The distribution range of N. karanovici sp. n. coincides with the centre of diversity of the Ethel Gorge aquifer stygobiont community, a globally significant hotspot which is listed as endangered.

  2. Un nuevo analisis de la distribución vertical de Paracalanus crassirostris (Copepoda Calanoidea mediante el modelo linear general (Omega

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    Ana Milstein

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The material analysed here is part of a collection made with a 91 van Dorn bottle in a 5 m depth station at Ubatuba - São Pauto, between June 1976 and May 1977. Two sets of general linear models were constructed, one for the winter months (June, July and August and the other for the summer ones (December, January and February. In each set, copepodid stages and adults were studied separately, in relation to hour of sampling, depth, interaction hour-depth, and environmental factors (light penetration, dissolved oxygen, salinity and temperature, considered as a whole. All the stages studied were spread in the water column and show no vertical migration. The hour was not significant for any stage except for copepodid V female in winter. This results agree with a previous analysis of the same material performed with the data of each two months throughout the year (Milstein, 1978.

  3. Microsporidia in a woodland pool I. Lanatospora costata sp. n. (Opisthosporidia, Microsporidia), parasite of Megacyclops viridis (Crustacea, Copepoda): fine structure and molecular phylogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Jiří; Hyliš, M.; Fiala, Ivan; Refardt, D.; Larsson, J.I.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2016), s. 269-280 ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microsporidian parasite * Megacyclops viridis * SSU rRNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2016

  4. First record and redescription of Macandrewella cochinensis Gopalakrishnan, 1973 (Copepoda, Scolecitrichidae) from the Red Sea, with notes on swarm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M

    2013-01-01

    During a study of the epipelagic zooplankton carried out near the fringing reef around Sharm El-Sheikh area, in the northern Red Sea, female and male specimens of the poorly known calanoid copepod Macandrewella cochinensis Gopalakrishnan, 1973 were collected. This is the first record of species occurrence in the Red Sea. Macandrewella cochinensis was previously known only from the offshore water of Cochin, south west of India. The Red Sea specimens are described in details herein to allow their comparison with the specimens from the type locality, because original description of M. cochinensis is incomplete and causes some taxonomic confusion. The most important characters that may have been overlooked in the original description are: shape of projections of the female distolateral prosomal borders, details of morphology of the asymmetrical female genital double-somite and presence of leg 5 in female.

  5. Potential zooplankton preys (Copepoda and Appendicularia for Engraulis anchoita in relation to early larval and spawning distributions in the Patagonian frontal system (SW Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela L. Spinelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the spatial distribution of the abundance, biomass and size of zooplankton (nauplii, calanoids, cyclopoids and appendicularians in relation to the distribution of first-feeding larvae and eggs of Engraulis anchoita across the frontal system of Peninsula Valdés. Twelve samples of zooplankton and ichthyoplankton were taken with small Bongo (67 μm and Pairovet (200 μm nets during the spring of 2004 along two transects. The total abundance of zooplankton and the chlorophyll a concentration were higher in homogeneous waters, while total biomasses were higher in stratified waters. Temperature was negatively correlated with biological variables and was the main factor affecting the zooplankton distribution. In both transects, abundance peaks of first-feeding larvae were detected at coastal stations along with the smallest fraction of zooplankton ( < 500 μm, while the largest fraction was dominant at the external stations, coinciding with the highest egg abundance. The physical structure of this front generates different levels of food availability for first-feeding larvae. Calanoids (southern transect and cyclopoids (northern transect are predominant followed by nauplii and appendicularians. The biomass of zooplankton preys contributes to the carbon transfer to the upper trophic levels and is probably important for the survival and growth of anchovy larvae in this frontal system.

  6. Haplocyclops torresi n. sp. and Potamocaris estevesi Reid, 1991 from Brazil, with a proposal for revalidation of the genus Haplocyclops Kiefer, 1952 (Copepoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falavigna Da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo; Torres, Isabela Claret; Maia-Barbosa, Paulina Maria

    1998-01-01

    The cyclopid genus Haplocyclops Kiefer, 1952, generally considered as a subgenus of Bryocyclops, is revalidated, and its diagnosis emended. Haplocyclops torresi sp. n. is described from the Rio Doce, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the first record of this genus from the South American continent.

  7. A new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Ergasilidae) from Bryconops giacopinii Fernández-Yépez (Characidae) in the Vichada River Basin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel-Hoyos, Felipe; Santana-Piñeros, Ana María; Cruz-Quintana, Yanis; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    A new copepod species, Ergasilus curticrus n. sp. is described based on 14 female specimens collected from the gills of the characid teleost Bryconops giacopinii Fernández-Yépez, captured in the Vichada River Basin in Colombia. The new species has a unique combination of characters including: (i) 2-segmented endopods in legs 1 and 4; (ii) a semi-pinnate, falciform seta on the terminal segment of the first leg exopod; (iii) a 1-segmented fourth leg exopod; (iv) a reduced fifth leg with a single seta; and (v) a circular structure fused to a groove near the lateral margins of the second pedigerous tergite. Only two other known congeners have a 1-segmented leg 4 exopod, E. coatiarus Araujo & Varella, 1998 and E. iheringi Tidd, 1942. Among other characters, they differ from the new species by the lack of a semi-pinnate, falciform seta on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 1 and in the structure and armature of the fifth leg. The prevalence of E. curticrus n. sp. was 13.6% and its mean abundance was 0.4 specimens per host. This is the first new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 described from the Orinoco River Basin.

  8. On some new species of Ancorabolidae Sars, 1909 from the Gulf of California: the generaCeratonotusSars, 1909, andDendropsyllusConroy-Dalton, 2003 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Samuel; Díaz, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Two new species of two genera of the family Ancorabolidae, Ceratonotus elongatus sp. n. and Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. , found at 1642 m and 1759 m depth, respectively, in the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin, are described. Ceratonotus elongatus sp. n. was attributed to that genus by a series of character states of which the lack of dendroid dorsal processes on the P6-bearing somite and the presence of such processes on the first abdominal somite were definitive. This species was observed to be very close to Ceratonotus thistlei Conroy-Dalton, 2003 from the San Diego Trough, and can be separated by a number of traits of which the elongated sensilla-bearing dorsal tubercles on the second abdominal somite in the new species was definitive. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. has been placed within that genus given the presence of four geniculate setae on P1EXP2 and one seta on P1ENP2, one inner seta on P3EXP3, and lack of inner armature on P4EXP3. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. appears to be more closely related to Dendropsyllus thomasi Conroy-Dalton, 2003 and Dendropsyllus magellanicus (George & Schminke, 1998) on account of the spinulose nature of the basis of the maxilliped, the two-segmented P4ENP, and the fused condition of the P5 baseoendopod and exopod, and seems to be even more closely related to Dendropsyllus thomasi by the degree of development of the lateroventral processes of the cephalothorax. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. can be separated from its congeners by the relative length of the first antennulary segment, relative length of the caudal rami, and by the armature formula of P3ENP2.

  9. On some new species of Ancorabolidae Sars, 1909 from the Gulf of California: the genera Ceratonotus Sars, 1909, and Dendropsyllus Conroy-Dalton, 2003 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gómez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of two genera of the family Ancorabolidae, Ceratonotus elongatus sp. n. and Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n., found at 1642 m and 1759 m depth, respectively, in the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin, are described. Ceratonotus elongatus sp. n. was attributed to that genus by a series of character states of which the lack of dendroid dorsal processes on the P6-bearing somite and the presence of such processes on the first abdominal somite were definitive. This species was observed to be very close to C. thistlei Conroy-Dalton, 2003 from the San Diego Trough, and can be separated by a number of traits of which the elongated sensilla-bearing dorsal tubercles on the second abdominal somite in the new species was definitive. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. has been placed within that genus given the presence of four geniculate setae on P1EXP2 and one seta on P1ENP2, one inner seta on P3EXP3, and lack of inner armature on P4EXP3. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. appears to be more closely related to D. thomasi Conroy-Dalton, 2003 and D. magellanicus (George & Schminke, 1998 on account of the spinulose nature of the basis of the maxilliped, the two-segmented P4ENP, and the fused condition of the P5 baseoendopod and exopod, and seems to be even more closely related to D. thomasi by the degree of development of the lateroventral processes of the cephalothorax. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. can be separated from its congeners by the relative length of the first antennulary segment, relative length of the caudal rami, and by the armature formula of P3ENP2.

  10. Transcriptome survey of the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Farlora, Rodolfo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to identify and analyze the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the ectoparasite copepod Caligus rogercresseyi. Massive transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed during the infectious copepodid larval stage, during the attached chalimus larval stage, and also in female and male adults. Thirty genes were selected for describing the pathways, and these were annotated for proteins or enzymes involved in lipid digestion, absorption, and transport; fatty acid degradation; the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies; and steroid and ecdysteroid syntheses. Differential expression of these genes was analyzed by ontogenic stage and discussed considering each stage's feeding habits and energetic needs. Copepodids showed a low expression of fatty acid digestion genes, reflected by a non-feeding behavior, and the upregulation of genes involved in steroid biosynthesis, which was consistent with a pathway for cholesterol synthesis during ecdysis. The chalimus stage showed an upregulation of genes related to fatty acid digestion, absorption, and transport, as well as to fatty acid degradation and the synthesis of ketone bodies, therefore suggesting that lipids ingested from the mucus and skin of the host fish are metabolized as important sources of energy. Adult females also showed a pattern of high lipid metabolism for energy supply and mobilization in relation to reproduction and vitellogenesis. Adult females and males revealed different lipid metabolism patterns that reflected different energetic needs. This study reports for the first time the probable lipid metabolic pathways involved in the energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis of C. rogercresseyi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metal distributions in Tigriopus brevicornis (Crustacea, Copepoda) exposed to copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, silver, and mercury, and implication for subsequent transfer in the food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barka, Sabria; Pavillon, Jean-François; Amiard-Triquet, Claude

    2010-08-01

    The marine copepod Tigriopus brevicornis is a benthic microcrustacean inhabiting splashed rock pools in the intertidal zone. The genus has a worldwide distribution, and some species play an important role as a link in trophic webs. It is well established that many crustaceans are able to survive in contaminated environments by storing metallic pollutants in detoxified form, and thus, they may represent a source of contaminants for their predators. The present study was designed to determine the distribution of bioaccumulated metals, both essential and nonessential, with a view to assessing their availability to the next trophic level. Groups of 1000-1500 adult copepods were exposed for 1-14 days to Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Zn in water. Three concentrations, chosen to be realistic in comparison with those encountered in polluted environments, were tested for each metal. Copepods were homogenized and metals were analyzed in supernatants (i.e., metals stored in soluble form in soft tissues or easily remobilized from the exoskeleton) and pellets (including metal-rich detoxificatory granules or with cellular debris) recovered after centrifugation. Another experiment, consisting of desorption tests, was designed to evaluate the fraction of metals loosely bound onto the exoskeleton. The bioaccumulation ability is highly variable, as shown by the ratios between the concentrations reached in T. brevicornis experimentally exposed to different metals (at higher dose and at day 14) and those in controls (7, 12, 18, 26, 53, and 99, respectively, for Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Ag, and Hg). Cu, Zn, and Ni concentrations in copepods increased linearly with time over the whole range of exposure concentrations, whereas a plateau body metal concentration was reached with time particularly at the highest exposure concentrations for Cd, Ag, and Hg. Metals bound onto the exoskeleton were remobilized to different extents, the percentages of desorption being 11, 14, 16, 19, 31, and 32, respectively, for Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Ag, and Hg. Metals mainly present in the supernatant (Cd, Ni, Zn) are probably more able to be transferred along a food chain than those which were equally distributed between soluble and insoluble fractions (Ag, Cu, and Hg).

  12. Prediction of the protein components of a putative Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian signaling system using a de novo assembled transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Nesbit, Katherine T; Lenz, Petra H

    2013-09-01

    Diel vertical migration and seasonal diapause are critical life history events for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. While much is known about these behaviors phenomenologically, little is known about their molecular underpinnings. Recent studies in insects suggest that some circadian genes/proteins also contribute to the establishment of seasonal diapause. Thus, it is possible that in Calanus these distinct timing regimes share some genetic components. To begin to address this possibility, we used the well-established Drosophila melanogaster circadian system as a reference for mining clock transcripts from a 200,000+ sequence Calanus transcriptome; the proteins encoded by the identified transcripts were also deduced and characterized. Sequences encoding homologs of the Drosophila core clock proteins CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS were identified, as was one encoding CRYPTOCHROME 2, a core clock protein in ancestral insect systems, but absent in Drosophila. Calanus transcripts encoding proteins known to modulate the Drosophila core clock were also identified and characterized, e.g. CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, SHAGGY and VRILLE. Alignment and structural analyses of the deduced Calanus proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Interestingly, reverse BLAST analyses of these sequences against all arthropod proteins typically revealed non-Drosophila isoforms to be most similar to the Calanus queries. This, in combination with the presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 (a clock input pathway protein) and CRYPTOCHROME 2 in Calanus, suggests that the organization of the copepod circadian system is an ancestral one, more similar to that of insects like Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution in density and biomass of two Pseudodiaptomus species (Copepoda: Calanoida in the Caeté river estuary (Amazon region - North of Brazil

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    A. Magalhães

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal density and biomass distribution of the planktonic copepods Pseudodiaptomus richardi and P. acutus along a salinity gradient were investigated in the Caeté River Estuary (North-Brazil in June and December, 1998 (dry season and in February and May, 1999 (rainy season. Copepod biomass was estimated using regression parameters based on the relation of dry weight and body length (prosome of adult organisms. The Caeté River Estuary was characterized by high spatial and temporal variations in salinity (0.8-37.2‰. Exponential length-weight relationships were observed for both Pseudodiaptomus species. Density and biomass values oscillated between 0.28-46.18 ind. m-3 and 0.0022-0.3507 mg DW. m-3 for P. richardi; and between 0.01-17.02 ind. m-3 and 0.0005-0.7181 mg DW. m-3 for P. acutus. The results showed that the contribution of P. richardi for the secondary production in the Caeté River Estuary is more important in the limnetic zone than in other zones where euhaline-polyhaline regimes were predominant. However, it was not possible to observe a clear pattern of spatial and temporal distribution for P. acutus.

  14. Effects of cold selective breeding on the body length, fatty acid content, and productivity of the tropical copepod Apocyclops royi (Cyclopoida, Copepoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yen-Ju; Souissi, Anissa; Sadovskaya, Irina

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a novel approach of selective breeding by using temperature acclimation to enhance the aquaculture potential of the tropical cyclopoid copepod Apocyclops royi. Two copepod culture strains were acclimated separately at high (28°C, control strain) and low (18°C, selective...

  15. Temporal and spatial distribution of the two closely related Acartia species A. omorii and A. hudsonica (Copepoda, Calanoida) in a small inlet water of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi

    1987-05-01

    Temporal and spatial distributions of Acartia omorii and Acartia hudsonica were investigated in Maizuru Bay, middle Japan, from 1977 to 1978. In both years, adults of the two species appeared synchronously 17 days after the bottom temperature cell to 20°C in November; the numbers of both species sharply decreased when the bottom temperature rose to 20°C in late June and disappeared in early or mid-July. These facts indicate that a bottom temperature of 20°C is critical for the recruitment of the populations of these species. Acartia hudsonica was more limited to the inner position of the bay than A. omorii; spatial segregation may be explained not only by preference for different hydrographic conditions, but also by interspecific competition between the two species. In temperate waters, co-existing Acartia species belonging to the same subgenus appear to be segregated only in space while those of different subgenera usually exhibit a seasonal segregation. Pacific populations of A. hudsonica appear to be more restricted to inlet waters and estuaries than Atlantic populations, probably owing to the presence of the closely related sympatric species in the Pacific.

  16. Effect of water quality parameters on the distribution of Pleuromamma (Copepoda-Calanoida) species in the Indian Ocean: A statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, V.K.; Saraswathy, M.; Nair, M.

    on species’ abundance and predictive step-up multiple regression models of water quality parameters: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and their first order interaction effects on Pleuromamma species’ abundance, were carried out in the regions, off 10...

  17. Neocyclops (Protoneocyclops) ferrarii, a new species of cyclopid (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from Belize, with remarks on the morphology of the genus Neocyclops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falavigna da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo

    1995-01-01

    Neocyclops (Protoneocyclops) ferrarii sp. n. is described from Candy’s Pond, Twin Cays, Belize. It is morphologically closest to N. (P.) wellsi Petkovski, 1986 from Mozambique and N. (P.) herbsti Petkovski, 1986 from the Red Sea. Pediger 1 in Neocyclops is distinct although reduced and often

  18. Scanning electron microscopy of damage caused by Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea on larvae of the Dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schaper

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease, whose main biological vector is Aedes aegypti. This mosquito colonizes tropical areas where the disease is endemic. The most obvious action against dengue is attacking its vector. Biological control appears to be an alternative approach, using natural enemies of the mosquitoes, such as predatory copepods. Thus, the morphological study of the damage caused by copepods is important to understand its predatory capacity. Twenty-five A. aegypti larvae were exposed to the copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides and the damage caused by the copepods was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The larvae showed damage mainly at the anal segment, the siphon and the abdomen; only three attacks to the head were observed. The size of the siphon might be of importance in determining whether or not a copepod will attack a mosquito larva. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 843-846. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.El dengue es una enfermedad viral transmitida por mosquitos, cuyo principal vector es Aedes aegypti. Este mosquito coloniza muchas áreas tropicales donde la enfermedad es endémica. La acción más obvia contra el dengue es el ataque a su vector. El control biológico parece una buena alternativa, empleando enemigos naturales de los mosquitos, como los copépodos. Por lo tanto, es importante el estudio morfológico del daño causado por los copépodos para comprender su capacidad depredadora. Veinticinco larvas de A. aegypti fueron expuestas a la actividad depredadora del copépodo Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. Mediante microscopia electrónica de rastreo se evaluó el daño causado por los copépodos. Éstos atacaron principalmente el segmento anal, el sifón y el abdomen de las larvas; sólo vimos tres ataques a la cabeza. El tamaño del sifón podría ser de importancia para predecir si los copépodos pudiesen atacar larvas de determinado mosquito.

  19. New species of Pseudodiaptomus (Copepoda: Calanoida) from the salt pans of the Gulf of Kutch, India and a comment on its speciation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Haridas, P.

    A new species of calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus pankajus (family Pseudodiaptomidae) is described from the north-west coast of India. This species inhabits high saline waters of salt pans. It appears to have evolved allopatrically during...

  20. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fuentes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1 rostrum with long projection, (2 relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3 endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4 a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study.

  1. Exotic "Gill Lice" Species (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae: Salmincola SPP.) Infect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Rash, Jacob M; Besler, Doug A; Roberts, Jackson R; Warren, Micah B; Arias, Cova R; Bullard, Stephen A

    2017-08-01

    Salmincola californiensis infected 25 of 31 (prevalence 0.8; intensity 2-35 [mean 6.6 ± standard deviation 7.7; n = 25]) rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from a private trout farm connected to the Watauga River, North Carolina. Salmincola edwardsii infected all of 9 (1.0; 2-43 [9.3 ± 13.0; 9]) brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, from Big Norton Prong, a tributary of the Little Tennessee River, North Carolina. Both lernaeopodids are well-known salmonid pathogens, but neither is native to, nor has been previously taxonomically confirmed from, the southeastern United States. Herein, we (1) use light and scanning electron microscopy to identify and provide supplemental morphological observations of these lernaeopodids, (2) furnish complementary molecular sequence data from the 28S rDNA (28S), and (3) document the pathological effects of gill infections. We identified and differentiated these lernaeopodids by the second antenna (exopod tip with large [S. californiensis] vs. slender [S. edwardsii] spines; endopod terminal segment with subequal ventral processes shorter than [S. californiensis] vs. longer than or equal to [S. edwardsii] dorsal hook), maxilliped palp (length typically ≤1/3 [S. californiensis] vs. 1/3-1/2 [S. edwardsii] subchela length exclusive of claw), and bulla (sub-circular and concave on manubrium's side [S. californiensis] vs. non-stellate [S. edwardsii]). Analysis of the 28S rDNA sequences confirmed our taxonomic assignments as demonstrated by 100% sequence similarity among the sympatric, morphologically-conspecific isolates. Histopathology revealed focal gill epithelial hyperplasia, obstruction of interlamellar water channels, lamellar fusion, and crypting of gill filaments. High intensity infections by either lernaeopodid are surveillance-worthy because they are potentially pathogenic to trout in the southeastern United States.

  2. Short-term variation of nutritive and metabolic parameters in Temora longicornis females (Crustacea, Copepoda) as a response to diet shift and starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Tobias; Saborowski, Reinhard; Hagen, Wilhelm; Niehoff, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    Changes in fatty acid patterns, digestive and metabolic enzyme activities and egg production rates (EPR) were studied in the small calanoid copepod Temora longicornis. Female copepods were collected in spring 2005 off Helgoland (North Sea). In the laboratory one group of copepods was fed with the cryptophycean Rhodomonas baltica for a period of 3 days. Another group of copepods was maintained without food. According to the fatty acid patterns, animals from the field were feeding on a more detrital, animal-based and to a minor extent to a diatom-based diet. Under laboratory conditions, females rapidly accumulated fatty acids such as 18:4 (n-3), 18:3 (n-3) and 18:2 (n-6) which are specific of R. baltica. Diatom-specific fatty acids such as 16:1 (n-7) were strongly reduced. In fed animals the activities of digestive and metabolic enzymes remained constant and egg production rates were highest on day 2. Starving animals, in contrast, showed significantly reduced faecal pellet production and EPR. Proteolytic enzyme activity decreased rapidly within 24 h and remained at a low level until the end of the experiment. Citrate synthase decreased continuously as well. T. longicornis rapidly reacts to dietary changes and food depletion. It has limited energy stores and, thus, strongly depends on continuous food supply.

  3. Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. (Copepoda, Kroyeriidaea gill parasite of the shark, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. (Copepoda, Kroyeriidae um parasito de guelras do tubarão, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. from the shark, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, 1950, from Rio Grande do Sul, State, Brazil, is described on the basis of 14 adult females. The new species is superficially similar to Kroyeria deetsi Dippenaar, Benz & Olivier, 2000, but differs from it in the following characters. The maxillipeds of the new species are large and project well beyond the lateral margins of the cephalothorax. Those of K. deetsi are much smaller. The third endopodal segments of K. deetsi are twice as long as the second endopodal segments and are provided with prominent marginal denticles. The second and third endopodal segments of the new species are rounded, of similar length and lack teeth.Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. proveniente de guelras de G. vitaminicus de Buen, 1950 do Rio Grande do Sul, é descrita baseada em 14 fêmeas adultas. A nova espécie aproxima-se de Kroyeria deetsi Dippenaar, Benz & Oliver, 2000, mas a nova espécie se distingue por apresentar os maxilípedes grandes e estendendo-se bem além das margens do cefalotorax. Os terceiros segmentos dos endopoditos de K. deetsi são duas vezes mais cumpridos que os segundos e têm dentículos marginais proeminentes. Os segundos e terceiros segmentos dos endopoditos da nova espécie são arredondados, de tamanhos parecidos e carecem de dentículos.

  4. Establishment of a new genus for Parastenocaris itica (Copepoda, Harpacticoida from El Salvador, Central America, with discussion of the Parastenocaris fontinalis and P. proserpina groups Proposta de um novo gênero para Parastenocaris itica (Copepoda, Harpacticoida de El Salvador, América Central e discussão dos grupos Parastenocaris fontinalis e P. proserpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique C. Corgosinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of Parastenocarididae is described from the Neotropical region. Iticocaris gen. nov. is established to include Parastenocaris itica Noodt, 1962. Iticocaris gen. nov. is defined by the following characters: 1 male leg 3 with 2-segmented exopod; 2 first exopodal segment short and rectangular; 3 thumb hypertrophic, longer than the second exopodal segment and inserted on the distal edge of exopod segment 1, occupying the whole distal margin; 4 exopod 2 or apophysis strongly sclerotized, articulated with the exopod segment 1 on its inner margin and curved against the thumb, forming a strong forceps; 5 leg 4 endopod without dimorphism in shape and size vs. minor dimorphism in ornamentation; 6 leg 5 with three setae and 7 lack of the anterolateral furcal seta II. The new genus is monotypic, represented by Iticocaris itica (Noodt, 1962 comb. nov., from El Salvador, Central America. A close relationship is hypothesized between I. itica and the genus Brasilibathynellocaris Jakobi, 1972, the males of which both share the forceps-like elongated apophysis.Um novo gênero de Parastenocarididae é proposto para a Região Neotropical para incluir Parastenocaris itica Noodt, 1962. Iticocaris gen. nov. é diagnosticado pela presença dos seguintes caracteres: 1 toracópodo 3 do macho com exópodo bissegmentado; 2 primeiro segmento exopodal curto e retangular; 3 "thumb" hipertrófico, mais longo que o segundo segmento do exópodo e inserido na margem distal do exópodo 1, ocupando toda a margem distal do segmento; 4 exópodo 2 ou apófise fortemente esclerotizado, articulado com o exópodo 1 em sua margem interna e curvado contra o "thumb", formando um forte fórceps; 5 endópodo do toracópodo 4 sem dimorfismo sexual quanto à forma e tamanho vs. discreto dimorfismo quanto à ornamentação; 6 toracópodo 5 com três cerdas e 7 furca sem a cerda anterolateral II. O novo gênero é monotípico, sendo representado por Iticocaris itica (Noodt, 1962 comb. nov., proveniente de El Salvador na América Central. É hipotetizado que I. itica e o gênero Brasilibathynellocaris Jakobi, 1972 sejam próximos filogeneticamente, possuindo os machos de ambos os gêneros uma apófise alongada e "thumb" formando uma estrutura similar a um fórceps.

  5. ROUNDSCALE SPEARFISH branchiostegal morphometric data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The morphometric characteristics that separate white marlin Kajikia albidus from roundscale spearfish Tetrapturus georgii can be difficult for non-experts to...

  6. Enchytraeidae of the Netherlands (Annelida; Oligochaeta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunst, de J.H.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary check list of 46 species of Enchytraeidae hitherto found in the Netherlands. With the exception of Enchytraeus albidus and Hemifridericia parva, these species are recorded from the Netherlands for the first time.

  7. Differences in feeding selectivity and efficiency between young-of-the-year European perch (.i.Perca fluviatilis./i.) and roach (.i.Rutilus rutilus./i.) – field observations and laboratory experiments on the importance of prey movement apparency vs. evasiveness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peterka, Jiří; Matěna, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2009), s. 786-794 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600170502; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : juvenile fish * foraging ecology * Daphnia * Cyclopidae * Diaptomidae * movement pattern apparency Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  8. ZOOPLANKTON FAUNA OF BİNGÖL FLOATING ISLANDS IN WINTER SEASON

    OpenAIRE

    Şen Özdemir, Nurgül; Caf, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    In this study was carried out winter season in 2011; zooplankton faunaof the Bingol Floating Islands. To­tally 18 zooplankton species were determinedas fol­lows; 14 Rotifera, 3 Cladocera and 1 Copepoda. It was determined thatthis zooplanktonic organisms consist­ed of 87.74 % Rotifera, 6.83 % Cladocera, and3.36 %  copepodit stages, 2.07 %  nauplii of copepoda. Rotif­era were thedominant group with regard to both spe­cies numbers, and individual numbers ofspecies. Cy­clops vicinus from Copepoda...

  9. Analysis of the gut contents of the needlefish, Hyporhamphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food items were identified as far as possible. Amphipods and isopods were usually broken up and difficult to separate, and consequently grouped together in the .... Protozoa. Foraminifera. Filamentous algae. Aquatic macrophytes. Ruppia spiralis +. Potamogeton pectinatus. Polychaeta. Crustacea. Ostracoda. Copepoda.

  10. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ctenophora: (Pleurobrachia globosa). Chaetognatha: (Sagitta enflata; S. bedoti; S. robusta). Copepoda : (Paracalanus aculeatus, Labidocera pectinata; Labidocera kroyeri var. gallensis; Acrocalanus monachus; Eucalanus crassus;. Canthocalanus pauper; Centropages sp.) Cumacea: (Eocuma sp., Paradiastylis culicoides).

  11. Zooplankton biomass and composition in the western Bay of Bengal during late sw monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Madhupratap, M.; Nair, V.R.; Nair, S.R.S.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Copepoda formed the predominant group except in the southern region where a swarm of pelagic tunicates reduced their contribution to only 19% of the total zooplankton count. Decapod larvae occurred in fairly large numbers all along the coastal...

  12. Zooplankton biomass & composition in the Western Bay of Bengal during late SW monsoon; 15 August 1978 to 07 September 1978 (NODC Accession 0000941)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Copepoda formed the predominant group except in the southern region where a swarm of pelagic tunicates reduced their contribution to only 19% of the total...

  13. Zooplankton composition and diversity in western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Nair, V.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Madhupratap, M.

    higher standing stock. Copepoda formed the dominant group followed by Decapoda and Chaetognatha. Species composition of various groups and their distribution is discussed. A general inverse relationship between biomass and species diversity was the trend...

  14. Zoogeography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.S.

    The distribution pattern of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean is briefly reviewed on a within and between ocean patterns and is limited to species within a quite restricted sort of groups namely, Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda and Euphausiacea...

  15. Free-living copepods of the Arabian Sea: Distributions and research perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.

    The subclass Copepoda consists of 10 orders and exhibit great diversity in morphology as well as the habitats they occupy. Within the orders themselves, there are sometimes overlaps-some are free living or could be parasitic. There are approximately...

  16. Hydrobiological studies in the catchment of Vaal dam, South Africa part 3. Notes on the Cladocera and Copepoda of stones-in-current, marginal vegetation and stony backwater biotopes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chutter, FM

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available in the Catehrnent of Vaal Dam. Part 3 499 they worked on was collected from the Vaal Barrage which is further dow-n the Vaal River than the Vaal Dani catehment. These publications probably give a fair indication of the species present in the Vaal Dam catchment...) was atypical of the zone in that it was on a very small lowland stream which had not flooded for a long time before sampling. CHUTTER (1963) recorded large numbers of Daphnia spp. in the Dry Earl)- Summer in the water flowing out of the Vaal Barrage. 8...

  17. Diversity of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on marine fishes with commercial and aquaculture importance in Chamela Bay, Pacific coast of Mexico by using morphology and DNA barcoding, with description of a new species of Caligus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Gómez, Samuel; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence of parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae on wild and cultured marine fishes from Chamela Bay, on the Pacific coast of Mexico, is reported. A total of 16 species of Caligus and 1 species of Lepeophtheirus were found on 19 wild fish species. The description of Caligus chamelensis n. sp. parasitizing Kyphosus elegans is presented. Among the species of Caligus reported here, Caligus serratus is the most common since it was found infecting 11 fish species. On cultured fish, Lutjanus gutattus and L. peru, only one species of Caligus, C. sclerotinosus was collected. DNA barcodes [mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences] were obtained for the majority of the sea lice species herein reported. The molecular analyses support the recognition of the new species and suggest that neither Caligus nor Lepeophtheirus are monophyletic. COI is shown to be a good candidate for parasitic copepod species identification, although a more robust reference database is needed to expand our ability to accomplish a molecular identification. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Local variations in size and activity among Calanus finmarchicus and Metridia longa (Copepoda, Calanoida) overwintering on the west coast of Norway. Journal of Plankton Research, 01 January 1994 to 31 December 2002 (NODC Accession 0000489)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vertical net hauls were taken at thirteen stations between latitude 60 degrees 8 minutes N - 61 degrees 20 minutes N and longitude 3 degrees 4 minutes E - 7 degrees...

  19. Balaenophilus manatorum (Ortíz, Lalana and Torres, 1992) (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from Japan and the western Mediterranean: amended description and geographical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, F Javier; Badillo, F Javier; Mateu, Paula; Raga, J Antonio

    2010-04-01

    The ectoparasitic harpacticoid copepod, Balaenophilus manatorum (Ortíz, Lalana and Torres, 1992) (syn. Balaenophilus umigamecolus Ogawa, Matsuzaki and Misaki, 1997), has been reported on 3 species of marine turtles from the Pacific and the Mediterranean and from the West Indian manatee off Cuba in the Caribbean. The 3 available descriptions of this species were made using light microscopy. In this paper, we provide an amended description of B. manatorum using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) for specimens in the collection from which B. umigamecolus was originally described. This material was collected from 1 loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, from Japan. The use of SEM allowed us to add several new microcharacters to the original description but, more importantly, allowed us to correct a number of the traits originally described. Some of the corrections could affect the interpretation of putative homology and variability of characters among populations of B. manatorum. A SEM comparison of specimens of B. manatorum from loggerheads from Japan and the western Mediterranean suggested the existence of morphological stasis between these populations. However, there were apparent meristic differences with a recently published description of this species from olive ridleys, Lepidochelys olivacea, in Mexico. Although B. manatorum is currently considered as a single, widespread taxon, the possibility that it actually represents a species complex deserves further attention.

  20. Gümüldür Sahili (Ege Denizi Mediolittoral Kayalık Biyotoplarından Tespit Edilen Thalestridae ve Laophontidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida Türleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Pulat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Gümüldür sahilleri mediolittoral kayalık biyotoplarında, Cystoseira crinita ve Haliptilon virgatum türü algler arasından toplanan, Thalestridae ve Laophontidae familyalarına ait harpaktikoid kopepodlar incelenmiştir. Sonuç olarak 5 cinse ait 6 tür tayin edilmiştir. Bunlar arasından Laophonte cornuta Phiippi, 1840 Türkiye denizlerinden ilk kez rapor edilmektedir

  1. Gümüldür Sahili (Ege Denizi) Mediolittoral Kayalık Biyotoplarından Tespit Edilen Thalestridae ve Laophontidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) Türleri.

    OpenAIRE

    İlker Pulat; İsmet Özel; Vedat Aker

    2015-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Gümüldür sahilleri mediolittoral kayalık biyotoplarında, Cystoseira crinita ve Haliptilon virgatum türü algler arasından toplanan, Thalestridae ve Laophontidae familyalarına ait harpaktikoid kopepodlar incelenmiştir. Sonuç olarak 5 cinse ait 6 tür tayin edilmiştir. Bunlar arasından Laophonte cornuta Phiippi, 1840 Türkiye denizlerinden ilk kez rapor edilmektedir

  2. Shallow-water and not deep-sea as most plausible origin for cave-dwelling Paramisophria species (Copepoda: Calanoida: Arietellidae), with description of three new species from Mediterranean bathyal hyperbenthos and littoral caves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaume, Damià; Cartes, Joan E.; Boxshall, Geoffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Japan (Tanaka, 1967; Ohtsuka, 1985; Ohtsuka & Mitsuzumi, 1990; Ohtsuka et al., 1991), Australia (McKinnon & Kimmerer, 1985), and New Zealand (Othman & Greenwood, 1992). Records of species far from their ordinary ranges, such as those of Paramisophria cluthae T. Scott, 1897 from the Mediterranean

  3. An annotated list of fish parasites (Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected from Emperors and Emperor Bream (Lethrinidae) in New Caledonia further highlights parasite biodiversity estimates on coral reef fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G.A.; Bray, R. A.; Moravec, František; Whittington, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2691, - (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : fish * new host records * new geographical records * inventory * biogeography * South Pacific Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010

  4. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G.A.; Bray, R. A.; Miller, T.L.; Moravec, František; Trilles, J.-P.; Whittington, I.D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2012), s. 22 ISSN 2046-9063 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * coral reef s * parasites * coextinction * New Caledonia * South Pacific Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  5. A new species of Labidocera (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) collected from Okinawa, southwestern Japan, with establishment of five Indo-West Pacific species groups in the L.detruncata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Labidocerachuraumi sp. n. is described from Okinawa, southwestern Japan. The female of the new species differs from other congeners in genital compound somite with right postero-lateral and left antero-lateral processes. The male is distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the fifth leg. This new species is assigned to a newly proposed species group, the Labidoceramadurae species group, within the Labidoceradetruncata species complex. In this species complex five Indo-West Pacific species groups are recognized (cervi, detruncata, gangetica, madurae, and pavo) and defined on the basis of difference in sexual dimorphism.

  6. In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... treatment of skin diseases was evaluated against three yeasts; Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodoturula ... derived from plants or plant-derived synthetic analogs. According to the WHO, 80% of the ... chewing the mucilaginous flesh after removal of the skin. The ripe fruit has an average ...

  7. Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Site 1, closest to the mouth, typically supported the highest diversity of zooplankton. Patterns in zooplankton density and diversity resulted from the combined influence of salinity, temperature and fresh water inflow. Keywords: Copepoda, freshwater inflow, mesohaline, Mysidacea African Journal of Aquatic Science 2013, ...

  8. 87 - 90 Indabawa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    number of individual with Euglena, Paramecium and. Chlamydomonas species respectively. From the analysis of variance Table 4. It was found that protozoans, cladocera, copepoda, and Rotifera showed highly significant difference between stations. (p≤0.05) and there was no significant difference between the months.

  9. Sidi Saâd reservoir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... with environmental factors in a semi arid area: Sidi. Saâd reservoir .... between changes in environmental parameters, biological factors and ..... Dinophyceae. Copepoda. Anabaena sp. Gonyaulax sp. Acanthocyclops robustus Acanthocyclops viridis. Chroococcus sp. Gonyaulax spinifera. Gloeothece sp.

  10. 78 FR 4813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Minnesota and South Dakota are considered secure and some have concluded that the fish is resilient to many... introduction of orangespotted sunfish (Cook 2011, pers. comm.). Topeka shiners feed primarily on insects, such... known to feed on zooplankton such as cladocera and copepoda (Kerns and Bonneau 2002, p. 138). Studies...

  11. A study on the zooplankton of the Burhabalanga Estuary, Orissa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Chatterji, A.; Madhupratap, M.

    the stations during October 1991 as a result of a mysid swarm. Copepoda was generally the most abundant group. The copepods Pseudodiaptomus bowmani, P. sewelli, Acartia tropica and A. bowmani are recorded for the first time from the east coast of India....

  12. The effect of some environmental factors on zooplankton community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The zooplankton of Lake Qarun was studied January–December 2003. A total of 26 species was recorded, amongst which protozoa, primarily ciliophora, were most abundant (79% of the species total), followed by rotifera (13%) and copepoda (8%). The average density ranged from 965–1 452 l–1. The highest density (2 ...

  13. Zooplankton composition and community structure in Lake Tiga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zooplankton in Lake Tiga was identified and its community structure assessed between March 2009 and March 2011. A total of 54 species of zooplankton was recorded, comprising two species of Protozoa, 26 species of Rotifera, eight species of Copepoda, 11 species of Cladocera, four species of Ostracoda and three ...

  14. Plankton composition in the coastal waters between Jaigarh and Rajapur along west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, V.R.; Devassy, V.P.

    were moderately represented in the collections. Dinoflagellates were observed to be poor in this region. The area south of Ganapatipule was relatively rich in zooplankton and the highest biomass recorded off Ratnagiri was 55.6 ml/100 m3. Copepoda...

  15. African Zoology - Vol 29, No 3 (1994)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Description of Doropygus pyurus n.sp. (Copepoda, Notodelphyidae) from Pyura stolonifera (Echinodermata, Ascidiacea) in South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. W.H. Oldewage, 212-216 ...

  16. Composition and abundance of the zooplankton community in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The taxonomic composition of the zooplankton community of the Bitter Lakes, Egypt, was examined in 2003–2004 in relation to the spatial and temporal distribution of environmental factors. Copepoda were dominant, forming 49% of the zooplankton, followed by Protista at 37%. During the autumn, zooplankton in Small ...

  17. THE COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF COBALT (II, III) WITH DITHIOCARBAMIC ACID DERIVATIVES — MODIFICATORS OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    L. D. Varbanets; О. V. Matselyukh; N. А. Nidyalkova; Е. V. Аvdiyuk; А. V. Gudzenko; I. I. Seifullina; G. N. Маsаnоvets; N. V. Khitrich

    2013-01-01

    Chloride, bromide and isothiocyanate complexes of cobalt(II) with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulfenamides (1)–(12), and also complexes of cobalt(II, Ш) with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid (13)–(18) have been used as modificators of enzymes of hydrolytic action — Bacillus thurin-giensis ІМВ В-7324 peptidases, Bacillus subtilis 147 and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 amylases, Eupenicillium erubescens 248 and Cryptococcus albidus 1001 rhamnosidases. It was...

  18. Effect of intraspecific competition and substrate type on terpene emissions from some Mediterranean plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño, Elena; Bousquet-Mélou, Anne; Mévy, Jean-Philippe; Greff, Stéphane; Robles, Christine; Bonin, Gilles; Fernandez, Catherine

    2007-02-01

    Competition is an important factor that has been extensively reported in the Mediterranean area. There is evidence that leaf terpene accumulation may vary between plants growing on calcareous and siliceous soils. In the present study, leaf terpene emissions from potted seedlings of Pinus halepensis, Cistus albidus, and Quercus coccifera, growing under natural environmental conditions on calcareous and siliceous substrates, were studied by using a bag enclosure method. In both substrates, seedlings were potted alone and in intraspecific competition, to examine the effect of substrate type and that of intraspecific competition on terpene emissions. The results showed that competition favored: (i) overall monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Q. coccifera; (ii) overall monoterpene emissions from P. halepensis; (iii) overall sesquiterpene emissions from C. albidus. Substrate type affected terpene emissions to a limited extent and in a species-specific way. Whereas for Q. coccifera, the overall monoterpene emissions and that of Allo-aromadendrene were favored on siliceous substrate, no significant changes were found in emissions from P. halepensis. Only the release of AR-curcumene from C. albidus was higher on siliceous substrate. We also found high variability in terpene emission composition from the study species, particularly for P. halepensis and Q. coccifera. These two species released both monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, instead of monoterpenes only, as shown in previous studies.

  19. Novel 12S mtDNA findings in sloths (Pilosa, Folivora and anteaters (Pilosa, Vermilingua suggest a true case of long branch attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudene Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We sequenced 12S RNA mtDNA for the majority of the extant species of sloths and anteaters and compared our results with previous data obtained by our group using 16S RNA mtDNA in the same specimens and to GenBank sequences of the extinct giant sloth Mylodon. Our results suggest that pigmy-anteaters may be a case of the long-branch attraction phenomenon and also show the large genetic difference between the Amazonian and Atlantic forest three-toed sloths, contrasting with the small differences observed between the two non-Atlantic forest forms of sloths. These results have important implications for the taxonomy of sloths and anteaters and strongly suggest the placement of pigmy anteaters in their own family (Cyclopidae and raising the taxonomic status of Bradypus torquatus to a genus.

  20. Zooplankton assemblage of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-12-01

    The influence of physico-chemical properties of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria (a shallow tropical African reservoir) on its zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated at three stations for two years between January 2002 and December 2003. Diversity is not high: only three groups of zooplankton were found: Rotifera with eight genera; and Cladocera and Copepoda with three genera each. Rotifera dominated numerically (71.02%), followed by Cladocera (16.45%) and Copepoda (12.53%). The zooplankton was more prevalent during the rainy season, and there were variations in the composition and abundance along the reservoir continuum. Factors such as temperature, nutrients, food availability, shape and hydrodynamics of the reservoir, as well as reproductive strategies of the organisms, strongly influence the generic composition and population density of zooplankton. Prevention of ecological deterioration of the water body would greatly should result in a more productive water body, rich in zooplankton and with better fisheries.

  1. Berbagai Cara Pengendalian Larva Nyamuk

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    Nungki Hapsari Suryaningtyas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tindakan pencegahan dengan memberantas sarang nyamuk dan membunuh larva serta nyamuk dewasa terus digalakkan. Stadium pradewasa atau larva dapat dikontrol secara biologi maupun kimiawi.1 Berikut adalah beberapa cara pengendalian larva nyamuk.Pengendalian secara biologi Beberapa organisme yang efektif untuk mengendalikan larva secara biologi diantaranya adalah Ikan (larvavivorous fish,Aplocheilus panchax (ikan kepala timah, Ctenops vittatus (ikan cupang,Oreochromis (Tilapia mossambicus (ikan nila dan Cyprinus carpio (ikan tombro, larva nyamuk dari genus Toxorhynchites, Capung (Dragonflies/Labellula . Kelompok Udang (Cyclopoid copepods Jenis Copepoda yang tersebar sebagai plankton dan bentos ini bersifat predator yang efektif untuk mengendalikan stadium pradewasa nyamuk instar satu dan instar dua. Pada suatu penelitian di Polynesia Perancis terbukti bahwa M. aspericornis pengaruhnya tidak konsisten terhadap larva Ae. aegypti yang ditemukan berada di tangki air, drum dan sumur yang tertutup. Keadaan tersebut tampaknya bergantung pada tersedianya mikrofauna di tempat perkembangbiakannya yang dibutuhkan untuk pertumbuhan Copepoda tersebut

  2. Parasites of the flatfish Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867 (Pleuronectiformes from northern Chile

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    Marcelo E Oliva

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Three species of protistan and 22 species of metazoan parasites were obtained from a sample of 179 flatfish, (Paralichthys adspersus taken-off Antofagasta, northern Chile. Prevalence of infection of seven parasites (Protista: 1, Copepoda: 2, Digenea: 1, Acantocephala: 1, Nematoda: 2 was significantly and positively correlated with host size. Host's sex do not seem to affect prevalence of infection, except for Nybelinia surmenicola, Capillaria sp. and Anisakis sp. (prevalence of infection significantly greater in males than females and Philometra sp. (prevalence higher in females. Mean abundance is correlated with size in nine species (Protista: 1, Copepoda: 2, Digenea: 3, Acantocephala: 1, Nematoda: 2. Host's sex do not affect mean abundance, except for Cainocreadium sp. and Philometra sp.(mean abundance higher in females and Nybelinia surmenicola, Capillaria sp. and Anisakis sp. (mean abundance higher in males.

  3. A new species of Rhacodiaptomus Kiefer, 1936, from the Brazilian Amazon (Crustacea, Copepod, Calanoida)

    OpenAIRE

    Edinaldo Nelson Santos Silva; Barbara Ann Robertson

    1993-01-01

    Uma nova espécie de Copepoda Calanoida, Rhacodiaptomus besti,é descrita de material coletado no Igarapé São Pedro, Rio Jamari, Rondônia, e no Lago Amanã, rio Japurá, Tefé, Amazonas, na Amazônia Ocidental. Foi feita uma análise morfològica detalhada desta espécie para embasar futuros estudos de associações inter e intragenéricas.

  4. Groundwater ecology literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, L.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater ecology is the study of ecosystems that occur in the subsurface within groundwater. Groundwater often contains a diverse range of organisms, and those that live in groundwater and generally do not live above the ground surface are called Stygobites. Stygobites species come from several different taxonomic groups of animals. Many animals found in groundwater are Crustaceans (Copepoda, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Isopoda, Syncarida, Cladocera) but species of Oligocheata and...

  5. Evolutionary and functional diversity of green fluorescent proteins in cephalochordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Zhang, Qiu-Jin; Zhong, Jing; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2009-10-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been widely used as a molecular marker in modern biological research. Before the recent report of one GFP gene in Branchiostoma floridae, GFP family members were cloned only from other two groups of species: Cnidaria and Copepoda. Here we describe the complete GFP gene repertoire of B. floridae which includes 13 functional genes and 2 pseudogenes, representing the largest GFP family found so far. Coupling with nine other GFP sequences from another two species of genus Branchiostoma and the sequences from Cnidaria and Copepoda, we made a deep-level phylogenetic analysis for GFP genes in cephalochordates and found: 1) GFP genes have experienced a divergent evolution in cephalochordates; 2) all amphioxus GFP genes form four main clades on the tree which had diverged before the radiation of the last common ancestor of all extant cephalochordates; 3) GFP genes in amphioxus shared a common ancestor with that in Copepoda rather than being derived from horizontal gene transfer, which indicates that our ancestor was derived from a fluorescent organism and lost this ability after its separation from Cephalochordata, and also makes GFP a rare gene which has a rather unusual evolutionary path. In addition, we also provided evidence indicating that GFP genes have evolved divergent functions by specializing their expression profile, and different fluorescent spectra by changing their emission peaks. These findings spark two interesting issues: what are GFP in vivo functions in cephalochordates and why they are lost in other examined deuterostomes?

  6. Estimation and diversity of phylloplane mycobiota on selected plants in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, J; Pereira, P; de Carvalho, M; Fonseca, A; Amaral-Collaço, M T; Spencer-Martins, I

    2002-11-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems have not been consistently investigated as natural habitats for microbes in general, and fungi in particular. Here we present the results of a survey of epiphytic mycobiota (filamentous fungi and yeasts) on the phylloplane of selected plants in the Arrábida Natural Park, an ecosystem of Mediterranean characteristics in Portugal, using conventional culture-dependent isolation methods. Leaves from the species Acer monspessulanum and Quercus faginea (deciduous trees) and Cistus albidus, Pistacia lentiscus, and Osyris quadripartita (evergreen shrubs) were collected twice a year for two consecutive years, at two distinct locations of Serra da Arrábida: the more humid northern slope and the drier southern slope. A total of 1029 strains of filamentous fungi and 540 strains of yeasts were isolated, which represented at least 36 and 46 distinct species, respectively. Total counts were higher on the plants from the northern slope and there was a general increase from spring to autumn, notably on the deciduous trees for the yeasts. Plant species that had higher numbers of leaf colonists (A. monspessulanum, C. albidus, and Q. faginea) also yielded a wider range of species. Among the filamentous fungi there was a predominance of species of ascomycetous affinity, whereas basidiomycetous species dominated among yeast isolates. Some of the taxa recovered were common to other phylloplane studies (e.g., ubiquitous molds and yeasts such as Cladosporium spp. and Cryptococcus spp., respectively), but less common species were also found, some of which appeared to represent undescribed taxa. Interestingly, a few species seemed to be associated with a particular plant, notably in the case of the evergreen shrub C. albidus. However, for a considerable number of fungi and yeasts the same taxon was recovered throughout the year from more than one plant and at both sites, suggesting that such species might be genuine phylloplane inhabitants (or at least of aerial

  7. Environmental straits of Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii in the city of Santos, SP, Brazil Amostras ambientais de Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii na cidade de Santos, SP, Brasil

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    Maria Cecília Bianchi Soares

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a total of 116 samples, 79 taken from pigeon droppings and 37 of atmospheric air taken close to accumulations of excrement. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii was isolated from 11 (13.9% of these samples. Other species of Cryptococcus were also isolated from these samples, such as C. albidus (12.6% and C. laurentii (8.9%. C. neoformans was not isolated from the air samples, though C. albidus (5.4% was. All the strains of C. neoformans were found to belong to the A serotype (C. neoformans var. grubii. In regard to the studies with the antifungal agents 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and voriconazole, by means of the microdilution method (EUCAST, we point out that one sample demonstrated resistance to fluconazole, this being especially significant because this is an environmental strain.Analisaram-se 116 amostras, sendo 79 de fezes de pombos e 37 de ar atmosférico de regiões com acúmulo de fezes. Isolou-se Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans de 11 (13.9% destas amostras. Outras espécies de Cryptococcus também foram isoladas destas amostras tais como C. laurentii (8.9% e C. albidus (12.6 %, o qual também foi isolado de amostras do ar (5.4 %. Todas as amostras de C. neoformans foram sorotipo A (C. neoformans var. grubii. Em relação à avaliação do perfil de sensibilidade às drogas antifúngicas (5-fluorocitosina, fluconazol, itraconazol, anfotericina B e voriconazol pelo método da microdiluição (EUCAST, 2002, destacou-se a presença de uma amostra com valor de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM elevado para fluconazol, sendo de grande significância, uma vez tratar-se de isolado ambiental.

  8. Yeast and Macroinvertebrate Communities Associated with Leaf Litter Decomposition in a Second Order Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Ana; Cortes, Rui; Leão, Cecília

    2004-11-01

    The composition of yeast and macroinvertebrate communities was studied on black alder, blue gum eucalyptus and English oak leaves decaying in a stream during a six-month period. ANOVA analysis showed significantly different values (p leaf litters. Some yeast species such as Cryptococcus albidus (Saito), C. laurentii (Kufferath), Rhodothorula glutinis (Fresenius), R. colostri (Castelli), and Debaryomyces hansenii (Lodder and Kreger-van Rij) were present in all litter types. Other yeasts were restricted to a specific type of litter. Macroinvertebrates were dominated by collectors-gatherers on oak and eucalyptus leaves. Shredders reached highest densities in alder leaves. (

  9. Differences in sensitivity between earthworms and enchytraeids exposed to two commercial fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Sylvain; Laurent, Céline; Péry, Alexandre R R; Mougin, Christian; Pelosi, Céline

    2017-06-01

    The use of pesticides in crop fields may have negative effects on soil Oligochaeta Annelida, i.e., earthworms and enchytraeids, and thus affect soil quality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two commercial fungicide formulations on the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus in a natural soil. The fungicides were Cuprafor micro® (copper oxychloride), commonly used in organic farming, and Swing Gold® (epoxiconazole and dimoxystrobin), a synthetic fungicide widely used in conventional farming to protect cereal crops. Laboratory experiments were used to assess the survival, biomass loss and avoidance behaviour. No lethal effect was observed following exposure to the copper fungicide for 14 days, even at 5000mgkg -1 of copper, i.e. 650 times the recommended dose (RD). However, a significant decrease in biomass was observed from 50mgkg -1 of copper (6.5 times the RD) for A. caliginosa and at 5000mgkg -1 of copper (650 times the RD) for E. albidus. These sublethal effects suggest that a longer period of exposure would probably have led to lethal effects. The EC50 avoidance for the copper fungicide was estimated to be 51.2mgkg -1 of copper (6.7 times the RD) for A. caliginosa, and 393mgkg -1 of copper (51 times the RD) for E. albidus. For the Swing Gold® fungicide, the estimated LC50 was 7.0 10 -3 mLkg -1 (6.3 times the RD) for A. caliginosa and 12.7 10 -3 mLkg -1 (11.0 times the RD) for E. albidus. No effect on biomass or avoidance was observed at sublethal concentrations of this synthetic fungicide. It was concluded that enchytraeids were less sensitive than earthworms to the two commercial fungicides in terms of mortality, biomass loss and avoidance behaviour. Therefore we discuss the different strategies possibly used by the two Oligochaeta species to cope with the presence of the pesticides were discussed, along with the potential consequences on the soil functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Pleurotus biomass production on vinasse and its potential use for aquaculture feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, S.B.; Ferreira, L.F.R.; Messias, T.G.; Souza, G.; Pompeu, G.B.; Monteiro, R.T.R.

    2015-01-01

    The vinasse is a by-product generated during the manufacture of alcohol from sugarcane fermentation. Rich in organic matter, it is known that the vinasse has the potential to be used as a source of nutrients for plants as well as microorganisms. In this study, the fungi Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. ostreatus, P. albidus and P. flabellatus were cultivated in vinasse and utilised as a complementary diet for Danio rerio fish. The fungi mycelia cultured in vinasse for 15 days were lyophilised and offered to the fishes at a rate of 2% (medium/body weight) for 28 days. P. albidus produced the highest biomass (16.27 g L−1). Bromatological analysis of mycelia showed similar values to commercial rations. Toxicity tests showed that fish survival was 100% and no significant biomass loss was observed, indicating that the tested fungi grown in vinasse showed no toxicity. Our results showed that vinasse is a promising by-product for fungal growth and the mycelia of Pleurotus sp. fungi can be included in the diets of fish as a nutritional supplement. PMID:26000196

  11. Geotrichum siamensis sp. nov. and Geotrichum phurueaensis sp. nov., two asexual arthroconidial yeast species isolated in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewwichian, Rungluk; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Srisuk, Nantana; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Limtong, Savitree

    2010-03-01

    Two asexual arthroconidial yeast strains, TM3-44(T) and LYSM5(T), were isolated, respectively, from estuarine water in a mangrove forest and soil in a terrestrial forest in Thailand. Analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TM3-44(T) differed from the closest species in terms of pairwise sequence similarity, Dipodascus albidus, by 11.7% nucleotide substitutions, while strain LYSM5(T) was closest to Galactomyces geotrichum with only 2.9% nucleotide substitutions. The phylogenetic tree further demonstrated that strain TM3-44(T) was at a distant position from the closest species, D. albidus, and other related species in the Dipodascus clade, while strain LYSM5(T) clustered with G. geotrichum, it closest relative in the Galactomyces clade. The phenotypic characteristics of the two strains were typical of the genus Geotrichum. On the basis of the above findings, strain TM3-44(T) was assigned as a novel species of Geotrichum, for which the name Geotrichum siamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TM3-44(T) (BCC 29903(T)=NBRC 104880(T)=CBS 10929(T)). Strain LYSM5(T) represented another novel species of Geotrichum, which was named Geotrichum phurueaensis sp. nov. The type strain is LYSM5(T) (BCC 34756(T)=NBRC 105674(T)=CBS 11418(T)).

  12. Different culture media containing methyldopa for melanin production by Cryptococcus species

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    Ralciane de Paula Menezes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Melanin production by species of Cryptococcus is widely used to characterize C. neoformans complex in mycology laboratories. This study aims to test the efficacy of methyldopa from pharmaceutical tablet as a substrate for melanin production, to compare the production of melanin using different agar base added with methyldopa, and to compare the melanin produced in those media with that produced in Niger seed agar and sunflower seed agar by C. neoformans, C. laurentii, and C. albidus. Two isolates of each species, C. neoformans, C. laurentii, and C. albidus, and one of Candida albicans were used to experimentally detect conditions for melanin production. METHODS: The following media were tested: Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA, brain and heart infusion agar (BHIA, blood agar base (BAB, and minimal medium agar (MMA, all added with methyldopa, and the media Niger seed agar (NSA and sunflower seed agar (SSA. RESULTS: All isolates grew in most of the culture media after 24h. Strains planted on media BAB and BHIA showed growth only after 48h. All isolates produced melanin in MMA, MHA, SSA, and NSA media. CONCLUSIONS: Methyldopa in the form pharmaceutical tablet can be used as a substrate for melanin production by Cryptococcus species; minimal medium plus methyldopa was more efficient than the BAB, MHA, and BHIA in the melanin production; and NSA and SSA, followed by MMA added with methyldopa, were more efficient than other media studied for melanin production by all strains studied.

  13. Composição e variabilidade espaço-temporal da meiofauna de uma praia arenosa na região amazônica (Ajuruteua, Pará Composition and spatio-temporal variability of meiofauna community on a sandy beach in the Amazon region (Ajuruteua, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatianne P. Gomes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a variabilidade espaço-temporal da meiofauna do médiolitoral na praia de Ajuruteua, Estado do Pará. As coletas foram realizadas a cada dois meses, entre abril de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004 durante as marés de sizígia, em diferentes zonas da praia. As amostras foram retiradas com um amostrador cilíndrico de 3,14 cm² e fixadas em formalina salina a 5%. Em laboratório, as amostras foram passadas em malha de 0,063 mm de abertura e os organismos retidos identificados em nível de grandes grupos taxonômicos, contados e fixados em álcool etílico a 70%. A meiofauna esteve representada por oito grupos: Turbellaria, Nematoda, Tardigrada, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Acari, adultos de Copepoda Harpacticoida e juvenis de Copepoda Harpacticoida. Nematoda foi o grupo dominante, representando 74% do total de indivíduos, seguido de Copepoda (19%. Pôde-se observar clara zonação horizontal da fauna, que se distribuiu em três faixas paralelas à linha de praia, com características significativamente distintas quanto à abundância, riqueza e densidade dos principais grupos taxonômicos. No médiolitoral médio foram observados valores significativamente mais elevados de riqueza e abundância, enquanto os valores mais baixos foram registrados no médiolitoral superior e inferior. A comunidade de meiofauna, ainda que não tenha variado significativamente entre períodos climáticos, foi mais rica e abundante nos meses secos. Os principais fatores responsáveis pelas variações espaço-temporais da meiofauna foram a ação das ondas e das marés e as variações na salinidade da água.The present study investigates the spatio-temporal changes in the meiofauna community along the intertidal zone of Ajuruteua Beach, State of Pará, Brazil. Samples were collected during spring tides at different levels of the beach face every two months from April 2003 to February 2004. The material was sampled using a cylindrical corer (3.14 cm² and

  14. Trends in freshwater microcrustaceans studies in Brazil between 1990 and 2014

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    W. M. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract This study presents a review of scientiometric data about freshwater microcrustaceans (Copepoda, Ostracoda, Branchiopoda: Cladocera, Anostraca, Notostraca and Conchostraca in Brazil from 1990-2014. This review is based on 179 papers published across four databases, using the following keywords in the search: microcrustaceans, Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Calanoida, Harpacticoida, Ergasilidae, Daphniidae, Moinidae, Cladocera, Ostracoda, Conchostraca, zooplankton, reservoir, river, ponds, reservoirs, wetlands, caves, lakes, limnology, ecology, aquatic, taxonomy, systematics, morphology and biogeography. No studies were identified that addressed freshwater microcrustaceans in four (Amapá, Roraima, Alagoas and Espírito Santo of the 27 Brazilian Federative States. Forty-five percent of the included studies were concentrated within three of the most populous states (São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Paraná, which also have a long tradition of limnological study. The included studies mostly addressed reservoirs for hydropower generation (22%, multiple environments (22%, rivers (14% and small artificial reservoirs (11%. Pools, ponds, small lakes, wetlands and phytothelma were not widely studied. Cladocera (48% and Copepoda (48% were the most studied groups. No studies were identified that addressed Notostraca, Anostraca or Conchostraca. The sharp increase in the number of published freshwater studies after 2000 is likely a result of increased internet facilities and the implementation of the Scielo platform. Ecology was most frequently the study focus (~50%, followed by taxonomy. Three journals (two Brazilian and one international accounted for the publication of 44% of the Brazilian studies on microcrustaceans. We expect the frequency of studies employing newer technologies to increase in the coming years. Based on our findings, we propose that future studies should focus on the least well-studied states and should integrate biogeography and systematic

  15. Zooplankton assemblage of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood K Mustapha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of physico-chemical properties of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria (a shallow tropical African reservoir on its zooplankton composition and abundance were investigated at three stations for two years between January 2002 and December 2003. Diversity is not high: only three groups of zooplankton were found: Rotifera with eight genera; and Cladocera and Copepoda with three genera each. Rotifera dominated numerically (71.02%, followed by Cladocera (16.45% and Copepoda (12.53%. The zooplankton was more prevalent during the rainy season, and there were variations in the composition and abundance along the reservoir continuum. Factors such as temperature, nutrients, food availability, shape and hydrodynamics of the reservoir, as well as reproductive strategies of the organisms, strongly influence the generic composition and population density of zooplankton. Prevention of ecological deterioration of the water body would greatly should result in a more productive water body, rich in zooplankton and with better fisheries. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1027-1047. Epub 2009 December 01.La influencia de las propiedades fisicoquímicas del Reservorio Oyun, Offa, Nigeria (un embalse tropical somero sobre la composición y abundancia del zooplancton fue investigada en tres estaciones entre enero de 2002 y diciembre de 2003. La diversidad no resultó muy alta con tres grupos de zooplancton: Rotifera con ocho géneros, y Cladocera y Copepoda con tres géneros cada uno. Rotifera dominó (71.02%, seguido de Cladocera (16.45% y Copepoda (12.53%. El zooplancton fue más común durante la temporada de lluvias, y hubo variaciones en su composición y abundancia a lo largo del embalse. Factores tales como la temperatura, los nutrientes, la disponibilidad de alimentos, la forma y la hidrodinámica del embalse, así como las estrategias reproductivas de los organismos, influyen fuertemente en la composición genérica y la densidad poblacional del zooplancton. La

  16. Utilização da meiofauna bentônica nomonitoramento do cultivo do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Porchat de Assis Murolo, Priscila

    2005-01-01

    Uma das maiores ameaças ao ecossistema estuarino tem sido o rápido aumento na aqüicultura costeira, e em particular a criação de camarões. O efluente da carcinicultura pode ser a principal fonte de poluição nos estuários. Considerando a sensibilidade da meiofauna à entrada de material antrópico e o grupo Copepoda Harpacticoida como o mais sensível à poluentes, este trabalho teve como objetivo, avaliar a influência da carcinicultura no estuário do rio Botafogo (Itapissuma-PE) utilizando a meio...

  17. Mesozooplankton of the estuarine system of Barra das Jangadas, Pernambuco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Eliane A. H.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Vieira, Dilma A. do N.

    2008-01-01

    Estudos sobre o mesozooplâncton foram realizados no sistema estuarino de Barra das Jangadas, Pernambuco, Brasil (8º14'36"S, 34º56'28"W) visando analisar a estrutura da comunidade. As amostras foram obtidas com rede de plâncton, com malha de 300 µm, durante os períodos, seco (janeiro/2001) e chuvoso (julho/2001), nas marés de sizígia e de quadratura, em intervalos de três horas. Foram identificados 37 taxa, destacando-se Copepoda com as espécies Pseudodiaptomus acutus (F. Dahl, 1894), Pseudodi...

  18. The InfThe Influence Of Subsample Size In A Study Of Freshwater Zooplantonluence Of Subsample Size In A Study Of Freshwater Zooplanton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, James A.

    2005-08-15

    The influence of subsample size on counting precision and estimates of taxa richness is documented for a freshwater zooplankton biomonitoring program. Subsample variability was related to subsample size. The mean and median coefficient of variation for cladocera and copepoda were below 30% at counts of 50-100 individuals. Jaccard's similarity coefficient stabilized at counts of 100-150 individuals as did the total number of zooplankton taxa identified. These data suggest that counting more organisms in subsamples or more than one subsample per sample may do relatively little to better characterize samples.

  19. Response of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: coastal upwelling along central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, S.R.S.; Haridas, P.; Padmavati, G.

    higher than those recorded even 'j during zooplankton swarms from the northern Indian Ocean (2.5 to 4.8 ml.m", MADHUPRA TAP et ai., 1980). Offshore biomass was low rel ative to upwelled regions but generally higher than noted in other non... of India. Temora turbinata and Acrocalanus sp. have been reported to form swarms during upwelling sea son (HARIDAS et 0/., 1980). The stndy also showed that most ofthese copepoda have either poor abundances or are absent in inshore waters during other...

  20. Variaciones de abundancia y biomasa del zooplancton en un embalse tropical oligo-mesotrófico del norte de Venezuela

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    Sandra Merayo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia del zooplancton en los embalses está determinada principalmente por la velocidad y el contenido del agua, pero se sabe relativamente poco sobre los embalses tropicales. Se estudió la distribución temporal y espacial de la abundancia y la biomasa del zooplancton en el eje longitudinal del embalse de Clavellinos, en el norte de Venezuela, entre octubre 2006 y septiembre 2007. El zooplancton fue recolectado en el estrato oxigenado con una red de plancton. Un total de 16 taxones fueron identificados: Copepoda, Cladocera, Rotifera, Ostracoda y Diptera. Thermocyclops decipiens (Copepoda, Cyclopoida dominó la comunidad, mientras que los rotíferos fueron los más diversos, con 10 especies. La abundancia del zooplancton varió de 31 a 101ind/l en E1, 36 a 84ind/l en E2, y, de 30 a 250ind/L en el E3. La biomasa varió de 97,4 a 1406.3μg/l en E1, 108,5 a 397.2μg/l en E2, y de 25,9 a 763.9μg/l en el E3. Esta comunidad de zooplancton pareciσ responder a las variaciones ambientales en el embalse, mαs que a las variaciones en la disponibilidad de recursos.

  1. The Impact of Water Table Drawdown and Drying on Subterranean Aquatic Fauna in In-Vitro Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpp, Christine; Hose, Grant C.

    2013-01-01

    The abstraction of groundwater is a global phenomenon that directly threatens groundwater ecosystems. Despite the global significance of this issue, the impact of groundwater abstraction and the lowering of groundwater tables on biota is poorly known. The aim of this study is to determine the impacts of groundwater drawdown in unconfined aquifers on the distribution of fauna close to the water table, and the tolerance of groundwater fauna to sediment drying once water levels have declined. A series of column experiments were conducted to investigate the depth distribution of different stygofauna (Syncarida and Copepoda) under saturated conditions and after fast and slow water table declines. Further, the survival of stygofauna under conditions of reduced sediment water content was tested. The distribution and response of stygofauna to water drawdown was taxon specific, but with the common response of some fauna being stranded by water level decline. So too, the survival of stygofauna under different levels of sediment saturation was variable. Syncarida were better able to tolerate drying conditions than the Copepoda, but mortality of all groups increased with decreasing sediment water content. The results of this work provide new understanding of the response of fauna to water table drawdown. Such improved understanding is necessary for sustainable use of groundwater, and allows for targeted strategies to better manage groundwater abstraction and maintain groundwater biodiversity. PMID:24278111

  2. Horizontal and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton species richness and composition down to 2,300 m in the southwest Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio L.C. Bonecker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the species richness, distribution and composition of mesozooplankton over the continental shelf and slope, and in the water masses in the Campos Basin, southwest Atlantic Ocean. We analyzed the mesozooplankton from two oceanographic cruises (rainy and dry seasons, 2009 with samples taken in five different water masses from the surface to 2,300 m depth. In the Subsurface Water (SS, in both sampling periods, more species were recorded over the slope (rainy: 100; dry: 128 than the continental shelf (rainy: 97; dry: 104. Over the slope, species richness decreased with increasing depth: the highest values were observed in the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW, and the lowest values in the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW, in both sampling periods. We recorded 262 species in 10 groups (Hydrozoa, Siphonophora, Ctenophora, Branchiopoda, Copepoda, Euphausiacea, Decapoda, Chaetognatha, Appendicularia e Thaliacea, with 13 new occurrences for the southwest Atlantic. Copepoda was the group with the highest species richness, containing 138 species. In both periods, the samples from SS, SACW and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW/Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW were clustered in different faunistic zones, based on species composition. This study confirmed that zooplankton richness in the southwest Atlantic Ocean is underestimated, and suggests that additional efforts must be directed toward a better understanding of this fairly unknown region.

  3. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia

    2014-06-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid–protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin–protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton.

  4. The impact of water table drawdown and drying on subterranean aquatic fauna in in-vitro experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stumpp

    Full Text Available The abstraction of groundwater is a global phenomenon that directly threatens groundwater ecosystems. Despite the global significance of this issue, the impact of groundwater abstraction and the lowering of groundwater tables on biota is poorly known. The aim of this study is to determine the impacts of groundwater drawdown in unconfined aquifers on the distribution of fauna close to the water table, and the tolerance of groundwater fauna to sediment drying once water levels have declined. A series of column experiments were conducted to investigate the depth distribution of different stygofauna (Syncarida and Copepoda under saturated conditions and after fast and slow water table declines. Further, the survival of stygofauna under conditions of reduced sediment water content was tested. The distribution and response of stygofauna to water drawdown was taxon specific, but with the common response of some fauna being stranded by water level decline. So too, the survival of stygofauna under different levels of sediment saturation was variable. Syncarida were better able to tolerate drying conditions than the Copepoda, but mortality of all groups increased with decreasing sediment water content. The results of this work provide new understanding of the response of fauna to water table drawdown. Such improved understanding is necessary for sustainable use of groundwater, and allows for targeted strategies to better manage groundwater abstraction and maintain groundwater biodiversity.

  5. Effect of new soil metal immobilizing agents on metal toxicity to terrestrial invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Organisms with different exposure routes should be used to simultaneously assess risks of metals in soils. - Application of 5% (w:w) novel metal immobilizing agent reduced the water soluble, the calcium chloride extracted as well as the pore water concentration of zinc in soils from Maatheide, a metal contaminated site in the northeast of Belgium. Addition of the metal immobilizing agents also eliminated acute toxicity to the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the earthworm Eisenia fetida and chronic toxicity to the springtail Folsomia candida. Cocoon production by E. fetida, however, was still adversely affected. These differences may be explained by the species dependent routes of metal uptake: F. candida is probably mainly exposed via pore water while in E. fetida dietary exposure is probably also important. From these results it is clear that organisms with different exposure routes should be used simultaneously to assess the environmental risk of metal contaminated soils

  6. Morphological characterization of mycorrhizae formed between three Terfezia species (desert truffles) and several Cistaceae and Aleppo pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitouni-Haouar, Fatima El-Houaria; Fortas, Zohra; Chevalier, Gerard

    2014-07-01

    Six Cistaceae species, Helianthemum ledifolium, Helianthemum lippii, Fumana procumbens, Cistus albidus, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, and Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) were inoculated with three mycorrhizal desert truffles, Terfezia leptoderma, Terfezia boudieri, and Terfezia claveryi under greenhouse conditions, on soil originating from desert truffle natural habitat in Algeria. The syntheses have led to the formation of typical endomycorrhizae in annual Cistaceae (H. ledifolium) and perennial ones (H. lippii and F. procumbens) and an ectomycorrhiza with a less developed sheath in Cistus species and Aleppo pine. These results demonstrate the plasticity of Terfezia species to form different mycorrhizal types. The formation of an endomycorrhiza with H. ledifolium and F. procumbens and a sheathing ectomycorrhiza with P. halepensis inoculated by T. leptoderma in in vivo culture conditions was obtained for the first time.

  7. The scrub as protector of the land water resources in the Sierra de Enguera. Valencia. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, A.; Gimenez-Morera, A.; Bodi, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    John Thornes found that srubland (matorral was a key factor to control soil erosion on Mediterranean mountains. His research works inspired many scientist that researched the impact of scrubland changes and management on semiarid ecosystems. An experiment carried out on the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera experimental station in 2004 show the erosion rates on a 30 years abandoned orchard with dense vegetation cover of Ulex parviflorus and Cistus albidus and a 20-year old fire affected Maquia with Quercus coccifera. Pistacia lentiscus and Juniperus oxycedrus. The 8 (4 at each treatment) plots (1,2,4 and 16 m 2 ) under 715 mm of natural rainfall contributed with low runoff, sediment concentration and soil erosion. These measurements confirm the John Thornes idea matorral is an efficient vegetation cover protection on Mediterranean ecosystems. (Author)

  8. Genetic aspects of ash dieback caused by the pathogenic fungus Chalara fraxinea on Fraxinus excelsior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinney, Lea Vig

    ). This thesis comprises five papers that aim to contribute to the knowledge on the interaction between the pathogen and its host and the inherent natural resistance found within the host species. Paper I reviews the current literature on the aetiology of the fungus, the epidemic and its consequences...... and the evidence of genetic variation in susceptibility and inheritance of resistance and discusses the potential for preserving the species through management of genetic resources. Paper II confirms the invasiveness of H. pseudoalbidus in Denmark by comparing collections of the native H. albidus and H....... pseudoalbidus. Paper III estimates the inherent resistance in Danish populations of F. excelsior. A strong genetic variation in susceptibility to C. fraxinea was observed among 39 tested clones. The susceptibility was highly genetically correlated with leaf senescence suggesting that the observed resistance...

  9. Contribution to the study of the mycobiota present in the natural habitats of Histoplasma capsulatum: an integrative study in Guerrero, Mexico Contribución al conocimiento de la micobiota presente en los hábitats naturales de Histoplasma capsulatum: un estudio integral en Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ulloa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The mycobiota present in natural habitats of Histoplasma capsulatum was determined in samples of bat guano, poultry droppings, and intestinal contents of bats. The following fungi were isolated: 1 from bat guano: the ascomycetes Aphanoascus fulvescens, Gymnascella citrina, Gymnoascus dankaliensis, and Chaetomidium fimeti; the mitosporic fungi Aspergillus flavo-furcatis, A. terreus, A. terreus var. aureus, Penicillium spp., Malbranchea aurantiaca, and Sporothrix sp.; and the yeasts Candida catenulata, C. ciferrii, C. famata var. flareri, C. guilliermondii var. guilliermondii, and Rhodotorula spp. 2 from poultry droppings: the coelomycete Phoma sp.; and the yeasts C. albicans, C. catenulata, C. ciferrii, C. famata var. flareri, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus albidus, Trichosporon moniliiforme, and Trichosporon spp. 3 from the intestinal contents of insectivorous, hematophagous, nectarivorous, and frugivorous bats: Ch. fimeti; the mitosporic fungi Aspergillus candidus, A. flavo-furcatis, A. sulphureus, A. sydowii, A. terreus, A. versicolor, Aspergillus sp., M. aurantiaca, Gliomastix murorum, and Scopulariopsis sp.; and C. famata var. flareri, C. lipolytica, Cr. albidus, and Trichosporon spp. Most of the species found are first records for these substrata and environments in Mexico. The coexistence with H. capsulatum was demonstrated by high specific antibody titers in ELISA serological method, using sera from BALB/c mice previously inoculated with the supernatant of the different samples studied.Se determinó la micobiota presente en diferentes hábitats naturales de Histoplasma capsulatum, como guano de murciélago, excretas de aves de corral, y contenido intestinal de murciélagos. Se aislaron: 1 de guano: los ascomicetes Aphanoascus fulvescens, Gymnascella citrina, Gymnoascus dankaliensis, y Chaetomidium fimeti; los hongos mitospóricos Aspergillus flavo-furcatis, A. terreus, A. terreus var. aureus, Penicillium spp., Malbranchea aurantiaca, y

  10. Genetic aspects of ash dieback caused by the pathogenic fungus Chalara fraxinea on Fraxinus excelsior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinney, Lea Vig

    and the evidence of genetic variation in susceptibility and inheritance of resistance and discusses the potential for preserving the species through management of genetic resources. Paper II confirms the invasiveness of H. pseudoalbidus in Denmark by comparing collections of the native H. albidus and H....... pseudoalbidus. Paper III estimates the inherent resistance in Danish populations of F. excelsior. A strong genetic variation in susceptibility to C. fraxinea was observed among 39 tested clones. The susceptibility was highly genetically correlated with leaf senescence suggesting that the observed resistance...... could be an effect of disease escape. The results suggest that a small fraction of the natural population may be able to resist the epidemic and proposes prospects for maintenance of the species through selection of highly resistant trees....

  11. Effect of new soil metal immobilizing agents on metal toxicity to terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R

    2003-01-01

    Organisms with different exposure routes should be used to simultaneously assess risks of metals in soils. - Application of 5% (w:w) novel metal immobilizing agent reduced the water soluble, the calcium chloride extracted as well as the pore water concentration of zinc in soils from Maatheide, a metal contaminated site in the northeast of Belgium. Addition of the metal immobilizing agents also eliminated acute toxicity to the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the earthworm Eisenia fetida and chronic toxicity to the springtail Folsomia candida. Cocoon production by E. fetida, however, was still adversely affected. These differences may be explained by the species dependent routes of metal uptake: F. candida is probably mainly exposed via pore water while in E. fetida dietary exposure is probably also important. From these results it is clear that organisms with different exposure routes should be used simultaneously to assess the environmental risk of metal contaminated soils.

  12. A novel antifungal protein with lysozyme-like activity from seeds of Clitoria ternatea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Ajesh; K, Sreejith

    2014-06-01

    An antifungal protein with a molecular mass of 14.3 kDa was isolated from the seeds of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) and designated as Ct protein. The antifungal protein was purified using different methods including ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 column. Ct protein formed a single colourless rod-shaped crystal by hanging drop method after 7 days of sample loading. The protein showed lytic activity against Micrococcus luteus and broad-spectrum, fungicidal activity, particularly against the most clinically relevant yeasts, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. It also exerted an inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in several mould species including Curvularia sp., Alternaria sp., Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp., and Sclerotium sp. The present study adds to the literature on novel seed proteins with antifungal activity.

  13. The scrub as protector of the land water resources in the Sierra de Enguera. Valencia. Spain; El matorral como protector del suelo y los recursos hidricos en la Sierra de Enguera. Valencia. Espana. Implicaciones economicas de su manejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda, A.; Gimenez-Morera, A.; Bodi, M. B.

    2009-07-01

    John Thornes found that scrubland (matorral was a key factor to control soil erosion on Mediterranean mountains. His research works inspired many scientist that researched the impact of scrubland changes and management on semiarid ecosystems. An experiment carried out on the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera experimental station in 2004 show the erosion rates on a 30 years abandoned orchard with dense vegetation cover of Ulex parviflorus and Cistus albidus and a 20-year old fire affected Maquia with Quercus coccifera. Pistacia lentiscus and Juniperus oxycedrus. The 8 (4 at each treatment) plots (1,2,4 and 16 m{sup 2}) under 715 mm of natural rainfall contributed with low runoff, sediment concentration and soil erosion. These measurements confirm the John Thornes idea matorral is an efficient vegetation cover protection on Mediterranean ecosystems. (Author)

  14. Isolation and molecular characterization of Cryptococcus species isolated from pigeon nests and Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Sepahvand, A; Mohammadi, R

    2017-06-01

    Cryptococcus species are pathogenic and non-pathogenic basidiomycete yeasts that are found widely in the environment. Based on phenotypic methods, this genus has many species; however, its taxonomy is presently being re-evaluated by modern techniques. The Cryptococcus species complex includes two sibling taxa of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii . We aimed to investigate the possible distribution of Cryptococcus species in pigeon nests and Eucalyptus trees in Ilam, Iran, using molecular techniques. Two hundred and seventy-four specimens were collected from pigeon nests and Eucalyptus trees during 2016-2017. All the specimens were sub-cultured on Sabouraud Glucose Agar with chloramphenicol and bird seed agar. For molecular identification, the ITS15.8SITS2 rDNA region was amplified using the first and fourth internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4, respectively) primers. The purified products were applied for cycle sequencing reactions in forward direction with ITS1 primer. The obtained results were analyzed with Chromas 2.3. Thirty-three out of 186 cultures (17.7%) and 11 out of 88 cultures (12.5%) were positive among pigeon nest and Eucalyptus tree specimens, respectively. Cryptococcus albidus (17.2%), C. albidus var. kuetzingii (3.4%), C. adeliensis (3.4%), C. uzbekistanensis (3.4%), and C. neoformans var. grubii (3.4%) were isolated from pigeon nests, and Cryptococcus adeliensis (25%) was the only Cryptococcus species isolated from Eucalyptus trees. The presence of pigeons and Eucalyptus trees in the vicinity of some particular places such as rest homes and hospitals should be considered as a risk factor for the immunocompromised population.

  15. Climatic variables are associated with the prevalence of biliary trematodes in otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard-Smith, Ellie; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Cable, Joanne

    2013-08-01

    Parasites with complex life cycles are expected to be disproportionately affected by climate change. Knowledge of current associations with weather and host-parasite interactions is therefore essential for the inference of future distributions. The Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra, is exposed to a range of parasites due to its large home range and use of terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats. As such, it can act as a sentinel species for generalist parasites. Here we consider two biliary parasites recently reported in the United Kingdom, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metorchis albidus (Trematoda, Opisthorchiidae), and ask whether there are associations between abiotic factors (season, temperature, rainfall and the North Atlantic Oscillation) and the prevalence and intensities of these parasites in otters (n = 586). To control for biotic interactions we first examined whether particular sub-groups of the otter population (grouped by sex, age-class and condition) are more prone to infection and whether any damage is associated with the presence of these parasites. Even though mean intensities of the smaller trematode, P. truncatum (28.3 worms/host), were much higher than M. albidus (4.1), both parasite species had similar impacts on the otter. The distributions of parasites on host sexes were similar, but males suffered greater damage and regardless of sex, parasite intensity increased in older hosts. The probability of infection with either parasite was negatively associated with ground frost, minimum temperatures and rainfall, but was positively associated with warm long-term average temperatures. Although it is widely accepted that multiple variables influence parasite distributions, to our knowledge this is one of only a few studies to examine the combined impact of biotic and abiotic variables on parasites with complex life cycles within their wild definitive host. Identifying such associations can give greater accuracy to predictions concerning the

  16. Edaphic behaviour of several species of Cistus in the Green Corridor of Guadiamar (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gómez Mercado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Cistus are woody shrubs that are noteworthy for their use in forest restoration, and have often been used as characteristic species of the higher syntaxonomical units. In this paper we address their limits of tolerance and optimum development in terms of edaphic factors. The area of study is the "Green Corridor" of Guadiamar, a narrow strip of land that connects two large protected sites: the "Doñana Natural Park and National Park" and the "Aracena y Picos de Aroche" and "Sierra Norte de Sevilla" Natural Parks in Andalusia (Spain. We worked with six species (C. albidus, C. ladanifer, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. crispus and C. salviifolius detected at 14 sites. In each of these sites, a soil sample and a phytosociological inventory were taken. The soil variables analyzed were exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, exchangeable sodium, exchangeable potassium, total carbonate, moisture content at saturation and pH. Among sampled species, C. albidus is the most tolerant to presence of calcium and carbonate, with a soil pH preferably close to neutral or moderately basic. Although not strictly a calcareous species, its ability to compete is nevertheless favoured in these environments. C. crispus appears in the soils with the lowest exchangeable bases, total carbonates, pH and moisture content at saturation. C. ladanifer is noted in soils with a low level of total carbonates. C. populifolius is associated with the highest moisture content at saturation. C. monspeliensis is the species that has the largest tolerance range, especially for pH values, and is the most xerophytic. C. salviifolius presents an intermediate behaviour respect to most of the variables, with a preference for moderately acid environments, although no strictly.

  17. Structure and biodiversity of zooplankton communities in freshwater habitats of a Vereda Wetland Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Penatti Pinese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Vereda wetlands are among the most important aquatic habitats in Brazilian savannah (Cerrado because of their association with river springs and its relevancy for biodiversity conservation. This study aimed to determine and compare the biodiversity of zooplankton in vereda lakes, differentiated by the presence or absence of aquatic macrophytes at an environmental reserve in Uberlândia, Minas Geais, Southeastern Brazil. Zooplanctonic abundance patterns and their relation with environmental parameters were also discussed and presented through multivariate statistics. Methods Twelve samples were taken at water surface, at 15-day intervals in 2006. It was observed a total richness of 75 species, including 12 genera, 29 species and one sub-species as new records for Minas Gerais State. Results Rotifers were the predominant group and Lecanidae was the most diverse family. Among cladocerans, Chydoridae showed the greatest richness and Bosminidae the highest abundance. Few adult copepods were sampled in this study, but nauplii were very frequent. Cyclopidae was the most common family among copepods and there was no record of Calanoida. Conclusions The difference in composition among the studied lakes was remarkable. The lake with macrophytes showed the greatest richness but the lowest density, and the opposite situation occurred in the other lake. This can be explained by the fact that aquatic macrophytes, as primary producers, exert a bottom-up effect on zooplankton community, sustaining a high local diversity in contrast with a low numeric abundance of these microorganisms. Therefore, this pattern may have been created by the surround heterogeneity and, at the same time, by the reduction of available minerals of the system caused by macrophyte matter fixation. Many studies on zooplankton need to be developed in palm swamp communities in order to better comprehend the biological diversity and the energy balance in different habitats for

  18. Macroinvertebrate fauna associated with Pistia stratiotes and Nymphoides indica in subtropical lakes (south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EF. Albertoni

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Biguás and Polegar lakes, both small environments but at different successional stages. The main objective was to characterize the macroinvertebrate community associated to the aquatic macrophyte stand in each lake in order for this community, the environmental conditions and their water quality to interact. The samples were taken in 2003. The abiotic variables of N and P totals, the temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and dissolved oxygen, as well as the determined clorophyll a concentration were measured. Macroinvertebrates were sampled with a 500 µ mesh size net, separated under a stereomicroscope and identified at the lowest possible taxonomic level, and their densities were shown as the number of individuals per 100 g of macrophyte dry weight. The Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H', Pielou evenness (J, frequency of occurrence, abundance and taxa richness were calculated for each invertebrate community. The Lago dos Biguás is undergoing a process of eutrophication and during the study presented a large Pistia stratiotes stand. The Lago Polegar is oligotrophic and had only a small Nymphoides indica bankwe. The macrophyte associated invertebrate communities in each lake were considered significantly different (p < 0.05. Sixty seven taxa were found for the Lago dos Biguás and 32 for the Lago Polegar. For both lakes, most of the taxa were considered rare, with a low dominance in a few months. The taxa with highest densities at Lago dos Biguás were Chironomidae, Daphniidae and Cyclopidae, and Oligochaeta, Chironomidae and Coenagrionidae for Lago Polegar.

  19. Clearance rates of jellyfish and their potential predation impact on zooplankton and fish larvae in a neritic ecosystem (Limfjorden, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L. J.; Moeslund, O.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    comparatively low. These data were used to assess the impact of jellyfish predation upon zooplankton and fish larvae in Limfjorden, Denmark. Repeated sampling of zooplankton, fish larvae and medusae was undertaken during the first half of 2003. Nine taxa of hydromedusae and 4 taxa of scyphomedusae were...... identified. Abundance estimates were combined with estimated clearance rates of individual medusae to calculate potential jellyfish-induced mortality on prey in Limfjorden. Copepoda was used as a model prey group to estimate the collective predation impact by all medusae. Medusa species with unknown...... clearance potential were given assumed clearance rate values, but the collective predation potential by these species was evaluated to be small. Hydromedusae dominated numerically and had their highest potential clearance impact in spring, but overall jellyfish clearance potential on copepods was low during...

  20. Variaciones de abundancia y biomasa del zooplancton en un embalse tropical oligo-mesotrófico del norte de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Merayo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia del zooplancton en los embalses está determinada principalmente por la velocidad y el contenido del agua, pero se sabe relativamente poco sobre los embalses tropicales. Se estudió la distribución temporal y espacial de la abundancia y la biomasa del zooplancton en el eje longitudinal del embalse de Clavellinos, en el norte de Venezuela, entre octubre 2006 y septiembre 2007. El zooplancton fue recolectado en el estrato oxigenado con una red de plancton. Un total de 16 taxones fueron identificados: Copepoda, Cladocera, Rotifera, Ostracoda y Diptera. Thermocyclops decipiens (Copepoda, Cyclopoida dominó la comunidad, mientras que los rotíferos fueron los más diversos, con 10 especies. La abundancia del zooplancton varió de 31 a 101ind/l en E1, 36 a 84ind/l en E2, y, de 30 a 250ind/L en el E3. La biomasa varió de 97,4 a 1406.3μg/l en E1, 108,5 a 397.2μg/l en E2, y de 25,9 a 763.9μg/l en el E3. Esta comunidad de zooplancton pareciσ responder a las variaciones ambientales en el embalse, mαs que a las variaciones en la disponibilidad de recursos.Variations of zooplankton abundance and biomass in a tropical oligo-mesotrophic reservoir in Northern Venezuela. Zooplankton abundance in reservoirs is mainly determined by the speed and content of the water, but relatively little is known regarding tropical reservoirs. We studied the seasonal and spatial distribution of zooplankton abundance and biomass along the longitudinal axis of Clavellinos reservoir, northern Venezuela, from October 2006 to September 2007. Zooplankton was collected from the oxygenated layer using a plankton net. A total of 16 taxa were identified: Copepoda, Cladocera, Rotifera, Ostracoda and Diptera. Thermocyclops decipiens (Copepoda, Cyclopoida dominated the community, while rotifers were the most diverse, with 10 species. Zooplankton abundance varied from 31 to 101ind/L in E1, 36 to 84ind/L in E2, and, from 30 to 250ind/L in E3. Biomass varied from 97.4 to

  1. Impact of changed trophic status on the zooplankton composition in six water bodies of Dharwad district, Karnataka state (South India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudari, Vijaykumar A; Kanamadi, Ravishankar D

    2008-09-01

    The present paper cites results of zooplankton composition that carried out in the six water bodies of Dharwad district during September-November 2004 (post monsoon) and February-April 2005 (pre monsoon). Comparison of the obtained results with those of earlier investigations performed during 1978-1979 showed that changes have occurred in the interval. The total zooplankton composition is significantly changed in all the six water bodies. The lower value of Sorenson and Jaccard indices suggests that significant changes have occurred in the group rotifera and cladocera whereas the higher values for copepoda group suggests least changes. Concurrent occurrence of six Brachionus species in Unkal Lake, four species in Kelgeri, Nuggikeri and Navalur tanks indicate intensified eutrophication. If these habitats have to be preserved for their intended use there is a need for sustainable and holistic management.

  2. Diel feeding pattern and diet of rough scad Trachurus lathami Nichols, 1920 (Carangidae from the Southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Diel changes in feeding activity and dietary composition of the rough scad Trachurus lathami were investigated through the analysis of stomach contents of 307 fish sampled over a 24-h period on the continental shelf off Ubatuba (23º 35'S 45ºW. Stomach contents were analyzed by frequency of occurrence (O%, percent number (N%, percent mass (M%, and feeding index (FI% = O% * M%. Rough scad fed on mollusks (Gastropoda, Crepidula sp., crustacean (Ostracoda, Copepoda, decapod larvae, chaetognat and teleostean fish. The main items were calanoid copepods (Eucalanus sp. and Centropages sp.. According to the analysis of the stomach fullness and prey digestion, T. lathami is both a diurnal and nocturnal feeder, showing some seasonal variation in feeding time. According to the Chronobiology concept, it was raised the hypothesis of circadian rhythm in feeding of this fish, probably synchronized by light/dark cycle.

  3. Sublittoral meiobenthic assemblages from disturbed and non-disturbed sediments in the Balearics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deudero

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative differences in species composition of meiobenthic communities illustrate the differences among various taxonomic assemblages in the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean analysed by means of multivariate analysis. Average densities ranged between 1000 and 4000 ind?10cm-2, and are in the same range as previously reported from other shallow Mediterranean areas. The dominant meiofaunal taxa were Nematoda (range 40 to 75%, Turbellaria (5-47% and Copepoda (2-14%, while other meiofaunal groups (Tardigrada and Rotifera were only represented by approximately 5% of the total abundance. The dominant nematode families were Desmodoridae, Chromadoridae and Xyalidae. The meiofaunal communities showed little variation among locations. Moreover, small-scale heterogeneity does not seem to affect nematode distribution as shown by the high similarity between replicates in the multivariate analysis.

  4. Feeding ecology of waterfowl wintering on evaporation ponds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta), Northern Shovelers (A. clypeata), and Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) wintering on drainwater evaporation ponds in California from 1982 through 1984. Pintails primarily consumed midges (Chironomidae) (39.3%) and widegeongrass (Ruppia maritima) nutlets (34.6%). Shovelers and Ruddy Ducks consumed 92.5% and 90.1% animal matter, respectively. Water boatmen (Corixidae) (51.6%), rotifers (Rotatoria) (20.4%), and copepods (Copepoda) (15.2%) were the most important Shoveler foods, and midges (49.7%) and water boatmen (36.0%) were the most important foods of Ruddy Ducks. All three species were opportunistic foragers, shifting their diets seasonally to the most abundant foods given their behavioral and morphological attributes.

  5. Zooplankton community of the Vitória Bay estuarine system (Southeastern Brazil: Characterization during a three-year study

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    José Mauro Sterza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the zooplankton community at the Vitória Bay estuarine system (Southeastern Brazil, samples were collected in 10 sampling stations during a three-year study (1998-2000, every three months. A total of 64 taxa were identified.Copepoda contributed with the highest species number (49 in the community, especially with Acartia lilljeborgi,Acartia tonsa,Paracalanus parvus,P. quasimodo,Parvocalanus crassirostris,Temora turbinata,Oithona hebes,Oithona oculata and Euterpina acutifrons. Highest abundances occurred in the summer of 2000. Diversity indexes were higher at the estuary mouth. Zooplankton composition was characterized by coastal and estuarine species, their distribution being influenced mainly by the salinity variation in this estuarine system.Com o objetivo de caracterizar a comunidade zooplanctônica no sistema estuarino Baía de Vitória/Canal da Passagem, Vitória, E.S., foram coletadas amostras em dez pontos amostrais, trimestralmente durante três anos (1998-2000. Um total de 64 táxons foram identificados. Copepoda contribuiu com o maior número de espécies (49 na comunidade, destacando-se Acartia lilljeborgi,Acartia tonsa,Paracalanus parvus,Paracalanus quasimodo,Parvocalanus crassirostris,Temora turbinata,Oithona hebes,Oithona oculata e Euterpina acutifrons. A maior abundância ocorreu no verão do ano 2000. Os índices de diversidade foram maiores na entrada do estuário. A composição do zooplâncton se caracterizou por apresentar espécies estuarinas e costeiras, sendo a distribuição destas espécies influenciada principalmente pela variação dos valores de salinidade no estuário.

  6. Differences between groundwater fauna in shallow and in deep intergranular aquifers as an indication of different characteristics of habitats and hydraulic connections

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    Anton Brancelj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fauna in the hyporheic zones of rivers has been relatively well studied but that from the phreatic zone remains comparatively unknown and there are few investigations into deeper intergranular aquifers (over 30 m in depth due to technical difficulties. Two shallow boreholes of 29 m depth and two deep boreholes of 100 m depth, both near Ljubljana (Slovenia, were sampled more than 30 times between 14 January 2008 and 3 March 2009.  On each occasion 14.4 to 18.0 m3 of water were abstracted using a high-capacity pump, then filtered by means of a plankton net with a mesh size of 60 µm. Organisms larger than 2 mm were damaged by the pump rotors, but their identification was still possible, while smaller representatives of the Copepoda (Crustacea passed the rotors without  damage. A near-by artesian borehole was sampled on 6 occasions. Water chemistry, physical properties and faunal composition analyses were carried out for each borehole. A total of 32 taxa, 24 of which were stygobites, were identified. Copepoda alone were represented by 16 species, 15 of which were stygobites. The shallow boreholes differ from the deep boreholes in their higher temperatures and higher concentrations of K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- ions. The copepod communities in samples from the shallow boreholes differ sharply from those from the deep boreholes. There were also clear differences between shallow boreholes in two aquifers located a few kilometres apart, in physical and chemical characteristics as well as in fauna composition. Taxa with different ecological affinities, collected from groundwater, are indicators of hydraulic connections between different parts of an aquifer as well as of communication between surface and subsurface water bodies. The present study suggests that subterranean fauna, as well as epigean fauna, can provide effective support for classical dye/salt tracing experiments.

  7. Carnivory during Ontogeny of the Plagioscion squamosissimus: A Successful Non-Native Fish in a Lentic Environment of the Upper Paraná River Basin.

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    Mayara Pereira Neves

    Full Text Available This study evaluated feeding patterns and ontogenetic variations in a non-native fish species (Plagioscion squamosissimus in an isolated lake in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Quarterly samplings were performed from April 2005 to February 2006 using plankton nets to capture larvae, seining nets for juveniles, and gill nets and trammel for adults. Stomach contents (n = 378 were examined according to the volumetric method in which the volume of each food item was estimated using graduated test tubes or a glass counting plate. During early development (larval stage, P. squamosissimus consumed mainly Cladocera and Copepoda. Juveniles showed a more diverse diet, including shrimp (Macrobrachium amazonicum, fish, aquatic insects (Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae and pupae of Diptera and plants. It was notable the high proportion of cannibalism (23.3% in this stage. Adults consumed predominantly shrimp and fish. The use of food resources varied significantly between development stages (ANOSIM; r = 0.458; p<0.005, showing changes in food preferences during ontogeny. The Similarity Percentage Analysis (SIMPER indicated that Cladocera and Copepoda were responsible for the differences observed between the larval stages of pre-flexion, flexion and post-flexion. M. amazonicum and Chironomidae were responsible for the differences between juvenile and larval stages, while M. amazonicum and other fishes caused the differences between adults and other ontogenetic stages. These results are confirmed by the relationship between standard length and developmental periods (ANCOVA; r2 = 0.94; p<0.0001. In general, there were low values of trophic niche breadth. The essentially carnivorous habit from the early stages of P. squamosissimus and the predominant use of M. amazonicum by adults have important roles in feeding patterns of the species, suggesting a major contribution to its success and establishment, especially in lentic environments.

  8. Frecuencia de micosis en pacientes inmunosuprimidos de un hospital regional de la Ciudad de México Frequency of mycoses in immunosuppressed patients in a regional hospital in Mexico City

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    Francisca Hernández-Hernández

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Aislar e identificar hongos en diferentes especímenes de pacientes inmunocomprometidos, atendidos en un hospital de la Ciudad de México, y determinar su asociación con micosis. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de tipo observacional transversal en pacientes del Hospital Regional General Ignacio Zaragoza, de junio de 1999 a mayo de 2000. De 108 pacientes se procesaron 268 especímenes para estudio micológico que incluyó examen directo, frotis, cultivos y microcultivos en medios específicos además de pruebas bioquímicas. La mayoría de pacientes tenía diagnóstico clínico de tuberculosis pulmonar y de síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 183 aislamientos de levaduras y 66 de hongos filamentosos. Se diagnosticaron 45 micosis que en su mayoría correspondieron a candidosis pulmonar (32 casos. Las especies de Candida más frecuentes asociadas a patología fueron Candida albicans y C parapsilosis. Se obtuvieron cinco aislamientos de Cryptococcus neoformans variedad neoformans, uno de C albidus, tres de Histoplasma capsulatum y uno de Geotrichum candidum, asociados a infección micótica. CONCLUSIONES: El 41.6% de los pacientes estudiados presentaron una micosis asociada principalmente a síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y a tuberculosis pulmonar.OBJECTIVE: To isolate and identify the fungi in specimens collected from immunocompromised patients seen in Mexico City hospital, and to assess their association with mycosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 268 specimens from 108 patients were processed for mycological study, including direct examination, smears, cultures, and microcultures in specific media, in addition to biochemical tests. Most of the patients had been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-three yeasts and 66 mycelial fungi were isolated. Forty-five mycoses were diagnosed; the most frequent

  9. [Contribution to the rapid diagnosis of yeast-forming fungi of clinical and hospital interest (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, M; Linares, M J

    1980-11-25

    Because the chlamydospore formation test for the identification of C. albicans is frequently utilized in most clinical Mycology laboratories, a comparative study of the different methods employed for the test was carried out. A total of 108 strains of yeast forming organisms belonging to C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. stellatoidea, C. pseudotropicalis, C. parakrusei, C. guillermondii, C. neoformans, C. laurentii, C. albidus, C. candidum, T. glabrata, R. rubra, T. cutaneum, and S. carlsbergensis was used. The following culture media were compared: corn meal agar, rice agar, chlamydospore agar, PCB, and the recently described TOC medium (tween 80, oxgall and caffeic acid). Chlamydospore formation was positive, respectively, in 54.2%, 66.6%, 71.4%, 82.8%, and 91.4% and pseudomycelia formation, in 85.7%, 80%, 71.4%, 94.2%, and 91.4%. Only Cryptococcus neoformans produced in the TOC medium a characteristic coffee brown pigmentation which distinguished it from the other fungi. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the TOC medium in comparison with other culture media for the chlamydospore formation test for the diagnosis of C. albicans, and for the diagnosis of C. neoformans because of the characteristic pigmentation it produces.

  10. Development of Yeast Populations during Processing and Ripening of Blue Veined Cheese

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    Alison M. Knox

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of blue veined cheese were analyzed regularly during different stages of manufacturing and ripening to determine the origin of contaminating the yeasts present in them, their population diversity and development until the end of the storage. Yeast diversity and development in the inner and outer core of the cheeses during ripening were also compared. Air samples revealed few if any yeasts whereas the samples in contact with the equipment and the surroundings revealed high number of yeasts, implicating it as the possible main source of post-pasteurization contamination, as very few yeasts were isolated from the milk and cheese making process itself. Samples from the inner and outer core of the maturing cheeses had typical survival curves. The number of yeasts on the outer core was about a 100-fold more than of those in the inner core. The most abundant yeasts isolated from the environment and ripening cheeses were identified as Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Trichosporon beigelii, Candida versatilis and Cryptococcus albidus, while the yeasts Candida zeylanoides and Dekkera anomala were additionally isolated from the environment. Yeasts were present in high number, making their occurrence in blue-veined cheeses meaningful.

  11. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic and pharmacological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Falara, Vasiliki; Givanoudi, Stella; Kostas, Stefanos; Kanellis, Angelos

    2014-06-01

    The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales) consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native of the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria). Traditionally, a number of Cistus specie have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing, digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Furthermore, total leaf aqueous extracts possess anti-influenza virus activity. All these properties have been attributed to phytochemicals such as terpenoids, including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes, phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and ellagitannins, several groups of alkaloids and other types of secondary metabolites. In the past 20 years, research on Cistus involved chemical, biological and phylogenetic analysis but recent investigations have involved genomic and molecular approaches. Our lab is exploring the biosynthetic machinery that generates terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, with a goal to harness their numerous properties that have applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical and aromatic industries. This review focuses on the systematics, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, chemical analyses, biological function and biosynthesis of major compounds, as well as genomic analyses and biotechnological approaches of the main Cistus species found in the Mediterranean basin, namely C. albidus, C. creticus, C. crispus, C. parviflorus, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. salviifolius, C. ladanifer, C. laurifolius and C. clusii.

  12. Cryptococcus spp. isolation from excreta of pigeons (Columba livia) in and around Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canónico-González, Yolanda; Adame-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Mercado-Hernández, Roberto; Aréchiga-Carvajal, Elva Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus spp. has been reported in Mexico's capital city; however, to our knowledge there are no reports of its presence in the state of Nuevo León located in northeast Mexico. This is presumed to be because the hot and dry climate in this region does not favor cryptococcal proliferation. This study confirmed the presence of C. neoformans and C. albidus in 20% (10/50) of randomly selected fecal samples of pigeons (Columba livia) in the Monterrey metropolitan area. The presence of this yeast in the state of Nuevo León is proof of its adaptation to the typically hot climate of the area and is consistent with recent reviews of cryptococcosis cases in several local hospitals. The two species were identified and characterized through microbiological tests and molecular identification by DNA extraction and PCR amplification of highly conserved 18S ribosomal DNA using ITS1 and ITS2 as target regions. The PCR products were sequenced and compared with those reported in GenBank.

  13. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra ePapaefthimiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native of the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria. Traditionally, a number of Cistus specie have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing, digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. Furthermore, total leaf aqueous extracts possess anti-influenza virus activity. All these properties have been attributed to phytochemicals such as terpenoids, including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes, phenylpropanoids, including flavonoids and ellagitannins, several groups of alkaloids and other types of secondary metabolites. In the past 20 years, research on Cistus involved chemical, biological and phylogenetic analysis but recent investigations have involved genomic and molecular approaches. Our lab is exploring the biosynthetic machinery that generates terpenoids and phenylpropanoids, with a goal to harness their numerous properties that have applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical and aromatic industries. This review focuses on the systematics, botanical characteristics, geographic distribution, chemical analyses, biological function and biosynthesis of major compounds, as well as genomic analyses and biotechnological approaches of the main Cistus species found in the Mediterranean basin, namely C. albidus, C. creticus, C. crispus, C. parviflorus, C. monspeliensis, C. populifolius, C. salviifolius, C. ladanifer, C. laurifolius and C. clusii.

  14. Comparative ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the redclaw Cherax quadricarinatus and the yabby Cherax destructor (Decapoda, Parastacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouba, Antonín; Niksirat, Hamid; Bláha, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of redclaw Cherax quadricarinatus and yabby Cherax destructor were described and compared. The acrosome complex and nucleus are located at the anterior and posterior region of the spermatozoon, respectively. The acrosome is a complex vesicle divided into two parts: the main body of the acrosome appears as a dense cup-shaped structure in longitudinal sagittal view, with the subacrosome zone occupying the central area of the vesicle. The acrosome is larger in C. quadricarinatus (width 2.37±0.27μm, length 1.31±0.23μm) than in C. destructor (width 1.80±0.27μm, length 1.01±0.15μm). There was no significant difference in L:W ratios of the studied species. The subacrosome zone in both species consists of two areas of different electron density. The nucleus is substantially decondensed and irregular in shape, with elaborate extended processes. The examined species exhibited a well-conserved structure of crayfish spermatozoon, similar to those of Cherax cainii and Cherax albidus. Small acrosome size, the absence of radial arms, and an extracellular capsule seem to be the morphological features that mostly distinguish Cherax from the Astacidae and Cambaridae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Frecuencia de micosis en pacientes inmunosuprimidos de un hospital regional de la Ciudad de México

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    Hernández-Hernández Francisca

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Aislar e identificar hongos en diferentes especímenes de pacientes inmunocomprometidos, atendidos en un hospital de la Ciudad de México, y determinar su asociación con micosis. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de tipo observacional transversal en pacientes del Hospital Regional General Ignacio Zaragoza, de junio de 1999 a mayo de 2000. De 108 pacientes se procesaron 268 especímenes para estudio micológico que incluyó examen directo, frotis, cultivos y microcultivos en medios específicos además de pruebas bioquímicas. La mayoría de pacientes tenía diagnóstico clínico de tuberculosis pulmonar y de síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 183 aislamientos de levaduras y 66 de hongos filamentosos. Se diagnosticaron 45 micosis que en su mayoría correspondieron a candidosis pulmonar (32 casos. Las especies de Candida más frecuentes asociadas a patología fueron Candida albicans y C parapsilosis. Se obtuvieron cinco aislamientos de Cryptococcus neoformans variedad neoformans, uno de C albidus, tres de Histoplasma capsulatum y uno de Geotrichum candidum, asociados a infección micótica. CONCLUSIONES: El 41.6% de los pacientes estudiados presentaron una micosis asociada principalmente a síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y a tuberculosis pulmonar.

  16. Distribution and molecular phylogeny of biliary trematodes (Opisthorchiidae) infecting native Lutra lutra and alien Neovison vison across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard-Smith, Ellie; Stanton, David W G; Cable, Jo; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Simpson, Vic R; Elmeros, Morten; van Dijk, Jiska; Simonnet, Franck; Roos, Anna; Lemarchand, Charles; Poledník, Lukáš; Heneberg, Petr; Chadwick, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-01

    The recent identification of Pseudamphistomum truncatum, (Rudolphi, 1819) (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) and Metorchis bilis (Braun, 1790) Odening, 1962 (synonymous with Metorchis albidus (Braun, 1893) Loos, 1899 and Metorchis crassiusculus (Rudolphi, 1809) Looss, 1899 (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae)) in otters from Britain caused concern because of associated biliary damage, coupled with speculation over their alien status. Here, we investigate the presence, intensity and phylogeny of these trematodes in mustelids (principally otters) across Europe (Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Poland and Sweden and Britain). The trematodes were identified to species using the internal transcribed spacer II (ITS2) locus. Both parasites were found across Europe but at unequal frequency. In the German state of Saxony, eight out of eleven (73%) otters examined were infected with P. truncatum whilst this parasite was not found in either mink from Scotland (n=40) or otters from Norway (n=21). Differences in the phylogenies between the two species suggest divergent demographic histories possibly reflecting contrasting host diet or competitive exclusion, with M. bilis exhibiting greater mitochondrial diversity than P. truncatum. Shared haplotypes within the ranges of both parasite species probably reflect relatively unrestricted movements (both natural and anthropogenic) of intermediate and definitive hosts across Europe. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of levan-producing acetic acid bacteria on buckwheat-sourdough breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ua-Arak, Tharalinee; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-08-01

    Buckwheat sourdoughs supplemented with molasses as natural sucrose source were fermented with levan-producing Gluconobacter (G.) albidus TMW 2.1191 and Kozakia (K.) baliensis NBRC 16680. Cell growth, concomitant levan and low-molecular-weight metabolite production were monitored. Sourdough breads were prepared with different sourdoughs from both strains (24, 30 and 48 h fermentation, respectively) and analyzed with respect to bread volume, crumb hardness and sensory characteristics. During fermentation, levan, acetic and gluconic acids were increasingly produced, while spontaneously co-growing lactic acid bacteria additionally formed acetic and lactic acids. Sourdoughs from both strains obtained upon 24 h of fermentation significantly improved the bread sensory and quality, including higher specific volume as well as lower crumb hardness. Buckwheat doughs containing isolated levan, with similar molecular size and mass compared to in situ produced levan in the sourdough at 48 h, verified the positive effect of levan on bread quality. However, the positive effects of levan were masked to a certain extent by the impact from the natural acidification during fermentations. While levan-producing acetic acid bacteria are a promising alternative for the development of clean-label gluten-free breads without the need of additives, an appropriate balance between acidification and levan production (amount and structure) must be reached. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Zooplankton structure in two interconnected ponds: similarities and differences

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    Špoljar Maria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of zooplankton diversity, abundance and trophic structure was conducted during the summer period in pelagial zone on the longitudinal profile of the Sutla River Backwater. Investigated site consists of two interconnected basins: transparent Upper Basin with submerged macrophytes and turbid Lower Basin without macrophytes in the littoral zone. In the Upper Basin, abundance and diversity of zooplankton in the pelagial was higher in comparison to the Lower Basin, with prevailing species of genus Keratella as microfilter-feeder, and genera of Polyartha and Trihocerca as macrofilter-feeder rotifers. On the contrary, in the Lower Basin, crustaceans dominated in abundance. Microfilter-feeder cladoceran (Bosmina longirostris and larval and adult stages of macrofilter-feeder copepod (Macrocyclops albidus prevailed in the Lower Basin. Fish predation pressure was more pronounced in the pelagial of the Upper Basin, indicated by low cladoceran abundance in the surface layer. Although the studied basins were interconnected, results indicate significant (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05 differences in the zooplankton structure as a potential result of the macrophyte impact on environmental conditions and fish predation pressure.

  19. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial community variation and functions to excess sludge reduction in a novel gravel contact oxidation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Shanshan; Jin, Y.; Fu, L. [School of Urban and Environmental Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun (China); Quan, C. [Jilin University, College of medicine, Changchun (China); Yang, Y.S., E-mail: yangy6@cf.ac.uk [Cardiff University, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff CF10 3YE (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    both in GCOR (15 no. per 20 ml) and in ASR (15 no. per 20 ml); the next abundant group was attachment plants 10 no. per 20 ml in GCOR and 4 no. per 20 ml in ASR, respectively. Rotifers and copepoda belonging to metazoan were only present in GCOR (8 no. per 20 ml for both rotifers and copepoda). The microbial diversity and population difference both in the GCOR carriers and ASR sludge indicated that the diverse microbes, a large amount of biomass forming longer microbial food chains attached on the carriers may be the main functions for the excess sludge reduction in GCOR.

  1. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program, Part B; Limnology, Primary Production, and Zooplankton in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, John; Spotts, Jim; Underwood, Keith

    2002-11-01

    of 1.5 m (5 ft) when compared with a 4.6 m (15 ft) depth, and during the shorter incubation periods (two and four weeks). Mean zooplankton densities were greatest for Copepoda (88 %), then Daphnia spp. (10%) and other Cladocera (2.1%), while the zooplankton biomass assessment indicated Daphnia spp. had the greatest biomass (53.6%), then Copepoda (44.0%) and other Cladocera (2.5%). Mean overall zooplankton densities were the lowest observed since 1991. The cause was unclear, but may have been an artifact of human error. It seems unlikely that hydro-operations played a significant part in the reduction of zooplankton in light of the relatively friendly water year of 1998.

  2. A fauna de parasitas do tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae do médio rio Solimões, Estado do Amazonas (AM e do baixo rio Amazonas, Estado do Pará (PA, e seu potencial como indicadores biológicos The fauna of parasites of the tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characiformes: Characidae from middle Solimões River and lower Amazonas River and their potential as biological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Fischer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados brânquias, fossas nasais e intestinos de tambaquis (Colossoma macropomum capturados em duas localidades na Amazônia, próximas aos municípios de Tefé/Coari, no médio rio Solimões, Estado do Amazonas e de Santarém no baixo rio Amazonas, Estado do Pará. Nove espécies de parasitas foram encontradas: três da classe Monogenoidea; Anacanthorus spathulatus, Linguadactyloides brinkmanni e Notozothecium sp.; uma de Trematoda da família Paramphistomidae; uma do filo Acanthocephala, Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae, duas do filo Nematoda, Spirocamallanus sp. e Procamallanus sp. e duas da subclasse Copepoda, Gamidactylus jaraquensis e Perulernaea gamitanae. Foram registradas pela primeira vez parasitando o tambaqui, o monogenético Notozothecium sp., espécimens imaturos da família Paramphistomidae, larvas do nematóide Procamallanus sp. e o copépodo Gamidactylus jaraquensis. Os paranfistomídeos e Procamallanus sp. foram encontrados apenas nos hospedeiros da região de Tefé/Coari. Foi observada pouca variabilidade na composição da parasitofauna do tambaqui, entre os dois locais estudados. As espécies Anacanthorus spathulatus, Notozothecium sp., Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae e Perulernaea gamitanae, apresentaram bom potencial como indicadores biológicos para o tambaqui.Specimens of Colossoma macropomum, an Amazonian characoid, captured at two different sites, one near the towns of Tefé and Coari in the middle Solimões River, state of Amazonas, and the other near the town of Santarém, lower Amazon River, state of Pará, were examined for parasites. Nine parasite species were found. Three belong to the class Monogenoidea: Anacanthorus spathulatus, Linguadactyloides brinkmanni and Notozothecium sp. Immature specimens belonging to class Trematoda, family Paramphistomidae were found. One belongs to the phylum Acanthocephala, Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae. Two belong to the phylum Nematoda, Spirocamallanus sp. and Procamallanus sp

  3. Sucessão de invertebrados durante o processo de decomposição de duas plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia azurea e Polygonum ferrugineum - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1017 Succession of invertebrates during the decomposition process of two aquatic plants (Eichhornia azurea and Polygonum ferrugineum - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1017

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    Alexandre Monkolski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A colonização de invertebrados durante o período de 56 dias de decomposição de duas espécies de plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia azurea e Polygonum ferrugineum foi investigada para determinar o papel de macroinvertebrados no processo de fragmentação da folha. Durante a análise do material, foi constatado um total de 2096 invertebrados, associados a E.azurea e 6154 invertebrados associados a P. ferrugineum, identificados dentro de 18 táxons, com predominância de larvas de Diptera da família Chironomidae, seguido por espécimes de Oligochaeta, microcrustáceos como Cladocera e Copepoda. Em ambas as plantas, os macroinvertebrados mostraram um aumento significativo de densidade ao longo do processo de decomposição, o que provavelmente está associado à perda de compostos fenólicos. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies de macrófitas apresentam associações específicas com seus consumidores, ou seja, o processo de sucessão da colonização torna-se diferenciado de acordo com as características fenológicas da planta.The invertebrate colonization was investigated during 56-day decomposition of two macrophytes species (Eichhornia azurea and Polygonum ferrugineum. The aim was to determine the role of macroinvertebrates in the process of leaf fragmentation. During material analysis, 2096 invertebrates were associated with E.azurea and 6154 were associated with P. ferrugineum, identified in 18 taxons, with predominance of Diptera larvae (Chironomidae family specially, followed by Oligochaeta species and microcrustaceans such as Cladocera and Copepoda. In both macrophytes the macroinvertebrates showed a significant increase of density through the process of decomposition, which is probably associated with the loss of phenolic compounds. Results suggest that macrophytes specimens show specific associations with their consumers, i.e., the succession process of colonization becomes singular according to the phenolic characteristics of the

  4. Microbial community variation and functions to excess sludge reduction in a novel gravel contact oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shanshan; Jin, Y.; Fu, L.; Quan, C.; Yang, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    no. per 20 ml); the next abundant group was attachment plants 10 no. per 20 ml in GCOR and 4 no. per 20 ml in ASR, respectively. Rotifers and copepoda belonging to metazoan were only present in GCOR (8 no. per 20 ml for both rotifers and copepoda). The microbial diversity and population difference both in the GCOR carriers and ASR sludge indicated that the diverse microbes, a large amount of biomass forming longer microbial food chains attached on the carriers may be the main functions for the excess sludge reduction in GCOR.

  5. Trophic niche and habitat shifts of sympatric Gerreidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J A A; Barletta, M; Dantas, D V; Lima, A R A; Costa, M F

    2014-11-01

    The diet and mouth growth rates of three Gerreidae species (Eugerres brasilianus, Eucinostomus melanopterus and Diapterus rhombeus) were assessed at different ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) in order to detect allometric growth, and whether they are related to habitat and seasonal changes in the Goiana Estuary, north-east Brazil. The importance of each prey for each ontogenetic phase was described using the index of relative importance. The three species showed seasonal ontogenetic shifts in diet and allometric growth of mouth morphology. They also had an exclusively zoobenthic diet, comprising mainly Polychaeta, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Gastropoda and Bivalvia. Mouth development showed a possible influence on diet changes for E. melanopterus. Significant interactions (P < 0·01) were detected among seasons, areas and ontogenetic phases for the most important prey for E. brasilianus and E. melanopterus. Diet overlaps are evidence of intra and interspecific competition among gerreids for specific prey. A conceptual model of the competition and seasonal diet shifts among ontogenetic phases of gerreids is given. The sediment ingested due to the feeding mechanisms of Gerreidae species could also partially explain the ingestion of synthetic items observed for all ontogenetic phases, which indicates one of a myriad effects of human activities (e.g. artisanal fishery) in this estuary. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Metazoan parasite communities of rock cod Eleginops maclovinus along southern Chilean coast and their use as biological tags at a local spatial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, V P; Gonzalez, M T; Licandeo, R; Carvajal, J

    2011-12-01

    The composition of the metazoan parasite fauna of the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus from three locations in southern Chile was compared to assess the local spatial variation of the community component of their parasitic faunas. A total of 13 108 metazoan parasites (5267 endoparasites and 7841 ectoparasites) belonging to 34 taxa were collected from 268 specimens of E. maclovinus between October 2008 and March 2009. The populations and community quantitative descriptors were estimated. Altogether, 97.4% of the fish were infected with at least one parasite taxon. The most prevalent species were Hypoechinorhynchus magellanicus (Acanthocephala), Caligus rogercresseyi, Lepeophtheirus mugiloides, Clavella adunca (Copepoda) and Similascarophis sp. (Nematoda). Five species are new records for this host: Argulus araucanus, Hirudinea gen. sp1., Hirudinea gen. sp2., Benedenia sp. and Camallanidae gen. sp. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that the metazoan parasite fauna of E. maclovinus varied qualitatively and quantitatively among three locations, with 89.7% of fish being correctly assigned to their respective locations. This suggested that parasites could be a reliable tool to discriminate individual fish from geographically close locations. There was a weak relationship between the parasite fauna and fish size and there were no accumulations of parasites in the host over time, which could be associated with ontogenetic changes of diet associated with habitat use. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Metazoan parasite fauna as a biological tag for the habitat of the flounder Hippoglossina macrops from northern Chile, in a depth gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Marcelo E; González, Maria Teresa; Acuña, Enzo

    2004-12-01

    Quantitative changes in the parasite communities of the flounder Hippoglossina macrops (Steindachner) were studied along a depth gradient. Samples were obtained from the waters off Coquimbo, Chile (29 degrees 18'S to 30 degrees 50'S), at depths ranging from 160 to 342 m. Samples were assigned to 3 depths, i.e., shallow water (less than 200 m), midwater (from 200 to 300 m), and deep water (more than 300 m). Twelve parasite species were recorded: Neoheterobothrium chilensis and Entobdella hippoglossi (Monogenea); Holobomolochus chilensis and Protochondria longicauda (Copepoda); Gliptonobdella sp. (Hirudinea); Nybelinia surmenicola, Scolex pleuronectis, and Neobothriocephalus adspinosus (Cestoda); Floridosentis sp. and Corynosoma australe (Acanthocephala); Anisakidae (Nematoda); and an unidentified hemiurid (Digenea). Univariate analyses showed that C. australe has its highest prevalence and mean intensity of infection in hosts from shallow waters. Floridosentis sp. showed significant differences along the depth gradient, with higher mean intensity and prevalence of infection in fish from midwater. Among the ectoparasites, only N. chilensis exhibited differences in mean intensity with depth, where intensity of infection increased with depth of host habitat. A canonical multivariate analysis demonstrated that parasite burdens can be a good predictor of the environment (shallow, mid-, or deep water) occupied by the flounders.

  8. Microcrustacean diversity in the Gemenc-Béda-Karapancsa Floodplains (Danube-Drava National Park, Hungary: rare and alien species

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    Ágoston-Szabó, E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The composition of microcrustacean fauna was investigated in different water bodies of Gemenc-Béda-Karapancsa Floodplains with special regard to the distribution of alien and rare taxa. Between 2002 and 2013 101 taxa (57 Cladocera, 27 Copepoda, 17 Ostracoda, were recorded from the water bodies with differing degrees of connectivity to the main river (eu-, para-, plesio- and paleopotamon. 18 species are reported for the first time from the area of Danube-Drava National Park and among them Daphnia ambigua, Pleuroxus denticulatus and Eurytemora velox are allochtonous species in Hungary. E. velox and P. denticulatus have persistent populations in the area, but their contribution to floodplain biodiversity is still not significant. Daphnia ambigua has only local and temporal populations and its presence is confined to the disconnected side of the floodplain. The abundance of thirty species was very low and their distribution pattern in the floodplain is different. The microcrustacean diversity of the plesiopotamal side arms is remarkable, particularly in the Nyéki-Holt-Danube.

  9. Benthic communities on hard substrates covered by Limnoperna fortunei Dunker (Bivalvia, Mytilidae at an estuarine beach (Río de la Plata, Argentina

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    Fernando G. Spaccesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and composition of benthic communities on hard substrates covered by the nonindigenous bivalve Limnoperna fortunei Dunker, the golden mussel, were quantified in the middle zone of the Río de la Plata Estuary (Argentina from April 2001 through March 2002. A total of 26 taxa were recorded. L. fortunei and Nematoda were the central and dominant groups, with a prodigious abundance of over 80%. The prevalence of L. fortunei, rather than the environmental variables, regulated the dynamics of the associated invertebrate fauna. The golden mussel alters both the structure and function of benthic native communities on hard substrates, allows a higher surface available for colonization and refuge, and provides food source to deposit-feeding organisms in the form of organic or residual material. The mussel also increases the abundance and diversity of taxa on hard substrata - such as Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Tardigrada, Chironomidae, Copepoda, Tanaidacea, and Hydrachnidia. Similarities and nonparametric multidimensional-scaling analyses indicated that the benthic composition had a seasonal variation. L. fortunei has an environmental impact, an ability to invade new freshwater ambiences worldwide and ecological characteristic comparable to those of Dreissena polymorpha Pallas (the zebra mussel of North America and Europe.

  10. Seasonal trophic activity of the aquatic morphotype of Atelognathus patagonicus (Anura, Neobatrachia and prey availability in the littoral benthos of a permanent pond in Argentinean Patagonia

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    María Elena Cuello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the aquatic morphotype of Atelognathus patagonicus was studied in frogs collected from the Laguna Verde pond (Laguna Blanca National Park, Neuquén, Argentina. The content of 35 gastrointestinal tracts of post-metamorphic specimens from November 2003 to April 2006 was related to the composition of the benthos in their microhabitat. Number, size, occurrence and relative importance of preys, diversity of the diet, trophic niche breadth and electivitywere estimated for each season of the year. The diet consisted of aquatic arthropods. The composition of both the benthos and the food (number and occurrence of organisms in the diet were dominated by the amphipod Hyalella sp. The relative importance (IRI of Hyalella sp. in the diet was over 99% in summer and autumn, and 100% in winter and spring. Diptera and Copepoda in summer, and Dytiscidae and Ostracoda in autumn, had seasonal IRI values ≤ 0.2%. Trophic niche breadth was very low in summer and autumn, and null (= 0 in winter and spring. The mean number of preys per individual was highest in spring (19 preys/frog and lowest in winter (4 preys/frog. Frogs continued with their trophic activity in winter, even when the surface of the pond was frozen. There is a correspondence between the frogs’ main food item and its presence in the benthos.

  11. Diet and trophic ecomorphology of the silverside, Odontesthes bonariensis, of the Salto Caxias reservoir, rio Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil

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    Fernanda Aparecida da Silva Cassemiro

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the diet and trophic ecomorphology of Odontesthes bonariensis, relating these features with species' abundance in the natural environment and in the Salto Caxias reservoir (at Iguaçu river after the reservoir's formation. The samples were carried out before (from March 1997 to February 1998- pre and after (from October 1998 to February 2001 - post 1 and 2 the damming. The stomach contents of 218 individuals were analyzed by occurrence and volumetric methods. O. bonariensis' diet is based on insects, scales, plants and detritus. Microcrustaceans (Cladocera and Copepoda were the main items, allowing the characterization of the species as zooplanktivore. The species has a superior position and protractible mouth, with small teeth, creating a serrated pattern, uniformly lined side by side. There are many gill rakers, that are long and close together (typical of filtering fishes; the stomach is ill defined and the intestine is short. There was a gradual increase of O. bonariensis' abundance during the period of field study, mainly after the second year of damming. This fact seems to be closely related with the high abundance and availability of zooplankton in the dammed environment, and also with the ability of the species to exploit this resource.

  12. Food of young-of-the-year lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Presque Isle Harbor, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedberg, Donald V.; Peck, James W.

    1984-01-01

    The food habits of young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were studied by examining the digestive tracts of 293 young-of-the-year collected in Presque Isle Harbor, Lake Superior. Lake trout in the 25 to 27-mm length range started to eat food organisms before all of their yolk material was absorbed. Organisms consumed by the 25 to 27-mm young-of-the-year included Chironomidae, Copepoda (Harpacticoida, Calanoida, Cyclopoida), and Cladocerea (Daphnia spp., Bosmina sp., Chydorus sp.). Chironomid pupae and chironomid larvae accounted for 74% and 5%, respectively, of the total volume of food eaten by the young lake trout in Presque Isle Harbor. Although copepods, cladocerans, and mysids were present in many stomachs, their contribution to the total volume of food was only 15%. Some lake trout in the 32 to 54-mm length range had consumed fry of sculpin (Cottus spp.) or rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), but the overall contribution of fish fry to the total volume of food was only 4% (frequency of occurrence, 10%). The lake trout in Presque Isle Harbor fed heavily on planktonic organisms, sparingly on benthic organisms, and were opportunistic feeders that appeared to prey on whatever forage organisms were available in the shallow nearshore waters.

  13. Spatial and nycthemeral distribution of the zooneuston off Fernando de Noronha, Brazil

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    Simone Maria de Albuquerque Lira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Island environments drastically modify the hydrodynamics of ocean currents and generate strong vertical turbulence. This leads to an upward transport of nutrient-rich waters, thus increasing the biomass of plankton in these oceanic marine environments. The objective of this study was to assess the biomass and density of the zooneuston communities in relation to the upper and lower layers (epi-/hyponeuston, the nycthemeral variation (day/night, the currents in relation to the island (downstream vs upstream, and the distance from the island, focusing on the spatial variability. Samples were taken in July and August 2010 with a David-Hempel neuston net (Hydro-Bios with a mesh size of 500 µm. Twenty-one taxa were recorded. The most abundant taxa were Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Teleostei (eggs and Hydrozoa. This is the first record of phoronid larvae for the waters of the Tropical Atlantic. For both layers, density and biomass were significantly higher at night. Density and biomass were always significantly higher in the upper (epineuston layer than in the lower (hyponeuston layer. This was probably due to a zooneuston aggregation at the surface and massive vertical migration from deep waters at night, leading to increased abundances at night in both neuston layers.

  14. Two new stygobiotic copepod species from the Tibesti area (Northern Chad) and a re-description of Pilocamptus schroederi (van Douwe, 1915).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancelj, Anton

    2015-08-04

    Between 4th and 18th March 2014, an international group of biologists carried out a hydrobiological expedition to the Ounianga-Tibesti area of northern Chad (Africa). The Tibesti is a desert volcanic area, intersected by the beds of ancient rivers which were active in the Tertiary. In deep canyons there are small water bodies (gueltas/aguelmans), fed by rain and spring water. They are rich in zooplankton, benthos, and even fish, but their groundwater fauna has previously been unknown. Groundwater samples collected in the vicinity of one guelta contained Syncarida, Isopoda, and Copepoda. Among the latter, two new species were recognised, Haplocyclops (H.) henrii sp. nov. and Parastenocaris joi sp. nov., together with a third species, Pilocamptus schroederi (van Douwe, 1915), previously known only from the littoral zone and wet mosses of Lake Victoria. The Tibesti area is thus the third known location of P. schroederi. All these species have a Gondwanaland distribution and are probably relicts of the Tertiary fauna, formerly widespread in the Sahara. Together with descriptions of two new species, a detailed re-description of P. schroederi is presented, along with remarks on their ecology.

  15. Zooplankton variability in the subtropical estuarine system of Paranaguá Bay, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Bianca; Bersano, José Guilherme F.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial and temporal dynamics of zooplankton assemblages were studied in the Paranaguá Estuarine System (southern Brazil), including data from the summer (rainy) and winter (dry) periods of 2012 and 2013. Zooplankton and environmental data were collected at 37 stations along the estuary and examined by multivariate methods. The results indicated significantly distinct assemblages; differences in abundance were the major source of variability, mainly over the temporal scale. The highest abundances were observed during rainy periods, especially in 2012, when the mean density reached 16378 ind.m-3. Winter assemblages showed lower densities but higher species diversity, due to the more extensive intrusion of coastal waters. Of the 14 taxonomic groups recorded, Copepoda was the most abundant and diverse (92% of total abundance and 22 species identified). The coastal copepods Acartia lilljeborgi (44%) and Oithona hebes (26%) were the most important species in both abundance and frequency, followed by the estuarine Pseudodiaptomus acutus and the neritic Temora turbinata. The results indicated strong influences of environmental parameters on the community structure, especially in response to seasonal variations. The spatial distribution of species was probably determined mainly by their preferences and tolerances for specific salinity conditions. On the other hand, the abundances were strongly related to higher water temperature and precipitation rates, which can drive nutrient inputs and consequently food supply in the system, due to intense continental drainage.

  16. [Limnetic zooplankton run-off a high-head dam and their fate in a river with high current velocity (case of the Krasnoiarsk hydroelectric power station on the Yenisei river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskaia, O P; Gladyshev, M I; Makhutova, O N

    2004-01-01

    The vertical distribution of net zooplankton in head-water of Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station and its horizontal distribution in the tail-water were studied during two years in winter and summer seasons. In order to distinguish living and dead individuals the special staining was used. It was revealed that on average 77% of living plankton pass through high-head dam with deep water scoop to the tailwater. While passing through dam aggregates some individuals of the reservoir plankton are traumatized and die, that results in some increase of portion of dead individuals in the tail water near dam (from 3 to 6%). Alive zooplankton passed through the dam aggregates is eliminated under the Upper Yenisei highly turbulent conditions. There is approximately 10% of it in 32 km from the dam if compare with biomass in 20-40 m layer of reservoir, the portion of dead increases to 11%. The biomass of zooplankton suspended in the water column of the tail-water sometimes increases (till > 1 g/m3) due to large Copepoda Heteroscope borealis, which inhabits near-bottom and near-shore river zones and can be found in the central part of the river during reproductive period. Limnetic zooplankton from the reservoir cannot be considered as important food for planktivores in the tail-water.

  17. Hyporheic fauna from interstitial of the Someş River basin (Transylvania, northwestern Romania

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    Claudia Pavelescu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity in hyporheic habitats (interstitial water habitats in river bank sediments has been studied on Someşul Cald (Warm Someş and Someşul Rece (Cold Someş River (north-western Romania, Transylvania, from March to October 2004. pH and electrical conductivity were measured monthly at each site, and animals were collected with the Karaman-Chappuis method and by filtering water through a hand-net. The relative abundance of the best-represented hyporheic invertebrates (oligochaetes and insect larvae was higher in Someşul Cald interstitial habitats than in Someşul Rece. The focus was directed to the role of water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia, cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida and oligochaetes (Annelida, Oligochaeta in hyporheic communities. Nine water mites and five cyclopoid species were identified in five sampling sites of the two rivers. Their higher diversity was recorded in two stations on the Someşul Cald River. The cyclopoid copepod Diacyclops disjunctus (Thallwitz, 1927 is a new record for Romania. As for oligochaetes, 17 species were identified and their higher diversity was recorded on Someşul Rece River. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA shows that presence of some water mites and cyclopoid species can be associated with measured physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity. Principal Component Analysis (PCA shows similarities between stations and the dominant taxa in some samples.

  18. Metazoan parasite fauna of the bigeye flounder, Hippoglossina macrops, from Northern Chile. Influence of host age and sex

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    González M Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The metazoan parasite fauna of Hippoglossina macrops (n = 123 from northern Chile (30°S is quantitatively described for the first time, and the role of host age and sex was evaluated. Twelve parasite species were recovered, including 5 ectoparasites (2 Monogenea, 2 Copepoda and 1 Piscicolidae and 7 endoparasites (1 Digenea, 3 Cestoda, 2 Acanthocephala, and 1 Nematoda. The copepod Holobomolochus chilensis, the monogenean Neoheterobothrium sp., the adult acanthocephalan Floridosentis sp. and the hirudinean, Gliptonobdella sp. are new geographical and host records. The most prevalent ectoparasitic species were the monogenean, Neoheterobothrium sp. and the copepod, H. chilensis. Among endoparasites, the acanthocephalans Floridosentis sp. and Corynosoma australe were most prevalent and abundant. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection for most parasitic species were not affected by host sex, however the prevalence of Floridosentis sp. was significantly greater in males. Intensity of infection was positively correlated with host age for Neoheterobothrium sp., and negatively correlated for Floridosentis sp. and H. chilensis. The helminth species richness of the host H. macrops was lower compared to related flatfishes from the Northern Hemisphere. The relationship of the helminth fauna of H. macrops, its feeding habits and ecological habitats are discussed.

  19. List of Zooplankton Taxa in the Caspian Sea Waters of Iran

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    Siamak Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 61 zooplankton taxa were found in the southwestern Caspian Sea between 1996 and 2010. Thirteen of them were meroplankton taxa and forty-eight were holoplankton taxa. The occurrence of 14 freshwater taxa indicated the influence of the Anzali wetland and river inflows. The decrease in zooplankton taxa was detected since 1996-1997 and continued till 2010. Pleopis polyphemoides, the only one out of the nine recorded Cladocera species in 1996-1997, was found after 2001. Similarly, of the five Copepoda species recorded in 1996-1997, only one, Acartia tonsa, was found abundant during the 2001–2010 sampling period. It was striking that many species which were abundant in the Caspian Sea in 1996-1997 were not found after 2000. Many reasons could have contributed to the changes in the zooplankton composition of the southern Caspian Sea, notably the serious environmental degradation since the early 1990s. It is also possible that invasive species might play a role in wiping out some sensitive endemic species.

  20. Earthquake impacts on microcrustacean communities inhabiting groundwater-fed springs alter species-abundance distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone; Di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Galassi, Diana M P

    2018-01-24

    Earthquakes are important natural events, yet their impacts on animal communities are poorly known. Understanding earthquake impacts on groundwater communities is essential to assess their resilience and hence to perform conservation actions. We investigated how a 6.3 M w earthquake that occurred in 2009 altered the community structure (diversity, evenness, dominance, species abundance distributions and beta-diversity) of microcrustaceans (Crustacea Copepoda) inhabiting springs fed by the Gran Sasso Aquifer (Central Italy). Sampling was done in low-discharge (1997), high-discharge (2005), and post-seismic (2012) hydrological years. Stygobites (obligate groundwater species) and non-stygobites (non-obligate groundwater species) showed different patterns. A high-water discharge in 2005 altered abundance patterns of non-stygobites. The earthquake re-established former abundance patterns. Stygobites were less affected by high-water discharge in 2005, and showed strong increases in diversity and evenness after the earthquake. This effect was due to the fact that the earthquake induced a strong population decline of previously dominant stygobites (especially of Nitocrella pescei) in the aquifer, and subsequently at the main spring outlets, thus allowing a more equitable species-abundance distribution. These results highlight the importance of considering species ecology to understand the effects of a significant earthquake event on animal communities.

  1. Copepod reproductive strategies: life-history theory, phylogenetic pattern and invasion of inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Nelson G.; Bohonak, Andrew J.

    1998-06-01

    Life-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven by tradeoffs that are mediated by the environment in which the organisms live. At the same time, phylogenetic history may circumscribe natural selection by dictating the range of phenotypes upon which selection can act, or by limiting the range of environments encountered. Comparisons of life-history patterns in related organisms provide a powerful tool for understanding both the nature of selection on life-history characters and the diversity of life-history patterns observed in nature. Here, we explore reproductive strategies of the Copepoda, a well defined group with many phylogenetically independent transitions from free-living to parasitic life styles, from marine to inland waters, and from active development to diapause. Most species are iteroparous annuals, and most (with the exception of some parasitic taxa) develop through a relatively restricted range of life-history stages (nauplii and copepodids, or some modification thereof). Within these bounds, we suggest that there may be a causal relationship between the success of numerous copepod taxa in inland waters and the prevalence of either diapause or parasitism within these groups. We hypothesize that inland waters are more variable spatially and temporally than marine habitats, and accordingly, we interpret diapause and parasitism as mechanisms for coping with environmental variance.

  2. Mesozooplankton assemblages in two bays in the Beagle Channel (Argentina during January, 2001

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    Melisa Daiana Fernández-Severini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the composition and abundance of mesozooplankton of Bahía Ushuaia and Bahía Golondrina. These small bays are located in the northern Beagle Channel. Sampling was carried out from January 20 to 23, 2001 and samples were collected from the upper layer at nine stations. This study is the first research on mesozooplankton in this part of the Beagle Channel. Due to their dominance in the mesozooplankton community, we compared our Copepoda data with those reported by other authors from Antarctic coastal environments. By applying cluster analysis, we found two station groups in both bays: one in slightly polluted zones and the other in undisturbed external zones. Four assemblages in Bahía Ushuaia and two in Bahía Golondrina were determined by using non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS and cluster analysis. Mesozooplanktonic assemblages showed a certain resemblance in zones with and without anthropogenic influence. Most of the copepod species in our samples are typical of the sub-Antarctic region. Oithona similis (=O. helgolandica sensu Ramírez, 1966, Oncaea curvata, and Ctenocalanus citer show either similar or higher abundances at Antarctic coastal sites, including the upper layer in oceanic areas, in comparison with sub-Antarctic coastal localities. This suggests that, in agreement with other findings, the Polar Front is probably not a major geographic boundary for the distribution of these species.

  3. Abundance, food habits, and breeding season of exotic T ilapia zillii and native O reochromis niloticus L. fish species in Lake Zwai , Ethiopia

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    Padanillay C. Prabu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative abundance, diet and breeding season overlap in the reproduction of exotic Tilapia zillii and native Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Zwai were studied from samples collected over 12 months. Younger fish of both species collected were also evaluated for food composition.Food items from stomachs of both species were collected and analysed using the frequency of occurrence method. In terms of number, T. zillii dominated O. niloticus at the sampling sites. In both species, macrophytes, detritus, blue green algae, diatoms, green algae, Ceratium, Euglena,and Phacus constituted foods of plant origin, whereas chironomid larvae, Copepoda, Cladocera,Rotifera, Nematoda, fish eggs, and fish scales constituted foods of animal origin. Foods of the latter type such as Ephemeroptera and mollusks were also noted in the diet of adult T. zillii.Despite the extensive overlap in food habits of the two species, however, the food items were found in the diet of the species with different average percentage frequencies of occurrence. The level of gonad maturation and gonadosomatic index (GSI values showed that in Lake Zwai breeding was year-round for both T. zillii and O. niloticus, with a peak during April-September and February-August respectively, indicating extended breeding season overlap in reproduction. The two species were always found together in the catches from the sampling sites, which indicated some niche overlap between them.

  4. Impact of environmental factors on maintaining water quality of Bakreswar reservoir, India

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    Moitreyee Banerjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs and dams are engineered systems designed to serve purposes like supply of drinking water as well as other commercial and industrial use. A thorough assessment of water quality for these systems is thus necessary. The present study is carried out at Bakreswar reservoir, in Birbhum district, which was created by the dam, built on Bakreswar River. The major purpose of the reservoir is the supply of drinking water to the surrounding villages and Bakreswar Thermal Power Station. Water samples were collected fortnightly from three different stations of the reservoir. Physical and chemical factors like dissolved oxygen, atmospheric temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, solar radiation, water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, productivity etc. were analysed using standard procedure. Abundance data is calculated for four major groups of zooplanktons (Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, and Rotifera with the software PAST 2.1. Multivariate statistical analysis like PCA, hierarchical cluster and CCA are performed in order to predict the temporal variation in the water quality factors using SPSS 20. Distinct seasonal variation was found for environmental factors and zooplankton groups. Bakreswar reservoir has good assemblage of zooplankton and distinct temporal variation of environmental factors and its association with zooplankton predicts water quality condition. These results could help in formulating proper strategies for advanced water quality management and conservation of reservoir ecosystem. Key elements for growth and sustenance of the system can then be evaluated and this knowledge can be further applied for management purposes.

  5. Olfaction in a viscous environment: the "color" of sexual smells in Temora longicornis

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    Hinow, Peter; Strickler, J. Rudi; Yen, Jeannette

    2017-06-01

    We investigate chemical aspects of mating in the marine copepod Temora longicornis (Copepoda, Calanoidea). Our emphasis is the female pheromone signaling in form of well-defined trails for males to follow, observed in Doall et al. (Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 353:681-689, 1998). The viscous environment and the properties of the odorants play important roles as the spread of the pheromone trail limits the time during which it is useful for tracing. A key observation from our earlier work is the ability of a searching male to detect the direction of the female and to correct its swimming direction if necessary. We propose a simple mathematical model for the spread of a pheromone from a moving source and carry out numerical simulations of two possible detection mechanisms. We find that a searching agent that is capable to detect a ratio outperforms a searcher that depends on the gradient of a single compound. This suggests that copepod sex pheromones consist of blends of chemical compounds, and that a ratio detection mechanism similar to that in airborne insects is at work.

  6. Genetic diversity patterns of microeukaryotic plankton communities in Shenhu Bay, southeast China

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    Zhang, Wenjing; Pan, Yongbo; Yu, Lingyu; Liu, Lemian

    2017-06-01

    Microeukaryotic plankton is an abundant and diverse component of marine environments and plays an important role in microbial food webs. However, few studies have been conducted on the genetic diversity of microeukaryotes in the subtropical bays of China. In the present study, we investigated the microeukaryotic plankton in the Shenhu Bay by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of prominent bands. Our results indicated that Copepoda and Dinophyceae were the most diverse groups, and that the microeukaryotic communities varied significantly between summer and autumn, with the autumn communities exhibited a higher diversity than summer communities. Furthermore, the community composition and diversity from both surface and bottom waters showed more significant differences in summer than in autumn. Environmental parameters also displayed obvious seasonal patterns. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that temperature was the most significant environmental factor shaping the seasonal patterns of the microplanktonic members in the Shenhu Bay. Community-level molecular techniques such as DGGE appear as useful tools to detect the presence of red tide causing species and to guide the management of coastal water mariculture.

  7. Determining Microeukaryotic Plankton Community around Xiamen Island, Southeast China, Using Illumina MiSeq and PCR-DGGE Techniques.

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    Lingyu Yu

    Full Text Available Microeukaryotic plankton are important components of aquatic environments and play key roles in marine microbial food webs; however, little is known about their genetic diversity in subtropical offshore areas. Here we examined the community composition and genetic diversity of the microeukaryotic plankton in Xiamen offshore water by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, clone-based sequencing and Illumina based sequencing. The Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed a much (approximately two orders of magnitude higher species richness of the microeukaryotic community than DGGE, but there were no significant difference in species richness and diversity among the northern, eastern, southern or western stations based on both methods. In this study, Copepoda, Ciliophora, Chlorophyta, Dinophyceae, Cryptophyta and Bacillariophyta (diatoms were the dominant groups even though diatoms were not detected by DGGE. Our Illumina based results indicated that two northern communities (sites N2 and N3 were significantly different from others in having more protozoa and fewer diatoms. Redundancy analysis (RDA showed that both temperature and salinity were the significant environmental factors influencing dominant species communities, whereas the full microeukaryotic community appeared to be affected by a complex of environmental factors. Our results suggested that extensive sampling combined with more deep sequencing are needed to obtain the complete diversity of the microeukaryotic community, and different diversity patterns for both abundant and rare taxa may be important in evaluating the marine ecosystem health.

  8. Biodiversity and community structure of zooplankton in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Eliane Maria de Souza Nogueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton of aquatic environments is composed mostly of protozoans, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods, which play an important role in the food chain, transferring mass and energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. This work was prepared with the objective of contributing to the knowledge of zooplankton biodiversity that occurs in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim. Water samples were taken at monthly intervals at four sampling stations located along the sub-basin in the period August 2009 to July 2010. To obtain the zooplankton community, 100 L of water were filtered on nylon net with an aperture of 50 mm. Were identified 72 taxa distributed in the following taxonomic categories Rotifera, Protozoa, Porifera, Nematoda, Anellida, Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Isopoda and Insecta. In terms of species richness, the phylum Rotifera followed by the Protoctista were the most relevant with forty and fifteen taxa, respectively. The most representative taxa in numerical terms were Arcella vulgaris, Notholca sp. Rotary sp. and nematodes. Regarding the community diversity index, the community was characterized as low diversity, but the taxa were distributed evenly in all monitoring points.

  9. Food of forage fishes in western Lake Erie, 1975-76

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    Muth, Kenneth M.; Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.

    1989-01-01

    In western Lake Erie in the summer and fall of 1975–1976, food eaten by seven forage fishes—emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), andyoung-of-the-year (YOY) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), white bass (Morone chrysops), and freshwater drum (Aplodi-notus grunniens)—was divided among six major taxa: Cladocera, Copepoda, Diptera, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, and Algae. In addition, fish were eaten by YOY white bass, and Rotifera were consumed by YOY gizzard shad. Interspecies diet overlap indices, calculated to compare the food of the different species and to evaluate diet similarities, were usually highest for YOY white bass and YOY freshwater drum when compared with the other species and usually lowest between emerald shiners and all other forage fishes. Understanding the feeding interactions among fishes that could influence production at the forage-food level of the food web could provide insight into how cascading trophic interactions influence the production of piscivorous predators.

  10. A simple and efficient total genomic DNA extraction method for individual zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazhan, Hanafiah; Waiho, Khor; Shahreza, Md Sheriff

    2016-01-01

    Molecular approaches are widely applied in species identification and taxonomic studies of minute zooplankton. One of the most focused zooplankton nowadays is from Subclass Copepoda. Accurate species identification of all life stages of the generally small sized copepods through molecular analysis is important, especially in taxonomic and systematic assessment of harpacticoid copepod populations and to understand their dynamics within the marine community. However, total genomic DNA (TGDNA) extraction from individual harpacticoid copepods can be problematic due to their small size and epibenthic behavior. In this research, six TGDNA extraction methods done on individual harpacticoid copepods were compared. The first new simple, feasible, efficient and consistent TGDNA extraction method was designed and compared with the commercial kit and modified available TGDNA extraction methods. The newly described TGDNA extraction method, "Incubation in PCR buffer" method, yielded good and consistent results based on the high success rate of PCR amplification (82%) compared to other methods. Coupled with its relatively consistent and economical method the "Incubation in PCR buffer" method is highly recommended in the TGDNA extraction of other minute zooplankton species.

  11. Increasing salinity drastically reduces hatching success of crustaceans from depression wetlands of the semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabidi, Annah; Bird, Matthew S; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2018-04-13

    Salinity is an important factor affecting freshwater aquatic species distribution and diversity. The semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region of South Africa has been earmarked for shale gas development through hydraulic fracturing. The process uses large amounts of water and produces briny wastewater. When not managed properly, these wastewaters may lead to salinisation of surface freshwater bodies in the region. Therefore, the effect of salinity on the hatching success of crustacean resting eggs was examined using sediments from four depression wetlands found in the region. The sediments were exposed for 28 days to salinity levels of 0.5 g L -1 , 2.5 g L -1 , 5 g L -1 and 10 g L -1 . Control aquaria in which no salt was added were also set up. There was a significant decrease in the emerged taxa richness and abundances at salinities of 2.5 g L -1 and above. Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata hatchlings were abundant at salinities of 0.5 g L -1 and below, while Copepoda, Daphniidae (Cladocera) and Ostracoda were observed in the highest salinity, but their densities were still lower with increased salinities. Given the importance of large branchiopods in the trophic balance of depression wetlands, their loss may alter the ecological balance and function of these ecosystems.

  12. Long term study of monsoon effect on the distribution of Calanus sinicus in the waters of Taiwan, western North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.-S.; Souissi, S.; Li-Chun Tseng, L.-C.; Molinero, J. C.; Chen, Q.-C.; Wong, C.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Calanus sinicus (Copepoda: Calanoida) has a key role in the dynamics of marine food web and also on fish recruitment in the west Pacific Ocean, particularly in the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea and the coastal waters of Japan. The spatial distribution of this copepod can be traced further south such as north and west of Taiwan, Hong Kong, Hi-Nan Island and Vietnam. To understand the mechanism of how this key species distributes spatially and temporally, two long-term monitoring programs of the planktonic copepods have been conducted since 1998. The spatio-temporal distribution pattern of this copepod in the studied areas showed a clear relationship between the intrusions of cold-water mass of the China Coastal Currents (CCC) during the northeast monsoons into north and west Taiwan thus transporting this copepod further south with high concentrations. Calanus sinicus can be considered a biological tracer of CCC during NE monsoon originating from the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea to the north and west of Taiwan and further south up to Hong Kong, Hi-Nan and Vietnam. Keywords: Monsoon, China coastal Current, Calanus sinicus, indicator species

  13. Feeding ecology of the beach silverside Atherinella blackburni (Atherinopsidae in a tropical sandy beach, Southeastern Brazil

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    Júlio Guazzelli Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Abstract The feeding ecology of the beach silverside (Atherinella blackburni in the surf zone of a tropical sand beach, located in the southeastern Brazil, was accessed through the gut content analysis of 198 fish. Factors such as fish's size, season and day period were analysed to understand how these variables affect the diet composition of the species. Results show that A. blackburni is a coastal neritic fish with a broad feeding niche. Most recurrent prey were zooplanktonic crustaceans, insects and benthic molluscs, in which Copepoda crustaceans were the dominant dietary item in occurrence and abundance. A. blackburni appears to have a slight ontogenetic shift in its diet, changing from benthic molluscs to crustaceans and insects along its life cycle. The diel activity also reveals to be an important factor to the A. blackburni feeding ecology. The predominant occurrence of small fish during the morning, along with the main preys for this size class, suggests that small individuals use shallower waters as feeding grounds during the morning and, during the night, they move to deeper waters for protection against predators.

  14. Carnivory during Ontogeny of the Plagioscion squamosissimus: A Successful Non-Native Fish in a Lentic Environment of the Upper Paraná River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mayara Pereira; Delariva, Rosilene Luciana; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt; Sanches, Paulo Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated feeding patterns and ontogenetic variations in a non-native fish species (Plagioscion squamosissimus) in an isolated lake in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Quarterly samplings were performed from April 2005 to February 2006 using plankton nets to capture larvae, seining nets for juveniles, and gill nets and trammel for adults. Stomach contents (n = 378) were examined according to the volumetric method in which the volume of each food item was estimated using graduated test tubes or a glass counting plate. During early development (larval stage), P. squamosissimus consumed mainly Cladocera and Copepoda. Juveniles showed a more diverse diet, including shrimp (Macrobrachium amazonicum), fish, aquatic insects (Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae and pupae of Diptera) and plants. It was notable the high proportion of cannibalism (23.3%) in this stage. Adults consumed predominantly shrimp and fish. The use of food resources varied significantly between development stages (ANOSIM; r = 0.458; pamazonicum and Chironomidae were responsible for the differences between juvenile and larval stages, while M. amazonicum and other fishes caused the differences between adults and other ontogenetic stages. These results are confirmed by the relationship between standard length and developmental periods (ANCOVA; r2 = 0.94; pamazonicum by adults have important roles in feeding patterns of the species, suggesting a major contribution to its success and establishment, especially in lentic environments.

  15. Feeding and ecomorphology of three clupeoids in the N Aegean Sea

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    P. K. KARACHLE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the feeding habits of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, sardine (Sardina pilchardus and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita. The results are combined with previously published information on feeding-related morphological features (i.e. mouth area, intestine length and tail area in order to explore morphological affinities between species and the effect of ecomorphology on their co-existence. These species were mainly zooplanktivorous and no dietary differences were found with sex and season. Anchovy preyed mainly on Crustacea larvae, whereas sardine and round sardinella on Copepoda. In the majority of cases (>90%, the individual fractional trophic level of all species ranged between 3.0 and 3.5, classifying them as omnivores with preference to animals. The feeding-related morphological features differed between anchovy and the two other species, whereas only intestine length differed between sardine and round sardinella. The fact that round sardinella’s diet and morphology show a greater resemblance to those of sardine, further support the hypothesis that is a particulate feeder as sardine. Hence the three species tend to exploit the same food resources differently throughout the year. Thus, they make best use of the environment and its resources, in order to avoid competition and achieve optimum feeding conditions throughout their life cycles

  16. Meiofauna and nematode diversity in some Mediterranean subtidal areas of the Adriatic and Ionian Sea

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    Cristiana de Leonardis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of three different subtidal areas (15-705 m depth of the Italian coasts (Manfredonia, Brindisi and Gallipoli were investigated to study meiofauna and nematode composition. The nematodes were identified to the genus level and their abundances compared using multivariate analysis. Our data showed an evident depth gradient in meiofauna abundance: the shallowest sites had more diverse and abundant meiobenthic communities than the deeper ones. Nematodes were the dominant taxon (83-100% at all sites, followed by Copepoda (0.5-8%. Sabatieria, Astomonema, Dorylaimopsis, Terschellingia and Daptonema were among the dominant nematode genera in the three areas. Nematode genus H’ diversities were not significantly dissimilar, though at community level some differences were detected among the study areas. The greatest differences were observed in the comparison of the communities from Manfredonia and Gallipoli. Furthermore, there was a difference between shallow (<200 m and deep sites due to high differential abundances of common genera, i.e. Astomonema, Dorylaimopsis, Sabatieria and Terschellingia.

  17. Diel vertical migration and distribution of zooplankton in a tropical Brazilian reservoirlian

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    Ana M. A. da Silva

    2009-08-01

    amostradas em quatro profundidades (Sub-superfície, 50% Io, 1% Io e Fundo em uma estação de amostragem com cinco metros de profundidade, em intervalos de quatro horas, ao longo de 24 horas. Duas espécies de Cladocera (Moina minuta e Diaphanosoma spinulosum e uma espécie de Copepoda (Notodiaptomus cearensis apresentaram padrões relativamente semelhantes de migração noturna, permanecendo no fundo durante o dia e se deslocando próximo à superfície no fim da tarde e ao longo da noite. Brachionus falcatus e Hexarthra mira (Rotifera não apresentaram padrões migratórios e as suas distribuições verticais foram relativamente homogêneas. As variáveis ambientais e as distribuições das espécies correlacionaram-se fracamente, sugerindo que outros mecanismos podem ser responsáveis por induzir a migração vertical.

  18. Meiobenthos assemblages in the mekong estuarine system with special focus on free-living marine nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Ngo Xuan; Vanreusel, Ann; Smol, Nic; Chau, Nguyen Ngoc

    2010-12-01

    Meiobenthos assemblages in eight estuaries of the Mekong river system were investigated in August 2008 (from the Cua Tieu estuary to the Tran De estuary). In each estuary, one sampling station was established for meiobenthos sampling. Twelve major taxa of meiobenthos were recorded in this estuarine system, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Turbellaria, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Tardigrada, Bivalvia, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Gastropoda, and Crustacean Nauplii larvae. The densities of the meiobenthos range from 581 to 3168 inds/10 cm2. Nematodes always occupy the highest numbers with a percentage ranging from 64-99%. There are 135 nematode genera recorded in this study with the following as dominant genera Desmodora, Leptolaimus, Halalaimus, Thalassomonhystera, Theristus, Daptonema, Rhynchonema, Parodontophora, and Oncholaimus. Although the biodiversity of the meiobenthos at higher taxa level is not high compared to other marine environments, the estimates of nematode biodiversity at the genus level indicates high values. The increase in number of genera with increasing sampling intensity illustrate that the diversity is underestimated and would have been higher if the authors had considered a larger number of individuals, more replicates per station, and more sampling stations.

  19. Gill parasites of fish from two estuaries in northeastern Brazil: new hosts and geographical records

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    JÉSSICA E.S.A. GOLZIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parasites are important components of communities and constitute great part of the biological diversity found in ecosystems, providing valuable information about their hosts and the environment in which they live. However, despite its importance, parasitic diversity is still not well known in some regions of Brazil, especially with respect to fish parasites in the Northeast Region. The present study aims to perform the survey of gill parasites of fish from two tropical estuaries located in northeastern Brazil: Paraíba and Mamanguape rivers. Two collections were made in each estuary, one during the dry period (November / 2013 and the other during the rainy season (July / 2014. The fish were caught using a beach seine net, dragged along the main channel margin. After the identification, biometry and necropsy of the fish, their parasites were collected, stored and identified. For each species of parasite, the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance were calculated. Of the 882 examined fish, belonging to four species, 145 were parasitized by at least one species of parasite. In total, 18 taxa of parasites of the groups Monogenea, Digenea, Nematoda, Copepoda and Isopoda were recorded, being the copepod Acusicola brasiliensis the most abundant species of parasite.

  20. Abundance, distribution, diversity and zoogeography of epipelagic copepods off the Egyptian Coast (Mediterranean Sea

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    Howaida Y. Zakaria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The abundance, distribution and diversity of epipelagic copepods were studied along the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast during April, August, 2008, February, 2009 and 2010. The geographical distribution and ecological affinities of the recorded species are presented in order to follow up the migrant species that recently entered in the study area. Copepoda was the most dominant zooplankton group, representing 74.14% of the total zooplankton counts. The annual averages of copepod abundance in the coastal, shelf and offshore zones were 699.3, 609.7 and 555.7 ind.m−3, respectively. Spring was the most productive and diversified season. 118 copepod species were identified in the study area; among them twelve species are recorded in the Mediterranean Sea for the first time and 41 species are new records in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. The community was dominated by Oithona nana, Calocalanus pavo, Nannocalanus minor, Clausocalanus arcuicornis and Paracalanus parvus. The study area could be considered as a crossroad for migration process from Atlantic Ocean in the west and Indian Ocean via Red Sea and Suez Canal from the south. In addition, the maritime activities in the Mediterranean Sea may have contributed into the change of copepod diversity in the study area where some species could have come to the Egyptian Coast from other water systems via ballast water.

  1. Norwegian deep-water coral reefs: cultivation and molecular analysis of planktonic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sigmund; Lynch, Michael D J; Ray, Jessica L; Neufeld, Josh D; Hovland, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Deep-sea coral reefs do not receive sunlight and depend on plankton. Little is known about the plankton composition at such reefs, even though they constitute habitats for many invertebrates and fish. We investigated plankton communities from three reefs at 260-350 m depth at hydrocarbon fields off the mid-Norwegian coast using a combination of cultivation and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and transcript sequencing. Eight months incubations of a reef water sample with minimal medium, supplemented with carbon dioxide and gaseous alkanes at in situ-like conditions, enabled isolation of mostly Alphaproteobacteria (Sulfitobacter, Loktanella), Gammaproteobacteria (Colwellia) and Flavobacteria (Polaribacter). The relative abundance of isolates in the original sample ranged from ∼ 0.01% to 0.80%. Comparisons of bacterial SSU sequences from filtered plankton of reef and non-reef control samples indicated high abundance and metabolic activity of primarily Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11 Ia), Gammaproteobacteria (ARCTIC96BD-19), but also of Deltaproteobacteria (Nitrospina, SAR324). Eukaryote SSU sequences indicated metabolically active microalgae and animals, including codfish, at the reef sites. The plankton community composition varied between reefs and differed between DNA and RNA assessments. Over 5000 operational taxonomic units were detected, some indicators of reef sites (e.g. Flavobacteria, Cercozoa, Demospongiae) and some more active at reef sites (e.g. Gammaproteobacteria, Ciliophora, Copepoda). © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Distribución de especies de matorral en suelos ácidos y básicos de la Sierra de Grazalema, sur de España

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    Gallego Fernández, Juan Bautista

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Mediterranean shrubland woody species on acid or basic soils was studied at Grazalema Mountains. Transects were made at 137 sampling sites in the study área and 74 species were recognized. Phlomis purpurea. Cistus albidus. Quercus rotundifolia and Ulex baeticus were the most frequent species, being present at 70 % of the transects. Pistacia lentiscus. Rubia peregrina and Daphne gnidium were found in 50 % of the transects. From the total species recorded, 67 species were located on basic soils and 55 on acid soils; 19 species (25.7 % were located only on basic soils and 7 species (9.5 % only on acid soils; 21 species were significantly more frequent on basic soils, and 10 species on acid soils. The number of species per transect were significantly higher on basic soils (13.2 ± 3.8 than on acid soils (10.3 ± 3.7. Differences in species number are related to a higher number of species displaying a narrow distribution in the basic shrublands as well as due to species loss in the acid shrublands, as a consequence of geographic isolation and human disturbance.Se ha estudiado la presencia de especies leñosas de matorral mediterráneo en suelos de pH ácido y básico en la Sierra de Grazalema. Se han muestreado 137 transectos de vegetación de diferentes comunidades de matorral mediterráneo, donde se han identificado 74 especies. Las más frecuentes fueron Phlomis purpurea. Cistus albidus, Quercus rotundifolia y Ulex baeticus, que aparecieron en más del 70 % de los inventarios, y Pistacia lentiscus, Rubia peregrina y Daphne gnidium, presentes en el 50 % de los inventarios. De las 74 especies inventariadas, 67 aparecieron en suelos básicos y 55 en suelos ácidos; 19 especies (25,7% solo aparecieron en suelos básicos; 7 especies (9,5 % solo aparecieron en suelos ácidos; 21 especies fueron significativamente más frecuentes en suelos básicos y 10 en suelos ácidos. El número de especies por transecto fue significativamente mayor

  3. Asociación de la abundancia y la distribución vertical de atunes y peces de pico en el sureste del Mar Caribe

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    Nora Eslava

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la profundidad de suspensión de los anzuelos del palangre usando el método de Imitación Mecánica de los Sistemas Flexibles, mientras que la distribución vertical de atunes y peces de pico se determinó mediante el índice de abundancia relativa obtenido de capturas de barcos palangreros (11 a 25 m de eslora del puerto de Cumaná, Venezuela y que operan en el Mar Caribe a una profundidad de 65 a 142 m. Se evaluó la CPUE por especie de acuerdo a la profundidad, encontrándose valores altos en la mayoría de los individuos de las especies capturadas en el estrato de 105 a 125 m. El atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares fue el que presentó los más altos rendimientos (3.37 peces/100 anzuelos, mientras que la aguja azul (Makaira nigricans los más bajos (0.04 peces/100 anzuelos. La comparación estadística no permitió rechazar la hipótesis de ausencia del efecto de profundidad (Kruskal-Wallis p > .05, y se puso en evidencia una distribución homogénea, en la columna de agua, del atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares, albacora (Thunnus alalung a, ojo gordo (Thunnus obesus, pez vela (Istiophorus albican s, aguja blanca (Tetrapturus albidus y aguja azul (Makaira nigrican s. Se concluye que la concentración de la pesca en el margen sur del Mar Caribe, posiblemente, es debido a varios factores hidroclimáticos tales como la temperatura del agua y la concentración de oxígeno disuelto que influyen sobre la captura de los atunes y peces de pico delimitando su distribución con res-pecto a la profundidad.The longline hooks suspension depth was estimated using the Mechanic Imitation of Flexible Systems method. The vertical distribution of tunas and billfish was determined by the relative abundance index, obtained from the catch by 11 to 25 m -long longline vessels, -based at Cumaná, Venezuela, South-eastern Caribbean Sea in depths of 65 to 142 m. The CPUE was evaluated per species, according to depth. High values were found for

  4. The effect of anthropogenic contaminations (PAH, PCB) on terrestrial annelids in conurban ecosystems. Final report; Einfluss von anthropogenen Schadstoffen (PAK und PCB) auf terrestrische Invertebraten urbaner Oekosysteme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achazi, R.K.; Beylich, A.; Chroszcz, G.; Dueker, C.; Heck, M.; Henneken, M.; Flenner, C.; Froehlich, E.; Garbers, U.; Khan, M.A.; Kreibich, M.; Kronshage, J.; Philippe, L.; Pilz, C.; Rothe, B.; Schabedoth, E.; Schaub, K.; Scheiwe, E.; Schmid, C.; Steudel, I.; Struwe, M.; Throl, C.; Wuertz, S. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Back, H.; Naehring, D.; Thielemann, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Oekologie und Umweltplanung mbH, Nussloch (Germany)

    1997-09-23

    The project was conducted from August 1993 until May 1997. The objectives were (a) an elaboration of effect concentrations and index values for organic contaminants (PAH, PCB) and heavy metals in soil of conurbations for the community of decomposers, (b) the improvement of a biotest system for the evaluation of the habitat function of contaminated soils and (c) to obtain informations concerning a controlled utilization of contaminated areas. For that purpose field investigations in former sewage water irrigation areas of Berlin, Germany, concerning the abundance, species composition and dominance structure of terrestrial annelids (Enchytraeids, Lumbricids) were performed, as well as bioassays using contaminated soils of these sites and soils spiked with bezo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, PCB 52, Cd and Cu and experiments on accumulation, elimination and biotransformation in annelids. 12 of the 17 sites investigated lacked earthworms, while only 2 sites lacked enchytraeids. The abundance of enchytraeids was in the range of 500 to 12.500/m{sup 2}, compared to 25.000 to 280.000/m{sup 2} on reference sites. The hostility of the soils of former irrigation fields to annelids was confirmed by lamina bait tests and by bioassays with Enchytraeus crypticus, E. albidus, E. buchholzi and Eisenia f. fetida. The ecotoxicity of the combined contaminants was enforced by the acidity and the degradation of the soils. The toxicity of organic and inorganic contaminants to terrestrial annelids was definitely proved by reproduction tests in the agar test system. The applied methods of investigation can be used for evaluation of contaminated soils. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Projekt wurde von August 1993 bis Mai 1997 durchgefuehrt. Ziele waren die Erarbeitung (a) von Wirkschwellen fuer organische Schadstoffgruppen (PAK, PCB) und Schwermetalle im Boden fuer Destruenten urbaner Oekosysteme, (b) von Biotestsystemen zur Bewertung der Lebensraumfunktion belasteter Boeden und (c) von Hinweisen zur

  5. Xylem hydraulic properties of roots and stems of nine Mediterranean woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Prat, Ester; Oliveras, Imma; Piñol, Josep

    2002-09-01

    We studied the hydraulic architecture and water relations of nine co-occurring woody species in a Spanish evergreen oak forest over the course of a dry season. Our main objectives were to: (1) test the existence of a trade-off between hydraulic conductivity and security in the xylem, and (2) establish the safety margins at which the species operated in relation to hydraulic failure, and compare these safety margins between species and tissues (roots vs. stems). Our results showed that the relationship between specific hydraulic conductivity (K s) and resistance to cavitation followed a power function with exponent ≈-2, consistent with the existence of a trade-off between conductivity and security in the xylem, and also consistent with a linear relationship between vessel diameter and the size of inter-vessel pores. The diameter of xylem conduits, K s and vulnerability to xylem embolism were always higher in roots than in stems of the same species. Safety margins from hydraulic failure were narrower in roots than in stems. Among species, the water potential (Ψ) at which 50% of conductivity was lost due to embolism ranged between -0.9 and Cistus albidus=Ilex aquifolium>Phillyrea latifolia>Juniperus oxycedrus. Gas exchange and seasonal Ψ minima were in general correlated with resistance to xylem embolism. Hydraulic safety margins differed markedly among species, with some of them (J. oxycedrus, I. aquifolium, P. latifolia) showing a xylem overly resistant to cavitation. We hypothesize that this overly resistant xylem may be related to the shape of the relationship between K s and security we have found.

  6. THE COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF COBALT (II, III WITH DITHIOCARBAMIC ACID DERIVATIVES — MODIFICATORS OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES ACTIVITY

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    L. D. Varbanets

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloride, bromide and isothiocyanate complexes of cobalt(II with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulfenamides (1–(12, and also complexes of cobalt(II, Ш with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid (13–(18 have been used as modificators of enzymes of hydrolytic action — Bacillus thurin-giensis ІМВ В-7324 peptidases, Bacillus subtilis 147 and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 amylases, Eupenicillium erubescens 248 and Cryptococcus albidus 1001 rhamnosidases. It was shown that cobalt (II, Ш compounds influence differently on the activity of enzymes tested, exerted both inhibitory and stimulatory action. It gives a possibility to expect that manifestation of activity by complex molecule depends on ligand and anion presence — Cl–, Br– or NCS–. The high activating action of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides (1–(12 on elastase and fibrinolytic activity of peptidases compared to tris(4-morpholinecarbodithioatocobalt(ІІІ (14 and products of its interaction with halogens (15–(17, causes inhibitory effect that is probably due to presence of a weekly S–N link, which is easy subjected to homolytic breaking. The studies of influences of cobalt(II complexes on activity of C. аlbidus and E. еrubescens ?-Lrhamnosidases showed, that majority of compounds inhibits of its activity, at that the most inhibitory effect exerts to C. аlbidus enzyme.To sum up, it is possible to state that character of influence of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides, and also cobalt(II, Ш complexes with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid varies depending on both strain producer and enzyme tested. The difference in complex effects on enzymes tested are due to peculiarities of building and functional groups of their active centers, which are also responsible for binding with modificators.

  7. Life History Responses and Gene Expression Profiles of the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus Cultured on Cryptococcus Yeasts.

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    Gaurav V Sanghvi

    Full Text Available Nematodes, the earth's most abundant metazoa are found in all ecosystems. In order to survive in diverse environments, they have evolved distinct feeding strategies and they can use different food sources. While some nematodes are specialists, including parasites of plants and animals, others such as Pristionchus pacificus are omnivorous feeders, which can live on a diet of bacteria, protozoans, fungi or yeast. In the wild, P. pacificus is often found in a necromenic association with beetles and is known to be able to feed on a variety of microbes as well as on nematode prey. However, in laboratory studies Escherichia coli OP50 has been used as standard food source, similar to investigations in Caenorhabditis elegans and it is unclear to what extent this biases the obtained results and how relevant findings are in real nature. To gain first insight into the variation in traits induced by a non-bacterial food source, we study Pristionchus-fungi interactions under laboratory conditions. After screening different yeast strains, we were able to maintain P. pacificus for at least 50-60 generations on Cryptococcus albidus and Cryptococcus curvatus. We describe life history traits of P. pacificus on both yeast strains, including developmental timing, survival and brood size. Despite a slight developmental delay and problems to digest yeast cells, which are both reflected at a transcriptomic level, all analyses support the potential of Cryptococcus strains as food source for P. pacificus. In summary, our work establishes two Cryptococcus strains as alternative food source for P. pacificus and shows change in various developmental, physiological and morphological traits, including the transcriptomic profiles.

  8. Potentially pathogenic yeasts from soil of children’s recreational areas in the city of Łódź (Poland

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    Anna Wójcik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Yeasts may become potential human and animal pathogens, particularly for individuals with a depressed immune system. Their presence in the environment, especially in soil, may favour their spread into human ontocenoses. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four soil samples obtained from 21 children's recreational sites in Łódź in autumn 2010 and spring 2011 were evaluated. The yeasts were isolated by classical microbiological methods and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical features. Results: The fungi were found in 73.8% and in 69.0% of the examined samples collected in autumn and spring, respectively. Among 97 isolates of yeasts, the species potentially pathogenic to humans and animals were Candida colliculosa, C. guilliermondii, C. humicola, C. inconspicua, C. lambica, C. lusitaniae, C. pelliculosa, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus albidus, C. laurentii, C. neoformans, C. terreus, Kloeckera japonica, Geotrichum candidum, G. penicillatum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, R. glutinis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sporobolomyces salmonicolor and Trichosporon cutaneum. The most frequently isolated fungi included the genus Cryptococcus (38 isolates and two species: Rhodotorula glutinis (15, Trichosporon cutaneum (14. C. neoformans, an etiological factor of cryptococcal meningitis, was present in the sandpits of 3 kindergartens. The Candida species were identified from park playgrounds and school sports fields mainly in autumn 2010 (14 isolates, in spring 2011 - only 1 isolate. The concentration of fungal species in particular samples varied considerably, but in the majority of samples, fungi were present at concentration of up to 1×102 CFU/1 g of soil. Conclusions: Yeasts were present in the soil of parks, schools and kindergarten recreational areas; the fact may pose a health risk to humans, especially to children, and this type of biological pollution should be regarded as a potential public health concern.

  9. A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C

  10. Clarifying the role of fire heat and daily temperature fluctuations as germination cues for Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor M; Baeza, M Jaime; Blanes, M Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine the role that both direct effects of fire and subsequent daily temperature fluctuations play in the seed bank dynamics of obligate seeders from the Mediterranean Basin. The short yet high soil temperatures experienced due to passage of fire are conflated with the lower, but longer, temperatures experienced by daily fluctuations which occur after removing vegetation. These germination cues are able to break seed dormancy, but it is difficult to assess their specific level of influence because they occur consecutively after summer fires, just before the flush of germination in the wet season (autumn). By applying experimental fires, seed treatments were imposed that combined fire exposure/non-fire exposure with exposure to microhabitats under a gradient of disturbance (i.e. gaps opened by fire, mechanical brushing and intact vegetation). The seeds used were representative of the main families of obligate seeders (Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus and Rosmarinus officinalis). Specifically, an assessment was made of (1) the proportion of seeds killed by fire, (2) seedling emergence under field conditions and (3) seeds which remained ungerminated in soil. For the three species studied, the factors that most influenced seedling emergence and seeds remaining ungerminated were microhabitats with higher temperature fluctuations after fire (gaps opened by fire and brushing treatments). The direct effect of fire decreased the seedling emergence of U. parviflorus and reduced the proportion of seeds of R. officinalis remaining ungerminated. The relevance of depleting vegetation (and subsequent daily temperature fluctuation in summer) suggests that studies focusing on lower temperature thresholds for breaking seed dormancy are required. This fact also supports the hypothesis that the seeding capacity in Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders may have evolved as a response to a wide range of disturbances, and not exclusively to fire.

  11. Temporal changes in soil water repellency after a forest fire in a Mediterranean calcareous soil: Influence of ash and different vegetation type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Pinilla, P; Lozano, E; Mataix-Solera, J; Arcenegui, V; Jordán, A; Zavala, L M

    2016-12-01

    Forest fires usually modify soil water repellency (SWR), and its persistence and intensity show a high variability both in space and time. This research studies the evolution of SWR in a Mediterranean calcareous soil affected by a forest fire, which occurred in Gorga (SE Spain) in July 2011, comparing the effect of the main vegetation cover between pine (Pinus halepensis) and shrubs species (Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cistus albidus, Erica arborea and Brachypodium retusum) and the relationship with soil moisture content (SMC). Also the study analyzed the effect of ash on SWR dynamics under field conditions. Six plots were established on the fire-affected area and the unburned-control-adjacent area to monitoring SWR with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test, SMC through moist sensors (5cm depth) and three different ash treatments: ash presence, ash absence and incorporation of ash into the soil. An immediate increase of SWR was observed in the fire-affected area, mainly in pine plots. SWR changes in control (unburned) plots were quite similar between different types of vegetation influence, despite higher SWR values being observed on pine plots during the study period. A noticeable decrease of SWR was observed during the first months after fire in the affected areas, especially after the first rainy period, both in pine and shrubs plots. SWR increase was registered in all plots, and the highest levels were in March 2012 in burned pine plots. SWR decrease was higher in plots where ash was removed. Fire-affected soils became wettable 1year and a half after the fire. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a suitable test method for evaluating the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.L. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Scroggins, R. [Environment Canada, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada). Method Development and Application Section

    1995-12-31

    Environment Canada has embarked on a five year program to develop, standardize, and validate a battery of soil toxicity tests which can be used to assess the relative toxicity of contaminants in soils to terrestrial organisms. These tests must be applicable to soil conditions typically found in Canadian environments and the test species must be representative of the species of soil invertebrates or plants inhabiting soil ecosystems in Canada. One of the toxicity tests being developed is designed to assess the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms. Five of the potential test species belong to the Lumbricidae family and include the Canadian worm (Allobophora calignosa/Aporrectodea tuberculate), the European bark worm (Dendrodtilus rubidus (rubida)), the pink soil worm (Eisenia rosea), the red marsh worm (Lumbricus rubellus), and the Canadian night crawler or dew worm (Lumbricus terrestris). The sixth species, the white pot worm (Enchytraeus albidus), belongs to the Enchytraeidae family. Further assessment reduced the number of representative species to three. Most earthworm test methods have been developed to assess the toxicity of chemically-spiked artificial soils to Eisenia fetida or E. andrei. Test methods have also been developed to assess the relative toxicity of contaminated soils from hazardous waste sites. Comparative acute toxicity data for three species of earthworm exposed to a hydrocarbon contamination will be presented. Comparative toxicity data for the same three species of earthworm will also be presented using test procedures and conditions that have been modified to accommodate biological differences among the species of earthworm. Recommendations regarding test design, methods, and conditions optimal for each test species will be summarized and discussed with respect to the precision of test results.

  13. Four novel Arthrobacter species isolated from filtration substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Linxian; Hirose, Taketo; Yokota, Akira

    2009-04-01

    Four Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strains, LC4(T), LC6(T), LC10(T) and LC13(T), were isolated from a filtration substrate made from trass, a volcanic rock, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The novel strains grew over a temperature range of 5-40 degrees C, at pH values of 6-11 and in the presence of 3-7 % (w/v) NaCl. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the novel strains formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Arthrobacter. Chemotaxonomic analyses demonstrated that the major menaquinone was MK-9(H(2)), a menaquinone typical of the Arthrobacter globiformis group. The major fatty acid was anteiso-C(15 : 0) and the major amino acid present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was l-lysine. These observations supported the affiliation of the novel strains to the genus Arthrobacter. On the basis of their morphological, physiological and genotypic characteristics, the new isolates are considered to represent four novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the names Arthrobacter niigatensis sp. nov. (type strain LC4(T)=IAM 15382(T)=CCTCC AB 206012(T)), Arthrobacter alkaliphilus sp. nov. (type strain LC6(T)=IAM 15383(T)=CCTCC AB 206013(T)), Arthrobacter echigonensis sp. nov. (type strain LC10(T)=IAM 15385(T)=CCTCC AB 206017(T)) and Arthrobacter albidus sp. nov. (type strain LC13(T)=IAM 15386(T)=CCTCC AB 206018(T)) are proposed.

  14. Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyauk, C.; Belisle, M.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in the nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (commonly known as sticky monkey-flower). Unopened Mimulus aurantiacus flower buds were tagged at Jasper Ridge and bagged three days later. Floral nectar was then extracted and plated on potato dextrose agar. Colonies on the plates were isolated and DNA was extracted from each sample using QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The DNA was amplified through PCR and ran through gel electrophoresis. The PCR product was used to clone the nectar samples into an E.coli vector. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was created by BLAST searching sequences in GenBank using the Internal Transcribed Space (ITS) locus. It was found that 18 of the 50 identified species were Candida magnifica, 14 was Candida rancensis, 6 were Crytococcus albidus and there were 3 or less of the following: Starmella bombicola, Candida floricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia kluyvera, Metschnikowa cibodaserisis, Rhodotorua colostri, and Malassezia globosa. The low diversity of the yeast could have been due to several factors: time of collection, demographics of Jasper Ridge, low variety of pollinators, and sugar concentration of the nectar. The results of this study serve as a necessary first step for a recently started research project on ecological interactions between plants, pollinators, and nectar-living yeast. More generally, this research studies the use of the nectar-living yeast community as a natural microcosm for addressing basic questions about the role of dispersal and competitive and facilitative interactions in ecological succession.

  15. Análise comparativa da alimentação de peixes (Teleostei entre ambientes de marisma e de manguezal num estuário do sul do Brasil (Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná Study on feeding habits in estuarine fish (Teleostei comparatively between salt marshes and mangroves in southern Brazil (Guaratuba Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de T. Chaves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a composição da dieta de peixes em dois tipos de ambiente de áreas rasas estuarinas - marisma e manguezal, objetivando avaliar se essas formações vegetais desencadeiam na ictiofauna respostas diferentes quanto à alimentação. As seis espécies avaliadas, as mais abundantes nessas áreas, mostraram-se predominantemente planctívoras, porém com particularidades quanto ao tipo de vegetação ocupada. Na marisma, Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 apresentou a dieta com maior número de itens e menor similaridade em relação às demais espécies. No manguezal tal isolamento coube a Anchoa januaria (Steindachner, 1879, espécie com maior participação de Decapoda Brachyura e Decapoda não-Brachyura, e única que nesse ambiente incluiu Gammaridae na dieta. Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler, 1911 identificou-se com Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh, 1900 na marisma e com Opisthonema oglinum (Le Sueur, 1818 e Harengula clupeola (Cuvier, 1829 no manguezal. Uma situação comum a marisma e manguezal registrou-se entre O. oglinum e H. clupeola, espécies com dietas praticamente restritas a Diatomacea e Copepoda. Evidenciou-se o quanto as espécies são capazes de variar sua dieta com o ambiente, provavelmente em resposta à disponibilidade local. Mais que isso, porém, constatou-se que, seja na marisma, seja no manguezal, mesmo havendo mudança nos hábitos tróficos das espécies, cada uma delas mantém um padrão de diferenças em relação às demais que compõem a assembléia, fato que possivelmente assegura a abundância e coexistência entre elas nas áreas estuarinas rasas.Diet of fish inhabiting shallow waters close to salt marshes and mangroves was analyzed in order to evaluate how different the influence of these environments on fish feeding habits is. The six studied species, the most abundant in these areas, are mainly planctyvores, however they showed particularities in each area. In salt marshes Atherinella

  16. Mesozooplâncton do sistema estuarino de Barra das Jangadas, Pernambuco, Brasil Mesozooplankton of the estuarine system of Barra das Jangadas, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Eliane A. H. Cavalcanti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre o mesozooplâncton foram realizados no sistema estuarino de Barra das Jangadas, Pernambuco, Brasil (8º14'36"S, 34º56'28"W visando analisar a estrutura da comunidade. As amostras foram obtidas com rede de plâncton, com malha de 300 µm, durante os períodos, seco (janeiro/2001 e chuvoso (julho/2001, nas marés de sizígia e de quadratura, em intervalos de três horas. Foram identificados 37 taxa, destacando-se Copepoda com as espécies Pseudodiaptomus acutus (F. Dahl, 1894, Pseudodiaptomus richardi (F. Dahl, 1894, Acartia lilljeborgi (Giesbrecht, 1892, Parvocalanus crassirostris (Dahl, 1894, Oithona hebes (Santos, 1973 e Notodiaptomus cearensis Wright, 1936. A densidade total durante o período seco variou de 69,34 a 8.568,34 org.m-3. Para o período chuvoso variou de 261,98 a 10.224,83 org.m-3. Os Crustacea meroplanctônicos (Brachyura zoea foram muito freqüentes e muito abundantes, destacando seu importante papel na cadeia trófica pelágica. A diversidade específica durante o período seco, variou de 0,44 a 3,13 bits.ind-1, e para o período chuvoso de 0,66 a 2,93 bits.ind-1. Os baixos valores de diversidade ocorreram devido à dominância de Brachyura (zoea. A análise de agrupamento revelou a formação de dois grupos. O primeiro formado por espécies marinhas e euri-halinas, e o segundo por espécies indicadoras de ambientes estuarinos.Mesozooplankton studies were carried out at the Barra das Jangadas estuarine system, Pernambuco, Brazil (8º14'36"S, 34º56'28"W, to assess its community structure. Samples were collected with a plankton net (300 µm mesh size during the dry (January, 2001 and rainy (July, 2001 seasons, with three hour intervals between each sampling, both in spring and neap tides. Thirty seven mesozooplankton taxa were identified, from which Copepoda were particularly abundant, including the species Pseudodiaptomus acutus (F. Dahl, 1894, Peudodiaptomus richardi (F. Dahl, 1894, Acartia lilljeborgi

  17. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorokhova

    Full Text Available The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across

  18. Mining pollution and the diet of the purple-striped Gudgeon Mogurnda Mogurnda Richardson (Eleotridae) in the Finniss River, Northern Territory, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffree, R.A.; Williams, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    During the dry season of 1974, collections of the purple-striped Gudgeon Mogurnda Mogurnda were taken from the Finniss River of the Northern Territory; during the wet season, this river receives acidic and metallic pollutants from the formerly mined area of Rum Jungle. The fish consumed a great variety of foods, with high abundances of dytiscidae, chironomidae, ceratopogonidae, trichoptera, odonata, copepoda, decapoda, and pisces. For no food was there a significant regression against habitat descriptors in both of the zones; this emphasizes that pollution effects are more complex than simply depressing or raising the abundances of the dietary species. Five foods were more abundant in the diets of the polluted zone, and three in those of the unpolluted zone. The dietary abundances of two foods, both crustacean, increased in the polluted zone, compared to the unpolluted zone, through the dry season. Two categories of foods: (1) those obtaining oxygen directly from the atmosphere or via a film or bubble of air; and (2) the converse set (aquatic respirers), were contrasted for their usefulness in distinguishing between the zones, by both hierarchical agglomerative and discriminant function analyses. One collection from the polluted zone was reclassified as unpolluted on the basis of its grouping behaviour. The relevance for pollution studies of dietary analysis of euryphagous fish, rather than sampling aquatic fauna directly, is discussed in terms of food substitution, switching, strategies for abundance and recovery by the fauna, and possible effects of the pollutants on the fish as an intervening collector. Downstream patterns of abundance of the invertebrate fauna in this study are broadly similar to those of other studies in which such chemically diverse metals as Pb, Zn, and Cu are the pollutants, but there are differences for some faunal components.

  19. Ocean-lagoon water and plankton exchanges in a semi-closed pearl farming atoll lagoon (Ahe, Tuamotu archipelago, French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M.; Rodier, M.; Guillaumot, C.; Thomas, Y.; Henry, K.; Andréfouët, S.

    2017-05-01

    In atoll lagoons, plankton richness is highly dependent on water exchange with the ocean through the atoll rim. However, the dynamics of the physical and biological fluxes at the lagoon-ocean interface remain poorly characterized. Here, we studied the combined effects of lagoon-ocean water exchanges and local environmental conditions on the phyto- and zooplankton abundance and community structure across the atoll lagoon rim of Ahe (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). Plankton and environmental variables were monitored in May 2013 (i) at several stations inside and outside the lagoon and (ii) during time-series corresponding to ebb-flood tidal cycles in the two types of channels connecting the lagoon to the ocean: at the passage (300 m long and about 11 m deep) and in hoa (i.e reef-flat less than 50 cm depth). Our results highlight tidally-driven selective plankton exchanges between the lagoon and external ocean. Phytoplankton (chlorophyll-a) and zooplankton biomass were respectively 4 times and 7 times higher in the lagoon than at stations outside the atoll lagoon. Copepoda was the dominant zooplankton group at the oceanic station (>75% abundance) whereas meroplankton (with bivalve larvae most common) was dominant at the lagoon stations (54%), in the passage (55-82%) and in hoa (>80%). These differences between sites suggest a loss of bivalve larvae through export to the ocean and retention and/or increased production of copepods in the lagoon. The daily export of bivalve larvae represents a low percentage of the lagoon stock, in agreement with previously published larval dispersal numerical models. The retention of copepods could constitute a significant input of nutrients and organic matter (through excretion, feces release, decomposition, and remineralization) into the lagoon.

  20. Hirfanlı Baraj Gölü (Kırşehir, Türkiye'nde yaşayan kadife balığı (Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758'nın beslenme özellikleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Ablak Gürbüz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hirfanlı Baraj Gölü’nden avlanan ve 0-VI yaş grupları arasında dağılım gösteren 249 adet Kadife balığı (Tinca tinca’nın beslenme biyolojisi incelenmiştir. Tinca tinca’nın besin tercihinin tespit edilebilmesi için Geometrik Önem İndeksi (GII metodu kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca balığın besin tercihindeki aylık, mevsimlik ve yıllık değişim de incelenmiştir. Balıkların sindirim kanalında zooplanktonik (Copepoda, Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda, Ephippium ve bentik (Chironomus, Oligochaeta, Gastropoda, Corethra, Gammarus organizmalar ile bunlara ait ekstremite parçaları, fitoplanktonik organizmalar (Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Pyrrophyta, Euglenophyta, çamur, detritus ve balık yumurtası tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada alglerin en çok tercih edilen besin tipi olduğu, bunu zooplanktonik ve bentik organizmaların takip ettiği belirlenmiştir. Tinca tinca’nın sindirim kanalında 44’ü bitkisel 16’sı hayvansal olmak üzere toplam 60 besin çeşidi saptanmıştır. Beslenmenin en fazla olduğu mevsimler sırasıyla yaz, sonbahar, kış ve ilkbahar olarak saptanmıştır. Sindirim kanalı dolu birey sayısı yaz ve sonbahar aylarında daha fazla bulunmuştur

  1. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Raupach

    Full Text Available During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD, unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6% of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%, and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%. Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%. Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761, underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences.

  2. Evaluation of some water characteristics of the blue nile in Khartoum state as indicators of river nile pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khilla, E. E. A.

    2004-05-01

    This study investigated some physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Blue nile river in Khartoum state. Four sites were chosen and studied namely. River transport corporation. Burri and Bahri power stations and Manshiya bridge (under construction) between may and july 2003. Four classes of phytoplankton were encountered: chlorophyceae, chrysophyceae, bacillariophyceae; with the last two classes being the most dominant.The zooplankton was represented by the genera copepoda- the dominant one- cladocera and rotifera. River transport corporation site showed higher total coliform counts during may and june, while all four stations showed the highest count (>100 MPN per 100 ml) in july. Values for total coliform and fecal bacteria were higher than previous studies which could be an indication that the blue nile river is polluted with both total coliform and fecal coliform bacteria. Pollution indicators were also manifested in relatively higher values of BOD, COD, and NO 3N , NO 2N .This could be attributed to anthropogenic activities such as bickerers, agricultural runoff, human and animal waste. Some of the changes were attributed to the natural hydrological regime of the Blue nile river such as increase of temperature, transparency and pH, at low flood period and the increase in TDS and conductivity; decline in transparency besides the disappearance of plankton with the onset of floodwater. The site of Manshiya bridge exhibited lowest transparency value due to dredging activities.The investigation within the Manshiya bridge site (under construction ), albeit done in a preliminary way. is the first of its kind in Sudan. The data indicate that the Blue nile river within Khartoum state has undergone physical, chemical and biological changes.The magnitude, causes and trends are yet to be elucidated.The study calls for an urgent, proper and long-term investigation of the Blue nile as well as the major rivers in Sudan.(Author)

  3. Composición y abundancia del zooplancton en la laguna El Morro, Isla de Margarita, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Villalba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la composición y abundancia del zooplancton de la laguna El Morro en la isla de Margarita, Venezuela, durante el periodo de surgencia (marzo-mayo 2011 y de relajación (junio-agosto 2011. Las muestras fueron recolectadas en 6 estaciones de las diferentes zonas de la laguna. Se realizaron calados con una red de plancton de 333 µm durante 10 minutos. Se midió in situ la temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto, además de nutrientes. Se registraron valores medios de temperatura de 29.7 ºC, salinidad de 36 ups, oxígeno disuelto de 5.9 mg.L-1. La concentración de nutrientes fue baja (medias de 0.12; 0.04; 0.03 mg.L-1 para nitrato, nitrito y fosfato, respectivamente. Se detectaron diferencias significativas temporales con mayores registros en la temporada de relajación, mientras que espacialmente no mostró diferencias, a pesar que en las estaciones internas (Est. 4,5,6 se obtuvo mayor abundancia. Se identificaron quince grupos zooplanctónicos, determinándose nueve especies del grupo Copepoda, dos de Cladocera, una de Decapoda, Tunicada y Rotifera y diferentes formas larvarias de distintos taxa. Las larvas de crustáceos presentaron la abundancia media y relativa más alta (47738 ind.m-3 y 46.83%, respectivamente, seguido del copépodo Oithona nana (31740 ind.m-3 y 25.94%, respectivamente y Paracalanus quasimodo (12958 ind.m-3 y 8.47%, respectivamente. Esta laguna involucra la estacionalidad surgencia-relajación como un efecto importante en la distribución y abundancia del zooplancton.

  4. Latitudinal environmental gradients and diel variability influence abundance and community structure of Chaetognatha in Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Al-aidaroos, Ali M.

    2016-08-15

    The Red Sea has been recognized as a unique region to study the effects of ecohydrographic gradients at a basin-wide scale. Its gradient of temperature and salinity relates to the Indian Ocean monsoon and associated wind-driven transport of fertile and plankton-rich water in winter from the Gulf of Aden into the Red Sea. Subsequent evaporation and thermohaline circulation increase the salinity and decrease water temperatures toward the North. Compared with other ocean systems, however, relatively little is known about the zooplankton biodiversity of the Red Sea and how this relates to Red Sea latitudinal gradients. Among the most abundant zooplankton taxa are Chaetognatha, which play an important role as secondary consumers in most marine food webs. Since Chaetognatha are sensitive to changes in temperature and salinity, we surmised latitudinal changes in their biodiversity, community structure and diel variability along the coast of Saudi Arabia. Samples were collected at nine coral reefs spanning approximately 1500km, from the Gulf of Aqaba in the northern Red Sea to the Farasan Archipelago in the southern Red Sea. Thirteen Chaetognatha species belonging to two families (Sagittidae and Krohnittidae) were identified. Latitudinal environmental changes and availability of prey (i.e. Copepoda, Crustacea) altered Chaetognatha density and distribution. The cosmopolitan epiplanktonic Flaccisagitta enflata (38.1%) dominated the Chaetognatha community, and its abundance gradually decreased from South to North. Notable were two mesopelagic species (Decipisagitta decipiens and Caecosagitta macrocephala) in the near-reef surface mixed layers at some sites. This was related to wind-induced upwelling of deep water into the coral reefs providing evidence of trophic oceanic subsidies. Most Sagittidae occurred in higher abundances at night, whereas Krohnittidae were more present during the day. Chaetognatha with developing (stage II) or mature ovaries (stage III) were more active

  5. Next generation sequencing reveals the hidden diversity of zooplankton assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope K Lindeque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community structure. The advent of massively parallel next generation sequencing technology allows DNA sequence data to be recovered directly from whole community samples. Here we assess the ability of such sequencing to quantify richness and diversity of a mixed zooplankton assemblage from a productive time series site in the Western English Channel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Plankton net hauls (200 µm were taken at the Western Channel Observatory station L4 in September 2010 and January 2011. These samples were analysed by microscopy and metagenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Following quality control a total of 419,041 sequences were obtained for all samples. The sequences clustered into 205 operational taxonomic units using a 97% similarity cut-off. Allocation of taxonomy by comparison with the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database identified 135 OTUs to species level, 11 to genus level and 1 to order, <2.5% of sequences were classified as unknowns. By comparison a skilled microscopic analyst was able to routinely enumerate only 58 taxonomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Metagenetics reveals a previously hidden taxonomic richness, especially for Copepoda and hard-to-identify meroplankton such as Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. It also reveals rare species and parasites. We conclude that Next Generation Sequencing of 18S amplicons is a powerful tool for elucidating the true diversity and species richness of zooplankton communities. While this approach allows for broad diversity assessments of plankton it may

  6. Feeding activity and influence of intraspecific competition on zooplankton communities by jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brandão-Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Experiments were designed to determine if the juvenile forms of jundia (Rhamdia quelen exhibit selectivity feeding on zooplanktonic organisms and the influence of intraspecific competition on the diet. The fish were maintained in 5000-L containers, and after seven days from birth, they were acclimated in experimental units with different densities and supplied with water containing plankton (natural, where they remained for 24 h in the environment with food. In the first seven days at densities of 5 and 10 fish.L–1, the fish selected the Rotifera more intensely, and at densities of 20 and 40 fish.L–1, the Cladocera were more selected. At 14 days of age, the Cladocera were the most selected for all densities of fish. At 21 days of age, the juvenile forms of jundia maintained a preference for Cladocera, and there was an increase in the capture of Copepoda at a density of 40 fish.L–1. At 28 days of age, the Cladocera were the most captured at densities of 5 to 20 fish.L–1, and the consumption of copepods increased at a density of 40 fish.L–1. The juvenile forms of Rhamdia quelen showed a high feeding preference for Cladocera at all the ages tested (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, but the density of fish per litre influenced the capture of the preferential food. This study showed that the juvenile forms of jundia had a more rapid response to the presence of food at densities of more than 10 fish.L–1, and that at higher densities the fish decreased interactions of territorial defense and formed schools, which allowed the foraging of zooplanktonic organisms, larger in size, more agile and of greater energy gain, such as the Cladocera and copepods.

  7. Feeding activity and influence of intraspecific competition on zooplankton communities by jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) in laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão-Gonçalves, L; Sebastien, N Y

    2013-11-01

    Experiments were designed to determine if the juvenile forms of jundia (Rhamdia quelen) exhibit selectivity feeding on zooplanktonic organisms and the influence of intraspecific competition on the diet. The fish were maintained in 5000-L containers, and after seven days from birth, they were acclimated in experimental units with different densities and supplied with water containing plankton (natural), where they remained for 24 h in the environment with food. In the first seven days at densities of 5 and 10 fish.L-1, the fish selected the Rotifera more intensely, and at densities of 20 and 40 fish.L-1, the Cladocera were more selected. At 14 days of age, the Cladocera were the most selected for all densities of fish. At 21 days of age, the juvenile forms of jundia maintained a preference for Cladocera, and there was an increase in the capture of Copepoda at a density of 40 fish.L-1. At 28 days of age, the Cladocera were the most captured at densities of 5 to 20 fish.L-1, and the consumption of copepods increased at a density of 40 fish.L-1. The juvenile forms of Rhamdia quelen showed a high feeding preference for Cladocera at all the ages tested (7, 14, 21 and 28 days), but the density of fish per litre influenced the capture of the preferential food. This study showed that the juvenile forms of jundia had a more rapid response to the presence of food at densities of more than 10 fish.L-1, and that at higher densities the fish decreased interactions of territorial defense and formed schools, which allowed the foraging of zooplanktonic organisms, larger in size, more agile and of greater energy gain, such as the Cladocera and copepods.

  8. Combined, short-term exposure to reduced seawater pH and elevated temperature induces community shifts in an intertidal meiobenthic assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevenkamp, Lisa; Ong, Ee Zin; Van Colen, Carl; Vanreusel, Ann; Guilini, Katja

    2018-02-01

    In future global change scenarios the surface ocean will experience continuous acidification and rising temperatures. While effects of both stressors on marine, benthic communities are fairly well studied, consequences of the interaction of both factors remain largely unknown. We performed a short-term microcosm experiment exposing a soft-bottom community from an intertidal flat in the Westerscheldt estuary to two levels of seawater pH (ambient pH T  = 7.9, reduced pH T  = 7.5) and temperature (10 °C ambient and 13 °C elevated temperature) in a crossed design. After 8 weeks, meiobenthic community structure and nematode staining ratios, as a proxy for mortality, were compared between treatments and structural changes were related to the prevailing abiotic conditions in the respective treatments (pore water pH T , sediment grain size, total organic matter content, total organic carbon and nitrogen content, phytopigment concentrations and carbonate concentration). Pore water pH T profiles were significantly altered by pH and temperature manipulations and the combination of elevated temperature and reduced pH intensified the already more acidic porewater below the oxic zone. Meiofauna community composition was significantly affected by the combination of reduced pH and elevated temperature resulting in increased densities of predatory Platyhelminthes, reduced densities of Copepoda and Nauplii and complete absence of Gastrotricha compared to the experimental control. Furthermore, nematode staining ratio was elevated when seawater pH was reduced pointing towards reduced degradation rates of dead nematode bodies. The observed synergistic interactions of pH and temperature on meiobenthic communities and abiotic sediment characteristics underline the importance of multistressor experiments when addressing impacts of global change on the marine environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium sp. (cultured at different N/P ratios on micro and mesozooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Vaqué

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to investigate whether two potential predators such as Oxyrrhis marina (phagotrophic dinoflagellate and Acartia margalefi (Copepoda: Calanoida had different responses when feeding on toxic (Karlodinium sp.-strain CSIC1- or non-toxic (Gymnodinium sp1 dinoflagellates with a similar shape and size. Both prey were cultured at different N/P ratios (balanced N/P = 15, and P-limited N/P > 15 to test whether P-limitation conditions could lead to depressed grazing rates or have other effects on the predators. Both predators ingested the non-toxic Gymnodinium sp1, and low or non-ingestion rates were observed when incubated with Karlodinium sp. The dinoflagellate O. marina did not graze at all on Karlodinium sp. at N/P > 15 and very little at NP = 15, as its net growth rates were always negative when feeding on Karlodinium sp. cultured under P-limitation conditions. A. margalefi had lower ingestion rates when feeding on Karlodinium sp. grown at N/P = 15 than when feeding on Gymnodinium sp1, and did not graze on P-limited Karlodinium sp. Nevertheless, feeding on Karlodinium sp. grown under N/P =15 or N/P > 15 did not have any paralyzing or lethal effect on A. margalefi after 24 h. Finally, a direct effect on the viability of A. margalefi eggs was detected when healthy eggs were incubated for 5 days in the presence of Karlodinium sp. grown under N/P =15 or N/P > 15, producing a decrease in viability of 20% and 60% respectively.

  10. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  11. Spatial variations in zooplankton diversity in waters contaminated with composite effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asitava CHATTERJEE

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton species are cosmopolitan in their clean freshwater habitat and are also found in industrial and municipal wastewaters. The present study records for the first time the aspects of zooplankton diversity in relation to physico-chemical environment of five selected sites of the East Calcutta wetlands, a Ramsar site of Kolkata city, India, heavily contaminated by industrial and municipal wastewaters. The study revealed the occurrence of 22 species of zooplankton, among these 3 species of Cladocera, 2 species of Copepoda, 15 species of Rotifera, and 2 species of Ostracoda were recorded. The copepod Mesocyclops leuckarti was found in all the five sites, rotifers Asplanchna brightwelli, Brachionus angularis, B. calyciflorus and Cladocera Ceriodaphnia cornuta were found in four sites; Moina micrura and Diaphanosoma sarsi were found at three sites. Site wise variation in dominance, diversity, evenness and richness were calculated. Site 1, a fish-pond that stabilized composite wastewater, showed the maximum species richness having 17 species, while Site 2, SWF wastewater carrying canal, showed only 4 species. The calculated Jack 1 values of Sites 1 to 5 were 21.78, 3.77, 18.63, 12.5 and 16.95 respectively. Shannon-Wiener species diversity index (H/ values were almost similar for all the three relatively less polluted sites viz, Site 1 (1.959, Site 4 (2.010, Site 5 (2.047. However, at highly polluted sites viz., 2 and 3, H/ value of 1.336 and 0.984 respectively, were calculated. Simpson’s Dominance index (Dsimp value was highest at Site 3 (0.618 indicating maximum dominance, whereas at Site 5 dominance was lowest (0.1680 and diversity was highest. We discuss the role of zooplankton in the amelioration of wastewater.

  12. Evolution of Respiratory Proteins across the Pancrustacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory proteins enhance the capacity of the blood for oxygen transport and support intracellular storage and delivery of oxygen. Hemocyanin and hemoglobin are the respiratory proteins that occur in the Pancrustacea. The copper-containing hemocyanins evolved from phenoloxidases in the stem lineage of arthropods. For a long time, hemocyanins had only been known from the malacostracan crustaceans but recent studies identified hemocyanin also in Remipedia, Ostracoda, and Branchiura. Hemoglobins are common in the Branchiopoda but have also been sporadically found in other crustacean classes (Malacostraca, Copepoda, Thecostraca). Respiratory proteins had long been considered unnecessary in the hexapods because of the tracheal system. Only chironomids, some backswimmers, and the horse botfly, which all live under hypoxic conditions, were known exceptions and possess hemoglobins. However, recent data suggest that hemocyanins occur in most ametabolous and hemimetabolous insects. Phylogenetic analysis showed the hemocyanins of insects and Remipedia to be similar, suggesting a close relationship of these taxa. Hemocyanin has been lost in dragonflies, mayflies, and Eumetabola (Hemiptera + Holometabola). In cockroaches and grasshoppers, hemocyanin expression is restricted to the developing embryo while in adults oxygen is supplied solely by the tracheal system. This pattern suggests that hemocyanin was the oxygen-transport protein in the hemolymph of the last common ancestor of the pancrustaceans. The loss was probably associated with miniaturization, a period of restricted availability of oxygen, a change in life-style, or morphological changes. Once lost, hemocyanin was not regained. Some pancrustaceans also possess cellular globin genes with uncertain functions, which are expressed at low levels. When a respiratory protein was again required, hemoglobins evolved several times independently from cellular globins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  13. Meiofauna communities from the Straits of Magellan and the Beagle Channel

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    G. C. Chen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiofauna from 20 stations (ranging between 8 and 550 m in the Magellan Straits and the Beagle Channel revealed 28 small sized taxa of higher categories including the temporary meiofauna. Nematoda, Copepoda Harpacticoidea and Polychaeta occurred in all samples; Turbellaria, Bivalvia, Kinorhyncha and Ostracoda were regularly present. Nematodes represented between 68% and 94% of the meiofauna at each station, followed by the copepods (2.3% to 14.5% and polychaetes (1.1% to 11.5%. Maximal total density, 9700 individuals 10 cm-2, was found in the surroundings of Picton Island, while the mean abundance per station was 3374 individuals 10 cm-2. The vertical pattern within the sediment showed that 87% of meiofauna components concentrated in the upper 0-5 cm sediment layers and 13% in the lower ( > 5cm layers. More than 95% of copepods, as well as the temporary meiofauna occurred in the top 5 cm layers. The proportion of nematodes and copepods shows opposite trends in the vertical distribution. Multivariate analysis using the total density and the 10 `true´ meiofauna taxa densities discriminates between communities in the Straits of Magellan and the Beagle Channel area. Meiofaunal density was much higher in the Beagle Channel, but the diversity was lower than that in the Straits of Magellan. The Southern Magellan meiofauna communities are compared with those found at the Antarctic Peninsula and in the Weddell Sea (high Antarctic. It is considered that hydrodynamic features (tidal currents with strong winds, geographical characteristics, together with sediment composition are the key parameters structuring the meiofauna community in the Straits of Magellan and in the Beagle Channel.

  14. Temporal and spatial distribution of the meiobenthic community in Daya Bay, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L.; Li, H. X.; Yan, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of the meiobenthos were studied for the first time in Daya Bay, which is a tropical semi-enclosed basin located in the South China Sea. The abundance, biomass, and composition of the meiobenthos and the basic environmental factors in the bay were investigated. The following 19 taxonomic groups were represented in the meiofauna: Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Kinorhyncha, Gastrotricha, Ostracoda, Bivalvia, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Hydroida, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Halacaroidea, Priapulida, Echinodermata, Tanaidacea, and Rotifera. Total abundance and biomass of the meiobenthos showed great spatial and temporal variation, with mean values of 993.57 ± 455.36 ind cm-2 and 690.51 ± 210.64 μg 10 cm-2, respectively. Nematodes constituted 95.60 % of the total abundance and thus had the greatest effect on meiofauna quantity and distribution, followed by copepods (1.55 %) and polychaetes (1.39 %). Meiobenthos abundance was significantly negatively correlated with water depth at stations (r=-0.747, P<0.05) and significantly negatively correlated with silt-clay content (r=-0.516, P<0.01) and medium diameter (r=-0.499, P<0.01) of the sediment. Similar results were found for correlations of biomass and abundance of nematodes with environmental parameters. Polychaete abundance was positively correlated with the bottom water temperature (r=0.456, P<0.01). Meiobenthos abundance differed significantly among seasons (P<0.05), although no significant difference among stations and the interaction of station × season was detected by two-way ANOVA. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiobenthos was found in the surface layer of sediment. This pattern was apparent for nematodes and copepods, but a vertical distribution pattern for polychaetes was not as obvious. Based on the biotic indices and analyses of their correlations and variance, the diversity of this community was likely to be influenced by

  15. Water and Soil Analyses of Balongis Fish Cage and Oster (Talaba Farms in Concepcion River, Kabasalan, Zamboanga Sibugay Province, Philippines

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    Victoria L. Lim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The decline of the talaba (saccosrea malabonensis production in Barangay Concepcion, Kabasalan, Zamboanga Sibugay motivated the fisher folks to determine the cause of the phenomenon through the Social Action Ministry (SAM – Diocese of Ipil, Ipil, Zamboanga Sibugay,Philippines who arranged for the conduct of the study. The research was hypothesized to be caused by climate change. Data collection began on January 28 until February 8, 2012 on site. Twelve (12 sampling sites were installed in Concepcion River barangay Balongis, Buayan Zamboanga Sibugay where the barangay’s fish cage and oyster (Talaba farms are Global Positioning System (GPS gadget was used for the identification/markings of sampling stations (07⁰ 46.00 N and 122⁰47.116E to 07⁰45.778 N and 122⁰47.151 E Water and soil/sediment samples were taken and analyzed once a week for three consecutive weeks – January 28 to February 18, 2012. Physical water parameters were taken in situ (pH, Temperature, salinity and TSS. Water temperature raging 24⁰C-31.5⁰C, water pH 7.0-8.24, water salinity 18 -27.6 ppt. Total Suspended Solids (TSS ranged 0.104 g/L to 0.672 g/L – classified turbid water for all sampling sites. Sediment analysis: for mercury containment – qualitative analysis is negative, Soil Classification using the Textual triangle – soil classified as Loamy Sand (Sites 7-10 and Sandy Loam for all other sites. Meiofauna component using the Nematoma, turbellaria, Ciliophora, Ostracoda, Gastrotricha, Tardigrada, Sarcomastigaphora, Sincarida, Copepoda and some other unidentified fauna. Sedimentation rate averaged from 1410-6469 g/m2 per week. The high sediment rate could have caused the decline in oyster production but not by mercury contamination as suspected.

  16. Preliminary assessment of the zooplankton community composition in a region under the influence of a uranium mine (Caldas, Southeastern Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Carla Rolim; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Ronqui, Leilane B.; Campos, Michelle B.; Rodgher, Suzelei; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes; Azevedo, Heliana de; Wisniewski, Maria Jose dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit consists of an open cast mine (CM), its mining waste areas, facilities for the physical treatment of the ore, and a chemical treatment plant for uranium extraction. At CM, the processes of acid drainage create effluents, which are treated by chemical processes and, thereafter, disposed of in Antas dam. The objective of the present study was to make an inventory of zooplanktonic and describe the physicochemical characteristics of site CM and at the site of treated effluents disposal (site 41), located at Antas dam. Water samples were collected in October/08 and January/09, in order to describe the abiotic variables and the zooplankton community. The average values of conductivity at sites CM and 41 were 2415 and 422 μ/cm 2 , respectively. Values of pH at site CM remained acid, whereas, at site 41 we recorded values near neutrality. The concentrations of total nutrients at both sampling sites were higher in the rainy season. Zooplankton species richness present at site CM was lower than at site 41, and there were only two identified species Bosmina sp and Keratella americana. At site 41 we recorded more species, mainly of the Rotifera. Among Cladocera, we identified two species, regarding Copepoda, the orders Cyclopoida and Calanoida were present. At site CM the density values were lower compared to site 41. The preliminary assessment of the zooplankton community showed lower values of species richness and density at site CM, what may be probably explained by the adverse environmental conditions for zooplankton community. (author)

  17. Ocean acidification alters zooplankton communities and increases top-down pressure of a cubozoan predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammill, Edd; Johnson, Ellery; Atwood, Trisha B; Harianto, Januar; Hinchliffe, Charles; Calosi, Piero; Byrne, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The composition of local ecological communities is determined by the members of the regional community that are able to survive the abiotic and biotic conditions of a local ecosystem. Anthropogenic activities since the industrial revolution have increased atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, which have in turn decreased ocean pH and altered carbonate ion concentrations: so called ocean acidification (OA). Single-species experiments have shown how OA can dramatically affect zooplankton development, physiology and skeletal mineralization status, potentially reducing their defensive function and altering their predatory and antipredatory behaviors. This means that increased OA may indirectly alter the biotic conditions by modifying trophic interactions. We investigated how OA affects the impact of a cubozoan predator on their zooplankton prey, predominantly Copepoda, Pleocyemata, Dendrobranchiata, and Amphipoda. Experimental conditions were set at either current (pCO 2 370 μatm) or end-of-the-century OA (pCO 2 1,100 μatm) scenarios, crossed in an orthogonal experimental design with the presence/absence of the cubozoan predator Carybdea rastoni. The combined effects of exposure to OA and predation by C. rastoni caused greater shifts in community structure, and greater reductions in the abundance of key taxa than would be predicted from combining the effect of each stressor in isolation. Specifically, we show that in the combined presence of OA and a cubozoan predator, populations of the most abundant member of the zooplankton community (calanoid copepods) were reduced 27% more than it would be predicted based on the effects of these stressors in isolation, suggesting that OA increases the susceptibility of plankton to predation. Our results indicate that the ecological consequences of OA may be greater than predicted from single-species experiments, and highlight the need to understand future marine global change from a community perspective. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  18. Alimentación de la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en el norte de Chile (18°25'-25°40'S en diciembre de 2010

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    Marianela Medina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la dieta de Engraulis ringens para determinar posibles diferencias en su comportamiento alimentario por longitud y gradiente latitudinal. Las muestras se obtuvieron entre 18°25'S y 24°40'S durante el crucero de evaluación hidroacústica del reclutamiento de E. ringens, realizado entre el 1 y 20 de diciembre de 2010. El análisis comprendió la determinación de la dieta contenida en un total de 294 estómagos, provenientes de 18 estaciones de muestreo y distribuidos en tres clases de longitud (pre-reclutas, reclutas y adultos. La dieta se describió mediante los métodos numéricos de frecuencia de ocurrencia e índice de importancia relativa, además de la similitud dietaria por longitud y latitud, y especialización trófica. E. ringens registró un amplio espectro trófico, tanto de presas fitoplanctónicas como zooplanctónicas, con una alta predominancia de fitoplancton por sobre zooplancton en 2,5 órdenes de magnitud, por rango de longitud y latitud. Los componentes de mayor importancia relativa en la dieta fueron las diatomeas de los géneros Rhizosolenia y Chaetoceros, y Copepoda dentro del zooplancton. El análisis de la similitud trófica intraespecífica mostró una alta sobreposición entre los grupos de longitud, conformando una "unidad trófica". Mientras que el análisis latitudinal reveló una alta sobreposición trófica con tendencia a formar dos "unidades tróficas", pero sin seguir un patrón definido. Los resultados, confirman el carácter de depredador generalista y oportunista de E. ringens en la zona norte de Chile durante el periodo analizado.

  19. Relationships between soil water repellency and microbial community composition under different plant species in a Mediterranean semiarid forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Elena; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Bárcenas-Moreno, Gema; Jiménez-Pinilla, Patricia; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    It is generally well accepted that soil water repellency (SWR) can greatly influence the hydrology and the ecology of the forest soils (Doerr et al., 2000). However, little is known whether SWR may influence the soil microbial community. Its appearance is mainly influence by many soil physic- chemical parameters like: SOM content and its quality, pH, moisture, texture etc. However, it might also be influence by the presence or activity of microorganisms. Early studies suggest that SWR might be caused by substances produced by the activity of certain fungi species (Savage et al., 1969). Soil WR is normally characterized by a high spatial variability in persistence, with wettable and water repellent patches (Lozano et al., 2013). Changes at the microsite scale (such as the presence of soil water repellent patches) might be reflected in the microbial community structure). In the current study we have analysed how SWR influence the microbial community in soil samples with a range of water repellency persistence under different plant species (P. halepensis, Q. rotundifolia, C. albidus and R officinalis) in a Mediterranean forest. The microbial community was determined through phospholipids fatty acids (PLFA). The relationships between microbiological community structure and other different soil properties like pH, Glomalin Related Soil Protein and Soil Organic Matter content were also studied. Different statistical analyses were used: Principal Component Analysis (PCA), ANOVA, Redundancy Analysis (RA) and Pearson correlations. The highest concentrations of PLFA were found in water repellent samples. PCA showed that microorganism composition was more dependent of the severity of SWR than the type of plant species. In the RA, SWR was the only significant factor (pGeoderma, 207-208, 212-220. Roper, M.M., 2004. The isolation and characterization of bacteria with the potential to degrade waxes that cause water repellency in sandy soils. Aust. J. Soil Res., 42, 427

  20. Post-embryonic development of Camallanus cotti (Nematoda: Camallanidae), with emphasis on growth of some taxonomically important somatic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levsen, Arne; Berland, Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the quantitative post-embryonic development of the Asian freshwater fish nematode Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927, is described. Larval and adult morphometrics were obtained by following the parasite's life cycle experimentally using copepods Macrocyclops albidus (Jurine) as intermediate host and guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters), southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther) and paradise fish Macropodus opercularis (L.) as definitive host. Additionally, adult worms were obtained from heavily infected paradise fish imported from Singapore. It is suggested that the gradual change in proportions of the worm's somatic body parts reflects the specific ecological role of each developmental stage. The free-living infective first-stage larva seems to be adapted for transmission, as indicated by its relatively long tail, designed to generate host-attracting movements, and its non-functional intestine. The second- and third-stage larvae from the copepod intermediate host seem mainly to invest in trophic functionality, i.e., the development of the buccal capsule and the oesophagus, which are crucial structures for the worm's successful establishment in the definitive fish host. Once in the fish intestine, the larvae enter a period of considerable growth. After the fourth (i.e., last) moult, a 72% increase in average female body length occurs. This is accompanied by doubling the average vulva-tail tip distance and the average tail length. The length of the female hind body expands in an accelerating allometric fashion, and seems to be closely linked to the posterior-wards expansion of the uterus. In the males however, growth seems to cease after the final moult. We conclude that female post-maturational body size, but especially the length of the hind body and the tail, are closely related to reproductive state, i.e., the developmental stage of the offspring in the uterus, and, probably, the worms' age. Any future taxonomical studies of camallanids in

  1. Analysis of soil water repellency under different eco-geomorphological conditions in Mediterranean environments (South of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Donaire, Virginia; Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.; Ruiz-Sinoga, Jose D.

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a soil property that reduces its water affinity. Although it has been frequently related to wildfires, different studies in recent decades have shown that repellent soils are not rare, and they are widely spread around the world under various climatic, soil and vegetation conditions, on burned and unburned soils. The research described here was carried out in two Mediterranean rangelands containing similar Mediterranean tree and shrub species but differing in soil conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of vegetal species, pH, soil organic matter (SOM), soil water content (SWC) and prescribed fire over SWR. In June 2011, two samples from the first 5 cm of soil, one up and one downslope from plants, were collected under the dominant species of the two study areas (Nerja -NE- and Almogía -AL-), in a north-facing hillslope . In NE the selected species were Pinus halepensis (Ph), Cistus clusii (Cc), Rosmarinus officinalis (Ro), Thymus vulgaris (Tv) and Stipa tenacissima (St). In addition samples were collected in bare soil (Bs, at least 1.5m far away from the nearest shrub), under burned shrubs (Bsc) and in burned bare soil (Bbs). A controlled fire was conducted in April 2011. In AL the selected species were Quercus suber (Qs), Cistus monspeliensis (Cm) and Cistus albidus (Ca). The results indicate: i) SWR is a common phenomenon in Mediterranean environments, in acid as well as in alkaline soils, but with a great variability in every study area depending on the vegetal species (Ro and Qs) were those more repellent to water; ii) OM seems to be a more influential factor over soil water repellency than acidity, which only was found a controlling factor for alkaline soils; iii climate and vegetation type, influencing SOM leading to hydrophobic conditions, are more key factors controlling SWR than bedrock characteristics; iv) SWC threshold for water repellency to be disappeared were not clearly stated independently of

  2. Longitudinal processes in Salto Grande reservoir (Americana, SP, Brazil and its influence in the formation of compartment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZANATA L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the longitudinal processes in reservoirs, involving physical, chemical and biological processes have been thoroughly appraised, suggesting the existence of a longitudinal organization controlled by the entrance and circulation of water which inserts modifications in the structuring of the system. To evaluate this effect, the Salto Grande reservoir (Americana, SP was analyzed in 11 sampling stations in its longitudinal axis, in the rainy and dry seasons of 1997 considering the physical chemical and biological variables. Analyzing the results in agreement with the declining concentration degree of the river--barrage direction, a more significant correlation was verified in the dry period for total phosphorus (r² = 0.86, dissolved total phosphate (r² = 0.83, nitrite (r² = 0.93, inorganic phosphate (r² = 0.89, ammonium (r² = 0.84 and suspended material (r² = 0.85. In the rainy period, only nitrite (r² = 0.90 and conductivity (r² = 0.89 presented correlation with the distance of the dam, which demonstrates the effects of precipitation and the operational mechanism of the dam, as well as the distinction among the physical (sedimentation, chemical (oxidation and biological (decomposition processes in spatial heterogeneity of the system. These factors were decisive in the organization of these communities, with higher occurrence of rotifers and copepods in relation to cladocerans, the first ones being more abundant in the entrance of the Atibaia river, decreasing towards the dam direction, while copepods presented an inverse pattern. A distribution pattern similar to Copepoda was also verified for the Cladocera, evidencing a tendency to increase the density of organisms in the stations distant to the entrance of the Atibaia river, not being registered, however, a distribution gradient in the longitudinal axis, as observed for rotifers and copepods. In relation to the trophic degree a longitudinal gradient was also verified from

  3. Longitudinal processes in Salto Grande reservoir (Americana, SP, Brazil and its influence in the formation of compartment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. ZANATA

    Full Text Available Studies on the longitudinal processes in reservoirs, involving physical, chemical and biological processes have been thoroughly appraised, suggesting the existence of a longitudinal organization controlled by the entrance and circulation of water which inserts modifications in the structuring of the system. To evaluate this effect, the Salto Grande reservoir (Americana, SP was analyzed in 11 sampling stations in its longitudinal axis, in the rainy and dry seasons of 1997 considering the physical chemical and biological variables. Analyzing the results in agreement with the declining concentration degree of the river--barrage direction, a more significant correlation was verified in the dry period for total phosphorus (r² = 0.86, dissolved total phosphate (r² = 0.83, nitrite (r² = 0.93, inorganic phosphate (r² = 0.89, ammonium (r² = 0.84 and suspended material (r² = 0.85. In the rainy period, only nitrite (r² = 0.90 and conductivity (r² = 0.89 presented correlation with the distance of the dam, which demonstrates the effects of precipitation and the operational mechanism of the dam, as well as the distinction among the physical (sedimentation, chemical (oxidation and biological (decomposition processes in spatial heterogeneity of the system. These factors were decisive in the organization of these communities, with higher occurrence of rotifers and copepods in relation to cladocerans, the first ones being more abundant in the entrance of the Atibaia river, decreasing towards the dam direction, while copepods presented an inverse pattern. A distribution pattern similar to Copepoda was also verified for the Cladocera, evidencing a tendency to increase the density of organisms in the stations distant to the entrance of the Atibaia river, not being registered, however, a distribution gradient in the longitudinal axis, as observed for rotifers and copepods. In relation to the trophic degree a longitudinal gradient was also verified from

  4. Observing copepods through a genomic lens

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    Johnson Stewart C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copepods outnumber every other multicellular animal group. They are critical components of the world's freshwater and marine ecosystems, sensitive indicators of local and global climate change, key ecosystem service providers, parasites and predators of economically important aquatic animals and potential vectors of waterborne disease. Copepods sustain the world fisheries that nourish and support human populations. Although genomic tools have transformed many areas of biological and biomedical research, their power to elucidate aspects of the biology, behavior and ecology of copepods has only recently begun to be exploited. Discussion The extraordinary biological and ecological diversity of the subclass Copepoda provides both unique advantages for addressing key problems in aquatic systems and formidable challenges for developing a focused genomics strategy. This article provides an overview of genomic studies of copepods and discusses strategies for using genomics tools to address key questions at levels extending from individuals to ecosystems. Genomics can, for instance, help to decipher patterns of genome evolution such as those that occur during transitions from free living to symbiotic and parasitic lifestyles and can assist in the identification of genetic mechanisms and accompanying physiological changes associated with adaptation to new or physiologically challenging environments. The adaptive significance of the diversity in genome size and unique mechanisms of genome reorganization during development could similarly be explored. Genome-wide and EST studies of parasitic copepods of salmon and large EST studies of selected free-living copepods have demonstrated the potential utility of modern genomics approaches for the study of copepods and have generated resources such as EST libraries, shotgun genome sequences, BAC libraries, genome maps and inbred lines that will be invaluable in assisting further efforts to

  5. A compilation of quantitative functional traits for marine and freshwater crustacean zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Marie-Pier; Beisner, Beatrix E; Maranger, Roxane

    2016-04-01

    This data compilation synthesizes 8609 individual observations and ranges of 13 traits from 201 freshwater and 191 marine crustacean taxa belonging to either Copepoda or Cladocera, two important zooplankton groups across all major aquatic habitats. Most data were gathered from the literature, with the balance being provided by zooplankton ecologists. With the aim of more fully assessing zooplankton effects on elemental processes such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) stocks and fluxes in aquatic ecosystems, this data set provides information on the following traits: body size (length and mass), trophic group, elemental and biochemical corporal composition (N, P, C, lipid and protein content), respiration rates, N- and P-excretion rates, as well as stoichiometric ratios. Although relationships for zooplankton metabolism as a function of body mass or requirements have been explored in the past three decades, data have not been systematically compiled nor examined from an integrative and large-scale perspective across crustacean taxa and habitat types. While this contribution likely represents the most comprehensive assembly of traits for both marine and freshwater species, this data set is not exhaustive either. As a result, this compilation also identifies knowledge gaps: a fact that should encourage researchers to disclose information they may have to help complete such databases. This trait matrix is made available for the first time in this data paper; prior to its release, the data set has been analyzed in a meta-analysis published as a companion paper. This data set should prove extremely valuable for aquatic ecologists for trait-based characterization of plankton community structure as well as biogeochemical modeling. These data are also well-suited for deriving shortcut relationships that predict more difficult to measure trait values, most of which can be directly related to ecosystem properties (i.e., effect traits), from simpler traits (e

  6. Seasonal dynamics of the littoral zooplankton groups of the Uday River within the National Nature Park "Pyryatynsky"

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    Z. V. Burian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in anthropogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems causes significant alterations in the composition and structure of hydrobiont groups. These processes are characteristic of the hydrobiocenoses of the Uday River, the valley of which lies within the National Nature Park "Pyryatynsky", established in 2009 in the Pyryatyn district of Poltava region. Within this protected area it is convenient to carry out continuous monitoring of changes in anthropogenic load on shore ecosystems of the river. One of the most convenient monitoring groups is zooplankton, which is one of the essential components of the trophic networks of aquatic ecosystems and which is the feeding basis of planktonophagous and young fish. The object of this research was the major groups of zooplankton: rotifers (class Eurotatoria, cladocerans (class Branchiopoda, order Cladocera, different age stages of copepods (class Copepoda, ostracods (class Ostracoda. Zooplankton were collected in the daytime in spring (mid April, summer (end of July and autumn (late September 2016 within eight research stations. As a result of the conducted research, 69 species of zooplankton were registered within the littoral water area of the Uday River. Monogonont rotifers numbered 19 (27.5% species, bdelloid rotifers (subclass Bdelloidea, cladocerans – 33 (47.9% species, copepods – 17 (24.6%. According to the faunal spectrum in the zooplankton groups, representatives of the cladoceran complex predominated. This is due to the favourable conditions for the development of filtrators, of which a considerable part is cladocerans. Three species of rotifers were identified in Poltava region for the first time: Beauchampiella eudactylota (Gosse, 1886, Dipleuchlanis propatula (Gosse, 1886, Mytilina acanthophora (Hauer, 1938. During the spring, 33 species of zooplankton were collected: rotifers – 10 species, cladocerans – 14, copepods – 9 species. In summer 41 species were registered, including

  7. A Synoptic Assessment of the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum during Boreal Autumn: From Physics to Plankton Communities and Carbon Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Moacyr; Noriega, Carlos; Hounsou-gbo, Gbekpo Aubains; Veleda, Doris; Araujo, Julia; Bruto, Leonardo; Feitosa, Fernando; Flores-Montes, Manuel; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Melo, Pedro; Otsuka, Amanda; Travassos, Keyla; Schwamborn, Ralf; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon generates the world's largest offshore river plume, which covers extensive areas of the tropical Atlantic. The data and samples in this study were obtained during the oceanographic cruise Camadas Finas III in October 2012 along the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum (AROC). The cruise occurred during boreal autumn, when the river plume reaches its maximum eastward extent. In this study, we examine the links between physics, biogeochemistry and plankton community structure along the AROC. Hydrographic results showed very different conditions, ranging from shallow well-mixed coastal waters to offshore areas, where low salinity Amazonian waters mix with open ocean waters. Nutrients, mainly NO3− and SiO2−, were highly depleted in coastal regions, and the magnitude of primary production was greater than that of respiration (negative apparent oxygen utilization). In terms of phytoplankton groups, diatoms dominated the region from the river mouth to the edge of the area affected by the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection (with chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.94 mg m−3). The North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) region, east of retroflection, is fully oligotrophic and the most representative groups are Cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Additionally, in this region, blooms of cyanophyte species were associated with diatoms and Mesozooplankton (copepods). A total of 178 zooplankton taxa were observed in this area, with Copepoda being the most diverse and abundant group. Two different zooplankton communities were identified: a low-diversity, high-abundance coastal community and a high-diversity, low-abundance oceanic community offshore. The CO2 fugacity (fCO2sw), calculated from total alkalinity (1,450 35 and higher-intensity winds, the CO2 flux is reversed. Lower fCO2sw values were observed in the NECC area. The ΔfCO2 in this region was less than 5 μatm (−0.3 mmol m−2 d−1), while the ΔfCO2 in the coastal region was

  8. Structure of the parasite infracommunity of Sciades proops from the Japaratuba River Estuary, Sergipe, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallho, R P S; Takemoto, R M; Melo, C M; Jeraldo, V L S; Madi, R R

    2015-11-01

    The catfish species Sciades proops inhabits muddy estuaries and shallow brackish lagoons, as well as freshwater. For these reasons, it is believed that this species may act as an intermediate, definitive and paratenic host in the life cycle of many parasites. From November 2010 to November 2011 and from August 2012 to July 2013, a total of 126 specimens of Sciades proops from the estuarine region of the Japaratuba River in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, were examined for parasites, of which 84.13% were infected by at least one species: Ergasilus sp. (Copepoda) (Prevalence P = 77.78%, Mean of Intensity MI = 10.08 ± 15.48, Mean Abundance MA = 14.27 ± 7.48) in the gills, Contracaecum sp. (P = 23.02%, MI = 20.59 ± 80.58, MA =39.12 ± 4.47) in the general cavity, Procamallanus sp. (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09), Raphidascaroides sp. (P = 2.31%, MI = 1.33 ± 0.58, MA = 0.33 ± 0.22) and Cuccullanus sp. (Nematoda) (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09) in the intestine, Ancyrocephalinae (Monogenea) (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09) in the gills, Pseudoacanthostomumpanamense (P = 1.59%, MI = 9.00 ± 8.49, MA = 0.14 ± 1.36) in the intestine, Clinostomum sp. (P = 1.59%, MI = 17.50 ± 23.33, MA = 0.29 ± 3.03) on the body surface and two unidentified metacercariae, referred to as Metacercaria 1 (P = 0.79%; IM = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09) and Metacercaria 2 (Digenea) (P = 0.79%, MI = 7, MA = 0.06 ± 0.62) in the swim bladder. Ergasilus sp. was the dominant species and thus classified as core, with Contracaecum sp. as the satellite and other species as secondary species. The spatial distribution of infection with Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. showed a typical pattern of aggregate distribution. The sex of the host did not influence parasitic infections, but infection with Ergasilus sp. showed a positive and significant correlation with biometric and epidemiologic parameters, whereas infection with Contracaecum sp. was correlated only with prevalence and abundance.

  9. Comparação da dieta de duas espécies de Triportheus (Characidae, Triportheinae, em trechos do reservatório de Manso e lagoas do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2023 Diet Comparison of two species of Triportheus in Manso Reservoir and lagoons of Cuiabá River, Mato Grosso do Sul - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Beal Galina

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo conhecer aspectos da alimentação de duas espécies de Triportheus, no reservatório de Manso e lagoas do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente (março/00 a fevereiro/01 e os conteúdos estomacais analisados pelos métodos de Ocorrência (O% e Volumétrico (V%. Os dados foram sintetizados graficamente no Índice de Costello. T. nematurus explorou insetos terrestres (Hymenoptera e Coleoptera e insetos aquáticos (larvas de Diptera no reservatório, durante todo o período de estudos. Nas lagoas, a dieta foi baseada principalmente em algas e insetos terrestres no período de cheia, sendo mais diversificada na seca. No reservatório, T. paranensis consumiu preferencialmente invertebrados aquáticos (Cladocera e Copepoda enquanto que, nas lagoas, explorou insetos terrestres no período de seca e insetos aquáticos na cheia. A sobreposição alimentar (Índice de Schoener intra e interespecífica apresentou valores baixos (The aim of this paper is to determine the diet of two species of Triportheus (T. paranensis e T. nematurus, in Manso Reservoir and lagoons of Cuiabá River, MT. Samples were monthly taken from March 2000 to February 2001. Stomach contents were analyzed by the occurrence and volumetric methods, and data were graphically grouped by Costello Index. The diet of T. nematurus was composed of terrestrial (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera and aquatic insects (larvae of Diptera in the reservoir. In lagoons it consumed algae and terrestrial insects during the flood period, and the diet was more diversified during the dry season. In the reservoir, T. paranensis consumed specially aquatic invertebrates, while in lagoons its diet was composed of terrestrial insects in dry season and aquatic insects in flood period. Schoener Index presented low values (< 0,6, showing partial segregation in both species diet

  10. A Synoptic Assessment of the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum during Boreal Autumn: From Physics to Plankton Communities and Carbon Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Moacyr; Noriega, Carlos; Hounsou-Gbo, Gbekpo Aubains; Veleda, Doris; Araujo, Julia; Bruto, Leonardo; Feitosa, Fernando; Flores-Montes, Manuel; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Melo, Pedro; Otsuka, Amanda; Travassos, Keyla; Schwamborn, Ralf; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon generates the world's largest offshore river plume, which covers extensive areas of the tropical Atlantic. The data and samples in this study were obtained during the oceanographic cruise Camadas Finas III in October 2012 along the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum (AROC). The cruise occurred during boreal autumn, when the river plume reaches its maximum eastward extent. In this study, we examine the links between physics, biogeochemistry and plankton community structure along the AROC. Hydrographic results showed very different conditions, ranging from shallow well-mixed coastal waters to offshore areas, where low salinity Amazonian waters mix with open ocean waters. Nutrients, mainly [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], were highly depleted in coastal regions, and the magnitude of primary production was greater than that of respiration (negative apparent oxygen utilization). In terms of phytoplankton groups, diatoms dominated the region from the river mouth to the edge of the area affected by the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection (with chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.94 mg m -3 ). The North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) region, east of retroflection, is fully oligotrophic and the most representative groups are Cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Additionally, in this region, blooms of cyanophyte species were associated with diatoms and Mesozooplankton (copepods). A total of 178 zooplankton taxa were observed in this area, with Copepoda being the most diverse and abundant group. Two different zooplankton communities were identified: a low-diversity, high-abundance coastal community and a high-diversity, low-abundance oceanic community offshore. The CO 2 fugacity (fCO 2 sw), calculated from total alkalinity (1,450 Amazon River plume is a sink of atmospheric CO 2 in areas with salinities 35 and higher-intensity winds, the CO 2 flux is reversed. Lower fCO 2 sw values were observed in the NECC area. The ΔfCO 2 in this

  11. Variación espacial y temporal en la composición de la dieta de peces invertívoros en un río neotropical, Venezuela

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    Mario Ortaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La ictiofauna invertívora es un componente importante en los ríos neotropicales y representa un enlace entre los invertebrados acuáticos y los piscívoros. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta de nueve especies de peces invertívoros durante tres fases hidrológicas consecutivas: descenso (diciembre/07, enero/08, febrero/08, marzo/08, aguas bajas (abril/08 y ascenso de aguas (junio/08 en dos secciones de un río venezolano ubicadas a distinta altitud (subcuenca alta, SA y subcuenca baja, SB. Los peces se recolectaron con una red de cerco (0.5cm entrenudos entre las 8:00 y 11:00 horas. La dieta de cada especie se evaluó usando un índice de importancia relativa (IIR que incluyó el número, peso y frecuencia de ocurrencia de los items consumidos. Para estimar la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta se emplearon los índices de Levín (Bi y Morisita (IM, respectivamente. Todas las estimaciones se realizaron con la frecuencia numérica de las presas consumidas. Se capturaron nueve especies, ocho Characiformes, tres en SA (Knodus deuteronoides, Creagrutus bolivari y C. melasma y cinco en SB (Thoracocharax stellatus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Cheirodon pulcher, Ctenobrycon spilurus y Aphyocharax alburnus y un Cyprinodontiformes (Poecilia reticulata, capturada en SA. En SA el principal recurso consumido fueron insectos acuáticos mientras que el material vegetal y los artrópodos terrestres fueron recursos secundarios. En SB, las especies consumieron estos items además de zooplancton (Copepoda, Cladocera y estadios larvales de crustáceos Decapoda, pero hubo una sustitución temporal con un predominio de zooplancton en descenso y aguas bajas. En general, la amplitud de la dieta disminuyó en descenso de aguas en ambas secciones e incrementó en ascenso de aguas. Sin embargo, la amplitud promedio fue mayor en SA. La sobreposición interespecífica de dieta fue alta en SA mientras que

  12. Structure of the parasite infracommunity of Sciades proops from the Japaratuba River Estuary, Sergipe, Brazil

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    R. P. S. Carvallho

    Full Text Available Abstract The catfish species Sciades proops inhabits muddy estuaries and shallow brackish lagoons, as well as freshwater. For these reasons, it is believed that this species may act as an intermediate, definitive and paratenic host in the life cycle of many parasites. From November 2010 to November 2011 and from August 2012 to July 2013, a total of 126 specimens of Sciades proops from the estuarine region of the Japaratuba River in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, were examined for parasites, of which 84.13% were infected by at least one species: Ergasilus sp. (Copepoda (Prevalence P = 77.78%, Mean of Intensity MI = 10.08 ± 15.48, Mean Abundance MA = 14.27 ± 7.48 in the gills, Contracaecum sp. (P = 23.02%, MI = 20.59 ± 80.58, MA =39.12 ± 4.47 in the general cavity, Procamallanus sp. (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09, Raphidascaroides sp. (P = 2.31%, MI = 1.33 ± 0.58, MA = 0.33 ± 0.22 and Cuccullanus sp. (Nematoda (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09 in the intestine, Ancyrocephalinae (Monogenea (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09 in the gills, Pseudoacanthostomumpanamense (P = 1.59%, MI = 9.00 ± 8.49, MA = 0.14 ± 1.36 in the intestine, Clinostomum sp. (P = 1.59%, MI = 17.50 ± 23.33, MA = 0.29 ± 3.03 on the body surface and two unidentified metacercariae, referred to as Metacercaria 1 (P = 0.79%; IM = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09 and Metacercaria 2 (Digenea (P = 0.79%, MI = 7, MA = 0.06 ± 0.62 in the swim bladder. Ergasilus sp. was the dominant species and thus classified as core, with Contracaecum sp. as the satellite and other species as secondary species. The spatial distribution of infection with Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. showed a typical pattern of aggregate distribution. The sex of the host did not influence parasitic infections, but infection with Ergasilus sp. showed a positive and significant correlation with biometric and epidemiologic parameters, whereas infection with Contracaecum sp. was correlated only with

  13. A Synoptic Assessment of the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum during Boreal Autumn: From Physics to Plankton Communities and Carbon Flux

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    Moacyr Araujo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon generates the world's largest offshore river plume, which covers extensive areas of the tropical Atlantic. The data and samples in this study were obtained during the oceanographic cruise Camadas Finas III in October 2012 along the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum (AROC. The cruise occurred during boreal autumn, when the river plume reaches its maximum eastward extent. In this study, we examine the links between physics, biogeochemistry and plankton community structure along the AROC. Hydrographic results showed very different conditions, ranging from shallow well-mixed coastal waters to offshore areas, where low salinity Amazonian waters mix with open ocean waters. Nutrients, mainly NO3− and SiO2−, were highly depleted in coastal regions, and the magnitude of primary production was greater than that of respiration (negative apparent oxygen utilization. In terms of phytoplankton groups, diatoms dominated the region from the river mouth to the edge of the area affected by the North Brazil Current (NBC retroflection (with chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.94 mg m−3. The North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC region, east of retroflection, is fully oligotrophic and the most representative groups are Cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Additionally, in this region, blooms of cyanophyte species were associated with diatoms and Mesozooplankton (copepods. A total of 178 zooplankton taxa were observed in this area, with Copepoda being the most diverse and abundant group. Two different zooplankton communities were identified: a low-diversity, high-abundance coastal community and a high-diversity, low-abundance oceanic community offshore. The CO2 fugacity (fCO2sw, calculated from total alkalinity (1,450 < TA < 2,394 μmol kg−1 and dissolved inorganic carbon (1,303 < DIC < 2,062 μmol kg−1 measurements, confirms that the Amazon River plume is a sink of atmospheric CO2 in areas with salinities <35 psu, whereas, in regions

  14. A “Rosetta Stone” for metazoan zooplankton: DNA barcode analysis of species diversity of the Sargasso Sea (Northwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, Ann; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.; Copley, Nancy J.; Sutton, Tracey; Wiebe, Peter H.

    2010-12-01

    Species diversity of the metazoan holozooplankton assemblage of the Sargasso Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, was examined through coordinated morphological taxonomic identification of species and DNA sequencing of a ˜650 base-pair region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) as a DNA barcode (i.e., short sequence for species recognition and discrimination). Zooplankton collections were made from the surface to 5,000 meters during April, 2006 on the R/V R.H. Brown. Samples were examined by a ship-board team of morphological taxonomists; DNA barcoding was carried out in both ship-board and land-based DNA sequencing laboratories. DNA barcodes were determined for a total of 297 individuals of 175 holozooplankton species in four phyla, including: Cnidaria (Hydromedusae, 4 species; Siphonophora, 47); Arthropoda (Amphipoda, 10; Copepoda, 34; Decapoda, 9; Euphausiacea, 10; Mysidacea, 1; Ostracoda, 27); and Mollusca (Cephalopoda, 8; Heteropoda, 6; Pteropoda, 15); and Chaetognatha (4). Thirty species of fish (Teleostei) were also barcoded. For all seven zooplankton groups for which sufficient data were available, Kimura-2-Parameter genetic distances were significantly lower between individuals of the same species (mean=0.0114; S.D. 0.0117) than between individuals of different species within the same group (mean=0.3166; S.D. 0.0378). This difference, known as the barcode gap, ensures that mtCOI sequences are reliable characters for species identification for the oceanic holozooplankton assemblage. In addition, DNA barcodes allow recognition of new or undescribed species, reveal cryptic species within known taxa, and inform phylogeographic and population genetic studies of geographic variation. The growing database of "gold standard" DNA barcodes serves as a Rosetta Stone for marine zooplankton, providing the key for decoding species diversity by linking species names, morphology, and DNA sequence variation. In light of the pivotal position of zooplankton in ocean

  15. Modern and fossilized biological communities from sediments of Bolshoy Harbei lake (Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia) and their response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, Oleg; Nazarova, Larisa; Fefilova, Elena; Baturina, Maria; Loskutova, Olga; Frolova, Larisa; Palagushkina, Olga

    2013-04-01

    High-altitude regions are subjected to the threats of global warming. During the last decade the depth of seasonal melting of permafrost in Northern Russia, significantly increased. Investigation of lake sediments from polar regions has an extreme importance for understanding of the modern environmental processes and their influence on northern ecosystems and biological diversity of these regions. Invertebrate communities are used for diagnostic of lake ecosystems because they have a great sensitivity to climatic changes (Andronnikova, 1996; Lazareva, 2008; O'Brien et al., 2005). The data can be used as well as a basis for inference models for reconstruction of the paleoclimatic conditions. Chironomid-based, Cladocera-based and diatom models have successfully been developed (Nazarova et al., 2008, 2011; Self et al., 2011) and can be used for precise paleotemperature reconstructions (Kienast et al., 2011). In summer 2012, we investigated complex of Kharbei lakes, located in the interfluve of Korotaiha and Bolshaya Rogovaya rivers in the east side of Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia (67°33'22″ N, 62°53'23″ E). Six different lakes were investigated using modern hydrobiological and palaeoecological methods. In total 9 cores were obtained, cut, dated and further investigated using sedimenthological, geochemical, and paleobiological methods. The standard hydrobiological methods have shown that the modern zooplankton communities did not change significantly during the last 40 years. Taxonomic composition and structure of planktonic communities didn't change, except for appearance of crustaceans Polyarthra euryptera and Daphnia cucullata. In planktonic communities of Bolshoy Harbei lake we revealed 39 species and forms of Rotifera, 19 - Cladocera and 11 - Copepoda. In zoobenthic communities we registered 24 taxonomical groups characteristic for large tundra lakes of the North East of Russia. Chironomids and Oligochaeta are dominant groups of invertebrates. 103 taxa of

  16. Selectividad del zooplancton y solapamiento trófico entre tallas del pez Menidia humboldtiana (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae en el embalse Danxhó, México

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    Regina Sánchez Merino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El charal Menidia humboldtiana es considerado como una de las especies de gran importancia en la industria pesquera de algunos estados de México. Es necesario conocer el efecto que esta especie ejerce sobre su alimento para saber si seleccionan las presas de mayor talla, si hay competencia por el alimento entre especies nativas e introducidas, y para comprender el comportamiento del zooplancton ante peces zooplanctófagos. Se determinó si M. humboldtiana selecciona su alimento, sobre qué géneros lo hace, y si existe traslape en la dieta entre las diferentes tallas. Los peces se recolectaron por medio de un chinchorro de 88 mm de abertura de malla, en seis estaciones de muestreo durante un año, en el embalse Danxhó, y una muestra de zooplancton fue recolectada por filtrado con una red de 125 µm. El análisis de los contenidos estomacales se realizó en peces agrupados en intervalos de longitud estándar para cada época del año, por medio del método volumétrico. Para evaluar el traslape trófico entre los diferentes intervalos de longitud, se utilizó el índice de Morisita modificado por Horn. El zooplancton estuvo representado por doce géneros: Mastigodiaptomus y Cyclops (Copepoda; Bosmina, Diaphanosoma, Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Moina, Alonopsis y Camptocercus (Cladocera; Asplanchna, Conochillus y Filinia (Rotifera. Durante la primavera, los charales de 3-8.9 cm presentaron un marcado traslape, para el verano fueron los grandes (7-10.9 cm, en otoño el traslape fue en todas las tallas, y en invierno solo las tallas intermedias (5-8.9 cm lo presentaron.Selectivity of zooplankton and trophic overlap between size Menidia humboldtiana fish (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae in the reservoir Danxhó, Mexico. The Menidia humboldtiana silverside is considered one of the most important species in fisheries in some states of Mexico. Knowing the choice that this species exercises over its food gives us an understanding of the behavior of

  17. Community structure of the intertidal meiofauna along a gradient of morphodynamic sandy beach types in southern Chile Estructura comunitaria de la meiofauna intermareal en un gradiente de tipos morfodinámicos de playas arenosas en el sur de Chile

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    J. GERMÁN RODRÍGUEZ

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Three sandy beaches located in southern Chile (Gaviotas, Guabún and Mar Brava; ca. 42º S were studied during the summer of 2000 to analyse the patterns in abundance and biomass of the meiofauna along a gradient of morphodynamic beach types. Sediment samples were collected with metallic cylinders (23 cm² cross sectional area, 120 cm long at ten equally spaced tidal levels along six transects separated between 5 and 10 m and extending from above the drift line down to the low tide level. Porosity, shear strength, water content, penetrability and grain size of the substrate were measured in each sampling level. The meiofauna was primarily represented by Nematoda and Copepoda Harpacticoidea. The highest average density and biomass per unit of area were found at the reflective beach of Gaviotas (6,172 ind 10 cm-2 and 2.38 g m-2, ash free dry weight as compared with the intermediate beach of Guabún (3,390 ind 10 cm-2 and 1.70 g m-2 and the dissipative beach of Mar Brava (3,667 ind 10 cm-2 and 0.86 g m-2. Total abundance and biomass of the meiofauna per linear meter of beach (i.e., total meiofauna in an intertidal across-shore transect 1 m wide were higher at Mar Brava (506 x 10(6 ind m-1 and 119.4 g m-1, as compared with Gaviotas (271 x 10(6 ind m-1 and 101.7 g m-1 and Guabún (143 x 10(6 ind m-1 and 73.9 g m-1. Therefore, these last results show a trend of increasing intertidal meiofaunal abundances and biomass towards the dissipative stage of the beach gradient analyzed. The highest meiofaunal densities and biomass occurred at the upper and mid shore levels of each beach. Lower across-shore variability in density and biomass were found at the dissipative beach. Results of a Monte Carlo permutation test showed that water content, penetrability and grain size were the best predictor variables of meiofaunal density. Body sizes of nematodes, copepods, turbellarians, halacarids and ostracods were correlated with sediment characteristics. In general

  18. Variación espacial y temporal en la composición de la dieta de peces invertívoros en un río neotropical, Venezuela

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    Mario Ortaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La ictiofauna invertívora es un componente importante en los ríos neotropicales y representa un enlace entre los invertebrados acuáticos y los piscívoros. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta de nueve especies de peces invertívoros durante tres fases hidrológicas consecutivas: descenso (diciembre/07, enero/08, febrero/08, marzo/08, aguas bajas (abril/08 y ascenso de aguas (junio/08 en dos secciones de un río venezolano ubicadas a distinta altitud (subcuenca alta, SA y subcuenca baja, SB. Los peces se recolectaron con una red de cerco (0.5cm entrenudos entre las 8:00 y 11:00 horas. La dieta de cada especie se evaluó usando un índice de importancia relativa (IIR que incluyó el número, peso y frecuencia de ocurrencia de los items consumidos. Para estimar la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta se emplearon los índices de Levín (Bi y Morisita (IM, respectivamente. Todas las estimaciones se realizaron con la frecuencia numérica de las presas consumidas. Se capturaron nueve especies, ocho Characiformes, tres en SA (Knodus deuteronoides, Creagrutus bolivari y C. melasma y cinco en SB (Thoracocharax stellatus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Cheirodon pulcher, Ctenobrycon spilurus y Aphyocharax alburnus y un Cyprinodontiformes (Poecilia reticulata, capturada en SA. En SA el principal recurso consumido fueron insectos acuáticos mientras que el material vegetal y los artrópodos terrestres fueron recursos secundarios. En SB, las especies consumieron estos items además de zooplancton (Copepoda, Cladocera y estadios larvales de crustáceos Decapoda, pero hubo una sustitución temporal con un predominio de zooplancton en descenso y aguas bajas. En general, la amplitud de la dieta disminuyó en descenso de aguas en ambas secciones e incrementó en ascenso de aguas. Sin embargo, la amplitud promedio fue mayor en SA. La sobreposición interespecífica de dieta fue alta en SA mientras que

  19. Metazoos parásitos de la mojarrilla Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae capturados por pesquería artesanal en Chorrillos, Lima, Perú Metazoan parasites of the minor stardrum, Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae, caught by artisanal fishery on Chorrillos, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigaron algunos componentes comunitarios de la parasitofauna de 105 ejemplares de Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844 colectados del Terminal Pesquero de Chorrillos, Lima, Perú, entre el mayo y octubre de 1998 y necropsiados para estudiar sus comunidades parasitarias. De los peces colectados, 71 fueron machos y 34 hembras. Los peces mostraron una longitud estándar entre 10,20-20,50 cm (promedio = 15,50 ± 1,65. Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. Se colectaron un total de 3483 especimenes durante todo el muestreo, con una abundancia media total de 33,17 (3-122. El promedio de la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 1,9 (1-4. Un hospedero no presentó ningún parásito. 20 hospederos (19,04% mostraron infección con un solo parásito, 77 (73,33% y 7 (6,66% tuvieron una infección múltiple, con 2 y 3 especies de parásitos, respectivamente. Se encontraron cinco parásitos: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 y R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea (prevalencia = 98,09%; intensidad media = 28,85; abundancia media = 28,58, Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863 (Copepoda (prevalencia = 2,85%; intensidad media = 1; abundancia media = 0,02, Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819 (Digenea (prevalencia = 79,04%; intensidad media = 5,77; abundancia media = 4,56 y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda (prevalencia = 4,76%; intensidad media = 1,6; abundancia media = 0,07. Se encontró efecto del sexo en la intensidad y abundancia media de Infección de Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 y también efecto del sexo con la abundancia media de infección con H. fasciata. La diversidad media de las infracomunidades según el índice de Shannon-Weaver de S. minor fue (H' = 0,11 y el índice de Simpson (C = 0,98. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos con la estructura comunitaria parasitaria registrada en la década anterior en S. minor en la misma

  20. Factors responsible for the patchy distribution of natural soil water repellency in Mediterranean semiarid forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, E.; Jiménez-Pinilla, P.; Mataix-Solera, J.; González-Pérez, J. A.; García-Orenes, F.; Torres, M. P.; Arcenegui, V.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) is commonly observed in forest areas showing wettable and water repellent patches with high spatial variability. This has important hydrological implications; in semiarid areas where water supply is limited, even slight WR may play an important role in infiltration patterns and distribution of water into the soil (Mataix-Solera et al., 2007). It has been proposed that the origin of WR is the release of organic compounds from different plants species and sources (due to waxes and other organic substances in their tissues; Doerr et al., 1998). However, the relationship between WR and plants may not always be a direct one: a group of fungi (mainly mycorrhizal fungi) and microorganisms could be also responsible for WR. The aim of this research is to study the relationships between WR in soils under different plant cover with selected soil properties and the quantity of fungi and their exudates. The study area is located in Southeast Spain, "Sierra de la Taja" near Pinoso (Alicante)), with a semiarid Mediterranean climate (Pm=260mm). Samples were taken in September 2011, when WR is normally strongest after summer drought. Soil samples were collected from the first 2.5cm of the mineral A horizon at microsites beneath each of the four most representative species (Pinus halepensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Quercus. rotundifolia and Cistus albidus; n=15 per specie) and 5 samples from bare soil with no influence of any species. Different soil parameters were analyzed; water content, soil organic mater content (SOM), pH, WR, easily extractable glomalin (EEG), total mycelium and extractable lipids. The occurrence of WR was higher under P. halepensis (87% of samples) and Q. rotundifolia (60% of samples). Positive significant correlations were found between WR and SOM content for all species, with the best correlations for Pinus and Quercus (r=0.855**, r= 0.934** respectively). In addition, negative significant correlations were found between WR and p

  1. Demersal fish distribution and habitat use within and near Baltimore and Norfolk Canyons, U.S. Middle Atlantic Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steve W.; Rhode, Mike; Quattrini, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    brosme, and Helicolenus dactylopterus, exhibited a variety of habitat use patterns. In general, fish assemblages in the soft substrata areas (dominated by P. chesteri, N. bairdii, Glyptocephalus cynoglossus, Lophius americanus, Merluccius albidus) were different from those in more complex habitats (dominated by Laemonema spp., Hoplostethus spp., B. brosme,Benthocometes robustus, L. americanus, Dysommina rugosa). Although, when present, the dense coral and sponge cover did not statistically affect general fish assemblage patterns in hard bottom habitats, these sessile organisms markedly increased habitat complexity, and some fish species exhibited close association with them. Fish species compositions in the two canyons were not substantially different from the surrounding slopes. However, the diversity of habitats within both the canyons and seeps exerted an important influence on assemblage structure. At least for some species (e.g., B. brosme) canyon and seep environments may be a refuge from intensive bottom fishing activities. We frequently observed evidence of commercial and recreational fishing activity (lost gear on bottom and fishing boats in the area) throughout the canyons and some resulting habitat damage. Conservation measures for the unique and more vulnerable areas (seep and coral habitats) have recently been approved.

  2. Effects of liming and development of Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus larvae on the abundance of zooplankton in fish ponds Efeitos da calagem e desenvolvimento do Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus na abundância do zooplâncton em viveiros de piscicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thécia Alfenas Silva Valente Paes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We aimed to evaluate the influence of the correction of the water alkalinity in the fish ponds on the density of zooplankton under a period they were stocked with larvae of Prochilodus lineatus, a neotropical fish called "Curimbatá". METHODS: We used a factorial design completely randomized. In one plot (2 ponds there was no correction of the alkalinity of the water (20 mg CaCO3.L-1 and in two others, this variable was adjusted weekly to values around 30 and 60 mg CaCO3.L-1 ¹, with two replicates each. Zooplankton was sampled weekly and the experiment lasted 63 days. RESULTS: Significant differences in the density of the zooplankton over time (F = 6.78, p OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a influencia da correção da alcalinidade da água em viveiros de piscicultura na densidade do zooplâncton em período em que foram estocados com larvas de Prochilodus lineatus, um peixe neotropical denominado "Curimbatá". MÉTODOS: Foi utilizado um delineamento experimental fatorial, inteiramente causualizado. Em um tratamento (2 viveiros, não houve correção da alcalinidade da água, e em outros dois viveiros, a alcalinidade foi ajustada semanalmente para valores em torno de 30 e 60 mg CaCO3.L-1, com duas réplicas cada. Os organismos zooplanctônicos foram coletados semanalmente durante 63 dias. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significativas foram observadas na densidade do zooplâncton ao longo do tempo (F = 6,78, p < 0,05 e um decréscimo acentuado na densidade do zooplâncton foi observado da primeira para a segunda semana, e pequenos aumentos sucessivos na densidade da quarta semana até o final do experimento. Ao considerar todo o período experimental, a alcalinidade corrigida para 60 mg CaCO3.L-1 resultou em maiores densidades de zooplâncton. Ocorreram grandes mudanças na composição zooplanctônica. Rotifera foram dominantes no início do experimento e Cladocera e Copepoda nas últimas semanas, possivelmente devido a uma interação da

  3. Feeding of a pelagic chaetognath, Sagitta friderici Ritter-Záhony off Ubatuba region (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luz Amelia Vega-Pérez

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Sagitta friderici off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State, was studied in March, 1989. Specimens were collected with a closing-net during three days at six hours' intervals (00:00; 06:00; 12:00; 18:00 h, at a fixed station of 38 m depth. The population was composed basically by young stages (O-II. A total of 3175 specimens were examined but only 760 contained preys in their guts. Copepods were the main constituent of food eaten (79.86%. There was a preference for the genera Paracalanus, Oncaea, Corycaeus and for crustacean nauplii. Other zooplanktonic groups such as Annelida, Urochordatha, and Mollusca were also found in the gut. Cannibalistic behavior occurred in 2.66% of the samples. In S. friderici the food was selected by size and was a direct function of the predator size. Younger stages (O-I selected small prey, whereas older stages (II preferred larger preys. Specimens collected above the thermocline exhibited higher feeding intensity (FCR during the night periods.Espécimens de Sagitta friderici foram coletados numa estação fixa de 38 m de profundidade, ao largo de Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, em março de 1989. Arrastos verticais, acima e abaixo da termoclina, foram feitos com rede de fechamento (50 cm de diâmetro de boca e malha de 0.200 mm durante três dias consecutivos e em intervalos de seis horas. O estudo de 3175 indivíduos, nos estágios de O-IV, revelou que 2415 apresentaram o trato digestivo vazio e 760 com algum tipo de alimento. Destes últimos, 283 continham material amorfo e os 473 restantes de 1 a 3 presas. Das 488 presas identificadas, 99,74% estavam localizadas na região posterior do trato digestivo e 0,26% na região anterior. A dieta de S. friderici esteve constituída de Crustácea, Annelida, Urochordata, Chaetognatha e Mollusca. Dentre os Crustácea, os Copepoda foram os mais abundantes, predominando os Calanoida e Cyclopoida. O estágio 0 de S. friderici teve preferência pelos náuplios de crust

  4. Composition, abundance and distribution of macrozooplankton in Culebra Bay, Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica and its value as bioindicator of pollution

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    Melinda Bednarski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The abundance, distribution and composition of the macrozooplankton of Culebra Bay, Costa Rica (10º 38’ N - 85º 40’ W were studied at four stations throughout the dry (February - May and rainy (September - November seasons of 2000. The samples were collected at two-week intervals using a 500µm mesh net with a 0.5 m diameter opening. Copepods (23-31% and ostracods (20-34% were predominant throughout the year, followed by cladocerans (2.5-14%, zoea (6.6-9.5%, and siphonophores (2.5-7.2%. High densities of zooplankton were obtained in February and March with peak abundance on March 18. The lowest densities were observed on September 3 and November 5. Significant differences in abundances at each station were observed for the groups Acartia tonsa (Copepoda, Ctenophora, Medusae, Ostracoda, Zoea, and Amphipoda. Comparison of the dry and rainy seasons revealed significantly higher zooplankton abundance in the dry season and copepod domination of all stations; during the rainy season ostracods dominated the off-shore areas. Zooplankton abundance and distribution are influenced by upwelling, which occurs during the dry season in Culebra BayLa abundancia, distribución y composición del macrozooplancton fue estudiada en bahía Culebra Costa Rica (10º 38’ N and 85º 40’ W en cuatro estaciones durante la época seca (Febrero-Mayo y lluviosa (Setiembre - Noviembre del año 2000. Las muestras fueron colectadas en intervalos de dos semanas usando una red de 500µm de poro y 0.50-m de diámetro. Copépodos (23-31% y ostrácodos (20-34% fueron predominantes através del año, seguidos por los cladóceros (2.5-14%, zoea (6.6-9.5%, y sifonóforos (2.5-7.2%. Altas densidades de zooplancton fueron obtenidas en Febrero y Marzo, con un pico el 18 de Marzo. Las más bajas densidades fueron observadas el 3 de Septiembre y 5 de Noviembre. Se observaron diferencias significativas en las abundancias en cada estación para los copépodos de la especie Acartia

  5. Seasonal variation in the copepod community structure from a tropical Amazon estuary, Northern Brazil

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    André Magalhães

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of copepod community structure during the months of July, September and November 2003 (dry season and January, March and May 2004 (rainy season in the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil. Samples were collected during neap tides via gentle 200µm mesh net tows from a small powerboat. Measurements of surface water conductivity were accomplished in situ using an electronic conductivimeter and salinity was later obtained through the transformation of the conductivity values. Salinity varied seasonally from 7.2 ± 0.1 to 39.2 ± 1.8 (mean ± standard deviation and was influenced mainly by differences in the amount of rainfall between the studied sampling seasons. In total, 30 Copepoda taxa were identified and Acartia tonsa comprised the most representative species throughout the entire studied period followed by Acartia lilljeborgii, Subeucalanus pileatus and Paracalanus quasimodo. In the present study, the density values, ecological indexes and copepod species dominance presented a clear seasonal pattern, showing that the studied area may be considered seasonally heterogeneous in relation to the investigated parameters.O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal avaliar a variação sazonal na estrutura da comunidade dos copépodos durante os meses de julho, setembro e novembro de 2003 (período seco e janeiro, março e maio de 2004 (período chuvoso no estuário do Curuçá, Norte do Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas nas marés de quadratura com auxílio de uma rede deplâncton com 200µm de abertura de malha, rebocada por meio de uma pequena embarcação a motor. As medidas de condutividade da água foram realizadas in situ utilizando-se um condutivímetro eletrônico e a salinidade foi posteriormente obtida através da transformação dos valores de condutividade. Os valores de salinidade variaram sazonalmente de 7, 2 ± 0, 1a 39, 2 ± 1, 8 (média ± desvio padr

  6. The temporal dynamics of zooplankton communities of different types of water bodies within Ichniansky National Park

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    Z. V. Burian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the influence of anthropogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems has increased. This has led to a restructuring of aquatic ecosystems and affected the structural and functional organization of groups of aquatic organisms, causing qualitative and quantitative changes. Particular attention is drawn to the different types of water bodies of protected areas like IchnyanskyNational Park, which is located in Ichnyansky district of Chernihiv region. This park is a newly created one, so the reduction in intensity of anthropogenic pressure can be traced within its waters. Zooplankton plays an important role in the functioning of trophic networks because it transfers energy from producers and primary consumers to young fish and planktonophagous fish. Therefore, three main groups of zooplankton were chosen as the object of study: rotifers (class Eurotatoria, cladocerans (class Branchiopoda, order Cladocera, different age stages of copepods (class Copepoda, and also ostracods (Class Ostracoda. The zooplankton used as research material was collected in the daytime in spring (April, summer (late July – early August and autumn (late September – early October in the years 2015–2016 from ten experimental stations. During this period 81 species of zooplankton were recorded within heterogeneous reservoirs of IchnianskyNational Park. Monogonont rotifers (subclass Monogononta included 35 species (43% of all species and bdelloid rotifers (subclass Bdelloidea, cladocerns, comprised 28 species (35%, and copepods included 18 species (22%. The faunal range of zooplankton over different years and seasons was characterized by the predominance of the rotator complex in spring, rotator-cladocerans and cladocerans in summer, and of the cladocerans complex in autumn. This was due to the formation during spring and summer of favourable conditions in the waters for filter feeders, which consist generally of rotifers and cladocerans. In autumn the water

  7. Ecological aspects of ectoparasites from the gills of Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel, 1840 (Cichlidae from the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil = Aspectos ecológicos dos ectoparasitos branquiais de Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel, 1840 (Cichlidae da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil

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    Gilberto Cezar Pavanelli

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The gills of 34 specimens of Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel, 1840 were analyzed, all of which had been collected from the upper Paraná river floodplain in Brazil, between March 2004 to June 2005. Five species of parasites were found: two digenean (metacercariae, only one monogenean, one cestode (plerocercoid and one copepod. The monogenean Sciadicleithrum sp. was the most abundant and prevalent, followed by the metacercariae Ascocotyle sp. The results did not show any significant difference in relation to host sex with regard to the prevalence and abundance of parasites between males and females. Only Sciadicleithrum sp. presented a significant positive correlation between standard host length and the abundance and prevalence ofparasitism. The metacercariae Ascocotyle sp. presented a significant positive relation only between standard host length and abundance. Through the results, a great abundance was observed forSciadicleithrum sp. and the metacercariae Ascocotyle sp. in connected lagoons. These differences suggest this type of environment can favor parasitism, especially in the case of monoxenic cycle ectoparasites, such as the monogenean. According to the importance value, only theSciadicleithrum sp. and the metacercariae Ascocotyle sp. were considered secondary, while the others were considered satellites. The typical pattern of overdispersion or aggregation from the parasitesystem was observed for Sciadicleithrum sp., the metacercariae Ascocotyle sp. and the metacercariae Diplostomum sp.Foram examinadas brânquias de 34 espécimes de Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel, 1840, coletados na planície de inundação do Alto rio Paraná, Brasil, entre março de 2004 a junho de 2005. Foram encontradas cinco espécies de parasitos: dois digenéticos (metacercária, apenas um monogenético, um cestóide (plerocercóide e um copepoda. O monogenético Sciadicleithrum sp. foi a espécie mais abundante e a mais prevalente, seguida pela metacerc

  8. Top-down control in a tropical shallow lake of Northern Pantanal, Brazil Controle descendente em um lago tropical raso do Pantanal Norte, Brasil

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    Roberto de Moraes Lima Silveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To test the effect of fish exclusion over zooplankton and phytoplankton in a shallow lake in the floodplains of the Cuiabá River in Brazil's Pantanal; METHODS: Fishes and two classes of zooplankton sizes were excluded using mesocosms (100 µm and 200 µm mesh openings. The experiment lasted nine days with sampling at the beginning, six and nine days after the start of the experiment. Zooplankton and phytoplankton densities were compared among exclusion treatments and the open water which was considered as control areas by a Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance; RESULTS: The zooplankton composition and densities differed considerably between the exclusion treatments and the control areas, with a predominance of Cladocera and Copepoda in the exclusion treatments and a predominance of Rotifera in the control areas. During the experiment, the composition of the phytoplankton assemblage showed no difference between the exclusion and the control. However, there was a marked reduction in the density of the Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta algae among the exclusion treatments; CONCLUSIONS: The increase in density and the variation in the zooplankton composition suggest that these organisms are controlled by the fish and demonstrate that the zooplankton may exert control over the density of phytoplankton.OBJETIVO: Testar o efeito da exclusão de peixes sobre o zooplâncton e o fitoplâncton em um lago da planície de inundação do Rio Cuiabá, Pantanal; MÉTODOS: Peixes e duas categorias de tamanhos de zooplâncton foram excluídos utilizando tanques mesocosmos (com aberturas de malhas de 100 µm e 200 µm. O experimento teve nove dias de duração, com amostragens realizadas no início e seis e nove dias após o início do experimento. As densidades do zooplâncton e fitoplâncton foram comparadas entre os tratamentos de exclusão e áreas abertas da lagoa, que foram consideradas áreas controle, por uma Análise de Variância com Medidas Repetidas

  9. Kelimpahan dan Keanekaragaman Plankton di Perairan Selat Bali (Plankton Abundance and Diversity in the Bali Strait

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    Ruly Isfatul Khasanah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fitoplankton mempunyai peran sangat penting dalam suatu perairan, selain berada pada dasar rantai makanan sedangkan zooplankton merupakan herbivor pemangsanya. Penelitian mengenai kelimpahan dan keanekaragaman plankton di perairan Selat Bali dilakukan pada musim peralihan II (Nopember 2012 dan musim barat (Pebruari 2013. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengamati perbedaan kelimpahan dan keanekaragaman plankton pada dua musim angin muson. Sampel air diambil dengan menggunakan water sampler sedangkan sampel plankton diambil secara horisontal dan vertikal  pada kedalaman 1 m dan 20 m dengan jaring plankton Kitahara bermata jaring 20 µm. Hasil pengukuran nutrien pada musim peralihan II memiliki kadar fosfat, nitrat, bahan organik, silikat dan klorofil-a lebih tinggi dibandingkan pada musim barat. Informasi tersebut memperkuat indikasi adanya perpindahan massa air dari lapisan yang lebih dalam ke lapisan yang lebih dangkal. Nutrien fosfat dan nitrat diperlukan untuk mempertahankan fungsi membran sel dan silikia dibutuhkan untuk pembentukan dinding sel terutama pada diatom. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa kelas diatom (Bacillariophyceae mencapai 95,9 % dari total jenis dan kelimpahan fitoplankton seluruh stasiun penelitian, sisanya berasal dari genus Dinophyceae. Kelimpahan fitoplankton tertinggi terjadi pada musim peralihan II dengan Rhizosolenia stolterfothii sebesar 51.405 sel.L-1 (80,1%, sedangkan pada musim barat copepoda ditemukan melimpah sebesar 8.178 ind.L-1 (88,3 %. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa dengan kelimpahan plankton yang ditemukan perairan Selat Bali dinilai cukup potensial untuk mendukung kehidupan biota laut pelagis. Kata kunci: plankton, selat Bali, rhizosolenia stolterfothii, muson   Abstract Phytoplankton has important role as primary producer in the sea and act as base of food chain while zooplankton act as herbivore prey on them. Research on abundance and diversity of plankton at Bali Strait was performed during

  10. Estructura trófica de la asociación de peces intermareales de la costa rocosa del norte de Chile

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    C. Viviana Berrios

    2004-03-01

    , preying mainly on chlorophitic algae, Copepoda and Gastropoda. The carnivorous fishes Cheilodactylus variegatus, Helcogrammoides chilensis, Labrisomus philippii and the omnivorous Oplegnatus insignis showed euriphagic tendencies (>2.0 bits, however, the major trophic overlap (>0.90 was observed among herbivorous and omnivorous fishes. Finally, the increase of fish species towards lower latitudes and the increase of herbivory and omnivory levels in the rocky intertidal shore were analyzed

  11. Composición, estructura y flujo energético del meiobentos frente a Chile central Composition, structure and energy flux of the meiobenthos off central Chile

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    JAVIER SELLANES

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura de la meiofauna metazoaria (a nivel de grandes grupos taxonómicos y su rol en el flujo de energía en el subsistema bentónico frente a Concepción (~3630' S. Las muestras se recolectaron en mayo y noviembre de 1997 y mayo de 1998 en cinco sitios correspondientes a: interior de la Bahía de Concepción (28 m, boca de la bahía (35 m, plataforma interior (64 m, plataforma intermedia (88 m y plataforma externa (120 m. El periodo de estudio coincidió con el evento El Niño 1997-1998 (EN. El meiobentos resultó ser poco diverso a nivel de grandes grupos, pero con abundancias y biomasas moderadas a altas, en comparación con los valores promedio reportados en la literatura para el sublitoral fangoso. Nematoda fue el grupo dominante, con más de un 95 % (10³­10(4 ind 10 cm­2 de la densidad total, seguidos por Copepoda y Polychaeta. Las mayores abundancias y biomasas totales se encontraron siempre en la boca de la bahía, seguida de su parte interior y de la plataforma interior, mientras que los menores valores se ubicaron en la plataforma intermedia y externa. Frente a Concepción el meiobentos juega un importante rol en el flujo de energía a través del subsistema bentónico. Se estimó que estos organismos podrían estar remineralizando y/o convirtiendo a biomasa hasta un 36 y 45 % del carbono orgánico que llega desde la columna de agua a los sedimentos en el centro y en la boca de la bahía, respectivamente.The general objective of this study was to determine the structure of metazoan meiofauna (at a high taxonomic level and to estimate its role in the energy flux of the benthic sub-system off Concepción, Chile (~3630' S. Samples were collected in May and November 1997 and May 1998 at five sites located at the: inner Bay of Concepción (28 m, bay-mouth (35 m, inner-shelf (64 m, mid-shelf (88 m and outer-shelf (120 m. The study period coincided with the El Niño 1997-1998 (EN event. The diversity of the meiobenthos

  12. Characterization of biocenosis in the storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Tryapitsina, G.; Andreyev, S.; Akleyev, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Mokrov, Y.; Ivanov, I. [Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    A number of storage-reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' Production Association ('Mayak' PA) with different levels of radioactive contamination: reservoir R-17 ('Staroye Boloto'), reservoir R-9 (Lake Karachay), reservoirs of the Techa Cascade R-3 (Koksharov pond), R-4 (Metlinsky pond), R-10 and R-11 is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russia). The operation of these reservoirs began in 1949-1964. Full-scale hydro-biological studies of these reservoirs were started in 2007. The research into the status of biocenosis of these storage reservoirs of liquid radioactive wastes of 'Mayak' PA was performed in 2007 - 2011. The status of biocenosis was evaluated in accordance with the status of following communities: bacterio-plankton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoo-benthos, macrophytes and ichthyofauna. The status of ecosystems was determined by radioactive and chemical contamination of water bodies. The results of hydro-biological investigations showed that no changes in the status of biota in reservoir R-11 were revealed as compared to the biological parameters of the water bodies of this geographical zone. In terms of biological parameters the status of the ecosystem of the reservoir R-11 is characterized by a sufficient biological diversity, and can be considered acceptable. The ecosystem of the reservoir R-10 maintains its functional integrity, although there were registered negative effects in the zoo-benthos community associated with the decrease in the parameters of the development of pelophylic mollusks that live at the bottom of the water body throughout the entire life cycle. In reservoir R-4 the parameters of the development of phytoplankton did not differ from those in Reservoirs R-11 and R-10; however, a significant reduction in the quantity of Cladocera and Copepoda was registered in the zooplankton community, while in the zoo-benthos there were no small mollusks that live aground throughout the entire life

  13. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    . However, the toxicity of aged hydrocarbon contaminated soil to Vibrio fischeri (a luminescent bacterium) and Enchytraeus albidus (enchytraeid) was low, and thus these toxicity indicators do not reliably reflect the progress of remediation of this aged hydrocarbon contaminated soil. All studied hydrocarbon contaminated soils contained metabolically active bacteria capable of degrading hydrocarbons. Both phytoremediation and modified Fenton's oxidation enhanced removal of hydrocarbons. However, the performance of these in situ remediation processes was case-dependent, the removal of aged hydrocarbon contaminants being more difficult than that of fresh hydrocarbon contaminants. Therefore, phytoremediation can be recommended to remove fresh diesel fuel contamination, but the removal of aged hydrocarbons requires other treatment methods, especially if remediation has to be achieved fast.

  14. Distribuição geográfica da fauna e flora da Baía de Guanabara Geographic distribution of the flora and the fauna of the Guanabara Bay

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    Lejeune P. H. de Oliveira

    1947-09-01

    regime is Ceratiumplancton. POLYHALINE WATER REGIMB — Water almost sea water, but directly influenced by continental lands, with rock salts dissolved and in suspension. Salinity: 33 to 32/1.000. This waters endure the actions of the popular nicknamed «water of the hill» (as the waters of mesohaline and oligohaline regimes, becoming suddenly reddish during several hours. That pheno¬menon returns several times in the year and come with great mortality of fishes. In these waters, according to Dr. J. G. FARIA there are species of Protozoa : Peridinea, the Glenoidinium trochoideum St., followed by its satellites which he thinks that they are able to secret toxical substances which can slaughter some species of fishes. In these «waters of the hill» was found a species of Copepoda the Charlesia darwini. In August 1946 the west shore of the Guanabara was plenty of killed fishes occupying a area of 8 feet large by 3 nautical miles of lenght. The enclosure for catching fishes in the rivers mouthes presents in these periods mass dead fishes. The phenomenon of «waters of the hill» appears with the first rains after a period of long dryness. MESOHALINE WATER REGIME — Fig. 4 shows the the diagramm scheme. Salt or brackish water from 30 to 17/1.000 salinity, sometimes until 10/1.000. Turbid waters with mud in suspension, chestnut, claveyous waters; shore dirty black mud without waving bursting; the waters are warmer and shorner than those of the polihaline regime. Mangrove shore with the mangrove trees : Rhizophora mangle L., Avicennia sp., Laguncularia sp., and the »cotton tree of sea» Hibiscus sp. Fauna: the great land crab «guaimú» Cardisoma guanhumi Latr., ashore in dry firm land. There is the real land crab Ucides cordatus (L. in wetting mud and in neigh¬ bourhood of the burrows of the fiddler-crabs of genus Uca. On stones and in the roots of the Rhizophora inhabits the brightly colored mangrove-tree-crab («aratu» Portuguese nickname Goniopsis cruentata

  15. Plancto e hidrobiologia sanitária de tanques tropicais com dáfnias e rotíferos

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    Lejeune P. H. de Oliveira

    1967-01-01

    phases is merely to satisfy an easy explanation thus the first phase that of exudation of concrete. We consider the 2nd. phase formation of bacterian and cyanophycean thin pellicel. 3rd. phase - dilution by rains, and fertilisation by birds; the 4th phase - plankton flora and fauna established. The biological material arrived with the air, the rains, and also with contaminations by dusts; with big portion of sand, of earth, and leaves of trees resulted of the SW wind actions in the storming days (See - Est. I, fig. 3, G. - the mangrove trees of the Pinheiro Island. Many birds set down and rest upon the pillar structure, its faeces which are good fertilizers fall into the ponds. Some birds were commonly pigeons, black ravens, swallows, sparrows and other sea mews, moor hens, and a few sea birds of comparatively rare occurence. We get only some examples of tropical dust contaminated helioplankton, of which incipient observations were been done sparcely. See the systematic list of the species of plankters. Phytoplankters - Cyanophyta algae as a basic part for food of zooplankters, represented chiefly by rotiferse, water-fleas Moinodaphnia and other Crustacea: Ostracoda Copepoda and Insecta: Chironomidae and Culicidae larvae. The polysaprobic of septic irruptions have not been done only by heating in summer, and, a good reason of that, for example: when the fifth pond was in polysaprobic phase as the same time an alike septic phase do not happened into the 3rd. pond, therefore, both were in the same conditions of temperature, but with unlike contaminations. Among the most important aquatic organisms used as indicatiors of pollution - and microorganisms of real importance in the field of sanitary science, by authorities of renown, for instance: PALMER, PRESCOTT, INGRAM, LIEBMANN, we choose following microalgae: a The cosmopolite algae Scenedesmus quadricuada, a common indicator in mesosaprobio waters, which lives between pH 7,0 and it is assimilative of NO[3 subscripted] and

  16. Long-term changes in soil erosion due to forest fires. A rainfall simulation approach in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Matrix-Solera, Jorge; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Francos, Marcos; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    ; Carvalho et al., 2015; Lassu et al., 2015) or in the field (Cerdà et al., 1998c; Jordán et al., 2009; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). In order to determine how fire and post-fire changes change soil erosion rates we selected 12 research sites at the study area of the Massís del Caroig, Eastern Spain, which suffered different fires in the last century. The parent material is limestone in all study sites and the mean annual rainfall ranges from 480 to 550 mm per year in average. The vegetation consists of scrubland (Maquia) with different species. In the years after the fire Brachypodium retusum, Thymus vulgaris, Fumana Ericoides, Cistus Albidus, Ulex parviflorus or Rosmarinus officinalis regenerated, but after some years dense shrub cover develops with typical species such as Quercus coccifera, Quercus ilex, Pistacia lentiscus and Junyperus oxycedurs. Soils are shallow (0-30 cm depth) and distributed in pockets of soil mixed with rock outcrops. All the selected plots were located on the middle tram of the slopes to avoid differences, although previous studies showed no differences in infiltration rates, overland flow and soil erosion on the different trams of the slopes on limestone (Cerdà, 1998d). Each site was selected upon the last fire registered: 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, 16, 24, 33, 44, 51, and 63 years after the last fire. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 by means of a portable rainfall simulator (Cerdà et al., 2009; Iserloh et al., 2013). Ten plots of 0.25 m2 were selected at each site. Rainfall simulation at 55 mm h-1 during one hour was applied. The results show that immediately after the wildfires the soil erosion was negligible due to the ash cover, which acted as mulch, meanwhile after few months (1 year after the fire) the highest soil losses were measured. After 5 years the soil losses had reduced significantly and after 16 years were negligible. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh