WorldWideScience

Sample records for albidipennis heteroptera anthocoridae

  1. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  2. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg;

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with adult female Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) at 20°C ± 1°C, L16:D8, 60–70% RH to determine voracity and preference on cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella....... The results showed that A. nemorum is a voracious predator of B. brassicae, P. xylostella and F. occidentalis and can therefore be considered as a potential candidate for biological control in cabbage....

  3. Reproductive ecology of predaceous Heteroptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive ecology entails relating the physiology and behavior of an organism to its environment and the community in which it lives. Terrestrial predatory Heteroptera (including Anthocoridae, Geocoridae, Miridae, Nabidae, Pentatomidae, Phymatidae, and Reduviidae) display a wide range of reproduc...

  4. Development, consumption rates and reproductive biology of Orius albidipennis reared on various prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reproductive biology and feeding consumption of Orius albidipennis fed on eggs of Anagasta (Ephestia) kuehniella, Tetranychus urticae, and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and larvae of Gynaikothrips ficorum were investigated under 26±1°C, 60±10 % RH and 16:8 L/D photoperiod in laboratory. Results ind...

  5. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-06-25

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality.

  6. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality. PMID:26249933

  7. Wantsennieuws uit Zeeland (Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.

    2003-01-01

    New records of bugs from the province of Zeeland (Heteroptera) Three excursions were made to the province of Zeeland in  and , and nine interesting species of Heteroptera were found as follows. A record of the cydnid Tritomegas sexmaculatus, in the dunes near Cadzand, is the first for the Ne

  8. Chiasmate male meiosis in six species of water bugs from infraorders Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snejana Grozeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The type of male meiosis is a stable character at the family level in the order Heteroptera and provides additional information on the relationships between taxa. The most common pattern, probably ancestral in the order is chiasmate meiosis; however achiasmate meiosis has been described in five families of terrestrial Heteroptera, all belonging to the infraorder Cimicomorpha (Anthocoridae, Microphysidae, Cimicidae, Miridae, Nabidae. Among water bugs, achiasmate meiosis is reported in the families Saldidae (Leptopodomorpha and Мicronectidae (Nepomorpha. Regarding the third infraorder of water bugs, Gerromorpha, data on meiotic patterns are absent, except for the Limnogonus aduncus Drake, Harris, 1933 (Gerridae possessing chiasmate meiosis. In this paper, the male meiotic pattern of six water bugs species from infraorders Nepomorpha (Plea minutissima minnutissima Leach, 1817 and Gerromorpha (Mesovelia furcata Mulsant, Ray, 1852, Microvelia reticulata (Burmeister, 1835, Gerris costae fieberi Stichel, 1938, Hydrometra gracilenta Horváth, 1899, Velia pelagonensis Hoberlandt, 1941 is studied, and the karyotypes of the last two species are described for the first time. In the species examined, bivalents are chiasmate, so all these species possess chiasmate meiosis in males.

  9. Building-Up of a DNA Barcode Library for True Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Germany Reveals Taxonomic Uncertainties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M.; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)). PMID:25203616

  10. Biology of Stethoconus praefectus (Heteroptera: Miridae), a newly established predator of the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera: Tingidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stethoconus praefectus (Distant) (Heteroptera: Miridae) was recently discovered in Florida preying on the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Heidemann) (Heteroptera: Tingidae). Its life cycle and effectiveness as a predator of P. perseae were investigated at 26 plus or minus 1 degrees centigrad...

  11. Compatibility assessment between four ethanolic plant extracts with a bug predator Orius horvathi (Reuter (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae used for controlling the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Nooshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande attacks a large number of crop plants. The current insecticides have caused resistance in insects and have caused outbreaks of thrips. In many instances, alternative methods of insect management and natural products, offer adequate pest control and pose fewer hazards. Several species of minute pirate bugs of the genus Orius play a significant role in the biological control of a large number of thrips species, such as F. occidentalis. In this study, the insecticidal activity of four ethanolic plant extracts (Cercis siliquastrum L., Calendula officinalis L., Peganum harmala L., Melia azedarach L. in integration with Orius horvathi (Reuter were evaluated for controlling F. occidentalis. The present research aimed to find plant extracts with a good impact on F. occidentalis but which have fewer side effects on O. horvathi. The results showed that P. harmala extract can be considered compatible with the natural enemy for controlling thrips. When the predatory bugs O. horvathi, were released three days after P. harmala extract spraying, the integration was more effective. While the P. harmala plant extract plays an important role in thrips control, it is necessary to consider the specified time interval between the application of the P. harmala plant extract and the release of the O. horvathi predatory bugs. The ethanolic extract of M. azedarach caused a balance between the pest population and the natural enemy. This result is very important in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program because this ethanolic extract of M. azedarach had lower side effects on the natural enemy. This means that an integration of plant derived chemicals and the natural enemy, O. horvathi, can effectively control thrips.

  12. Geographic distribution of the genus Orius Wolff (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)%小花蝽属地理分布的研究(半翅目:花蝽科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义平; 吴鸿; 卜文俊; 徐华潮

    2003-01-01

    对世界分布的小花蝽属70种昆虫的地理分布进行了研究.将所有种按照14个地理分布类型进行了整理,它们分别是古北区特有种13种,东洋区特有种18种,新北区特有种7种,新热带区特有种8种,全北区1种,非洲区特有种5种,澳大利亚区特有种3种,澳大利亚区东洋区2种,古北-东洋区9种,新北-新热带区4种,新北区-东洋区2种,新北区-古北区1种,全北区-东洋区1种,非洲-古北区1种.结果表明东洋区可能为小花蝽属的起源中心.图2表1参27%Geographic distribution of 70 species of Orius in the world is studied.All species are arranged in 14 zoogeographic categories:Afrotropical endemic,Australian endemic,Holarctic endemic,Nearctic endemic,Neotropical endemic,Oriental endemic,Palaeartic endemic,Afrotropical palaearctic,Australia Oriental,Holarctic Oriental,Nearctic Neotropical,Nearctic Oriental,Nearctic Palaearctic Oriental Palaearctic,and so on.The result suggests the Oriental region is the origin center of Orius.[En,2 fig.1 tab.27 ref.

  13. De wants Rhaphigaster nebulosa in Nederland (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.; Steeghs, J.

    2002-01-01

    The bug Rhaphigaster nebulosa in the Netherlands (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Five specimens of Rhaphigaster nebulosa (Poda, 1761) were captured overwintering in or near the same house in Herkenbosch, province of Limburg, in different years between 1997 and 2002. These records fit similar observation

  14. Heteroptera as a part of the floodplain forest epigeaeon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution includes the results of four-years of research of the epigean Heteroptera in floodplain forest (assoc. Salici - Populetum) in the region of the Gabcikovo project. Bugs were collected during 1991-1994 at eight monitoring sites using square method. Collected 947 individuals belong to 59 species and 10 families. Evaluation of Heteroptera taxocoenoses was based on their quantitative representation as expressed by the average abundance values per 1 m2, taking into account the qualitative structure with emphasis to the constancy and dominance values and according to determined characteristic species and individuals. The occurrence of epigean Heteroptera is not equally distributed at individual study sites and during the year. The occurrence of Heteroptera is influenced by natural and also anthropogenic factors. The decrease of the average abundance and the increase of species diversity, caused by a long-lasting drought in 1993 and by changes in the hydrological regime and following ruderalisation, was only a temporary phenomenon. (author). 2 tabs., 5 refs

  15. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusanka Jerinic-Prodanovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839, A. confusus Reuter, 1884, A. nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794, A. nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761, Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, O. minutus (Linnaeus, 1758 and O. niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843, Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862, D. ruber (Linnaeus, 1758, D. lutescens (Schilling, 1836, Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763, Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888, Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758, Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Ps. quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Ps. flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843. The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants.

  16. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid;

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...

  17. An Insight into the Sialomes of Bloodsucking Heteroptera

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    José M. C. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva of bloodsucking arthropods contains dozens or hundreds of proteins that affect their hosts' mechanisms against blood loss (hemostasis and inflammation. Because acquisition of the hematophagous habit evolved independently in several arthropod orders and at least twice within the true bugs, there is a convergent evolutionary scenario that creates a different salivary potion for each organism evolving independently to hematophagy. Additionally, the immune pressure posed by their hosts creates additional evolutionary pressure on the genes coding for salivary proteins, including gene obsolescence, which opens the niche for coopting new genes (exaptation. In the past 10 years, several salivary transcriptomes from bloodsucking Heteroptera and one from a seed-feeding Pentatomorpha were produced, allowing insight into the salivary potion of these organisms and the evolutionary pathway to the blood-feeding mode.

  18. Intraguild predation by the generalist predator Orius majusculus on the parasitoid Encarsia formosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohrabi, Fariba; Enkegaard, Annie; Shishehbor, Parviz;

    2013-01-01

    Intraguild predation of Orius majusculus (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) on Encarsia formosa (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), both natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied under laboratory conditions. The experiments quantified prey consumption b...

  19. Notes on the true bug (Heteroptera) fauna of Azerbaijan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    GHARAAT, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    The Heteroptera fauna in east Azerbaijan and west Azerbaijan provinces in northwestern Iran was surveyed during 2005-2006. In all, 73 species from 18 families were collected and identified, of which 1 species, Mozena lunata (Burmeister, 1835) (Coreidae), is a new record for the Palearctic ecozone and 6 species are newly recorded from Iran.

  20. A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Baena, Manuel

    2015-11-17

    The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.

  1. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

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    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  2. Heteroptera attracted to butterfly traps baited with fish or shrimp carrion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of Heteroptera collected at butterfly traps baited with fish or shrimp carrion during collecting trips to Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru are presented. Traps consisted of a cylinder of net fabric (about 35 cm diam, 75 cm length) attached on the top and bottom to square pieces ...

  3. A new record for Limnobatodes paradoxus Hussey, 1925 from Guyana (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Hydrometridae: Limnobatodinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Fabio

    2014-06-04

    Limnobatodes paradoxus Hussey, 1925 is a primitive hydrometrid, described from a single female specimen collected in 1923 at Tela, Honduras (Hussey 1925). Following the original description, very few records of this species have been reported in literature, and locality indications are not detailed: Brazil (Cobben 1968), Peru (Andersen 1977), and French Guiana (Polhemus & Polhemus 1995). Andersen (1977, 1982) quoted "British Honduras" [= Belize] instead of Honduras, and this mistake was subsequently repeated by Schuh and Slater (1995) (see Moreira, 2014). This taxon was not listed by Heckman (2011) in his monograph on the Heteroptera of South America. Excellent illustrations of this species, in comparison with those of other Heteroptera, have been provided by several authors (cf. Hussey 1925; Cobben 1968, 1978; Andersen 1977, 1982). Nothing is known about the habitat and life history of Limnobatodes paradoxus (Andersen 1977; Polhemus & Polhemus 1995).

  4. Een invasie van de Nieuw-Zeelandse tarwewants Nysius huttoni in Nederland (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, J.T.; Reemer, M.; Aukema, B.

    2007-01-01

    Invasion of the New-Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni in the Netherlands (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) In 2006 the European Invertebrate Survey - Netherlands, by order of the National Plant Protection Organisation, conducted a survey of the distribution and population characteristics of the true bug Nysius huttoni White, 1878. This is originally an endemic species of New Zealand, which was first discovered in the Netherlands in 2002 (Aukema et al. 2005). Presumably this species has been introduced ...

  5. Verspreiding en fenologie van de wants Nysius huttoni in Nederland (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, J.T.; Reemer, M.; Aukema, B.

    2007-01-01

    Verspreiding en fenologie van de wants Nysius huttoni in Nederland (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) In opdracht van de Plantenziektenkundige Dienst heeft EIS-Nederland van 14 april tot en met 26 oktober 2006 een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de verspreiding en populatiekarakteristieken van de wants Nysius huttoni White. Deze soort komt oorspronkelijk voor in Nieuw-Zeeland en is in 2002 voor het eerst in Nederland en België waargenomen. Vermoedelijk is hij via de haven van Antwerpen in Europa terechtgekom...

  6. Revision der paläarktischen Arten der Gattung Lygus Hahn (Heteroptera, Miridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aglyamzyanov, Renat

    2006-01-01

    Als Ergebnis der Revision der Gattung Lygus Hahn (Heteroptera, Miridae, Insecta) wurden die fünf neuen Arten beschrieben: L. sibiricus Aglyamzyanov, 1990, L. orientis Aglyamzyanov, 1994, L. izyaslavi Aglyamzyanov, 1994, L. monticola Aglyamzyanov, 1994 und L. martensi Aglyamzyanov, 2003. Die vier Speziessnamen wurden synonymisiert: L. dracunculi Josifov, 1992, L. alashanensis Qi, 1993, L. renati Schwartz, 1998 (L. elegans Aglyamzyanov, 1994) = L. poluensis (Wagner, 1967) und L. ke...

  7. True bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) of Botswana-Bibliographical inventory and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Andreas; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of insect biodiversity of Botswana is far from perfect. By 2015, there were only inventories publicly available for butterflies, dragonflies and grasshoppers. Here we report 331 species and subspecies of true bugs (Heteroptera), of which 242 records were extracted from scattered published literature and online sources, and 89 (27%) are new records for Botswana. These data significantly increase the number of insect species known from Botswana by roughly 30%. PMID:27395110

  8. The identity of Orthaea maculifera, with proposal of a new synonymy (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rédei, Dávid; Zhu, Xudong; Kondorosy, Előd

    2016-01-01

    Orthaea maculifera Uhler, 1861 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Rhyparochromidae) was described by Uhler (1861) based on an unspecified number of female specimens from Hong Kong. For a long time this species remained of unknown identity and uncertain generic placement (Stål 1874, Lethierry & Severin 1894). As a result of the synonymy of the genus Orthaea Dallas, 1852 with Pachybrachius Hahn, 1826 proposed by Barber (1939) (not accepted by Harrington (1980) and subsequent workers), Slater (1964) listed the species within the genus Pachybrachius. Although the species has still been regarded as of unknown identity (Zheng & Zou 1981), this generic placement has been followed by subsequent authors (Péricart 2001).

  9. Revision of the Mesoamerican genus Cataractocoris Usinger (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Naucoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cataractocoris includes large waterfall-inhabiting insects that occur from Mexico to El Salvador and has received very little attention in the literature. Based on extensive field work during the past three years, we have collected saucer bugs (Heteroptera: Naucoridae) from many localities in central and southern Mexico. We here present detailed distributions and diagnostic information of the two described species of Cataractocoris and the description of a third species that occurs from Nayarit state in Mexico south to Guatemala. An illustrated taxonomic key to identify the species also is presented.

  10. Chromosomal evolutionary dynamics of four multigene families in Coreidae and Pentatomidae (Heteroptera) true bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Vanessa Bellini; Fernandes, José Antônio Marin; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    Previous chromosome mapping of multigene families in Pentatomomorpha (Heteroptera) insects, which was restricted to the major rDNA, revealed remarkable conservation of number of clusters and chromosomal positions. Aiming to understand the chromosomal organization and evolutionary patterns of multigene families in karyotypes of Heteroptera, we performed a chromosomal mapping using four distinct multigene families in representatives of Coreidae (ten species) and Pentatomidae (five species). A single pair of the major rDNA cluster (18S rDNA probe) and a single pair of the minor rDNA cluster (5S rDNA probe), both terminally located were primarily observed, being, in most species, located in distinct chromosomes. However, some alternative patterns were also observed. In species in which the U2 snDNA and H4 gene clusters were mapped, they were mainly located in one autosomal pair each, wherein the H4 gene cluster was located in different positions. Our data suggest that the karyotype diversity reported in Coreidae is not reflected in the distribution diversity of multigene families. This contrasts with the data for Pentatomidae, with a conserved gross karyotype but a discrete diversity in the location of the clusters of multigene families, indicating genome dynamics for these markers. The findings are discussed to shed light on the possible causes for the conservation or variation observed and to assist in understanding the chromosomal evolutionary trends in the group. PMID:27380138

  11. Mating behavior of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae under exposure to neem: Comportamiento de apareamiento del depredador Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae expuesto al neem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharrine Omari Domingues de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of natural enemies is one of the basic foundations for integrated pest management. Botanical insecticides have shown low impact on beneficial arthropods in relation to survival. Insecticides studies usually focus on the direct physiological effects of insecticides, whereas relatively little attention is placed on the behavioral response to exposure. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the botanical insecticide neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.; Meliaceae on the mating behavior of the predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Unmated 5 to 7 d-old adults, separate by sex, were exposed to azadirachtin per contact on the treated surface. The treatments were composed for: untreated male and female; untreated male and treated female; treated male and untreated female; and treated male and female. Azadirachtin affected the duration of first mating (Wilcoxon test, χ2 = 13.38, df = 3, p = 0.004, which resulted in a higher effective average time of mating (EATM50 for treatment whose only female was treated with azadirachtin. This finding points to a sublethal effect of azadirachtin on mating behavior of P. nigrispinus that may compromise its reproduction.La preservación de los enemigos naturales es la base fundamental para el manejo integrado de las plagas. Los insecticidas botánicos han demostrado un bajo impacto sobre los artrópodos benéficos en relación a la supervivencia. Se desarrolló un estudio para evaluar el efecto del insecticida botánico neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.; Meliaceae sobre el comportamiento de apareamiento del chinche depredador Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Se expusieron adultos vírgenes de 5-7 días de edad, separados por sexo, a residuos secos de este extracto. Machos y hembras vírgenes entre 5 y 7 d de edad fueron expuestos a la azadiractina, por contacto directo con superficies tratadas. Los tratamientos fueron: machos y hembras no tratados

  12. Additional information for Leptoglossus impictus (Stål 1859) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini) from Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando; Espindola, Milton Ruiz; Cornelis, Marcela; Coscarón, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The Patagonian subregion belongs to the Andean region, and is comprised of two provinces: Central Patagonia and Subandean Patagonia. It extends from central Mendoza, widening through Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, and Santa Cruz, to northern Tierra del Fuego, and reaches Chile (Morrone 2006). The knowledge of terrestrial Heteroptera in this region is poor and is limited to a few contributions (e.g. Berg 1979, Breddin 1898, Pennington 1920, Faúndez & Carvajal 2011, Faundez 2015). PMID:27395893

  13. New records of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Higor D. D.; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; Reduciendo Klementová, Barbora; Svitok, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera occur on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide variety of habitats, including lentic and lotic water bodies, perennial or temporary. In the Neotropical Region, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the geographical distribution of most represented species, which can only be solved by the collection of specimens in under-studied areas and publication of new records and lists of species. New information New records are presented for eleven species of Gerromorpha and ten Nepomorpha, including first records from Venezuela (Brachymetra lata, Limnogonus hyalinus, Rhagovelia evidis, Tenagobia peruana, Limnocoris burmeisteri, L. fittkaui fittkaui, Placomerus micans, and Martarega gonostyla), the Venezuelan State of Bolívar (Cylindrostethus palmaris, R. elegans, R. tenuipes, and Ambrysus stali), the Brazilian State of Bahia (Martarega bentoi), Peru (Euvelia lata), and the Peruvian Region of Arequipa (Microvelia pulchella). PMID:27226754

  14. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON NYMPHAL DEVELOPMENT OF Podisus distinctus (DALLAS (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE

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    Germi Porto Santos

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of five temperatures (17ºC; 21ºC; 25ºC; 29ºC and 33oC on survival and nymph development of Podisus distinctus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in laboratory. Period of egg incubation decreased with temperature elevation being lower at 29oC and lethal at 33oC. This indicates that superior thermal limit for this species can be found between these temperatures. Optimal temperature for egg viability was 23.7oC. Nymphs of Podisus distinctus completed its development between 17 and 29oC with optimal temperature at 26.3oC with higher nymph viability at intermediate temperatures (19ºC and 25oC. Optimal temperature for rearing this predator lay between 25ºC and 27oC.

  15. Survival and fecundity of two strains of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of development of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) under specific environmental conditions could lead to improved management techniques. Developmental rates, age-, and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain and a field strain of bed bugs reared on human blood. Both strains were then crossed reciprocally to produce four F1 generations and subsequent age- and stage-specific life tables were constructed. No significant differences were found in the overall survival of the parental strains, but significant differences were found in development rate within various instars based on strain. Parallel results were derived from the F1 generation hybrids. Stable age distribution calculations predict that 80% of bedbugs within exponentially growing populations will be immature. PMID:25276919

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: evidence from mitochondrial genomes

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    Xie Qiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea.

  17. Attack behavior of Podisus rostralis (Heteroptera: Pentatomidade adults on caterpillars of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    Walkymário Paulo Lemos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Attack behavior of the predator Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae adults on fourth instar Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae caterpillars was studied in laboratory conditions. Ten 24 hours old adults of this predator were observed during two hours with the following attack behavior: (1 Predator: prey finding; prey observation; touching prey with antenna; attack behavior; prey paralysis; predator retreat after attack; attack cessation; successive attacks; and (2 Prey: defense. The predator P. rostralis found its prey before attacking and it approached it with slow circular movements. The attack was usually made in the posterior part of the prey to reduce defense reaction. Larger size of prey in relation to the predator resulted difficult prey paralysis but it occurred in less than two hours.Estudou-se, em laboratório, o comportamento de ataque de adultos do predador Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae tendo como presa lagartas de quarto estádio de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae. Dez adultos do predador, com 24 horas de idade, foram observados durante duas horas acompanhando-se os seguintes comportamentos de ataque: (1 Predador: localização da presa; observação da presa; toque das presas com as antenas; comportamento de ataque; paralisação da presa; fuga do predador após ataque; finalização do ataque; ataques sucessivos; e (2 Presa: defesa. O predador P. rostralis localizou sua presa antes do ataque, aproximando-se dela através de lentos movimentos circulares. O ataque é, usualmente, realizado na parte posterior da presa para reduzir reação de defesa. O maior tamanho da presa em relação ao predador pode dificultar a paralisação, porém o predador consegue paralisá-la em menos de duas horas.

  18. Two new species of Phasmatocoris Breddin from Brazil, and description of the male of Phasmatocoris borgmeieri (Wygodzinsky) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R

    2015-12-21

    Phasmatocoris catarinae sp. nov. and P. galvaoi sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae: Emesini) are described from Brazil based on female and male specimens. The male of Phasmatocoris borgmeieri (Wygodzinsky, 1945) is described and short taxonomical notes on this species and P. xavieri Gil-Santana et al., 2007 are provided.

  19. Discovery of a living fossil: a new xylastodorine species from New Caledonia (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) and first record of the subfamily from the eastern Hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.; Cassis, G.; Monteith, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    A new species belonging to the genus Proxylastodoris Heiss & Popov, 2002, P. kuscheli spec. nov., of the subfamily Xylastodorinae Barber, 1920 (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) is described from New Caledonia. It is the first recent record outside the western Hemisphere of the Xyalstodorinae and is th

  20. Biodiversidad de Heteroptera (Hemiptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas de la Patagonia argentina

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    María Cecilia MELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas (infraórdenes Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha y Leptopodomorpha no presentan una alta diversidad específica en Argentina, hasta el momento se han registrado 208 especies. Carlos Berg en 1881, publica el primer trabajo que hace referencia a heterópteros de la Patagonia, en el que lista los insectos recolectados durante la Campaña del Desierto. Desde principios de la década del ’60, las Heteroptera acuáticas han sido estudiadas principalmente por A.O. Bachmann y colaboradores. Hasta el momento, se han registrado 36 especies pertenecientes a las familias Corixidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, Gelastocoridae, Naucoridae y Nepidae (Nepomorpha; Hydrometridae, Veliidae y Mesoveliidae (Gerromorpha, y Saldidae (Leptopodomorpha. La mayoría de estas especies extienden su distribución geográfica hacia el norte de la Argentina, excepto Sigara (Tropocorixa egbertae Hungerford, S. (T. trimaculata (Le Guillou, S. (T. vuriloche Bachmann, S. (T. forciceps (Spinola, Trichocorixa milicorum Bachmann (Corixidae, Notonecta (Paranecta virescens Blanchard, N. (P. fazi Hungerford, N. (P. vereertbruggheni Hungerford (Notonectidae, Pseudosaldula bergi (Haglund y P. paralia (Torres, P. angusta (Drake & Carvalho, P. sola (Drake & Carvalho, P. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho y Saldula differata Drake & Carvalho (Saldidae, que son exclusivas de la Patagonia. El conocimiento de la diversidad de Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas en la Patagonia es bueno y, por los datos recogidos, su estado de conservación es aceptable ya que aproximadamente el 40% de la especies encontradas en áreas naturales protegidas son exclusivas de la región y representan cerca del 40 % del número de especies exclusivas de la Patagonia.

  1. An update of the types of Heteroptera (Hemiptera) housed at the Museo de La Plata Entomological Collection (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Sara Itzel; Dellapé, Pablo Matías

    2013-01-08

    We present a list of the type material of Heteroptera deposited in the entomological collection of the Museo de La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina) in the last six years and or, not included in previous catalogs. This catalog includes 244 specimens belonging to 43 holotypes, one neotype, and 200 paratypes. The type material examined belongs to 50 species from 43 genera distributed in 16 families: Schizopteridae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Thaumastocoridae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Reduviidae, Alydidae, Rhopalidae, Largidae , Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, and Rhyparochromidae.

  2. Chromosomes and their meiotic behaviour in two species of Dieuches Dohrn, 1860 (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochromini

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    Harbhajan Kaur

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lygaeidae (Heteroptera are a large and diverse family in which the male diploid chromosomal complement ranges from 10 to 30. Diploid numbers of 14 and 16 are taken as two modal numbers of the family. The Rhyparochrominae, one of the largest subfamilies of the Lygaeidae, are known to be heterogeneous both cytologically and morphologically. Available data on the tribe Rhyparochromini reveal that all species are characterized by the presence of a pair of microchromosomes (m-chromosomes and have an XY/XX (♂/♀ sex chromosome determining system. Dieuches coloratus (Distant, 1909 and D. insignis (Distant, 1918 belonging to Rhyparochromini, have 2n=14=10A+2m+XY and 2n=12=8A+2m+XY respectively. Both the species are similar inone pair of distinctly large autosomes in their chromosome complements. The metaphase plate arrangement of autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes in D. coloratus is similar to the common condition observed in the tribe Rhyparochromini. In D. insignis, however, the arrangement is different. Here, metaphase I is usual in showing peripheral position of autosomes and central position of sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes. At metaphase II, however, autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes are peripherally placed, an arrangement, which is not reported earlier in the tribe Rhyparochromini.

  3. Feeding preference of Macrolophus caliginosus (Heteroptera: Miridae) on Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Olivier; Couton, Louise; Fargues, Jacques

    2006-08-01

    A study of predation choices of Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) late instars and adults, when offered various developmental stages (eggs and nymphs) of the recently established whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was made based on two preference indices. In addition, prey choices of late instars when presented with three ratios of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and B. tabaci at a similar developmental stage (eggs, young or late instars) were assessed. M. caliginosus preferred older nymphs of B. tabaci than any other stage. It also chose T. vaporariorum over B. tabaci, unless the latter consisted of > 75% of the available prey. These results suggested that M. caliginosus might interfere with parasitoids such as Encarsia, Eretmocerus, or Amitus spp. because all three species emerge from the host pupal case. Furthermore, in mixed infestations, M. caliginosus preference for T. vaporariorum might either negatively affect the control of B. tabaci, or, contrarily, enhance the predator population, before a B. tabaci outbreak occurs in the greenhouse.

  4. Characterization of the symbiont Rickettsia in the mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi-Fluger, A; Inbar, M; Steinberg, S; Friedmann, Y; Freund, M; Mozes-Daube, N; Zchori-Fein, E

    2014-12-01

    Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is an omnivorous insect used for biological control. Augmentative release and conservation of N. tenuis have been used for pest control in tomato crops. Intracellular bacterial symbionts of arthropods are common in nature and have diverse effects on their hosts; in some cases they can dramatically affect biological control. Fingerprinting methods showed that the symbiotic complex associated with N. tenuis includes Wolbachia and Rickettsia. Rickettsia of N. tenuis was further characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA and gltA bacterial genes, measuring its amount in different developmental stages of the insect by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and localizing the bacteria in the insect's body by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The Rickettsia in N. tenuis exhibited 99 and 96% similarity of both sequenced genes to Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia reported from Bemisia tabaci, respectively. The highest amount of Rickettsia was measured in the 5th instar and adult, and the symbionts could be detected in the host gut and ovaries. Although the role played by Rickettsia in the biology of N. tenuis is currently unknown, their high amount in the adults and localization in the gut suggest that they may have a nutritional role in this insect.

  5. Species Composition and Abundance of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota Field Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Robert L; Pahs, Tiffany

    2015-04-01

    In response to concerns of increasing significance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in northern states, a survey was conducted over 2 yr in Minnesota to characterize the Pentatomidae associated with field corn, Zea mays L. Halyomorpha halys (Stål), an exotic species, was not detected in this survey, despite continued detection of this species as an invader of human-made structures in Minnesota. Five species of Pentatomidae (four herbivorous; one predatory) were collected from corn. Across years, Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) and Euschistus servus euschistoides (Vollenhoven) had the greatest relative abundances and frequencies of detection. In 2012, the abundance of herbivorous species exceeded 25 nymphs and adults per 100 plants (i.e., an economic threshold) in 0.48% of fields. However, the abundance of herbivorous species did not reach economic levels in any fields sampled in 2013. The frequency of detection of herbivorous species and ratio of nymphs to adults was highest during reproductive growth stages of corn. The predator species, Podisus maculiventris (Say), was detected in 0 to 0.32% of fields. These results provide baseline information on the species composition and abundance of Pentatomidae in Minnesota field corn, which will be necessary for documentation of changes to this fauna as a result of the invasion of H. halys and to determine if some native species continue to increase in abundance in field crops. PMID:26313176

  6. Host egg age of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera, Coreidae) and parasitism by Gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Furlan, Paola; Benassai, Daniele; Caradonna, Sarah; Strong, Ward B; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2013-04-01

    Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera, Coreidae) is native to Western North America and is a serious pest for seed production of conifers. The pest was accidentally introduced into Europe in the 1990s. Since then, seed loss has been recorded in Pinus pinea (L.) forests, with a negative impact on the commercial production of pine nuts. Classical biological control of this pest in P. pinea stands is an attractive proposition. Previous work showed that the egg-parasitoid Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) had promising life history traits in laboratory studies using L. occidentalis eggs as host. In the present work, the effect of host egg age on parasitization rate was evaluated in the laboratory, using choice and no-choice tests. Host eggs ranged in age from < 24 h to within a day of hatching. Results showed that parasitization rate, juvenile survival rate, sex ratio, and longevity of female G. pennsylvanicum were not significantly affected by the age of the host eggs. However, egg-parasitoid development time was longer in older host eggs, and females were smaller than those that developed in younger host eggs. Parasitization behaviors (drumming, oviposition, and marking) were not affected by the age of the host. G. pennsylvanicum females tended to parasitize all available host eggs within a cluster before moving to a new cluster, without displaying a preferences for host egg age. The ability to exploit host eggs of any age class improves the prospect of successful classical biological control using this egg-parasitoid.

  7. Los coleópteros y heterópteros acuáticos del Parque Nacional Calilegua (Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina Aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera from Calilegua National Park (Jujuy Province, Argentina

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    Patricia L. M. Torres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una lista de las especies de Coleoptera y Heteroptera presentes en los cuerpos de agua del Parque Nacional Calilegua. Se registraron 51 especies de Coleoptera incluidas en 28 géneros y cinco familias, y 37 especies de Heteroptera distribuidas en 22 géneros y 10 familias; sólo cuatro especies de Coleoptera y cinco de Heteroptera fueron citadas previamente del parque. Se mencionan por primera vez para la Argentina dos especies de Veliidae (Heteroptera: Rhagovelia trista Gould y Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, así como una especie y un género de Dytiscidae (Coleoptera: Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller y Bidessonotus Régimbart. Además, es la primera ocasión en que se mencionan para la provincia de Jujuy 24 especies y 11 géneros de Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria Babington, Celina Aubé, Gyrinus Linné, Haliplus Latreille, Hydrocanthus Say, Suphis Aubé, Anacaena Thomson, Derallus Sharp y 19 especies y 12 géneros de Heteroptera (Mesovelia Mulsant & Rey, Hebrus Curtis, Merragata White, Microvelia Westwood, Rhagovelia Mayr, Platyvelia J. T. Polhemus & D. A. Polhemus, Limnogonus Stål, Curicta Stål, Ranatra Fabricius, Centrocorisa Lundblad, Pelocoris Stål, Neoplea Esaki & China.A list of the species of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera occurring in Calilegua National Park is presented. Fifty-one species of Coleoptera included in 28 genera and five families, and 37 species of Heteroptera belonging to 22 genera and 10 families were recorded. Only four species of Coleoptera and five of Heteroptera had been previously cited from the park. Two species of Veliidae (Heteroptera (Rhagovelia trista Gould, Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, along with one species and one genus of Dytiscidae (Coleoptera (Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller, Bidessonotus Régimbart are new records for Argentina. Twenty-four species and 11 genera of Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria

  8. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for “DNA barcoding”) and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41–45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and “DNA barcoding” reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy. PMID:27149077

  9. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera in Cameroon.

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    Solange Meyin A Ebong

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding" and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs, which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  10. The lace bug Cochlochila bullita (Stål) (Heteroptera: Tingidae), a potential pest of Orthosiphon stamineus Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sajap, Ahmad Said; Peng, Tan Li

    2010-01-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Bentham, a medicinal plant in the family Lamiaceae, is used to make a well known herbal tea in many countries including Malaysia. Since its establishment as an important cash crop, the herb has been relatively free from any serious insect problems until recently. In Selangor, Malaysia we observed the herb heavily infested by the lace bug Cochlochila bullita Stål (Heteroptera: Tingidae). This is the first record of its occurrence in Malaysia and also the first record on t...

  11. The Beetle (Coleoptera and True bug (Heteroptera species pool of the alpine “Pian di Gembro” wetland (Villa di Tirano, Italy and its conservation

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    Matteo Montagna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he C oleoptera and Heteroptera species pool was investigated in the “Pian di Gembro” wetland (Villa di T irano, Sondrio, Italy. T he wetland consists of a bog and its surroundings, referred to as wetland components, that are both subjected to a diversified intermediate management regime (DIMR. T he application of the DIMR for plant species conservation resulted in the establishment of 11 wetland zones with a characteristic vegetation. In a three year sampling program, 997 C oleoptera and Heteroptera representing 141 species from 14 families were collected. Among these species, 64 species share both wetland components, 11 are restricted to the bog and 63 were found in the surroundings only. Among the species pool there were 23 tyrphophile taxa and only one tyrphobiont. With the exception of one zone, all zones are inhabited by zone-specific species. By taking into account both the general species pool and the pool of species of particular interest to conservationists, only one zone can be considered as redundant since it is inhabited by species that occur also in other zones. Hence, all the zones, with one exception, are effective for species pool conservation. The existing DIMR implemented for plant species conservation is also effective for conserving the species pool of C oleoptera and Heteroptera.

  12. Distribuição de Heteroptera Aquáticos (Insecta em Diferentes Tipos de Substratos de Córregos do Cerrado Matogrossense

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    Karina Dias-Silva

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. The Heteroptera community of Cerrado streams in east of Mato Grosso was analyzed to determine the types of substrate that contemplate the largest variation in species composition. Samples were performed in the leaf litter substrates from rapids and backwaters, root, gravel, stone (boulder, sand and on the water surface (surface tension layer of springs, mean stretches and mouths of the Santo Antônio and Colher streams on December/2004 and July/2005, with six subsamples each substrate. Were collected 333 specimens distributed in 11 families, 20 genus and 30 morphospecies (17 Nepomorpha and 13 Gerromorpha, being Gerromorpha the most abundant (172 specimens. The estimated richness of Gerromorpha in the substrates was higher in samples from water surface, while Nepomorpha showed higher richness in root, followed by gravel and leaf litter from rapids. The inorganic substrates (stone and sand showed lower richness of Heteroptera. Among Gerromorpha, Limnogonus aduncus aduncus Drake & Harris, Rhagovelia elegans Uhler, Neogerris lubricus White and Brachymetra sp.1 were associated to surface samples and Stridulivelia anta Polhemus & Spangler to root substrate. In Nepomorpha, Martarega chinai Hynes was associated to surface samples, while Ambrysus sp. 1 showed association to leaf litter from rapids, backwaters, root and surface. The results suggest that studies which aim for rapid surveys of Heteroptera community should prioritize surface samples for Gerromorpha and root samples for Nepomorpha, because these substrates shelter the greatest richness of each infra-order, contemplating 83% and 64% of species richness in these groups respectively.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the stalk-eyed bug Chauliops fallax Scott, and the monophyly of Malcidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Li

    Full Text Available Chauliops fallax Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Malcidae: Chauliopinae is one of the most destructive insect pests of soybean and rice fields in Asia. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,739 bp long, with an A+T content of 73.7%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and a control region. All genes were arranged in the same order as most of other Heteroptera. A remarkable strand bias was found for all nine protein coding genes (PCGs encoded by the majority strand were positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew, whereas the reverse were found in the remaining four PCGs encoded by the minority strand and two rRNA genes. The models of secondary structures for the two rRNA genes of sequenced true bugs and Lygaeoidea were predicted. 16S rRNA consisted of six domains (domain III is absent as in other known arthropod mitochondrial genomes and 45 helices, while three domains and 27 helices for 12S rRNA. The control region consists of five subregions: a microsatellite-like region, a tandem repeats region and other three motifs. The unusual intergenic spacer between tRNA-H and ND4 only found in the species of Lygaeoidea, not in other heteropteran species, may be the synapomorphy of this superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on all the 13 PCGs showed that Chauliopinae was the sister group of Malcinae and the monophyly of Lygaeoidea.

  14. The influence of habitat integrity and physical-chemical water variables on the structure of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera

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    Karina Dias-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the effect of certain physical-chemical variables and the Habitat Integrity Index (HII have on an aquatic and semi-aquatic heteropteran community. We collected in five streams (from 1st to 4th order that differed in habitat integrity, in order to test 1 whether heteropteran richness decreases with the Habitat Integrity Index; and 2 whether richness responds to alterations in water physical-chemical variables, since these influence community structure. In each stream, linear transects of 100 m were demarcated. A total of 1425 specimens from 10 families, 30 genera and 67 morphospecies were collected. Species richness was correlated with the Habitat Integrity Index (HII, showing a positive relationship only for Gerromorpha. This may be due to the fact that streams with greater integrity offer nearby marginal vegetation where prey and shelter can be easily found, representing optimal places for oviposition and hunting. Species adapted to such conditions are more sensitive to alterations in the physical structure of rivers. Significant differences in the composition of Heteroptera and studied infra-orders were also observed, which suggests that the anthropic disturbances over these sites have changed these insect communities. Our results indicate that the alteration in riparian areas can lead to significant changes in Heteroptera composition, even though species richness was not affected. The physical-chemical variables showed no influence on the distribution of species. This result suggests that the environment presented insufficient variation that could cause changes in the investigated community, which implies that factors other than those analyzed here may explain such variation. Three species Rhagovelia trailli (White, 1879, Rhagovelia sp. 4 and Tenagobia incerta (Lundblad, 1928 were considered to be indicators of pristine sites. The results indicate that aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera and more specifically the

  15. Diversity of endophytic fungi of Suaeda heteroptera Kitag%盐生植物翅碱蓬的内生真菌多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮旭光; 宋立超; 韩梅; 肖亦农

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对辽宁省盘锦市双台子河口国家自然保护区的盐生植物翅碱蓬(Suaeda heteroptera Kitag.)的内生真菌进行研究. [方法]利用传统分离方法对翅碱蓬的根、茎、叶组织进行分离和纯化,根据形态学和理化特征,并结合rDNA-ITS序列分析对菌种进行鉴定.[结果]共分离得到内生真菌49株,这些内生真菌分属于13个属,其中小丛壳菌属(Glomerella)、链格孢属(Alternaria)、毛盘孢属(Colletotrichum)和枝孢属(Cladosporium)为优势菌属.翅碱蓬的内生真菌分布具有一定的组织特异性,两种不同生境中的翅碱蓬内生真菌群落丰富度差异较小,相似度较高,但在某些种属上存在特异性.[结论]翅碱蓬体内含有丰富的内生真菌资源,其内生真菌具有很高的宿主特异性,而且其分布受生境影响.%[Objective] The populations of endophytic fungi from halophyte Suaeda heteroptera Kitag.grown in the salt flats in Shuangtaizi Estuary of Panjin, Liaoning province, China, were investigated.[Methods] Endophytic fungi were isolated and purified from the roots, stems and leaves of Suaeda heteroptera Kitag.with traditional method.Isolates were identified based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and rDNA-ITS sequence analysis.[Results] Overall, 49 endophytic fungi strains were isolated and purified, these strains were classified into 13 different genera, in which Glomerella, Alternaria, Colle-totrichum and Cladosporium were dominant genera.The distribution of endophytes of host plants have some degree of tissue preference, and though there was not significant difference of the abundance level in different habitats, habitat specificity of some endophytic fungi communities was presented.[Conclusion] Our results suggested that Suaeda heteroptera Ki-tag.have abundant resouces of endophytic fungi, the species diversity of endophytic fungi communities is affected both by its host preference and by its different

  16. No direct effects of resistant soybean cultiva IAC-24 on Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Efectos no directos de resistencia del cultivar de soya IAC-24 sobre Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    José Cola Zanuncio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of survival, development and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae may be affected by feeding on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.; Fabaceae cultivars. The direct effect was evaluated of the insect-resistant soybean 'IAC-24' (insect-susceptible soybean 'UFVS-2006' + pupae of Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae versus 'IAC-24' plants + pupae of T. molitor in the nymph and adult stages of the predator P. nigrispinus. The duration of the nymph stage was similar between treatments, but 'IAC-24' reduced the duration of the IV instar of this predator. The survival of P. nigrispinus was similar between treatments in the instars I, II, IV and V and in the nymph stage, but the survival of the III instar was longer with 'IAC-24' plants. The body mass of nymphs in the first day of the III, IV, and V instars after ecdysis and newly emerged adults; reproductive characteristics (periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, post-oviposition and egg incubation; egg laying interval, number of egg masses per female, nymphs per female, nymphs per egg mass and percentage of nymphs hatching and life span of males and females of P. nigrispinus were similar between treatments. The resistant soybean 'IAC-24' showed no direct deleterious effects on P. nigrispinus, which implies its innocuity and compatibility with this predator.Los par ámetros de supervivencia, desarrollo y reproducción de Podìsus nìgrìspìnus Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae pueden verse afectados por la alimentación en cultivos de soya (Glycìne max L. Merr.; Fabaceae. Se evaluó el efecto directo de la soya 'IAC-24' resistente a insectos (soya 'UFVS-2006' susceptible a insectos + pupas de Tenebrìo molìtor L., 1758 Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae vs. plantas 'IAC-24' + pupas de T. molìtor sobre los estados de ninfa y adulto del depredador P. nìgrìspìnus. La duración del estado ninfal fue similar entre tratamientos, no obstante

  17. Susceptibility of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidea to gamma-cyhalothrin under laboratory conditions Suscetibilidade de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae a gamma-cyhalothrin sob condições de laboratório

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    Alexandre Igor de Azevedo Pereira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is an important biological control agent of the cotton leafworm [Alabama argillacea (Hübner] in the cotton crops in Brazil. The use of selective products such as pyrethroids has been emphasized in this agroecosystem. Then, the susceptibility of the predatory stinkbug P. nigrispinus to the pyrethroid insecticide gamma-cyhalothrin was studied in the laboratory. Nymphs and adults of the predator were exposed to seven concentrations of the gamma-cyhalothrin via topical contact and ingestion through treated water. The concentrations studied of this insecticide via topical application were relatively harmless for adults of P. nigrispinus (females: LC50 = 143.5 ppm a.i., and males: LC50 = 145.1 ppm a.i. and 5th-instar nymphs (LC50 = 103.9 ppm as compared to via ingestion (females: LC50 = 1.98 ppm a.i., males: LC50 = 1.91 ppm a.i., and 5th-instar nymphs: LC50 = 2.05 ppm a.i.. The use of pyrethroids and beneficial insects in IPM programs should be better evaluated.Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae é um importante agente de controle biológico do curuquerê [Alabama argillacea (Hübner] na cultura do algodão no Brasil. O uso de produtos seletivos tais como piretróides tem sido enfatizado no agroecosistema do algodoeiro. Portanto, estudou-se em laboratório a suscetibilidade do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas ao inseticida piretróide gamma-cyhalothrin. As exposições via ingestão e aplicação tópica de ninfas de 5º ínstar, fêmeas e machos de P. nigrispinus a gamma-cyhalothrin foram feitas, usando-se sete concentrações do inseticida. Gamma-cyhalothrin via aplicação tópica foi relativamente menos tóxico às formas adultas de P. nigrispinus (fêmeas: CL50 = 143,5 ppm i.a. e machos: CL50 = 145,1 ppm i.a. e às ninfas de 5º ínstar (CL50 = 103,9 ppm desse predador, quando comparado a sua utilização por ingestão (fêmeas: LC50 = 1,98 ppm i.a., machos

  18. Malformation of true bug (Heteroptera): a phenotype field study on the possible influence of artificial low-level radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Honegger, Cornelia; Wallimann, Peter

    2008-04-01

    The results of extensive field studies on the malformation of Western European true bugs (Heteroptera) are reviewed. More than 16,000 individuals were collected over two decades, and subjected to detailed visual inspection. Various types of disturbances were found and illustrated in detail. Depending on country, region, as well as local influences, severe disturbances and high degrees of malformation were noticed, especially in the sphere of nuclear-power installations in Switzerland (Aargau), France (La Hague), and Germany (Gundremmingen). Malformation reached values as high as 22 and 30% for morphological (MD) and total disturbance (TD), respectively. This is far above the values expected for natural populations (ca. 1%) or those determined for true bugs living in biotopes considered as relatively 'intact' (1-3%). A detailed chi-square test of the malformation data obtained for 650 true bugs from 13 collection sites near the nuclear-reprocessing plant La Hague showed a highly significant correlation (p=0.003) between malformation and wind exposure/local topography. Similar observations were made for other study sites. Currently, our data are best rationalized by assuming a direct influence between the release of anthropogenic radionuclides such as tritium ((3)H), carbon-14 ((14)C), or iodine-131 ((131)I), constantly emitted by nuclear-power and nuclear-reprocessing plants, as well as by Chernobyl and bomb-testing fallout, which is rich in caesium-137 ((137)Cs) and other long-lived noxious isotopes that have entered the food chain. The present work supports the growing evidence that low-level radiation, especially in the form of randomly scattered 'hot' alpha- and beta-particles, mainly transported via aerosols, puts a heavy burden on the biosphere in general, and on true bugs in particular. These insects could, thus, serve as sensitive 'bio-indicators' for future studies.

  19. Bed bug cytogenetics: karyotype, sex chromosome system, FISH mapping of 18S rDNA, and male meiosis in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera: Cimicidae

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    Snejana Grozeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera are frequently used as examples of unusual cytogenetic characters, and the family Cimicidae is one of most interest in this respect. We have performed a cytogenetic study of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 using both classical (Schiff-Giemsa and AgNO3-staining and molecular cytogenetic techniques (base-specific DAPI/CMA3 fluorochromes and FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. Males originated from a wild population of C. lectularius were found to have 2n = 26 + X1X2Y, holokinetic chromosomes, 18S rRNA genes located on the X1 and Y chromosomes; achiasmate male meiosis of a collochore type; MI and MII plates nonradial and radial respectively.

  20. Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera

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    Diego L Carpintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.

  1. Biology, behaviour and functional response of Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae a predator of Tea Mosquito Bug (Helopeltis antonii Sign. on cashew in India

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    K.K. Srikumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae are major sucking pests of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. in India. Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae is recorded as a potential predator of Helopeltis spp. Biology, mating behaviour and functional response of C. gilvus were studied by rearing in the laboratory (temperature 26-28 0C; relative humidity 89-94 % with wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae. Based on laboratory rearing, the fecundity was 56.33 eggs in 8.67 batches per female. The average stadial period was 37.3 days, with a maximum of 11 days for V instar and a minimum of 4.5 days for III instars. C. gilvus took 45.5 days to complete a generation. The innate capacity of natural increase was 0.07 with a gross reproduction of 67.8 females per female. The adult exhibited a pin and jab mode of predation in a sequence of actions. The sequential action of mating comprised arousal (1.32 min, approach (12.30 min, riding over (140.48 min and copulation (85.40 min. The predator responded to increasing prey density by killing more prey than at lower prey densities

  2. Notes on Phymatidae (Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormilev, N.A.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1986-01-01

    A small lot of Phymatidae (except Phymatinae) from the Rijksmusem van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, and a few specimens from the Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoölogie, Amsterdam, the British Museum (Natural History), London, and the Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg, have been studied. The following new

  3. Composição de Heteroptera aquáticos e semi-aquáticos na área de abrangência da U.H.E. Dona Francisca, RS, Brasil: fase de pré-enchimento Composition of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera at the Hydroelectric Power Station of Dona Francisca region, RS, Brazil: before dam construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris B. Neri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi analisada a composição dos Heteroptera do curso médio da bacia do rio Jacuí, RS, Brasil, previamente à construção da U.H.E. Dona Francisca, bem como alguns fatores abióticos que poderiam afetar a distribuição e a abundância destes organismos. Nos ambientes lênticos, amostragens quantitativas foram realizadas utilizando-se peneiras, em seis localidades (janeiro 2000. Nos ambientes lóticos, as coletas foram feitas através de amostrador de Surber (de maio a outubro de 2000, privilegiando-se a captura de espécies tipicamente bentônicas. Em cada estação, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, precipitação mensal, temperatura do ar e da água e profundidade foram medidos. Nos rios e riachos, a velocidade da corrente também foi registrada. Quinze espécies foram registradas nos ambientes lênticos, sendo Belostoma sp. e Notonecta sp. as dominantes (70%. A abundância, a riqueza e os índices de diversidade foram mais altos nos locais com maiores dimensões. Nos ambientes lóticos, foram assinaladas duas espécies de Naucoridae, Ambrysus teutonius La Rivers, 1951 e Cryphocricus vianai De Carlo, 1951, sendo a primeira dominante (65%. A abundância foi maior nos pontos com maior sombreamento, presença de árvores e/ou com detritos vegetais, ou com a macrófita Podostemum sp. (Podostemaceae no fundo, e mais baixa em locais com curso semi-regulado. Possivelmente, fatores como temperatura e precipitação acumulada estejam relacionados com a abundância mensal dos Naucoridae. Os resultados deste estudo servirão de subsídio para futuros estudos de impacto ambiental após o enchimento do reservatório da U.H.E. Dona Francisca.The Heteroptera composition in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin, RS, Brazil, and some abiotic factors that might affect their distribution and abundance were studied previously to the Dona Francisca dam construction. The insects were quantitatively sampled in six sites, in lentic environments, with

  4. Efecto de la alternación de fuentes sanguíneas sobre la fecundidad y la fertilidad de Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

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    Elis José Aldana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evidencia que si el éxito reproductivo de Rhodnius prolixus Stal está relacionado a la fuente alimentaria, entonces las necesidades biológicas del insecto son satisfechas en modos diferentes según el tipo de alternancia entre dichas fuentes de alimentación; tales diferencias son reveladas mediante los cambios en fertilidad y fecundidad del insecto. Se realizaron nueve alternancias, en cada una se suministraron dos alimentaciones, en unas se alternó la fuente de alimentación y en los controles se suministraron dos alimentaciones con la misma fuente. Las fuentes alimentarias fueron paloma, gallina y humano, esta última mediante un aparato de alimentación artificial; estas fuentes se escogieron en el supuesto que son fuentes alimentarias encontradas en los ecotopos silvestre, peri-domicilio y domicilio respectivamente. En todos los tipos de alternancia se encontró una relación lineal entre la fecundidad y el tiempo de oviposición, que la relación entre cantidad de sangre ingerida y la fecundidad varían, que la tasa de fecundidad aumenta en la segunda alimentación respecto a la primera y que la fertilidad fue superior al 95 %. Effects of alternating blood sources on fecundity and fertility of Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: ReduviidaeIn this work it is argued that if the reproductive parameters of Rhodnius prolixus Stal are related to the blood source upon which it feeds, then the insects biological needs must be satisfied in different ways by the alternation between blood sources, reveled through changes in the fecundity and fertility of individuals of this insect species. Nine experiments were conducted, each one consisting of two feedings, in which the blood source were either alternated or remained the same. The meal sources used were pigeon, hen and human blood, selected according to the resources found in the sylvatic, peri-domestic and domestic ecotopes respectively. It was found that the quantity of

  5. Toxicidade de produtos fitossanitários para adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae Pesticide toxicity to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

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    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade de abamectin, acephate, azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorfenapyr, imibenconazole, iprodion, metalaxyl + mancozeb e triforine para adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os produtos foram utilizados nas concentrações indicadas pelos fabricantes e/ou que estão em fase de pesquisa para o controle de pragas e doenças na cultura do crisântemo, sendo aplicados em adultos por meio de torre de Potter. Os bioensaios foram realizados em laboratório, sob temperatura de 25±2 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. A toxicidade dos produtos para adultos foi determinada pela porcentagem do efeito total (E%, levando-se em consideração a taxa de mortalidade e redução de oviposição, sendo, ainda, classificados segundo escala proposta por membros da IOBC. Abamectin, acephate e chlorfenapyr são tóxicos a adultos de O. insidiosus, provocando redução na sua sobrevivência. Fêmeas adultas de O. insidiosus tratadas com abamectin e acephate têm a viabilidade de seus ovos reduzida, enquanto a aplicação de abamectin e chlorfenapyr prolongam seu período de oviposição. Os fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomyl, imibenconazole, iprodione, metalaxyl + mancozeb e triforine têmbaixa toxicidade ao O. insidiosus.The aim of this work wasevaluate the toxicity of abamectin, acephate, azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorfenapyr, imibenconazole, iprodione, metalaxyl + mancozeb and triforine on adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. These pesticides were used at the concentrations indicated by the manufacturers. All of them are in testing process for pest and diseases control on chrysanthemums crop, and were spraying on adults using a Potter's tower. The bioassays were carried out in laboratory, under controlled conditions at 25±2ºC, RH of 70±10% and 12-h photophase. The toxicity of the pesticides to adults was determined by the total effect (E, considering the mortality rate and oviposition reduction. Toxicity effect was classified according to scale proposed by IOBC. Abamectin, acephate and chlorfenapyr were toxic to adults de O. insidiosus, and caused reduction in their survival. Females of O. insidiosus treated with abamectin and acephate caused reduction on eggs viability, whereas the application of abamectin and chlorfenapyr cause encrease on pre-oviposition period. The fungicides azoxystrobin, benomyl, imibenconazole, iprodione, metalaxyl + mancozeb and triforine presented low toxicity to O. insidiosus.

  6. Arreglo de los polígonos del exocorion de huevos eclosionados de algunas especies de los géneros Triatoma Laporte, Meccus Stal y Nesotriatoma Usinger (Heteroptera: Reduviidae.

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    Glauco López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En este trabajo se estudiaron estructural y cuantitativamente las celdas exocoriales de huevos eclosionados de Triatoma infestans (Klug, Triatoma lenti Sherlock & Serafim, Triatoma maculata (Erichson, Triatoma sordida (Stal, Meccus picturatus (Usinger, Meccus longipennis (Usinger, Meccus pallidipennis (Stal and Nesotriatoma flavida (Neiva. Los huevos se analizaron por regiones: caudal, media y cefálica. Se encontró que el hexágono fue el polígono más abundante en todas las regiones del huevo y en todas las especies, seguido del pentágono y del heptágono; se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el número tanto de hexágonos y pentágonos entre regiones de una misma especie y entre la misma región de las diferentes especies, sin embargo, el número promedio de heptágonos no varió al comparar la región media entre las diferentes especies y al comparar las diferentes regiones en una misma especie. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el promedio de polígonos, segmentos totales, heptágonos, hexágonos y pentágonos, al comparar las especies examinadas del género Meccus. Se propone un protocolo de identificación y análisis de teselaciones, con el cual se encontró que en 108 campos examinados de 385.000 µm2 cada uno, se identificaron teselaciones compartidas en los 108 campos observados con determinadas combinaciones de heptágonos, hexágonos y pentágonos, y se observaron teselaciones no compartidas en la totalidad de los campos, con combinaciones de polígonos de cuatro a nueve lados, y cada teselación se representó por un grafo. Se discuten las implicaciones taxonómicas, funcionales, filogenéticas y construccionales de los arreglos poligonales descritos.Arragement of exochorial polygons of hatched eggs in several species of the genera Triatoma Laporte, Meccus Stal y Nesotriatoma Usinger (Heteroptera: Reduviidae. Abstract. In this study a structural and quantitative

  7. Identification of Endophytic Bacteria and Preliminary Research on Their Growth-promoting Effect under Salt Stress in Suaeda heteroptera Kitag%翅碱蓬内生细菌鉴定及耐盐促生作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮旭光; 韩梅; 宋立超; 肖亦农

    2011-01-01

    对盐生植物翅碱蓬的根、茎、叶组织进行分离,纯化,得到内生细菌79株,经形态学和理化特征鉴定并结合16S rDNA片段测序分析,表明这些内生细菌分别属于芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter)、假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)、黄单胞菌属(Xanthomonas)、盐单胞菌属(Halomonas)和泛菌属(Pantoea).通过考察所分离到细菌对异缘植物小麦盐分胁迫下种子萌发率和幼苗生长的促进作用,筛选出2株能够显著提高小麦耐盐性的内生芽孢细菌SE48和SE4.150mM NaCl胁迫条件下,SE48和SE4处理小麦的干重分别增加43.6%和36.8%;甚至在300mM NaCl胁迫条件下,SE48仍能使小麦幼苗于重增加18.5%.这表明翅碱蓬的内生细菌可望用于宿主耐盐性的提高及盐碱地土壤的开发利用.%79 endophytic bacteria strains were isolated and purified from the roots,stems and leaves of a halophyte, Suaeda heteroptera. According to physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis,these strains were classified into 6 different genera:Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Xanthonumas, Halomonas and Pantoea. According to the stimulation of endophytic bacteria to the seed germination and seedling growth of heterologous wheat under salt stress,two strains (SE48 and SE4)could significantly improve the salt tolerance of host plants. SE48 and SE4 could significantly promote the growth of wheat seedlings in the presence of 150mM NaCl by increasing 31.37% and 40.21% of the dry weight,respectively. SE48 could even raise the dry weight by 18.5% under 300mM NaCl. The results showed that inoculation with endophytic bacteria could serve as an environmentally-friendly and economical alternative to the amelioration of increasingly saline soils.

  8. Optimization an optimal artificial diet for the predatory bug Orius sauteri (hemiptera: anthocoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flower bug Orius sauteri is an important polyphagous predator that is widely used for the biological control of mites and aphids. However, the optimal conditions for mass rearing of this insect are still unclear, thus limiting its application. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we investigated the optimal ingredients of an artificial diet for raising O. sauteri using a microencapsulation technique. The ingredients included egg yolk (vitellus, whole-pupa homogenate of the Tussah silk moth (Antheraea paphia, honey, sucrose, rapeseed (Brassica napus pollen and sinkaline. We tested 25 combinations of the above ingredients using an orthogonal experimental design. Using statistical analysis, we confirmed the main effect factors amongst the components, and selected five optimal combinations based on different biological and physiological characters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed that, although different artificial diet formats significantly influenced the development and reproductive ability of O. sauteri, the complete development of O. sauteri to sexual maturity could only be achieved by optimizing the artificial diet according to specific biological characters. In general, pupae of A. paphia had more influence on O sauteri development than did artificial components. The results of a follow-up test of locomotory and respiratory capacity indicated that respiratory quotient, metabolic rate and average creeping speed were all influenced by different diets. Furthermore, the field evaluations of mating preference, predatory consumption and population dispersion also demonstrated the benefits that could be provided by optimal artificial diets. CONCLUSIONS: A microencapsulated artificial diet overcame many of the difficulties highlighted by previous studies on the mass rearing of O. sauteri. Optimization of the microencapsulated artificial diet directly increased the biological and physiological characters investigated. Successive physiological tests and field investigations were used to evaluate the outcome of different artificial diet combinations on the quality of the reared O. sauteri.

  9. Effect of different diets on reproduction, longevity and predation capacity of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calixto, A.M.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Montes, F.C.; Silva, A.C.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Orius insidiosus is a generalist predator for which diet influences important biological traits like reproduction and predation. We tested the effects of different diets alone or in combination on reproduction, longevity and predation capacity of this predator. The diets tested were: no food (contro

  10. Potential for exploitative competition, not intraguild predation, between invasive harlequin ladybirds and flowerbugs in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon; Ravn, Hans Peter; Pipper, Christian Bressen;

    2016-01-01

    -content analysis, we investigated the relative frequencies of IGP by H. axyridis on the predatory flowerbug Anthocoris nemoralis Fabricius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) and prey overlap for a shared prey, the lime aphid Eucallipterus tiliae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Tilia × europaea crowns in urban parks....... The frequency of IGP by H. axyridis was low: 2.7 % of larvae and 3.4 % of adults tested positive for A. nemoralis DNA. The presence of lime aphid DNA in predators was higher: 56.5 and 47.9 % of H. axyridis larvae and adults, respectively, contained E. tiliae DNA, whereas 60.8 % of adult A. nemoralis tested...... positive for aphid DNA. Incorporating insect densities revealed that the density of H. axyridis larvae had a strong negative effect on the likelihood of detecting aphid DNA in A. nemoralis. Prey overlap for E. tiliae was widespread in space (2–13 m height in tree crowns) and time (May–October 2011) which...

  11. Leptocorisa Latreille in Indonesia (Heteroptera, Coreidae, Alydinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwi, Sri S.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of the taxonomy and distribution of the Leptocorisa species in the Indonesian archipelago, primarily based on the material present in the Dutch museums, and on data from the literature. Thirteen species are found to be present in Indonesia: L. acuta (Thunberg), L. ayamaruensis Does

  12. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  13. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  14. Temperature and humidity responses of the arctic-alpine seed bug Nysius groenlandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcher, Jens J.; Nachman, Gösta

    2001-01-01

    Nysius groenlandicus, Heteroptera, Lygaeidae, temperature, humidity, preference, Atctic, Greenland......Nysius groenlandicus, Heteroptera, Lygaeidae, temperature, humidity, preference, Atctic, Greenland...

  15. Screening of Bt isolates with insecticidal activity against Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera:Miridae)and bioassay of Cry15Aa polypeptides%对绿盲蝽具有杀虫活性Bt菌株的筛选及Cry15Aa蛋白活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学雯; 束长龙; 陆宴辉; 刘春颖; 张杰; 高继国

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic cotton with cry genes has controlled the main cotton pests (Helicoverpa armigera )effective-ly,however another non target mirid bugs (Heteroptera:Miridae)with sucking mouthparts have increased popu-lation sizes year by year.It has not been reported to the effective insecticidal genes of Bacillus thuringiensis a-gainst Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür),in this study,Bt insecticidal genes and isolates stored in our laboratory were prepared to assay the insecticidal activity against A.lucorum .The cry 15Aa gene which belongs to Mtx in our lab was used to perform the bioassay to A.lucorum ,the result showed that Cry15Aa polypeptides was certain insecticidal activity against A.lucorum .After bioassay against A.lucorum ,twenty A.lucorum toxic Bt isolates were obtained.The LC-MS/MS identification showed these isolates might contains Cry1Aa,Cry1Ab,Cry1Ac, Cry1Ae,Cry1Af,Cry1Ag,Cry1Ah,Cry1Ba,Cry1Be,Cry8Ha and other proteins which are insecticidal to lepi-doptera and coleopteran pests,and four of them contains peptide fragment similar to Cry15Aa which belong to Mtx protein.But subsequence gene identification results indicated that these isolates not contains full length cry 15Aa gene,it suggested that these isolates contains new cry 15 type genes.The results indicated that these Bt i-solates may contain new insecticidal proteins toxic to mirid bugs.The obtaining of novel Bt isolates and the discovery of Cry15Aa with insecticidal activity against A.lucorum are significant to the biological control for A.lucorum .%Bt 棉有效控制了棉田主要害虫棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera ),然而原来处于次要地位的刺吸式口器害虫盲蝽(Heteroptera:Miridae)为害逐年加重,目前对绿盲蝽(Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür)有效的抗虫基因未见报道。本研究以本实验室保存的 Bt 杀虫基因和菌株为材料,对绿盲蝽进行杀虫活性筛选。利用本实验室先前克隆的Mtx 类杀虫基因 cry15Aa 表达产物进行绿

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Nepa hoffmanni (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danli; Xie, Tongyin; Li, Teng; Bu, Wenjun

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mt-genome) of Nepa hoffmanni has been reported in this study. This mitochondrial genome is 15 774 bp long, with an A + T content of 72.04%, containing the typical 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes) and a control region. All genes are arranged in the same gene order as most other known heteropteran mt-genome. This is the second completely sequenced mt-genome from the family Nepidae of Nepomorpha. Bayesian analyses were performed using the mt-genome of Nepa hoffmanni and its relatives, including 17 taxa, showing a reasonable placement of Nepa hoffmanni. PMID:26403708

  17. High genetic variability and polychromatism in Pachycoris torridus (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Firmino, T S; Alevi, K C C; Pereira, L L V; Souza, E R S; Júnior, F C S; Banho, C A; Carmo, G O; Itoyama, M M

    2015-01-01

    The stink bug Pachycoris torridus is listed among the most polyphagous insects in the world and it is a major pest of diverse crops, in particular the physic nut Jatropha curcas, which is used as a raw material for biodiesel production. A peculiar characteristic of this species is its high phenotypic variability, a characteristic that makes identification difficult: P. torridus has been described as a new species eight times. Thus, to aid in identification, genetic characterization of this insect was performed. We verified that, due to the high genetic variability of P. torridus, several genetic patterns exist that result in the same phenotype. PMID:26600488

  18. Effectiveness of Thiamethoxam in Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera; Pentatomidae) control.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Meneses; Jorge García de la Osa; Manuel Delgado

    2009-01-01

    Tibraca limbativentris was first reported in Cuba in 2007 by Dr. Horacio Grillo, among some insects collected from experimental plats at the Rice Research Institute in Bauta, Havana and also from “Sur del Jíbaro” Rice Experimental Station in Sancti Spíritus. This experiment was carried out at “Sur del Jíbaro” Station in order to determine the control done by Thiamethoxam over T. limbativentris adults. Three formulations of Thiamethoxam + Difenoconazol + Fludioxonil (312.5 g ai./l FS) for see...

  19. Ribosome crystals in the oocyte of Gerris najas (Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W C; Nagl, W

    1977-01-01

    Oocytes of the pond skater, Gerris najas, display ribosome tetramers that are arranged in the form of sheets in the vicinity of the nucleus. This is the first finding of ribosome crystals in an insect and suggests that ribosome crystallization may be a common phenomenon of cells that are inactive in protein synthesis.

  20. A new Stenolemus from the Philippines (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Emesinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.

    1975-01-01

    During investigations of fig-wasps in the Philippines in 1964, Dr. J. T. Wiebes collected a new species of bug, a small reduviid belonging to the genus Stenolemus Signoret: its description is presented here. For comparison, the type specimen of Stenolemus crassirostris Stâl, 1870 (similarly from the

  1. True bug (Heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yede; Babin, R; Djieto-Lordon, C; Cilas, C; Dibog, L; Mahob, R; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-08-01

    The real impact of true bug damage on cocoa pods has never been assessed precisely. We conducted a 2-yr study on 1,080 cocoa trees on 36 farms in Cameroon to assess the contribution of true bugs to fruit mortality and production loss. The cocoa fruiting cycle, fruit mortality, and damage caused by true bugs as well as other pests and diseases were monitored on a weekly basis. True bug damage also was described on 2,500 ripe pods per year. Pod weight, bean number, and bean weight were measured and compared for different degrees and types of damage on the ripe pods. Our results showed that true bugs were the main external cause of young fruit abortion. They reduced the abundance of young fruit by up to 10%. In contrast, although one-third of the ripe pods sampled had true bug lesions, only 4% were moderately to heavily damaged. The mean weight of ripe pods was reduced by 12% when there was medium to heavy damage. While the mean weight of wet beans was reduced significantly (by 3-10%), the number of beans per pod was not changed by damage. Despite the reduction in mean weight, the overall weight of beans for the pods sampled was reduced by fruit mortality.

  2. Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) tolerates high concentrations of dietary nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT S. BOYD

    2007-01-01

    Nickel hyperaccumulator plants contain unusually elevated levels of Ni (> 1 000 μg Ni/g). Some insect herbivores, including Lygus hesperus (Western tarnished plant bug), have been observed feeding on the California Ni hyperaccumulator Streptanthus polygaloides. This bug may be able to utilize S. polygaloides as a host either through its feeding behavior or by physiological tolerance of Ni. This experiment determined the Ni tolerance of L. hesperus by offering insects artificial diet amended with 0,0.4, 1, 2, 4.5,10, 20 and 40 mmol Ni/L and recording survival. Survival varied due to Ni concentration, with diets containing 10 mmol Ni/L and greater resulting in significantly lower survival compared to the control (0 mmol Ni/L) treatment. Insects tolerated diet containing as much as 4.5 mmol Ni/L, a relatively elevated Ni concentration. I conclude that L. hesperus can feed on S. polygaloides because it is Ni-tolerant, probably due to physiological mechanisms that provide it with resistance to plant chemical defenses including elemental defenses such as hyperaccumulated Ni.

  3. There and back again: contributions on Pseudevoplitus Ruckes (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazia, Jocelia; Bolze, Gisele Jardim; Barão, Kim Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Pseudevoplitus Ruckes was recently revised and new species were described. The genus has a Neotropical distribution, with species mainly found in the Amazon. Here, we describe the previously unknown female of P. roraimensis and add localities to its known distribution. Also, a new species, P. angelomachadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in MNHN: French Guiana, Acarouany, 15.IX.1998, A. Matocq leg.), from the Amazonia of French Guiana is described; it can be distinguished from other species of the genus mainly by the bell-shaped pygophore in males, and the gonocoxites 8 widely obscuring the laterotergites 8 basally, in females,  a unique character of this species. The key to species of Pseudevoplitus is updated to include the new species and females. PMID:27395971

  4. The rediscovery of Stenogeocoris horvathi Montandon (Heteroptera, Geocoridae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. Dellapé

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stenogeocoris Montandon, 1913 was described to include S. horvathi based in one specimen from Córdoba Province, Argentina. The type specimen is lost and there are no records or additional material since the Montandon's description; thus, the identity of this taxon has remained uncertain until now. In this contribution, we redescribe the genus Stenogeocoris and the species S. horvathi, based on male and female specimens, including characters from the male genitalia, and compare Stenogeocoris with the other Neotropical genera

  5. Sequential sampling of Euschistus heros (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Aparecido de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated pest management programs for soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill must be based on efficient sampling plans for estimating the pest population. Based on the spatial distribution of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794 found on soybean, it was possible to construct a sequential sampling plan for the survey of this insect found on soybean. The experiment was carried out during two growing seasons, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, using the transgenic soybean cultivar M 7908 RR, in plots of 10,000 m² subdivided into 100 plots of 100 m² (10 m × 10 m. Nymphs > 0.5 cm (4th and 5th instars plus adults were counted weekly from five drop cloth technique samplings per plot. To evaluate insect dispersion in the area, the following indices were used: variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, Green's coefficient, the k exponent of the negative binomial distribution, and estimation of the common exponent k (kc. To study probabilistic models to describe the spatial distribution of the insects, adjustments of the Poisson and negative binomial distributions were tested. Two sequential sampling plans for separate fields, one for grain production and the other for seed production, were prepared. The data fitted a negative binomial distribution and a sampling plan was drawn up using the sequential likelihood ratio test (SLRT. The maximum sampling unit number expected for control-related decision making was six in grain production fields, and nine in seed production fields.

  6. Records of assassin bug species (reduviidae, heteroptera reported biting man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Hartwig

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa Acanthaspis obscura Stal, Pirates conspurcatus Distant, Rhinocoris segmentarius (Germar and Panto-feistes pnnceps Stal intlict painful bites on humans. Serious consequences can develop. This is unknown to the public in general. Adult A. obscura and P. conspurcatus are responsible for the greatest number of bites because they are positively phototropic. R, segmentarius is not attracted to light but is the most common local species. Bites happen accidentally and could largely be avoided if the bugs could be recognized. The first three species have a wide distribution. Various insects are preyed on. The R. segmentarius female can lay 358 fertile eggs in six batches over a period of 77 days without copulating once in this period. Adults are most active in mid-summer although found throughout the year. These three species are abundant in some years and scarce in others. Preventive measures include screening homes and decoy lights. Control involves spraying with carbaryl.

  7. Cuatro especies nuevas de Lattinestus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae: Amnestinae Four new species of Lattinestus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae: Amnestinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Mayorga-Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 4 especies nuevas de Lattinestus de Guatemala (2 y de México (2; se incluyen ilustraciones de algunas estructuras importantes para su identificación y una clave para separar las 7 especies conocidas. La mayoría de los ejemplares fueron recolectados en hojarasca de bosques mesófilos por arriba de los 2 500 metros.Four new species from Guatemala (2 and Mexico (2 are described; illustrations of important structures for identification, and a key to separate the 7 known species are included. Most of the specimens were collected in forest litter above 2 500 m.

  8. Survival of three commercially available natural enemies exposed to Michigan wildflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nathaniel J; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-10-01

    Flowering plants are often used in habitat management programs to conserve the arthropod natural enemies of insect pests. In this study, nine species of flowering plants representing six families commonly found in North America east of the Rocky Mountains were evaluated based on how much they extended the lifespans of three commercially available natural enemy species in cages with cut flower stems compared with cages containing water only. The natural enemies used in the experiments were a lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville), a predatory bug (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae: Orius insidiosus (Say)), and an aphid parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidius colemani Viereck). The plant species that most extended the lifespans of all three natural enemies were Monarda fistulosa L. (Lamiaceae), Solidago juncea Aiton (Asteraceae), and Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae). Agastache nepetoides (L.) Kuntze (Lamiaceae), Lobelia siphilitica L. (Campanulaceae), and Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae) were intermediate in their support of natural enemies. One plant species, Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willdenow (Scrophulariaceae), did not contribute to the longevity of natural enemies any more than water alone. These results emphasize the need for multi-species evaluations of flowering plants for conservation biocontrol programs, and the variability in plant value for natural enemies.

  9. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  10. Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae e comportamento de oviposição em cultivares de crisântemo Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição M. Soglia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e o consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 tendo Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 como presa, bem como seu comportamento de oviposição em duas cultivares de crisântemo. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climática a 25 ± 1ºC, UR 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Ninfas do predador com até 24 horas de idade foram colocadas individualmente em placas de petri (5 cm contendo 20 ninfas de A. gossypii (1º, 2º e 3º ínstares, as quais estavam posicionadas sobre disco foliar (4 cm de cada cultivar ('White Reagan' e'Yellow Snowdon' em camada de ágar-água . Na avaliação da oviposição foram utilizados pecíolos de cada cultivar como substrato de oviposição e ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 como alimento. O predador completou seu desenvolvimento alimentando-se somente de A. gossypii presente em ambas as cultivares. A duração da fase ninfal de O. insidiosus foi de 21,1 e 18,3 dias, em 'White Reagan' e 'Yellow Snowdon', respectivamente. O consumo de A. gossypii por fêmeas foi maior (PThis work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as weel as its oviposition behavior on two crysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25±1ºC, RH 70±10% and 12h photophase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individualy in petri dishes (5cm with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (1st, 2nd and 3rt instars on leaf disc (4cm of each cultivar ("White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon" in a layer of agar-water (1%. Petiole of each crysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879. The predador complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on "White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon", respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01 on A. gossypii in "White Reagan" (2.63 nymphs compared to the consumption in "Yellow Snowdon" (0.7 nymphs. Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on "White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon", respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus.

  11. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

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    Alexandre Augusto Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml, cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml, ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml, fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml. As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada a 15 lb/pol2, com volume de 1,5±0,5 mg de calda/cm2, sobre casais de O. insidiosus. Avaliou-se a ação dos produtos sobre a mortalidade, oviposição, fertilidade e capacidade predatória dos adultos. Abamectina, fenpropatrina e imidaclopride foram altamente tóxicos aos adultos de O. insidiosus, e ciromazina e cartap apresentaram moderada toxicidade. Ciromazina e cartap apresentam possibilidades de serem recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do crisântemo.The goal of this research was to evaluate the selectivity of products used in the chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. The experiments were kept under controlled conditions at 25±1oC, RH 70±10% and L/D 12:12 h, in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The insecticides evaluated were abamectin (0.0009 g a.i./100 ml, cartap (0.06 g a.i./100 ml, cyromazine (0.011 g a.i./100 ml, fenpropathrin (0.009 g a.i./100 ml and imidacloprid (0.042 g a.i./100 ml. The sprays were done using Potter's tower calibrated to 15 lb/pol2, applying volume of 1.5±0.5 mg of solution/cm2. The applications were realized directly in the pairs of O. insidiosus. It was evaluated the action of the products on mortality, oviposition, fertility and the adult's predatory capacity. Abamectin, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid were highly harmful to the adults of O. insidiosus. Cyromazine and cartap were moderately toxic. Cyromazine and cartap presented possibilities of being recommended in integrated pest management programs of the chrysanthemum crop.

  12. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

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    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  13. Análise cladística e biogeografia de Ochlerini (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Discocephalinae Cladistic analysis and biogeography of Ochlerini (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Discocephalinae

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    Luiz A. Campos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi realizada uma análise cladística, utilizando 63 caracteres, dos 30 gêneros da tribo Neotropical Ochlerini Rolston, no intuito de testar seu monofiletismo e estabelecer uma hipótese de parentesco. Janeirona Distant, 1911 (Pentatomini e as tribos Discocephalini e Halyini foram incluídas no grupo-interno para testar seu relacionamento com Ochlerini; Marghita Ruckes, 1964 e Stictochilus Bergroth, 1918 (Pentatomini foram utilizados como grupos-externos. Os cladogramas de consenso estrito obtidos indicam que Ochlerini e Discocephalinae são grupos monofiléticos, mas Pentatominae, Halyini+Ochlerini, Pentatomini+Ochlerini, Ochlerus Spinola, 1837, Stalius Rolston, 1992 e Alitocoris Sailer, 1950 são grupos merofiléticos. Discocephalini e Ochlerini compartilham três sinapomorfias: primeiro segmento do rostro longo, alcançando o prosterno; metasterno carenado longitudinalmente; e superfície dorsal do segmento X do macho membranosa no terço basal. Ochlerini é sustentada por uma sinapomorfia, a superfície dorsal do terceiro artículo metatarsal das fêmeas aplainada. Uma análise biogeográfica a partir dos cladogramas de consenso mostrou padrões congruentes com eventos vicariantes propostos para a região Neotropical.A cladistic analysis using 63 characters and 30 genera of the Neotropical tribe Ochlerini Rolston was performed to test their monophyletic condition and to establish a relationship hypothesis. Janeirona Distant, 1911 (Pentatomini and the tribes Discocephalini and Halyini were included in the ingroup to test their relationship with Ochlerini; Marghita Ruckes, 1964 and Stictochilus Bergroth, 1918 (Pentatomini were used as outgroups. The obtained strict consensus cladograms indicate that Ochlerini and Discocephalinae are monophyletic groups, but Pentatominae, Halyini+Ochlerini, Pentatomini+Ochlerini, Ochlerus Spinola, 1837, Stalius Rolston, 1992 and Alitocoris Sailer, 1950 are merophyletic groups. Discocephalini and Ochlerini share three synapomorphies: first rostral segment long, attaining prosternum; metasternum with a mesial, longitudinal carina, and dorsal surface of basal third of male proctiger membranous. Ochlerini is supported by one synapomorphy, the flattened dorsal surface of third tarsal segment of hind legs, in females. Biogeographical analysis based on consensus cladograms shows congruent patterns with several vicariant events proposed for the Neotropical region.

  14. Natural lectin activity in the haemolymph of Panstrogylus megistus (Heteroptera: Reduvidae Atividade lectínica na hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

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    Y. M. Gomes

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The haemolymph of Panstrongylus megistus showed a natural lectin activity for a wide range of vertebrate erythocytes. Agglutination was observed against all vertebrate erythrocytes tested (human ABO, duck, rabbit, mouse, sheep, chicken and cow. Cow erythrocytes showed the lowest titre. Concerning human erythrocytes, the lectin activity was similar in the types A+,B+ and AB+ while the highest activity was observed in the type O+. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations was carried out with human erythrocytes type O+. Agglutination was inhibited by several carbohydrates (rhamnose. D-galatose, raffinose, D-lactose and D-fucose. Rhamnose wasreported as the strongest inhibitor (0.78mM. The results suggest the presence of more than one lection in the haemolymph of P. megistus.A hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus mostrou uma atividade lectínica natural para eritrócitos de vários vertebrados e não mostrou especificidade para os diversos tipos de eritrócitos testados (humano ABO, pato, coelho,c amundongo,carneiro, galinha e boi. Com relação aos eritrócitos humanos a atividade lectínica foi similar nos tipos A+, B+ e AB+ enquanto a atividade mais alta foi observada no tipo O+. O título de aglutinação entre eritrócitos animais não mostrou diferença apreciável, excluindo eritrócitos de boi, que apresentaram o título mmais baixo. A determinação da concentração mínima de inibição foi realizada com eritrócitos humanos O+. A aglutinação foi inibida por vários carboidratos (ramnose, D-dalactose, rafinose, D-lactose e D-fucose. A ramnose foi o inibidor mais potente (0,78 mM. Os resultados sugerem a presença de mais de uma lectina na hemolinfa de P. megistus.

  15. Description of a new species of Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae from Costa Rica Descripción de una nueva especie de Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae de Costa Rica

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    Sara I. Montemayor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. is described for Costa Rica. The host plant of this new species is Persea americana P. Mill. This corresponds to the second species of the genus known for the country and the third whose host plant is P. americana (avocado. A description of the adult as well as of instar V are provided, together with a key to species, photographs taken in the field, and illustrations of the fifth nymph stage, adult, and the main characters.Se describe una especie nueva de Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. de Costa Rica, cuya planta huésped es Persea americana P. Mill., siendo ésta la segunda especie del género conocida del país y la tercera cuya planta huésped es P. americana (aguacate. Se describen tanto el adulto como el estadio ninfal V; se agrega una clave modificada de Froeschner para las especies, y se ilustran ejemplares en el campo, el quinto estadio ninfal, adulto y los principales caracteres.

  16. New species and new records of Notonecta (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae from Brazil

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    Julianna F. Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Notonecta itatiaia sp. nov. is described from the state of Rio de Janeiro. Like other Notonecta species that occurs in Brazil, N. itatiaia has no remarkable diagnostic features than the shape of genital capsule. Along with the first description of a Notonecta from Brazil in eighty years, N. disturbata is newly recorded from the states of Pará, Piauí and São Paulo, and N. pulchra from Pará. A key to species of Notonecta (males occurring in Brazil is given.

  17. A new species and new records of Oiovelia (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha: Veliidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Higor D D; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    Oiovelia currently comprises eight species and has been recorded only from South America. Here, the ninth species, Oiovelia machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in MZUSP: BRAZIL, São Paulo State, Biritiba Mirim, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, 23°42'16.4"S, 46°02'42.8"W, 725 m a.s.l., 23.VIII.2014, H. Rodrigues leg.), is described and illustrated based on specimens from the Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from all other species in this genus mainly by the dark color of the body, absence of the V-shaped pruinosity on the posterior lobe of pronotum, well-defined pruinosity between the cells of the forewing, and presence of a pair of spines on the proctiger. In addition, important intraspecific variations in a population of O. brasiliensis from the State of São Paulo are presented. Finally, the genus is recorded for the first time from Northeastern Brazil based on specimens of O. cunucunumana and O. viannai collected in the State of Bahia. PMID:27395970

  18. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

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    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  19. Resistance to Acephate in Tarnished Plant Bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) Populations in the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    A monitoring program to detect resistance in tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), populations in the delta of AR, LA, and MS, was conducted by testing populations collected from weeds with a glass-vial bioassay at 20 different delta locations from the fall of 2001 through the...

  20. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    P. G. Tillman; Cottrell, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench spp. bicolor) trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum tra...

  1. Development rate and lower temperature threshold in the eggs of Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mujgan Kivan

    2008-01-01

    The sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. has a wide distribution in the Palearctic region. It is the most important pest problem of wheat in Turkey. The objective of this study was to attain better knowledge of the development of the sunn pest eggs. The lower temperature threshold and development rate of eggs were determined at 17, 20, 23, 26 and 32℃ ± 1℃ in the laboratory. A linear model was used to describe the developmental rate and temperature. The egg development required 90.9 degree-days above the theoretical threshold of 11.7 ℃. The development time was 17.6 ± 0.1 days at 17℃, and 4.5 ± 0.01 days at 32℃. Incubation time was inversely related to temperature. The study showed that the eggs of E. integriceps needed shorter periods of time to complete their development than immature stages of their parasitoids Trissolcus spp.

  2. The potential for controlling Pangaeus bilineatus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae) using a combination of entomopathogens and an insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbata, George N; Shapiro-Ilan, David

    2013-10-01

    The peanut burrower bug, Pangaeus bilineatus (Say), is an important pest of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the southern United States. Current control methods for this pest, which are based on the use of chemical insecticides, have not been successful. Our objective was to determine if entomopathogens applied alone or in combination with a standard chemical insecticide would provide superior levels of P. bilineatus mortality compared with the standard chemical applied alone. Specifically, we investigated the efficacy of an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Oswego strain), and a fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (GHA strain), applied alone or in combination with chlorpyrifos. When applied as single treatments, the two entomopathogens were not pathogenic, that is, they did not cause mortality in P. bilineatus adults that was different from the nontreated control. However, 3 and 7 d posttreatment, the combination of the H. bacteriophora and chlorpyrifos caused higher mortality than the nematode, fungus, or insecticide alone, or the combination of chlorpyrifos and B. bassiana. The nature of the interaction between H. bacteriophora and chlorpyrifos was synergistic, which is of particular interest, given that this is the first time a synergy is being reported between a nematode that was not pathogenic when applied alone and a chemical insecticide. B. bassiana and its combination with the chlorpyrifos did not significantly increase insect mortality compared with chlorpyrifos alone or the control. Based on the observation of synergy, the combination of H. bacteriophora and chlorpyrifos should be investigated further for potential adoption in the management of P. bilineatus.

  3. EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON THE SUNN PEST, EURYGASTER INTEGRICEPS PUT. (HETEROPTERA, SCUTELLERIDAE IN THE LABORATORY

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    Müjgan KIVAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of azadirachtin on different stages of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. (Het., Scutelleridae in the laboratory, a commercial neem insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was applied at dose of 0.5 % by dipping insects. No effect was observed for 1. instar nymphs at 1 day after application, although adults had slightly effect (20 %. Adults and nymphs were infl uenced 7 days after the treatment and mortality rates for adults and nymphs were recorded 44.0 and 51.9 %, respectively. The hatching of treated eggs was reduced than control. These results indicate that NeemAzal T/S may be used in integrated sunn pest management, but should be evaluated for fi eld efficacy.

  4. Revision of the Plant Bug Genus Tytthus (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

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    Thomas Henry

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The phyline plant bug genus Tytthus Fieber, previously containing 19 species, is revised. Isoproba Osborn and Drake, 1915, incorrectly placed in the subfamily Bryocorinae, tribe Dicyphini, is synonymized as a junior synonym of Tytthus Fieber, syn. n.; the only included species, Isoproba picea Osborn and Drake is transferred to Tytthus, comb. n., as the senior synonym of T. hondurensis Carvalho, syn. n.; and T. koreanus Josifov and Kerzhner, 1972 is synonymized with T. chinensis (Stål 1860, syn. n.; and a lectotype for T. parviceps is designated. The six new species T. femoralis from Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru, T. fuscicornis from New Mexico (USA, T. mexicanus from Mexico, T. pallidus from Brazil and Panama, T. uniformis from Arizona and New Mexico (USA, and T. wheeleri from the eastern United States are described, bringing the total number of species for the genus to 24. A color adult habitus illustration of T. wheeleri, color photographs for each species (except T. juturnaiba Carvalho and Wallerstein, illustrations of male genitalia, scanning electron photomicrographs of selected structures of certain species, and an identification key are provided to facilitate species recognition. A phylogenetic analysis is offered to help infer relationships.

  5. A taxonomic revision of the new world species of Sirthenea (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, L.

    1985-01-01

    The American species of Sirthenea are revised and keys to the 12 species and seven subspecies are given. Four new species and two new subspecies are described viz., S. ater (Brazil: Minas Geraes), S. dubia (Panama; Paraguay: Caaguazu. Argentina: Misiones; Entre Rios), S. ferdinandi (Argentina: Salta

  6. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Mowery, S V

    2007-08-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt after successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and selected row crops were sampled during a 3-yr study to determine lygus species composition and associated temporal host plants. L. lineolaris was the sole lygus species in the region. Thirteen previously unreported host plants were identified for L. lineolaris, of which 69% supported reproduction. Rapistrum rugosum L. Allioni and Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton and Standley were primary weed hosts during the early season (17 March to 31 May). Conyza canadensis L. Cronquist variety canadensis and Ambrosia trifida L. were primary weed hosts during the midseason (1 June to 14 August) and late-season (15 August to 30 November), respectively. Sisymbrium irio L. and Lamium amplexicaule L. sustained L. lineolaris populations during the overwintering period (1 December to 16 March). The proportion of females and numbers of nymphs found in R. rugosum, C. canadensis, A. trifida, and S. irio suggests these weeds supported reproductive adults during the early, mid-, and late season and overwintering period, respectively. Medicago sativa L. was the leading crop host for L. lineolaris; Glycine max L. Merrill did not yield L. lineolaris. Few L. lineolaris were collected in Gossypium hirsutum L. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of host plants contributing to L. lineolaris populations in central Texas.

  7. Sperm depletion: a cost for single mated females of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    Leandro Sousa-Souto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test if egg viability of polyandrous females was increased with increasing number of matings. Longevity and reproductive output of females of the predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus that were allowed to mate for 0, 1, 2, 3 times or were in the continuous presence of the same male was evaluated. Polyandry resulted in diminished sperm depletion. Females that had mated three times or that were in continuous presence of a male produced more offspring than females that mated once or twice throughout their lifetime. There was a negative correlation of mating history on female longevity. Results indicated that remating, either with same male or with different males were crucial for maximization of the reproductive success of females.Entre os heterópteros, o declínio da concentração de esperma pode ser um fator limitante para o sucesso reprodutivo desses insetos. Acasalamentos múltiplos conferem um reabastecimento de esperma e podem permitir um aumento do valor adaptativo das fêmeas. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que a poliandria aumenta a viabilidade dos ovos. A longevidade de fêmeas de Podisus nigrispinus, bem como seus parâmetros reprodutivos em resposta a diferentes números de acasalamentos (0, 1, 2, 3 ou em coabitação com o mesmo macho foi avaliada. Esse percevejo vem sendo usado em programas de controle biológico de pragas em reflorestamentos de Eucalipto no Brasil. Apesar da diminuição no tempo de sobrevivência das fêmeas, acasalamentos múltiplos mantiveram a viabilidade dos ovos e o período reprodutivo das fêmeas, permitindo um maior número de descendentes produzidos. Tais resultados indicam que um número mínimo de três acasalamentos antes da primeira postura permite uma maximização do sucesso reprodutivo dessa espécie.

  8. Morphology and histology of the alimentary canal of Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Cimicomoropha: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, J.; Coudron, T.A.; Backus, E.A.; Brandt, S.L.; Wagner, R.M.; Wright, M.K.; Huesing, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Microdissection and transverse semithin sections were used to perform a light microscopy survey of the gross morphology and cellular anatomy of the alimentary canal, respectively, of Lygus hesperus Knight, a key pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and other crops. The gross morphology of the alimentary canal showed a relatively unadorned tube compared with other hemipterans, with variably shaped compartments and one small diverticulum. However, the epithelial cell anatomy of the gut was relatively complex, with the midgut having the most diverse structure and cell types. The midgut was typical of the "Lygus-type gut" seen in the older literature, i.e., it consisted of three major regions, the first (descending), second (ascending), and third (descending) ventriculi, with different variants of three major epithelial cell types in each region. Our light microscopy (LM) study suggests that the three cell types are nondifferentiated regenerative cells (which sparsely occurred throughout the midgut but were abundant in the anterior region of the first ventriculus), endocrine cells, and columnar cells. Although the Lygus gut cells strongly resemble those cell types seen in other insects, their identification should be confirmed via transmission electron microscopy to be considered definitive. These cell types differed in the size and opacity of vesicles, geometry of cell surface in the gut lumen, and size, shape, and concentration of brush-border microvilli and location within the gut. Comparison of gut structure in L. hesperus with that of other hemipterans, especially in relation to hemipteran phylogeny and feeding strategies, is discussed.

  9. Taxonomic and numerical resolutions of nepomorpha (insecta: heteroptera in cerrado streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia França da Silva Giehl

    Full Text Available Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity, although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77. The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively. The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation actions, and faunal complementarity and/or inventories.

  10. Taxonomic and numerical resolutions of nepomorpha (insecta: heteroptera) in cerrado streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Nubia França da Silva; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro; Batista, Joana Darc; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity), although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77). The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively). The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation actions, and faunal complementarity and/or inventories. PMID:25083770

  11. Thermal requirements for the development and reproduction of Nysius huttoni White (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiongzhao; Wang, Qiao; Carpenter, Alan

    2003-08-01

    Nysius huttoni White is an economically important pest of wheat and brassica crops in New Zealand. Because of its frequent presence in export fruit packages, it is also considered an important quarantine pest to countries that trade with New Zealand. To provide critical information for the pest risk analysis, forecast and management of N. huttoni, we investigated the effect of five consistent temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C) on its development, survival and reproduction. At 10 degrees C both eggs and nymphs did not develop but the latter grew. Nymphs could survive 10 degrees C for >1.5 mo, with the fifth instar nymphs surviving for up to 145 d. Adults could live for at least 100 d at this temperature. This species could not complete its lifecycle at or below 15 degrees C. Between 15 and 30 degrees C, fifth instar stage was significantly longer than other nymphal stages. Egg hatch rate and total survival rate for all stages were significantly higher at 20 degrees C than at other test temperatures. The developmental rate of different life stages increased linearly with the increase of temperatures from 15 to 30 degrees C. The estimated low temperature threshold for the completion of lifecycle was 11.9 degrees C, and that for mating and oviposition was 12.3 and 16.8 degrees C, respectively. The thermal requirement for completing a life cycle of N. huttoni was 625 DD. The time needed for completing a life cycle was similar for both sexes. Temperature had little effect on adult body weight and sex ratio. Implications of the above findings are discussed. PMID:14503582

  12. A peculiar new virus-spermatozoon association in the bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) (Heteroptera-Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, David; Dallai, Romano

    2016-01-01

    The sperm of the heteropteran bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) are of two types, differing in length and size of their flagella. The thicker sperm are shorter than the thinner ones and have large mitochondrial derivatives. The presence of virus particles associated with the plasma membrane of thinner sperm is described for the first time; thicker sperm are immune to virus infection. The fact that virus particles are present on thinner sperm only initiates considerations on the transmission of virus.

  13. Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding and Phenology on Early-Maturing Soybean in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Robert L; Rich, Walter A

    2015-10-01

    The invasion by Halyomorpha halys (Stål) and an increasing abundance of native Pentatomidae pose a threat to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, production in northern states. A risk assessment framework was used to provide an initial assessment of the risk of Pentatomidae affecting soybean production in northern states. A caged field study was performed over two years to assess the response of soybean to H. halys feeding. Cages placed over R4 soybean were infested with 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 fourth-instar H. halys nymphs per 0.3 row-m, and the insects were allowed to feed for 15 to 16 days. Feeding by H. halys on soybean affected yield components, maturity, and quality (i.e., seed injury). Season-long monitoring of soybean fields was performed via sweep net sampling to assess the likelihood of herbivorous Pentatomidae occurring on soybean during plant growth stages susceptible to feeding injury. Adults of herbivorous species were collected at low densities in fields in mid- to late July before collection of herbivorous nymphs. Herbivorous nymphs were first collected in the R3 and R4 soybean growth stages and their abundance peaked during the R6 soybean growth stage. This preliminary assessment indicates that if populations of exotic and native herbivorous Pentatomidae continue to increase in abundance, they will pose a threat to northern soybean production. PMID:26453722

  14. Electron microscopic study of the differentiation and development of trophocytes and oocytes in Gerris najas (Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W C; Nagl, W

    1976-01-01

    The differentiation of oogonia and oocytes, and of trophocytes, from undifferentiated germ line cells has been studied in Gerris najas, a pond skater, from the fourth instar to the adult animal. For the first time criteria have been obtained which allow the distinction between poorly differentiated early oogonia and nurse cells. The most important criteria are the size, shape, and structure of nuclei and mucleoli. This is consistent with the different function of these cell types, which is primarily a different nuclear function: meiosis in the oocytes, and RNA synthesis to support the trophic core and the oocytes in the trophocytes.

  15. Sources of character conflict in a clade of water striders (Heteroptera: Gerridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Jakob; Cognato, Anthony I.

    2003-01-01

    molecular systematics, insects, Aquarius, Gerris, Limnoporus, COI, 16SrRNA, EF-1a, combined analysis, hidden branch support......molecular systematics, insects, Aquarius, Gerris, Limnoporus, COI, 16SrRNA, EF-1a, combined analysis, hidden branch support...

  16. Joseocoris, new genus and two new species of Ceratocapsini (Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae from Argentina and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. HENRY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo género de Ceratocapsini (Miridae, Orthotylinae, Joseocoris para ubicar a dos especies nuevas: J. carpinteroi de Corrientes, Argenti - na, y J. costai de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Se presentan diagnosis, ilustraciones de las estructuras genitales masculinas, fotografías del macho y de la hembra de ambas especies y fotografías de microscopio electrónico, que ayudan a distinguir al nuevo género y a las dos nuevas especies de otros miembros de la tribu Ceratocapsini.

  17. Characterization of substrate-borne vibrational signals of Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substrate-borne vibrational signals were recorded from the brown stink bug Euschistus servus, revealing an assortment of “songs” in an acoustic repertoire. Females of E. servus emitted two distinct songs while males of E. servus emitted four distinct songs. Each of these songs was characterized by...

  18. Attractant Pheromone of the Neotropical Species Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Heteroptera: Alydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Alberto Laumann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical broad-headed bug, Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood, is adapted to various leguminous crops and is considered a pest in common bean and soybean. The chemical communication of this species was studied in order to identify an attractant pheromone. Males and females of N. parvus produce several short-chain esters and acids, and their antennae showed electrophysiological responses to five of these compounds, three common to both sexes (hexyl butanoate, 4-methylhexyl butanoate, and hexyl hexanoate, and two female-specific compounds (4-methylhexyl pentanoate and hexyl pentanoate. Both aeration extracts of females and a solution containing five synthetic compounds mimicking the natural blend were attractive to males and females N. parvus in a laboratory bioassay. Aspects of the chemical ecology of the broad-headed bugs and the possibility to use pheromone-baited traps in the field for monitoring are discussed.

  19. Large-scale patterns in morphological diversity and species assemblages in Neotropical Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nilda Fergnani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the spatial variation in morphological diversity (MDiv and species richness (SR for 91 species of Neotropical Triatominae to determine the ecological relationships between SR and MDiv and to explore the roles that climate, productivity, environmental heterogeneity and the presence of biomes and rivers may play in the structuring of species assemblages. For each 110 km x 110 km-cell on a grid map of America, we determined the number of species (SR and estimated the mean Gower index (MDiv based on 12 morphological attributes. We performed bootstrapping analyses of species assemblages to identify whether those assemblages were more similar or dissimilar in their morphology than expected by chance. We applied a multi-model selection procedure and spatial explicit analyses to account for the association of diversity-environment relationships. MDiv and SR both showed a latitudinal gradient, although each peaked at different locations and were thus not strictly spatially congruent. SR decreased with temperature variability and MDiv increased with mean temperature, suggesting a predominant role for ambient energy in determining Triatominae diversity. Species that were more similar than expected by chance co-occurred near the limits of the Triatominae distribution in association with changes in environmental variables. Environmental filtering may underlie the structuring of species assemblages near their distributional limits.

  20. Juvenile coloration as a predictor of health in Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new stackable modular system was developed for continuous in-vivo production of phytoseiid mites. The system consists of cage units that are filled with lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus, or red beans, P. vulgaris, leaves infested with high levels of the two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae. T...

  1. De invasieve Noord-Amerikaanse wants Leptoglossus occidentalis bereikt ook Nederland (Heteroptera: Coreidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.

    2008-01-01

    The North American bug Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 is recorded from the Netherlands for the first time. All specimens were observed in or near potential overwintering sites far away from suitable breeding sites and mainly in coastal areas, suggesting large distance dispersal.

  2. Development of a dry artificial diet for Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Priscila; Parra, Jose R.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Magro, Sandra R. [Faculdade Integrada de Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil); Panizzi, Antonio R. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2006-09-15

    Artificial diets prepared with wheat germ, soybean protein, dextrosol, potato starch, sucrose, cellulose, soybean or sunflower oil, and vitamin solution for rearing Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) were tested under controlled temperature (25 {+-} 1 deg C), RH (60 {+-} 10%), and photophase (14h). Three diets were tested and compared with the natural diet privet [soybean and peanut seeds and privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. fruit (Oleaceae)]. All three artificial diets allowed full development. The diet containing sunflower oil was the most suitable for N. viridula while E. heros developed better on a diet composed of soybean oil. Data indicated that the artificial diets were inferior to the natural diet. The artificial diets were more adequate for E. heros. (author)

  3. Effects of 5-Gy irradiation on fertility and mating behaviour of Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The polyphagous and cosmopolitan species Nezara viridula is one of the most important insect pests. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy that involves sterilising males by exposing them to ionising radiation. Sterile males, released into wild population, mate with females, but eggs are not fertilised and the population gradually declines. Exposing insects to radiation during their growth stage might require lower sterilising dose. The aim of our study was to test whether 5-Gy irradiation of 5th instar nymphs significantly affects: (1) moulting and further development of the irradiated nymphs, (2) the male's and female's reproductive system and (3) the mating competitiveness of treated males, with special focus on vibrational communication. Methods: The 5th instar nymphs were irradiated with 5 Gy using X-ray generator and monitored daily. Results: The observed effects of irradiation were: prolonged moulting, increased mortality during development and during the first day of adult life, decreased males to females ratio, decreased fecundity, egg production, proportion of fertile eggs and progeny survival. The reaction of a male to stimulation with the model female calling song was tested. The irradiated and non-irradiated males responded to stimulation with emission of the courtship song (MCrS). Temporal parameters of MCrS emitted by non-irradiated males differed when compared with those of irradiated ones. Conclusions: The 5-Gy irradiation of 5th instar nymphs did not affect mating behaviour. However since the irradiation during growth stage decreased the fertility and fecundity of emerged adults, this technique, in combination with certain other suppression techniques, could be a successful control strategy for management of Nezara viridula. On the other hand observed effects on moulting and further development of the irradiated nymphs could decrease the efficiency and application of this strategy. (author)

  4. Mirid (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) specialists of sticky plants: adaptations, interactions, and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Alfred G; Krimmel, Billy A

    2015-01-01

    Sticky plants-those having glandular trichomes (hairs) that produce adhesive, viscous exudates-can impede the movement of, and entrap, generalist insects. Disparate arthropod groups have adapted to these widespread and taxonomically diverse plants, yet their interactions with glandular hosts rarely are incorporated into broad ecological theory. Ecologists and entomologists might be unaware of even well-documented examples of insects that are sticky-plant specialists. The hemipteran family Miridae (more specifically, the omnivorous Dicyphini: Dicyphina) is the best-known group of arthropods that specializes on sticky plants. In the first synthesis of relationships with glandular plants for any insect family, we review mirid interactions with sticky hosts, including their adaptations (behavioral, morphological, and physiological) and mutualisms with carnivorous plants, and the ecological and agricultural implications of mirid-sticky plant systems. We propose that mirid research applies generally to tritrophic interactions on trichome-defended plants, enhances an understanding of insect-plant interactions, and provides information useful in managing crop pests. PMID:25564742

  5. Dietary composition affect levels of trace elements in the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects require small amounts of dietary minerals because of the roles minerals serve as antioxidants, enzyme co-factors and as constituents of metalloproteins. We measured the levels of ten trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) in the predatory insect, Podisus maculiventris rea...

  6. Perfil de la mortalidad de hembras de Rhodnius robustus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Luis Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la mortalidad de 48 hembras adultas de Rhodnius robustus. Dada la significancia estadística del ajuste de los datos al modelo de Gompertz (p<0.0001, se puede afirmar que el mismo permite describir la mortalidad de esta especie.

  7. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  8. What do we know about the phylogeny of the Semi-Aquatic Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    The present study summarizes knowledge about phylogenetic relationships of the heteropteran infraorder Gerromorpha. A phylogeny for all families and subfamilies, and for all genera but those assigned to the two most diverse families, Veliidae and Gerridae, is compiled from the many studies by the...

  9. Seasonal alterations in host range and fidelity in the polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available In herbivorous insects, host plant switching is commonly observed and plays an important role in their annual life cycle. However, much remains to be learned about seasonal host switching of various pestiferous arthropods under natural conditions. From 2006 until 2012, we assessed Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür host plant use in successive spring, summer and winter seasons at one single location (Langfang, China. Data were used to quantify changes in host plant breadth and host fidelity between seasons. Host fidelity of A. lucorum differed between seasons, with 87.9% of spring hosts also used in the summer and 36.1% of summer hosts used in winter. In contrast, as little as 25.6% host plant species were shared between winter and spring. Annual herbaceous plants are most often used for overwintering, while perennial woody plants are relatively important for initial population build-up in the spring. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of evolutionary interactions between A. lucorum and its host plants and lays the groundwork for the design of population management strategies for this important pest in myriad crops.

  10. Strongylocoris ferreri n. sp. from Andalusia (Spain), southern Iberian Peninsula(Hemiptera : Heteroptera : Miridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes, Jordi; Pagola-Carte, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    A new plant bug species of the genus Strongylocoris (Miridae: Orthotylinae: Halticini) is described on the basis of a single specimen from Algeciras (province of Cádiz), Andalusia (Spain), southern Iberian Peninsula. Strongylocoris ferreri n. sp. is easily separated from the remaining species of the genus by its external morphology and the shape of the left paramere.

  11. Arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. III. Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Skvarla, Michael Joseph; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the third in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and B...

  12. Myrmicella, a new genus of Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłond, Dominik; Baňař, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Myrmicella verticospinosa gen. et sp. nov., is described, based on four specimens (two males and two females) collected in south-west Madagascar (Zombitse-Vohibasia National Park and Isalo National Park). Three specimens have been collected by sifting the leaf litter, one female was collected using yellow pan traps. Genitalia of both sexes are described and illustrated. PMID:26258241

  13. A taxonomic synopsis of Limnogeton Mayr, 1853 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Belostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José Ricardo I; Meyin-A-Ebong, Solange E; Le-Gall, Philippe; Guilbert, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Afrotropical Belostomatidae fauna has long proved to be a difficult taxonomic problem, not so much for the overwhelmingly large number of species involved but rather because of a lack of trained specialists. The rarity of some taxa also contributes to confusion, because some species remain poorly described or are known only from one or two specimens. During a visit to the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France and the Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium, it was possible to comprehensively review the Limnogeton species based mainly on the specimens housed in the aforementioned collections. An updated key to adults of all species presently included in the genus, particularly based on male genitalia characters studied during the present study, has been provided.

  14. Reproduction barrier between two lineages of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) (Heteroptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrocka, Kamila; Balvín, Ondřej; Bartonička, Tomáš

    2015-08-01

    Populations of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, have increased in recent years spreading into numerous urban areas across the Western world and making them an increasingly important pest of the twenty-first century. Research into hybridization within and between different lineages of bed bugs can help us to understand processes of micro- and macro-evolution in these ectoparasites and may inform the control of this pest species. Hybridization experiments between two host lineages of bed bug (C. lectularius) from Central Europe (Czech Republic), those associated with humans and those with bats, were conducted under laboratory conditions. Number of eggs and early instars were compared between crosses of mixed host lineages (interspecific mating) with pairs from the same host lineage, those from the same locality and same lineage from different localities (intraspecific mating). While crosses within host lineages resulted in egg production and later instars, crosses between different host lineages were unsuccessful, although of the mated females possessed sperm in their mesospermaleges and/or seminal conceptacles. These crosses did not even result in egg production. Moreover, in the mixed lineage crosses, mortality rates in adults were higher (51 and 50% higher in bat and human lineage, respectively) than in those animals from the same lineage. Survival of adults was in pairs from the same locality slightly higher than in pairs from different localities and differed statistically. These results support the existence of post-mating barriers and show reproductive isolation between two lineages of C. lectularius. Bat and human host adaptations can promote evolving of such barriers and can be product of alloxenic speciation. PMID:25952703

  15. Pentatomiana beckerae gen. nov. and sp. nov., a new Neotropical Pentatomini (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocélia Grazia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus, Pentatomiana, and a new species, P. beckerae, are described, based on specimens from Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina States, Brazil. Brachyptery is present in the males of the new species. Pentatomiana gen. nov. is compared with Lojus McDonald, 1982, which also presents brachyptery in one of the species, but in females. Illustrations of male and female external genitalia are provided.Um novo gênero, Pentatomiana, e uma nova espécie, P. beckerae, são descritos, com base em espécimes do Rio de Janeiro e de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Machos da nova espécie apresentam braquipteria. Pentatomiana gen. nov. é comparado com Lojus McDonald, 1982, o qual também apresenta braquipteria em uma das espécies, mas em fêmeas. São fornecidas ilustrações da genitália externa masculina e feminina.

  16. Phylogenetically Diverse Burkholderia Associated with Midgut Crypts of Spurge Bugs, Dicranocephalus spp. (Heteroptera: Stenocephalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuechler, Stefan Martin; Matsuura, Yu; Dettner, Konrad; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2016-06-25

    Diverse phytophagous heteropteran insects, commonly known as stinkbugs, are associated with specific gut symbiotic bacteria, which have been found in midgut cryptic spaces. Recent studies have revealed that members of the stinkbug families Coreidae and Alydidae of the superfamily Coreoidea are consistently associated with a specific group of the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia, called the "stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental (SBE)" group, and horizontally acquire specific symbionts from the environment every generation. However, the symbiotic system of another coreoid family, Stenocephalidae remains undetermined. We herein investigated four species of the stenocephalid genus Dicranocephalus. Examinations via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the typical arrangement and ultrastructures of midgut crypts and gut symbionts. Cloning and molecular phylogenetic analyses of bacterial genes showed that the midgut crypts of all species are colonized by Burkholderia strains, which were further assigned to different subgroups of the genus Burkholderia. In addition to the SBE-group Burkholderia, a number of stenocephalid symbionts belonged to a novel clade containing B. sordidicola and B. udeis, suggesting a specific symbiont clade for the Stenocephalidae. The symbiotic systems of stenocephalid bugs may provide a unique opportunity to study the ongoing evolution of symbiont associations in the stinkbug-Burkholderia interaction. PMID:27265344

  17. 斑翅肩花蝽布丁人工饲料的饲养效果评价%Evaluation of an artificial pudding diet for rearing Tetraphleps galchanoides (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 杨佳妮; 杨桦; 胡海宏

    2013-01-01

    铁杉球蚜Adelges tsugae (Annand) (hemlock woolly adelgid)是斑翅肩花蝽Tetraphleps galchanoides Ghauri的重要天敌.为开展斑翅肩花蝽的人工繁殖,我们自主研制了一种主要成分为蛋白质、脂肪、碳水化合物的原料配制布丁人工饲料,所配制人工饲料产率为74.5%,含水率为8.6%,感官评定得分为81.7分.为评价斑翅肩花蝽布丁人工饲料的饲养效果,在实验室以铁杉球蚜作对照,用布丁人工饲料饲养斑翅肩花蝽,测定了斑翅肩花蝽若虫发育历期、存活率及成虫繁殖力,并调查了若虫和成虫林间捕食量.结果表明:用布丁人工饲料饲养的斑翅肩花蝽若虫发育历期(103.2±6.5 d)与对照的若虫发育历期(105.7±8.4 d)不存在显著差异(P>0.05);用布丁人工饲料饲养的斑翅肩花蝽若虫存活率(73.2%)略低于对照的若虫存活率(77.4%),而且第1,2和3代成虫获得率相近;取食布丁人工饲料的斑翅肩花蝽成虫,在产卵前期、产卵期、产卵量与对照组均无显著差异,但孵化率、成虫寿命存在显著差异,取食布丁人工饲料的卵孵化率为85.8%,成虫寿命为51.9 ±4.0 d,而对照组的卵孵化率仅为71.4%,成虫寿命仅为37.4 ±2.6 d.林间释放用布丁人工饲料饲养的斑翅肩花蝽,若虫和成虫均有效捕食铁杉球蚜.因此,此种布丁人工饲料可用于大量饲养繁殖斑翅肩花蝽,满足大面积生物防治铁杉球蚜的需要.%Tetraphleps galchanoides Ghauri is an important natural enemy to the hemlock woolly adelgid ( HWA) , Adelges tsugae ( Annand). An artificial pudding diet (APD) mainly consisting of protein, fat and carbohydrates was prepared with the production rate of 74. 5% , the moisture content of 8. 6% , and the score of sensory evaluation of 81. 7. To evaluate the efficiency of APD for rearing T. galchanoides, the developmental duration and survival rate of nymphs and the reproductive capacity of T. galchanoides fed on APD were observed in the laboratory, and the predation rates of nymphs and adults reared with APD were also investigated in the field. The results showed that there was no significant difference ( P > 0. 05) in the developmental duration between T. galchanoides nymphs fed on APD (103. 2 ±6. 5 d) and on HWA (105. 7 ± 8. 4 d). The survival rate of T. galchanoides nymphs fed on APD (73. 2% ) was lower than that fed on HWA (77. 4% ). The acquisition rates of T. galchanoides adults of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generations fed on HWA were the same with those fed on APD. There was no significant difference in pre-oviposition period, oviposition period, and oviposition amount between T. galchanoides adults fed on APD and those on HWA. Significant differences were found between the hatching rates of eggs laid by female adults fed on APD (85. 8% ) and HWA (71. 4% ) , and in the longevity between female adults fed on APD (51. 9 ±4. 0 d) and HWA (37. 4 ±2. 6 d). T. galchanoides fed on APDpreyed HWA effectively in the field. Thus, APD can be used for the mass rearing of T. galchanoides, which can be applied for biological control of HWA on a large scale.

  18. Development and thermal requirement of Anthocoris minki pistaciae ( Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) at different temperatures%锈褐原花蝽在不同温度下的发育与积温必需条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zohreh POURALI; Katayoon KHERADMAND; Mohammad Reza MEHRNEJAD; Hamid GHAJARIEH

    2010-01-01

    阿月浑子树木虱Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer(半翅目:木虱总科)是伊朗园林树木阿月浑子树上常见的最具破坏性的害虫,其捕食性天敌锈褐原花蝽Anthocoris minki pistaciae Wagner在伊朗阿月浑子树种植区为该害虫的生防因子.本研究在17.5~35℃的8个恒温以及相对湿度55%±5%,光照周期16L:8D的控制条件下.在A.pistaciae若虫上饲养这种捕食性花蝽的同时,调查温度对其发育的影响.结果表明:这种捕食性花蝽在17.5~32℃下可成功发育;然而在35℃下,卵不能孵化,且只有10%的若虫进入成虫阶段.30℃下从卵至成虫羽化的发育历期最短.据测算估计,这种捕食性花蝽的卵、若虫发育以及整个发育(卵至成虫)的积温分别为77,200和263度·日;卵、若虫和整个发育的低温度阈值分别为8.53,9.2和9.47℃.这些结果为建立阿月浑子树木虱的综合防治计划提供了宝贵的信息.

  19. 斑翅肩花蝽生物学特性、生境及食性选择%The biological characteristics, habitat and food selection of Tetraphleps galchanoides ( Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 虞国跃; Tom J.MCAVOY; Richard C.REARDON; 吴云; Scott M.SALOM; 和景福

    2011-01-01

    斑翅肩花蝽Tetraphleps galchanoides Ghauri是铁杉球蚜Adeges tsugae Annand(hemlock woolly adelgid)的重要天敌昆虫.在云南省兰坪县天生桥林区通过实验室和林间的饲养观察与测定、林间线路调查等方法,研究了斑翅肩花蝽的生物学特性、生境及食性选择,并描述各虫态形态特征.斑翅肩花蝽在该林区一年发生2代,无世代重叠,寿命长.第1代(5月下旬至10月下旬)卵期13.8±1.6 d,若虫期97.6±7.4 d,成虫期55.2±4.7 d;第2代(¨月中旬至翌年4月下旬)卵期11.3±1.1 d,若虫期105.7±8.5 d,成虫期60.4±5.3 d.若虫共5龄,以5龄若虫在云南铁杉Tsuga dumosa枝条树皮裂缝下或枯枝落叶层内越冬.雌雄成虫性比8.5∶1,雌雄成虫飞行缓慢,其飞行活动主要受到交尾、产卵、捕食铁杉球蚜补充营养的影响,多在树冠下层活动.该林区的斑翅肩花蝽最适生境选择:海拔为2 851~2 980 m,云南铁杉密度为13.3~15.5株/100m、郁闭度为0.61~0.70.以寄主铁杉球蚜及附近常见的冷杉球蚜Aphrastasia pectinatae(Cholodkovsky)、华山松球蚜Pineus armandicola Zhang和落叶松球蚜Adelges laricis Vall为食物进行选择性试验,结果表明,斑翅肩花蝽对这4种球蚜的选择性存在显著差异,最喜好捕食铁杉球蚜,可成为生物防治铁杉球蚜的主要天敌之一.%Tetraphleps galchanoides Ghauri is an important predator of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand, in China. Its biology, habitats and prey habit were studied through breeding observation in the laboratory and field investigation. It occurs 2 generations per year without generation overlapping in Tianshengqiao Forest Farm, Lanping County, Yunnan Province. The 1st generation occurs in late May to late October. Egg period lasts 13.8± 1.6 d, nymph period lasts 97.6 ±7.4 d, and adult period lasts 55.2 ± 4.7 d. The 2nd generation occurs in mid November to late April of next year. Egg period lasts 11.3 ± 1.1 d, nymph period lasts 105.7 ± 8.5 d, and adult period lasts 60.4 ±5.3 d. The nymphs have 5 instars. The 2nd-generation adults emerge from overwintered 5th instar nymphs under bark of hemlock branch or ground litter. The sex ratio of female to male is 8.5: 1. Adults fly slowly usually at the lower canopy, and their flight was affected by mating, oviposition, and feeding.The optimum habitat for T. galchanoides is at the elevation range from 2 851 to 2 980 m, with forest coverage of 0.61 -0.70, and with hemlock density 13.3 - 15.5/100 m. Food choice test was conducted among HWA and other 3 adelgids, i. e., Aphrastasia pectinatae (Cholodkovsky), Pineus armandicola Zhang, and Adelges laricis Vail. The results showed that there was a significant difference in its preference between HWA and the other adelgids. HWA was the most preferred prey. T. galchanoides can be used as one of the major natural enemies for the biological control of HWA.

  20. Diversidade de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no sul de Santa Catarina Diversity of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in southern Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Luiz A. Campos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A composição e a variação sazonal da fauna de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera foi avaliada entre setembro de 2005 e agosto de 2006 em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica na região sul de Santa Catarina (Brasil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W e Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W. Foram realizadas coletas mensais ao longo de trilhas nas três áreas, utilizando guarda-chuva entomológico e rede de varredura para amostrar nas bordas de mata. Para um esforço amostral de 108 horas foram coletados 595 indivíduos, distribuídos em 4 famílias, 29 gêneros e 49 espécies. Pentatomidae foi a família mais abundante (82,69% seguida de Cydnidae (15,97%, Scutelleridae (0,84% e Tessaratomidae (0,50%. Pentatomidae também apresentou a maior riqueza com 37 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes foram Mormidea notulifera Stål, 1860, Oebalus ypsilongriseus (De Geer, 1773, Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer, 1773, Edessa subrastrata Bergroth, 1891, Galgupha schulzii (Fabricius, 1781 e Agroecus scabricornis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1844. O período de maior captura foi entre o final da primavera e início do outono, representando 71,76% do total coletado. O Parque do Maracajá apresentou abundância e riqueza sgnificativamente maiores do que as demais áreas. Este estudo representa o primeiro inventário da diversidade de Pentatomoidea em habitats naturais no estado de Santa Catarina.The composition and the seasonal variation of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera were evaluated between September 2005 and August 2006 in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in the southern region of the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W and Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W. Monthly sampling had been carried out in the three areas, using beating tray and sweeping nets to sample forest edge vegetation. After an effort of 108 hours, 595 individuals of 4 families, 29 genera and 49 species. were collected. Pentatomidae was the most abundant family (82.69%, followed by Cydnidae (15.97%, Scutelleridae (0.84% and Tessaratomidae (0.50%. Pentatomidae also presented the greatest richness with 37 species. The most abundant species were Mormidea notulifera Stål, 1860, Oebalus ypsilongriseus (De Geer, 1773, Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer, 1773, Edessa subrastrata Bergroth, 1891, Galgupha schulzii (Fabricius, 1781 and Agroecus scabricornis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1844. More individuals were captured between the end of the spring and the beginning of autumn, representing 71.76% of the total collected. Parque do Maracajá presented significantly higher abundance and richness. This study portrays the first inventory of the diversity of Pentatomoidea in natural habitats in the State of Santa Catarina.

  1. Abundância e riqueza de espécies de Heteroptera (Hemiptera do Parque Estadual do Turvo, sul do Brasil: Pentatomoidea Abundance and species richness of Heteroptera (Hemiptera from Parque Estadual do Turvo, southern Brazil: Pentatomoidea

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    Letícia Santos Schmidt

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo de dois anos foi desenvolvido no Parque Estadual do Turvo, município de Derrubadas, sul do Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar a composição, abundância e riqueza de espécies de Pentatomoidea. As amostragens foram efetuadas nas primaveras de 2003 e 2004 (outubro e nos outonos de 2004 e 2005 (maio, utilizando a metodologia do guarda-chuva entomológico, ao longo de duas trilhas do Parque. O esforço amostral foi medido em número de horas de coleta X número de coletores, totalizando 153 horas de amostragem. Um total de 816 indivíduos de Pentatomoidea foram coletados, distribuídos em 56 espécies/morfoespécies, pertencentes a sete famílias. A riqueza estimada de espécies no outono de 2005 foi significativamente menor do que nos demais períodos amostrados. Não houve, entretanto, diferenças significativas entre as primaveras de 2003 e 2004 e o outono de 2004, para o mesmo parâmetro. A trilha do Yucumã apresentou uma riqueza estimada significativamente maior do que a trilha do Garcia. Espécies únicas ou representadas por dois indivíduos equivaleram a 44,6% do total de espécies registradas. Adicionalmente, 20 outras espécies/morfoespécies de Pentatomoidea foram obtidas com amostragens qualitativas, que incluíram, além de guarda-chuva entomológico, armadilhas luminosas e inspeção visual. A presença de espécies de pentatomídeos geralmente associadas a cultivos, dominantes nos diferentes períodos, sugere uma influência das culturas adjacentes a esta unidade de conservação. Novos registros de espécies para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul são fornecidos.A two-year study was carried out at Parque Estadual do Turvo, Municipality of Derrubadas, southern Brazil, aiming to evaluate the composition, abundance and species richness of Pentatomoidea. Samplings were conducted in the Springs of 2003 and 2004 (October, and Autumns of 2004 and 2005 (May, using beating tray method, along two trials of the park. Sampling effort (hours X collectors totalled 153 hours. A total of 816 individuals of Pentatomoidea were collected, distributed in 56 species/morphospecies of seven families. It was found significantly less species in the Autumn 2005 than in the other periods. There was no significant difference, however, among Springs of 2003 and 2004, and Autumn of 2004, for the same parameter. Yucumã trail presented a significantly higher estimated richness than Garcia trail. Singletons and doubletons represented 44.6% of the recorded species. Aditionally, 20 other species/morphospecies of pentatomoids were obtained qualitatively by using, besides beating tray, ligth trap and visual inspections. The occurrence of species frequently associated to crops, dominant in the different sampling periods, suggests an influence of the adjacent crops on this conservation unity. New records of species for the State of Rio Grande do Sul are added.

  2. Temperature influence on the nymphal biology of Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: pentatomidae/ Influência da temperatura na biologia de ninfas de Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: pentatomidae

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    Antônio Ricardo Panizzi

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudo referente à biologia de ninfas do percevejo barriga verde, Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas, 1851, sob três diferentes temperaturas (15, 20 e 25oC, foi realizado em laboratório. A tentativa de testar o efeito da temperatura desde a fase de ovo foi impossibilitada devido ao fato de nenhuma ninfa eclodir de posturas a 15 e 20oC. Ninfas do percevejo barriga verde foram mantidas sob diferentes temperaturas desde a eclosão, sendo individualizadas a partir do segundo ínstar em placas de Petri e alimentadas com vagens verdes e sementes secas de soja. A umidade relativa (65±5% e a fotofase (14h foram mantidas constantes. Ninfas acondicionadas desde o 1o ínstar à temperatura de 15oC não completaram o 2o ínstar, havendo 100% de mortalidade desde o início do experimento. Sob 20oC, somente um adulto emergiu, e a mortalidade total foi de 96,7%. À temperatura de 25oC, 56% das ninfas conseguiram completar seu desenvolvimento. O tempo total de desenvolvimento foi de 56,0 dias para o único adulto (macho obtido à 20oC. Em 25oC, o tempo de desenvolvimento de fêmeas foi de 24,8 dias; os machos levaram 24,0 dias para completar seu desenvolvimento. Portanto, o percevejo D. melacanthus não foi capaz de se desenvolver sob temperaturas amenas (15oC e 20oC em laboratório.Performane of nymphs of the green belly bug, Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas, 1851, under three different temperatures (15, 20 e 25oC was evaluated in the laboratory. It was impossible to evaluate the temperature effect since egg stadium, because no nymph ecloded under 15 and 20oC. D. melacanthus nymphs were maintained under those different temperatures since the first stadium. Upon reaching the second instar, they were placed individually in Petri dishes and fed with green pods and dry seeds of soybean. The environmental cahambers were maintained with relative humidity of 65±5% and photophase of 14 hours. Nymphs maintained under 15oC showed 100% of mortality on the second instar. Under 20oC, only one adult emerged; the total mortality (2nd–5th instar was about 96,7%. Under 25oC, 56% of nymphs completed their development, becoming adults. The single nymph (male from 20oC required 56.0 days to complete development. The developmental time (2nd-5th instar under 25oC was 24.8 and 24.0 days, for females and males, respectively. These results suggest that D. melacanthus was not able to develop under mild temperatures (15oC e 20oC in the laboratory.

  3. Description of the immature stages of Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae: Corixini, with ecological notes Descripción de los estadios larvales de Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Heteroptera: Corixidae, con notas acerca de su ecología

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    María Cecilia Melo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski is the smallest species of the subgenus ranging from 4.2-4.7 mm, and it is characterized by the absence of a strigil, the small and narrow genital capsule with a short hypandrium in males, and the shape of the abdominal tergite VII in females. This species is endemic to the Patagonian subregion (Andean region in Argentina. A monthly sampling study was performed during a year in northern Mendoza, and additional material was collected in southern Mendoza, more precisely from Bañado Carilauquen in the Llancanelo Lake Reserve (Malargüe Department. Since little is known about the ecological requirements of S. (T. jensenhaarupi, herein we describe its habitat, the environmental conditions and its association with other macroinvertebrates. Also, we provide a morphological description of larval stages, and provide new records of this species.Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski es la especie más pequeña del subgénero (4.2-4.7 mm, y se caracteriza por la ausencia de estrigilo, la cápsula genital masculina pequeña y angosta con el hipandro corto, y la forma característica del tergito abdominal VII en las hembras. Esta especie es endémica de la subregión Patagónica (región Andina en Argentina. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales durante un año en el norte de la provincia de Mendoza, material adicional fue recolectado en el sur de la provincia, más precisamente en el Bañado Carilauquen en la Reserva Laguna Llancanelo (Departamento de Malargüe. Poco se conoce acerca de los requerimientos ecológicos de S. (T. jensenhaarupi, por lo que en este trabajo describimos su hábitat, las condiciones ambientales y su asociación con otros macroinvertebrados. Además, describimos los estadios larvales y damos nuevos registros de esta especie.

  4. Attraction of Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood)(Heteroptera: alydidae) to cow urine and ammonia Atração de Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood) (Heteroptera: alydidae) por urina de vaca e amônia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovenil José da Silva; Iara Cintra de Arruda-Gatti; Adriana Yatie Mikami; Aline Pissinati; Antônio Ricardo Panizzi; Mauricio Ursi Ventura

    2010-01-01

    The alydid bug parvus (Westwood) is not easily detected in the field and the discovery of attractants may be a suitable way to monitor this species. The attraction of N. parvus to traps (transparent, transparent green and yellow) baited with cow urine and ammonia was studied in two field trials. Traps were placed near a terrace with pigeon pea plants (Cajanus cajan L.). Tap water, NaCl 10% aqueous solution (w/v), cow urine, and ammonia (NH4OH 1% aqueous solution) were tested as attractants in...

  5. Attraction of Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood(Heteroptera: alydidae to cow urine and ammonia Atração de Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Heteroptera: alydidae por urina de vaca e amônia

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    Jovenil José da Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The alydid bug parvus (Westwood is not easily detected in the field and the discovery of attractants may be a suitable way to monitor this species. The attraction of N. parvus to traps (transparent, transparent green and yellow baited with cow urine and ammonia was studied in two field trials. Traps were placed near a terrace with pigeon pea plants (Cajanus cajan L.. Tap water, NaCl 10% aqueous solution (w/v, cow urine, and ammonia (NH4OH 1% aqueous solution were tested as attractants in yellow, transparent and transparent green traps. Green traps baited with cow urine caught more bugs than yellow and transparent traps (3.2 and 7.2 times more, respectively, and more bugs than traps of the same color with just water (no captures or NH4OH solution (14.5 times more. Traps baited with ammonia caught more bugs than traps with water: 14.4, 4.7 and 6.7 times more than transparent green, yellow, and transparent traps, respectively, or NaCl solution: 3.9, 7.6 and 6.2 times, respectively. Both ammonia and cow urine are attractive to N. parvus and may be tested to monitor the bugs in the field.O percevejo alidídeo Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood não é facilmente detectado no campo e a descoberta de atraentes pode ser uma forma adequada para monitorar a espécie. A atração de N. parvus a armadilhas (transparentes, verde transparente e amarela iscadas com urina de vaca e amônia foi estudada em dois experimentos em campo. Armadilhas foram colocadas próximas a um terraço com plantas de feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan L.. Água corrente, solução aquosa de NaCl 10% (p/v, urina de vaca e amônia (solução aquosa de NH4OH 1% foram testadas como atraentes em armadilhas amarelas, transparentes e transparentes verdes foram utilizadas. Armadilhas verdes iscadas com urina capturaram mais insetos do que armadilhas amarelas e transparentes (3,2 e 7,2 vezes mais, respectivamente, e mais insetos do que armadilhas da mesma cor com apenas água (zero insetos ou solução de NaCl (14,5 vezes mais. Armadilhas iscadas com amônia capturaram mais insetos do que armadilhas com água: 14,4; 4,7 e 6,7 vezes mais em verde transparente, amarela e transparente, respectivamente, ou solução de NaCl: 3,9; 7,6 e 6,2 vezes, respectivamente. Amônia ou urina de vaca são atrativas para N. parvus e podem ser testadas para monitorar o percevejo no campo.

  6. Os Cimicídeos e sua importância em Saúde Pública (Hemiptera-Heteroptera; Cimicidae The Cimicidae and their importance in Public Health (Hemiptera-Heteroptera; Cimicidae

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se atualização de conhecimentos sobre insetos da família Cimicidae, ou percevejos, de interesse em saúde pública. Após fornecer elementos de morfologia, externa e interna, dedica-se atenção à biologia e ecologia desses insetos, em especial modo, focalizando o relacionamento com o homem e seu ambiente. As espécies Cimex lectularius e C. hemipterus são tratadas em particular, com revisão dos dados disponíveis sobre o possível papel vetor desses percevejos na transmissão de agentes infecciosos. São apresentados dados sobre a classificação e distribuição geográfica. Fornecem-se dados sobre meios de controle. Inclui chaves para identificação de formas adultas e imaturas, além de vestígios que possam servir de indícios para as atividades de vigilância epidemiológica.A review of the Cimicidae of importance in public health is presented. After a general morphological study, special attention is given to knowledge of the biology and ecology of bed-bugs, mainly as regards their relation to the human environment and the possibility of their role in disease transmission. The species Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus are given particular attention and data on their relevance to questions of public health are revised. Taxonomy, biosystematic and geographical distribution are presented, the epidemiologically important groups listed and control measures discussed. The paper ends with identification keys for both adult and immature stages as well as for arthropod indoor fecal traces.

  7. Revisão e análise cladística de Serdia Stål (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini Review and cladistic analysis of Serdia Stål (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini

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    Nora Denise Fortes de Fortes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Treze espécies são hoje incluídas no gênero: S. apicicornis, Stål, 1860; S. beckerae Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. calligera Stål, 1860; S. concolor Ruckes, 1958; S. costalis Ruckes, 1958; S. delphis Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. inspersipes Stål, 1860; S. lobata Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. rotundicornis Becker, 1967 e S. ruckesi Thomas & Rolston, 1985. Cinco novas espécies são descritas: S. indistincta sp. nov (Irai, Rio Grande do Sul, S. bicolor sp. nov (Ponta Grossa, Paraná, S. maculata sp. nov (Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, S. máxima sp. nov (Imbituba, Santa Catarina e S. robusta sp. nov (Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro do Brasil. A análise cladística foi realizada usando 40 caracteres e 21 táxons. O gênero Tibilis Stål, 1860; Neotibilis Grazia & Barcellos, 1994 e Similliserdia Fortes & Grazia, 1998 foram usados como grupo-externo. A monofilia de Serdia foi sustentada por 3 sinapomorfias: ápice do escutelo com margens enegrecidas, machos com a parede da taça genital espessada com processos em aba, fêmeas com o espessamento da íntima vaginal situado na metade posterior das gonapófises 9 e projetando-se ventralmente. O subgênero Brasiliicola Kirkaldy, 1909 é considerado sinônimo junior de Serdia. São fornecidas ilustrações, mapas de distribuição geográfica e chave para as espécies.Thirteen species are presently included in the genus: S. apicicornis Stål, 1860; S. beckerae Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. bihamulata, Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. calligera Stål, 1860; S. concolor Ruckes, 1958; S. costalis Ruckes, 1958; S. delphis Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. inspersipes Stål, 1860; S. limbatipennis Stål, 1860; S. lobata Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. quadridens Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. rotundicornis Becker, 1967, and S. ruckesi Thomas & Rolston, 1985. Five new species are described: S.indistincta sp. nov. (Iraí; Rio Grande do Sul, S. bicolor sp. nov. (Ponta Grossa; Paraná S. maculata sp. nov. (Itatiaia; Rio de Janeiro S. maxima sp. nov. (Imbituba; Santa Catarina and S. robusta sp. nov. (Itatiaia; Rio de Janeiro from Brazil. A cladistic analysis was performed using 40 characters and 21 taxa. The genera Tibilis Stål, 1860; Neotibilis Grazia & Barcellos, 1994 and Similliserdia Fortes & Grazia, 1998 were used as outgroups. The monophyly of Serdia is supported by three synapomorphies: scutellum apex with darkned margins; males with the inner wall of genital cup thicker and with brim-shaped processes; females with the thickennings of the vaginal intima arising at posterior half of gonapophyses 9, and projected ventrad. The subgenus Brasiliicola Kirkaldy, 1909 is considered junior synonym of Serdia. Illustrations, a map of geographical distribution and a key for the species are also provided.

  8. Estudio anatomo-histológico del sistema digestivo de Stenomacra marginella (Eric-Schaeffer, 1850) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Largidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sheirla M. Nava Gervasio; Esperanza Ortíz Ordoñez; Esther A. Uría Galicia

    2007-01-01

    Se hizo el estudio anatómico e histológico del sistema digestivo de Stenomacra marginella (Herrich-Schaeffer 1850) para conocer sus adaptaciones y comprender los procesos de digestión y absorción en el mismo. El tubo digestivo de esta especie tiene el mismo patrón estructural general característico de los insectos. Presenta las siguientes diferencias con respecto a otros hemípteros chupadores de savia: ausencia de ciegos gástricos, y membrana peritrófica, presencia de células glandulares unic...

  9. New species of Narnia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini) from Mexico and key to the known species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry; Barrera, Ernesto

    2013-11-13

    One new species of Narnia is described from Mexico, N. anaticula sp. nov. A key to the species is provided together with dorsal view photograph of each known species of Narnia. The genus is divided in two groups according the color of the dorsal abdominal segments.

  10. The identity of Acanthosoma vicinum, with proposal of a new genus and species level synonymy (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Acanthosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jing-Fu; Rédei, Dávid

    2015-01-01

    The identity of Acanthosoma vicinum Uhler, 1861 (type species of the monotypic genus Grossaria Kumar, 1974) is clarified based on reexamination of the lectotype. The following new combination and new subjective synonymies are proposed: Elasmucha Stål, 1864 = Grossaria Kumar, 1974, syn. nov.; Elasmucha vicina (Uhler, 1861), comb. nov. (transferred from Acanthosoma) = Elasmucha dorsalis (Jakovlev, 1876), syn. nov. Reversion to the senior name E. vicina is considered to be undesirable, therefore, in order to preserve stability, no nomenclatural changes are proposed in this paper, but an application has simultaneously been submitted to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to give the specific name dorsalis precedence over the specific name vicinum.

  11. Neuropeptides in Heteroptera: Identification of allatotropin-related peptide and tachykinin-related peptides using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, the peptidomic analysis of neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex and abdominal perisympathetic organs of polyphagous stinkbugs (Pentatomidae) revealed the group-specific sequences of pyrokinins, CAPA peptides (CAPA-periviscerokinins/PVKs and CAPA-pyrokinin), myosuppressin, corazonin...

  12. A New Crataegus-feeding plant bug of the genus Neolygus Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae) from Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new species Neolygus crataegi is described from two counties in southern Virginia where it was collected in June on flowers of hawthorn, Crataegus spp. Dorsal and lateral digital images and a habitus illustration of the adult, scanning electron photomicrographs of selected structures, and male ...

  13. Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), an Old World flat bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) newly discovered in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Old World aradid Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), belonging to the subfamily Mezirinae, is reported for the first time from the Western Hemisphere. Since 2005, eight specimens have been intercepted at United States ports-of-entry in international commerce from Costa Rica, Dominican Repub...

  14. Comparing vegetation types and anthropic disturbance levels in the Atlantic forest: how do Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) assemblages respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F M; Mendonça, M S; Campos, L A

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest (AF) is considered the most fragmented and endangered Brazilian biome. The diversity of phytophagous insects increases after disturbances in forests, and it was hypothesized the Pentatomidae can furnish ecologically reliable information in terms of diversity in response to the changes occurring in AF. Our aim was to quantify the response of assemblages of Pentatomoidea to gradient of human disturbance in two vegetation types of the AF-dense ombrophilous forest (DOF) and mixed ombrophilous forest (MOF). Twelve transects were grouped into environmental classes, namely open, intermediate, and closed. Overall, 1,017 pentatomoids were sampled, representing 64 species. The open environment was more abundant than closed environment, though it is expected that Pentatomoidea respond with increasing abundance when under light or moderate disturbance. The MOF was more abundant than DOF, and the composition differed between both of them. Given the differences in composition between MOF and DOF, abiotic variables are important factors acting as environmental filters for Pentatomoidea, not just directly on the insects, but probably also on the nutritional support of their host plants. PMID:25369568

  15. Diel flight behaviour and dispersal patterns of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera species with special emphasis on the importance of seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabai, Zoltán; Kálmán, Zoltán; Szivák, Ildikó; Boda, Pál

    2012-09-01

    Dispersal flight is the most important and almost the only way for primary aquatic insects to find new water habitats. During a 30-week-long project, we monitored the flight dispersal behaviour of aquatic beetles and bugs with using highly and horizontally polarizing agricultural black plastic sheets laid onto the ground. Based on the flight data of more than 45,000 individuals and 92 species, we explored and described eight different diel flight activity patterns. We found that seven of eight dispersal patterns are consistent with the previous knowledge, while three conspicuous mass dispersal periods can be identified as in the mid morning and/or around noon and/or at nightfall. As an exception, we found a `daytime' pattern occurred exclusively in spring, in which mass dispersal can be seen from mid morning to late afternoon. In contrast to previous studies, we emphasize here that the seasonality has to be considered in evaluation of the diurnal flight activity. According to the seasons, a `three code sign' was proposed to indicate the diel dispersal flight behaviour of a species for a year. Most of the species utilize different diel activity patterns in different seasons. In spring, the daytime pattern was the preferred type, but in summer and autumn, the evening types were the most popular patterns. We stated that the seasonal change of air temperature has a crucial role in that a pattern could be manifested in a given season or not and brings a need to change the diel dispersal pattern among seasons.

  16. Presence of the nearctic water boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis (Fieber, 1851 (Heteroptera, Corixidae in the Algarve region (S Portugal

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    Boix, D.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the presence of the nearctic water boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis in southern Portugal. This species has been cited recently for the first time in Europe from individuals captured in southern Spain. This species, native to Atlantic coast of America, has also been cited from New Caledonia and South Africa, and has been found in the open sea. Two kinds of introduction are reported for this species: involuntary introduction with exotic fish, and passive dispersion through marine currents and severe storms. The possibility of this kind of introduction in Europe is discussed.Esta nota describe la presencia del coríxido neártico Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis en el sur de Portugal. Recientemente, esta especie ha sido citada por primera vez en Europa de ejemplares capturados en el sur de España. Esta especie, nativa de la costa atlántica americana, también ha sido citada en Nueva Caledonia y África del Sur, y se ha encontrado en mar abierto. Se conocen dos vías de introducción de esta especie: introducción involuntaria a través de peces exóticos y dispersión pasiva a través de corrientes marinas y fuertes tormentas. Se discuten las posibilidades de estas dos vías de introducción en Europa.

  17. FIRST RECORD OF THE GENUS Ocyochterus FROM COLOMBIA AND NEW RECORDS OF OCHTERIDAE FROM COSTA RICA (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA

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    Federico Herrera Madrigal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first Colombian record of Ocyochterus, expanding the previously known distributional range of the genus. Additionally, records of two species of Ochterus from Costa Rica are provided. The material examined is deposited at the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica (MZUCR, San José, Costa Rica.RESUMENSe registra por primera vez Ocyochterus para Colombia, con lo cual se expande el rango de distribución conocido hasta el momento. Además, se proveen registros para dos especies de Ochterus en Costa Rica. El material examinado se encuentra depositado en el Museo de Zoología de la Universidad de Costa Rica (MZUCR, San José, Costa Rica.

  18. Comparative Meiotic Studies in Triatoma sordida (Stål and T. guasayana Wygodzinsky & Abalos (Reduviidae, Heteroptera

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    P Rebagliati

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma sordida and T. guasayana are competent Trypanosoma cruzi vectors, with overlapping distribution areas in Argentina. Both species are morphologically similar, and their immature stages are hard to discriminate. Cytogenetic studies in the genus Triatoma reveal scarce karyotypic variations, being 2n= 20 + XY the most frequent diploid number in males. In the present work the meiotic behaviour of different Argentinian populations of T. sordida and T. guasayana has been analyzed; the meiotic karyotype of both species has also been compared. The species differ in total chromosome area and in the relative area of the sex chromosomes. These meiotic karyotypic differences constitute an additional tool for the taxonomic characterization of T. sordida and T. guasayana. The analysis of an interpopulation hybrid of T. sordida (Brazil x Argentina reveals a regular meiotic behaviour, despite the presence of heteromorphic bivalents. Our observations support the hypothesis that karyotype variations through the gain or loss of heterochromatin can not be considered as a primary mechanism of reproductive isolation in Triatoma.

  19. Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera, Tingidae) using a genome skimming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; Guilbert, Éric; Lhuillier, Émeline; Murienne, Jerôme

    2015-03-01

    Lace bugs (Tingidae) are a family of phytophagous heteropterans, some of which are important agricultural and forestry pests. They currently comprise around 2500 species distributed worldwide, for which only one mitochondrial genome has been described so far. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome and the nuclear ribosomal gene segment of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae using a genome skimming approach on an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. Fifty-four additional heteropteran mitogenomes, including the one of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata, were retrieved to allow for comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. P. perseae mitochondrial genome was determined to be 15,850 bp long, and presented the typical organisation of insect mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analysis placed P. perseae as a sister to C. ciliata but did not confirm the monophyly of Miroidae including Tingidae. Our results contradicted widely accepted phylogenetic hypothesis, which highlights the limits of analyses based on mitochondrial data only. Shotgun sequencing approaches should provide substantial improvements in harmonizing mitochondrial and nuclear databases.

  20. The significance of cytogenetics for the study of karyotype evolution and taxonomy of water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae) native to Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela, Chirino Mónica; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Bressa, María José

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Male meiosis behaviour and heterochromatin characterization of three big water bug species were studied. Belostoma dentatum (Mayr, 1863), Belostoma elongatum Montandon, 1908 and Belostoma gestroi Montandon, 1903 possess 2n = 26 + X1X2Y (male). In these species, male meiosis is similar to that previously observed in Belostoma Latreille, 1807. In general, autosomal bivalents show a single chiasma terminally located and divide reductionally at anaphase I. On the other hand, sex chromosomes are achiasmatic, behave as univalents and segregate their chromatids equationally at anaphase I. The analysis of heterochromatin distribution and composition revealed a C-positive block at the terminal region of all autosomes in Belostoma dentatum, a C-positive block at the terminal region and C-positive interstitial dots on all autosomes in Belostoma elongatum, and a little C-positive band at the terminal region of autosomes in Belostoma gestroi. A C-positive band on one bivalent was DAPI negative/CMA3 positive in the three species. The CMA3-bright band, enriched in GC base pairs, was coincident with a NOR detected by FISH. The results obtained support the hypothesis that all species of Belostoma with multiple sex chromosome systems preserve NORs in autosomal bivalents. The karyotype analyses allow the cytogenetic characterization and identification of these species belonging to a difficult taxonomic group. Besides, the cytogenetic characterization will be useful in discussions about evolutionary trends of the genome organization and karyotype evolution in this genus. PMID:24260694

  1. Rhodnius amazonicus Almeida, Santos & Sposina, 1973, Bona Species, Close to R. pictipes Stål, 1872 (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    J-M Bérenger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of two atypical specimens of Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1872 in French Guiana and the examination of the female holotype of R. amazonicus Almeida, Santos & Sposina, 1973, the only specimen of this species so far known, lead us to propose the rehabilitation of R. amazonicus synonymized with R. pictipes. The male is described for the first time and the female redescribed. Both external characters and genitalia distinguish R. amazonicus from R. pictipes. R. amazonicus shows affinities not only with pictipes but also with R. stali Lent, Jurberg & Galvão, 1993 and R. paraensis Sherlock, Guitton & Miles, 1977. A key is provided for these four species forming, in all likelihood, a natural group, i.e. the "pictipes group".

  2. Biased sex ratio and low population density increase male mating success in the bug Nysius huttoni (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; He, Xiong Zhao; Yang, Linghuan; Hedderley, Duncan; Davis, Lorraine K.

    2009-01-01

    Demographic factors such as operational sex ratio (OSR) and local population density (LPD) are temporally and spatially dynamic in the natural environment but the influence of these variables on male mating success and the mechanisms behind it are still poorly understood and highly controversial. Here, we manipulated the OSR and LPD of a seed bug, Nysius huttoni, and carried out a series of mating trials to test how these variables affected male mating success. The two demographic factors had no significant interactions, suggesting that they affect male mating success independently in N. huttoni. In this species male mating success was significantly higher in both male- and female-biased OSR than in even OSR. It is suggested that, in male-biased OSR, the increased intensity of competition and interference does not result in lower male mating success; rather, males may make more effort in courting and females may have more chance to encounter better males, resulting in higher male mating success. In female-biased OSR, females may become less choosy and less likely to reject male mating attempt, leading to the higher male mating success. Lower male mating success in N. huttoni in high LPD may be due to increased interference between males and/or delayed female receptiveness for mating. OSR had a stronger effect on male mating success than LPD in N. huttoni, suggesting that OSR and LPD affect mating success in different ways and intensities.

  3. A new species and a new record of Apolygus China (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae) from the Korean Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Junggon Kim; Sunghoon Jung

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Apolygus josifovi Kim et Jung sp. nov., and a new record, Apolygus roseofemoralis, are described and reported for the first time from the Korean Peninsula. Morphological information including descriptions of male genitalia and diagnoses, and a key to the Korean Apolygus species are presented with photographs and illustrations.

  4. Contributions on Gargaphia (Heteroptera, Tingidae) systematics: redescriptions of two South American species with considerations on the status of G. inca

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Guidoti

    2013-01-01

    Gargaphia inca Monte, 1943 was synonymized with G. opima Drake, 1931 without any declared reasons. Gargaphia inca is known only from its type location (Satipo, Peru), and G. opima from Colombia (Villavencio) and Peru (Cam. Del Pichis, type-locality), in addition to the new records here presented, including the first record for Ecuador. Both species are redescribed, and the status of G. inca is revisited and raised from synonymy. Illustrations of some of the most remarkable differences between...

  5. Contributions on Gargaphia (Heteroptera, Tingidae systematics: redescriptions of two South American species with considerations on the status of G. inca

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    Marcus Guidoti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gargaphia inca Monte, 1943 was synonymized with G. opima Drake, 1931 without any declared reasons. Gargaphia inca is known only from its type location (Satipo, Peru, and G. opima from Colombia (Villavencio and Peru (Cam. Del Pichis, type-locality, in addition to the new records here presented, including the first record for Ecuador. Both species are redescribed, and the status of G. inca is revisited and raised from synonymy. Illustrations of some of the most remarkable differences between these taxa are provided, as well as dorsal habitus images. Discussions on the genus systematic status and this nomenclatural act are presented.

  6. Description of spermatheca and eggs of Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank, 1778) (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae),based on optical and scanning electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    CANDAN, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye; GÜLLÜ, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Spermatheca and egg morphology of Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank, 1778) were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The spermatheca of E. austriaca is characterized by a spermathecal bulb, a pumping region, distal and proximal flanges and ducts, and a genital chamber. Each female was shown to deposit 14 green eggs on average in mass. The spherical eggs averaged 1.05 ± 0.05 mm in diameter. The first external evidence of embryonic development was the appearance of 2 red eye s...

  7. Distribution Pattern and Climate Preferences of the Representatives of the Cosmopolitan Genus Sirthenea Spinola, 1840 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae.

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    Dominik Chłond

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to predict, through the use of GIS tool as ecological niche modelling, potentially suitable ecological niche and defining the conditions of such niche for the representatives of the cosmopolitan genus Sirthenea. Among all known genera of the subfamily Peiratinae, only Sirthenea occurs on almost all continents and zoogeographical regions. Our research was based on 521 unique occurrence localities and a set of environmental variables covering the whole world. Based on occurrence localities, as well as climatic variables, digital elevation model, terrestrial ecoregions and biomes, information about the ecological preferences is given. Potentially useful ecological niches were modelled using Maxent software, which allowed for the creation of a map of the potential distribution and for determining climatic preferences. An analysis of climatic preferences suggested that the representatives of the genus were linked mainly to the tropical and temperate climates. An analysis of ecoregions also showed that they preferred areas with tree vegetation like tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biomes as well as temperate broadleaf and mixed forest biomes. Therefore, on the basis of the museum data on the species occurrence and ecological niche modelling method, we provided new and valuable information on the potentially suitable habitat and the possible range of distribution of the genus Sirthenea along with its climatic preferences.

  8. Distribution Pattern and Climate Preferences of the Representatives of the Cosmopolitan Genus Sirthenea Spinola, 1840 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłond, Dominik; Bugaj-Nawrocka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to predict, through the use of GIS tool as ecological niche modelling, potentially suitable ecological niche and defining the conditions of such niche for the representatives of the cosmopolitan genus Sirthenea. Among all known genera of the subfamily Peiratinae, only Sirthenea occurs on almost all continents and zoogeographical regions. Our research was based on 521 unique occurrence localities and a set of environmental variables covering the whole world. Based on occurrence localities, as well as climatic variables, digital elevation model, terrestrial ecoregions and biomes, information about the ecological preferences is given. Potentially useful ecological niches were modelled using Maxent software, which allowed for the creation of a map of the potential distribution and for determining climatic preferences. An analysis of climatic preferences suggested that the representatives of the genus were linked mainly to the tropical and temperate climates. An analysis of ecoregions also showed that they preferred areas with tree vegetation like tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biomes as well as temperate broadleaf and mixed forest biomes. Therefore, on the basis of the museum data on the species occurrence and ecological niche modelling method, we provided new and valuable information on the potentially suitable habitat and the possible range of distribution of the genus Sirthenea along with its climatic preferences. PMID:26495965

  9. Egg Parasitoids from Pakistan as possible classical biological control agents of the invasive pest, Bagrada hilaris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The newly invasive pest stink bug, Bagrada hilaris, threatens the cole crop industry and certain ornamentals in the U.S. Without its co-evolved natural enemies, it is likely to spread from the Southwest U.S. to the east coast, requiring millions more dollars to control it. If key biological control ...

  10. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated.

  11. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27596436

  12. DNA barcoding and development of species-specific markers for the identification of tea mosquito bugs (Miridae: Heteroptera) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebijith, K B; Asokan, R; Kumar, N K Krishna; Srikumar, K K; Ramamurthy, V V; Bhat, P Shivarama

    2012-10-01

    Rapid, accurate, and timely identification of insects as a group is important and challenging worldwide, as they outnumber all other animals in number and diversity. DNA barcoding is a method for the identification of species in a wide range of animal taxa, which uses the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase-I (CO-I). Yet another easy, accurate, and economical method of species discrimination is by developing species-specific markers, which produce specific amplicon for the species in question. The method is handy because it is not limited by life stages, sex, polymorphism, and other factors. Herein, we measured the usefulness of CO-I for the species discrimination of mirids in India viz. Helopeltis antonii Signoret, H. thievora Waterhouse, H. bradyi Waterhouse, and Pachypeltis maesarum Kirkaldy in their various life stages. Furthermore, our study showed the utility of species-specific markers in differentiating H. antonii (295) and H. bradyi (514) regardless of their life stages. Analysis of CO-I gene revealed <1% intraspecific divergence for all four species examined, whereas the interspecific distances ranged from 7 to 13%. This study showed that the DNA barcode and species-specific markers will aid the identification of mirids in India and will stand as a decisive tool in formulating integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, quick identification of invasive and cryptic species, haplotypes, biotypes, and other factors, if any. PMID:23068182

  13. Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae): implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Abad-Franch; Fernando A Monteiro

    2007-01-01

    An ecological-evolutionary classification of Amazonian triatomines is proposed based on a revision of their main contemporary biogeographical patterns. Truly Amazonian triatomines include the Rhodniini, the Cavernicolini, and perhaps Eratyrus and some Bolboderini. The tribe Rhodniini comprises two major lineages (pictipes and robustus). The former gave rise to trans-Andean (pallescens) and Amazonian (pictipes) species groups, while the latter diversified within Amazonia (robustus group) and r...

  14. Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An ecological-evolutionary classification of Amazonian triatomines is proposed based on a revision of their main contemporary biogeographical patterns. Truly Amazonian triatomines include the Rhodniini, the Cavernicolini, and perhaps Eratyrus and some Bolboderini. The tribe Rhodniini comprises two major lineages (pictipes and robustus. The former gave rise to trans-Andean (pallescens and Amazonian (pictipes species groups, while the latter diversified within Amazonia (robustus group and radiated to neighbouring ecoregions (Orinoco, Cerrado-Caatinga-Chaco, and Atlantic Forest. Three widely distributed Panstrongylus species probably occupied Amazonia secondarily, while a few Triatoma species include Amazonian populations that occur only in the fringes of the region. T. maculata probably represents a vicariant subset isolated from its parental lineage in the Caatinga-Cerrado system when moist forests closed a dry trans-Amazonian corridor. These diverse Amazonian triatomines display different degrees of synanthropism, defining a behavioural gradient from household invasion by adult triatomines to the stable colonisation of artificial structures. Anthropogenic ecological disturbance (driven by deforestation is probably crucial in the onset of the process, but the fact that only a small fraction of species effectively colonises artificial environments suggests a role for evolution at the end of the gradient. Domestic infestation foci are restricted to drier subregions within Amazonia; thus, populations adapted to extremely humid rainforest microclimates may have limited chances of successfully colonising the slightly drier artificial microenvironments. These observations suggest several research avenues, from the use of climate data to map risk areas to the assessment of the synanthropic potential of individual vector species.

  15. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    The Renodaeus group, a monophyletic assemblage of genera within the New World orthotyline tribe Ceratocapsini, comprising eight genera, including four new ones, is defined; and 48 species are treated, including 26 described as new and 12 transferred from Ceratocapsus Reuter as new combinations. Ceratocapsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the new species Ceratocapsideabahamaensis sp. n., from the Bahamas; Ceratocapsideabaranowskii sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsideadominicanensis sp. n., from the Dominican Republic; Ceratocapsidearileyi sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsideataeniola sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsideatexensis sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsideatransversa sp. n., from Mexico (Neuvo León); and Ceratocapsideavariabilis sp. n., from Jamaica; and Ceratocapsusballi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsuscomplicatus Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsideaconsimilis Reuter, comb. n., Ceratocapsusfusiformis Van Duzee, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), Ceratocapsusnigropiceus Reuter, comb. n., and Ceratocapsusrufistigmus Blatchley, comb. n. [and a neotype designated], Ceratocapsusclavicornis Knight, syn. n. and Ceratocapsusdivaricatus Knight, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Ceratocapsusfusiformis Van Duzee. The genus Marininocoris Carvalho and the only included species Marinonicorismyrmecoides Carvalho are redescribed. The genus Pilophoropsis Poppius is redescribed and revised, Renodaeustexanus Knight, comb. n. is transferred into it and the three new species Pilophoropsisbejeanae sp. n., from Sonora, Mexico; Pilophoropsiscunealis sp. n., from Oaxaca, Mexico; Pilophoropsisquercicola sp. n., from Arizona, USA, are described. Pilophoropsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the 12 new species Pilophoropsideabrailovskyi sp. n., from Federal District, Mexico; Pilophoropsideacuneata sp. n., from Chiapas, Mexico; Pilophoropsideadimidiata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsideafuscata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA; Pilophoropsideakeltoni sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsideamaxima sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsideapueblaensis sp. n., from Puebla, Mexico; Pilophoropsideaschaffneri sp. n., from Neuvo León and San Luis Potosi, Mexico; Pilophoropsideaserrata sp. n., from Michoacan, Mexico; Pilophoropsideatouchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla); Pilophoropsideatruncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); Pilophoropsideatuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); and Ceratocapsusbarberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsuscamelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), and Ceratocapsusfascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate Pilophoropsideaschaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca). The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species Renodaeusmimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Zanchismeopsideadiegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero). Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsideacamelus, Pilophoropsisbrachyptera Poppius, Renodaeusmimeticus, and Zanchismemexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner), male and female (when available) color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species.

  16. Importance of species of Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Grant-Guillén, Y; Morales-Corona, Z Y; Haro-Rodríguez, S; Ventura-Rodríguez, L V; Nogueda-Torres, B; Bustos-Saldaña, R

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiological risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas in human populations of western Mexico is still under study. Although most vectors in this region and their vector capability are already known, new studies estimating the risk and the importance of individual Triatominae species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) for T. cruzi transmission are necessary. For 1 yr, every month, > 400 human dwellings and their surroundings in eight communities of two western Mexico states were searched for triatomines. More than 1,000 specimens representing four species were collected and checked for T. cruzi infection. Based on the usual entomological indices, only the inhabitants of Gavilán El Progreso-La Villita are at serious risk of vectorial infection by T. cruzi. A population of Meccus longipennis (Usinger) was found living in peridomestic rock pile boundary walls after an insecticide spraying. It was confirmed the major role of peridomestic habitats as shelter areas for triatomines, particularly in rock pile boundary walls and chicken roosts. Triatominae presence also was verified in certain sylvatic habitats, including primarily heaps of stones. The important role of M. longipennis in the potential transmission of T. cruzi in the region and the secondary role of M. picturatus (Usinger) and Triatoma barberi Usinger also were confirmed. Null colonization of houses by T. barberi, which was collected primarily in peridomestic habitats, differs from its common intradomiciliary collection in other studies. Meccus pallidipennis (Stål) most probably does not exist in Nayarit. Meccus mazzottii (Usinger) and Meccus phyllosomus (Burmeister) are no longer found in Nayarit and Jalisco. Additional studies are necessary to determine the current epidemiological situation in other areas of western Mexico.

  17. Review of the genus Arhaphe (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Largidae) with descriptions of nine new species from Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlík, Jaroslav L; Brailovsky, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Nine new species of the genus Arhaphe Herrich-Schaeffer, 1850 are described: A. ferruginea sp. nov. from Mexico (Guerrero), A. flavoantennata sp. nov. from Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province), Honduras (Intibuca Department) and Nicaragua (Granada Province), A. hirsuta sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca), A. kmenti sp. nov. from Mexico (Guanajuato, Michoacán), A. longula sp. nov. from Mexico (Guerrero), A. magna sp. nov. from Mexico (Colima), A. myrmicoides sp. nov. from Mexico (Guerrero, Nayarit), A. oaxacana sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca), and A. pilifera sp. nov. from Mexico (Nayarit). The fifth instar larvae of A. arguta (Bliven, 1956), A. carolina Herrich-Schaeffer, 1850, A. cicindeloides Walker, 1873, A. flavoantennata sp. nov., A. mexicana Halstead, 1972, and A. morelensis Brailovsky & Marquez, 1974 are described. Additional state faunistic records of the already described species are provided: A. arguta (Bliven, 1956) (Mexico: Guanajuato, Sonora), A. capitata Halstead, 1972 (Costa Rica; Mexico: Chiapas, Estado de México, Guerrero, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Puebla), A. carolina Herrich-Schaeffer, 1850 (Mexico: Guanajuato, Tamaulipas), A. cicindeloides Walker, 1873 (Mexico: Hidalgo, Querétaro), A. deviatica Brailovsky, 1981 (Nicaragua), A. furcata Brailovsky, 1981 (Mexico: Michoacán), A. halsteadi Brailovsky, 1981 (Mexico: Oaxaca), A. mimetica Barber, 1911 (Mexico: Chihuahua), A. morelensis Brailovsky & Marquez, 1974 (Mexico: Estado de México, Guerrero, Puebla), and A. rustica Brailovsky, 1981 (Mexico: Morelos, Oaxaca).

  18. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Henry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Renodaeus group, a monophyletic assemblage of genera within the New World orthotyline tribe Ceratocapsini, comprising eight genera, including four new ones, is defined; and 48 species are treated, including 26 described as new and 12 transferred from Ceratocapsus Reuter as new combinations. Ceratocapsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the new species C. bahamaensis sp. n., from the Bahamas; C. baranowskii sp. n., from Jamaica; C. dominicanensis sp. n., from the Dominican Republic; C. rileyi sp. n., from Texas; C. taeniola sp. n., from Jamaica; C. texensis sp. n., from Texas; C. transversa sp. n., from Mexico (Neuvo León; and C. variabilis sp. n., from Jamaica; and Ceratocapsus balli Knight, comb. n., C. complicatus Knight, comb. n., C. consimilis Reuter, comb. n., C. fusiformis Van Duzee, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus, C. nigropiceus Reuter, comb. n., and C. rufistigmus Blatchley, comb. n. [and a neotype designated], Ceratocapsus clavicornis Knight, syn. n. and C. divaricatus Knight, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Ceratocapsus fusiformis Van Duzee. The genus Marininocoris Carvalho and the only included species M. myrmecoides Carvalho are redescribed. The genus Pilophoropsis Poppius is redescribed and revised, Renodaeus texanus Knight, comb. n. is transferred into it and the three new species P. bejeanae sp. n., from Sonora, Mexico; P. cunealis sp. n., from Oaxaca, Mexico; P. quercicola sp. n., from Arizona, USA, are described. Pilophoropsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the 12 new species P. brailovskyi sp. n., from Federal District, Mexico; P. cuneata sp. n., from Chiapas, Mexico; P. dimidiata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; P. fuscata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA; P. keltoni sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; P. maxima sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; P. pueblaensis sp. n., from Puebla, Mexico; P. schaffneri sp. n., from Neuvo León and San Luis Potosi, Mexico; P. serrata sp. n., from Michoacan, Mexico; P. touchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla; P. truncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero; P. tuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero; and Ceratocapsus barberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus camelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus, and Ceratocapsus fascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate P. schaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca. The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species R. mimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Z. diegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero. Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsidea camelus, Pilophoropsis brachyptera Poppius, Renodaeus mimeticus, and Zanchisme mexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner, male and female (when available color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species.

  19. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: a survey across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sadílek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4 and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57. The karyotype of all the specimens of C. lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3% from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments could affect population dynamics of variable populations.

  20. Peristenus varisae spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing the European tarnished plant bug, Lygus rugulipennis Poppius (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varis, A.-L.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Nymphs and adults of Lygus species, mainly L. rugulipennis Poppius were collected from wheat fields in southern Finland, near Helsinki. The parasitization rate of braconid species was determined by dissection of the hosts. Parasitoids were reared from separate samples from the same fields.The parasi

  1. The biology and preliminary host range of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) and its impact on kudzu growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Hanula, James L; Horn, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.), recently was discovered in the United States feeding on kudzu, Pueraria montana Lour. (Merr.) variety lobata (Willd.), an economically important invasive vine. We studied its biology on kudzu and its impact on kudzu growth. We also tested its ability to use other common forest legumes for oviposition and development. Flight intercept traps operated from 17 May 2010 to 31 May 2011 in a kudzu field near Athens, GA showed three peaks of adult flight activity suggesting there are two generations per year on kudzu. Vine samples examined for eggs from April 2010 to April 2011 and June to October 2011 showed two periods of oviposition activity in 2010, which coincided with the peaks in adult activity. In 2011, the second period of oviposition began on or before 24 June and then egg abundance declined gradually thereafter until late August when we recovered Dum. Cours.) G. Don had 122.2 and 108.4 eggs per plant, respectively. Kudzu and soybean were the only species M. cribraria completed development on. Plots protected from M. cribraria feeding by biweekly insecticide applications had 32.8% more kudzu biomass than unprotected plots. Our results show that M. cribraria has a significant impact on kudzu growth and could help suppress this pest weed. PMID:22525058

  2. Peristenus varisae spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing the European tarnished plant bug, Lygus rugulipennis Poppius (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Varis, A.-L.; Achterberg, van, T.

    2001-01-01

    Nymphs and adults of Lygus species, mainly L. rugulipennis Poppius were collected from wheat fields in southern Finland, near Helsinki. The parasitization rate of braconid species was determined by dissection of the hosts. Parasitoids were reared from separate samples from the same fields.The parasitization rate was low, the maximum percentage occurring during the season, examined in 10-day periods, was 14%. All nymphal instars, except the first one, were found to be parasitized; the mean var...

  3. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  4. Influence of light and habitat on predation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae by the waterbugs(Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabaneeta Saha; Gautam Aditya; Animesh Bal; Goutam K. Saha

    2008-01-01

    The influence of light and habitat structure on the predation of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae by the common heteropteran water bug, Diplonychus (= Sphaerodema)annulatus, D. rusticus and Anisops bouvieri was assessed in the laboratory. It was revealed that water bugs predate more in presence of light than in dark conditions. While A. bouvieri consumed more prey in structured conditions, D. annulatus and D. rusticus consumed more prey in open conditions. The selection of prey size as well as the respective numbers varied between predators and treatments significantly. Prey vulnerability (PV), an indicator of predatory efficiency, was highest for D. annulatus, moderate for D. rusticus and low forA.bouvieri. Prey consumption and PV values under different treatment conditions indicate that for belostomatid water bugs D. annulatus and D. rusticus, the order of prey consumption under different habitat and light/dark combinations is light open > dark open > light vegetated > dark vegetated. In the case of the backswimmer, A. bouvieri, the order of prey consumption appeared to be light structured > dark structured > light open > dark open. These findings were consistent with resource-partitioning by water bug species sharing the same guild. If the observed results are extended to natural settings the efficiency of these predators in controlling mosquito populations will vary with the structural complexity of habitats and the intensity of light.

  5. Description of the egg and immature stages of Martarega lofoides Padilla-Gil, 2010 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gil, Dora N

    2015-01-01

    The egg and five nymphal stages, of the Neotropical species Martarega lofoides are described and illustrated for the first time. The immature stages are very similar, differing mainly in the body length, width of the body, head and pronotum, degree of wing pads development, synthlipsis width, and pattern of setae on the ventral abdomen. Adults and nymphs used in this study were collected from the Caunapi River in the Pacific region of southwestern Colombia. PMID:25781406

  6. Revalidation of Ditomotarsus hyadesi Signoret, 1885 stat. rest. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Acanthosomatidae with notes on its Natural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máriom A. Carvajal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ditomotarsus hyadesi Signoret, 1885 is revalidated. An historical analysis of the references belonging to this species is provided. Ditomotarsus gayi virens Jensen-Haarup, 1931 is proposed as new junior synonym of Ditomotarsus hyadesi. New data is provided on the biology of D. hyadesi. First observations on oviposition process are delivered and discussed. New data on sexual behavior is recorded and discussed. Ontogenic coloration changes for this species are for first time recorded, becoming the first in the Ditomotarsinae. The distribution and life history of the species are summarized.

  7. Bed bugs are back and also arriving is the southernmost record of Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndez, Eduardo I; Carvajal, Máriom A

    2014-09-01

    The arrival and establishment of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L., 1755 in Magallanes Region (Chile) is reported. The present record is the southernmost for this species in America. The circumstances that provided for the species reaching this southern locality are discussed. PMID:25276939

  8. Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera, Tingidae) using a genome skimming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; Guilbert, Éric; Lhuillier, Émeline; Murienne, Jerôme

    2015-03-01

    Lace bugs (Tingidae) are a family of phytophagous heteropterans, some of which are important agricultural and forestry pests. They currently comprise around 2500 species distributed worldwide, for which only one mitochondrial genome has been described so far. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome and the nuclear ribosomal gene segment of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae using a genome skimming approach on an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. Fifty-four additional heteropteran mitogenomes, including the one of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata, were retrieved to allow for comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. P. perseae mitochondrial genome was determined to be 15,850 bp long, and presented the typical organisation of insect mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analysis placed P. perseae as a sister to C. ciliata but did not confirm the monophyly of Miroidae including Tingidae. Our results contradicted widely accepted phylogenetic hypothesis, which highlights the limits of analyses based on mitochondrial data only. Shotgun sequencing approaches should provide substantial improvements in harmonizing mitochondrial and nuclear databases. PMID:25636225

  9. Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2014-05-05

    Five new species of Leptoglossus are described: L.caicosensis from Turks and Caicos Island, L. egeri and L. impensus from Bolivia, L. franckei from Costa Rica, and L. polychromus from Ecuador, Cooperative Republic of Guiana (British Guiana), and French Guiana. Leptoglossus argentinus Bergroth is synonymized under L. chilensis chilensis (Spinola) and Narnia anaticula Brailovsky & Barrera under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann. Dorsal view drawings and key to the 61 known species and 1 subspecies are included; a complete checklist, and the position of each species within the species-group defined herein, are given except for two species L. macrophylus Stål and L. polychromus sp.nov., that are insertae-sedis. The pronotal disk, hind legs, and male genital capsule of the new species here described are illustrated.

  10. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²). PMID:27376335

  11. CICLO BIOLÓGICO Y ANÁLISIS DE RIESGO DE Leptoglossus zonatus DALLAS (HETEROPTERA: COREIDAE) PARA EL SORGO EN EL ESTADO DE MORELOS

    OpenAIRE

    Tepole García, Rosa Elba

    2015-01-01

    Leptoglossus zonatus es una especie generalista, a pesar de su importancia económica en sorgo, nogal y piñón mexicano, en México no hay estudios de su ciclo biológico ni métodos de prevención. Por lo que en el presente trabajo se estudió la supervivencia de L. zonatus alimentadas con cuatro hospederas, para el establecimiento de una cría, su ciclo de vida en cinco condiciones y el riesgo de su incidencia para el cultivo de sorgo en el estado de Morelos. Se alimentó con maíz (elote), frijol (e...

  12. Three new species, notes and new records of poorly known species, and an updated checklist for the North American Nabidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new species of North American Nabidae are described: Hoplistoscelis confusa, n. sp., Nabis latior n. sp., and Pagasa lattini n. sp. Given for each are a diagnosis, description, a dorsal and lateral color photograph, a pen and ink dorsal habitus illustration, drawings of male and or female gen...

  13. Review and new subfamily placement of the plant bug genus Isometocoris Carvalho and Sailer, 1954 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae), with the description of a new species from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Isometocoris Carvalho and Sailer is reviewed and I. penicillus, new species, from Brazil is described. Diagnoses of the genus and included species I. blantoni Carvalho and Sailer and I. penicillus, n. sp., are given; a color adult habitus photo of both Isometocoris species, male genitalic ...

  14. Comparison of life cycle traits of a Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Heteroptera: Miridae population infesting organic and conventional tea plantations, with emphasis on deltamethrin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Somnath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora (Waterhouse, is an important economic pest of tea in India. The development of resistance in H. theivora populations obtained from a conventional plantation as compared with a strain from an organic plantation was studied in the laboratory for five generations, and associated changes in life cycle traits were assessed. Selection using sublethal concentrations of deltamethrin resulted in a 5.19-fold increase in insecticide resistance ratio from the F1 to the F5 generation in the H. theivora population from the conventional plantation. By the F5 generation, nymphal duration and total developmental duration and adult longevity were higher and fecundity was lower in the deltamethrin-selected strain than in the non-selected strain from a conventional plantation and the susceptible strain from an organic plantation. These findings have practical implications for insecticide resistance management of this important sucking pest of tea.

  15. A review of the jumping tree bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Isometopinae) of Argentina and nearby areas of Brazil and Paraguay, with descriptions of nine new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine new species of jumping tree bugs, or Isometopinae, from Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil are described. The genus Aristotelesia is revised and the two new species A. fuscata (Brazil) and A. medialis (Argentina) are described, and the Argentine and Paraguayan species of Myiomma are revie...

  16. Description of Microvelia urucara sp. nov. and new distributional data on veliids (Insecta: Heteroptera: Veliidae: from the Amazon River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe F. F Moreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on material collected on streams and lakes from the Amazon River floodplain, Brazil, Microvelia urucara sp. nov. is described, illustrated and compared with similar species. The new species, like many other Neotropical Microvelia Westwood, 1834, does not present striking modifications on the body or appendages, but can be separated from its congeners by features of the male genitalia. Distributional data is presented for other veliids collected along the Amazon River, and Paravelia capixaba Moreira, Nessimian & Rúdio, 2010 and Microvelia summersi Drake & Harris, 1928 are recorded for the first time from the Brazilian Amazon. Rhagovelia jubata Bacon, 1948 is newly recorded from the state of Amazonas, and Microvelia mimula White, 1879, M. pulchella Westwood, 1834 and M. venustatis Drake & Harris, 1933 are recorded for the first time from the state of Pará.

  17. 云南竹林蝽次目昆虫种类与区系分析%Faunal Analysis of Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in Bamboo Forest of Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和秋菊; 易传辉; 杨松

    2011-01-01

    为了给竹林害虫防治提供基础资料,通过实地调查、查阅资料和查看标本,对云南竹林半翅目蝽次目昆虫进行了统计和区系研究.结果表明,云南竹林半翅目蝽次目昆虫有9科64种,其中以缘蝽科最多,为29种;其次为蝽科23种.蝽次目昆虫东洋区特征极显著,仅5种为东洋区-古北区共有,1种为东洋区-古北区-新北区和非洲区共有;在中国动物区系中,均在西南区有分布,其次是华南区和华中区,分别占51.6%和48.4%,其他区也有一定分布;在云南动物区系中,以南部边缘中、低宽谷区为主,占87.5%,其次是滇西南中山宽谷区,占50%,其他区也有一定分布.云南竹林半翅目蝽次目昆虫具显著东洋区特征和本区域独有特点.%In order to provide basic information on control of bamboo forest pests, based on field investigation and literature review, the fauna of Pentatomomorpha was studied. The results showed that insects of Pentatomomorpha in Yunnan bamboo forests included 64 species of 9 families. Family Coreidae had the largest number of 29 species and Pentatomidae took the second place with 23 species. Most species markedly presented the characters of oriental realm, and only 5 species and 1 species respectively presented the characters of oriental-palaearctic realm and oriental-palaearctic-nearctic-ethiopian realm. In fauna of China, these species can be founded in southwest region, but 51.6% and 48.4% of them were distributed respectively in south and central of China. In fauna of Yunnan, 87.5% and 50% of these species were distributed in south margin of Yunnan middle-low mountain and strath and in southwestern Yunnan middle mountain and wide valley respectively. Few of them were distributed in other sub-district levels. The fauna of insect Pentatomomorpha in Yunnan bamboo forests markedly presented characters of both oriental realm and local region.

  18. The influence of habitat integrity and physical-chemical water variables on the structure of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Dias-Silva; Helena S. R. Cabette; Leandro Juen; Paulo De Marco Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to assess the effect of certain physical-chemical variables and the Habitat Integrity Index (HII) have on an aquatic and semi-aquatic heteropteran community. We collected in five streams (from 1st to 4th order) that differed in habitat integrity, in order to test 1) whether heteropteran richness decreases with the Habitat Integrity Index; and 2) whether richness responds to alterations in water physical-chemical variables, since these influence community structure. In each str...

  19. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S; Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Roe, R Michael

    2016-09-16

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  20. Phylogeny of the true water bugs (Nepomorpha: Hemiptera–Heteroptera) based on 16S and 28S rDNA and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Martin Bay; Andersen, Nils M.; Damgaard, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    the infraorders Gerromorpha and Leptopodomorpha. The morphological data matrix consisted of sixty-five characters obtained from literature sources. Molecular data included approximately 960 bp from the mitochondrial gene 16S and the nuclear gene 28S for all forty-two terminal taxa. The morphological dataset...... was analysed using maximum parsimony and the combined morphological and molecular (16S + 28S rDNA) dataset was analysed using direct optimization. A sensitivity analysis of sixteen different sets of parameters (various combinations of insertion-deletion cost and transversion costs) was undertaken. Character...

  1. Revision of the Ambrysus guttatipennis Stål species complex (Heteroptera: Naucoridae: Cryphocricinae) with the descriptions of six new species from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel; Sites, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The Ambrysus guttatipennis Stål species complex is revised and includes A. arizonus La Rivers, A. bispinus La Rivers, A. drakei La Rivers, A. guttatipennis Stål, A. mexicanus Montandon, and A. mormon Montandon. Six new species that belong to this complex are described from Mexico: A. ayoyolin n. sp., A. bowlesi n. sp., A. contrerasi n. sp., A. itsipatsari n. sp., A. noveloi n. sp., and A. veracruzanus n. sp. The subspecies A. mormon australis La Rivers, A. m. heidemanni Montandon, and A. m. minor La Rivers are proposed as junior synonyms of A. m. mormon Montandon. A supplemental redescription of A. guttatipennis Stål based on the holotype is provided and a lectotype of A. mexicanus Montandon is designated. Ambrysus arizonus is newly recorded from Mexico and A. bispinus from Guatemala. Most of the species in this complex occur only in Mexico, although A. arizonus and A. mormon are distributed in Mexico and the United States, and A. bispinus is distributed in Mexico and Guatemala. Ambrysus mormon has the widest distribution of any species in this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and structures associated with male and female genitalia. PMID:27615837

  2. Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Parker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (BMSB is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.

  3. A new species of the stilt bug genus Gampsocoris from Senegal and a new generic combination for Gampsocoris gomeranus Wagner (Heteroptera: Berytidae: Gampsocorinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationships the African gampsocorine (Gampsocorinae) genera Gampsoacantha Josifov and Štusak, Gampsocoris Fuss, and Micrometacanthus are discussed. Gampsocoris gomeranus Wagner, having a median anterior spine, three basal processes on the pronotum, and a short, round antennal segment IV, is t...

  4. Ten new species of Rhagovelia in the angustipes complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Colombia, with a key to the Colombian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gil, Dora Nancy

    2015-12-21

    Ten new species of Rhagovelia are described from Colombia as follows: Rhagovelia penta sp. n., and Rhagovelia santanderi sp. n., from the Upper and Middle Magdalena River Valley respectively; Rhagovelia carina sp. n., Rhagovelia tricoma sp. n., and Rhagovelia barbacoensis sp. n., from Altaquer, Río Ñambi; Rhagovelia caunapi sp. n. from Río Caunapi; Rhagovelia tumaquensis sp. n., from Tumaco, Río Mejicano; Rhagovelia jagua sp. n., from Eastern Andes; Rhagovelia mocoa sp. n. and Rhagovelia umbria sp. n., from Amazonas region. Rhagovelia tantilla Drake & Harris is recorded from Colombia, for the first time; the description of macropterous morph of Rhagovelia espriella Padilla-Gil, 2011 and a key to the Rhagovelia, angustipes complex of Colombian species are provided.

  5. Neotropical Pentatomidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera of the collection of Massimiliano Spinola preserved in the "Museo Regionale de Scienze Naturali", Turin, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocélia Grazia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty specimens of Neotropical pentatomids of the Spinola collection were examined and identified and are listed in the present work. Lectotypes are designated for Arvelius gladiator Spinola, 1837; Arvelius laciniatus Spinola, 1837; Audinetella bipunctata Spinola, 1850; Ochlerus cinctus Spinola, 1837; Pentatoma albocostatum Spinola, 1852; Pentatoma dimidiaticollis (Spinola, 1852; Pentatoma unidentatum Spinola, 1852; Schaefferella litigiosa Spinola, 1850, Sympiezorhincus tristis Spinola, 1837; and Thoreyella brasiliensis Spinola, 1850. A lectotype is also designated for Chlorocoris tau, putting aside the previous Neotype designation. The preservation status of each specimen is provided.

  6. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  7. Susceptibilidad a endosulfan y monitoreo de resistencia en poblaciones de Piezodorus guildinii (Insecta, Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, en cultivos de soja de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro STADLER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la susceptibilidad a endosulfan en diferentes poblaciones de P. guildinii (Westwood, que afectan los cultivos de soja en las provincias argentinas de Santiago del Estero, Chaco y Santa Fe. Se estableció su estatus de susceptibilidad actual para todas las poblaciones estudiadas, y se monitoreó la resistencia a endosulfan en una población de P. guildinii , de Santiago del Estero desde 2002 a 2005, para detectar los cambios en la respuesta al insecticida, con la finalidad de alertar acerca de posibles fallas de control. Los insectos fueron colectados en plantaciones de soja en las localidades de Oliveros, Reconquista, San Justo, Bandera y Coronel Du Graty. Los bioensayos se desarrollaron en laboratorio por el método del tópico, en el marco de los protocolos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El estatus de susceptibilidad actual a endosulfan, en las poblaciones de P. guildinii estudiadas fue de: DL95 = 0,680 ìg/ìL [0,489-1,338] a 2,277ìg/ìL [1,526-5,418]. De los resultados de los bioensayos se desprende que las poblaciones estudiadas, muy distantes geográficamente unas de otras, muestran algunas diferencias en su tolerancia a endosulfan (capacidad de detoxificación, exhibiendo, además, un incremento gradual de la misma desde la zona sur de Sta. Fe (Oliveros hacia el norte (Bandera - Chaco, que probablemente se relaciona con los factores ambientales propios de cada región, y se pueden deber también a procesos toxicodínámicos o toxicocinéticos. La población de P. guildinii de Coronel Du Graty (Santiago del Estero monitoreada desde 2002 a 2005, no mostró un incremento de tolerancia al endosulfan a lo largo del tiempo, que sugiera la presencia de fenómenos de resistencia. Factores poblacionales y ambientales son corresponsables de las variaciones temporales y espaciales de la susceptibilidad de una población a un biocida, esto hace que los límites entre la plasticidad fenotípica y las diferencias en la susceptibilidad a xenobióticos con base genética, resulten difusos. Dentro del área de cultivo de la soja en la Argentina, que abarca regiones con importantes diferencias climáticas y florísticas, la plasticidad fenotípica que muestran diferentes poblaciones de P. guildinii , no debe ser omitida, distinguiendo los cambios de susceptibilidad a insecticidas relacionados con la plasticidad, de aquellos de origen genético. Comprender los mecanismos responsables de cambios en la susceptibilidad a xenobióticos, permitirá discernir entre los efectos de la plasticidad fenotípica y de los cambios genéticos, esto llevará a seleccionar las medidas adecuadas para el control de poblaciones de insectos plaga. La información acerca del estatus actual de susceptibilidad a endosulfan, obtenida a través del presente estudio, resultará de utilidad para el monitoreo de resistencia así como para el diagnóstico de fallas en el control de esta plaga.

  8. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae: A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Dhammi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F., poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  9. Cimidíase (dermatose por percevejo: uma causa de prurigo a ser lembrada Bedbugs (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: an etiology of pruritus to be remembered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Criado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos uma doente de 19 anos que nos procurou com quadro de intenso prurido há 2 semanas e demonstrando lesões eritêmato-pápulo-urticadas mais intensamente distribuídas nos membros superiores e inferiores. A anamnese detalhada excluiu causas internas e medicamentos como uma possível causa do prurigo. Após orientações quanto a dedetização do domicílio a doente retornou no consultório após 3 semanas sem lesões cutâneas e trazendo em um pote de vidro vários percevejos coletados após a dedetização.This report describes a 19-year old female patient, who sought medical attention for severe itching of two weeks' duration. Erythematous papules and wheals were found, principally on her upper and lower limbs. Careful anamnesis excluded other etiologies of the pruritus, including those related to internal diseases and medication. Following counseling regarding the need to contract a domestic pest control company, the patient returned to the clinic three weeks later with no skin lesions and bearing a glass jar containing several bedbugs collected following pest control treatment.

  10. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos sobre a subfamilia Triatominae (Heteroptera, reduviidae: cérebro e seus nervos de Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available A fim de apresentar um conhecimento detalhado da estrutura e função dos diferentes sistemas nervosos dos Triatominae, começamos neste estudo com a descrição do sistema senso-motor. Como primeira parte escolhemos o cérebro e os nervos deste. A forma externa do cérebro é predeterminada pela anatomia da cápsula craniana. O cérebro localiza-se na parte posterior da cabeça, embaixo e por trás dos dois ocelos. É caracterizado por um encurtamento em sentido longitudinal, de modo que as conectivas entre sincérebro e Gnatocérebro são extremamente curtas, porém largas, além disto, a terceira comissura é incluída na massa do segmento mandibular do Gnatocérebro. As três massas ópticas são de formação típica, bem como a comissura óptica. O corpo central é grande e está em ligação direta com a maioria dos centros do Protocérebro e do Deutocérebro. O corpo pedunculado possui apenas um único glomérulo em forma de cogumelo pedunculado sem sinal de formação de um cálice como em formigas e outros insetos mais evoluídos. As extremidades do pedúnculo desfazem-se embaixo do Corpo central em um grande complexo de anexos claviformes como encontrado nos Machilidae. O Deutocérebro é caracterizado por um grande centro antenal, composto de numerosos pequenos glomérulos em situação periférica. O Tritocérebro é pequeno, mostrando na sua parte anterior duas conectivas frontais muito curtas, de modo que o gãnglio frontal se situa perto do Tritocérebro. A massa compacta do Gnatocérebro mostra sua composição por três pares de gânglios apenas em séries de cortes. Além dos Lobos ópticos, saem do cérebro 8 pares de nervos e 3 nervos ímpares: Do Protocérebro: Os nervos dos ocelos e o nervo do Corpus allatum; Do Deutocérebro: Os nervos das antenas e os da faringe; Do tritocérebro: Os nervos labrais e, através do gânglio frontal, o nervo recurrente e o nervo dos músculos da faringe; Do gnatocérebro: Os nervos das mandíbulas, maxilas, do lábio e das glândulas salivares.

  11. Heat coma as an indicator of resistance to environmental stress and its relationship to ocean dynamics in the sea skaters, Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuo Harada; Shiho Takenaka; Takero Sekimoto; Mitsuru Nakajyo; Takao Inoue; Takamasa Ishibashi; Chihiro Katagiri

    2011-01-01

    The tolerance to temperature increase was tested for Halobates individuals collected during two cruises in the western tropical Pacific Ocean (MR-06-05-Leg 3,December 21,2006-January 12,2007,0°N-8°N; KH-06-02-Leg 5,August 18-31,2006,12°N-1 7°N).High temperature coma experiments were conducted on adults and 5th instar larvae.On average,H.sericeus (distributed in the wide latitude zone of 5°N-40°N),H.germanus (distributed in the moderate latitude zone of 0°N-35°N) and H.micans (distributed mainly in the lower latitudes around the equator) were on average paralyzed at 35.6℃ (SD:0.89),32.9℃ (SD:2.17) and 31.6℃ (SD:2.60),respectively (P =0.035).According to the current dynamics during the cruise,the colony of H.sericeus at one station (5°N 137°E) may have been transferred from the northern area of 14°N by three currents (North Equatorial Current,Mindanao Current and North Equatorial Counter Current) to the area of 5°N 138°E.Extremely high heat resistance was shown by the adults of H.germanus in the sea area around the equator.Dynamic current and air movements in this area around the equator,that is a “warm seawater pool”,could be hypothesized to be related to the high resistance to heat shown in this study.

  12. The morphology and histology of the male reproductive system in Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)--light and scanning electron micoscope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2013-01-01

    The male reproductive system of Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus 1758) is studied morphologically and histologically using both light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The reproductive system of the male D. baccarum consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands (mesadenia, ectadenia), a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The number of testicular follicles varies from four to six. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are fine-long and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius which is balloon-shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which connected to the aedeagus.

  13. Studio dei semiochimici coinvolti nelle interazioni intra- e inter-specifiche in Gonocerus acuteangulatus (Goeze) (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in vista di un loro impiego nella difesa del nocciolo.

    OpenAIRE

    Moraglio, Silvia Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Gonocerus acuteangulatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) è considerato uno dei principali fitofagi del nocciolo, in grado di causare con l’attività trofica pesanti perdite quali-quantitative di produzione. Nel triennio sono state quindi condotte indagini sulla bioetologia di G. acuteangulatus volte a: I) studiare comportamento alimentare ed effetti sulla produzione corilicola, II) identificare i feromoni e valutarne l’attività mediante biosaggi fisiologici e comportamentali in laboratorio, semi-campo e...

  14. Predicting Field Control of Tarnished Plant Bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) Populations with Pyrethroid Insecticides by Use of Two Glass-Vial Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de beauvois), populations from 21 locations in the Mississippi River Delta of Arkansas and Mississippi were tested for resistance to permethrin in 2004 and 2005. Each population was tested using permethrin in a discriminating-dose bioassay to determine...

  15. Ten new species of Rhagovelia in the angustipes complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Colombia, with a key to the Colombian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gil, Dora Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Ten new species of Rhagovelia are described from Colombia as follows: Rhagovelia penta sp. n., and Rhagovelia santanderi sp. n., from the Upper and Middle Magdalena River Valley respectively; Rhagovelia carina sp. n., Rhagovelia tricoma sp. n., and Rhagovelia barbacoensis sp. n., from Altaquer, Río Ñambi; Rhagovelia caunapi sp. n. from Río Caunapi; Rhagovelia tumaquensis sp. n., from Tumaco, Río Mejicano; Rhagovelia jagua sp. n., from Eastern Andes; Rhagovelia mocoa sp. n. and Rhagovelia umbria sp. n., from Amazonas region. Rhagovelia tantilla Drake & Harris is recorded from Colombia, for the first time; the description of macropterous morph of Rhagovelia espriella Padilla-Gil, 2011 and a key to the Rhagovelia, angustipes complex of Colombian species are provided. PMID:26701554

  16. Ciclo de vida y aspectos poblacionales de Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae chinche del fruto del camu camu (Myrtaceae en zona de restinga, Ucayali, Perú Life cycle and population aspects of camu camu fruit stink bug Edessa aff. aulacosterna Stal, 1872 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in restinga zone, Ucayali, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El camu camu es uno de los frutales nativos con gran potencial económico para la agroindustria y agro exportación. Edessa es una de las plagas del camu camu que provoca sequedad en los brotes, y en los frutos una mancha decolorada con círculos concéntricos bien marcados y un punto central al alimentarse. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el ciclo biológico bajo condiciones de laboratorio y la fluctuación poblacional de Edessa aff. aulacosterna "Chinche del fruto del camu camu" durante enero a noviembre del 2004 en el cultivo de camu camu, en parcelas en desarrollo y producción ubicadas en áreas de restinga inundables en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. Se colectaron huevos, ninfas y adultos procedentes del distrito de Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú para iniciar la crianza artificial. El tiempo de duración del huevo al I estadio ninfal fue 5,1 días. Se encontró un 94,6% de eclosión de los huevos, variando entre 12 hasta 14 huevos por postura. El tiempo transcurrido desde el huevo hasta II estadío fue de 37,3 días y del III al V estadío ninfal fue de 81,9 días. El porcentaje de mortalidad del primer estadio ninfal a adulto fue de 98,1%. Los adultos colectados se localizaron preferentemente sobre las ramas y el tallo de la planta, mientras que las ninfas se encontraron en los brotes tiernos. Con relación a su fluctuación poblacional, solo se registró posturas a lo largo del año en parcelas en producción. No se encontraron diferencias entre ninfas I a V, y adultos de Edessa aff. aulacosterna, entre plantaciones en producción y desarrollo de camu camu. Solo se encontró diferencias entre la época seca y lluviosa en las ninfas de III a V estadio en las plantas de camu camu en desarrollo. Edessa aff. aulacosterna presentó mayormente una distribución contagiosa. El adecuado conocimiento de la bioecología nos permite mejorar la estrategia de control de esta plaga.Camu camu is one of the native fruits with a great economic potential for agroindustry and agro exportation. Edessa is one camu camu pest that produces in dry buds and fruits with a mark decolorated with concentric circles well marked and a central point when they feed. The aim of the current research was to determinate the biological cycle under laboratory conditions and population fluctuations of Edessa aff. aulacosterna. "Camu camu fruit stink bug" during January to November, 2004 in camu-camu culture, in development and production parcels located in flooded areas of restinga in Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru. Eggs, nymphs and adults were colected to begin artificial rearing proceeding of distrit of Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru. Development time of eggs to 1th nymphal instar was 5.1 days. 94.6% of egg hatchability, varied between 12 until 14 egg-laying was found. The time passed since eggs until III nymphal instar was 37.3 días and of III to V nymphal instar was de 81.9 days. Percentage of mortality of 2nd nymphal instar to adult was 98,1%. Adults collected were localized mainly on branches and stem of the plants, while nymphs were found in delicated buds. In relation to seasonal populations only were registered eggs laying throught the year in parcels in production. Differences between nymphs I to V and adults of Edessa aff. aulacosterna, in production and development plantations were not found. Only differences in dry and wet period in III to V nymphs instar in development camu camu plants were found. Edessa aff. aulacosterna mainly presented a contagious distribution. Suitable knowledge of bioecology of Edessa aff. aulacosterna permit improves strategy of pest control.

  17. Susceptibilidad a endosulfan y monitoreo de resistencia en poblaciones de Piezodorus guildinii (Insecta, Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, en cultivos de soja de Argentina Susceptibility to endosulphan and resistance monitoring in «green stinkbug» populations, Piezodorus guildinii (Insecta, Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, in soya crops in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Stadler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la susceptibilidad a endosulfan en diferentes poblaciones de P. guildinii (Westwood, que afectan los cultivos de soja en las provincias argentinas de Santiago del Estero, Chaco y Santa Fe. Se estableció su estatus de susceptibilidad actual para todas las poblaciones estudiadas, y se monitoreó la resistencia a endosulfan en una población de P. guildinii , de Santiago del Estero desde 2002 a 2005, para detectar los cambios en la respuesta al insecticida, con la finalidad de alertar acerca de posibles fallas de control. Los insectos fueron colectados en plantaciones de soja en las localidades de Oliveros, Reconquista, San Justo, Bandera y Coronel Du Graty. Los bioensayos se desarrollaron en laboratorio por el método del tópico, en el marco de los protocolos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El estatus de susceptibilidad actual a endosulfan, en las poblaciones de P. guildinii estudiadas fue de: DL95 = 0,680μg/μL [0,489-1,338] a 2,277μg/μL [1,526-5,418]. De los resultados de los bioensayos se desprende que las poblaciones estudiadas, muy distantes geográficamente unas de otras, muestran algunas diferencias en su tolerancia a endosulfan (capacidad de detoxificación, exhibiendo, además, un incremento gradual de la misma desde la zona sur de Sta. Fe (Oliveros hacia el norte (Bandera - Chaco, que probablemente se relaciona con los factores ambientales propios de cada región, y se pueden deber también a procesos toxicodínámicos o toxicocinéticos. La población de P. guildinii de Coronel Du Graty (Santiago del Estero monitoreada desde 2002 a 2005, no mostró un incremento de tolerancia al endosulfan a lo largo del tiempo, que sugiera la presencia de fenómenos de resistencia. Factores poblacionales y ambientales son corresponsables de las variaciones temporales y espaciales de la susceptibilidad de una población a un biocida, esto hace que los límites entre la plasticidad fenotípica y las diferencias en la susceptibilidad a xenobióticos con base genética, resulten difusos. Dentro del área de cultivo de la soja en la Argentina , que abarca regiones con importantes diferencias climáticas y florísticas, la plasticidad fenotípica que muestran diferentes poblaciones de P. guildinii , no debe ser omitida, distinguiendo los cambios de susceptibilidad a insecticidas relacionados con la plasticidad, de aquellos de origen genético. Comprender los mecanismos responsables de cambios en la susceptibilidad a xenobióticos, permitirá discernir entre los efectos de la plasticidad fenotípica y de los cambios genéticos, esto llevará a seleccionar las medidas adecuadas para el control de poblaciones de insectos plaga. La información acerca del estatus actual de susceptibilidad a endosulfan, obtenida a través del presente estudio, resultará de utilidad para el monitoreo de resistencia así como para el diagnóstico de fallas en el control de esta plaga.The susceptibility status to endosulphan of different populations of P. guildinii (Westwood that affect soybean crops in the Argentinean provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco and Santa Fe was determined. Also, to detect possible changes in P. guildinii response to the insecticide, resistance was monitored in a population of P. guildinii from Santiago del Estero from 2002 to 2005. Insects were collected from soybean fields in five localities, Oliveros, Reconquista, San Justo, Bandera and Coronel Du Graty. Topical bioassays were conducted in the laboratory, in the framework of standard World Health Organization test methods. The status of the susceptibility of the P. guildinii populations was: DL95 = 0,680μg/μL [0,489- 1,338] to 2,277μg/μL [1,526-5,418]. The results obtained suggest that the populations studied, which are geographically distant, show differences in their tolerance to endosulphan (detoxifying capabilities that could be related to environmental factors and linked to any toxicocinetic or toxicodynamic processes. P. guildini populations studied show a trend towards increased tolera

  18. IPM-compatibility of foliar insecticides for citrus: Indices derived from toxicity to beneficial insects from four orders

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, J.P.; A.K. Grant

    2003-01-01

    A series of compounds representing four major pesticide groups were tested for toxicity to beneficial insects representing four different insect orders: Coleoptera (Coccinellidae), Hemiptera (Anthocoridae), Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae), and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae). These materials included organophosphates (methidathion, esfenvalerate and phosmet), carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl and carbaryl), pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and permethrin) and the oxadia...

  19. Evaluation of Orius species for biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommasini, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Key words: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Heteroptera, Orius leavigatu, Orius majusculu, Orius niger, Orius insidiosus, Biology, Diapause, Biological control.The overall aim of this research was to develop a biological control programme for F. occidentalis through the selection of

  20. Life-history analysis of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in a newly designed mass rearing strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, G.; López, L.; Cantero, G.; González, A.; Dicke, M.

    2014-01-01

    The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero et Dellape (Heteroptera Thaumastocoridae), is one of the most important emerging pests of Eucalyptus LHeritier plantations worldwide. In the development of strategies to control this pest, establishing effective rearing protocols is fundamental to

  1. Are environmental factors responsible for geographic variation in the sex ratio of the Greenlandic seed-bug Nysius groenlandicus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2010-01-01

    Until recently nothing indicated an unequal sex ratio in the widespread Greenland seed-bug Nysius groenlandicus (Zetterstedt) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). However, recently populations more or less devoid of males were discovered in high arctic Northeast Greenland. This initiated an inspection...

  2. Spiders in a hostile world (Arachnoidea, Araneae)

    OpenAIRE

    Helsdingen, Peter J. van

    2012-01-01

    Spiders are powerful predators, but the threats confronting them are numerous. A survey is presented of the many different arthropods which waylay spiders in various ways. Some food-specialists among spiders feed exclusively on spiders. Kleptoparasites are found among spiders as well as among Mecoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Heteroptera. Predators are found within spiders’ own population (cannibalism), among other spider species (araneophagy), and among different species of Heteroptera, O...

  3. Los coleópteros y heterópteros acuáticos del Parque Nacional El Palmar (Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina: lista faunística, diversidad y distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. M. TORRES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las especies de Coleoptera y Heteroptera presentes en cuerpos de agua del Parque Nacional El Palmar. Se registraron 67 especies de Coleoptera incluidas en 32 géneros y siete familias, y 42 especies de Heteroptera distribuidas en 28 géneros y 12 familias; sólo 17 especies de Coleoptera y cinco de Heteroptera fueron citadas previamente del parque. Se citan por primera vez para la Argentina un género (Platyvelia J. T. Polhemus & D. A. Polhemus y tres especies (Microvelia venustatis Drake & Harris, Rhagovelia novana Drake, Stridulivelia ayacucho Polhemus & Spangler de Veliidae (Heteroptera. Además, se citan por primera vez para la provincia de Entre Ríos nueve especies y cuatro géneros de Coleoptera (Brachyvatus Zimmermann, Derovatellus Sharp, Paracymus Thomson, Pelonomus Erichson, así como 16 especies y 10 géneros de Heteroptera (Mesovelia Mulsant & Rey, Lipogomphus Berg, Merragata White, Microvelia Westwood, Rhagovelia Mayr, Platyvelia, Steinovelia J. T. & D. A. Polhemus, Stridulivelia Hungerford, Metrobates Uhler, Ctenipocoris Montandon. La riqueza de especies registrada en el Parque Nacional El Palmar constituye el 63,8% de las especies de Coleoptera acuáticos y el 95,5% de las de Heteroptera acuáticos citadas hasta el momento de Entre Ríos, lo cual destaca el valor de esta área protegida para la conservación de la biodiversidad acuática de la provincia.

  4. Association between glucosinolate concentration and injuries caused by cabbage stink bugs Eurydema spp. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae on different Brassicas - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15622

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bohinc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, we were determining the contents of glucosinolates in different Brassicas in order to study their influence on feeding of cabbage stink bugs (Eurydema spp. and the consequent extent of damage. We confirmed that glucosinolates content depends on plant species, plant organs and the time of sampling. In the samples aliphatic glucosinolates (glucoiberin, progoitrin, epiprogoitrin, epiprogoitrin, sinigrin, gluconapin, glucoraphenin, sinalbin prevailed. Glucobrassicin, an important indolic glucosinolate compound, was detected in all tested Brassicas. Its concentration in the oil radish samples was highest during the first assessment (30 DAS, 8.84 ± 0.65 µmol g-1 ds, while the oilseed rape samples displayed lowest concentration during the last assessment (134 DAS, 4.30 ± 0.80 µmol g-1 ds. The stimulative activity of individual glucosinolates or their negative influence on feeding of cabbage stink bugs in the Brassicas used in our experiment was not uniformly manifested. Based on a two-year field experiment we concluded that oil rape was the most adequate trap crop used to allure cabbage stink bugs. In future, glucosinolates should be employed to a greater extent in environmentally acceptable ways of food production, one of which is also the use of trap crops in order to reduce harmful effects of cabbage stink bugs.

  5. Cymapamphantus valentineorum, a new genus and species of Pamphantinae (Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Geocoridae) from the British Virgin Islands, with a checklist of the species and keys to the tribes and genera of the subfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new genus and new species Cymapamphantus valentineorum, belonging to the geocorid subfamily Pamphantinae, is described from one brachypterous male and six brachypterous females taken on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands. A dorsal habitus illustration, dorsal and lateral photographs of the ma...

  6. A NEW RECORD GENUS, METOPOPLAX FIEBER FROM CHINA (HETEROPTERA,LYGAEOIDEA, OXYCARENIDAE)%中国新纪录属——宽瘤长蝽属(异翅亚目,长蝽总科,尖长蝽科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翠青; 卜文俊

    2011-01-01

    The genus Metopoplax Fieber, 1860 is proved to be new to the fauna of China, and with the description of a newly recorded species, Metopoplax origani (Kolenati, 1845). Photographs of both dorsal and ventral habitus and genital illustrations are given. Specimens studied are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.%记述了尖长蝽科Oxycarenidae中国l新纪录属和种,即宽瘤长蝽属Metopoplax Fieber,1860,源宽瘤长蝽Metopoplax origani ( Kolenati,1845).提供了成虫外形照片及雄性外生殖器图.研究标本保存在南开大学昆虫学研究所标本馆.

  7. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos sôbre a subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae: V parte: anatomia do testículo e espermiocitogênese do Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, faz-se o estudo das estruturas anatômica e histológica do testículo de Triatoma infestans. Da espermiogênese, descrevem-se apenas as fases que medeiam entre a formação dos espermiogônios e a dos espermídeos (espermiocitogênese. A espermiohistogênese bem como as anatomias do vas deferens e das glândulas anexas serão tratados na segunda parte dêste trabalho, já em preparo. O testículo de Triatoma infestans possui 7 folículos dos quais cada um se abre num vas efferens próprio, curto, desembocando êstes num único vas deferens geral. Na zona de transição entre vas efferens e vas deferens, encontra-se sempre um conjunto de massas tissulares que se estão necrosando em virtude da decomposição das paredes dos cistos. Em conseqüência, os feixes de espérmios são libertados e passam através do vas efferens para o vas deferens. As substâncias líquidas que então se formam, resultado da necrose, são reabsorvidas pelo epitélio do vas efferens, entrando novamente em circulação na hemolinfa; o epitélio possui um rabdório muito longo. A parte superior do conteúdo de cada folículo dispõe-se ao redor de grande célula apical cuja função principal deve ser a de uma atividade reguladora que está relacionada com a diferenciação das células do conjunto germinativo em espermiogônios primários e em núcleos das paredes dos cistos. Nos espermiogônios, serão verificadas 8 divisões de multiplicação, o que vai dar a formação de 256 espermiócitos, número êsse que depois das duas divisões de maturação, que se seguem, originará 1 024 espermídeos. Em seguida, são descritos os fenômenos que ocorrem durante a prófase e as duas divisões de maturação. Temos que admitir a existência de uma parasíndese. Pela formação das tétrades, pode-se concluir que a primeira divisão é reducional e a segunda equacional, existindo, pois, uma pré-redução. Triatoma infestans possui 22 cromosomas no espermiogônio, dos quais 2 são heterocromosomas, sendo X, o maior e Y, o menor, pois, por observações comparadas de oogônios, verificou-se que o grande está ausente, enquanto o pequeno existe em número duplo. Os autosomas da guarnição equatorial, reduzidos pela primeira e segunda divisões de maturação, podem ser distribuídos, quanto ao seu tamanho, em três grupos: 3 grandes (A,B e C, 2 médios (D e E e 5 pequenos (F, G, H, I e K. A, B e C, bem como os heterocromosomas, são heteropicnóticos, formando, tanto nos espermiogônios como nos espermiócitos, depois da sinapsis, um corpo de 8 valores, respectivamente de 5 valores, corpos êsses que permanecem fortemente condensados, mesmo quando os outros cromosomas se individualizam ou quando formam os cromosomas difusos. O estádio dos cromosomas é analisado e considerado como uma fase ativa durante o tempo do crescimento intensivo dos espermiócitos.

  8. Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, with new records and taxonomic notes on Ectrichodiinae from Brazil, and with keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Baena, Manuel; Grillo, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005 is considered a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, 1924. Ectrichodiella minima (Valdés, 1910) and E. rafaeli (Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005), new. comb. are redescribed. Taxonomic notes on Brontostoma alboannulatum (Stål, 1860), B. discus (Burmeister, 1835), B. nanus Carpintero, 1980, B. rubrovenosum (Stål, 1860), and B. trux (Stål, 1859) are given. Brontostoma diringshofeni Gil-Santana & Baena, 2009, B. nanus, and Racelda robusta Bérenger & Gil-Santana, 2005 are recorded from Brazil for the first time. Keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World are presented.

  9. Biology of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent & Galvão 2001 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae under Laboratory Conditions: Effects of Distinct Blood Sources and Susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle-Machado Priscilla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent & Galvão 2001 was compared under laboratory conditions using two groups of the F1 generation obtained from field-collected bugs. Among the 100 nymphs weekly fed on mice (Group A or chicken (Group B, 77% of Group A and 67% of Group B reached the adult stage, and the mean time from the first nymphal stage to adult was 190.08 ± 28.31 days and 221.23 ± 40.50, respectively. The average span in days for each stage per group and the number of blood meals required for each stage were also evaluated. The overall mortality rate was 23% and 33% for Groups A and B, respectively. The mean number of eggs laid per month in a three-month period was of 56.20, 51.70 and 73.20 for Group A, and 64.50, 53.50 and 38.71 for Group B. Despite the blood source, comparative analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in the life cycle of T. klugi under laboratory conditions. Infection rates over 60% were observed for both Trypanosoma cruzi strains tested. Even revealing high infection rates of the hemolymph by T. rangeli strains, T. klugi revealed no salivary gland infections and was not able to transmit the parasite.

  10. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos sôbre a subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae: VII. Estudo anatômico do ducto intestinal do Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyrce Lacombe

    1957-05-01

    Full Text Available Devido à imprtãncia que certos Triatomíneos hematófagos representam na vida humana, continuarmos a série de estudos já iniciados em nosso laboratório sôbre seus organismos. É feito, no presente trabalho, a anatomia e microanatomai do aparelho digestivo de Triatoma infestans. Das três distintas regiões do duto intestinal estomodeo, mesêntero e proctodeo, a primeira e a terceira são de origem ectodérmica. A região do estomodeo é constituída pela faringe e esôfago; a do proctodeo pelo piloro, íleo e reto. A segunda, de origem endodérmica, consta promesêntero, postmesêntero e da zona de transição. A anatomia e a microanatomia do faringe já foi estudada minuciosamente por BARTH (1952. O esôfago possui numerosas dobras no seu interior revestida de fina cutícula. A musculatura longitudinal e circular acham-se representadas por feixes que, provàvelmente, trabalham, preistàlticamente, transportando o alimento. Não encontramos um proventrículo, de maneira que o esôfago está ligado diretamente à primeira parte endodérmica, isto é, ao promesêntero. No início do promesêntero existe a válvula cardíaca, que, juntamente com as dobras do fim do esôfago, impedem que haja um refluxo do alimento. Durante a alimentação, a parede do preomesêntero, que apresenta numerosas dobras, sofre uma dilatação, a fim de reter u'a maior quantidade de sangue. Entre promesêntero e postmesêntero há um pequeno esfíncter formado pelo aumento da musculatura e das dobras do epitélio. O postmesêntero alcança cinco vêzes mais que o tamanho total do corpo do inseto, e dispõe no abdome em curvas completas, que, muitas vêzes, se superpõem. O seu epitélio possue célula altas e estreitas, e forma muitas dobras para dentro do seu lume. Na parte apical as células possuem um rabdório. O postmesêntero termina após a válvula cardíaca situada atrás do desembocamento das quatro ampolas dos tubos de Malpighi. Entre postmesêntero e proctodeo está situada a zona de transição, que é constituída pelas ampolas dos tubos de Malpighi, válcula pilórica e zona clara de células cubóides. Os quatro tubos de Malpighi são longos, finos e simples formando emaranhados. As ampolas são dilatações das bases dos tubos de Malpighi. Apresentam sempre células características. A formação da válvula pilórica pode ser acompanhada na série de cortes de 27-44. O piloro é revestido, internamente, por fina cutícula, e sua hipoderme é sinsicial. No íleo temos dobras mais elevadas e maior quantidade de musculatura. O reto acha-se deslocado para a região dorsal do corpo devido ao aumento exagerado do aparelho copulador. As células de sua hipoderme são bem limitadas.

  11. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos sôbre a subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae: I. parte: a cabeça do Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available 1. A estrutura externa e interna do esqueleto crânico de Triatoma infestans é descrita e microanatomia da cabeça é apresentada por meio de uma série de cortes transversais. Surgem algumas observações que estão em contradição aos dados da literatura mais nova (posição dos côndilos da cabeça posterior; pontos de origem de alguns músculos, tendão bem desenvolvido da bomba salivar, etc.. 2. Os órgãos da cabeça que servem diretamente ou indiretamente à alimentação são examinados detalhadamente: Tentório, faringe, aparelho salivar, partes bucais (mandíbulas, maxilas e lábio e músculos sa cabeça. É explicado que a estrutura de algumas partes é mais fácil de ser compreendida quando ela é considerada como resultado de invaginações e evaginações. Dentro desta descrição não é referida a filogenia das partes do esqueleto. 3. O tentório sòmente serve à fixação das partes internas da cabeça mas sim também á condução dos estiletes. Trata-se de uma invaginação da parede crãnica anterior cujo lume pode ser comprovado. 4. Por meio dos resultados microanatômicos e das observações "in vivo" em larvas de bactrodes, é demonstrado o mecanismo do engulhamento. 5. O aparelho salivar é explicado como invaginação complicada do fundo da hipofaringe. 6. O pistilo da bomba salivar possui um tendão, no qual o retrator insere-se em forma de penas. A contra-inserção encontra-se exclusivamente na parte posterior do tentório. 7. A cúpula da bomba tem uma válvula de entrada e outra de saída. Em frente do desembocamento do canal condutor encontra-se uma segunda válvula que aparentemente impede um flutuamento da saliva já injetada na maxila para dentro do canal condutor. 8. A cúpula possui em frente e em baixo do canal produtor de saliva um aumento secundário que representa o começo da invaginação do aparelho salivar e deve ser considerado funcionalmente como reservatório equilibrador. 9. As mandíbulas têm para o protrator uma alavanca de articulação que reforça o efeito do músculo. A alavanca mostra-se como parte final posterior e engrossada do desdobramento do tentório que daqui em diante deve ser chamado "invaginação". A alavanca insere-se por intermédio de um arco de tonofibrilas indiretamente na parte final da mandíbula. Esta inserção é apresentada por uma reconstrução (fig. 35. O retrator da mandíbula insere-se como um tendão na parede do canal do tentório colada á mandíbula. O retrator tem a sua contra-inserção na parede superior e posterior da cabeça. 10. A inserção dos protratores das maxilas também é indireta (mas se malavanca de articulação, veja reconstrução em fig. 36, a dos retratores é direita. o contra-inserção dêstes últimos encontra-se na parede superior e posterior da cabeça. 11. As pontas das mandíbulas são especializadas numa forma que na picada fecham os dois canais (canal de alimentação e de saliva abrindo-se sòmente no momento da sucção. (fig. 30. 12. Ao contrário aos dados de literatura, é observado que o aparelho salivar tem função própria e que a secreção é expelida através do canal salivar maxilar.

  12. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona; Andrea Carolina Wanumen; Jordano Salamanca; Robert Holdcraft; Vera Kyryczenko-Roth

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the eff...

  13. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... remains of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  14. Studies towards the Sex Pheromone of the Green Capsid Bug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, F.P.

    2001-01-01

    The green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a serious pest in fruit orchards, which is difficult to control. Because it is difficult to determine the actual population density, fruit growers apply insecticides against the green capsid bug on regular times to reduce the r

  15. Environmental Noise and Nonlinear Relaxation in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, B; Spezia, S; Curcio, L; Pizzolato, N; Dubkov, A A; Fiasconaro, A; Adorno, D Persano; Bue, P Lo; Peri, E; Colazza, S

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the effects of environmental noise in three different biological systems: (i) mating behaviour of individuals of \\emph{Nezara viridula} (L.) (Heteroptera Pentatomidae); (ii) polymer translocation in crowded solution; (iii) an ecosystem described by a Verhulst model with a multiplicative L\\'{e}vy noise.

  16. Evaluation of mirid predatory bugs and release strategy for aphid control in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Schelt, van J.; Ingegno, B.L.; Tavella, L.

    2015-01-01

    Zoophytophagous predators of the family Miridae (Heteroptera), which feed both on plant and prey, often maintain a close relationship with certain host plants. In this study, we aimed to select a suitable mirid predatory bug for aphid control in sweet pepper. Four species were compared: Macrolophus

  17. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the abu

  18. Jak určuje morfologie predátora jeho velikostní selektivitu? Srovnání morfometrických dat a experimentů u dravého vodního hmyzu

    OpenAIRE

    HAVLAN, Luboš

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates size-selective predation of four groups predaceous aquatic insects: adults and larvae of diving beetles (Dytiscidae), larvae of dragonflies (Odonata) and aquatic true bugs (Heteroptera) using laboratory feeding experiments and relates the results to morphometric data obtained for each predator.

  19. 海氏网蝽属在中国首次发现及一新种记述(半翅目:异翅亚目:网蝽科)%The discovery of the genus Heissiella Péricart, 1984 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae) from China, with description of a new species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党凯; 卜文俊

    2012-01-01

    The genus Heissiella Péricart,1984,previously known from India and Bhutan,is newly recorded for China,with the species Heissiella sinica sp.nov.described as new.Dorsal habitus photograph and illustrations of characters of the species are provided,together with a key to species of Heissiella.%记载中国网蝽科1新记录届:海氏网蝽属Heissiella Péricart,1984(国外分布:印度,不丹;国内分布:海南),及1新种:华海氏网蝽Heissiella sinica sp.nov..文中提供了新种成虫背面观照片、雌雄性生殖器特征图及该属种检索表.

  20. DIEL RHYTHM OF REPRODUCTIVE ACTIVITY AND ITS TEMPORAL CORRELATION WITH RELEASE OF MALE-SPECIFIC SEX PHEROMONES IN THE WHITE SPOTTED SPINED BUG EYSARCORIS PARVUS (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE)%尖角二星蝽(半翅目:蝽科)生殖行为的昼夜节律及其释放雄性性信息素间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门宏超; Tetsuo Ya-bu; Walter S.Leal

    2001-01-01

    在室温条件下(26℃,16L:8D),雌雄两性在光期的后半部由活跃的行走开始,并由此导致的配对是诱发其它性行为的关键因素.虽然在蝽象的性行为中观察到它们的交配延长和多次交配现象,但是性成熟的成虫在行走行为,交配以及产卵的起始和终止等方面都有明显的性行为节律.以上的各种行为大都发生在光周期的后半部并在黑暗前的两小时达到高峰.与行为相一致,利用气相收集法从成熟雄虫体内获得的三种化合物通过气相色谱分析也呈现出类似的节律,两个主要组分的峰值出现与交配峰值出现时刻相吻合.除此之外,所获得的组分与行走行为有相关性.交配终止时间主要出现在光期的前半,成虫在暗期和光期的前半几乎处于静止状态.在文中对交配行为和雄性产生的性信息素之间的相关性也进行了讨论.%Under the laboratory condition (26°C, 16L: 8D), active walking by either male or female in the second half of photophase led individual pair to arriving in the range of vigilant position and female' s advance and arrival within 1 cm range of male after there seemed to serve as a trigger for the continuance of other active close-range courtship behaviors by males within a transparent plastic dish (90 × 15 mm). Sexually mature bugs showed a clear diel rhythm of walking activity, start and termination of copulation, and oviposition, although a typical prolonged (26.1 ±11.6 h, Mean ± SD) and multiple mating system was observed in this bug. Active walking, oviposition and start of copulation mosfly occurred within the later half of photophase and a sharp peak of copulation was observed around 2-hour before light off. Similarly, although characterization of chemical structures of male-specific sex pheromone components is underway, quantitative analysis of aeration extracts from sexually mature males on gas chromatography (GC) showed that 3 male-speeific sex pheromone compounds were released at similar diel rhythm to the start of copulation and peak patterns of the two major components were also similar to that of start of copulation. Temporal correlation between the diel rhythm of pheromone candidate release and start of copulation or walking activity was found. On the other hand, most copulation terminated within the first half of photophase and insects were inactive during the dark period and the former half of photophase. Courtship behavior and its relation to the male-specific sex pheromone compoumds were discussed.

  1. New contributions to the study of Corixoidea: cytogenetic characterization of three species of Sigara from Argentina and the plausible mechanisms of karyotype evolution within Nepomorpha Nuevas contribuciones al estudio de Corixoidea: caracterización citogenética de tres especies de Sigara de Argentina y los posibles mecanismos de evolución del cariotipo en Nepomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Bressa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies in Heteroptera contribute to the analysis of evolutionary trends within the group. Heteroptera are characterized by the possession of holokinetic chromosomes, different sex chromosome mechanisms and a pair of m chromosomes in some species. In the present work, the male karyotype and meiosis in Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin, S. chrostowskii Jaczewski, and S. rubyae (Hungerford are described. The three species share a diploid chromosome number of 2n= 24 with a pair of m chromosomes and an XY/XX sex chromosome system. With this study the chromosome number of 30 species of Corixoidea are known and the modal karyotype is 2n= 20+2m+XY in males. The available cytogenetic information in Heteroptera led us to suggest that the presence of a pair of m chromosomes and an XY/XX sex chromosome system could be considered as plesiomorphic for Nepomorpha. The absence of m chromosomes in species of Ochteroidea and Nepoidea, and the sex chromosome systems X0 and Xn0 (male in species of Corixoidea, Naucoroidea, and Nepoidea should be considered as derived characters, which arose later in evolution.Los estudios citogenéticos en Heteroptera contribuyen al análisis de las tendencias evolutivas en el taxón. Los Heteroptera se caracterizan por poseer cromosomas holocinéticos, diferentes sistemas de cromosomas sexuales y un par de cromosomas m en algunas especies. En este trabajo describimos el cariotipo y la meiosis masculina de Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin, S. chrostowskii Jaczewski y S. rubyae (Hungerford. Las tres especies tienen un número diploide de 24, con un par de cromosomas m y un sistema de cromosomas sexuales XY/XX. Con estos resultados son 30 las especies de Corixoidea estudiadas citogenéticamente y el cariotipo modal de la superfamilia es 2n= 20+2m+XY en machos. La información citogenética disponible hasta el presente en Heteroptera nos permite sugerir que la presencia de cromosomas m y cromosomas sexuales XY/XX, ser

  2. Coexistence of bisexual and unisexual populations of Nysius groenlandicus in the Zackenberg Valley, Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2011-01-01

    The seed-feeding true bug Nysius groenlandicus (Zetterstedt) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) has temperature and humidity preferences similar to many desert-inhabiting insects. Nevertheless, it is widely distributed in Greenland and occurs even in high arctic areas. This seeming paradox implies that the......The seed-feeding true bug Nysius groenlandicus (Zetterstedt) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) has temperature and humidity preferences similar to many desert-inhabiting insects. Nevertheless, it is widely distributed in Greenland and occurs even in high arctic areas. This seeming paradox implies...... of the samples, and only in samples taken close to the coast line, whereas samples from the inner part of the valley consisted almost entirely of females. Thus, the distribution of uni- and bisexual populations at the local scale agreed with the pattern previously found for Greenland as a whole. Using data...

  3. Effect of loach consumption on the reproduction of giant water bug Kirkaldyia deyrolli: dietary selection, reproductive performance, and nutritional evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Izumi, Yohei; Tsumuki, Hisaaki

    2012-01-01

    Rice fields provide major habitats for lentic aquatic insects including the giant water bug Kirkaldyia (=Lethocerus) deyrolli (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae) in Japan. Previous researchers have emphasized that conserving populations of the frogs, Hyla japonicus and Rana nigromaculata, is very important for preserving K. deyrolli because these frogs were found to be a major component of the diet of K. deyrolli adults. However, these previous studies were carried out in rice fields with no loache...

  4. New sucking coreids species in Psidium guajava

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. Pires; R. M. Nogueira; Silva, C. J.; F. Pelissari; Ferreira, J. A. M.; M. A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    The Coreidae Family is an important insect group because of its higher diversity of species and further to be found in different habitats. The species Hypselonotus fulvus (De Geer, 1773) and Leptogossus zonatus (Dallas, 1952) (Heteroptera: Coreidae) are phytophagous and can cause lots of damage in the agriculture and forestry area. Additionally, they can spread some agents responsible for plant diseases damaging the fruit quality and decreasing the value for market. The aims of this work were...

  5. Evaluation of Orius species for biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tommasini, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Key words: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Heteroptera, Orius leavigatu, Orius majusculu, Orius niger, Orius insidiosus, Biology, Diapause, Biological control.The overall aim of this research was to develop a biological control programme for F. occidentalis through the selection of an efficient beneficial arthropod. First, a general review of the literature about thrips pest species in Europe and in particular of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Western Flower Thrips) was made...

  6. Systemic Nicotinoid Toxicity against the Predatory Mirid Pilophorus typicus : Residual Side Effect and Evidence for Plant Sucking

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahira, Kengo; Kashitani, Ryoya; Tomoda, Masafumi; Kodama, Rika; Ito, Katsura; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Momoshita, Mitsutoshi; Arakawa, Ryo; Takagi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    The predatory mirid Pilophorus typicus (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a potential biological control agent against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), but the sucking for host plant is unknown. To investigate collaboration use of P. typicus and nicotinoid granules and to confirm the sucking for pepper plant, residual harmful toxicity of 4 nicotinoids: acetamiprid; imidacloprid; nitempyram; and thiamethoxam on P. typicus adult were investigated at 7, 14 21, 28 and 35 d after treatment of the n...

  7. Venoms of Heteropteran Insects: A Treasure Trove of Diverse Pharmacological Toolkits

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew A Walker; Christiane Weirauch; Fry, Bryan G; Glenn F. King

    2016-01-01

    The piercing-sucking mouthparts of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) have allowed diversification from a plant-feeding ancestor into a wide range of trophic strategies that include predation and blood-feeding. Crucial to the success of each of these strategies is the injection of venom. Here we review the current state of knowledge with regard to heteropteran venoms. Predaceous species produce venoms that induce rapid paralysis and liquefaction. These venoms are powerfully insec...

  8. Heritability and repeatability of behavioural attributes affecting foraging success and fitness in water striders

    OpenAIRE

    Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Perner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Heritabilities and repeatabilities are presented for various behavioural attributes affecting foraging performance and fitness in Aquarius (Gerris) remigis (Heteroptera: Gerridae) females. These behavioural attributes were patch choice, foraging success, capture accuracy, and measures of mobility, activity, skittishness and aggressiveness. Most heritabilities were not significantly different from zero, which may be related to the low sampIe size. Conclusions as to the potential of direct sele...

  9. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitats of Silent Valley National Park and New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Western Ghats, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nishadh, K. A.; K.S.A. Das

    2012-01-01

    In a study of the metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitat of a tropical rainforest, Silent Valley National Park, and the adjacent moist deciduous forest, New Amarambalam Reserve Forest, of the Western Ghats, 28 different species were recorded from 150 tree hole aquatic habitats with an average of 3-5 species per tree hole. Most of the recorded organisms (96.8%) belong to Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies), Heteroptera (bugs), Diptera (flies), Coleoptera (beetles) and T...

  10. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  11. Diversidade de pulgões e de seus parasitóides e predadores na cultura da alfafa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDES SIMONE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a diversidade de pulgões, seus predadores e parasitóides, e a influência de fatores climáticos nas suas populações. Foram realizadas coletas semanais no período de abril/1995 a março/1996, no campo de alfafa da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, em Lavras, MG. As espécies de pulgões coletadas foram Therioaphis trifolii (Monel f. maculata, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, A. kondoi Shinji e Aphis craccivora Kock, presentes na cultura durante todo o período de estudo, com picos populacionais em novembro/1995, julho/1995, dezembro/1995 e abril/1996, respectivamente. Foram amostrados insetos predadores das famílias Coccinellidae, Syrphidae, Anthocoridae, Geocoridae e Chrysopidae, tendo as duas últimas ocorrência esporádica. Espécies da família Coccinellidae ocorreram durante todo o período amostral, apresentando o pico populacional no final de dezembro/1995, com precipitação de 20 mm e temperatura de 22,6ºC. A família Syrphidae alcançou maiores números em abril, à precipitação de 53 mm e temperatura de 21ºC. A família Anthocoridae não se manteve por todo o período amostral, porém um pico populacional ocorreu no final de dezembro nas mesmas condições que aquele apresentado pela família Coccinellidae. Os parasitóides da família Aphididae alcançaram pico em junho/1995, à temperatura de 16ºC.

  12. Aquatic insects of New York salt marsh associated with mosquito larval habitat and their potential utility as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonomic survey of salt marsh aquatic insects on Long Island, New York, USA and to evaluate their utility for non-target pesticide impacts and environmental biomonitoring. A total of 18 species from 11 families and five orders were collected repeatedly during the five month study period. Diptera was the most diverse order with nine species from four families, followed by Coleoptera with four species from two families, Heteroptera with three species from three families, then Odonata and the hexapod Collembola with one species each. Water boatmen, Trichocorixa verticalis Fieber (Heteroptera: Corixidae) and a shore fly, Ephydra subopaca Loew (Diptera: Ephydridae), were the two most commonly encountered species. An additional six species; Anurida maritima Guérin-Méneville (Collembola: Neanuridae), Mesovelia mulsanti White (Heteroptera: Mesovelidae), Enochrus hamiltoni Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Tropisternus quadristriatus Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Dasyhelea pseudocincta Waugh and Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and Brachydeutera argentata Walker (Diptera: Ephydridae), were found regularly. Together with the less common Erythrodiplax berenice Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae), these nine species were identified as the most suitable candidates for pesticide and environmental impact monitoring due to abundance, position in the food chain, and extended seasonal occurrence. This study represents a first step towards developing an insect-based index of biological integrity for

  13. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  14. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  15. Fitofagia de Podisus nigrispinus em algodoeiro e plantas daninhas Phytophagy by Podisus nigrispinus on cotton plants and weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Santos Evangelista Júnior; Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim Junior; Jorge Braz Torres; Edmilson Jacinto Marques

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de seis plantas daninhas e do algodoeiro no desenvolvimento, reprodução e sobrevivência do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) sob escassez parcial de presas, alimentação em intervalos de três dias, e ausência total de presas. Com escassez parcial de presas, o desenvolvimento ninfal foi maior em Ricinus communis e menor em Bidens pilosa. Viabilidade dos ínstares, peso de fêmeas, período de pré-oviposição e ...

  16. Los heterópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Ernesto Tornquist (Provincia de Buenos Aires, República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. KONOPKO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las especies de Heteroptera presentes en los cuerpos de agua del Parque Provincial Ernesto Tornquist. Se registraron 18 especies de Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha distribuidas en 10 géneros y 8 familias; sólo 4 especies fueron citadas previamente para el parque. El género Merragata White, con la especie M. hebroides White, son citados aquí por primera vez para la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Se incluye una clave para las especies de Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha presentes o esperables en el Parque Provincial Ernesto Tornquist.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Yu, Weiwei; Du, Yuzhou

    2013-12-10

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata, was sequenced in this study. It represents the first sequenced mitogenome of family Tingidae in Heteroptera. The mitogenome of C. ciliata is 15,257bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a large non-coding region. Gene arrangement, nucleotide content, codon usage, and amino acid composition and asymmetry indicate a high degree of conservation with six other species of Cimicomorpha. The 13 PCGs initiated with ATN as the start codon and terminated with TAA, TA or T as stop codon. The evolutionary rate of each PCG was different, among which ATP8 showed the highest rate while ATP6 indicated the lowest rate. The 22 tRNAs genes apparently fold into a typical cloverleaf structure; however, the anticodon (TTC) of trnSer (AGN) differs from other Heteropteran insects. Secondary structure modeling of rRNA genes revealed similarity to other insects, except for two incomplete helices (H1648 and H2735) in lrRNA. The predicted secondary structure of lrRNA indicates 45 helices in six domains, whereas srRNA has 27 helices in three domains. Three potential stem-loops and two tandem repeats (-TCTAAT-) were identified in the A+T-rich region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that C. ciliata is a sister group to other Heteroptera species based on analysis of the 13 PCGs.

  18. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. PMID:27390089

  19. Insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina. Inventario preliminar Aquatic insects from Somuncura plateau, Patagonia, Argentina. Preliminary inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muzón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Se brinda un inventario preliminar de los insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura y su área de influencia (Patagonia, Argentina realizado sobre la base de colecciones y registros previos de especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (familias Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae y Psychodidae y Coleoptera. Se han relevado diversos tipos de ambientes en 14 localidades. El número de especies registrado asciende a 78, agrupadas en 51 géneros y 26 familias, de las cuales 33 se citan por primera vez del área. De los taxa registrados 83% de los géneros corresponden a grupos de amplia distribución (neotropicales, americanos o cosmopolitas, mientras que 41% de las especies presentan una distribución patagónica o andina.ABSTRACT. A preliminary inventory of the aquatic insects from the Somuncura plateau and its area of influence (Patagonia, Argentina is presented. It was done on the basis of the study of collections and previous records of species belonging to the orders Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (families Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, and Psychodidae and Coleoptera. Different kinds of environments were surveyed in 14 localities. Seventy eigth species grouped in 51 genera and 26 families were registered, and 33 species are new records for the area. Eighty three % of the registered genera are widely distributed (neotropical, american or cosmopolitan, while 41 % of the species exhibit patagonic or andean distribution.

  20. First report of phytophagous stink bug in chicory crop Primeiro registro de percevejo fitófago em cultura de almeirão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the first occurrence of the stink bug Edessa meditabunda (F. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae on chicory in Pará State, Brazil (7°7'45.59"S 55°23'20.99"W. Samples were taken at Florentino Farm, municipality of Novo Progresso from a plot of plants (5mx1,25m. Sixty-eight chicory plants were sampled and 1.649 adults, 636 nymphs and 1.012 egg masses were obtained.Esta nota relata a primeira ocorrência do percevejo Edessa meditabunda (F. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae na cultura de almeirão, no Estado do Pará (7°7'45.59"S 55°23'20.99"W. Na Fazenda Florentino, município de Novo Progresso, em um canteiro (5mx1,25m, foram coletados percevejos adultos, ninfas e posturas. Em 68 plantas de almeirão, coletaram-se 1.649 adultos, 636 ninfas e 1.012 posturas.

  1. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification.

  2. The decapod red pigment-concentrating hormone (Panbo-RPCH) is the first identified neuropeptide of the order Plecoptera and is interpreted as homoplastic character state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the first neuropeptide structure, identified by mass spectrometry, in two species of Plectoptera (stoneflies) and in one species of the coleopteran family Lycidae. In all three species, the octapeptide Panbo-RPCH (first identified in Pandalus borealis as a red pigment-concentrating hormone: pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Gly-Trp amide) is present. A review of the literature available on invertebrate neuropeptides that are identified or predicted from expressed sequence tags, transcriptome shotgun assemblies, and from fully sequenced genomes, show that Panbo-RPCH is found in Malacostraca (Crustacea) and certain hemipteran Heteroptera (Insecta). To date, Panbo-RPCH has not been shown present in non-Malacostracan crustaceans, nor in basal taxa of the Insecta (Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Ephemeroptera, Odonata). The present data adds to knowledge on the distribution of Panbo-RPCH, and when taking into account the most accepted, current phylogenetics of the Crustacea-Hexapoda relationship, this distribution of Panbo-RPCH in Malacostraca, Plecoptera, some hemipteran Heteroptera and in Coleoptera (Lycidae) can best be explained by homoplasy, implying parallel evolution. PMID:25733206

  3. The cephalic morphology of the Gondwanan key taxon Hackeriella (Coleorrhyncha, Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Rico; Wipfler, Benjamin; Friedemann, Katrin; Pohl, Hans; Weirauch, Christiane; Hartung, Viktor; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-07-01

    External and internal head structures of Coleorrhyncha, a key-taxon within the Hemiptera, are described in detail and documented using modern techniques. The main focus is on Hackeriella veitchi, but two additional representatives of the Gondwanan relict group were also examined, and also head structures of Enicocephalidae, a member of a potentially basal heteropteran lineage. Features were compared to those documented in literature for the Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha, and Heteroptera. Coleorrhyncha are characterized by highly modified head structures and correspondingly an entire series of autapomorphies, such as for instance a strongly flattened head capsule with fenestrations. However, they also display features that are likely plesiomorphic compared to members of other hemipteran groups. These include the almost complete tentorium and the lack of the gula. The sistergroup relationship between Coleorrhyncha and Heteroptera is well supported by cephalic features. Potential synapomorphies are the presence of a distinct mandibular sulcus, the reduced number of antennomeres, the absence of clasping organs in the labial groove, coiled accessory salivary ducts, the presence of a small cervical muscle M1a (M. pronotopostoccipitalis medialis), the presence of a second mandibular promotor M14 (M. zygomaticus mandibulae), the presence of M28 (M. verticopharyngalis), and M30 (M. frontobuccalis posterior). PMID:23583344

  4. Arthropods associated with medicinal plants in coastal South Carolina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROLANDO LOPEZ; B. MERLE SHEPARD

    2007-01-01

    Arthropods were sampled from feverfew [Tanacetum parthenium (L.) SchultzBip], Echinaceapurpurea (L.) Moench, Echinaceapallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Valeriana officinalis L., and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) during 1998-2001. In addition,arthropods were sampled on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from 2001-2004. In general,50-60 arthropod species where collected and identified among all of the medicinal plant species. Among the predators, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Geocoris punctipes (Say) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and spiders were most abundant from 1998-2004.The three-cornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say), was the most abundant herbivore found from 1998 to 2001. Orius insidiosus and G. punctipes were 3-4 times more abundant on T. parthenium than on any other medicinal plant species. Based on the numbers of predatory arthropods found on T. parthenium, this crop could be suitable as a companion or "banker" plant to attract and maintain populations of predators, especially O. insidiosus and G. punctipes. Whitefly nymphs attacked by predators with piercing/sucking mouthparts are easily identified using a microscope because of the general appearance of the carcass left by the predators. Thus, populations of predators on T. parthenium suppressed Bemisia tabaci populations on E. purpurea when these crops were planted as companion crops.

  5. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Salamanca, Jordano; Holdcraft, Robert; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera

    2016-04-15

    Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day) control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1-7 days) larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries.

  6. Acquisition of Cry1Ac protein by non-target arthropods in Bt soybean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentration was highest in the grasshopper Atractomorpha sinensis and represented about 50% of the concentration in soybean leaves. Other species/taxa did not contain detectable toxin or contained a concentration that was between 1 and 10% of that detected in leaves. These Cry1Ac-positive arthropods included a number of mesophyll-feeding Hemiptera, a cicadellid, a curculionid beetle and, among the predators, a thomisid spider and an unidentified predatory bug belonging to the Anthocoridae. Within an arthropod species/taxon, the Cry1Ac content sometimes varied between life stages (nymphs/larvae vs. adults) and sampling dates (before, during, and after flowering). Our study is the first to provide information on Cry1Ac-expression levels in soybean plants and Cry1Ac concentrations in non-target arthropods in Chinese soybean fields. The data will be useful for assessing the risk of non-target arthropod exposure to Cry1Ac in soybean.

  7. Kaolin and copper-based products applications: ecotoxicology on four natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengochea, P; Amor, F; Saelices, R; Hernando, S; Budia, F; Adán, A; Medina, P

    2013-05-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of kaolin clays and two copper-based products on four natural enemies found in olive orchards Anthocoris nemoralis (F.) (Hem. Anthocoridae), Chelonus inanitus (L.) (Hym. Braconidae), Chilocorus nigritus (F.) (Col. Coccinellidae) and Scutellysta cyanea Motschulsky (Hym. Pteromalidae) are described. Both kaolin and copper can be applied for controlling the olive fruit fly and the olive moth, two important pests of this crop. The products did not increase the mortality of any of the insects studied, with the exception of A. nemoralis. The sublethal effects, however, differed depending on the parameter evaluated and the insect studied. Both kaolin and coppers slightly, but significantly, reduced the life span of C. inanitus and S. cyanea. Number of eggs laid by A. nemoralis females were reduced, but not significantly compared to the controls. In the behavioural experiments, clear preference for remaining on kaolin-untreated surfaces when insects were able to choose was observed. Despite having some negative effects, the negative impact on natural enemies was lower than the impact caused by products commonly applied in this crop against the pests stated above. Therefore, both kaolin and copper can be considered as alternative products to be applied in olive orchards if an effective resistance management programme is to be developed. Furthermore, both of them are allowed in organic farming, in which the number of products that can be applied is more restricted.

  8. Natural Enemies of the Frankliniella Complex Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ataulfo Mango Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Franklin H; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Ibarra-Nuñez, Guillermo; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E

    2015-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Ataulfo mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of determining the natural enemies of the Frankliniella complex species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Seven species of this genus feed and reproduce in large numbers during the mango flowering. Two representative orchards were selected: the orchard "Tres A" characterized by an intensive use of agrochemicals directed against thrips, and the orchard "La Escondida" that did not spray insecticides. During mango flowering, five inflorescences were randomly collected every 5 d in both orchards, for a total of 18 sampling dates. Results revealed the presence of 18 species of arthropods that were found predating on Frankliniella. There were 11 species in the families Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Formicidae, Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae; and seven species of spiders in the families Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, and Uloboridae. Over 88% of predators were anthocorids, including, Paratriphleps sp. (Champion), Orius insidiosus (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), and O. perpunctatus (Reuter). The orchard that did not spray insecticides had a significantly higher number of predators suggesting a negative effect of the insecticides on the abundance of these organisms.

  9. Identification and impact of natural enemies of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2012-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest of potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and peppers (Capsicum spp.). The purpose of our research was to identify and determine the impact of natural enemies on B. cockerelli population dynamics. Through 2 yr of field studies (2009-2010) at four different sites and laboratory feeding tests, we identified minute pirate bug, Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); western bigeyed bug, Geocoris pallens Stål (Hemiptera:Geocoridae), and convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as key natural enemies of B. cockerelli in southern California potatoes, tomatoes, and bell peppers. In natural enemy exclusion cage experiments in the potato crop and in American nightshade, Solanum americanum Miller, the number of B. cockerelli surviving was significantly greater in the closed cage treatments, thus confirming the affect natural enemies can have on B. cockerelli. We discuss how this information can be used in an integrated pest management program for B. cockerelli.

  10. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  11. Búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande(thysanoptera: thripidae, sobre Dendranthema grandijlorum en el municipio de Piendamo, cauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro V. Ulises

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la empresa "Flores del Cauca" en el municipio de Piendamó a 1S00 m.s.n.m. con temperatura promedia de 18° C y HR de SO ± 5%, se hizo una búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de F. occidentalis (Thysanóptera: Thripidae sobre eras experimentales de Dendranthema grandiflorum libres de control químico. La búsqueda se extendió a los hospedantes alternos del tisanóptero en áreas aledañas al cultivo. Semanalmente se cosechaban plantas de crisantemo, se llevaban al laboratorio para la recolección de thrips y sus enemigos naturales nativos. En el laboratorio se realizaron bioensayos para probar la acción depredadora de algunos de los enemigos de F. occídentalis que fueron encontrados en crisantemo. Se encontraron los siguientes enemigos naturales nativos: El hemíptero Orius sp. (Anthocoridae. los ácaros Amblyseius herbjcolus. Euseius naindaimei y Thyplodromalus peregrinus (Phytoseiidae, larvas de Chrysopidae; los thrips leptothirs sp. y Haplotrips gowdeyi (Phlaeothripidae, un ácaro de la familia Ascidae; difereflles especies de arañas; larvas de la familia Coccinellidae y adultos de F. occidentalis infectados por hongos no identificados.

  12. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  13. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Salamanca, Jordano; Holdcraft, Robert; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day) control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1-7 days) larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries. PMID:27092527

  14. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1–7 days larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries.

  15. Acquisition of Cry1Ac protein by non-target arthropods in Bt soybean fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Yu

    Full Text Available Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentration was highest in the grasshopper Atractomorpha sinensis and represented about 50% of the concentration in soybean leaves. Other species/taxa did not contain detectable toxin or contained a concentration that was between 1 and 10% of that detected in leaves. These Cry1Ac-positive arthropods included a number of mesophyll-feeding Hemiptera, a cicadellid, a curculionid beetle and, among the predators, a thomisid spider and an unidentified predatory bug belonging to the Anthocoridae. Within an arthropod species/taxon, the Cry1Ac content sometimes varied between life stages (nymphs/larvae vs. adults and sampling dates (before, during, and after flowering. Our study is the first to provide information on Cry1Ac-expression levels in soybean plants and Cry1Ac concentrations in non-target arthropods in Chinese soybean fields. The data will be useful for assessing the risk of non-target arthropod exposure to Cry1Ac in soybean.

  16. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  17. The Impact of Geomorphology and Human Disturbances on the Faunal Distributions in Tiquara and Angico Caves of Campo Formoso, Bahia, Brazil

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    André Vieira de Araujo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of fauna is important for the understanding of communities and ecosystems, enabling the design of actions for conservation. In the present piece of work, we identified total 45 morphospecies belonging to the order Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Dictyoptera, Araneida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Plecoptera, Amphipoda, Zygentoma, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Psocoptera from two distinct types of caves of Campo Formoso, state of Bahia in Brazil. It was made to provide subsidies for conservation studies. The targeted caves were Tiquara Cave suffered for many years from saltpeter extraction and Angico Cave less visited cave having high tourist potential. Though the conservation status is much better in Angico cave, but we found comparatively more morphospecies in Tiquara cave.

  18. Distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in Pachycoris torridus (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae) with different chromatic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Firmino, T S; Alevi, K C C; Pereira, L L V; Souza, E R S; Júnior, F C S; Banho, C A; Carmo, G O; Itoyama, M M

    2015-01-01

    The stink bug Pachycoris torridus is a pest of great agricultural importance due to its records on culture of physic nut (Jatropha curcas), which is the raw material for biodiesel production. An interesting feature of this insect is its high phenotypic variability, a characteristic that resulted in it being classified as a new species on eight separate occasions. In the suborder Heteroptera, the heterochromatin pattern is specific and often allows species to be differentiated. To confirm whether there is differentiation between specimens of P. torridus with different color patterns (yellow, orange, brown, and red), samples were analyzed cytogenetically using the C-banding method. During meiotic prophase, the four color patterns analyzed showed a large heterochromatic chromocenter, consisting of a combination of both sex chromosomes (X and Y). Thus, the present study reports chromosomal homogeneity in different color patterns of P. torridus and highlights the importance of this tool in the description of new species. PMID:26634542

  19. Supplementary notes to the biology of Cordyceps entomorrhiza (Dicks. ex Fr. Link and the morphology of its conidial stages

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    Stanisław Bałazy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps entomorrhiza develops on the larvae, pupae and adults on the ground beetles Carabus spp. (Coleoptera, Carabidae and on the bugs (Heteroptera, Nabidae ot the genera Himacerus Wolff et Nabis Latr. There are two forms of the conidial sporulation of this fungus with an identical sporogenesis type (Phialosporae but different as to the arrangement of sporogenous cells (Tilachiadtopsis and Hymenostilbe-like The names Tilachlidiopsis hippotrichoides (Lindau Keisler and T. nigra Yakushiji et Kumazawa should be treated as synonymous; they refer to the conidial stage of C. entomorrhiza, Hirsutella dla eleutheratorum (Nees ex Fr. Petch — contrary to the hitherto existing notion — is not connected with the above mentioned fungus. It constitutes a separate species, close to or identical with H. entomophila Pat.

  20. Insects as vectors: systematics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-04-01

    Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara). The authors provide a rapid overview of the morphology, systematics, development cycle and bio-ecology of each of these groups of vectors. Finally, their medical and veterinary importance is briefly reviewed.

  1. Structure and Evolution of Insect Sperm: New Interpretations in the Age of Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, Romano; Gottardo, Marco; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive review of the structure of sperm in all orders of insects evaluates phylogenetic implications, with the background of a phylogeny based on transcriptomes. Sperm characters strongly support several major branches of the phylogeny of insects-for instance, Cercophora, Dicondylia, and Psocodea-and also different infraordinal groups. Some closely related taxa, such as Trichoptera and Lepidoptera (Amphiesmenoptera), differ greatly in sperm structure. Sperm characters are very conservative in some groups (Heteroptera, Odonata) but highly variable in others, including Zoraptera, a small and morphologically uniform group with a tremendously accelerated rate of sperm evolution. Unusual patterns such as sperm dimorphism, the formation of bundles, or aflagellate and immotile sperm have evolved independently in several groups. PMID:26982436

  2. Male Reproductive System and Spermatogenesis in Homoptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)%同翅类昆虫的雄性生殖系统及精子发生(昆虫纲:半翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润刚; 袁锋; 张雅林

    2006-01-01

    本文比较了同翅类昆虫雄性生殖系统的结构、减数分裂期间染色体的行为和精子尾部的超微结构.研究表明蜡蝉总科和异翅类的精巢具有被膜,而蝉总科、叶蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科、木虱总科、蚜总科、粉虱总科和蚧总科的精巢均不具有被膜.也可以根据精巢小叶的形状将精巢分为三类,蝉总科、叶蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科、蚜总科和粉虱总科的精巢小叶为球形,蜡蝉总科、木虱总科和蚧总科的精巢小叶为管状,而异翅类的精巢小叶为片层状.减数分裂可以被分为5类:①蝉型(Cicadoid type);②蜡蝉型(Fulgoroid type);③木虱型(Psyloid type);④蚜型(Aphidoid type);⑤粉虱型(Aleyrodoid type)和⑥蚧型(Coccoid type),至少具有四个类群的减数分裂前期I具有弥散期,它们是:木虱总科、蜡蝉总科、蚧总科和异翅类.除粉虱总科和蚧总科的精子尾部退化以外,其余种类的精子鞭毛均具有典型的9+9+2轴丝结构.%Morphology of the male reproductive system, chromosome behaviors during meiosis and spem tail structures in Homoptera and Heteroptera are compared in this paper. The sheathed testis is found in Fulgoroidea and Heteroptera, and unsheathed testis occurs in Cicadoidea, Cicadelloidea, Cercopoidea, Membracoidea, Psyloidea, Aphidoidea, Aleyrodoidea and Coccoidea. The testis also can be divide into three types by the shape of testicular follicles. The sphere-shaped type is found in Cicadoidea, Cicadelloidea, Cercopoidea, Membracoidea, Aphidoidea and Aleyrodoidea, the tube-shaped type observed in Fulgoroidea, Psyloidea and Coccoidea, and the lamella-shaped type represented by Heteroptera. It is suggested the unsheathed testis may be the primitive type in Homoptera. Meiosis can be divided into 6 type at least, i.e. 1) Cicadoid type; 2) Fulgoroid type; 3) Psyloid type; 4) Aphidoid type; 5) Aleyrodoid type; and 6) Coccoid type. At

  3. MACROINVERTEBRATES COMPOSITION IN THE BLIZNEC STREAM, SECOND AND THIRD MAKSIMIR LAKE

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    Marina Piria

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrates in spring period was investigated during two years in the first and second Maksimir Lake and Bliznec stream. The domination of Gastropoda was outstanding at these three investigated sites. From time to time stronger development of Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Diptera and Crustacea was noted at the second Maksimir Lake. Gastropoda was dominant at the third Maksimir Lake (from 1.484 to 2.506 g m–2 while Crustacea, Oligochaeta and Hirudinea made important biomass. Species density in the Bliznec stream was quantitative higher than the one at other stations. The dominant group was Gastropoda (from 0.568 to 3.026 g m–2 and there was higher development of Trichoptera, Crustacea, Diptera, Heteroptera and Bivalvia (Table 3 and 4. Bliznec stream water quality, observed by biological method given by Kerovec, ranged from polluted to highly polluted.

  4. MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SIRET RIVER FROM HARGHITA, MARAMUREŞ AND VRANCEA MOUNTAINS AND MOLDOVEI PLATEAU

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    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  5. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhães, M A; Dias, M M

    2011-02-01

    Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type. PMID:21437393

  6. Insects as vectors: systematics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-04-01

    Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara). The authors provide a rapid overview of the morphology, systematics, development cycle and bio-ecology of each of these groups of vectors. Finally, their medical and veterinary importance is briefly reviewed. PMID:26470450

  7. OBSERVATION ON THE ENTOMOFAUNA BIODIVERSITY IN SOME CROPS

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    Ionela Mocanu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For gathering the material were used the soil traps type Barber, which were installed in a wheat crop area Tişiţa, Vrancea county. The observations were made in 2013 in May-June. The traps gathering was done on the following dates: 17.05; 29.05; 13.06; 27.06 using three variants: • Option 1 - untreated wheat consumption • Option 2 - treated drinking wheat • Option 3 - treated wheat seed The collected insect species belonging to the following orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Heteroptera, Diptera and Colembolla etc. Were collected in addition to insects, a species belonging to the Subphylum Crustacea, ord. Isopoda and species belonging to the class Arachnida, ord. Araneae.

  8. Contamination as the Cause of Erroneous Records of Brochosomes

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    Roman Rakitov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brochosomes are ultramicroscopic particles produced in large quantities by the Malpighian tubules of leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, and Cicadellidae and applied by leafhoppers as a coat to their integuments. A recent study has described brochosomes on museum specimens of Heteroptera and Psylloidea, suggesting a wider distribution of brochosomes among Hemiptera. Here, I report that the majority of adult Sthenarus rotermundi (Scholtz (Miridae and Kleidocerys resedae (Panzer (Lygaeidae reared in captivity and handled with clean tools had no brochosomes on them, suggesting that the earlier records of brochosomes in these and perhaps other species outside of the Cicadellidae were due to contamination. Additionally, simple experiments demonstrated that insects can become contaminated with brochosomes via entomological tools that had been in contact with leafhoppers and via preservation in ethanol together with leafhoppers. Contamination of host plants, predators, and parasites of leafhoppers with brochosomes is also expected but remains to be demonstrated.

  9. Miridae, Reduviidae and Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera collected in Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Iberá watershed, Corrientes, Argentina Reduviidae, Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera recolectados en Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Esteros de Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina

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    María C. Melo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of contributing to the knowledge of the biodiversity in the protected areas of Argentina, terrestrial Heteroptera were collected in the Natural Reserve of the Iberá. The sampling site was the locality of Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57° 09'W and the following collection methods were used: sweeping, beating, fogging and light-trapping. A list is presented, with 90 species belonging to the superfamilies Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae, and Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae and Rhyparochromidae, 13 of them are new records for the Argentine Republic (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis, Oncopeltus luctuosus, Ischnodemus gayi, Oedancala nana, Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus, Pseudopachybrachius vinctus and 36 new records for the province of Corrientes.Con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad en las áreas protegidas de la Argentina, se realizaron recoleccciones de Heteroptera terrestres en la Reserva Natural del Iberá. El sitio de muestreo fue la localidad de Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57°09'W y se utilizaron los siguientes métodos de recoleccion: rastreo, golpeteo, fogging y trampa de luz. Se presenta una lista con 90 especies pertenecientes a las superfamilias Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae y Rhyparochromidae, de las cuales 13 representan primeras citas para la República Argentina (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis , Oncopeltus luctuosus , Ischnodemus gayi , Oedancala nana , Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus

  10. Primeiro registro de Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae em plantas de Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Nota Científica. First record of Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: geometridae in Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Scientific Note.

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    Claubert Wagner Guimarães de MENEZES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a oviposição e o desenvolvimento de uma nova espécie de lepidóptera associada à Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Ovos, imaturos e adultos de Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram encontrados em plantas de E. cloeziana no município de Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Este trabalho é o primeiro registro desse desfolhador em plantas de eucalipto. Ninfas de Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae foram também observadas predando as lagartas de F. sartinaria, isto indica que este predador poderá ser um potencial agente de controle biológico da espécie. A ocorrência de F. sartinaria ovipositando e se desenvolvendo em plantas de E. cloeziana mostra que este lepidóptero pode se tornar um desfolhador importante da espécie, sendo recomendável sua inclusão em monitoramentos de pragas do eucalipto visando seu manejo integrado.The aim of this study was to record the oviposition and development of a new species of lepidopteran pests of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Eggs, immatures and adults of Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were found in plants of E. cloeziana in Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This work is the first record of this defoliator in eucalyptus plants. Nymphs of the Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have also been observed preying on the larvae of F. sartinaria, this indicates that this predator is a probable potential biological control agent of the species. The occurrence of F. sartinaria developing and laying eggs on plants of E. cloeziana shows that this insect can become an important defoliator and it is recommended its inclusion in monitoring pest of eucalyptus for integrated pest management.

  11. Comparison of Relative Bias, Precision, and Efficiency of Sampling Methods for Natural Enemies of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, J A; Costamagna, A C; McCornack, B P; Ragsdale, D W

    2015-06-01

    Generalist natural enemies play an important role in controlling soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America. Several sampling methods are used to monitor natural enemy populations in soybean, but there has been little work investigating their relative bias, precision, and efficiency. We compare five sampling methods: quadrats, whole-plant counts, sweep-netting, walking transects, and yellow sticky cards to determine the most practical methods for sampling the three most prominent species, which included Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). We show an important time by sampling method interaction indicated by diverging community similarities within and between sampling methods as the growing season progressed. Similarly, correlations between sampling methods for the three most abundant species over multiple time periods indicated differences in relative bias between sampling methods and suggests that bias is not consistent throughout the growing season, particularly for sticky cards and whole-plant samples. Furthermore, we show that sticky cards produce strongly biased capture rates relative to the other four sampling methods. Precision and efficiency differed between sampling methods and sticky cards produced the most precise (but highly biased) results for adult natural enemies, while walking transects and whole-plant counts were the most efficient methods for detecting coccinellids and O. insidiosus, respectively. Based on bias, precision, and efficiency considerations, the most practical sampling methods for monitoring in soybean include walking transects for coccinellid detection and whole-plant counts for detection of small predators like O. insidiosus. Sweep-netting and quadrat samples are also useful for some applications, when efficiency is not paramount. PMID:26470267

  12. Comparison of Relative Bias, Precision, and Efficiency of Sampling Methods for Natural Enemies of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, J A; Costamagna, A C; McCornack, B P; Ragsdale, D W

    2015-06-01

    Generalist natural enemies play an important role in controlling soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America. Several sampling methods are used to monitor natural enemy populations in soybean, but there has been little work investigating their relative bias, precision, and efficiency. We compare five sampling methods: quadrats, whole-plant counts, sweep-netting, walking transects, and yellow sticky cards to determine the most practical methods for sampling the three most prominent species, which included Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). We show an important time by sampling method interaction indicated by diverging community similarities within and between sampling methods as the growing season progressed. Similarly, correlations between sampling methods for the three most abundant species over multiple time periods indicated differences in relative bias between sampling methods and suggests that bias is not consistent throughout the growing season, particularly for sticky cards and whole-plant samples. Furthermore, we show that sticky cards produce strongly biased capture rates relative to the other four sampling methods. Precision and efficiency differed between sampling methods and sticky cards produced the most precise (but highly biased) results for adult natural enemies, while walking transects and whole-plant counts were the most efficient methods for detecting coccinellids and O. insidiosus, respectively. Based on bias, precision, and efficiency considerations, the most practical sampling methods for monitoring in soybean include walking transects for coccinellid detection and whole-plant counts for detection of small predators like O. insidiosus. Sweep-netting and quadrat samples are also useful for some applications, when efficiency is not paramount.

  13. Efeito de milho Bt sobre a entomofauna não alvo Side-effect of maize Bt on non-target arthropods

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    Filomena Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objectivo de verificar o impacte de milho Bt na fauna auxiliar de artrópodes, cultivaram-se, durante três anos (2002-2004, duas variedades de milho geneticamente modificadas (Compa CB e Elgina e as suas isogénicas (Dracma e Cecília. Os ensaios foram realizados no Núcleo de Ensaios e de Controlo do Escaroupim, no Ribatejo. As amostragens de artrópodes auxiliares foram realizadas quinzenalmente, durante o ciclo vegetativo da cultura, em quatro talhões, usando o método de aspiração. Não se encontraram diferenças na fauna auxiliar existente, entre as cultivares Bt e as suas isogénicas. Os artrópodes auxiliares mais abundantes, em qualquer dos anos e cultivares, foram os antocorídeos. Os himenópteros foram o segundo grupo mais representado, seguido das aranhas.In order to study the impact of transgenic maize on beneficial arthropods, two varieties of maize Bt (Compa CB and Elgina and the normal ones (Dracma and Cecília were sown. The trials were carried out, in Escaroupim, Ribatejo, from 2002 to 2004. The surveys were done by using a cordless hand vacuum machine, every 15 days, during the growing season. The results showed no significant differences between arthropods caught in maize Bt and the normal one. The beneficials with the highest numbers caught during the three years were Anthocoridae, Hymenoptera and Aranea were the first, second and third most representative groups of beneficial arthropods during the three years.

  14. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Damsel Bug Alloeorhynchus bakeri (Hemiptera: Nabidae

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    Hu Li, Haiyu Liu, Liangming Cao, Aimin Shi, Hailin Yang, Wanzhi Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of the damsel bug, Alloeorhynchus bakeri, has been completed and annotated in this study. It represents the first sequenced mitochondrial genome of heteropteran family Nabidae. The circular genome is 15, 851 bp in length with an A+T content of 73.5%, contains the typical 37 genes that are arranged in the same order as that of the putative ancestor of hexapods. Nucleotide composition and codon usage are similar to other known heteropteran mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs use standard initiation codons (methionine and isoleucine, except COI, which started with TTG. Canonical TAA and TAG termination codons are found in eight protein-coding genes, the remaining five (COI, COII, COIII, ND5, ND1 have incomplete termination codons (T or TA. PCGs of two strands present opposite CG skew which is also reflected by the nucleotide composition and codon usage. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, except the dihydrouridine (DHU arm of tRNASer (AGN which forms a simple loop as known in many other metazoa. Secondary structure models of the ribosomal RNA genes of A. bakeri are presented, similar to those proposed for other insect orders. There are six domains and 45 helices and three domains and 27 helices in the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS, respectively. The major non-coding region (also called control region between the small ribosomal subunit and the tRNAIle gene includes two special regions. The first region includes four 133 bp tandem repeat units plus a partial copy of the repeat (28 bp of the beginning, and the second region at the end of control region contains 4 potential stem-loop structures. Finally, PCGs sequences were used to perform a phylogenetic study. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support Nabidae as the sister group to Anthocoridae and Miridae.

  15. Epigeal fauna of a degraded soil treated with mineral fertilizer and compound cellulose cultivated of tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giácomo, R. G.; de Arruda, O. G.; Souto Filho, S. N.; Alves, M. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Frigério, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the epigeal fauna in a degraded soil in the recovery process after one year of cultivated with tree species. The experiment was established in February 2010 in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with five treatments and four replications. In the main plots, pure cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis (exotic species - hybrids) and Mabea fistulifera Mart. (native species) and the subplot treatments: Control; D0 - without fertilization; DM - mineral fertilizer according to crop need; DC - with compost manure according to crop need (10 t ha-1); D15 - 15 t ha-1 and D20 - 20 t ha-1 of the compound. In February of the years 2010 and 2011 were installed in the central region of each treatment two traps "pitt fall" which remained for seven days in the field. We calculated Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indices, and richness of wildlife activity groups. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Scott Knott test at 5% significance level. In 2010, the area with M. fistulifera, was captured a total of 2697 organisms distributed mainly in: Hymenoptera with 45.83% of the total collected, Collembola (36.93%), Hemiptera Heteroptera (6.56%). In the area with E. urograndis, 1938 organisms were captured, being 50.67% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 26.83%, 7.59% Hemiptera Heteroptera. It was found that there was no significant difference between treatments and between species for all variables. Collected in 2011 were 4970 organisms in 56.22% of the order Hymenoptera, Collembola 18.49% and 7.12% beetle in the area of M. fistulifera. In the area of E. urograndis were 4200 organisms, 55.29% (Hymenoptera), 23.79% (Collembola) and 5.86% (Coleoptera). It appears that the activity values and richness of the fauna groups were significantly higher in treatments with organic fertilization in both cultive. It is concluded that after one year there was a variation of the dominant

  16. Species specificity of male southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L.) reactions to the female calling song%雄性稻绿蝽对雌性鸣唱反应的物种特异性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nika HRABAR; Meta VIRANT-DOBERLET; Andrej (C)OKL

    2004-01-01

    雌性稻绿蝽的鸣唱开始了在基质中产生的通讯并引起雄性不同的特定反应.在两种自然情况下,我们检验了雄性稻绿蝽对N.viridula,Thyanta pallidovirens和Thyanta custator accerra个体鸣唱刺激反应的物种特异性水平,并对反应强度和同种及异种刺激性鸣唱的时间特性进行了相关分析,证明雄性求偶鸣唱的发送和震动源的定位是最具物种特异性的反应.然而,即便是在这个水平上,雄性稻绿蝽不能将同种雌性个体的鸣唱与T.custator accera的第二个雄性个体的鸣唱区分开来,后者与前者有相似的脉冲持续时间和重复时间值.本文也讨论了涉及交配行为鸣唱期的有关信号的物种特定性的概念[动物学报50(4):566-575,2004].%The female southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) calling song starts substrate-borne communication and triggers different stereotyped responses in males. We tested the species specificity level of male N. viridula responses to stimulation with songs of N. viridula , Thyanta pallidovirens and Thyanta custator accerra (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in two natural situations and correlated the response magnitude with temporal properties of the conspecific and heterospecific stimulatory songs. Emission of the male courtship song together with locating of the vibration source proved to be the most species-specific reaction. However, even at this level males did not discriminate between the conspecific female calling song and second male calling song of T. custator accera, which have similar pulse duration and repetition time values. The concept of species specificity of signals involved in the calling phase of mating behaviour is discussed [Acta Zoologica Sinica 50 (4): 566 - 575, 2004].

  17. Ocorrência de Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986(Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae em plantios experimentais de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh em Manaus (Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae in experimental plantations of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil

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    Márcio Luís Leitão Barbosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh tem apresentado inúmeros problemas fitossanitários, dentre os quais, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, que constantemente é citada como praga secundária. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar o nível e a intensidade de infestação (% por T. cognata e estudar aspectos do ciclo biológico e do comportamento de T. cognata, em plantios experimentais de camu-camu. Foram selecionados, de forma aleatória, 17 e 14 exemplares nos plantios I e II, respectivamente. Para cada uma das variáveis estudadas, foram calculados a média aritmética, o desviopadrão, a variância e a amplitude de variação. Foi verificado um nível de infestação de 82% (plantio I e 57% (plantio II, uma intensidade de infestação de 94% (plantio I e 75% (plantio II e uma média de seis ninfas/folha em cada plantio, o que indica que T. cognata representa uma das pragas-chave dessa cultura. Foram observados adultos de Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e ninfas de Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, que podem atuar como prováveis agentes de controle biológico de T. cognata.The cultivation of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh has presented countless phytosanitary problems, among them, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, which often is noticed as a secondary pest. This study aimed to determine the level and the intensity of infestation (% for T. cognata, as well as to study the biological cycle and behavioural aspects of T. cognata, in experimental plantation of camu-camu. 17 and 14 specimens from plantation I and II, respectively, were randomly selected. The arithmetic average, the standard deviation, the variance and the total amplitude were calculated for each studied variable. A level of infestation of 82% (plantation I and 57% (plantation II, an intensity of infestation of 94% (plantation I and 75% (plantation II and an

  18. Sensory response of the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi to stimuli from the bug Euschistus heros Resposta sensorial do parasitóide de ovos Telenomus podisi a estímulos provenientes do percevejo Euschistus heros

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    Cleonor Cavalcante Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the foraging behavior of Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae in the presence of stimuli from its host, Euschistus heros (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. The stimuli selected were: egg mass; virgin males and females; volatile extracts of sexually mature males and females; components of male sex pheromone; a component of the alarm pheromone, hexane and an empty cage as control. In a closed arena, the parasitoids were given the choice between single and combined stimuli presented to them simultaneously. To find the host egg, T. podisi primarily uses the sensory cues released from the male insects. The orientation toward odors of male chemical extract indicates that a source of kairomone was detected. Gas chromatographic analyses of this substance showed peak of methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoate, the main component of male sexual pheromone. The sensory response to methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoate confirms that this compound may act as a kairomone to find host eggs. Females and egg mass stimuli were weakly attractive to the parasitoid.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento de busca de Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae, em presença de estímulos provenientes do hospedeiro Euschitus heros (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. As fontes de estímulos utilizadas foram: massas de ovos, machos e fêmeas virgens, extratos químicos de machos e fêmeas sexualmente maduros, componentes sintéticos do feromônio sexual do macho de E. heros, um composto sintético do feromônio de alarme, hexano e uma gaiola vazia como controle. Os testes foram conduzidos em arenas, onde foi dada a oportunidade para os parasitóides escolherem entre estímulos isolados e estímulos combinados. Para encontrar o hospedeiro, T. podisi utiliza principalmente estímulos olfativos emitidos pelos machos. As respostas sensoriais aos odores liberados pelos extratos químicos do macho indicam que uma fonte de

  19. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae, a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper.

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    Yanan Hao

    Full Text Available Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera.

  20. Insecticides susceptibility status of the bedbugs (Cimex lectularius in a rural area of Magugu, Northern Tanzania

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    Eliningaya J Kweka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of bedbugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae, has received attention of the public health sector for designing of effective plan of action for control. Several studies have focused on determining the distribution and abundance of bedbug populations in tropical areas. This study establishes baseline information on deltamethrin, permethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambdacypermethrin and K-O tab susceptibility status in a bedbug population collected from Magugu area in northern Tanzania. The evolution of insecticide resistance could be a primary factor in explaining this resurgence of bedbugs in many areas, both rural and urban. Evaluation of the bedbug population from houses in Magugu indicates that the population of bedbugs is susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides, which are commonly used. Without the development of new tactics for bedbug resistance management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected when resistant gene spreads within the population. These results suggest that although all concentrations kill bedbugs, more evaluations should be done using WHO kits and mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance should be evaluated, such as metabolic and knockdown resistance gene, to have a broad picture for better design of control methodologies.

  1. Eficiência da Armadilha “R. Bianco” para Captura do Percevejo Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae, na Cultura do Milho

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    Marliton Barreto

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. Maize is the cereal with the highest consumption in both industrialized as fresh nowadays. It is the grain with higher volume production, Brazil is the third largest producer, need special attention focused on the monitoring and control of invaders who risk their productivity. Among the pests that can affect the productivity highlight the insects (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, more specifically the bedbugs corn (Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, which has been an important pest for corn crops. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homemade traps R. Bianco in control of this insect. The experiments were conducted in Sitio Nossa Senhora Aparecida, in the municipality of Sinop, MT. Traps were divided into 10 open and 10 closed which were evaluated with and without baits by 20 days. The design was completely randomized (DIC in a 2x2x2 factorial with eight treatments and five repetitions. Traps without baits showed greater efficiency, with an average higher in catching the bugs regarding the traps with bait. The trap closed as compared with the open, demonstrated greater efficacy in retaining the insect. The effect of edge was little representative in this experiment. Therefore, the presence of bait did not influence the insect attraction and treatments submitted to the bait without test showed higher quantities and more efficient insect capture. Leading us to believe the attraction effect of salt by bedbug and the location of each trap had little influence in the capture of insects.

  2. Sex Pheromones of Stenotus rubrovittatus and Trigonotylus caelestialium, Two Mirid Bugs Causing Pecky Rice, and Their Application to Insect Monitoring in Japan

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    Tetsuya Yasuda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mirid bugs, Stenotus rubrovittatus and Trigonotylus caelestialium (Heteroptera: Miridae, are important pests that infest rice crops in many regions of Japan. Males of each species were attracted to traps baited with conspecific, unmated females. Hexyl butyrate, (E-2-hexenyl butyrate, and (E-4-oxo-2-hexenal were identified as possible female-produced sex pheromone components for S. rubrovittatus, whereas hexyl hexanoate, (E-2-hexenyl hexanoate, and octyl butyrate were found to be sex pheromone components for T. caelestialium. Pheromone doses and ratios were optimized for attraction of males of each species. Sticky traps set up close to or below the top of the plant canopy were optimal for monitoring these species, and trap catches were almost constant when traps were placed 7 or more meters in from the edge of a paddy field. Mixed lures, in which the six compounds from both species were loaded onto a single septum, or separate lures for each species, deployed in a single trap, were equally effective for monitoring both species simultaneously.

  3. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with macrophyte habitats in a tropical man-made lake (Lake Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

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    Kouamé M. K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study was done on Lake Taabo with the main objective of characterising macroinvertebrate communities associated with the microhabitats created mainly by Eichhornia crassipes and other littoral native macrophytes. We sampled organisms in patches of those aquatic macrophytes. Also, some abiotic variables (temperature, transparency, turbidity, pH, TDS, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, NH$_{4}^{+}$+4, NO$_{3}^{-}$−3, NO$_{2}^{-}$−2, PO$_{4}^{3-}$3−4 and SiO$_{2}^{-}$−2 were measured. Overall, forty-three taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Ten of them were exclusively associated with water hyacinth while five were only associated with littoral macrophytes. Macroinvertebrate taxa with some of the highest family richness were Gastropoda, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Odonata and Diptera. The taxon with highest density in both microhabitats was Chironomidae. Although higher values of taxonomic richness (Rs, the Shannon index (H′ and evenness (J were obtained with the water hyacinth habitat, significant differences between the two microhabitats were not observed. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that samples of E. crassipes collected in the dry season were characterised by Gastropoda and Odonata, as well as higher values of transparency and ammonia-nitrogen. Baetidae, Hydrophilidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Coenagrionidae, Naucoridae and Ostracoda were most abundant in both E. crassipes and littoral macrophyte habitats during the rainy season. This season was characterised by higher levels of nitrates and conductivity.

  4. Influences of extreme weather, climate and pesticide use on invertebrates in cereal fields over 42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Julie A; Wheatley, Christopher J; Aebischer, Nicholas J; Moreby, Stephen J; Duffield, Simon J; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Morecroft, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Cereal fields are central to balancing food production and environmental health in the face of climate change. Within them, invertebrates provide key ecosystem services. Using 42 years of monitoring data collected in southern England, we investigated the sensitivity and resilience of invertebrates in cereal fields to extreme weather events and examined the effect of long-term changes in temperature, rainfall and pesticide use on invertebrate abundance. Of the 26 invertebrate groups examined, eleven proved sensitive to extreme weather events. Average abundance increased in hot/dry years and decreased in cold/wet years for Araneae, Cicadellidae, adult Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Braconidae, Enicmus and Lathridiidae. The average abundance of Delphacidae, Cryptophagidae and Mycetophilidae increased in both hot/dry and cold/wet years relative to other years. The abundance of all 10 groups usually returned to their long-term trend within a year after the extreme event. For five of them, sensitivity to cold/wet events was lowest (translating into higher abundances) at locations with a westerly aspect. Some long-term trends in invertebrate abundance correlated with temperature and rainfall, indicating that climate change may affect them. However, pesticide use was more important in explaining the trends, suggesting that reduced pesticide use would mitigate the effects of climate change. PMID:26149473

  5. Dynamics and distribution of macrozoobenthos in the Toplica river, a tributary of the Kolubara

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    Živić Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrobiological investigations of the macrozoobenthos were carried out at eight localities in the Toplica river (a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara river from April 2000 to January 2001. The bottom fauna was composed of 19 groups of macroinvertebrates with 85 determined taxa (61 identified to the species level, 24 to the generic level. The most varying groups were the insect orders Trichoptera (20 taxa, Ephemeroptera (15, and Diptera (13, while Isopoda, Decapoda, and insects belonging to orders Collembola, Heteroptera, Megaloptera, and Planipennia were the most uniform. The species Gammarus pulex fossarum Koch and Dugesia gonocephala Duges were the most abundant forms at the river source, and representatives of Ephemeroptera and Gammaridae were the most numerous in its upper course (at the second, third, and fourth locality. The Mollusca and Chironomidae larvae were the most abundant forms at the fifth locality (in the middle course, but no constant dominance of any animal group was recorded at the sixth one, where the dominance alternated among Chironomidae larvae (April, July 2000, Oligochaeta (October 2000 and Mollusca (January 2001. The lower course of the river (the seventh and eighth locality was characterized by the dominance of the species of the phylum Mollusca (Amphimelania holandri Ferussac, Fagotia esperi Ferussac and Theodoxus transversalis Pfeiffer.

  6. Field Evaluation of Some Insecticides on Whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Predator (Macrolophus caliginosus on Brinjal and Tomato Plants

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    Mohd Rasdi, Z.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect treatments with the recommended application rates of avermectin, buprofezin, white oil, lambda-cyhalothrin and cyromazine on Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera was evaluated. Pesticides were applied against larvae infesting brinjal (Solanum melongena L. and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants in a natural environment of the Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia. We also examined whether these pesticides affect the whitefly predator, Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae. Tested pesticides significantly reduced the larval populations of the whitefly and affect throughout the survey period. Similar effects were observed on the predator except for the white oil. Avermectin was the most effective insecticide against the population of T. vaporariorum. However, it was highly toxic to the predator, M. caliginosus. Considering relatively low mammalian toxicity of buprofezin and white oil, these two insecticides were more suitable for controlling whiteflies, particularly during fruiting period. Proper selection of effective pesticides against the pest, but less harmful to natural enemies and also good timing of their applications are essential in formulating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM programme for whiteflies.

  7. Chromosomal divergence and evolutionary inferences in Rhodniini based on the chromosomal location of ribosomal genes

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    Sebastian Pita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridisation to determine the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in 10 species of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae. The results showed striking inter and intraspecific variability, with the location of the rDNA clusters restricted to sex chromosomes with two patterns: either on one (X chromosome or both sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes. This variation occurs within a genus that has an unchanging diploid chromosome number (2n = 22, including 20 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes and a similar chromosome size and genomic DNA content, reflecting a genome dynamic not revealed by these chromosome traits. The rDNA variation in closely related species and the intraspecific polymorphism in Rhodnius ecuadoriensis suggested that the chromosomal position of rDNA clusters might be a useful marker to identify recently diverged species or populations. We discuss the ancestral position of ribosomal genes in the tribe Rhodniini and the possible mechanisms involved in the variation of the rDNA clusters, including the loss of rDNA loci on the Y chromosome, transposition and ectopic pairing. The last two processes involve chromosomal exchanges between both sex chromosomes, in contrast to the widely accepted idea that the achiasmatic sex chromosomes of Heteroptera do not interchange sequences.

  8. Inter and intra-guild interactions in egg parasitoid species of the soybean stink bug complex

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    Sujii Edison Ryoiti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the parasitism behavior of Telenomus podisi Ashmead, Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston e Trissolcus urichi Crawford (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae on eggs of Nezara viridula L., Euschistus heros F., Piezodorus guildinii Westwood and Acrosternum aseadum Rolston (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, in no choice and multiple choice experiments. For all parasitoid species, the results demonstrated the existence of a main host species that maximizes the reproductive success. The competitive interactions among the parasitoid species were investigated in experiments of sequential and simultaneous release of different combinations of parasitoid pairs on the hosts N. viridula, E. heros and A. aseadum. Exploitative competition was observed for egg batches at the genus level (Telenomus vs. Trissolcus and interference competition at the species level (T. basalis vs. T. urichi. Trissolcus urichi was the most aggressive species, interfering with the parasitism of T. basalis. Generally, T. basalis showed an opportunistic behavior trying to parasitise eggs after T. urichi had abandoned the egg batch. The selection of parasitoid species for use in augmentative biological control programs should take into account the diversity of pentatomids present in soybean in addition to the interactions among the different species of parasitoids.

  9. New sucking coreids species in Psidium guajava

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    E. M. Pires

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Coreidae Family is an important insect group because of its higher diversity of species and further to be found in different habitats. The species Hypselonotus fulvus (De Geer, 1773 and Leptogossus zonatus (Dallas, 1952 (Heteroptera: Coreidae are phytophagous and can cause lots of damage in the agriculture and forestry area. Additionally, they can spread some agents responsible for plant diseases damaging the fruit quality and decreasing the value for market. The aims of this work were record the occurrence of H. fulvus and L. zonatus colonizing and feeding on guava (Psidium guajava fruits in Sinop, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We observed the presence of insects especially on mature fruits that could change the fruit characteristics, besides serving as an entrance for pathogens. This is the first record of H. fulvus and L. zonatus on guava fruits in Brazil. Even the fruits present possess deformation where the insects feed on; additionally studies are necessary to measure the economic damage of this insect on guava fruits.

  10. Principal Disease and Insect Pests of Jatropha curcas L. in the Lower Valley of the Senegal River

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    Terren, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. seed oil is proven to be toxic to many microorganisms, insects and animals. Despite its toxicity, Jatropha is not pest and disease resistant. The following major pests and diseases affecting Jatropha in the lower valley of the Senegal river have been identified: the leaf miner Stomphastis thraustica (Meyrick, 1908 (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, the leaf and stem miner Pempelia morosalis (Saalmuller, 1880 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae and the shield-backed bug Calidea panaethiopica (Kirkaldy, 1909 (Heteroptera, Scutelleridae, which can cause flower and fruit abortion. Damage from these pests was particularly great during the second year after the plantations were set up (2009 and before later receding. Nevertheless, the worst attacks were caused by a vascular disease transmitted through the soil, which killed 65% of the plants in four years. It is mainly characterised by collar and root rot, which causes foliage to yellow and wilt, before the plant eventually dies. These threats should increase if larger areas are planted with Jatropha. Considering the scale of the damage caused by these attacks in Bokhol, the development of an integrated pest management programme adapted to the local context should be considered.

  11. 伊朗食虫虻(双翅目:食虫虻科)的猎物记录%Prey records of robber fLies(Diptera:AsiLidae)in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Najmeh SAMIN; Hamid SAKENIN; Hassan GHAHARI; Reza MONAEM

    2014-01-01

    本文根据伊朗食虫虻科AsiLidae的文献资料,记录了伊朗104种食虫虻的130种猎物。这些猎物隶属昆虫纲Insecta的7个目(膜翅目Hymenoptera,双翅目Diptera,鞘翅目CoLeoptera,直翅目Orthoptera,鳞翅目Lepidoptera,半翅目异翅亚目Heteroptera和脉翅目Neuroptera)37科,此外,还有1种蜘蛛也是食虫虻的猎物。%Up on the revising of the pubLished data on Iranian AsiLidae,in a totaL 130 insect species are Listed in this paper as the preys for 104 species of Iranian AsiLidae. These preys beLong to 37 famiLies of 7 orders incLuding Hyme-noptera,Diptera,CoLeoptera,Orthoptera,Lepidoptera,Heteroptera and Neuroptera. In addition to the diverse preys in the cLass Insecta,one spider species( Aranei)was determined as prey too.

  12. 二种木虱的染色体行为研究(同翅目:木虱总科)%Chromosome Behaviors in Two Species of Psyllids (Homoptera: Psylloidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润刚; 袁锋; 张雅林; 闵芳

    2007-01-01

    报道了2种中国木虱的精子发生,即香椿巴木虱Bharatiana setentrionalis Yang et Li,n=7(XO);合欢羞木虱Acizzia jamatonica(Kuwayama),n=13(XO).研究表明木虱的减数分裂具有3个显著的特征:1)前期I具有弥散期,此时常染色体疏松化,分散于整个细胞核,仅可以观察到异固缩化的性染色体,推测存在基因转录现象,同样的现象存在于蜡蝉和异翅类(Heteroptera)昆虫;2)中期I姊妹染色体联合定向,第一次分裂为减数分裂;3)第二次分裂不发生胞质分裂,形成双核精子.从生殖系统的结构和减数分裂中染色体的行为来看,木虱与蜡蝉的关系更为密切.

  13. Evaluation of Blood Regimen on the Survival of Cimex lectularius L. Using Life Table Parameters

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    Edwin G. Rajotte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of bed bug development under varying conditions can lead to more sophisticated management techniques. Development rate, age and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain (HS and field strain (ECL-05 of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera reared on two blood regimens: human or rabbit blood. Harlan and ECL-05 bed bugs reared on human blood had a life expectancy of 207 and 208 days respectively from the egg stage. Egg to adult development of HS bed bugs reared on human blood (~35 days was significantly longer than that of the ECL-05 strain (~33 days in the third, fourth, and fifth instars. The HS and ECL-05 bed bugs reared on rabbit blood had a life expectancy of 149 and 174 days respectively. Egg to adult development time of HS on rabbit blood (~52 days was significantly longer than ECL-05 (~37 days in every instar, and HS total life span was significantly shorter compared to ECL-05. Developmental differences based on strain and blood regimen suggest rabbit blood is an inferior blood source for colony maintenance, and strain has variable effects on bed bug development. Findings suggest that blood regimen should strongly be considered in bed bug colony maintenance.

  14. Venoms of Heteropteran Insects: A Treasure Trove of Diverse Pharmacological Toolkits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Weirauch, Christiane; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2016-02-01

    The piercing-sucking mouthparts of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) have allowed diversification from a plant-feeding ancestor into a wide range of trophic strategies that include predation and blood-feeding. Crucial to the success of each of these strategies is the injection of venom. Here we review the current state of knowledge with regard to heteropteran venoms. Predaceous species produce venoms that induce rapid paralysis and liquefaction. These venoms are powerfully insecticidal, and may cause paralysis or death when injected into vertebrates. Disulfide-rich peptides, bioactive phospholipids, small molecules such as N,N-dimethylaniline and 1,2,5-trithiepane, and toxic enzymes such as phospholipase A2, have been reported in predatory venoms. However, the detailed composition and molecular targets of predatory venoms are largely unknown. In contrast, recent research into blood-feeding heteropterans has revealed the structure and function of many protein and non-protein components that facilitate acquisition of blood meals. Blood-feeding venoms lack paralytic or liquefying activity but instead are cocktails of pharmacological modulators that disable the host haemostatic systems simultaneously at multiple points. The multiple ways venom is used by heteropterans suggests that further study will reveal heteropteran venom components with a wide range of bioactivities that may be recruited for use as bioinsecticides, human therapeutics, and pharmacological tools. PMID:26907342

  15. A review of data on laboratory colonies of bed bugs (Cimicidae, an insect of emerging medical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannet Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cimicidae are hematophagous Heteroptera, feeding on human blood, that have been the subject of significant medical investigation. In particular, they have been colonized under laboratory conditions to study their medical relevance. Laboratory colonization of these bugs is a multifactorial phenomenon. Our goal was to conduct a comparative literature review to classify the published data, demonstrating preferred bed bug colony conditions. We show that physical factors including temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod, and physiological factors such as type and frequency of blood meals play important roles in laboratory colonies. Any change in these factors produces changes in life-cycle duration. Temperature and blood meal are the most important factors, with a marked impact on the life-cycle of laboratory populations, depending on the species. A wide range of temperatures (15–34 °C and relative humidity (46–75% with an average of 25 °C and 59% were found for these colonies. Two widely used blood sources for the colonies were rabbits and humans.

  16. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitats of Silent Valley National Park and New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Western Ghats, India

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    K.A. Nishadh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitat of a tropical rainforest, Silent Valley National Park, and the adjacent moist deciduous forest, New Amarambalam Reserve Forest, of the Western Ghats, 28 different species were recorded from 150 tree hole aquatic habitats with an average of 3-5 species per tree hole. Most of the recorded organisms (96.8% belong to Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies, Heteroptera (bugs, Diptera (flies, Coleoptera (beetles and Trichoptera (caddisflies. The study reports the first record of toe-winged beetle larvae (Ptilodactylidae in a tree hole aquatic habitat. The most significant observation is the prolific occurrence of trichopteran larvae as the second most abundant taxa in tree holes of Silent Valley National Park, and this stands as the first comprehensive record of the entire order in the habitat studied. The study upholds the importance of less explored microhabitats in the Western Ghats region in terms of sustaining unique community composition in the most delicate and extreme habitat conditions. It also puts forward important ecological research questions on biodiversity ecosystem functionality which could impart important lessons for managing and conserving the diminishing tropical evergreen forests which are significant for these unique habitats.

  17. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  18. Neuropeptides of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Reinhard; Russell, William K; Russell, David H; Suh, Charles P-C; Nachman, Ronald J

    2012-03-01

    The cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), is an economically important pest of cotton, and increasing concerns over resistance, detrimental effects on beneficial insects and safety issues associated with traditional insecticide applications have led to an interest in research on novel, alternative strategies for control. One such approach requires a more basic understanding of the neurohormonal system that regulates important physiological properties of the fleahopper; e.g. the expression of specific messenger molecules such as neuropeptides. Therefore we performed a peptidomic study of neural tissues from the fleahopper which led to the first identification of the sequences of native peptide hormones. These peptide hormones include the following neuropeptides: corazonin, short neuropeptide F (sNPF), myosuppressin, CAPA-pyrokinin and CAPA-PVK peptides. The CAPA-pyrokinin, sNPF, and CAPA-PVK peptides represent novel sequences. A comparison of fleahopper neuropeptides with those of related heteropteran species indicates that they are quite different. The sNPF of P. seriatus shows, among others, a novel substitution of Leu with Phe within the C-terminal region; a modification that sets it apart from the known sNPFs of not only other Heteroptera but of other arthropod species as well. The identity of the neuropeptides native to the fleahopper can aid in the potential development of biostable, bioavailable mimetic agonists and antagonists capable of disrupting the physiological functions that these neuropeptides regulate.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF BAT ECTOPARASITE LEPTOCIMEX INORDINATUS FROM BAT-DWELLING CAVE, KANCHANABURI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Samung, Yudthana; Payakkapol, Anon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2016-01-01

    Bat bugs are blood-feeding insects of bats or warm blooded animals and humans. Since 2011, Leptocimex spp (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) has been reported in Thailand. However, microscopic examination of Leptocimex spp is complicated, especially when the entire body of the specimen is not available. To confirm the phenotypic identification of L. inordinatus from a limestone bat cave in Thailand, partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and 16S mitochondrial ribosomal DNA were PCR amplified and sequenced, which revealed 97% sequence identity with Cimicidae family members, being most similar to Cacodminae gen. sp. and C. vicinus, both bat bugs. Phylogenetic tree construction showed that L. inordinatus has a separate genetic lineage from that of with human bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus or C. lectularius), swallow bugs and other tick species. The presence of L. inordinatus in a bat-dwelling cave frequented by humans presents a potential public health problem requiring attention in particular regarding the possibility of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. PMID:27086421

  20. Integrating evo-devo with ecology for a better understanding of phenotypic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M Emília; Berger, Chloé S; Refki, Peter N; Khila, Abderrahman

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has provided invaluable contributions to our understanding of the mechanistic relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Similarly, evolutionary ecology has greatly advanced our understanding of the relationship between the phenotype and the environment. To fully understand the evolution of organismal diversity, a thorough integration of these two fields is required. This integration remains highly challenging because model systems offering a rich ecological and evolutionary background, together with the availability of developmental genetic tools and genomic resources, are scarce. In this review, we introduce the semi-aquatic bugs (Gerromorpha, Heteroptera) as original models well suited to study why and how organisms diversify. The Gerromorpha invaded water surfaces over 200 mya and diversified into a range of remarkable new forms within this new ecological habitat. We summarize the biology and evolutionary history of this group of insects and highlight a set of characters associated with the habitat change and the diversification that followed. We further discuss the morphological, behavioral, molecular and genomic tools available that together make semi-aquatic bugs a prime model for integration across disciplines. We present case studies showing how the implementation and combination of these approaches can advance our understanding of how the interaction between genotypes, phenotypes and the environment drives the evolution of distinct morphologies. Finally, we explain how the same set of experimental designs can be applied in other systems to address similar biological questions.

  1. 18S rRNA secondary structure and phylogenetic position of Peloridiidae (Insecta, hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrard, D; Campbell, B C; Bourgoin, T; Chan, K L

    2000-09-01

    A secondary structure model for 18S rRNA of peloridiids, relict insects with a present-day circumantarctic distribution, is constructed using comparative sequence analysis, thermodynamic folding, a consensus method using 18S rRNA models of other taxa, and support of helices based on compensatory substitutions. Results show that probable in vivo configuration of 18S rRNA is not predictable using current free-energy models to fold the entire molecule concurrently. This suggests that refinements in free-energy minimization algorithms are needed. Molecular phylogenetic datasets were created using 18S rRNA nucleotide alignments produced by CLUSTAL and rigorous interpretation of homologous position based on certain secondary substructures. Phylogenetic analysis of a hemipteran data matrix of 18S rDNA sequences placed peloridiids sister to Heteroptera. Resolution of affiliations between the three main euhemipteran lineages was unresolved. The peloridiid 18S RNA model presented here provides the most accurate template to date for aligning homologous nucleotides of hemipteran taxa. Using folded 18S rRNA to infer homology of character as morpho-molecular structures or nucleotides and scoring particular sites or substructures is discussed. PMID:10991793

  2. Venoms of Heteropteran Insects: A Treasure Trove of Diverse Pharmacological Toolkits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Walker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The piercing-sucking mouthparts of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera have allowed diversification from a plant-feeding ancestor into a wide range of trophic strategies that include predation and blood-feeding. Crucial to the success of each of these strategies is the injection of venom. Here we review the current state of knowledge with regard to heteropteran venoms. Predaceous species produce venoms that induce rapid paralysis and liquefaction. These venoms are powerfully insecticidal, and may cause paralysis or death when injected into vertebrates. Disulfide-rich peptides, bioactive phospholipids, small molecules such as N,N-dimethylaniline and 1,2,5-trithiepane, and toxic enzymes such as phospholipase A2, have been reported in predatory venoms. However, the detailed composition and molecular targets of predatory venoms are largely unknown. In contrast, recent research into blood-feeding heteropterans has revealed the structure and function of many protein and non-protein components that facilitate acquisition of blood meals. Blood-feeding venoms lack paralytic or liquefying activity but instead are cocktails of pharmacological modulators that disable the host haemostatic systems simultaneously at multiple points. The multiple ways venom is used by heteropterans suggests that further study will reveal heteropteran venom components with a wide range of bioactivities that may be recruited for use as bioinsecticides, human therapeutics, and pharmacological tools.

  3. Phenology of semiochemical-mediated host foraging by the western boxelder bug, Boisea rubrolineata, an aposematic seed predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Joseph; Gries, Regine; Hillier, Kirk; Vickers, Neil; Gries, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The western boxelder bug (BEB), Boisea rubrolineata (Heteroptera: Rhopalidae), is a specialist herbivore of boxelder trees, Acer negundo. We tested the hypothesis that BEBs use semiochemicals to locate host trees. Headspace volatiles from trees bearing staminate inflorescences ("staminate trees") and from trees bearing pistillate inflorescences ("pistillate trees") were collected throughout the season and bioassayed in Y-tube olfactometer experiments. Headspace extracts of early-season, pollen-bearing staminate trees and midseason pistillate trees with mature samaras (seed pods) attracted female and male BEBs. By using coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified and tested a five-component synthetic blend of candidate semiochemicals (hexanol, pentyl acetate, phenylacetonitrile, 2-phenethyl acetate, and trans-nerolidol). This blend attracted females, males, and fifth-instar nymphs. Phenylacetonitrile by itself was as attractive as the five-component blend to both adults and nymphs. By responding to phenylacetonitrile emitted by pollen-bearing staminate trees and pistillate trees with maturing seeds, BEBs appear to track and exploit the availability of nutrient-rich food sources, suggesting that the bugs' reproductive ecology is synchronized to the phenology of their host boxelder tree. PMID:19123035

  4. Influence of buffalograss management practices on Western chinch bug and its beneficial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Jeffrey; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Baxendale, Frederick; Gaussoin, Roch; Frank, Kevin; Young, Linda

    2007-02-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to document the influence of selected buffalograss, Buchloë dactyloides (Nuttall) Engelmann, management practices (three mowing heights and five nitrogen levels) on the seasonal abundance of the western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae), and its beneficial arthropods. Vacuum, pitfall, and sticky traps samples were collected every 14 d from the middle of May through October from western chinch bug-resistant ('Prestige') and -susceptible ('378') buffalograss management plots. In total, 27,374 and 108,908 western chinch bugs were collected in vacuum and pitfall traps, respectively. More than 78% of all western chinch bugs were collected from the highly susceptible buffalograss 378. Significantly more bigeyed bugs (Geocoridae: Geocoris spp.) were collected from the 378 buffalograsss management plots than the Prestige plots. In contrast, buffalograss cultivar had little influence on the abundance of other beneficial arthropods collected. Statistically, western chinch bugs were least abundant at the lowest mowing height (2.5 cm) and increased in abundance with increasing fertility. Numerically, however, differences among management levels on western chinch bug abundance were minimal. Numerous beneficial arthropods were collected from buffalograss management plots, including spiders, predatory ants, ground beetles (Carabidae), rove beetles (Staphylinidae), bigeyed bugs, and several species of hymenopterous parasitoids. In general, beneficial arthropods were essentially unaffected by either mowing height or nitrogen level. Scelionid wasps represented 66.3% of the total parasitoids collected. The total number of scelionid wasps collected among the three mowing heights and five nitrogen levels were approximately equal. PMID:17370821

  5. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COLLECTED SPECIES OF INVERTEBRATES IN PLUM ORCHARDS

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    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the observations made in a plum fruit growing plantation in the years 2013 and 2014, belonging Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi within USAMV, Iasi County, at the Stanley variety. The material gathering it was made using soil traps type Barber, from May until August, at intervals between 10 and 20 days. The collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 30.05, 15.06, 28.06, 12.07, 26.07, 10.08 and 24.08. In total 2013 were collected 151 species belonging to 19 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Heteroptera species (bedbugs with 28 species, Dermestes laniarius L. with 27 species, Coccinella septempunctata L. with 27 species, Polydrosus sericeus Schall. with 15 species and Harpalus calceatus Duft. with 11 species. The collection of biological material in 2014 was made on the following dates: 19.05, 10.06, 29.06, 16.07, 06.08. In total in 2014 it was collected 402 species belonging to 29 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Pseudophonus rufipes De Geer with 86 species, Harpalus distinguendus Duft. 68 species, Pseudephonus griseus Payk. 38 species, Orthoptera (locusts species with 33 species and Hymenoptera (ants species with 20 species.

  6. OBSERVATIONS REGARDING EXISTING INVERTEBRATES FROM PLUM ORCHARDS

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    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The observations were made during the two years, 2013 and 2014 in a plantation belonging plum fruit growing from Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi of USAMV Iasi, Iasi County Rivers Early variety.Collecting the material was done with traps type Barber from May until August at intervals between 10 and 20 days. Collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 20.05, 30.05, 15.06, 5.07, 25.07, 10.08 and 23.08.In total 2013 were collected 265 samples belonging to 22 species (taxa. Species (taxa with the largest number of samples collected were Dermestes laniarius L. 42 samples Heteroptera. (bedbugs with 38 samples, and Polydrosus sericeus Schall. 26 samples. In 2014 collection of the biological material was made on the following dates: 07.05, 21.05, 19.06, 08.07, 27.07, 15.08, 04.09. In total in 2014 were collected 744 samples belonging to 41 species (taxa with the highest number of samples were colected: Hymenoptera (bees with 92 saples, Orthoptera (locusts with 87 samples, Lepidoptera (larvae with 37samplres, and Homoptera (cycads with 31samples.

  7. A review of data on laboratory colonies of bed bugs (Cimicidae), an insect of emerging medical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannet, Arnaud; Akhoundi, Mohammad; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Michel, Gregory; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Cimicidae are hematophagous Heteroptera, feeding on human blood, that have been the subject of significant medical investigation. In particular, they have been colonized under laboratory conditions to study their medical relevance. Laboratory colonization of these bugs is a multifactorial phenomenon. Our goal was to conduct a comparative literature review to classify the published data, demonstrating preferred bed bug colony conditions. We show that physical factors including temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod, and physiological factors such as type and frequency of blood meals play important roles in laboratory colonies. Any change in these factors produces changes in life-cycle duration. Temperature and blood meal are the most important factors, with a marked impact on the life-cycle of laboratory populations, depending on the species. A wide range of temperatures (15-34 °C) and relative humidity (46-75%) with an average of 25 °C and 59% were found for these colonies. Two widely used blood sources for the colonies were rabbits and humans. PMID:26091944

  8. Spittlebug Cephisus siccifolius damaging eucalypt plants in the State of Bahia, Brazil Cigarrinha-de-espuma Cephisus siccifolius em plantio de eucalipto clonal no Estado da Bahia, Brasil

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    Genésio Tâmara Ribeiro

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Most common pests of eucalyptus plants in Brazil are leaf cutting ants and defoliating caterpillars. Other groups, eventually, feeding on eucalyptus include Heteroptera and cicadas. The objectives of this work were to identify and to describe attack symptoms of Cephisus siccifolius (Walker 1851 (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae on eucalyptus trees in a stand of 25.77 hectares in the State of Bahia, Brazil, where 99.3% of them were attacked by this spittlebug. Damage was more severe on branches and leaves. Tree death was, relatively, low while those cut showed 4.7 colonies of this spittlebug with 21.9 nymphs per colony. Cultural control with the removal of trees attacked was recommended.Os insetos-praga mais comuns em plantios de eucalipto no Brasil são formigas cortadeiras e lagartas desfolhadoras. Eventualmente, outros insetos como percevejos e cigarrinhas podem danificar essas plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e descrever os sintomas de ataque, em um plantio de eucalipto de 25,77 hectares, no Estado da Bahia, onde 99,3% das árvores tinham sido atacadas pela cigarrinha-de-espuma Cephisus siccifolius (Walker 1851 (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae. Os danos foram maiores em galhos e folhas. A mortalidade de árvores foi baixa, apesar de se observar 4,7 colônias de cigarrinhas por árvore, com 21,9 ninfas por colônia. O corte das árvores infestadas foi recomendado como controle.

  9. Espermiogênese como ferramenta citotaxonômica para diferenciar Triatoma guazu e T. williami, espécies vetoras da doença de Chagas

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    Yago Visinho Reis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Os triatomíneos pertencem à ordem Hemiptera, subordem Heteroptera, família Reduviidae e subfamília Triatominae. Todas as 148 espécies são hematófagas estritas e potenciais vetoras do protozoário Trypanosoma cruzi, agente etiológico da doença de Chagas. Algumas espécies são extremamente semelhantes do ponto de vista morfológico, o que pode dificultar o trabalho dos programas de controle de vetores. Triatoma guazu e T. williami são consideradas como espécies irmãs e não podem ser diferenciadas por diferentes abordagens, como análises morfométricas, isoenzimáticas e cromossômicas. Assim, o presente trabalho analisou as células haplóides durante a espermiogênese, com o objetivo de auxiliar na diferenciação desses vetores. A análise das espermátides de T. guazu e T. williami permitiu diferenciá-los, pois T. williami apresentou apenas um filamento heteropicnótico nas espermátides iniciais que foi parcialmente mantido durante o alongamento celular e T. guazu apresentou dois filamentos heteropicnóticos periféricos que se uniram durante o alongamento celular, dando origem a uma espermátide alongada totalmente heteropicnótica. Assim, ressaltando a importância dessa ferramenta na diferenciação de espécies relacionadas. No entanto, sugerimos que cruzamentos híbridos experimentais devem ser realizados entre esses triatomíneos, com o intuito de confirmar o status específico desses insetos vetores da doença de Chagas.Palavras-chave: Citogenética. Espermátides. Triatominae. Subcomplexo Matogrossensis. ABSTRACT Triatomines belong to the Hemiptera order, Heteroptera suborder, Reduviidae family and Triatominae subfamily. All the 148 species are haematophagous strict and potential vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Some species are very similar from a point of view morphological, what can difficult the work of vector control programs. Triatoma guazu and T. williami are

  10. Reproductive characteristics of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed with an insect resistant soybean variety Características reprodutivas do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com variedade de soja resistente a insetos

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    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the insect resistant soybean genotype IAC 17 on reproductive characteristics of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae females compared to the soybean insect susceptible genotype UFV 16. Treatments were: T1 females of P. nigrispinus fed on plants of the UFV 16 and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae caterpillars reared on leaves of this variety; T2 females of P. nigrispinus fed on plants of the IAC 17 and A. gemmatalis caterpillars reared on leaves of this variety. Longevity of females, pre-oviposition, oviposition and pos-oviposition periods, number of eggs and egg masses/female, egg weight, interval between egg mass laying, number of eggs/egg mass, percentage of nymphs, number of nymphs/female and total number of prey killed/female of P. nigrispinus were evaluated. Most of the characteristics evaluated showed similar results between treatments, but the oviposition period was longer for females reared on the resistant genotype than on the susceptible one and the percentage of total females that laid eggs was lower on the IAC 17. Also, the resistant genotype caused higher mortality of P. nigrispinus females at the beginning of its adult stage and egg production by females of this predator was better spread along its adult stage with this resistant genotype. On the other hand, results suggest no effect of the resistant genotype on the offspring of this predator.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do genótipo IAC 17, resistente a insetos, nas características reprodutivas de fêmeas de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, utilizando o genótipo susceptível UFV 16 como controle. Os tratamentos foram: T1 fêmeas de P. nigrispinus alimentadas com plantas de UFV 16 e lagartas de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, criadas em folhas desta cultivar; T2 fêmeas de P. nigrispinus alimentadas com plantas de IAC

  11. Fitofagia de Podisus nigrispinus em algodoeiro e plantas daninhas Phytophagy by Podisus nigrispinus on cotton plants and weeds

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    Walter Santos Evangelista Júnior

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de seis plantas daninhas e do algodoeiro no desenvolvimento, reprodução e sobrevivência do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae sob escassez parcial de presas, alimentação em intervalos de três dias, e ausência total de presas. Com escassez parcial de presas, o desenvolvimento ninfal foi maior em Ricinus communis e menor em Bidens pilosa. Viabilidade dos ínstares, peso de fêmeas, período de pré-oviposição e fecundidade foram similares entre as plantas, porém o peso de machos e longevidade de fêmeas foram reduzidos em Desmodium tortuosum e R. communis, respectivamente. Com base nos parâmetros de tabela de vida foi estimada melhor performance do predador em Amaranthus hybridus, D. tortuosum e R. communis. Ninfas submetidas à escassez total de presas viveram mais em Ageratum conyzoides, B. pilosa, D. tortuosum e Euphorbia heterophylla; porém não viveram além do terceiro ínstar. A longevidade de fêmeas do predador foi favorecida pela presença de A. conyzoides em relação a Gossypium hirsutum, vivendo em média 15,7 e 29,8 dias, respectivamente. No entanto, a disponibilidade de plantas não foi suficiente para as fêmeas atingirem maturação sexual e produção de ovos, quando submetidas à escassez total de presas.This work evaluated the effect of six weeds and cotton plants on predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae development, reproduction and survival under partial prey scarcity, three days feeding intervals, and total absence of prey. Nymphal developmental periods under partial prey scarceness with three days of feeding intervals were higher on Ricinus communis and lower on Bidens pilosa. Partial prey scarcity did not affect nymphal viability, adult female weight and reproductive characteristics, but male weight and female longevity were reduced in Desmodium tortuosum and R. communis, respectively

  12. The effects of thermal acclimation on lethal temperatures and critical thermal limits in the green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthy, Pol; Martin, Robert J; Gunning, Robin V; Andrew, Nigel R

    2012-01-01

    According to geographical distribution, Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) can be found across tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions and this pattern is assumed to reflect differences in thermal adaptation, particularly in cold tolerance. Here the lethal temperature (LT) and critical thermal limits (CTL) (thermal tolerance) are examined for N. viridula. The upper LT for N. viridula at two contrasting climate locations (Breeza and Grafton, New South Wales, Australia) was 40.3°C with 20% survival under the stress of high temperature. The lower LT did not differ between these two populations and was -8.0°C with 20% survival under low temperature stress. Survival of N. viridula increased after acclimation at high temperature for 7 days. In contrast, when acclimated at lower temperatures (10 and 15°C), survival of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula was lower than 20% at -8.0°C. Control-reared N. viridula adults (25°C) had a mean CT(MinOnset) (cold stupor) of 1.3 ± 2.1°C and a mean CT(Max) (heat coma) of 45.9 ± 0.9°C. After 7 days of acclimation at 10, 20, 30, or 35°C, N. viridula adults exhibited a 1°C change in CT(Max) and a ~1.5°C change in CT(MinOnset). CT(Max) and CT(MinOnset) of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula populations did not differ across acclimation temperatures. These results suggest that short-term temperature acclimation is more important than provenance for determining LTs and CTL in N. viridula.

  13. Intraguild interactions between two egg parasitoids of a true bug in semi-field and field conditions.

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    Ezio Peri

    Full Text Available Research on interspecific competitive interactions among insect parasitoids has often been characterized by laboratory studies in which host insects are exposed to female parasitoids of different species in various sequences and combinations. In the last years, an increasing number of studies have investigated interspecific interactions under field and semi-field conditions although just a few number of works focused on egg parasitoids. In this work, we undertook a two-year study to investigate interspecific interactions between Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Ooencyrtus telenomicida (Vassiliev (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, two egg parasitoids of the pest Nezara viridula (L. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae that co-occur in cultivated crops. Under semi-field (in out-door mesh cages and field conditions, we investigated: 1 the seasonal occurrence of competing parasitoid species on sentinel egg masses; 2 the impact achieved by competing species on the shared host on naturally laid egg masses; 3 the outcome of intraguild interactions under controlled conditions. Results from sentinel egg masses showed that T. basalis occurs in May and successfully parasitizes hosts until the end of September/beginning of October, whereas O. telenomicida is mainly occurring in July-August. In both years, it was found that T. basalis is predominant. From naturally laid egg masses, results indicated that T. basalis achieves higher impact on the hosts, even in those egg masses which are parasitized by more than one female of different species ( =  multiparasitism. Results from manipulating intraguild interactions showed that T. basalis achieves higher impact on N. viridula when released alone, but it suffers from competition with O. telenomicida. The ecological factors that play a role in intraguild interactions in the context of biological control perspective are discussed.

  14. The use of olfactory and visual cues in host choice by the capsid bugs Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus fabricius.

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    Fiona J H Wynde

    Full Text Available Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus Fabricius (Heteroptera: Miridae are pests of glasshouse cucumber and sweet pepper crops respectively. L. rugulipennis has a wide range of foodplants, but L. tripustulatus is specialised with very few food plants. We report behavioural assessments to investigate whether either species exhibits a preference for salad over wild hosts, and whether the role of olfaction and vision in response to cues from host plants can be distinguished. Olfactory responses to leaves were tested in choice chambers. L. rugulipennis was presented nettle (wild host and a salad leaf of cucumber or sweet pepper, where the salad leaves had higher nitrogen content. L. tripustulatus was tested with nettle and sweet pepper of two different nitrogen contents. Female L. rugulipennis spent more time on the cucumber salad host, and chose it first most often, but males showed no preference. Neither sex discriminated between sweet pepper or nettle leaves, but males made more first contacts with sweet pepper. Neither sex of L. tripustulatus discriminated between sweet pepper and nettle leaves when the sweet pepper had higher nitrogen. When the plant species contained equivalent nitrogen both sexes spent more time on nettle. There was no difference in first choice made by either sex. When visual stimuli were available, and leaves had equivalent nitrogen, L. rugulipennis showed no preference and L. tripustulatus preferred nettle leaves. We conclude that the generalist L. rugulipennis has the ability to use remote olfactory cues for host choice whereas the specialist L. tripustulatus relies mainly on contact chemosensory and gustatory cues.

  15. The use of olfactory and visual cues in host choice by the capsid bugs Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynde, Fiona J H; Port, Gordon R

    2012-01-01

    Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus Fabricius (Heteroptera: Miridae) are pests of glasshouse cucumber and sweet pepper crops respectively. L. rugulipennis has a wide range of foodplants, but L. tripustulatus is specialised with very few food plants. We report behavioural assessments to investigate whether either species exhibits a preference for salad over wild hosts, and whether the role of olfaction and vision in response to cues from host plants can be distinguished. Olfactory responses to leaves were tested in choice chambers. L. rugulipennis was presented nettle (wild host) and a salad leaf of cucumber or sweet pepper, where the salad leaves had higher nitrogen content. L. tripustulatus was tested with nettle and sweet pepper of two different nitrogen contents. Female L. rugulipennis spent more time on the cucumber salad host, and chose it first most often, but males showed no preference. Neither sex discriminated between sweet pepper or nettle leaves, but males made more first contacts with sweet pepper. Neither sex of L. tripustulatus discriminated between sweet pepper and nettle leaves when the sweet pepper had higher nitrogen. When the plant species contained equivalent nitrogen both sexes spent more time on nettle. There was no difference in first choice made by either sex. When visual stimuli were available, and leaves had equivalent nitrogen, L. rugulipennis showed no preference and L. tripustulatus preferred nettle leaves. We conclude that the generalist L. rugulipennis has the ability to use remote olfactory cues for host choice whereas the specialist L. tripustulatus relies mainly on contact chemosensory and gustatory cues. PMID:23226493

  16. Spread of plant pathogens and insect vectors at the northern range margin of cypress in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocca, Alessia; Zanini, Corrado; Aimi, Andrea; Frigimelica, Gabriella; La Porta, Nicola; Battisti, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    The Mediterranean cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens) is a multi-purpose tree widely used in the Mediterranean region. An anthropogenic range expansion of cypress has taken place at the northern margin of the range in Italy in recent decades, driven by ornamental planting in spite of climatic constraints imposed by low winter temperature. The expansion has created new habitats for pathogens and pests, which strongly limit tree survival in the historical (core) part of the range. Based on the enemy release hypothesis, we predicted that damage should be lower in the expansion area. By comparing tree and seed cone damage by pathogens and pests in core and expansion areas of Trentino, a district in the southern Alps, we showed that tree damage was significantly higher in the core area. Seed cones of C. sempervirens are intensively colonized by an aggressive and specific pathogen (the canker fungus Seiridium cardinale, Coelomycetes), associated with seed insect vectors Megastigmus wachtli (Hymenoptera Torymidae) and Orsillus maculatus (Heteroptera Lygaeidae). In contrast, we observed lower tree damage in the expansion area, where a non-aggressive fungus ( Pestalotiopsis funerea, Coelomycetes) was more frequently associated with the same insect vectors. Our results indicate that both insect species have a great potential to reach the range margin, representing a continuous threat of the arrival of fungal pathogens to trees planted at extreme sites. Global warming may accelerate this process since both insects and fungi profit from increased temperature. In the future, cypress planted at the range margin may then face similar pest and pathogen threats as in the historical range.

  17. The effects of thermal acclimation on lethal temperatures and critical thermal limits in the green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

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    Pol eChanthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to geographical distribution, Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae can be found across tropical, subtropical and temperate regions and this pattern is assumed to reflect differences in thermal adaptation, particularly in cold tolerance. Here the lethal temperature and critical thermal limits (thermal tolerance are examined for N. viridula. The upper lethal temperature for N. viridula at two contrasting climate locations (Breeza and Grafton, New South Wales, Australia was 40.3ºC with 20% survival under the stress of high temperature. The lower lethal temperature did not differ between these two populations and was -8.0ºC with 20% survival under low temperature stress. Survival of N. viridula increased after acclimation at high temperature for seven days. In contrast, when acclimated at lower temperatures (10 and 15ºC, survival of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula was lower than 20% at -8.0ºC.Control-reared N. viridula adults (25ºC had a mean CTMinOnset (cold stupor of 1.3 ± 2.1ºC and a mean CTMax (heat coma of 45.9 ± 0.9ºC. After 7 days of acclimation at 10, 20, 30, or 35ºC, N. viridula adults exhibited a 1ºC change in CTMax and a ~ 1.5ºC change in CTMinOnset. CTMax and CTMinOnset of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula populations did not differ across acclimation temperatures. These results suggest that short-term temperature acclimation is more important than provenance for determining lethal temperatures and critical thermal limits in N. viridula.

  18. 赣南师范学院(黄金校区)访花昆虫物种多样性研究%Species Diversity of Flower-Visiting Insects at Huangjin Main Campus of Gannan Normal University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐家生; 王茜

    2012-01-01

    为了解赣南师范学院黄金校区访花昆虫种类,笔者于2010年10月-2011年10月开花期间在校园内采用随机取样和系统取样法,以网捕和手捕方式采集访花昆虫并进行鉴定.结果表明:师院校园共有访花昆虫135种,分属于7目,39科.从目级分类阶元物种数量水平上分析,鳞翅目〉膜翅目〉鞘翅目〉双翅目〉半翅目〉蜻蜓目〉同翅目,其中优势访花昆虫种类为意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera)、黑带食蚜蝇(Episyrphus baheatus)和异色瓢虫(Harmonia axyidis).%Flower-visiting insects include pollinators, natural enemies and herbivores on flowers. In order to understand their species composition at Huangjin Campus of Gannan Normal University, flower-visiting insects were collected by net or by hand through the way of random sampling and systematic sampling durying October 2010 to October 2011. Totally 135 species were collected, which belongs to 39 fam- ilies, 7 orders. The species number of each insect order are ordered as follows: Lepidoptera " Hymenoptera " Coleoptera " Diptera " Heteroptera " Odonata " Homoptera; while Apis mellifera ,Episyrphus baheatus and Harmonia axyidis are the dominant species on the campus.

  19. Impacts of an invasive non-native annual weed, Impatiens glandulifera, on above- and below-ground invertebrate communities in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Robert A; Varia, Sonal; Eschen, René; Wood, Suzy; Murphy, Sean T; Gange, Alan C

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation community composition and the above- and below-ground invertebrate communities are linked intrinsically, though few studies have assessed the impact of non-native plants on both these parts of the community together. We evaluated the differences in the above- (foliage- and ground-dwelling) and below-ground invertebrate communities in nine uninvaded plots and nine plots invaded by the annual invasive species Impatiens glandulifera, in the UK during 2007 and 2008. Over 139,000 invertebrates were identified into distinct taxa and categorised into functional feeding groups. The impact of I. glandulifera on the vegetation and invertebrate community composition was evaluated using multivariate statistics including principal response curves (PRC) and redundancy analysis (RDA). In the foliage-dwelling community, all functional feeding groups were less abundant in the invaded plots, and the species richness of Coleoptera and Heteroptera was significantly reduced. In the ground-dwelling community, herbivores, detritivores, and predators were all significantly less abundant in the invaded plots. In contrast, these functional groups in the below-ground community appeared to be largely unaffected, and even positively associated with the presence of I. glandulifera. Although the cover of I. glandulifera decreased in the invaded plots in the second year of the study, only the below-ground invertebrate community showed a significant response. These results indicate that the above- and below-ground invertebrate communities respond differently to the presence of I. glandulifera, and these community shifts can potentially lead to a habitat less biologically diverse than surrounding native communities; which could have negative impacts on higher trophic levels and ecosystem functioning. PMID:23840648

  20. Impacts of an invasive non-native annual weed, Impatiens glandulifera, on above- and below-ground invertebrate communities in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Tanner

    Full Text Available Vegetation community composition and the above- and below-ground invertebrate communities are linked intrinsically, though few studies have assessed the impact of non-native plants on both these parts of the community together. We evaluated the differences in the above- (foliage- and ground-dwelling and below-ground invertebrate communities in nine uninvaded plots and nine plots invaded by the annual invasive species Impatiens glandulifera, in the UK during 2007 and 2008. Over 139,000 invertebrates were identified into distinct taxa and categorised into functional feeding groups. The impact of I. glandulifera on the vegetation and invertebrate community composition was evaluated using multivariate statistics including principal response curves (PRC and redundancy analysis (RDA. In the foliage-dwelling community, all functional feeding groups were less abundant in the invaded plots, and the species richness of Coleoptera and Heteroptera was significantly reduced. In the ground-dwelling community, herbivores, detritivores, and predators were all significantly less abundant in the invaded plots. In contrast, these functional groups in the below-ground community appeared to be largely unaffected, and even positively associated with the presence of I. glandulifera. Although the cover of I. glandulifera decreased in the invaded plots in the second year of the study, only the below-ground invertebrate community showed a significant response. These results indicate that the above- and below-ground invertebrate communities respond differently to the presence of I. glandulifera, and these community shifts can potentially lead to a habitat less biologically diverse than surrounding native communities; which could have negative impacts on higher trophic levels and ecosystem functioning.

  1. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly.

  2. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly. PMID:27509747

  3. Preference and Prey Switching in a Generalist Predator Attacking Local and Invasive Alien Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Coline C.; Bompard, Anaïs; Genies, Laure; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae) when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage) may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology), the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato. PMID:24312646

  4. Dynamic and Impact of Major Insect Pests on Jatropha curcas L. in two Cropping Systems with Contrasting Characteristics in the Province of Kinshasa (DRC

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    Minengu, JD.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic and impact of the major insect pests on Jatropha curcas L. were studied on two plantations located in the province of Kinshasa, the first in pure stand without irrigation (Mbankana site, the second under irrigation in combination with other crops (N'sele site. In Mbankana, after being planted during the long rainy season (October-December, the plants suffer significant attacks by crickets Brachytrupes membranaceus Drury (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, which cause a mortality rate of 10-40%. The first half of October and second half of December are the best planting periods when it comes to limiting these losses. At N'sele, cricket attacks during planting are controlled by the farmers who eat these insects. After being planted at both sites, the plants are attacked by leaf miner caterpillars Stomphastis thraustica Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae and flea beetles Aphthona sp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, which consume the leaf blades and buds. The size of these two pest populations and resulting damage reach a peak during the wettest time of year. On adult plants at N'sele, insect pests observed include flea beetles, leaf miners, and shield-backed bugs Calidea sp. (Heteroptera, Scutelleridae. These bugs cause damage to flowers and capsules. In the absence of insecticide treatments, yield losses reached 90% in Mbankana and 60% in N'sele. The discussion focuses on what causes the different pest impact levels recorded between the cropping systems and methods used to limit the main types of damage caused by insects on J. curcas in the Kinshasa region.

  5. Preference and prey switching in a generalist predator attacking local and invasive alien pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coline C Jaworski

    Full Text Available Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology, the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato.

  6. Preference and prey switching in a generalist predator attacking local and invasive alien pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Coline C; Bompard, Anaïs; Genies, Laure; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae) when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage) may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology), the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato. PMID:24312646

  7. Comunidades de insectos acuáticos de charcos temporarios y lagunas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina Aquatic insect communities of temporary pools and permanent ponds in Buenos Aires City (Argentina

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    María S. Fontanarrosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la comunidad de insectos acuáticos presente en charcos temporarios de parques y plazas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y en lagunas permanentes de la Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur, situada en la ribera del Río de la Plata. Se revisaron 3436 charcos y se visitaron, en 149 oportunidades, seis lagunas de la reserva. Para el conjunto de ambientes, se registraron 85 taxones pertenecientes a cinco órdenes de insectos. Los coleópteros fueron los más diversos (36 taxones, seguidos por los dípteros (27, heterópteros (17, odonatos (4 y efemerópteros (1. Se observaron altos valores de riqueza en los charcos temporarios (58 taxones y las lagunas sin vegetación flotante (64 taxones. La diversidad estimada de los charcos temporarios fue significativamente (pWe studied the community of aquatic insects inhabiting both temporary pools and permanent ponds occuring in Buenos Aires City. A total of 3436 rain pools were examined, and six permanent ponds at the "Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur" in the Río de la Plata riverside were visited 149 times. A total of 85 taxa were recorded from both habitats, included in five orders of Insecta. The order Coleoptera showed the highest diversity values (36 taxa, followed by Diptera (27, Heteroptera (17, Odonata (4, and Ephemeroptera (1. High values of richness were observed in temporary pools (58 taxa and permanent ponds without floating vegetation (64 taxa. The diversity index for temporary ponds was significantly (p<0,05 lower than in permanent habitats.

  8. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pentatomomorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan; Shen, Yu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are the most extensively used genetic information for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Pentatomomorpha (>14,000 species) is the second largest infraorder of Heteroptera and of great economic importance. To better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae), an important pest of alfalfa in China. We analyzed the main features of the C. tetraspilus mitogenome, and provided a comparative analysis with four other Coreoidea species. Our results reveal that gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, rRNA structures and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor are conserved in Coreoidea. Comparative analysis shows that different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G+C content. All the transfer RNA genes found in Coreoidea have the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and possesses a unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp). The control regions (CRs) among Coreoidea are highly variable in size, of which the CR of C. tetraspilus is the smallest (440 bp), making the C. tetraspilus mitogenome the smallest (14,989 bp) within all completely sequenced Coreoidea mitogenomes. No conserved motifs are found in the CRs of Coreoidea. In addition, the A+T content (60.68%) of the CR of C. tetraspilus is much lower than that of the entire mitogenome (74.88%), and is lowest among Coreoidea. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomic data support the monophyly of each superfamily within Pentatomomorpha, and recognize a phylogenetic relationship of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea)))). PMID:26042898

  9. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pentatomomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Long Yuan

    Full Text Available Insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome are the most extensively used genetic information for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Pentatomomorpha (>14,000 species is the second largest infraorder of Heteroptera and of great economic importance. To better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, an important pest of alfalfa in China. We analyzed the main features of the C. tetraspilus mitogenome, and provided a comparative analysis with four other Coreoidea species. Our results reveal that gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, rRNA structures and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor are conserved in Coreoidea. Comparative analysis shows that different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G+C content. All the transfer RNA genes found in Coreoidea have the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU arm and possesses a unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp. The control regions (CRs among Coreoidea are highly variable in size, of which the CR of C. tetraspilus is the smallest (440 bp, making the C. tetraspilus mitogenome the smallest (14,989 bp within all completely sequenced Coreoidea mitogenomes. No conserved motifs are found in the CRs of Coreoidea. In addition, the A+T content (60.68% of the CR of C. tetraspilus is much lower than that of the entire mitogenome (74.88%, and is lowest among Coreoidea. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomic data support the monophyly of each superfamily within Pentatomomorpha, and recognize a phylogenetic relationship of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea.

  10. Diversity and population dynamics of pests and predators in irrigated rice fields with treated and untreated pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapun, W

    2012-01-01

    The monitoring of rice pests and their predators in pesticide untreated and treated rice fields was conducted at the southern of Thailand. Twenty-two species in 15 families and 6 orders of rice pests were sampled from untreated rice field. For treated rice field, 22 species in 14 families and 5 orders of rice pest were collected. Regardless of treatment type, dominant species and individual number of rice pest varied to physiological stage of rice. Lepidopteran pests had highest infestation during the vegetative stage of rice growth, while hemipteran pests composed of hopper species (Hemipetra: Auchenorrhyncha) and heteropteran species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) were dominant groups during the reproductive stage and grain formation and ripening stage of rice growth. In contrast, dominant species of predator did not change throughout rice growing season. There were 35 species in 25 families and seven orders and 40 species in 29 families and seven orders of predators collected from untreated and treated rice field, respectively. Major predators of both rice fields were Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Tetragnatha sp. (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) and Agriocnemis pygmaea Rambur (Odonata: Agrionidae). The population dynamic of predators were not related with rice pest population in both treatments. However, the fluctuation of population pattern of rice pests in the untreated treatment were more distinctly synchronized with their predators than that of the treated treatment. There were no significant differences in the total number of rice pest and predator between two treatments at vegetative and reproductive stages of rice growth. Untreated rice field had a higher population number of predator and a lower population number of rice pest than that of treated rice field during grain formation and ripening stages. These results indicated the ago-ecosystem balance in rice fields could be produced through minimal pesticide application, in order to allow

  11. Relationships between physical and chemical factors and aquatic macroinvertebrates in perennial streams in the arid northern mountain basin El Batinah, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boulaaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between physical properties, water chemistry and aquatic macroinvertebrates were investigated in riffles of four perennial streams in the arid northern Oman. Samples were collected monthly in autumn, winter and spring with a Surber net. Thirty two invertebrate taxa were recorded, most species are widely distributed, but few species with very restricted distribution were also captured. Diptera followed by Pulmonata, Coleoptera and Odonata were the most represented taxa, Trichoptera and Heteroptera were a significant component only in one station (the Fezeh, where the lowest mean water temperature (23°C was recorded. In the dry months from May to October, aquatic macroinvertebrates were completely absent. In order to summarise the community response some biotic indices were calculated. The highest diversity was observed in the Fezeh station. A seasonal gradient was also observed, with the highest diversity values in January, April, and December. The low faunal diversity was attributed to the high air and water temperature and the hydrological regime instability. A between station and a between month coinertia analysis was carried out, to analyse the response to spatial and seasonal factors. The first coinertia axis was correlated with altitude and substrate composition, while the second axis was correlated with air and water temperature. The present research emphasizes the urgency for preserving the less disturbed wadis in arid zones, because, despite their species poorness, their uniqueness in faunal composition requires special attention. The presence of few endemic species with very restricted distribution highlights the topicality and the value in investigating these areas, allowing the increase of our knowledge on biodiversity, ecology and biogeography about the benthic macroinvertebrates living in these extreme habitats.

  12. Effect of plant nitrogen and water status on the foraging behavior and fitness of an omnivorous arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Dong, Yongcheng; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Adamowicz, Stéphane; Bearez, Philippe; Wajnberg, Eric; Desneux, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Omnivorous arthropods make dietary choices according to the environment in which they forage, mainly availability/quality of plant and/or prey resources. Such decisions and their subsequent impacts on life-history traits may be affected by the availability of nutrients and water to plants, that is, through bottom-up forces. By setting up arenas for feeding behavior observation as well as glasshouse cages for plant preference assessment, we studied effects of the presence of prey (Lepidoptera eggs) and nitrogen/water availability to host tomato plants on the foraging behavior and life-history traits in the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Heteroptera: Miridae). In the absence of prey, the predator fed equally on the plants treated with various levels of nitrogen and water. In the presence of prey, however, the feeding rate on plants decreased when the plant received low water input. The feeding rate on prey was positively correlated with feeding rate on plants; that is, prey feeding increased with plant feeding when the plants received high water input. Moreover, plants receiving high water input attracted more M. pygmaeus adults compared with those receiving low water input. For M. pygmaeus fitness, the presence of prey enhanced its fertility and longevity, but the longevity decreased when plants received low compared with high water input. In conclusion, the omnivorous predator may be obliged to feed on plants to obtain water, and plant water status may be a limiting factor for the foraging behavior and fitness of the omnivorous predator. PMID:27069598

  13. Effects of land-use intensity on arthropod species abundance distributions in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Nadja K; Gossner, Martin M; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Lange, Markus; Türke, Manfred; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    As a rule, communities consist of few abundant and many rare species, which is reflected in the characteristic shape of species abundance distributions (SADs). The processes that shape these SADs have been a longstanding problem for ecological research. Although many studies found strong negative effects of increasing land-use intensity on diversity, few reports consider land-use effects on SADs. Arthropods (insects and spiders) were sampled on 142 grassland plots in three regions in Germany, which were managed with different modes (mowing, fertilization and/or grazing) and intensities of land use. We analysed the effect of land use on three parameters characterizing the shape of SADs: abundance decay rate (the steepness of the rank abundance curve, represented by the niche-preemption model parameter), dominance (Berger-Parker dominance) and rarity (Fisher's alpha). Furthermore, we tested the core-satellite hypothesis by comparing the species' rank within the SAD to their distribution over the land-use gradient. When data on Araneae, Cicadina, Coleoptera, Heteroptera and Orthoptera were combined, abundance decay rate increased with combined land-use intensity (including all modes). Among the single land-use modes, increasing fertilization and grazing intensity increased the decay rate of all taxa, while increasing mowing frequency significantly affected the decay rate only in interaction with fertilization. Results of single taxa differed in their details, but all significant interaction effects included fertilization intensity. Dominance generally increased with increasing fertilization and rarity decreased with increasing grazing or mowing intensity, despite small differences among taxa and regions. The majority of species found on <10% of the plots per region were generally rare (<10 individuals), which is in accordance with the core-satellite hypothesis. We found significant differences in the rarity and dominance of species between plots of low and high

  14. Contamination assessment of arsenic and heavy metals in a typical abandoned estuary wetland--a case study of the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenglei; Sun, Zhigao; Zhang, Hua; Zhai, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Coastal and estuarine areas are often polluted by heavy metals that result from industrial production and agricultural activities. In this study, we investigated the concentration trait and vertical pattern of trace elements, such as As, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr, and the relationship between those trace elements and the soil properties in coastal wetlands using 28 profiles that were surveyed across the Diaokouhe Nature Reserve (DKHNR). The goal of this study is to investigate profile distribution characteristics of heavy metals in different wetland types and their variations with the soil depth to assess heavy metal pollution using pollution indices and to identify the pollution sources using multivariate analysis and sediment quality guidelines. Principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and pollution level indices were applied to evaluate the contamination conditions due to wetland degradation. The findings indicated that the concentration of trace elements decreased with the soil depth, while Cd increases with soil depth. The As concentrations in reed swamps and Suaeda heteroptera surface layers were slightly higher than those in other land use types. All six heavy metals, i.e., Ni, Cu, As, Zn, Cr, and Pb, were strongly associated with PC1 (positive loading) and could reflect the contribution of natural geological sources of metals into the coastal sediments. PC2 is highly associated with Cd and could represent anthropogenic sources of metal pollution. Most of the heavy metals exhibited significant positive correlations with total concentrations; however, no significant correlations were observed between them and the soil salt and soil organic carbon. Soil organic carbon exhibited a positive linear relationship with Cu, Pb, and Zn in the first soil layer (0-20 cm); As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the second layer (20-40 cm); and As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the third layer (40-60 cm). Soil organic carbon exhibited only a negative correlation with Cd (P

  15. 长白落叶松人工林昆虫多样性的研究%Study on the Diversity of Insects in Planted Forest of Larix olgensis Henry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东芳; 王志明; 钱晨

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解落叶松人工林内昆虫群落的变化规律.[方法]采用样枝调查和地面植被扫网调查法,对吉林敦化市5、9、18年生落叶松林内昆虫种类和数量进行调查,并比较不同林龄林分内昆虫的多样性.[结果]在样地内共收集到97种昆虫,其中半翅目、鞘翅目昆虫较多,鳞翅目、膜翅目、双翅目昆虫较少,毛翅目昆虫仅存在于18年生林分中.5年生林分内昆虫的多样性指数在全年较稳定,9年生林分内昆虫的多样性指数波动较大;5、9年生林分内昆虫多样性较相似.而18年生林分内昆虫多样性与前两者差异较大.[结论]为落叶松人工林的保护经营及害虫控制提供了参考.%[ Objective] The study aimed to learn about the change law of insect community in planted forest of Larix olgensis Henry. [ Method ] By investigations on sample branches and net-scanning investigation on ground vegetation, the species and quantities of insects in the forests of 5, 9 and 18 years old L olgensis in Dunhua City of Jilin Province were investigated and the diversities of insects in standing forests of different stand ages were compared. [ Result] There were 97 species of insects collected from the sample plot in total, among which Heteroptera and Coleoptera insects were more, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera insects were less and Plicipenna insects only existed in 18 years old stand forest. The diversity index of insects in 5 years old stand forest was more stable in the whole year and that of insects in 9 years old stand forest fluctuated more. The diversities of insects in 5 and 9 years old stand forest were similar and that of insects in 18 years old stand forest was very different from theirs. [ Conclusion] This study provided reference for the protective operation and insect control of planted forest of L. olgensis.

  16. 8%高效氯氟氰菊酯微乳剂对环境生物的安全性评价%Safety evaIuation of 8% Iambda-cyhaIothrin on environmentaI organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史梦竹; 李建宇; 傅建炜; 游泳; 林涛; 郑丽祯; 魏辉

    2014-01-01

    Background Lambda-cyhalothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide , targeting various insects of Lepidoptera , Coleop-tera, Heteroptera and mites .Several studies have examined the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin on single species but not on several organisms.[Method]Toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin on six species (Japanese quail, bee, silkworm, zebrafish, daphnia and earth-worm) was tested in laboratory in accordance with the criteria for chemical pesticide environmental safety assessment .[Result]Ac-cording to the data obtained from the tests, lambda-cyhalothrin had low toxicity for Eisenia fetida (32.3313 mg・ kg-1, 14 d-LC50), medium toxicity levels for Coturnix japonica (54.4762 mg・ kg-1, 7 d-LD50) and Daphnia magna (1.2716 mg・ L-1, 48 h-EC50), high toxicity for Apis mellifera (2.7391 mg・ L-1 , 48 h-LC50 ), and extremely high toxicity for Bombyx mori and Danio rerio (0.0067 mg・ L-1 and 0.0007 mg・ L-1, 96 h-LC50).[Conclusion and significance]This paper demonstrated the toxicity of lamb-da-cyhalothrin on six groups of species .%高效氯氟氰菊酯是一种拟除虫菊酯类杀虫剂,对鳞翅目、鞘翅目和半翅目等多种害虫以及螨类都有一定的防治效果。关于拟除虫菊酯类杀虫剂对某种环境生物的单一安全性评价的研究颇多,但缺乏系统的评价。根据《化学农药环境安全评价试验准则》,测定了8%高效氯氟氰菊酯微乳剂对6种非靶标环境生物鹌鹑、蜜蜂、家蚕、斑马鱼、大型溞和蚯蚓的毒性,并进行了环境安全性评价。8%高效氯氟氰菊酯微乳剂对鹌鹑的经口毒性7 d LD50为54.4762 mg・ kg-1,属中毒;对蜜蜂经口毒性的48 h LC50为2.7391 mg・ L-1,属高毒;对家蚕和斑马鱼的96 h LC50分别为0.0067和0.0007 mg・ L-1,均为剧毒;对大型溞的抑制毒性EC50(48 h)为1.2716 mg・ L-1,属中毒;对蚯蚓的14 d LC50为32.3313 mg・ kg-1,属低毒。本文明确了高效氯氟氰菊

  17. Análise citológica e cariométrica da ação da colchina sôbre a espermatogênese dos hemípteros Cytologic and caryometric analysis of the action of colchicine on the spermatogenesis in hemiptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schreiber

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available The action of colchicine upon the spermatogenesis of Triatoma infestans, (Hemipt. Heteroptera, has been studied and the different categories of giant spermatids that appear during the treatment have been compared with the nuclear volumes of the whole series of normal spermatogenetic stages. The following facts have been ascertained: 1 4 hours after the treatment the gonial mitotic metaphases, and the 1st. and 2nd. metaphases of meiosis are stopped. The prophasic stages of meiosis and diakynesis appear to be normal. After 9 days of treatment, all the tetrads are broken in the meiotic metaphases and the cells appear with 44 and 22 chromosomes respectively, scattered in the cytoplasm. 2 At 9 days, practically all spermatogenetic stages have disappeared except for a few cysts of spermatogonia, and practically the whole testicle is full of cysts of spermatozoa and spermatid, with some large zones of necrosis with pycnotic nuclei. The spermatids appear to be of different sizes and the statistical analysis of the nuclear volumes gives a polymodal hystogram with 4 modes, whose volumes are in the ratio of 1:2:4:8. Ripe spermatozoa seem to have a certain volume variability, that has not been possible to analyse quantitatively. All these facts confirm what DOOLEY found in the colchicinized Orthoptera testicle. 3 The caryometric analysis conducted statistically on the normal stages of the spermatogenesis (resting spermatogonia, gonial prophases, leptotene, "confused stage", diakynesis, and spermatid revealed the following facts: a Considering the volume of the resting, spermatogonia as 1, their mitotic prophases have a volume of 2. Some rare prophases appear to have a volume of 4 and probably belong to tetraployd spermatogonia normally present in the testicle of Hemiptera. b The first spermatocyte at the beginning of the auxocitary growth (leptotene has a volume of 2, which is equal to that of them gonial prophase. It grows further during the "confused

  18. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em sistemas de manejo para produção de forragens no Estado do Piauí Characterization of edaphic fauna in management systems for forage production in the State of Piauí

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    Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da fauna em função da umidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo para a produção de forragens com capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, capim-Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. R. de Wit. tendo como controle uma Mata dos Cocais. A coleta da fauna foi feita utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo Pitfall em duas épocas do ano: setembro de 2007 e março de 2008, período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente. Os sistemas com capim-Tifton, capim-Tanzânia e Leucena mostraram maior número de indivíduos nos dois períodos avaliados. A queimada ocorrida no capim-Andropogon antes da primeira coleta resultou em uma redução na abundância e diversidade da fauna edáfica. Os maiores valores em riqueza, diversidade e uniformidade de fauna foram obtidos na amostragem realizada no período úmido. A mata mostrou maior diversidade e equitabilidade nos dois períodos avaliados. Em situação de estresse hídrico alguns grupos como Formicidae e Collembola predominaram nos sistemas de manejo diminuindo a uniformidade, enquanto no período úmido vários grupos mostraram boa representatividade o que favoreceu a uniformidade. A análise multivariada de componentes principais evidenciou que os sistemas com mata, capim-Tifton e capim-Tanzania e Leucena mostraram associação com vários grupos da fauna edáfica nos dois períodos avaliados enquanto que o sistema com capim-Andropogon, que sofreu queimada, apresentou afinidade apenas com o grupo Heteroptera, no período seco.The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of fauna as a function of soil moisture in different fodder-production management systems of Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, Andropogon Grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth and

  19. Morphology,Behavior and Natural Enemies of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Homoptera:Matsucoccidae) during Development%日本松干蚧(同翅目:松干蚧科)发育过程中形态、习性及天敌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫敏; 张英伟; 赵常胜; 谢映平; 薛皎亮; 张艳峰; 田芬; 杨钤; 吴俊; 唐喜军; 耿以龙

    2015-01-01

    ,the insect body became enlarged and exposed to outside of the bark. The insects with white wax secretions were easily visible and were called“patent period”. The 3 rd-instar nymphs possessed developed antennae and legs,and could crawl freely to search for pupation place. Then the nymphs secreted white wax filaments from the wax glands on the body surface to form wax cocoon. In the wax cocoon,the insects underwent two stages,prepupa and pupa. The male adults had a pair of antennae and compound eyes on head,and a pair of fore wings,while the hind wings degraded into poisers at thorax. There was a cluster of long wax filaments secreted from a group of columnar tubular ducts at the tergum of abdominal segment VII,and a copulatory organ at the posterior of the abdomen. The female adults were similar to the 3 rd-instar nymph in morphology,but their thorax and abdomen were larger. At the initial stage,the female adults were not covered by obvious wax secretion,after mating,they secreted wax filaments to form egg sacs. 3 ) There were 59 species in 14 families of the predators of M. matsumurae listed in China,of which,Anthocoridae in Hemiptera, Chrysopidae in Neuroptera and Coccinellidae in Coleoptera were preponderant.[Conclusion]The present study described the developmental process and morphological changes of M. matsumurae in all instars,especially,the characteristics of the pearl-shape stage and patent period of the 2 nd-instar nymphs,wax filament secretion,cocoon construction and pupation of the male 3rd-instar nymphs,eclosion,courtship and mating behavior of the male adults,egg sac formation and oviposition of the female adults. It was found that the developmental duration of each stage of M. matsumurae in the three climatic regions was different. The time for post-hibernant and overwintering varied dependent on the local temperature changes. The critical period for controlling the insect is from the emergence period of the 2 nd-instar nymphs to the active period of the