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Sample records for albidipennis heteroptera anthocoridae

  1. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  2. Development, consumption rates and reproductive biology of Orius albidipennis reared on various prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reproductive biology and feeding consumption of Orius albidipennis fed on eggs of Anagasta (Ephestia) kuehniella, Tetranychus urticae, and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and larvae of Gynaikothrips ficorum were investigated under 26±1°C, 60±10 % RH and 16:8 L/D photoperiod in laboratory. Results ind...

  3. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-06-25

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality.

  4. Plantas cultivadas e invasoras como habitat para predadores do gênero Orius(Wolff (Heteroptera: anthocoridae Crops and weeds as host plants Orius species (Heteroptera: anthocoridae

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    Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar as espécies de Orius associadas a plantas cultivadas e invasoras presentes em uma localidade de Minas Gerais e três de São Paulo, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. As coletas foram realizadas através de batidas das plantas no interior de sacos plásticos para desalojar os insetos. Posteriormente, as espécies foram separadas em laboratório. O predador Orius insidiosus (Say foi coletado nas culturas de milho (Zea mays L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorgo (Sorghum spp., feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., girassol (Helianthus annuus L., alfafa (Medicago sativa L., soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], crisântemo (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. e cartamus (Carthamus tinctorius L. e nas plantas invasoras picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., caruru (Amaranthus sp., losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus L. e apaga-fogo (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring foi encontrado nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter e Orius sp. foram coletados principalmente nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo e no milho. Constatou-se que muitas dessas plantas são reservatórios naturais para esses predadores, em termos de habitat, abrigo, presas e pólen.The aim of this research was to record the Orius species present on some crops and weeds in areas located in the southeast region in Brazil, during 1999 and 2000. The insect collections were made through the tapping method to dislodge the insects from the plant into a plastic bag. The identifications of the specimens was done in the laboratory. Orius insidiosus (Say was collected on the following crops: corn (Zea mays L., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorghum (Sorghum spp., bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. and carthamus (Carthamus tinctorius L.. On weeds, O. insidiosus was found on farmer's friend (Bidens pilosa L., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Joseph's coat (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring was found on weed plants farmer's friend, amaranth and Joseph's coat. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter and Orius sp. were collected mainly on weed plants (farmer's friend, amaranth and Joseph's coat and corn. Many of these plants are natural hosts for these predators, providing refuge, prey and pollen.

  5. Building-up of a DNA barcode library for true bugs (insecta: hemiptera: heteroptera of Germany reveals taxonomic uncertainties and surprises.

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    Michael J Raupach

    Full Text Available During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae, Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae, Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833 (Aradidae or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811 (Anthocoridae.

  6. Effects of founder population size on the performance of Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castañe, C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Carvalho, L.M.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is a key predator of thrips and is mass reared in large numbers for use in biological control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of founder population size on the biological and behavioral performance of O. laevigatus over time. Laboratory li

  7. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg

    2010-01-01

    .) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) andWestern flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (model species for cabbage thrips (Thrips angusticeps Uzel) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)). When offered individually, A. nemorum readily accepted all three species with no significant differences...... in consumption. When aphids and moth larvae were offered simultaneously, A. nemorum showed preference for the latter (numbers eaten and biomass consumed). When aphids and thrips were offered together, A. nemorum preferred thrips in terms of numbers eaten but preferred aphids in terms of biomass consumed...

  8. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

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    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  9. Compatibility assessment between four ethanolic plant extracts with a bug predator Orius horvathi (Reuter (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae used for controlling the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

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    Razavi Nooshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande attacks a large number of crop plants. The current insecticides have caused resistance in insects and have caused outbreaks of thrips. In many instances, alternative methods of insect management and natural products, offer adequate pest control and pose fewer hazards. Several species of minute pirate bugs of the genus Orius play a significant role in the biological control of a large number of thrips species, such as F. occidentalis. In this study, the insecticidal activity of four ethanolic plant extracts (Cercis siliquastrum L., Calendula officinalis L., Peganum harmala L., Melia azedarach L. in integration with Orius horvathi (Reuter were evaluated for controlling F. occidentalis. The present research aimed to find plant extracts with a good impact on F. occidentalis but which have fewer side effects on O. horvathi. The results showed that P. harmala extract can be considered compatible with the natural enemy for controlling thrips. When the predatory bugs O. horvathi, were released three days after P. harmala extract spraying, the integration was more effective. While the P. harmala plant extract plays an important role in thrips control, it is necessary to consider the specified time interval between the application of the P. harmala plant extract and the release of the O. horvathi predatory bugs. The ethanolic extract of M. azedarach caused a balance between the pest population and the natural enemy. This result is very important in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program because this ethanolic extract of M. azedarach had lower side effects on the natural enemy. This means that an integration of plant derived chemicals and the natural enemy, O. horvathi, can effectively control thrips.

  10. De wants Rhaphigaster nebulosa in Nederland (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.; Steeghs, J.

    2002-01-01

    The bug Rhaphigaster nebulosa in the Netherlands (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Five specimens of Rhaphigaster nebulosa (Poda, 1761) were captured overwintering in or near the same house in Herkenbosch, province of Limburg, in different years between 1997 and 2002. These records fit similar observation

  11. Heterochromatin characterization in five species of Heteroptera.

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    Bressa, Maria José; Larramendy, Marcelo Luis; Papeschi, Alba Graciela

    2005-07-01

    The amount, composition and location of heterochromatin in Athaumastus haematicus (Stål, 1859), Leptoglossus impictus (Stål, 1859), Phthia picta (Drury, 1770) (Coreidae), Largus rufipennis Laporte, 1832 (Largidae) and Jadera sanguinolenta (Fabricius, 1775) (Rhopalidae) are analyzed by C-banding and DAPI/ CMA fluorescent banding. As the rule for Heteroptera the possession of holokinetic chromosomes and a pre-reductional type of meiosis cytogenetically characterize these five species. Besides, all of them (except L. rufipennis) present a pair of m chromosomes. C-banding technique reveals the absence of constitutive heterochromatin in A. haematicus, scarce C-positive blocks in L. impictus and J. sanguinolenta, and C-positive heterochromatin terminally located in P. picta and L. rufipennis. All C-bands are DAPI bright, except for a DAPI dull/CMA bright band at one telomeric end of the X chromosome in L. rufipennis, which probably corresponds to a nucleolar organizing region. The results of the banding techniques are analyzed in relation to the chiasma frequency and distribution in the five species, and it is concluded that there should exist some constraints to the acquisition and/ or accumulation of heterochromatin in their karyotypes.

  12. The fatty acid compositions of predator Piocoris luridus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) and its host Monosteria unicostata (Heteroptera: Tingidae) reared on almond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OZLEM CAKMAK; MEHMET BASHAN; HALIL BOLU

    2007-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid compositions during nutritional interaction among almond Amygdalus communis Linnaeus (Rosales: Rosaceae) (host plant), lacebug Monosteria unicostata (Mulsant and Rey) (Heteroptera: Tingidae) and its predator Piocoris luridus Fieber (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) were determined by gas chromatography and gas chroma-tography-mass spectrometry analyses. The fatty acid profiles of phospholipids and triacylglycerols were substantially different. Unlike the general observations for virtually most terrestrial insects, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in high proportions of phospholipid fractions in both insects, especially in P.luridus.Also the almond tissues provide very little oleic acid to the herbivore diet, yet both insect species developed high proportions of this component. Our data reveals instances of specific accumulation of fatty acid biosynthesis, elongation/desaturation, and not incorporating selected fatty acids into cellular lipids.

  13. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid;

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...

  14. Predation of Pseudis minuta Günther 1858, by Lethocerus annulipes (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae

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    Mautone, José María

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to communicate a case of predation on an adult specimen of Pseudis minuta (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae by an aquatic water bug of the genus Lethocerus (Insecta: Heteroptera: Belostomatidae. Observations were made on May 27, 2012, 12: 40 am, at Aceguá, Departamento de Cerro Largo, in NE Uruguay.

  15. A taxonomic revision of the family Velocipedidae Bergroth, 1891 (Insecta: Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The Indo-Papuan family Velocipedidae Bergroth, 1891 (Heteroptera) is revised; a new genus, 19 new species and four new subspecies are described. Costomedes gen. nov. (type species: C. gressitti spec. nov.) comprises 11 new species: C. cheesmanae from New Guinea, C. fakfakensis from New Guinea, C. ga

  16. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

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    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  17. A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Baena, Manuel

    2015-11-17

    The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.

  18. Waveform library for chinch bugs (Heteroptera: Blissidae): Characterization of EPG waveforms at multiple input impedances

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    Chinch bugs, Blissus spp. (Heteroptera: Blissidae), are among the most serious pests of grasses in North America. Southern chinch bug, B. insularis Barber, is the most economically important pest on St. Augustinegrass, the primary lawn grass in Florida. Western chinch bug, B. occiduus Barber, is ...

  19. Een invasie van de Nieuw-Zeelandse tarwewants Nysius huttoni in Nederland (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.T.; Reemer, M.; Aukema, B.

    2007-01-01

    Invasion of the New-Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni in the Netherlands (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) In 2006 the European Invertebrate Survey - Netherlands, by order of the National Plant Protection Organisation, conducted a survey of the distribution and population characteristics of the true bug Nysiu

  20. Exocrine secretion of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp): clarification and chemistry

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    Assassin bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in the genus Arilus are among the largest of the New World reduviids, and can inflect extremely painful bites. The most common North American species, A. cristatus (the “wheel bug”), possesses eversible osmeterial glands that reportedly produce an obnoxious od...

  1. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as termin

  2. Heteroptera attracted to butterfly traps baited with fish or shrimp carrion

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    Records of Heteroptera collected at butterfly traps baited with fish or shrimp carrion during collecting trips to Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru are presented. Traps consisted of a cylinder of net fabric (about 35 cm diam, 75 cm length) attached on the top and bottom to square pieces ...

  3. Phylogenetic approach to the study of Triatomines (Triatominae, Heteroptera

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    E. Tartarotti

    Full Text Available Triatomines are insects belonging to the Hemiptera order, Heteroptera suborder, Reduviidae family and Triatominae subfamily. All members of this subfamily are hematophagous. Triatomines evolved from Reduviidae predators and they are probably polyphyletic in origin. The combination of anatomical, physiological and ethological factors observed in this group, as well as the plesiomorphic and apomorphic characters that differentiate the five tribes and fourteen triatomine genera reinforce the polyphiletic hypotesis. However if we consider the five groups of triatomines, the Rhodniini, Cavernicolini, Bolboderini, Linshcosteini and Alberproseniini tribes constitute monophyletic groups, while the Triatomini tribe is considered polyphyletic. The New World is the center of triatomine diversity and seems to be the point of group origin. Of approximately 137 triatomine species, 105 are only found in the Americas. It is now considered that triatomines represent a polyphyletic group defined according to their convergent apomorphic hematophagous characters, which have appeared several times in Reduviidae. This study revises the phylogeny of these vectors of Chagas' disease, covering such topics as the origin of hematophagy in triatomines and ancestral proposal for the group.

  4. Biodiversidad de Heteroptera (Hemiptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas de la Patagonia argentina Biodiversity of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Hemiptera from Argentinean Patagonia

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    María Cecilia Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas (infraórdenes Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha y Leptopodomorpha no presentan una alta diversidad específica en Argentina, hasta el momento se han registrado 208 especies. Carlos Berg en 1881, publica el primer trabajo que hace referencia a heterópteros de la Patagonia, en el que lista los insectos recolectados durante la Campaña del Desierto. Desde principios de la década del '60, las Heteroptera acuáticas han sido estudiadas principalmente por A.O. Bachmann y colaboradores. Hasta el momento, se han registrado 36 especies pertenecientes a las familias Corixidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, Gelastocoridae, Naucoridae y Nepidae (Nepomorpha; Hydrometridae, Veliidae y Mesoveliidae (Gerromorpha, y Saldidae (Leptopodomorpha. La mayoría de estas especies extienden su distribución geográfica hacia el norte de la Argentina, excepto Sigara (Tropocorixa egbertae Hungerford, S. (T. trimaculata (Le Guillou, S. (T. vuriloche Bachmann, S. (T. forciceps (Spinola, Trichocorixa milicorum Bachmann (Corixidae, Notonecta (Paranecta virescens Blanchard, N. (P. fazi Hungerford, N. (P. vereertbruggheni Hungerford (Notonectidae, Pseudosaldula bergi (Haglund y P. paralia (Torres, P. angusta (Drake & Carvalho, P. sola (Drake & Carvalho, P. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho y Saldula differata Drake & Carvalho (Saldidae, que son exclusivas de la Patagonia. El conocimiento de la diversidad de Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas en la Patagonia es bueno y, por los datos recogidos, su estado de conservación es aceptable ya que aproximadamente el 40% de la especies encontradas en áreas naturales protegidas son exclusivas de la región y representan cerca del 40 % del número de especies exclusivas de la Patagonia.The aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (infraorders Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha and Leptopodomorpha show a low diversity in Argentina; up to now 208 species have been recorded. In 1881 Carlos Berg provided the first reference

  5. A new record for Limnobatodes paradoxus Hussey, 1925 from Guyana (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Hydrometridae: Limnobatodinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Fabio

    2014-06-04

    Limnobatodes paradoxus Hussey, 1925 is a primitive hydrometrid, described from a single female specimen collected in 1923 at Tela, Honduras (Hussey 1925). Following the original description, very few records of this species have been reported in literature, and locality indications are not detailed: Brazil (Cobben 1968), Peru (Andersen 1977), and French Guiana (Polhemus & Polhemus 1995). Andersen (1977, 1982) quoted "British Honduras" [= Belize] instead of Honduras, and this mistake was subsequently repeated by Schuh and Slater (1995) (see Moreira, 2014). This taxon was not listed by Heckman (2011) in his monograph on the Heteroptera of South America. Excellent illustrations of this species, in comparison with those of other Heteroptera, have been provided by several authors (cf. Hussey 1925; Cobben 1968, 1978; Andersen 1977, 1982). Nothing is known about the habitat and life history of Limnobatodes paradoxus (Andersen 1977; Polhemus & Polhemus 1995).

  6. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)).

  7. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

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    Jolanta Brożek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha. The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera, together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae. The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae, (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae, (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae, Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae.

  8. Cytogenetics of the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha (Hemiptera, Heteroptera): a review

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Kuznetsova; Snejana Grozeva; Seppo Nokkala; Christina Nokkala

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Cimicomorpha is one of the largest and highly diversified infraorders of the Heteroptera. This group is also highly diversified cytogenetically and demonstrates a number of unusual cytogenetic characters such as holokinetic chromosomes; m-chromosomes; multiple sex chromosome systems; post-reduction of sex chromosomes in meiosis; variation in the presence/absence of chiasmata in spermatogenesis; different types of achiasmate meiosis. We present here a review of essential cytogenet...

  9. Phylogeny of the true water bugs (Nepomorpha: Hemiptera–Heteroptera) based on 16S and 28S rDNA and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Martin Bay; Andersen, Nils M.; Damgaard, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    Morphological characters and molecular sequence data were for the first time analysed separately and combined for the true water bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). Data from forty species representing all families were included, together with two outgroup species representing...

  10. Should the Waterhyacinth Mirid, Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Heteroptera: Miridae), be Considered for Release against Waterhyacinth in the United States of America?

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    At least one and as many as seven biological control agents have been released against waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in no less than 30 countries, with varying degrees of success. A mirid, Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Carvalho) (Heteroptera: Miridae), the most recent agent releas...

  11. Revision of the Mesoamerican genus Cataractocoris Usinger (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Naucoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cataractocoris includes large waterfall-inhabiting insects that occur from Mexico to El Salvador and has received very little attention in the literature. Based on extensive field work during the past three years, we have collected saucer bugs (Heteroptera: Naucoridae) from many localities in central and southern Mexico. We here present detailed distributions and diagnostic information of the two described species of Cataractocoris and the description of a third species that occurs from Nayarit state in Mexico south to Guatemala. An illustrated taxonomic key to identify the species also is presented.

  12. Cytogenetics of the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha (Hemiptera, Heteroptera: a review

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    Valentina Kuznetsova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cimicomorpha is one of the largest and highly diversified infraorders of the Heteroptera. This group is also highly diversified cytogenetically and demonstrates a number of unusual cytogenetic characters such as holokinetic chromosomes; m-chromosomes; multiple sex chromosome systems; post-reduction of sex chromosomes in meiosis; variation in the presence/absence of chiasmata in spermatogenesis; different types of achiasmate meiosis. We present here a review of essential cytogenetic characters of the Cimicomorpha and outline the chief objectives and goals of future investigations in the field.

  13. Barcoding bugs: DNA-based identification of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

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    Doo-Sang Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding, the analysis of sequence variation in the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene, has been shown to provide an efficient method for the identification of species in a wide range of animal taxa. In order to assess the effectiveness of barcodes in the discrimination of Heteroptera, we examined 344 species belonging to 178 genera, drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 90% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 3% in 77% of congeneric species pairs. Instances where barcodes fail to distinguish species represented clusters of morphologically similar species, except one case of barcode identity between species in different genera. Several instances of deep intraspecific divergence were detected suggesting possible cryptic species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this analysis encompasses 0.8% of the described global fauna, our results indicate that DNA barcodes will aid the identification of Heteroptera. This advance will be useful in pest management, regulatory and environmental applications and will also reveal species that require further taxonomic research.

  14. Morphology of olfactory sensilla and its role in host plant recognition by Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood) (Heteroptera: Alydidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Ursi Ventura; Antônio Ricardo Panizzi

    2005-01-01

    The external morphology of the sensilla, including pores and permeable points on the cuticle of the antennae of adults of Neomegalotomus parvus (West.) (Heteroptera: Alydidae) was investigated with regard to their olfactory function. Behavioural evidence of olfaction, the importance of the different antennal segments in locating the host under still-air, and the responses of the insects to plants' scents and to pheromones in wind assays were also studied. With the scanning electronic microsco...

  15. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera based on multiple genes.

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    Min Li

    Full Text Available Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA. Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP, maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s and Bayesian (BEAST molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic.

  16. New records of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Higor D. D.; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; Reduciendo Klementová, Barbora; Svitok, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera occur on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide variety of habitats, including lentic and lotic water bodies, perennial or temporary. In the Neotropical Region, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the geographical distribution of most represented species, which can only be solved by the collection of specimens in under-studied areas and publication of new records and lists of species. New information New records are presented for eleven species of Gerromorpha and ten Nepomorpha, including first records from Venezuela (Brachymetra lata, Limnogonus hyalinus, Rhagovelia evidis, Tenagobia peruana, Limnocoris burmeisteri, L. fittkaui fittkaui, Placomerus micans, and Martarega gonostyla), the Venezuelan State of Bolívar (Cylindrostethus palmaris, R. elegans, R. tenuipes, and Ambrysus stali), the Brazilian State of Bahia (Martarega bentoi), Peru (Euvelia lata), and the Peruvian Region of Arequipa (Microvelia pulchella). PMID:27226754

  17. Survival and fecundity of two strains of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of development of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) under specific environmental conditions could lead to improved management techniques. Developmental rates, age-, and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain and a field strain of bed bugs reared on human blood. Both strains were then crossed reciprocally to produce four F1 generations and subsequent age- and stage-specific life tables were constructed. No significant differences were found in the overall survival of the parental strains, but significant differences were found in development rate within various instars based on strain. Parallel results were derived from the F1 generation hybrids. Stable age distribution calculations predict that 80% of bedbugs within exponentially growing populations will be immature.

  18. Antibiosis of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum (Solanaceae plants to the Asopinae predator Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    AA de Castro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available , , , Plant feeding can improve development and reproduction of the stink bug Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, an important biological control agent in South American agro-forestry ecosystems. However, defensive compounds of plants may negatively impact this predator. The development, reproduction and survival of S. cincticeps fed on mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae with bean (Fabaceae, cotton (Malvaceae, eucalyptus (Myrtaceae, soybean (Fabaceae, or tomato (Solanaceae leaves were evaluated. Females and males were heavier and the number of nymphs produced per female, the oviposition period and the longevity of females of this predator were higher when fed on eucalyptus, soybean, bean, and cotton than with tomato leaves. Leaves of those plants improved biological parameters of S. cincticeps, while tomato leaves showed antibiosis with lower reproduction and survival of S. cincticeps, probably due to toxic compounds.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: evidence from mitochondrial genomes

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    Xie Qiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea.

  20. Attack behavior of Podisus rostralis (Heteroptera: Pentatomidade adults on caterpillars of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    Walkymário Paulo Lemos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Attack behavior of the predator Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae adults on fourth instar Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae caterpillars was studied in laboratory conditions. Ten 24 hours old adults of this predator were observed during two hours with the following attack behavior: (1 Predator: prey finding; prey observation; touching prey with antenna; attack behavior; prey paralysis; predator retreat after attack; attack cessation; successive attacks; and (2 Prey: defense. The predator P. rostralis found its prey before attacking and it approached it with slow circular movements. The attack was usually made in the posterior part of the prey to reduce defense reaction. Larger size of prey in relation to the predator resulted difficult prey paralysis but it occurred in less than two hours.Estudou-se, em laboratório, o comportamento de ataque de adultos do predador Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae tendo como presa lagartas de quarto estádio de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae. Dez adultos do predador, com 24 horas de idade, foram observados durante duas horas acompanhando-se os seguintes comportamentos de ataque: (1 Predador: localização da presa; observação da presa; toque das presas com as antenas; comportamento de ataque; paralisação da presa; fuga do predador após ataque; finalização do ataque; ataques sucessivos; e (2 Presa: defesa. O predador P. rostralis localizou sua presa antes do ataque, aproximando-se dela através de lentos movimentos circulares. O ataque é, usualmente, realizado na parte posterior da presa para reduzir reação de defesa. O maior tamanho da presa em relação ao predador pode dificultar a paralisação, porém o predador consegue paralisá-la em menos de duas horas.

  1. Biochemical and morphological aspects of salivary glands of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    Dihego de Oliveira Azevedo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the feeding habits of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae analyzing the salivary gland complex (SGC. The SGC was dissected and subjected to histological analyses and biochemical assays. Results showed that a pair of bilobed principal salivary glands and one pair of tubular accessory salivary glands form the SGC and different parts of salivary gland synthesizes similar substances. Lipases, a-amylase and trypsin-like enzymes were detected at both lobes of the principal salivary gland. These data together with observations related to the predator's diet suggested that it could be considered an obligate zoophytophagous.Esta pesquisa contribui para a compreensão dos hábitos alimentares do percevejo predador Brontocoris tabidus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae por meio de análises morfológicas e bioquímicas de suas glândulas salivares. Espécimes tiveram o sistema salivar dissecado, e parte das amostras obtidas foi submetida a análises histológicas. Secções foram coradas com hematoxilina e eosina ou submetidas aos testes histoquímicos azul de bromofenol, PAS e azul do Nilo. A outra parte das amostras dissecadas teve seu conteúdo analisado em SDS-PAGE e em ensaios de atividade enzimática. Os resultados mostram que o sistema salivar de B. tabidus é formado por um par de glândulas bilobadas principais e um par de glândulas tubulares acessórias, e que suas diferentes regiões sintetizam substâncias semelhantes. Os ensaios enzimáticos detectaram atividade para tripsina, amilase e lipase, que juntamente com observações de laboratório relativas à dieta do predador indicam que o mesmo pode ser considerado um zoofitófago obrigatório.

  2. The First Finding of Six Instars of Larvae in Heteroptera and the Negative Correlation between Precipitation and Number of Individuals Collected in Sea Skaters of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae

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    Tetsuo Harada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted during a scientific cruise, MR15-04, aims, first, to examine species and larval/adult components of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae inhabiting the tropical Indian Ocean of 4°00′ S–7°00′ S, 101°00′ E–103°00′ E and, second, to examine the correlative relationship between precipitation just before collection and the number of sea skaters collected in November and December 2015. Near Sumatra (50 km south-west, larvae and adults of four species of Halobates (Halobates germanes White, 1883; Halobates micans Eschscholtz, 1822; Halobates princeps White, 1883; undescribed species: Halobates sp. were collected. Adults of an undescribed species had about a 5 mm long body in a gourd-like shape. One male adult specimen of H. princeps was collected. Body length, body width, and head width was measured in all specimens of Halobates. Six larval stages were detected in all three species of sea skaters as the first finding for Heteropteran insects. There was a negative correlation between amount of precipitation for 19 h before collection and the number of Halobates individuals collected by the neuston net. Death or (positive or passive sinking by sea skaters could be due to occasional rain fall on the sea surface.

  3. Effect of female weight on reproductive potential of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    Isaias Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the fecundity of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae females of two weight classes aiming to define, which one presented higher productivity in the laboratory. Males and females of B. tabidus were reared from nymphs fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae in laboratory. Females of B. tabidus weighting 95 to 150 mg and those with 160 to 220 mg constituted two treatments. Oviposition period and numbers of egg masses, eggs and nymphs per female of B. tabidus were higher in the treatment with heavier females, while the periods of preoviposition, between egg mass laying, egg incubation and number of eggs per egg mass, besides the percentage of nymphs hatched and adult longevity were similar between treatments. Heavier females of B. tabidus presented better productivity and for this reason they should be used in programs of mass rearing this predator.Este trabalho apresenta a fecundidade de fêmeas do predador Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae de duas classes de peso, objetivando avaliar qual delas apresenta melhor produtividade em criações mantidas em laboratório. Machos e fêmeas foram alimentadas, desde o estádio ninfal, com pupas do besouro Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Fêmeas de B. tabidus pesando entre 95 e 150 mg e entre 160 e 220 mg constituíram as duas classes de peso. O período de oviposição e os números de posturas, de ovos e ninfas por fêmea de B. tabidus foram maiores naquelas fêmeas pertencentes à classe mais pesada, enquanto os períodos de pré-oviposição, entre posturas, incubação dos ovos e número de ovos por postura, bem como a percentagem de eclosão de ninfas e a longevidade dos adultos foram semelhantes entre ambas as classes de peso. Fêmeas mais pesadas de B. tabidus apresentaram maior número de ovos por fêmea e por esta razão devem ser utilizadas em programas de cria

  4. Discovery of a living fossil: a new xylastodorine species from New Caledonia (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) and first record of the subfamily from the eastern Hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.; Cassis, G.; Monteith, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    A new species belonging to the genus Proxylastodoris Heiss & Popov, 2002, P. kuscheli spec. nov., of the subfamily Xylastodorinae Barber, 1920 (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) is described from New Caledonia. It is the first recent record outside the western Hemisphere of the Xyalstodorinae and is th

  5. Biodiversidad de Heteroptera (Hemiptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas de la Patagonia argentina

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    María Cecilia MELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas (infraórdenes Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha y Leptopodomorpha no presentan una alta diversidad específica en Argentina, hasta el momento se han registrado 208 especies. Carlos Berg en 1881, publica el primer trabajo que hace referencia a heterópteros de la Patagonia, en el que lista los insectos recolectados durante la Campaña del Desierto. Desde principios de la década del ’60, las Heteroptera acuáticas han sido estudiadas principalmente por A.O. Bachmann y colaboradores. Hasta el momento, se han registrado 36 especies pertenecientes a las familias Corixidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, Gelastocoridae, Naucoridae y Nepidae (Nepomorpha; Hydrometridae, Veliidae y Mesoveliidae (Gerromorpha, y Saldidae (Leptopodomorpha. La mayoría de estas especies extienden su distribución geográfica hacia el norte de la Argentina, excepto Sigara (Tropocorixa egbertae Hungerford, S. (T. trimaculata (Le Guillou, S. (T. vuriloche Bachmann, S. (T. forciceps (Spinola, Trichocorixa milicorum Bachmann (Corixidae, Notonecta (Paranecta virescens Blanchard, N. (P. fazi Hungerford, N. (P. vereertbruggheni Hungerford (Notonectidae, Pseudosaldula bergi (Haglund y P. paralia (Torres, P. angusta (Drake & Carvalho, P. sola (Drake & Carvalho, P. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho y Saldula differata Drake & Carvalho (Saldidae, que son exclusivas de la Patagonia. El conocimiento de la diversidad de Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas en la Patagonia es bueno y, por los datos recogidos, su estado de conservación es aceptable ya que aproximadamente el 40% de la especies encontradas en áreas naturales protegidas son exclusivas de la región y representan cerca del 40 % del número de especies exclusivas de la Patagonia.

  6. Development and survival of nymphs of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed with caterpillars of Chlosyne lacinia saundersii (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

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    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The development and survival of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae nymphs fed on larvae of Chlosyne lacinia saundersii Doubleday & Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae was studied at 25 ± 1ºC, 68 ± 10% relative humidity and 12 h photo phase. P. nigrispinus developed until the adult stage when fed on C. lacinia saundersii caterpillars. However, the survival rate of P. nigrispinus during early instars allowed this predator to complement its diet with other preys and to maintain its populations in areas with the sunflower culture.

  7. An update of the types of Heteroptera (Hemiptera) housed at the Museo de La Plata Entomological Collection (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Sara Itzel; Dellapé, Pablo Matías

    2013-01-08

    We present a list of the type material of Heteroptera deposited in the entomological collection of the Museo de La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina) in the last six years and or, not included in previous catalogs. This catalog includes 244 specimens belonging to 43 holotypes, one neotype, and 200 paratypes. The type material examined belongs to 50 species from 43 genera distributed in 16 families: Schizopteridae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Thaumastocoridae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Reduviidae, Alydidae, Rhopalidae, Largidae , Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, and Rhyparochromidae.

  8. Taxonomic corrections to species of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondorosy, Előd; Rédei, Dávid; Mejlon, Hans

    2014-07-22

    Types of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) species described by Carl Peter Thunberg, deposited in the Museum of Evolution (formerly Zoologiska Institut), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, were reexamined and the taxonomic and nomenclatural problems that existed among those species discussed and resolved as required. Lectotypes are designated for Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1784, Lygaeus ater Thunberg, 1822, Lygaeus biguttatus Thunberg, 1822, and Pendulinus guttatus Thunberg, 1825. The lectotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) guttatus is designated as neotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) uniguttatus Thunberg, 1822; as a result the former name becomes junior objective synonym of the latter. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Lethaeus ater (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus); Migdilybs biguttatus (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus) = Migdilybs furcifer Hesse, 1925, new subjective synonym; Metochus uniguttatus (Thunberg, 1822) = Metochus bengalensis (Dallas, 1852), confirmed subjective synonym = Metochus yeh (Dohrn, 1860), confirmed subjective synonym; Raglius alboacuminatus (Goeze, 1778) = Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1874, confirmed subjective synonym. Lethaeus barberi Slater, 1964 does not belong to Lethaeus Dallas, 1852 but currently it cannot be placed with confidence in any existing genus. 

  9. Feeding preference of Macrolophus caliginosus (Heteroptera: Miridae) on Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Olivier; Couton, Louise; Fargues, Jacques

    2006-08-01

    A study of predation choices of Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) late instars and adults, when offered various developmental stages (eggs and nymphs) of the recently established whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was made based on two preference indices. In addition, prey choices of late instars when presented with three ratios of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and B. tabaci at a similar developmental stage (eggs, young or late instars) were assessed. M. caliginosus preferred older nymphs of B. tabaci than any other stage. It also chose T. vaporariorum over B. tabaci, unless the latter consisted of > 75% of the available prey. These results suggested that M. caliginosus might interfere with parasitoids such as Encarsia, Eretmocerus, or Amitus spp. because all three species emerge from the host pupal case. Furthermore, in mixed infestations, M. caliginosus preference for T. vaporariorum might either negatively affect the control of B. tabaci, or, contrarily, enhance the predator population, before a B. tabaci outbreak occurs in the greenhouse.

  10. Exocrine secretions of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp.): clarification and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Zhang, Aijun; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2013-01-01

    Wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Arilus) are general predators, the females of which have reddish-orange subrectal glands (SGs) that are eversible like the osmeteria in some caterpillars. The rancid odor of Arilus and other reduviids actually comes from Brindley's glands, which in the North (A. cristatus) and South (A. carinatus) American wheel bugs studied emit similar blends of 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, and 2-methylbutanoic acids. The Arilus SG secretions studied here are absolutely species-specific. The volatile SG components of A. carinatus include (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-undecenal, hexanoic acid, 4-oxo-nonanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4- or (Z,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-nonenal; whereas in A. cristatus the SG secretion contains beta-pinene, limonene, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, thymol methyl ether, alpha-terpineol, bornyl acetate, methyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and farnesol. Arilus spp. SG secretions may be sex pheromones, but verification of this hypothesis requires further testing.

  11. Characterization of the symbiont Rickettsia in the mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi-Fluger, A; Inbar, M; Steinberg, S; Friedmann, Y; Freund, M; Mozes-Daube, N; Zchori-Fein, E

    2014-12-01

    Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is an omnivorous insect used for biological control. Augmentative release and conservation of N. tenuis have been used for pest control in tomato crops. Intracellular bacterial symbionts of arthropods are common in nature and have diverse effects on their hosts; in some cases they can dramatically affect biological control. Fingerprinting methods showed that the symbiotic complex associated with N. tenuis includes Wolbachia and Rickettsia. Rickettsia of N. tenuis was further characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA and gltA bacterial genes, measuring its amount in different developmental stages of the insect by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and localizing the bacteria in the insect's body by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The Rickettsia in N. tenuis exhibited 99 and 96% similarity of both sequenced genes to Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia reported from Bemisia tabaci, respectively. The highest amount of Rickettsia was measured in the 5th instar and adult, and the symbionts could be detected in the host gut and ovaries. Although the role played by Rickettsia in the biology of N. tenuis is currently unknown, their high amount in the adults and localization in the gut suggest that they may have a nutritional role in this insect.

  12. Chromosomes and their meiotic behaviour in two species of Dieuches Dohrn, 1860 (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochromini

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    Harbhajan Kaur

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lygaeidae (Heteroptera are a large and diverse family in which the male diploid chromosomal complement ranges from 10 to 30. Diploid numbers of 14 and 16 are taken as two modal numbers of the family. The Rhyparochrominae, one of the largest subfamilies of the Lygaeidae, are known to be heterogeneous both cytologically and morphologically. Available data on the tribe Rhyparochromini reveal that all species are characterized by the presence of a pair of microchromosomes (m-chromosomes and have an XY/XX (♂/♀ sex chromosome determining system. Dieuches coloratus (Distant, 1909 and D. insignis (Distant, 1918 belonging to Rhyparochromini, have 2n=14=10A+2m+XY and 2n=12=8A+2m+XY respectively. Both the species are similar inone pair of distinctly large autosomes in their chromosome complements. The metaphase plate arrangement of autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes in D. coloratus is similar to the common condition observed in the tribe Rhyparochromini. In D. insignis, however, the arrangement is different. Here, metaphase I is usual in showing peripheral position of autosomes and central position of sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes. At metaphase II, however, autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes are peripherally placed, an arrangement, which is not reported earlier in the tribe Rhyparochromini.

  13. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Dipsocoromorpha, Enicocephalomorpha, Gerromorpha, Leptopodomorpha and Nepomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Hassan; Moulet, Pierre; Ostovan, Hadi; Linnavuori, Rauno E

    2013-01-01

    A catalog of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera from Iran is provided based on literature reports and field collections. Representatives of 107 species and morphospecies of the infraorders Dipsocoromorpha, Enicocephalomorpha, Gerromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, and Nepomorpha are listed, and are distributed in 18 families including Aphelocheiridae (1 genus, 1 species), Belostomatidae (1 genus, 1 species), Corixidae (8 genera, 29 species), Dipsocoridae (1 genus, 2 species), Enicocephalidae (2 genera, 2 species), Gerridae (6 genera, 18 species), Hebridae (1 genus, 5 species), Helotrephidae (1 genus, 1 species), Hydrometridae (1 genus, 2 species), Leptopodidae (4 genera, 7 species), Mesoveliidae (1 genus, 2 species), Naucoridae (1 genus, 1 species), Nepidae (3 genera, 5 species), Notonectidae (2 genera, 8 species), Ochteridae (1 genus, 1 species), Pleidae (1 genus, 1 species), Saldidae (5 genera, 14 species), and Veliidae (2 genera, 7 species). Synonyms and geographical distribution of all the species are given, together with an identification key of families. According to the actual catalogs and studies eight species are doubtful for Iranian fauna.

  14. Lightweight males of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae neglect lightweight females due low reproductive fitness

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    A. I. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual choice by male stink bugs is important because females that experience food shortages lay fewer eggs with lower viability compared with well-fed females. In this study, we investigated whether Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae males fed with a low-quality diet during its nymphal stage show selectivity for sexual partners resulting in high-quality progeny. Lightweight males and females were obtained from nymphs fed weekly with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. By contrast, heavyweight males and females were fed three times a week and received an extra nutritional source: cotton leaves, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae. Lightweight males preferred to mate with heavy females (77.78 ± 14.69%, whereas heavyweight males did not discriminated between light or heavyweight females. Females mated with lightweight males showed similar levels of reproduction to those mated with heavyweight males. The results provide an indication of the importance of male and female body weight for sexual selection in Asopinae stink bugs.

  15. Host egg age of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera, Coreidae) and parasitism by Gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Furlan, Paola; Benassai, Daniele; Caradonna, Sarah; Strong, Ward B; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2013-04-01

    Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera, Coreidae) is native to Western North America and is a serious pest for seed production of conifers. The pest was accidentally introduced into Europe in the 1990s. Since then, seed loss has been recorded in Pinus pinea (L.) forests, with a negative impact on the commercial production of pine nuts. Classical biological control of this pest in P. pinea stands is an attractive proposition. Previous work showed that the egg-parasitoid Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) had promising life history traits in laboratory studies using L. occidentalis eggs as host. In the present work, the effect of host egg age on parasitization rate was evaluated in the laboratory, using choice and no-choice tests. Host eggs ranged in age from < 24 h to within a day of hatching. Results showed that parasitization rate, juvenile survival rate, sex ratio, and longevity of female G. pennsylvanicum were not significantly affected by the age of the host eggs. However, egg-parasitoid development time was longer in older host eggs, and females were smaller than those that developed in younger host eggs. Parasitization behaviors (drumming, oviposition, and marking) were not affected by the age of the host. G. pennsylvanicum females tended to parasitize all available host eggs within a cluster before moving to a new cluster, without displaying a preferences for host egg age. The ability to exploit host eggs of any age class improves the prospect of successful classical biological control using this egg-parasitoid.

  16. Estados de desarrollo y biología de tres especies de Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae Life stages and biology of three species of Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae

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    Luis Cervantes-Peredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los estados de desarrollo (huevo, ninfas y adulto de 3 especies de Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae, Anochrostomus formosus (Blanchard principalmente asociada con especies de Asteraceae y Convolvulaceae, y Lygaeus reclivatus reclivatus(Say y Oncopeltus (Oncopeltus sexmaculatus (Stål asociadas con Asclepiadaceae. Las descripciones están basadas en ejemplares colectados en los estados de Oaxaca y Guerrero (México y criados en el laboratorio. Se ilustra cada uno de los estadios y se incluyen notas acerca de su biología y plantas huéspedes.The life stages (egg, nymphs, and adult of 3 species of Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae are described. Anochrostomus formosus (Blanchard is mainly associated with species of Asteraceae and Convolvulaceae, whereas Lygaeus reclivatus reclivatus (Say and Oncopeltus (Oncopeltus sexmaculatus (Stål are associated with Asclepiadaceae. Descriptions are based on individuals collected in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero (Mexico, and reared in laboratory. Illustrations of each instar are also included, as well as notes about their biology and host plants.

  17. Los coleópteros y heterópteros acuáticos del Parque Nacional Calilegua (Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina Aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera from Calilegua National Park (Jujuy Province, Argentina

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    Patricia L. M. Torres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una lista de las especies de Coleoptera y Heteroptera presentes en los cuerpos de agua del Parque Nacional Calilegua. Se registraron 51 especies de Coleoptera incluidas en 28 géneros y cinco familias, y 37 especies de Heteroptera distribuidas en 22 géneros y 10 familias; sólo cuatro especies de Coleoptera y cinco de Heteroptera fueron citadas previamente del parque. Se mencionan por primera vez para la Argentina dos especies de Veliidae (Heteroptera: Rhagovelia trista Gould y Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, así como una especie y un género de Dytiscidae (Coleoptera: Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller y Bidessonotus Régimbart. Además, es la primera ocasión en que se mencionan para la provincia de Jujuy 24 especies y 11 géneros de Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria Babington, Celina Aubé, Gyrinus Linné, Haliplus Latreille, Hydrocanthus Say, Suphis Aubé, Anacaena Thomson, Derallus Sharp y 19 especies y 12 géneros de Heteroptera (Mesovelia Mulsant & Rey, Hebrus Curtis, Merragata White, Microvelia Westwood, Rhagovelia Mayr, Platyvelia J. T. Polhemus & D. A. Polhemus, Limnogonus Stål, Curicta Stål, Ranatra Fabricius, Centrocorisa Lundblad, Pelocoris Stål, Neoplea Esaki & China.A list of the species of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera occurring in Calilegua National Park is presented. Fifty-one species of Coleoptera included in 28 genera and five families, and 37 species of Heteroptera belonging to 22 genera and 10 families were recorded. Only four species of Coleoptera and five of Heteroptera had been previously cited from the park. Two species of Veliidae (Heteroptera (Rhagovelia trista Gould, Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, along with one species and one genus of Dytiscidae (Coleoptera (Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller, Bidessonotus Régimbart are new records for Argentina. Twenty-four species and 11 genera of Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria

  18. Potential for exploitative competition, not intraguild predation, between invasive harlequin ladybirds and flowerbugs in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon; Ravn, Hans Peter; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2016-01-01

    -content analysis, we investigated the relative frequencies of IGP by H. axyridis on the predatory flowerbug Anthocoris nemoralis Fabricius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) and prey overlap for a shared prey, the lime aphid Eucallipterus tiliae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Tilia × europaea crowns in urban parks...

  19. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera in Cameroon.

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    Solange Meyin A Ebong

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding" and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs, which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  20. Development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on larva of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    M. C. Lacerda

    Full Text Available Biological control has been reducing the use of chemical products against insect pests, specially predatory Pentatomidae. Species of this group can present high variations in their life cycle as a result of their diet. Thus, the objective of this research was to study nymph development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Stäl, 1860 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae larvae (T1, compared to those fed on Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae (T2 and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae larvae (T3 at a temperature of 25 ± 0.5ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 2%, and photophase of 12 h. Predators fed on B. mori showed duration of the nymph phase (18.68 ± 1.02 similar to those fed on T. molitor (18.32 ± 1.49. Pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and number of egg masses, besides eggs and nymphs per female, were higher with B. mori (5.83 ± 2.02; 15.00 ± 7.40; 8.42 ± 1.84; 296.69 ± 154.75; and 228.55 ± 141.04, respectively while longevity of males and females of P. distinctus was 25.76 ± 16.15 and 35.00 ± 16.15 days with T. molitor, and 20.57 ± 13.60 and 23.46 ± 12.35 days with B. mori, respectively.

  1. Potencial reprodutivo horário do predador de lagartas desfolhadoras do eucalipto: Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Hourly reproductive potential of the predator of Lepidoptera eucalypt desfoliators: Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Martins Pires

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insetos da subordem Heteroptera apresentam ampla diversidade faunística, incluindo predadores de pragas agrícolas e florestais. Espécies do gênero Podisus destacam-se entre os percevejos predadores no controle biológico de lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto, soja, algodão e tomate. O objetivo foi estudar o comportamento reprodutivo e a atividade de predação de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae alimentado com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae em laboratório. Casais desse predador foram acondicionados em potes plásticos de 500 mL com pupas de T. molitor e água em tubos tipo anestésico odontológico, inseridos na tampa desses potes. Foram observados: a postura o acasalamento e a alimentação de machos e fêmeas de P. nigrispinus às 0 h, 6 h, 12 h e 18 h. O porcentual de fêmeas de P. nigrispinus predando foi de 26,26; 24,39; 15,91; e 34,21% e o de machos, de 7,41; 6,20; 4,88; e 5,77%, às 0 h, 6 h, 12 h e 18 h, respectivamente. O maior número de fêmeas ovipositando foi observado às 00 h. A maior porcentagem de fêmeas predando foi às 18 h (32,21% e a de atividade de postura, à 0 h (50,56% dos ovos depositados, enquanto foram registrados apenas 1,66% dos ovos às 12 h. O número de acasalamentos de P. nigrispinus foi maior às 12 h (34,58%, seguido das 00 h (29,65%, 18 h (22,36% e 6 h (16,60%.Insects of the sub-order Heteroptera present a wide diversity including predators of agricultural and forest pests. Species of the genus Podisus are important agents of biological control of defoliating caterpillars of eucalyptus, soybem, cotton and tomato. The objective was to study the reproductive behavior and predation rate of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae in the laboratory. Pairs of this predator were placed in 500 ml plastic pots with T. molitor pupae and water in tubes of anesthetic odontologic type inserted in the

  2. Distribuição de Heteroptera Aquáticos (Insecta em Diferentes Tipos de Substratos de Córregos do Cerrado Matogrossense

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    Karina Dias-Silva

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. The Heteroptera community of Cerrado streams in east of Mato Grosso was analyzed to determine the types of substrate that contemplate the largest variation in species composition. Samples were performed in the leaf litter substrates from rapids and backwaters, root, gravel, stone (boulder, sand and on the water surface (surface tension layer of springs, mean stretches and mouths of the Santo Antônio and Colher streams on December/2004 and July/2005, with six subsamples each substrate. Were collected 333 specimens distributed in 11 families, 20 genus and 30 morphospecies (17 Nepomorpha and 13 Gerromorpha, being Gerromorpha the most abundant (172 specimens. The estimated richness of Gerromorpha in the substrates was higher in samples from water surface, while Nepomorpha showed higher richness in root, followed by gravel and leaf litter from rapids. The inorganic substrates (stone and sand showed lower richness of Heteroptera. Among Gerromorpha, Limnogonus aduncus aduncus Drake & Harris, Rhagovelia elegans Uhler, Neogerris lubricus White and Brachymetra sp.1 were associated to surface samples and Stridulivelia anta Polhemus & Spangler to root substrate. In Nepomorpha, Martarega chinai Hynes was associated to surface samples, while Ambrysus sp. 1 showed association to leaf litter from rapids, backwaters, root and surface. The results suggest that studies which aim for rapid surveys of Heteroptera community should prioritize surface samples for Gerromorpha and root samples for Nepomorpha, because these substrates shelter the greatest richness of each infra-order, contemplating 83% and 64% of species richness in these groups respectively.

  3. The Beetle (Coleoptera and True bug (Heteroptera species pool of the alpine “Pian di Gembro” wetland (Villa di Tirano, Italy and its conservation

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    Matteo Montagna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he C oleoptera and Heteroptera species pool was investigated in the “Pian di Gembro” wetland (Villa di T irano, Sondrio, Italy. T he wetland consists of a bog and its surroundings, referred to as wetland components, that are both subjected to a diversified intermediate management regime (DIMR. T he application of the DIMR for plant species conservation resulted in the establishment of 11 wetland zones with a characteristic vegetation. In a three year sampling program, 997 C oleoptera and Heteroptera representing 141 species from 14 families were collected. Among these species, 64 species share both wetland components, 11 are restricted to the bog and 63 were found in the surroundings only. Among the species pool there were 23 tyrphophile taxa and only one tyrphobiont. With the exception of one zone, all zones are inhabited by zone-specific species. By taking into account both the general species pool and the pool of species of particular interest to conservationists, only one zone can be considered as redundant since it is inhabited by species that occur also in other zones. Hence, all the zones, with one exception, are effective for species pool conservation. The existing DIMR implemented for plant species conservation is also effective for conserving the species pool of C oleoptera and Heteroptera.

  4. Comparison of different cytogenetic methods and tissue suitability for the study of chromosomes in Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera, Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadílek, David; Angus, Robert B; Šťáhlavský, František; Vilímová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    In the article we summarize the most common recent cytogenetic methods used in analysis of karyotypes in Heteroptera. We seek to show the pros and cons of the spreading method compared with the traditional squashing method. We discuss the suitability of gonad, midgut and embryo tissue in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 chromosome research and production of figures of whole mitosis and meiosis, using the spreading method. The hotplate spreading technique has many advantages in comparison with the squashing technique. Chromosomal slides prepared from the testes tissue gave the best results, tissues of eggs and midgut epithelium are not suitable. Metaphase II is the only division phase in which sex chromosomes can be clearly distinguished. Chromosome number determination is easy during metaphase I and metaphase II. Spreading of gonad tissue is a suitable method for the cytogenetic analysis of holokinetic chromosomes of Cimex lectularius.

  5. Olfactory response of predatory Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) to the odours host plant infested by Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Khalid A.; Roff, M. N. Mohamad; Salam, Mansour; Hanifah Mohd, Y.; Idris, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    Plant infested with herbivores, release volatile that can be used by natural enemies to locate their herbivorous prey. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the olfactory responses of predator Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae), to chili plant infected with eggs, nymphs of Bemisia tabaci, using Y-tube olfactometer. The results shown that predator, M. caliginosus has ability to discriminate between non-infested and infested plant by B. tabaci. Moreover, the predator preferred plants with nymphs over plants with eggs. This suggested that M. caliginous uses whitefly-induced volatile as reliable indicators to distinguish between infested chili plants by nymphs, eggs and non-infested plants. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by M. caliginosus to plant with and without Bemisia tabaci.

  6. Development, survival and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae with salt and amino acids solutions supplementary diet

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    Simone Patrícia Carneiro Freitas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of a supplementary diet with amino acids and sodium chloride solutions in addition to prey on the development, survival and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae. Both solutions showed deleterious effects on nymph survival, adult weight, female longevity, number of egg masses, eggs per female, eggs per egg mass and nymphs per female besides egg viability of P. nigrispinus when compared with diet with water and prey. When compared with plant supplements in the diet the use of amino acids and salt solutions for mass rearing of P. nigrispinus was inferior.O presente estudo mostra o efeito da suplementação alimentar com soluções de aminoácidos e salina (NaCl no desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e reprodução de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Ambas soluções causaram efeito deletério na sobrevivência ninfal, peso dos adultos, longevidade das fêmeas e nos números de posturas, de ovos/fêmea, de ovos/postura e de ninfas, bem como na viabilidade dos ovos de P. nigrispinus quando comparado com estes insetos que além de presa receberam água. Estes resultados são discutidos em comparação com o efeito positivo que a suplementação alimentar com plantas tem sido relatada para esses predadores e sugerem que o uso de plantas é melhor que a substituição por solução de aminoácidos em sistemas de criação em laboratório desses predadores.

  7. The effect of temperature and exposure to Beauveria bassiana on tarnished plant bugs Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae) population dynamics and the broader implications of treating insects with entomopathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera, Miridae) are a major pest of cotton in most of the cotton growing regions of the Southern US. Studies were conducted to investigate how temperature and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuilllemin infection impacted L. lineolaris...

  8. Susceptibility of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidea to gamma-cyhalothrin under laboratory conditions Suscetibilidade de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae a gamma-cyhalothrin sob condições de laboratório

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    Alexandre Igor de Azevedo Pereira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is an important biological control agent of the cotton leafworm [Alabama argillacea (Hübner] in the cotton crops in Brazil. The use of selective products such as pyrethroids has been emphasized in this agroecosystem. Then, the susceptibility of the predatory stinkbug P. nigrispinus to the pyrethroid insecticide gamma-cyhalothrin was studied in the laboratory. Nymphs and adults of the predator were exposed to seven concentrations of the gamma-cyhalothrin via topical contact and ingestion through treated water. The concentrations studied of this insecticide via topical application were relatively harmless for adults of P. nigrispinus (females: LC50 = 143.5 ppm a.i., and males: LC50 = 145.1 ppm a.i. and 5th-instar nymphs (LC50 = 103.9 ppm as compared to via ingestion (females: LC50 = 1.98 ppm a.i., males: LC50 = 1.91 ppm a.i., and 5th-instar nymphs: LC50 = 2.05 ppm a.i.. The use of pyrethroids and beneficial insects in IPM programs should be better evaluated.Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae é um importante agente de controle biológico do curuquerê [Alabama argillacea (Hübner] na cultura do algodão no Brasil. O uso de produtos seletivos tais como piretróides tem sido enfatizado no agroecosistema do algodoeiro. Portanto, estudou-se em laboratório a suscetibilidade do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas ao inseticida piretróide gamma-cyhalothrin. As exposições via ingestão e aplicação tópica de ninfas de 5º ínstar, fêmeas e machos de P. nigrispinus a gamma-cyhalothrin foram feitas, usando-se sete concentrações do inseticida. Gamma-cyhalothrin via aplicação tópica foi relativamente menos tóxico às formas adultas de P. nigrispinus (fêmeas: CL50 = 143,5 ppm i.a. e machos: CL50 = 145,1 ppm i.a. e às ninfas de 5º ínstar (CL50 = 103,9 ppm desse predador, quando comparado a sua utilização por ingestão (fêmeas: LC50 = 1,98 ppm i.a., machos

  9. No direct effects of resistant soybean cultiva IAC-24 on Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Efectos no directos de resistencia del cultivar de soya IAC-24 sobre Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    José Cola Zanuncio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of survival, development and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae may be affected by feeding on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.; Fabaceae cultivars. The direct effect was evaluated of the insect-resistant soybean 'IAC-24' (insect-susceptible soybean 'UFVS-2006' + pupae of Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae versus 'IAC-24' plants + pupae of T. molitor in the nymph and adult stages of the predator P. nigrispinus. The duration of the nymph stage was similar between treatments, but 'IAC-24' reduced the duration of the IV instar of this predator. The survival of P. nigrispinus was similar between treatments in the instars I, II, IV and V and in the nymph stage, but the survival of the III instar was longer with 'IAC-24' plants. The body mass of nymphs in the first day of the III, IV, and V instars after ecdysis and newly emerged adults; reproductive characteristics (periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, post-oviposition and egg incubation; egg laying interval, number of egg masses per female, nymphs per female, nymphs per egg mass and percentage of nymphs hatching and life span of males and females of P. nigrispinus were similar between treatments. The resistant soybean 'IAC-24' showed no direct deleterious effects on P. nigrispinus, which implies its innocuity and compatibility with this predator.Los par ámetros de supervivencia, desarrollo y reproducción de Podìsus nìgrìspìnus Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae pueden verse afectados por la alimentación en cultivos de soya (Glycìne max L. Merr.; Fabaceae. Se evaluó el efecto directo de la soya 'IAC-24' resistente a insectos (soya 'UFVS-2006' susceptible a insectos + pupas de Tenebrìo molìtor L., 1758 Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae vs. plantas 'IAC-24' + pupas de T. molìtor sobre los estados de ninfa y adulto del depredador P. nìgrìspìnus. La duración del estado ninfal fue similar entre tratamientos, no obstante

  10. Malformation of true bug (Heteroptera): a phenotype field study on the possible influence of artificial low-level radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Honegger, Cornelia; Wallimann, Peter

    2008-04-01

    The results of extensive field studies on the malformation of Western European true bugs (Heteroptera) are reviewed. More than 16,000 individuals were collected over two decades, and subjected to detailed visual inspection. Various types of disturbances were found and illustrated in detail. Depending on country, region, as well as local influences, severe disturbances and high degrees of malformation were noticed, especially in the sphere of nuclear-power installations in Switzerland (Aargau), France (La Hague), and Germany (Gundremmingen). Malformation reached values as high as 22 and 30% for morphological (MD) and total disturbance (TD), respectively. This is far above the values expected for natural populations (ca. 1%) or those determined for true bugs living in biotopes considered as relatively 'intact' (1-3%). A detailed chi-square test of the malformation data obtained for 650 true bugs from 13 collection sites near the nuclear-reprocessing plant La Hague showed a highly significant correlation (p=0.003) between malformation and wind exposure/local topography. Similar observations were made for other study sites. Currently, our data are best rationalized by assuming a direct influence between the release of anthropogenic radionuclides such as tritium ((3)H), carbon-14 ((14)C), or iodine-131 ((131)I), constantly emitted by nuclear-power and nuclear-reprocessing plants, as well as by Chernobyl and bomb-testing fallout, which is rich in caesium-137 ((137)Cs) and other long-lived noxious isotopes that have entered the food chain. The present work supports the growing evidence that low-level radiation, especially in the form of randomly scattered 'hot' alpha- and beta-particles, mainly transported via aerosols, puts a heavy burden on the biosphere in general, and on true bugs in particular. These insects could, thus, serve as sensitive 'bio-indicators' for future studies.

  11. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection applied for analysis of pteridines in two Graphosoma species (Insecta: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlík, Petr; Krajíček, Jan; Kalíková, Květa; Tesařová, Eva; Cabala, Radomír; Exnerová, Alice; Stys, Pavel; Bosáková, Zuzana

    2013-07-01

    A new separation method involving hydrophilic interaction chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection has been developed for the analysis of pteridines, namely biopterin, isoxanthopterin, leucopterin, neopterin, xanthopterin and erythropterin in the cuticle of heteropteran insect species. Two columns, Atlantis HILIC Silica and ZIC(®)-HILIC were tested for the separation of these pteridines. The effect of organic modifier content, buffer type, concentration and pH in mobile phase on retention and separation behavior of the selected pteridines was studied and the separation mechanism was also investigated. The optimized conditions for the separation of pteridines consisted of ZIC(®)-HILIC column, mobile phase composed of acetonitrile/5mM ammonium acetate, pH 6.80, 85/15 (v/v), flow rate 0.5mL/min and column temperature 30°C. Detection was performed by tandem mass spectrometry operating in electrospray ionization with Agilent Jet Stream technology using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The optimized method provided a linearity range from 0.3 to 5000ng/mL (r>0.9975) and repeatability with relative standard deviation<8.09% for all the studied pteridines. The method was applied to the analysis of pteridines in the cuticle of larvae and three adult color forms of Graphosoma lineatum and one form of Graphosoma semipunctatum (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). The analysis shows that different forms of Graphosoma species can be characterized by different distribution of individual pteridines, which affects the coloration of various forms. Only isoxanthopterin was found in all the five forms tested.

  12. Pheromone attraction and cross-attraction of Nezara, Acrosternum, and Euschistus spp. stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Aldrich, J R; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E

    2010-04-01

    Detecting infestations of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) using pheromones remains problematic, particularly so in the United States for the exotic stink bug, Nezara viridula L., and our native stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Therefore, we conducted a 2-yr on-farm study to examine the attractiveness and possible cross-attraction of the reported pheromones for N. viridula and A. hilare and those previously discovered for Euschistus servus (Say) and Plautia stali Scott to N. viridula, A. hilare, and E. servus. The attractiveness of selected pentatomid pheromones to tachinid parasitoids of stink bugs was also examined. We showed for the first time under field conditions that N. viridula can be trapped with its reported pheromone, a 3:1 trans- to cis-(Z)-alpha-bisabolene epoxide blend. In fact, attraction of N. viridula increased with higher pheromone doses. Traps baited with a 5:95 trans- to cis-(Z)-alpha-bisabolene epoxide blend, the reported male-produced A. hilare attractant pheromone, failed to attract significantly more A. hilare than did unbaited control traps. Instead A. hilare was significantly cross-attracted to the P. stali pheromone [methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate]. The E. servus pheromone [methyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate], either alone or in combination with P. stali pheromone, was more attractive to E. servus than to N. viridula, P. stali, or A. hilare pheromones. In general, tachinid parasitoids were found responsive to the male-specific volatiles of their known hosts, including the attractiveness of Trichopoda pennipes (F.) to sesquiterpenoid blends characteristic of A. hilare and N. viridula. A tachinid parasitoid of E. servus, Cylindromyia sp., seemed to be attracted to E. servus pheromone. In conclusion, our results indicate that stink bug traps baited with lures containing N. viridula pheromone blend, P. stali pheromone, and E. servus pheromone have the greatest potential for detecting populations of N. viridula, A. hilare, and E

  13. Tabelas de fertilidade e de esperança de vida de Tynacantha marginata Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Asopinae alimentado com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae e folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake Life and fecundity tables of the predator Tynacantha marginata Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae reared with Tenebrio molitor L. larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake leaves

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    Luciano Andrade Moreira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of feeding on Eucalyptus leaves on the life and fecundity tables of Tynacantha marginata Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Higher mortality of this predator occurred during second week of life, when the nymphs were starting second instar. The fecundity table showed that the nymphal period of T. marginata lasted four weeks, with viability of 57,9% and total longevity of 21 weeks. Egg oviposition period took 10 weeks. The population parameters (R0, rm and λ showed a 50.69 times populational increase after one generation.

  14. Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera

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    Diego L Carpintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.

  15. Bed bug cytogenetics: karyotype, sex chromosome system, FISH mapping of 18S rDNA, and male meiosis in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera: Cimicidae

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    Snejana Grozeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera are frequently used as examples of unusual cytogenetic characters, and the family Cimicidae is one of most interest in this respect. We have performed a cytogenetic study of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 using both classical (Schiff-Giemsa and AgNO3-staining and molecular cytogenetic techniques (base-specific DAPI/CMA3 fluorochromes and FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. Males originated from a wild population of C. lectularius were found to have 2n = 26 + X1X2Y, holokinetic chromosomes, 18S rRNA genes located on the X1 and Y chromosomes; achiasmate male meiosis of a collochore type; MI and MII plates nonradial and radial respectively.

  16. Catalog of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. VI. Hexapoda: Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Higor D D; Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth L

    2013-01-01

    A catalog of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) deposited in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to May, 2012. A total of 37 holotypes and 61 lots of paratypes of 78 species are listed in their families: Miridae and Reduviidae (infraorder: Cimicomorpha); Mesoveliidae and Velfidae (Gerromorpha); Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, and Notonectidae (Nepomorpha); and Coreidae, Geocoridae [the older sense of "Lygaeidae"], and Pentatomidae (Pentatomomorpha). The taxa are presented alphabetically by infraorders, families, and genera, followed by epithet, bibliographic citation, type category, collection number, method of preservation, and present data on the labels. When necessary, we added localities data, and changes in taxonomic status of some species

  17. The Reproductive Tract of the Males of the Zoophytophagous Predator Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae with Different Diets and Ages

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    Walkymario P. Lemos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is a common and important species for the biological control of defoliating Lepidoptera caterpillars. Although it has a predatory feeding habit, this species make use of plant resources, which are essential for the maintenance of its population in laboratory colonies as well as in the field during periods of prey shortage. Thus B. tabidus has been considered an obligate zoophytophagous insect. However the impact of the age and herbivory on the morphology of the reproductive organs has been poorly studied in predatory Pentatomidae. The morphology of the reproductive tract of B. tabidus males with different ages and fed on different diets were analyzed. Approach: Nymphs of B. tabidus were maintained in the field with or without plants and fed on T. molitor pupae without plant (T1; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus cloeziana plants (T2; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus urophylla plants (T3 or T. molitor pupae and guava plants (Psidium guajava L. (T4. Adults of B. tabidus obtained from each treatment were sexed in the first day of their emergence and thirty-six pairs were formed per treatment. Ten males of B. tabidus 15 and 21 days old, obtained in each treatment were dissected and the reproductive tract submitted to histological analyses. The total area of the testes of B. tabidus was measured and the data were submitted to the variance analysis and means between treatments were compared by the test of Newman-Keuls (p = 0.05. Results: The inner genitalia of B. tabidus males had red color and the testes with six follicles. Males 15 days old presented larger testes when fed on E. cloeziana (0.94 mm2, E. urophylla (0.98 mm2 or only T. molitor pupae (0.99 mm2 than with guava plants (0.76 mm2. Twenty-one days old B. tabidus males presented testes with similar size, independent of the diet. The testes follicles of B. tabidus had larger amount of spermatozoa with

  18. Eficiência de Metarhizium anisopliae no controle do Percevejo-do-Colmo Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae em lavoura de arroz irrigado Efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae on rice stem bug Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae control in flooded rice field

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    José Francisco da Silva Martins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-do-colmo, Tibraca limbativentris Stal, 1860 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, é altamente prejudicial à cultura do arroz no Brasil, principalmente em sistemas de cultivo irrigados por inundação. O efeito de duas formas de aplicação, conídios em suspensão e veiculados em grãos de arroz autoclavado, da cepa (CP 172 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok., no controle do percevejo, foi avaliado em três experimentos conduzidos em 1991, 1993 e 1994, em lavoura comercial de arroz irrigado. Em 1991, tanto a pulverização de conídios como a distribuição manual grãos de arroz cobertos com material fúngico em dosagem equivalente a 7,2 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1, sobre o solo e entre os colmos de arroz, onde os percevejos estavam alojados, reduziram significativamente a população natural do inseto com eficiência de controle de 52,6% e 61,8%, respectivamente. Ainda em 1991, estudo sobre o estabelecimento e persistência da cepa no solo do arrozal, com base na contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC, indicou que o fungo manteve-se viável na entressafra, até 216 dias após a aplicação, época da implantação de novos arrozais. O número de UFC foi maior nas parcelas tratadas com os grãos de arroz cobertos com material fúngico. O crescimento linear do número de UFC, no solo nas parcelas testemunhas, evidenciou disseminação do fungo para partes anteriormente não tratadas do arrozal. Resultados significativos de controle com a aplicação da suspensão de conídios e dos grãos de arroz com o fungo, na dose de 5 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1, também foram obtidos em 1993, com 51,8% e 48,2% de eficiência, respectivamente. Em 1994, a aplicaç��o da suspensão de 5 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1 resultou em 39,5% de controle do inseto. O índice de confirmação de infeção, contudo, foi baixo, nos dois anos, atingindo, no máximo, 20%, em 1993. O baixo número de insetos com micose, em comparação ao índice de mortalidade

  19. Morphology of olfactory sensilla and its role in host plant recognition by Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Heteroptera: Alydidae

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    Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The external morphology of the sensilla, including pores and permeable points on the cuticle of the antennae of adults of Neomegalotomus parvus (West. (Heteroptera: Alydidae was investigated with regard to their olfactory function. Behavioural evidence of olfaction, the importance of the different antennal segments in locating the host under still-air, and the responses of the insects to plants' scents and to pheromones in wind assays were also studied. With the scanning electronic microscope mechanoreceptor sensilla were found on the four segments of the antennae of N. parvus. The density of the sensilla was greater on the 4th segment. On the apical segment, sensilla with olfactory morphological traits were observed. Bugs with intact antennae located food more frequently and faster than those with blocked or amputated antennae. N. parvus preferred intact seeds to sealed seeds, but there was no preference when the last segment of the antenna was blocked. In wind tunnel, bugs were attracted to mature and green pods, and to hexanic extract of mature pods of pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.; there was no response to panicles of rice, Oryza sativa L. or to the male pheromone.A morfologia externa dos sensilos de adultos de Neomegalotomus parvus (Westw. (Het.: Alydidae, incluindo poros e pontos permeáveis na cutícula, foi estudada em microscópio eletrônico de varredura, em relação à função olfativa. A evidência comportamental do olfato e a importância dos diferentes segmentos antenais na localização do hospedeiro, em condições de ausência de movimentação do ar, foram também estudados. Sensilos mecanoreceptores foram observados nos quatro segmentos da antena de N. parvus, sendo no entanto, a densidade maior no quarto segmento. Nos segmentos apicais, foram observados sensilos com características morfológicas olfativas. Percevejos com antenas intactas localizaram o alimento com mais freqü��ncia e rapidez do que aqueles com

  20. Potencial reprodutivo de Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae influenciado pelo peso do corpo da fêmea - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2081 Reproductive potential of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae affected by female body weight - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2081

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    Jose Eduardo Serrão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O potencial reprodutivo de fêmeas de Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae de duas classes de peso foi avaliado. Machos e fêmeas desse predador foram obtidos de ninfas alimentadas com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Foram analisadas fêmeas com peso inferior a 45 mg (fêmeas leves e superior a 60 mg (fêmeas pesadas. A longevidade e os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição e pós-oviposição foram semelhantes entre fêmeas das duas classes de peso, enquanto aquelas mais pesadas apresentaram maior número de posturas, ovos, ovos/postura e ninfas. Períodos entre posturas e de incubação dos ovos foram menores para fêmeas com peso superior a 60mg. Esses resultados são discutidos em relação ao uso de fêmeas mais pesadas de S. cincticeps para aumentar a produção em criação massal desse predadorThe reproductive potential of Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae females of two weight classes was evaluated with males and females of this predator obtained from nymphs fed on Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. Females of S. cincticeps weighing less than 45 mg (light females and more than 60 mg (heavy females constituted the treatments. Pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods besides adult longevity were similar between treatments while number of egg masses, eggs, eggs/egg mass and number of nymphs hatched were higher for heavier females. Periods between egg mass laying and egg incubation were shorter for insects of the last treatment. These results are discussed in relation to the use of heavier females of S. cincticeps to improve mass rearing of this predator in laboratory

  1. Nuevas asociaciones entre Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae) y Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) fitófagos en la pampa ondulada (Argentina) y descripción del macho de Dallasimyia bosqi Blanchard

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo G. LILJESTHRÖM; Delia S. AVALOS

    2015-01-01

    Las relaciones entre parasitoides Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae) y sus huéspedes Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) son escasamente conocidas en la Argentina. Se presentan nuevas asociaciones hospedador-parasitoide en la pampa ondulada, y se describe por primera vez el macho adulto de Dallasimyia bosqi Blanchard. Se efectuaron muestreos quincenales de hemípteros adultos durante primavera-verano de 2005, 2006 y 2012 en áreas de vegetación espontánea y cultivos de trébol rojo y soja en camp...

  2. Biology, behaviour and functional response of Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae a predator of Tea Mosquito Bug (Helopeltis antonii Sign. on cashew in India

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    K.K. Srikumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae are major sucking pests of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. in India. Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae is recorded as a potential predator of Helopeltis spp. Biology, mating behaviour and functional response of C. gilvus were studied by rearing in the laboratory (temperature 26-28 0C; relative humidity 89-94 % with wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae. Based on laboratory rearing, the fecundity was 56.33 eggs in 8.67 batches per female. The average stadial period was 37.3 days, with a maximum of 11 days for V instar and a minimum of 4.5 days for III instars. C. gilvus took 45.5 days to complete a generation. The innate capacity of natural increase was 0.07 with a gross reproduction of 67.8 females per female. The adult exhibited a pin and jab mode of predation in a sequence of actions. The sequential action of mating comprised arousal (1.32 min, approach (12.30 min, riding over (140.48 min and copulation (85.40 min. The predator responded to increasing prey density by killing more prey than at lower prey densities

  3. Composição de Heteroptera aquáticos e semi-aquáticos na área de abrangência da U.H.E. Dona Francisca, RS, Brasil: fase de pré-enchimento Composition of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera at the Hydroelectric Power Station of Dona Francisca region, RS, Brazil: before dam construction

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    Damaris B. Neri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi analisada a composição dos Heteroptera do curso médio da bacia do rio Jacuí, RS, Brasil, previamente à construção da U.H.E. Dona Francisca, bem como alguns fatores abióticos que poderiam afetar a distribuição e a abundância destes organismos. Nos ambientes lênticos, amostragens quantitativas foram realizadas utilizando-se peneiras, em seis localidades (janeiro 2000. Nos ambientes lóticos, as coletas foram feitas através de amostrador de Surber (de maio a outubro de 2000, privilegiando-se a captura de espécies tipicamente bentônicas. Em cada estação, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, precipitação mensal, temperatura do ar e da água e profundidade foram medidos. Nos rios e riachos, a velocidade da corrente também foi registrada. Quinze espécies foram registradas nos ambientes lênticos, sendo Belostoma sp. e Notonecta sp. as dominantes (70%. A abundância, a riqueza e os índices de diversidade foram mais altos nos locais com maiores dimensões. Nos ambientes lóticos, foram assinaladas duas espécies de Naucoridae, Ambrysus teutonius La Rivers, 1951 e Cryphocricus vianai De Carlo, 1951, sendo a primeira dominante (65%. A abundância foi maior nos pontos com maior sombreamento, presença de árvores e/ou com detritos vegetais, ou com a macrófita Podostemum sp. (Podostemaceae no fundo, e mais baixa em locais com curso semi-regulado. Possivelmente, fatores como temperatura e precipitação acumulada estejam relacionados com a abundância mensal dos Naucoridae. Os resultados deste estudo servirão de subsídio para futuros estudos de impacto ambiental após o enchimento do reservatório da U.H.E. Dona Francisca.The Heteroptera composition in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin, RS, Brazil, and some abiotic factors that might affect their distribution and abundance were studied previously to the Dona Francisca dam construction. The insects were quantitatively sampled in six sites, in lentic environments, with

  4. Karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative FISH mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA and telomeric (TTAGGn repeat in eight species of true bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

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    Snejana Grozeva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using DAPI/CMA3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with telomeric (TTAGGn and 18S rDNA probes. Standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for Deraeocoris rutilus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838 (2n=30+2m+XY and D. ruber (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=30+2m+XY from the family Miridae. Using FISH, the location of a 18S rDNA cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: Megaloceroea recticornis (Geoffroy, 1785 (2n=30+XY from the Miridae; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787 (2n=14+2m+XY from the Lygaeidae s.l.; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=22+X from the Pyrrhocoridae; Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=12+XY and Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=12+XY from the Pentatomidae. The species were found to differ with respect to location of a 18S rRNA gene cluster which resides on autosomes in O. lavaterae and P. apterus, whereas it locates on sex chromosomes in other five species. The 18S rDNA location provides the first physical landmark of the genomes of the species studied. The insect consensus telomeric pentanucleotide (TTAGGn was demonstrated to be absent in all the species studied in this respect, D. rutilus, M. recticornis, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Cimicidae, E. oleracea, and G. lineatum, supporting the hypothesis that this motif was lost in early evolution of the Heteroptera and secondarily replaced with another motif (yet unknown or the alternative telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Dot-blot hybridization analysis of the genomic DNA from C. lectularius, Nabis sp. and O. lavaterae with (TTAGGn and six other telomeric probes likewise provided a negative result.

  5. Imidacloprid affects the functional response of predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) to strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, J B; Ramalho, F S; Omoto, C; Godoy, W A C; Silveira, R F

    2014-03-01

    Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is one of the most common asopine species in the neotropical region and its occurrence was reported in several countries of South and Central America, as an important biological control agent for many crops. This study was carried out to identify the imidacloprid impacts on the functional response of predator P. nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strain resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, on Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac (Bollgard(®)). Spodoptera frugiperda larvae were used in the following conditions: resistant (1) and susceptible (2) strains to lambda-cyhalothrin fed on Bollgard(®) cotton leaves (DP 404 BG); and resistant (3) and susceptible (4) strains to lambda-cyhalothrin fed on non-genetically modified cotton leaves (cultivar DP4049). The predatory behavior of P. nigrispinus was affected by imidacloprid and the type II asymptotic curve was the one that best described the functional response data. Handling time (T h ) of predator females did not differ among treatments in the presence of imidacloprid. The attack rate did decrease, however, due to an increase in the density of larvae offered. Regardless of the treatment (S. frugiperda strain or cotton cultivar), the predation of P. nigrispinus females on S. frugiperda larvae was significantly lower when exposed to imidacloprid, especially at a density of 16 larvae/predator. The predation behavior of P. nigrispinus on S. frugiperda larvae is affected by the insecticide imidacloprid showing that its applications should be used in cotton crop with caution.

  6. Prey scarcity at the beginning of fifth instar: effect of Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae plants on reproduction, longevity, and weight of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Asopinae

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    R Pinto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervals without prey during the fifth instar and nutrient quality may affect reproduction, longevity, and weight of the zoophytophagous predator Brontocoris tabidus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Asopinae. This asopine was reared on Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae trees under field conditions at 23 ± 6 o C, 76 ± 9 % RH and 13:11 (dark:light h photoperiod. The experiment was developed with 60 B. tabidus nymphs individualized in organza bags (31 cm long × 21 cm diameter. One group of nymphs received only Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae and water without E. urophylla trees (T1. Other nymphs were reared on E. urophylla trees and fed with T. molitor pupae and water during the second, third, and fourth instars and twenty of them per group after zero, five, and 10 days from the beginning of the fifth instar making up the treatments T2, T3, and T4, respectively. The period without prey increased duration of the fifth instar for males in the T3 and T4 while female weight was lower in the T4. The oviposition period was shorter and the number of egg masses of B. tabidus was lower in the T1 than in the T2, T3, and T4. The highest egg numbers were found in the T2 and T3 with about 4 times more eggs than in the T1. The number of nymphs was low and the percentage of nymph hatching higher in the T1. The interval of five and 10 days without prey from the beginning of the fifth instar did not affect the duration and survival of this instar and supplementation with E. urophylla increased the reproductive capacity of the predator B. tabidus.

  7. Efecto de la alternación de fuentes sanguíneas sobre la fecundidad y la fertilidad de Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

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    Elis José Aldana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evidencia que si el éxito reproductivo de Rhodnius prolixus Stal está relacionado a la fuente alimentaria, entonces las necesidades biológicas del insecto son satisfechas en modos diferentes según el tipo de alternancia entre dichas fuentes de alimentación; tales diferencias son reveladas mediante los cambios en fertilidad y fecundidad del insecto. Se realizaron nueve alternancias, en cada una se suministraron dos alimentaciones, en unas se alternó la fuente de alimentación y en los controles se suministraron dos alimentaciones con la misma fuente. Las fuentes alimentarias fueron paloma, gallina y humano, esta última mediante un aparato de alimentación artificial; estas fuentes se escogieron en el supuesto que son fuentes alimentarias encontradas en los ecotopos silvestre, peri-domicilio y domicilio respectivamente. En todos los tipos de alternancia se encontró una relación lineal entre la fecundidad y el tiempo de oviposición, que la relación entre cantidad de sangre ingerida y la fecundidad varían, que la tasa de fecundidad aumenta en la segunda alimentación respecto a la primera y que la fertilidad fue superior al 95 %. Effects of alternating blood sources on fecundity and fertility of Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: ReduviidaeIn this work it is argued that if the reproductive parameters of Rhodnius prolixus Stal are related to the blood source upon which it feeds, then the insects biological needs must be satisfied in different ways by the alternation between blood sources, reveled through changes in the fecundity and fertility of individuals of this insect species. Nine experiments were conducted, each one consisting of two feedings, in which the blood source were either alternated or remained the same. The meal sources used were pigeon, hen and human blood, selected according to the resources found in the sylvatic, peri-domestic and domestic ecotopes respectively. It was found that the quantity of

  8. Development and thermal requirements of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); Desenvolvimento e exigencias termicas de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Simone Martins; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: mmsimone@brfree.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2005-10-15

    The temperature strongly influences the development time of insects and the understanding of this aspect for natural enemies is essential for its use as biocontrol agents and for mass rearing purpose. The objective of this work was evaluating the effect of different temperatures on the development time of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) as well as its thermal requirements. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 {+-} 1 deg C; RH 70 {+-} 10% and photo phase 12h. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) were provided as food. The embryonic period was 14.0, 8.9, 6.6, 4.8, 3.9 and 3.3 days at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C, respectively. Nymphs of all instars (independent of originated sex) were affected by the temperature on their development time; there was a reduction of this period with the increase of the temperature. Males and females presented a development time about 12 days at 25 deg C. The developmental thresholds (To) for egg stage was estimated at 11.78 deg C, and for the nymphal phase were 12.27 deg C and 13.03 deg C for males and females, respectively. The thermal constants (K) for egg stage (63.75 day-degrees) and for nymphal stage were 161.97 and 157.24 day-degrees, for males and females, respectively. The temperature of 25 deg C was the most suitable for development time of O. insidiosus. (author)

  9. Nuevas asociaciones entre Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae y Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera fitófagos en la pampa ondulada (Argentina y descripción del macho de Dallasimyia bosqi Blanchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo G. LILJESTHRÖM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones entre parasitoides Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae y sus huéspedes Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera son escasamente conocidas en la Argentina. Se presentan nuevas asociaciones hospedador-parasitoide en la pampa ondulada, y se describe por primera vez el macho adulto de Dallasimyia bosqi Blanchard. Se efectuaron muestreos quincenales de hemípteros adultos durante primavera-verano de 2005, 2006 y 2012 en áreas de vegetación espontánea y cultivos de trébol rojo y soja en campos de los partidos de La Plata, Magdalena y Chivilcoy (Buenos Aires. Los hemípteros capturados se criaron bajo condiciones controladas, los que tenían huevos de parasitoides pegados en el corion se mantuvieron hasta su muerte, y aquellos sin evidencia de parasitismo se mantuvieron hasta 25-30 días. Cada huésped muerto fue depositado en un recipiente con tierra húmeda y cubierto con una malla de nylon. Los parasitoides adultos emergidos fueron acondicionados para su identificación. Se registraron cinco nuevas asociaciones: E. meditabunda - Cilindromyia brasiliana y Homogenia sp., D. furcatus -Trichopoda argentinensis y Dallasimyia bosqi, y C. armigera - Trichopoda giacomellii, y la ya conocida N. viridula - Trichopoda giacomellii. Colecciones de referencia se encuentran depositadas en el Museo de La Plata, Argentina (MLP y en el Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil (MZSP.

  10. Arreglo de los polígonos del exocorion de huevos eclosionados de algunas especies de los géneros Triatoma Laporte, Meccus Stal y Nesotriatoma Usinger (Heteroptera: Reduviidae.

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    Glauco López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En este trabajo se estudiaron estructural y cuantitativamente las celdas exocoriales de huevos eclosionados de Triatoma infestans (Klug, Triatoma lenti Sherlock & Serafim, Triatoma maculata (Erichson, Triatoma sordida (Stal, Meccus picturatus (Usinger, Meccus longipennis (Usinger, Meccus pallidipennis (Stal and Nesotriatoma flavida (Neiva. Los huevos se analizaron por regiones: caudal, media y cefálica. Se encontró que el hexágono fue el polígono más abundante en todas las regiones del huevo y en todas las especies, seguido del pentágono y del heptágono; se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el número tanto de hexágonos y pentágonos entre regiones de una misma especie y entre la misma región de las diferentes especies, sin embargo, el número promedio de heptágonos no varió al comparar la región media entre las diferentes especies y al comparar las diferentes regiones en una misma especie. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el promedio de polígonos, segmentos totales, heptágonos, hexágonos y pentágonos, al comparar las especies examinadas del género Meccus. Se propone un protocolo de identificación y análisis de teselaciones, con el cual se encontró que en 108 campos examinados de 385.000 µm2 cada uno, se identificaron teselaciones compartidas en los 108 campos observados con determinadas combinaciones de heptágonos, hexágonos y pentágonos, y se observaron teselaciones no compartidas en la totalidad de los campos, con combinaciones de polígonos de cuatro a nueve lados, y cada teselación se representó por un grafo. Se discuten las implicaciones taxonómicas, funcionales, filogenéticas y construccionales de los arreglos poligonales descritos.Arragement of exochorial polygons of hatched eggs in several species of the genera Triatoma Laporte, Meccus Stal y Nesotriatoma Usinger (Heteroptera: Reduviidae. Abstract. In this study a structural and quantitative

  11. Identification of Endophytic Bacteria and Preliminary Research on Their Growth-promoting Effect under Salt Stress in Suaeda heteroptera Kitag%翅碱蓬内生细菌鉴定及耐盐促生作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮旭光; 韩梅; 宋立超; 肖亦农

    2011-01-01

    对盐生植物翅碱蓬的根、茎、叶组织进行分离,纯化,得到内生细菌79株,经形态学和理化特征鉴定并结合16S rDNA片段测序分析,表明这些内生细菌分别属于芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter)、假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)、黄单胞菌属(Xanthomonas)、盐单胞菌属(Halomonas)和泛菌属(Pantoea).通过考察所分离到细菌对异缘植物小麦盐分胁迫下种子萌发率和幼苗生长的促进作用,筛选出2株能够显著提高小麦耐盐性的内生芽孢细菌SE48和SE4.150mM NaCl胁迫条件下,SE48和SE4处理小麦的干重分别增加43.6%和36.8%;甚至在300mM NaCl胁迫条件下,SE48仍能使小麦幼苗于重增加18.5%.这表明翅碱蓬的内生细菌可望用于宿主耐盐性的提高及盐碱地土壤的开发利用.%79 endophytic bacteria strains were isolated and purified from the roots,stems and leaves of a halophyte, Suaeda heteroptera. According to physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis,these strains were classified into 6 different genera:Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Xanthonumas, Halomonas and Pantoea. According to the stimulation of endophytic bacteria to the seed germination and seedling growth of heterologous wheat under salt stress,two strains (SE48 and SE4)could significantly improve the salt tolerance of host plants. SE48 and SE4 could significantly promote the growth of wheat seedlings in the presence of 150mM NaCl by increasing 31.37% and 40.21% of the dry weight,respectively. SE48 could even raise the dry weight by 18.5% under 300mM NaCl. The results showed that inoculation with endophytic bacteria could serve as an environmentally-friendly and economical alternative to the amelioration of increasingly saline soils.

  12. Toxicidade de produtos fitossanitários para adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae Pesticide toxicity to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

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    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade de abamectin, acephate, azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorfenapyr, imibenconazole, iprodion, metalaxyl + mancozeb e triforine para adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os produtos foram utilizados nas concentrações indicadas pelos fabricantes e/ou que estão em fase de pesquisa para o controle de pragas e doenças na cultura do crisântemo, sendo aplicados em adultos por meio de torre de Potter. Os bioensaios foram realizados em laboratório, sob temperatura de 25±2 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. A toxicidade dos produtos para adultos foi determinada pela porcentagem do efeito total (E%, levando-se em consideração a taxa de mortalidade e redução de oviposição, sendo, ainda, classificados segundo escala proposta por membros da IOBC. Abamectin, acephate e chlorfenapyr são tóxicos a adultos de O. insidiosus, provocando redução na sua sobrevivência. Fêmeas adultas de O. insidiosus tratadas com abamectin e acephate têm a viabilidade de seus ovos reduzida, enquanto a aplicação de abamectin e chlorfenapyr prolongam seu período de oviposição. Os fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomyl, imibenconazole, iprodione, metalaxyl + mancozeb e triforine têmbaixa toxicidade ao O. insidiosus.The aim of this work wasevaluate the toxicity of abamectin, acephate, azoxystrobin, benomyl, chlorfenapyr, imibenconazole, iprodione, metalaxyl + mancozeb and triforine on adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. These pesticides were used at the concentrations indicated by the manufacturers. All of them are in testing process for pest and diseases control on chrysanthemums crop, and were spraying on adults using a Potter's tower. The bioassays were carried out in laboratory, under controlled conditions at 25±2ºC, RH of 70±10% and 12-h photophase. The toxicity of the pesticides to adults was determined by the total effect (E, considering the mortality rate and oviposition reduction. Toxicity effect was classified according to scale proposed by IOBC. Abamectin, acephate and chlorfenapyr were toxic to adults de O. insidiosus, and caused reduction in their survival. Females of O. insidiosus treated with abamectin and acephate caused reduction on eggs viability, whereas the application of abamectin and chlorfenapyr cause encrease on pre-oviposition period. The fungicides azoxystrobin, benomyl, imibenconazole, iprodione, metalaxyl + mancozeb and triforine presented low toxicity to O. insidiosus.

  13. Leptocorisa Latreille in Indonesia (Heteroptera, Coreidae, Alydinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwi, Sri S.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of the taxonomy and distribution of the Leptocorisa species in the Indonesian archipelago, primarily based on the material present in the Dutch museums, and on data from the literature. Thirteen species are found to be present in Indonesia: L. acuta (Thunberg), L. ayamaruensis Does

  14. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

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    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  15. Optimization an optimal artificial diet for the predatory bug Orius sauteri (hemiptera: anthocoridae.

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    Xiao-Ling Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flower bug Orius sauteri is an important polyphagous predator that is widely used for the biological control of mites and aphids. However, the optimal conditions for mass rearing of this insect are still unclear, thus limiting its application. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we investigated the optimal ingredients of an artificial diet for raising O. sauteri using a microencapsulation technique. The ingredients included egg yolk (vitellus, whole-pupa homogenate of the Tussah silk moth (Antheraea paphia, honey, sucrose, rapeseed (Brassica napus pollen and sinkaline. We tested 25 combinations of the above ingredients using an orthogonal experimental design. Using statistical analysis, we confirmed the main effect factors amongst the components, and selected five optimal combinations based on different biological and physiological characters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed that, although different artificial diet formats significantly influenced the development and reproductive ability of O. sauteri, the complete development of O. sauteri to sexual maturity could only be achieved by optimizing the artificial diet according to specific biological characters. In general, pupae of A. paphia had more influence on O sauteri development than did artificial components. The results of a follow-up test of locomotory and respiratory capacity indicated that respiratory quotient, metabolic rate and average creeping speed were all influenced by different diets. Furthermore, the field evaluations of mating preference, predatory consumption and population dispersion also demonstrated the benefits that could be provided by optimal artificial diets. CONCLUSIONS: A microencapsulated artificial diet overcame many of the difficulties highlighted by previous studies on the mass rearing of O. sauteri. Optimization of the microencapsulated artificial diet directly increased the biological and physiological characters investigated. Successive physiological tests and field investigations were used to evaluate the outcome of different artificial diet combinations on the quality of the reared O. sauteri.

  16. Influence of photoperiod on Orius thyestes Herring (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) reproduction and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alessandra R; Bueno, Vanda H P; Pedroso, Elizabeth C; Kon, Leonardo I; Diniz, Alexandre J F; Silva, Robson J

    2006-01-01

    Several species of Orius Wolff are used in biological control of thrips in protected cultivations in temperate regions, but some of them show reproductive diapause, compromising the efficiency of these agents of biological control. There are no reports on the biology of the neotropical species Orius thyestes Herring under different environmental conditions. The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of photoperiod on reproduction and longevity of this predator. Nymphs were kept in petri dishes in climatic chambers at 28+/-1 degree C, 70+/-10% RH and under the photoperiods of 12L:12D, 11L:13D, 10 L:14D e 09L:15D. The mating adults were kept in petri dishes with Bidens pilosa L. Asteraceae inflorescences as oviposition substracts and eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as food. The pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity and longevity were evaluated and O. thyestes did not show reprodutive diapause in all photoperiod conditions established. The mean number of eggs obtained per female decreased with the reduction of the photophase, with a difference (P < 0.05) between the values obtained in 12h and 9h of photophase. Longevity of females and males under 9h photophase was shorter (P < 0.05) than in all other photoperiods tested. The knowledge of the biology of the natural enemy under different conditions allows to optimise the mass rearing and to predict the performance of the predator in different photoperiods which may occur along the year and in greenhouses.

  17. Effect of different diets on reproduction, longevity and predation capacity of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calixto, A.M.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Montes, F.C.; Silva, A.C.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Orius insidiosus is a generalist predator for which diet influences important biological traits like reproduction and predation. We tested the effects of different diets alone or in combination on reproduction, longevity and predation capacity of this predator. The diets tested were: no food (contro

  18. Lethal and sublethal effects of insecticide residues on Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzen, G W

    2001-02-01

    Laboratory-reared predators, the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say), and big-eyed bug Geocoris punctipes (Say), were exposed to 10 insecticides, including three newer insecticides with novel modes of action, using a residual insecticide bioassay. These species are important predators of several economic pests of cotton. Insecticides tested were: azinphos-methyl, imidacloprid, spinosad, tebufenozide, fipronil, endosulfan, chlorfenapyr, cyfluthrin, profenofos, and malathion. There was considerable variation in response between both species tested to the insecticides. Tebufenozide and cyfluthrin were significantly less toxic to male O. insidiosus than malathion. Tebufenozide was also significantly less toxic to female O. insidiosus than malathion. Imidacloprid, tebufenozide, and spinosad were significantly less toxic to male G. punctipes than chlorfenapyr, endosulfan, and fipronil. Spinosad, tebufenozide, and azinphos-methyl were significantly less toxic to female G. punctipes than fipronil and endosulfan. Fecundity of O. insidiosus was significantly greater in the spinosad treatment compared with other treatments including the control. Consumption of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), eggs by O. insidiosus was significantly lower in the fipronil, profenofos, and cyfluthrin treatments compared with other treatments including the control. Consumption of H. zea eggs by G. punctipes was significantly lower in the malathion, profenofos, endosulfan, fipronil, azinphos-methyl, and imidacloprid treatments compared with the control. Egg consumption by G. punctipes was not significantly different in the tebufenozide treatment compared with the control. The lower toxicity of spinosad to G. punctipes is consistent with other reports. Based on these results, the following insecticides are not compatible with integrated pest management of cotton pests: malathion, endosulfan, profenofos, fipronil, and cyfluthrin; while imidacloprid, tebufenozide, azinphos-methyl, and spinosad should provide pest control while sparing beneficial species.

  19. Toxicity and sublethal effects of seven insecticides to eggs of the flower bug Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Gontijo, Pablo da Costa; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Oliveira, Rodrigo Lopes de; Maia, Jader Braga; Silva, Fernanda Fonseca e

    2013-07-01

    The predatory bug Orius insidiosus is an important biological control agent of several insect pests, and is one of the most commonly used species in biological control programs worldwide. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on this species through life table, and classified the insecticides according to the definitions of toxicity given by the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC). A bioassay was carried out using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and 40 replicates. Eggs of O. insidiosus laid naturally in plant stems were immersed in aqueous solutions of the chemical products. Egg viability, duration of the embryonic period, survival of nymphs, and duration of the nymphal period were assessed daily. Insects that reached adulthood were paired and their reproduction assessed. The number of eggs produced and the survival of adults were assessed daily. The insecticides abamectin, cartap hydrochloride, spirotetramat+imidacloprid, and flubendiamid were classified as harmful. Pyriproxyfen and rynaxypyr were categorized as harmless and pymetrozine was classified as slightly harmful. Pyriproxyfen affected the population parameters rm, GT, DT, and λ, whereas other insecticides did not.

  20. Screening of Bt isolates with insecticidal activity against Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera:Miridae)and bioassay of Cry15Aa polypeptides%对绿盲蝽具有杀虫活性Bt菌株的筛选及Cry15Aa蛋白活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学雯; 束长龙; 陆宴辉; 刘春颖; 张杰; 高继国

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic cotton with cry genes has controlled the main cotton pests (Helicoverpa armigera )effective-ly,however another non target mirid bugs (Heteroptera:Miridae)with sucking mouthparts have increased popu-lation sizes year by year.It has not been reported to the effective insecticidal genes of Bacillus thuringiensis a-gainst Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür),in this study,Bt insecticidal genes and isolates stored in our laboratory were prepared to assay the insecticidal activity against A.lucorum .The cry 15Aa gene which belongs to Mtx in our lab was used to perform the bioassay to A.lucorum ,the result showed that Cry15Aa polypeptides was certain insecticidal activity against A.lucorum .After bioassay against A.lucorum ,twenty A.lucorum toxic Bt isolates were obtained.The LC-MS/MS identification showed these isolates might contains Cry1Aa,Cry1Ab,Cry1Ac, Cry1Ae,Cry1Af,Cry1Ag,Cry1Ah,Cry1Ba,Cry1Be,Cry8Ha and other proteins which are insecticidal to lepi-doptera and coleopteran pests,and four of them contains peptide fragment similar to Cry15Aa which belong to Mtx protein.But subsequence gene identification results indicated that these isolates not contains full length cry 15Aa gene,it suggested that these isolates contains new cry 15 type genes.The results indicated that these Bt i-solates may contain new insecticidal proteins toxic to mirid bugs.The obtaining of novel Bt isolates and the discovery of Cry15Aa with insecticidal activity against A.lucorum are significant to the biological control for A.lucorum .%Bt 棉有效控制了棉田主要害虫棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera ),然而原来处于次要地位的刺吸式口器害虫盲蝽(Heteroptera:Miridae)为害逐年加重,目前对绿盲蝽(Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür)有效的抗虫基因未见报道。本研究以本实验室保存的 Bt 杀虫基因和菌株为材料,对绿盲蝽进行杀虫活性筛选。利用本实验室先前克隆的Mtx 类杀虫基因 cry15Aa 表达产物进行绿

  1. A new species of Thaumamannia from Surinam (Heteroptera, Tingidae, Vianaidinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.

    1977-01-01

    During soil fauna investigations performed in 1959 by Dr. J. van der Drift (see his study, 1963), three specimens were collected of a small coleopteroid heteropteron, representing a new species belonging to the genus Thaumamannia Drake & Davis, 1960. Up till now, only one other species in this genus

  2. Nieuwe en interessante Nederlandse wantsen III (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.; Hermes, D.

    2009-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt een overzicht gegeven van 38 soorten nieuwe of anderszins interessante Nederlandse wantsen. Corythucha ciliata (Tingidae), Macrolophus rubi, Orthotylus ochrotrichus (Miridae), Amphiareus constrictus, Buchananiella continua, Cardiasthetus fasciiventris, Lyctocoris dimidiatus (Ant

  3. A new Stenolemus from the Philippines (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Emesinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.

    1975-01-01

    During investigations of fig-wasps in the Philippines in 1964, Dr. J. T. Wiebes collected a new species of bug, a small reduviid belonging to the genus Stenolemus Signoret: its description is presented here. For comparison, the type specimen of Stenolemus crassirostris Stâl, 1870 (similarly from the

  4. Effectiveness of Thiamethoxam in Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera; Pentatomidae) control.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Meneses; Jorge García de la Osa; Manuel Delgado

    2009-01-01

    Tibraca limbativentris was first reported in Cuba in 2007 by Dr. Horacio Grillo, among some insects collected from experimental plats at the Rice Research Institute in Bauta, Havana and also from “Sur del Jíbaro” Rice Experimental Station in Sancti Spíritus. This experiment was carried out at “Sur del Jíbaro” Station in order to determine the control done by Thiamethoxam over T. limbativentris adults. Three formulations of Thiamethoxam + Difenoconazol + Fludioxonil (312.5 g ai./l FS) for see...

  5. Effectiveness of Thiamethoxam in Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera; Pentatomidae control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tibraca limbativentris was first reported in Cuba in 2007 by Dr. Horacio Grillo, among some insects collected from experimental plats at the Rice Research Institute in Bauta, Havana and also from “Sur del Jíbaro” Rice Experimental Station in Sancti Spíritus. This experiment was carried out at “Sur del Jíbaro” Station in order to determine the control done by Thiamethoxam over T. limbativentris adults. Three formulations of Thiamethoxam + Difenoconazol + Fludioxonil (312.5 g ai./l FS for seed treatment were evaluated; and Thiamethoxam + Lambda+cyhalotrina (247 g ai/l and Thiamethoxam (250 g ai/l, both for foliar treatment. All the Thiamethoxam foliar treatments obtained a control of more than 70% six days after their application.Best result was obtained by Thiamethoxam + Lambda-cyhalotrina (247 g ai/l per hectare. By the other hand, seed control resulted low, among other problems, because of arrangement moment of T. limbativentris adults. Feeding and egg deposition of T. limbativentris in treatment without insecticide application resulted the highest of all, obtaining 41.6% of dead hearts, six days after insects arrangement.

  6. Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) tolerates high concentrations of dietary nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT S. BOYD

    2007-01-01

    Nickel hyperaccumulator plants contain unusually elevated levels of Ni (> 1 000 μg Ni/g). Some insect herbivores, including Lygus hesperus (Western tarnished plant bug), have been observed feeding on the California Ni hyperaccumulator Streptanthus polygaloides. This bug may be able to utilize S. polygaloides as a host either through its feeding behavior or by physiological tolerance of Ni. This experiment determined the Ni tolerance of L. hesperus by offering insects artificial diet amended with 0,0.4, 1, 2, 4.5,10, 20 and 40 mmol Ni/L and recording survival. Survival varied due to Ni concentration, with diets containing 10 mmol Ni/L and greater resulting in significantly lower survival compared to the control (0 mmol Ni/L) treatment. Insects tolerated diet containing as much as 4.5 mmol Ni/L, a relatively elevated Ni concentration. I conclude that L. hesperus can feed on S. polygaloides because it is Ni-tolerant, probably due to physiological mechanisms that provide it with resistance to plant chemical defenses including elemental defenses such as hyperaccumulated Ni.

  7. True bug (Heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yede; Babin, R; Djieto-Lordon, C; Cilas, C; Dibog, L; Mahob, R; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-08-01

    The real impact of true bug damage on cocoa pods has never been assessed precisely. We conducted a 2-yr study on 1,080 cocoa trees on 36 farms in Cameroon to assess the contribution of true bugs to fruit mortality and production loss. The cocoa fruiting cycle, fruit mortality, and damage caused by true bugs as well as other pests and diseases were monitored on a weekly basis. True bug damage also was described on 2,500 ripe pods per year. Pod weight, bean number, and bean weight were measured and compared for different degrees and types of damage on the ripe pods. Our results showed that true bugs were the main external cause of young fruit abortion. They reduced the abundance of young fruit by up to 10%. In contrast, although one-third of the ripe pods sampled had true bug lesions, only 4% were moderately to heavily damaged. The mean weight of ripe pods was reduced by 12% when there was medium to heavy damage. While the mean weight of wet beans was reduced significantly (by 3-10%), the number of beans per pod was not changed by damage. Despite the reduction in mean weight, the overall weight of beans for the pods sampled was reduced by fruit mortality.

  8. The genus Paracholula (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Rhyparochromidae: Rhyparochrominae: Myodochini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Luis Cervantes; Santacruz, Jezabel Baez

    2014-01-07

    The genus Paracholula Harrington has been represented by two species, P. picta (Fab) and P. thoracica (Distant), both recorded from Mexico. Individuals of one population from Guerrero were studied and compared with individuals of both species from different collections, including the types. Using scanning electron micrographs of different structures, and observation of the male genitalia of some individuals, together with a close examination of all the individuals from the population from Guerrero, we discovered, that there is great variation in all the structures and that some characters that were used to separate the two species are present within the population from Guerrero. Therefore we synonymize both species, stating that the valid name for this species is Paracholula picta (Fab). Descriptions and illustrations of all the immature stages from the Guerrero population are included. Notes about host plants, biology and distributional records are also included.

  9. The rediscovery of Stenogeocoris horvathi Montandon (Heteroptera, Geocoridae in Argentina

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    Pablo M. Dellapé

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stenogeocoris Montandon, 1913 was described to include S. horvathi based in one specimen from Córdoba Province, Argentina. The type specimen is lost and there are no records or additional material since the Montandon's description; thus, the identity of this taxon has remained uncertain until now. In this contribution, we redescribe the genus Stenogeocoris and the species S. horvathi, based on male and female specimens, including characters from the male genitalia, and compare Stenogeocoris with the other Neotropical genera

  10. Distributional patterns of the American Peiratinae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, del C M.

    1996-01-01

    Based on distributional data of 40 species of Peiratinae, historical relationships of five Amazonian areas (Paranaense, Atlantic, Pacific, Amazonian, and Cerrado) and two Chacoan areas (Chaco and Caatinga), were investigated through a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE). The resulting area cladog

  11. On the systematic position of Scotomedes (Heteroptera, Nabidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1945-01-01

    In the collection of the Leiden Museum there is preserved the holotype of Scotomedes ater Stål. I was much surprised to discover that Velocipeda biguttula Reut. is a synonym of it. Distant described another Scotomedes-species in his "Fauna of British India" under the name: Godefridus alienus, bringi

  12. A new genus and species in Velocipedidae (Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg Jr., van P.H.

    1970-01-01

    Dedicated to Dr. H. C. Blöte on the occasion of his 70th birthday. In the collection of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, the author found a peculiar and most interesting specimen belonging to the Heteropterous family Velocipedidae. It appears to be quite different from the represe

  13. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Hassan; Chérot, Frédéric

    2014-07-30

    An updated list of Iranian Miridae Hahn, 1833 is provided and discussed. Seven subfamilies (Bryocorinae, Cylapinae, Deraeocorinae, Isometopinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, and Phylinae), 140 genera, and 498 species are confirmed from Iran. Phytocoris (Stictophytocoris) meridionalis (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835), is newly recorded from Iran. The possible presence in the country of 28 additional species is briefly analyzed. 

  14. Cuatro especies nuevas de Lattinestus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae: Amnestinae Four new species of Lattinestus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae: Amnestinae

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    María Cristina Mayorga-Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 4 especies nuevas de Lattinestus de Guatemala (2 y de México (2; se incluyen ilustraciones de algunas estructuras importantes para su identificación y una clave para separar las 7 especies conocidas. La mayoría de los ejemplares fueron recolectados en hojarasca de bosques mesófilos por arriba de los 2 500 metros.Four new species from Guatemala (2 and Mexico (2 are described; illustrations of important structures for identification, and a key to separate the 7 known species are included. Most of the specimens were collected in forest litter above 2 500 m.

  15. Ciclo de vida de Anasa litigiosa (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae Life cycle of Anasa litigiosa (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae

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    Adriana Chacón-López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio del ciclo de vida de Anasa litigiosa Stål. Se recolectaron ejemplares adultos de esta especie que se encontraban sobre plantas de chayote y fueron cultivados en el laboratorio utilizando hojas, tallos y frutos de la misma planta. Se describen e ilustran en detalle todos los estadios de vida, incluyendo notas sobre su biología. Anasa litigiosa se ha recolectado sobre bromeliáceas y cucurbitáceas y es una plaga importante de estas últimas.The aim of this work was the study of the life cycle of Anasa litigiosa Stål. Adults were collected on chayote and they were reared in laboratory using leaves, stems and fruits of chayote. Descriptions and illustrations of all instars of, and notes on its biology are included. This species has been collected in bromeliads and on cucurbits, it is an important pest of cucurbits in Mexico.

  16. Female Sex Pheromone in Trails of the Minute Pirate Bug, Orius minutus (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Taro; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yasui, Hiroe; Matsuyama, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    Orius minutus (L.) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is a natural enemy of agricultural pests such as thrips, aphids, and various newly hatched insect juveniles. In this study, we conducted 1) behavioral assays for evidence of contact sex pheromone activity in trails of O. minutus, and 2) chemical analysis to identify the essential chemical components of the trails. Males showed arrestment to trails of mature virgin females but not to trails from either conspecific nymphs or immature females. Females also showed arrestment to trails from conspecific males, although the response was weaker than that exhibited by males. The activity of female trails lasted for at least 46 h after deposition. Males showed a response irrespective of mating experience. Following confirmation that a contact sex pheromone was present in the trails of female O. minutus, we used a bioassay-driven approach to isolate the active chemicals. After fractionation on silica gel, the n-hexane fraction was found to be biologically active to males. A major compound in the active fraction was (Z)-9-nonacosene; this compound was found only in trail extracts of mature virgin females. Synthetic (Z)-9-nonacosene arrested O. minutus males, indicating that it is the major active component of the contact sex pheromone in the trails of female O. minutus.

  17. Survival of three commercially available natural enemies exposed to Michigan wildflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nathaniel J; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-10-01

    Flowering plants are often used in habitat management programs to conserve the arthropod natural enemies of insect pests. In this study, nine species of flowering plants representing six families commonly found in North America east of the Rocky Mountains were evaluated based on how much they extended the lifespans of three commercially available natural enemy species in cages with cut flower stems compared with cages containing water only. The natural enemies used in the experiments were a lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville), a predatory bug (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae: Orius insidiosus (Say)), and an aphid parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidius colemani Viereck). The plant species that most extended the lifespans of all three natural enemies were Monarda fistulosa L. (Lamiaceae), Solidago juncea Aiton (Asteraceae), and Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae). Agastache nepetoides (L.) Kuntze (Lamiaceae), Lobelia siphilitica L. (Campanulaceae), and Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae) were intermediate in their support of natural enemies. One plant species, Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willdenow (Scrophulariaceae), did not contribute to the longevity of natural enemies any more than water alone. These results emphasize the need for multi-species evaluations of flowering plants for conservation biocontrol programs, and the variability in plant value for natural enemies.

  18. Interactions of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in genetically engineered cotton with predatory heteropterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jorge B; Ruberson, John R

    2008-06-01

    A number of cotton varieties have been genetically transformed with genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to continuously produce Bt endotoxins, offering whole plant and season-long protection against many lepidopteran larvae. Constant whole-plant toxin expression creates a significant opportunity for non-target herbivores to acquire and bio-accumulate the toxin for higher trophic levels. In the present study we investigated movement of Cry1Ac toxin from the transgenic cotton plant through specific predator-prey pairings, using omnivorous predators with common cotton pests as prey: (1) the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with the predator Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae); (2) the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acarina: Tetranychidae), with the predatory big-eyed bug Geocoris punctipes (Heteroptera: Geocoridae) and (3) with the predatory damsel bug Nabis roseipennis (Heteropera: Nabidae); and (4) the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with the predatory pirate bug Orius insidiosus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). We quantified Cry1Ac toxin in the cotton plants, and in the pests and predators, and the effects of continuous feeding on S. exigua larvae fed either Bt or non-Bt cotton on life history traits of P. maculiventris. All three herbivores were able to convey Cry1Ac toxin to their respective predators. Among the herbivores, T. urticae exhibited 16.8 times more toxin in their bodies than that expressed in Bt-cotton plant, followed by S. exigua (1.05 times), and F. occidentalis immatures and adults (0.63 and 0.73 times, respectively). Of the toxin in the respective herbivorous prey, 4, 40, 17 and 14% of that amount was measured in the predators G. punctipes, P. maculiventris, O. insidiosus, and N. roseipennis, respectively. The predator P. maculiventris exhibited similar life history characteristics (developmental time, survival, longevity, and fecundity) regardless of the prey's food

  19. Non Target Effect of Cry1 Ab and Cry Ab x Cry3 Bb1 Bt Transgenic Maize on Orius Insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-target effects of Cry1Ab x CP4 EPSPS and Cry1Ab + Cry3Bb1 x CP4 EPSPS Bt transgenic new maize hybrids on insidious flower bugs [Orius insidiosus (Say)] was studied in Nebraska (Mead, C lay Center, and Concord) during 2007 and 2008. The Bt effect was compared to CP4 EPSPS maize (isoline), convent...

  20. Effect of buprofezin on survival of immature stages of Harmonia axyridis, Stethorus punctum picipes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Orius tristicolor (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), and Geocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Geocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G

    2004-06-01

    The effect of buprofezin, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on development and survival of immature stages of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Stethortus punctum picipes Casey, Orius tristicolor (White), Geocoris pallens Stål, and Geocoris punctipes (Say), was examined in a series of laboratory bioassays. Very few H. axyridis larvae (3.1%) treated with buprofezin reached adulthood, although 65% of treated pupae emerged successfully. Buprofezin caused no mortality to eggs of S. punctum picipes but 71.1% of treated early instar larvae failed to complete development. Eighty percent of treated late instars and 92.3% of pupae produced viable adults. Early instar nymphs of O. tristicolor were unaffected by buprofezin, whereas 47.7 and 85% of G. punctipes and G. pallens nymphs, respectively, failed to complete development. Treated eggs of G. pallens hatched successfully. The use of buprofezin in integrated pest management in Washington state wine grapes is discussed.

  1. Do heteropterans have longer molecular prey detectability half-lives than other predators? A test with Geocoris punctipes (Geocoridae) and Orius insidiosus (Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular gut-content analysis has revolutionized the study of predator-prey interactions and yielded important insights into arthropod community processes. However, the raw data produced by most gut-content assays cannot be used to assess the relative impact of different predator taxa on prey popu...

  2. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  3. Natural lectin activity in the haemolymph of Panstrogylus megistus (Heteroptera: Reduvidae Atividade lectínica na hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

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    Y. M. Gomes

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The haemolymph of Panstrongylus megistus showed a natural lectin activity for a wide range of vertebrate erythocytes. Agglutination was observed against all vertebrate erythrocytes tested (human ABO, duck, rabbit, mouse, sheep, chicken and cow. Cow erythrocytes showed the lowest titre. Concerning human erythrocytes, the lectin activity was similar in the types A+,B+ and AB+ while the highest activity was observed in the type O+. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations was carried out with human erythrocytes type O+. Agglutination was inhibited by several carbohydrates (rhamnose. D-galatose, raffinose, D-lactose and D-fucose. Rhamnose wasreported as the strongest inhibitor (0.78mM. The results suggest the presence of more than one lection in the haemolymph of P. megistus.A hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus mostrou uma atividade lectínica natural para eritrócitos de vários vertebrados e não mostrou especificidade para os diversos tipos de eritrócitos testados (humano ABO, pato, coelho,c amundongo,carneiro, galinha e boi. Com relação aos eritrócitos humanos a atividade lectínica foi similar nos tipos A+, B+ e AB+ enquanto a atividade mais alta foi observada no tipo O+. O título de aglutinação entre eritrócitos animais não mostrou diferença apreciável, excluindo eritrócitos de boi, que apresentaram o título mmais baixo. A determinação da concentração mínima de inibição foi realizada com eritrócitos humanos O+. A aglutinação foi inibida por vários carboidratos (ramnose, D-dalactose, rafinose, D-lactose e D-fucose. A ramnose foi o inibidor mais potente (0,78 mM. Os resultados sugerem a presença de mais de uma lectina na hemolinfa de P. megistus.

  4. Description of a new species of Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae from Costa Rica Descripción de una nueva especie de Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae de Costa Rica

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    Sara I. Montemayor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. is described for Costa Rica. The host plant of this new species is Persea americana P. Mill. This corresponds to the second species of the genus known for the country and the third whose host plant is P. americana (avocado. A description of the adult as well as of instar V are provided, together with a key to species, photographs taken in the field, and illustrations of the fifth nymph stage, adult, and the main characters.Se describe una especie nueva de Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. de Costa Rica, cuya planta huésped es Persea americana P. Mill., siendo ésta la segunda especie del género conocida del país y la tercera cuya planta huésped es P. americana (aguacate. Se describen tanto el adulto como el estadio ninfal V; se agrega una clave modificada de Froeschner para las especies, y se ilustran ejemplares en el campo, el quinto estadio ninfal, adulto y los principales caracteres.

  5. Cinco especies nuevas de Pselliopus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Harpactorini para México Five new species of Pselliopus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae from Mexico

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    Harry Brailovsky

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 5 especies nuevas de Pselliopus Bergroth (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae recolectadas en México (Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora y Tamaulipas y en los Estados Unidos de América (Arizona. Pselliopus karlenae Hussey se registra por primera vez para la República Mexicana. Se ilustran caracteres diagnósticos del pronoto, del borde posterior del segmento abdominal VII, de la cápsula genital del macho (pigóforo y parámeros. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de las especies basada principalmente en los genitales masculinos.Five new species of Pselliopus Bergroth (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae from Mexico (Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco,Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora and Tamaulipas and from the United States of America (Arizona are described. Pselliopus karlenae Hussey is a new record for Mexico. Diagnostic taxonomic characters of pronotum, posterior border of abdominal segment VII, male genital capsule (pygophore and parameres are illustrated. An identification key based mainly on the male genitalia is included.

  6. CLASIFICACIÓN Y HÁBITATS DE GERRIDAE (HETEROPTERA - GERROMORPHA EN COLOMBIA Classification And Habitats Of Gerridae (Heteroptera - Gerromorpha In Colombia

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    FREDY MOLANO-RENDÓN

    Full Text Available Como una contribución al conocimiento taxonómico y ecológico de la familia Gerridae en Colombia, se presenta un listado de las especies conocidas discriminadas para cada región biogeográfica. Se reportan 16 géneros y 51 especies, distribuidas entre 0 y 2,890 m de altura. Se encontró que los gerridos tienen como hábitos y hábitat preferentes los de agua dulce (81%, se amplió el conocimiento de los hábitats ocupados por estos insectos en el país y se incluye una clave dicotómica basada en estas categorías de hábitats.As a contribution to the taxonomic and ecologic acknowledge of the Gerridae family in Colombia, a checklist of the known species discriminated for each biogeographic region is presented. There were16 genre and 51 species registered, distributed between 0 and 2.890 m. It was found that the gerrids have preferential habits and habitats related to sweet water (81% and occupied other habitats in the country. A dichotomic key based in this categories is included.

  7. Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars; Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) e comportamento de oviposicao em cultivares de crisantemo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soglia, Maria da Conceicao M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais], e-mail: mcsoglia@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2007-10-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as well as its oviposition behavior on two chrysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photo phase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individually in petri dishes (5cm) with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (first, second and third instar) on leaf disc (4 cm) of each cultivar ('White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon') in a layer of agar-water (1%). Petiole of each chrysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879). The predator complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01) on A. gossypii in 'White Reagan' (2.63 nymphs) compared to the consumption in 'Yellow Snowdon' (0.7 nymphs). Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on 'White Reagan' and 'Yellow Snowdon', respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus. (author)

  8. Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae e comportamento de oviposição em cultivares de crisântemo Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição M. Soglia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e o consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 tendo Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 como presa, bem como seu comportamento de oviposição em duas cultivares de crisântemo. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climática a 25 ± 1ºC, UR 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Ninfas do predador com até 24 horas de idade foram colocadas individualmente em placas de petri (5 cm contendo 20 ninfas de A. gossypii (1º, 2º e 3º ínstares, as quais estavam posicionadas sobre disco foliar (4 cm de cada cultivar ('White Reagan' e'Yellow Snowdon' em camada de ágar-água . Na avaliação da oviposição foram utilizados pecíolos de cada cultivar como substrato de oviposição e ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 como alimento. O predador completou seu desenvolvimento alimentando-se somente de A. gossypii presente em ambas as cultivares. A duração da fase ninfal de O. insidiosus foi de 21,1 e 18,3 dias, em 'White Reagan' e 'Yellow Snowdon', respectivamente. O consumo de A. gossypii por fêmeas foi maior (PThis work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as weel as its oviposition behavior on two crysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25±1ºC, RH 70±10% and 12h photophase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individualy in petri dishes (5cm with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (1st, 2nd and 3rt instars on leaf disc (4cm of each cultivar ("White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon" in a layer of agar-water (1%. Petiole of each crysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879. The predador complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on "White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon", respectively. The consumption of the females of O. insidiosus was higher (P<0.01 on A. gossypii in "White Reagan" (2.63 nymphs compared to the consumption in "Yellow Snowdon" (0.7 nymphs. Females of O. insidiosus oviposited in petiole of both cultivars with 22.5 and 23.3 eggs/female on "White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon", respectively. Release of O. insidiosus on chrysanthemum crops could be important to decrease the A. gossypii population, as the predator completes its development having this aphid as prey, and the chrysanthemum cultivars offer conditions to colonization and establishment of O. insidiosus.

  9. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Augusto de Morais; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; Jair Campos Moraes; Maurício Sekiguchi Godoy; Luciano Veiga Cosme

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say). Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml), cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml), ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml), fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml) e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml). As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada...

  10. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml, cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml, ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml, fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml. As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada a 15 lb/pol2, com volume de 1,5±0,5 mg de calda/cm2, sobre casais de O. insidiosus. Avaliou-se a ação dos produtos sobre a mortalidade, oviposição, fertilidade e capacidade predatória dos adultos. Abamectina, fenpropatrina e imidaclopride foram altamente tóxicos aos adultos de O. insidiosus, e ciromazina e cartap apresentaram moderada toxicidade. Ciromazina e cartap apresentam possibilidades de serem recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do crisântemo.The goal of this research was to evaluate the selectivity of products used in the chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. The experiments were kept under controlled conditions at 25±1oC, RH 70±10% and L/D 12:12 h, in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The insecticides evaluated were abamectin (0.0009 g a.i./100 ml, cartap (0.06 g a.i./100 ml, cyromazine (0.011 g a.i./100 ml, fenpropathrin (0.009 g a.i./100 ml and imidacloprid (0.042 g a.i./100 ml. The sprays were done using Potter's tower calibrated to 15 lb/pol2, applying volume of 1.5±0.5 mg of solution/cm2. The applications were realized directly in the pairs of O. insidiosus. It was evaluated the action of the products on mortality, oviposition, fertility and the adult's predatory capacity. Abamectin, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid were highly harmful to the adults of O. insidiosus. Cyromazine and cartap were moderately toxic. Cyromazine and cartap presented possibilities of being recommended in integrated pest management programs of the chrysanthemum crop.

  11. Abundance and species richness of Coreoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from Parque Estadual do Turvo, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Aline; Schmidt, Letícia S; Brailovsky, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The coreoid fauna from Neotropics is poorly known, especially in terms of community studies. Aiming at contributing to this knowledge, a two-year study was carried out at Parque Estadual do Turvo, Municipality of Derrubadas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the composition, abundance and species richness of Coreoidea. Samplings were conducted in the springs of 2003 and 2004 (October), and autumns of 2004 and 2005 (May), using beating tray method, along two trails of the park. Sampling effort (hours X collectors) totaled 153h. A total of 282 individuals of Coreoidea were collected, distributed in 28 species of Alydidae, Coreidae and Rhopalidae. The most abundant species was the coreid Cebrenis supina Brailovsky, representing 16% of the collected individuals, followed by the rhopalids Jadera aeola (Dallas), and Harmostes sp., with 12.1% and 11.7%, respectively. The estimated richnesses by Chao 1, Chao 2, Jackknife 1 and Jackknife 2 indicated that the observed richness corresponds to 70% to 80% of the expected for the area. The estimated richness through rarefaction was significantly higher in spring 2003 and autumn 2004 than in the other periods. There was no significant difference, however, between spring of 2003 and autumn of 2004, and between spring of 2004 and autumn of 2005, for the same parameter. Yucumã and Garcia trails did not differ significantly for the estimated richness. Singletons and doubletons represented 32.1% of the recorded species. Additionally, eight other species were obtained qualitatively by using, besides beating tray without protocol, manual collection.

  12. Zwei neue Miriden, Dichrooscytus inermis von Cyprus und Orthonotus creticus von Kreta (Heteroptera, Miridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Dichrooscytus inermis n. sp. is described from the Troödos Mountains on Cyprus. Orthonolus creticus n. sp. is based on material from Crete. The relationship of these new species with other species of the genera concerned is discussed. A subdivision of Orthonotus Stephens in four species-groups is pr

  13. Sources of character conflict in a clade of water striders (Heteroptera: Gerridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Jakob; Cognato, Anthony I.

    2003-01-01

    molecular systematics, insects, Aquarius, Gerris, Limnoporus, COI, 16SrRNA, EF-1a, combined analysis, hidden branch support......molecular systematics, insects, Aquarius, Gerris, Limnoporus, COI, 16SrRNA, EF-1a, combined analysis, hidden branch support...

  14. De invasieve Noord-Amerikaanse wants Leptoglossus occidentalis bereikt ook Nederland (Heteroptera: Coreidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.

    2008-01-01

    The North American bug Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 is recorded from the Netherlands for the first time. All specimens were observed in or near potential overwintering sites far away from suitable breeding sites and mainly in coastal areas, suggesting large distance dispersal.

  15. Predicting the potential invasion suitability of regions to cassava lacebug pests (Heteroptera: Tingidae: Vatiga spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, S I; Dellapé, P M; Melo, M C

    2015-04-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops for small farmers in the tropics, feeding about 800 million people worldwide. It is currently cultivated in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. The genus Vatiga is widespread throughout the Neotropical region. Its species are sympatric and feed exclusively on cassava. The main objectives of this paper are: (1) to assess the potential distribution of Vatiga, one of the most relevant pests of cassava; (2) to project the resulting models onto the world; (3) to recognize areas with suitable and optimal climates (and thus, high probability) for future colonization, and (4) to compare this model with the harvested area of cassava analyzing the climatic variables required by both the host and the pest species. Species distribution models were built using Maxent (v3.3.3k) with bioclimatic variables from the WorldClim database in 2.5 arc min resolution across the globe. Our model shows that Vatiga has the potential to expand its current distribution into other suitable areas, and could invade other regions where cassava is already cultivated, e.g., Central Africa and Asia. Considering the results and the high host specificity of Vatiga, its recent appearance in Réunion Island (Africa) poses a serious threat, as nearby areas are potentially suitable for invasion and could serve as dispersal routes enabling Vatiga to reach the continent. The present work may help prevention or early detection of Vatiga spp. in areas where cassava is grown.

  16. Joseocoris, new genus and two new species of Ceratocapsini (Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae from Argentina and Brazil

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    Thomas J. HENRY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo género de Ceratocapsini (Miridae, Orthotylinae, Joseocoris para ubicar a dos especies nuevas: J. carpinteroi de Corrientes, Argenti - na, y J. costai de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Se presentan diagnosis, ilustraciones de las estructuras genitales masculinas, fotografías del macho y de la hembra de ambas especies y fotografías de microscopio electrónico, que ayudan a distinguir al nuevo género y a las dos nuevas especies de otros miembros de la tribu Ceratocapsini.

  17. Development of a dry artificial diet for Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Priscila; Parra, Jose R.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Magro, Sandra R. [Faculdade Integrada de Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil); Panizzi, Antonio R. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2006-09-15

    Artificial diets prepared with wheat germ, soybean protein, dextrosol, potato starch, sucrose, cellulose, soybean or sunflower oil, and vitamin solution for rearing Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) were tested under controlled temperature (25 {+-} 1 deg C), RH (60 {+-} 10%), and photophase (14h). Three diets were tested and compared with the natural diet privet [soybean and peanut seeds and privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. fruit (Oleaceae)]. All three artificial diets allowed full development. The diet containing sunflower oil was the most suitable for N. viridula while E. heros developed better on a diet composed of soybean oil. Data indicated that the artificial diets were inferior to the natural diet. The artificial diets were more adequate for E. heros. (author)

  18. Stephanitis takeyai and S. rhododendri (Heteroptera: Tingidae in Slovakia: first record and economic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barta Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the occurrence of andromeda lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis takeyai Drake and Maa, 1955, and rhododendron lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis rhododendri Horvath, 1905, in Slovakia. Syntopic colonies of both species were found on rhododendron shrubs (Rhododendron sp. in south-western Slovakia in 2015. The feeding of the lace bugs resulted in damage to infested rhododendrons. Leaves turned yellow and brown, prematurely dropped what led to continuous drying up of twigs and the whole plants. Details on morphology of adult stages of the two species, description of damage symptoms and economic importance of these pests are presented and discussed.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Northfield, T D; Mizell, R F; Riddle, T C

    2009-08-01

    In the southeast United States, a field of peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L., is often closely associated with a field of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The objective of this 4-yr on-farm study was to examine and compare the spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula L., and the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), in six of these peanut-cotton farmscapes. GS(+) Version 9 was used to generate interpolated estimates of stink bug density by inverse distance weighting. Interpolated stink bug population raster maps were constructed using ArcMap Version 9.2. This technique was used to show any change in distribution of stink bugs in the farmscape over time. SADIE (spatial analysis by distance indices) methodology was used to examine spatial aggregation of individual stink bug species and spatial association of the two stink bug species in the individual crops. Altogether, the spatiotemporal analyses for the farmscapes showed that some N. viridula and E. servus nymphs and adults that develop in peanuts disperse into cotton. When these stink bugs disperse from peanuts into cotton, they aggregate in cotton at the interface, or common boundary, of the two crops while feeding on cotton bolls. Therefore, there is a pronounced edge effect observed in the distribution of stink bugs as they colonize the new crop, cotton. The driving force for the spatiotemporal distribution and dispersal of both stink bug species in peanut-cotton farmscapes seems to be availability of food in time and space mitigated by landscape structure. Thus, an understanding of farmscape ecology of stink bugs and their natural enemies is necessary to strategically place, in time and space, biologically based management strategies that control stink bug populations while conserving natural enemies and the environment and reducing off-farm inputs.

  20. Reproduction barrier between two lineages of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) (Heteroptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrocka, Kamila; Balvín, Ondřej; Bartonička, Tomáš

    2015-08-01

    Populations of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, have increased in recent years spreading into numerous urban areas across the Western world and making them an increasingly important pest of the twenty-first century. Research into hybridization within and between different lineages of bed bugs can help us to understand processes of micro- and macro-evolution in these ectoparasites and may inform the control of this pest species. Hybridization experiments between two host lineages of bed bug (C. lectularius) from Central Europe (Czech Republic), those associated with humans and those with bats, were conducted under laboratory conditions. Number of eggs and early instars were compared between crosses of mixed host lineages (interspecific mating) with pairs from the same host lineage, those from the same locality and same lineage from different localities (intraspecific mating). While crosses within host lineages resulted in egg production and later instars, crosses between different host lineages were unsuccessful, although of the mated females possessed sperm in their mesospermaleges and/or seminal conceptacles. These crosses did not even result in egg production. Moreover, in the mixed lineage crosses, mortality rates in adults were higher (51 and 50% higher in bat and human lineage, respectively) than in those animals from the same lineage. Survival of adults was in pairs from the same locality slightly higher than in pairs from different localities and differed statistically. These results support the existence of post-mating barriers and show reproductive isolation between two lineages of C. lectularius. Bat and human host adaptations can promote evolving of such barriers and can be product of alloxenic speciation.

  1. Resurgencia de la chinche de cama Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V. VASSENA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las chinches de cama, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, son insectos he- mimetábolos de la familia Cimicidae, Orden Hemiptera. Son ectoparásitos hema- tófagos de aves y mamíferos, y existen dos especies predominantes: C. lectularius y C. hemipterus Fabricius. Las chinches de cama han sido plaga en el ambiente humano a lo largo de toda su historia. Antes de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, las infestaciones con chinches de cama eran muy comunes; pero después de la gue- rra, la prevalencia de infestación mundial experimentó una marcada disminución; y particularmente a partir de los años 1950, los casos empezaron a disminuir de manera significativa debido al uso de insecticidas de síntesis, principalmente el dicloro difenil tricloroetano (DDT. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, la situación parece haber cambiado y expertos en la materia hablan de un “resurgimiento” de la plaga en todo el mundo. Diferentes trabajos científicos, e incluso la divulgación en los medios de comunicación, no hacen más que mostrar que estamos ante la presencia de un importante problema sanitario como es el resurgimiento de este insecto parásito y que la Argentina no es ajena a él. En el presente trabajo se pudo confirmar la presencia de esta plaga urbana asociada al hábitat humano en dife- rentes ciudades de la Argentina.

  2. A peculiar new virus-spermatozoon association in the bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) (Heteroptera-Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, David; Dallai, Romano

    2016-01-01

    The sperm of the heteropteran bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) are of two types, differing in length and size of their flagella. The thicker sperm are shorter than the thinner ones and have large mitochondrial derivatives. The presence of virus particles associated with the plasma membrane of thinner sperm is described for the first time; thicker sperm are immune to virus infection. The fact that virus particles are present on thinner sperm only initiates considerations on the transmission of virus.

  3. Notes on the Pentatomidae (Hemiptera Heteroptera) described by Dr. Snellen van Vollenhoven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouteden, H.

    1908-01-01

    During a short stay made last year in Leyden, I was enabled, through the courtesy of Mr. Ritsema, to examine the types of the Pentatomidae in the Leyden Museum, described by the late Snellen van Vollenhoven. Various doubtful species were thus identified and observations of previous authors controlle

  4. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  5. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  6. Attractant Pheromone of the Neotropical Species Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Heteroptera: Alydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Alberto Laumann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical broad-headed bug, Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood, is adapted to various leguminous crops and is considered a pest in common bean and soybean. The chemical communication of this species was studied in order to identify an attractant pheromone. Males and females of N. parvus produce several short-chain esters and acids, and their antennae showed electrophysiological responses to five of these compounds, three common to both sexes (hexyl butanoate, 4-methylhexyl butanoate, and hexyl hexanoate, and two female-specific compounds (4-methylhexyl pentanoate and hexyl pentanoate. Both aeration extracts of females and a solution containing five synthetic compounds mimicking the natural blend were attractive to males and females N. parvus in a laboratory bioassay. Aspects of the chemical ecology of the broad-headed bugs and the possibility to use pheromone-baited traps in the field for monitoring are discussed.

  7. Phylogenetics and evolutionary morphology of the Neotropical true bug genus Epipolops (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Geocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Epipolops Herrich-Schaeffer (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), comprising the largest genus of Pamphantinae, are among the most bizarre true bugs because of their striking morphology. To elucidate evolutionary morphology in Epipolops, a phylogenetic analysis was performed using 17 species and 36 ad...

  8. Comparison of alpha-amylase and protease activities of a zoophytophagous and two phytozoophagous Heteroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, F; Cohen, A C

    2000-05-01

    To better understand the nature of facultative phytophagy in the zoophytophagous Geocoris punctipes (Say), and facultative zoophagy in phytozoophagous Lygus hesperus (Knight) and Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), we compared the activities of both the starch digesting enzyme alpha-amylase and of general proteases in these species. The alpha-amylases and proteases were demonstrated in L. hesperus, L. lineolaris and G. punctipes. The presence of alpha-amylase in the salivary gland complexes of G. punctipes indicates a disposition of this species toward utilization of nutrients that can be derived only from plants, either directly from ingestion of plant macromolecules or from second-hand ingestion of plant material from the digestive system of their prey. The alpha-amylase activity in G. punctipes was much less than those of phytozoophagous L. hesperus and L. lineolaris. The relative importance of amylolytic activity and proteolytic activity is also discussed.

  9. Candeocoris bistillatus, new genus and new species of Ochlerini from Ecuador (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roell, Talita; Campos, Luiz Alexandre

    2015-09-17

    Recent examination of specimens from Ecuador revealed a series of males and females of an undescribed species clearly belonging to the Discocephalinae. The new species presents characteristics similar to genera of both Discocephalini and Ochlerini, preventing an undoubtful placement of the new species within any genus and tribe. We conducted a cladistic analysis to investigate the possible relationships of the new species within Discocephalinae. The new species was recovered as sister-group to the remaining Ochlerini, supporting the proposition of a new genus, so Candeocoris bistillatus Roell & Campos, gen. n. et sp. n. are described within Ochlerini. The new genus is recognized for its dark glossy aspect, tumid vertex of head, long and sinuous labrum, base of labium placed close to anterior limit of eyes, thick bristles on meso- and metatibiae, pygophore globose, and laterotergites 9 touching each other. The new species is recognized by a large yellow spot on each corium, yellow spots on each segment of the connexivum, bucculae with anterior tooth, laminar projections on superior layer of ventral rim of pygophore, vesica with a single median projection, and broad gonocoxites 8.

  10. A new genus and species of Micropterous Blissidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2015-10-12

    The new genus Barrerablissus and the new species B. strigosus are described from Napo Province, Ecuador. A key to the known genera of the Western Hemisphere Blissidae with apterous or micropterous condition is included. Dorsal and ventral view and digital photographs of head, pronotum, scutellum, metathoracic scent gland auricle and male genital capsule are added.

  11. Triatominae species of Suriname (Heteroptera: Reduviidae and their role as vectors of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Hiwat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of Triatominae, representing three tribes and five genera, are currently known in Suriname. An annotated list of the species based on the collections of the Bureau of Public Health (Suriname, the National Zoological Collection Suriname and the National History Museum Leiden (the Netherlands is provided. Additionally, the results of several years of opportunistic collection in two domestic environments are presented. The most common species are Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1972, Rhodnius robustus Larrouse, 1972 and Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811. The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed.

  12. Development rate and lower temperature threshold in the eggs of Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mujgan Kivan

    2008-01-01

    The sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. has a wide distribution in the Palearctic region. It is the most important pest problem of wheat in Turkey. The objective of this study was to attain better knowledge of the development of the sunn pest eggs. The lower temperature threshold and development rate of eggs were determined at 17, 20, 23, 26 and 32℃ ± 1℃ in the laboratory. A linear model was used to describe the developmental rate and temperature. The egg development required 90.9 degree-days above the theoretical threshold of 11.7 ℃. The development time was 17.6 ± 0.1 days at 17℃, and 4.5 ± 0.01 days at 32℃. Incubation time was inversely related to temperature. The study showed that the eggs of E. integriceps needed shorter periods of time to complete their development than immature stages of their parasitoids Trissolcus spp.

  13. The potential for controlling Pangaeus bilineatus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae) using a combination of entomopathogens and an insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbata, George N; Shapiro-Ilan, David

    2013-10-01

    The peanut burrower bug, Pangaeus bilineatus (Say), is an important pest of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the southern United States. Current control methods for this pest, which are based on the use of chemical insecticides, have not been successful. Our objective was to determine if entomopathogens applied alone or in combination with a standard chemical insecticide would provide superior levels of P. bilineatus mortality compared with the standard chemical applied alone. Specifically, we investigated the efficacy of an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Oswego strain), and a fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (GHA strain), applied alone or in combination with chlorpyrifos. When applied as single treatments, the two entomopathogens were not pathogenic, that is, they did not cause mortality in P. bilineatus adults that was different from the nontreated control. However, 3 and 7 d posttreatment, the combination of the H. bacteriophora and chlorpyrifos caused higher mortality than the nematode, fungus, or insecticide alone, or the combination of chlorpyrifos and B. bassiana. The nature of the interaction between H. bacteriophora and chlorpyrifos was synergistic, which is of particular interest, given that this is the first time a synergy is being reported between a nematode that was not pathogenic when applied alone and a chemical insecticide. B. bassiana and its combination with the chlorpyrifos did not significantly increase insect mortality compared with chlorpyrifos alone or the control. Based on the observation of synergy, the combination of H. bacteriophora and chlorpyrifos should be investigated further for potential adoption in the management of P. bilineatus.

  14. Triatominae species of Suriname (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) and their role as vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Nine species of Triatominae, representing three tribes and five genera, are currently known in Suriname. An annotated list of the species based on the collections of the Bureau of Public Health (Suriname), the National Zoological Collection Suriname and the National History Museum Leiden (the Netherlands) is provided. Additionally, the results of several years of opportunistic collection in two domestic environments are presented. The most common species are Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1972, Rhodnius robustus Larrouse, 1972 and Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811). The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed.

  15. Sperm depletion: a cost for single mated females of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Sousa-Souto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test if egg viability of polyandrous females was increased with increasing number of matings. Longevity and reproductive output of females of the predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus that were allowed to mate for 0, 1, 2, 3 times or were in the continuous presence of the same male was evaluated. Polyandry resulted in diminished sperm depletion. Females that had mated three times or that were in continuous presence of a male produced more offspring than females that mated once or twice throughout their lifetime. There was a negative correlation of mating history on female longevity. Results indicated that remating, either with same male or with different males were crucial for maximization of the reproductive success of females.Entre os heterópteros, o declínio da concentração de esperma pode ser um fator limitante para o sucesso reprodutivo desses insetos. Acasalamentos múltiplos conferem um reabastecimento de esperma e podem permitir um aumento do valor adaptativo das fêmeas. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que a poliandria aumenta a viabilidade dos ovos. A longevidade de fêmeas de Podisus nigrispinus, bem como seus parâmetros reprodutivos em resposta a diferentes números de acasalamentos (0, 1, 2, 3 ou em coabitação com o mesmo macho foi avaliada. Esse percevejo vem sendo usado em programas de controle biológico de pragas em reflorestamentos de Eucalipto no Brasil. Apesar da diminuição no tempo de sobrevivência das fêmeas, acasalamentos múltiplos mantiveram a viabilidade dos ovos e o período reprodutivo das fêmeas, permitindo um maior número de descendentes produzidos. Tais resultados indicam que um número mínimo de três acasalamentos antes da primeira postura permite uma maximização do sucesso reprodutivo dessa espécie.

  16. What do we know about the phylogeny of the Semi-Aquatic Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    The present study summarizes knowledge about phylogenetic relationships of the heteropteran infraorder Gerromorpha. A phylogeny for all families and subfamilies, and for all genera but those assigned to the two most diverse families, Veliidae and Gerridae, is compiled from the many studies by the...... by the late Dr. Nils Moller Andersen. Comparisons with recently published studies, including DNA sequence data show that the superfamilies Hydrometroidea and Gerroidea, the family Veliidae, the subfamily Mesoveliinae, and the genera Mesovelia and Microvelia are probably not monophyletic...

  17. Perfil de la mortalidad de hembras de Rhodnius robustus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

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    Chaves Luis Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la mortalidad de 48 hembras adultas de Rhodnius robustus. Dada la significancia estadística del ajuste de los datos al modelo de Gompertz (p<0.0001, se puede afirmar que el mismo permite describir la mortalidad de esta especie.

  18. Pheromones of milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) attract wayward plant bugs: Phytocoris mirid sex pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

    2003-08-01

    The synthetic aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), also attracted males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae). Field testing partial blends against the six-component blend comprising the Oncopeltus pheromone showed that cross-attraction of P. difficilis males was due to synergism between (E)-2-octenyl acetate and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. Hexyl acetate was abundant in the metathoracic scent gland (MSG) secretion of P. difficilis males, but because female P. difficilis could not initially be found in the field, further combinatorial tests were guided by prior research on the pheromones of two Phytocoris species in the western United States. The combination of hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates was as attractive to P. difficilis males as the milkweed bug pheromone, yet no milkweed bugs were drawn to this blend. Gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of female P. difficilis MSGs determined that their secretion contained predominantly hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (all strongly EAD-active)-the latter two compounds found only in trace amounts from males-plus five minor female-specific compounds, three of which were EAD-active. (E,E)-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate was not detected from P. difficilis females or males. The blend of the three major components, hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (2:1.5:1 by volume), was as attractive as the blend of all six EAD-active compounds identified from females, indicating that this ternary blend constitutes the sex pheromone of P. difficilis. Hexyl acetate with (E)-2-octenyl acetate also attracted males of another species, P. breviusculus Reuter, but addition of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and/or (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate inhibited attraction of P. breviusculus males. Attraction of P. difficilis males occurred mainly during the first half of scotophase. The possible neurophysiological basis for this asymmetrical cross-attraction is discussed.

  19. Revision of the Plant Bug Genus Tytthus (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

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    Thomas Henry

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The phyline plant bug genus Tytthus Fieber, previously containing 19 species, is revised. Isoproba Osborn and Drake, 1915, incorrectly placed in the subfamily Bryocorinae, tribe Dicyphini, is synonymized as a junior synonym of Tytthus Fieber, syn. n.; the only included species, Isoproba picea Osborn and Drake is transferred to Tytthus, comb. n., as the senior synonym of T. hondurensis Carvalho, syn. n.; and T. koreanus Josifov and Kerzhner, 1972 is synonymized with T. chinensis (Stål 1860, syn. n.; and a lectotype for T. parviceps is designated. The six new species T. femoralis from Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru, T. fuscicornis from New Mexico (USA, T. mexicanus from Mexico, T. pallidus from Brazil and Panama, T. uniformis from Arizona and New Mexico (USA, and T. wheeleri from the eastern United States are described, bringing the total number of species for the genus to 24. A color adult habitus illustration of T. wheeleri, color photographs for each species (except T. juturnaiba Carvalho and Wallerstein, illustrations of male genitalia, scanning electron photomicrographs of selected structures of certain species, and an identification key are provided to facilitate species recognition. A phylogenetic analysis is offered to help infer relationships.

  20. Dietary composition affect levels of trace elements in the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects require small amounts of dietary minerals because of the roles minerals serve as antioxidants, enzyme co-factors and as constituents of metalloproteins. We measured the levels of ten trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) in the predatory insect, Podisus maculiventris rea...

  1. A taxonomic revision of the new world species of Sirthenea (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, L.

    1985-01-01

    The American species of Sirthenea are revised and keys to the 12 species and seven subspecies are given. Four new species and two new subspecies are described viz., S. ater (Brazil: Minas Geraes), S. dubia (Panama; Paraguay: Caaguazu. Argentina: Misiones; Entre Rios), S. ferdinandi (Argentina: Salta

  2. Characterization of substrate-borne vibrational signals of Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substrate-borne vibrational signals were recorded from the brown stink bug Euschistus servus, revealing an assortment of “songs” in an acoustic repertoire. Females of E. servus emitted two distinct songs while males of E. servus emitted four distinct songs. Each of these songs was characterized by...

  3. Juvenile coloration as a predictor of health in Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new stackable modular system was developed for continuous in-vivo production of phytoseiid mites. The system consists of cage units that are filled with lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus, or red beans, P. vulgaris, leaves infested with high levels of the two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae. T...

  4. Oil formulation of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassian, against Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps puton (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandani, A R; Esmailpour, N

    2006-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi with approximately 1000 known species are key regulatory factors in insect pest population. Also, these agents infect insects by direct penetration of the cuticle and thus provide the only practical means of microbial control of insects that feed on plant or animal juices as well as for the many coleopterans and orthopteran pest which have very few known viral or bacterial diseases. Beauveria bassiana is a widespread entomopathogenic fungi that infect many insect species. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of different composition of oil in pathogenicity of the fungus. So, the fungus was grown on Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 25 degrees C. Conidia were harvested from 14-day sporulating cultures by scraping the surface with a spatula and suspending the conidia in sterile 0.03% aqueous Tween 80. The number of conidia was determined using an improved Neubauer haemocytometer and spore concentrations of 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 108 and control were prepared. Two controls were done one was different concentrations of spore without oil and the other only oil. The insects were collected from the wheat farm in and maintained on wheat plants in the laboratory at 27+/-2 degrees C under a 14 h light: 10 h dark (LD 14:10) photoperiod. Assays were done with dipping methods. The results showed that there are significant differences in mortality of insects in two spore emulsions, one oil formulated and the other spores in sterile water without oil usage. Oil formulation enhances fungal virulence toward insect. Since insect cuticle especially epicuticle (lipid layer) is the primary site of establishment of mycosis, oil formulation increase the adhesion of spore to the insect cuticle through hydrophobic interaction between the spore and cuticle surface.

  5. Morphology and histology of the alimentary canal of Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Cimicomoropha: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, J.; Coudron, T.A.; Backus, E.A.; Brandt, S.L.; Wagner, R.M.; Wright, M.K.; Huesing, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Microdissection and transverse semithin sections were used to perform a light microscopy survey of the gross morphology and cellular anatomy of the alimentary canal, respectively, of Lygus hesperus Knight, a key pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and other crops. The gross morphology of the alimentary canal showed a relatively unadorned tube compared with other hemipterans, with variably shaped compartments and one small diverticulum. However, the epithelial cell anatomy of the gut was relatively complex, with the midgut having the most diverse structure and cell types. The midgut was typical of the "Lygus-type gut" seen in the older literature, i.e., it consisted of three major regions, the first (descending), second (ascending), and third (descending) ventriculi, with different variants of three major epithelial cell types in each region. Our light microscopy (LM) study suggests that the three cell types are nondifferentiated regenerative cells (which sparsely occurred throughout the midgut but were abundant in the anterior region of the first ventriculus), endocrine cells, and columnar cells. Although the Lygus gut cells strongly resemble those cell types seen in other insects, their identification should be confirmed via transmission electron microscopy to be considered definitive. These cell types differed in the size and opacity of vesicles, geometry of cell surface in the gut lumen, and size, shape, and concentration of brush-border microvilli and location within the gut. Comparison of gut structure in L. hesperus with that of other hemipterans, especially in relation to hemipteran phylogeny and feeding strategies, is discussed.

  6. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Mowery, S V

    2007-08-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt after successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and selected row crops were sampled during a 3-yr study to determine lygus species composition and associated temporal host plants. L. lineolaris was the sole lygus species in the region. Thirteen previously unreported host plants were identified for L. lineolaris, of which 69% supported reproduction. Rapistrum rugosum L. Allioni and Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton and Standley were primary weed hosts during the early season (17 March to 31 May). Conyza canadensis L. Cronquist variety canadensis and Ambrosia trifida L. were primary weed hosts during the midseason (1 June to 14 August) and late-season (15 August to 30 November), respectively. Sisymbrium irio L. and Lamium amplexicaule L. sustained L. lineolaris populations during the overwintering period (1 December to 16 March). The proportion of females and numbers of nymphs found in R. rugosum, C. canadensis, A. trifida, and S. irio suggests these weeds supported reproductive adults during the early, mid-, and late season and overwintering period, respectively. Medicago sativa L. was the leading crop host for L. lineolaris; Glycine max L. Merrill did not yield L. lineolaris. Few L. lineolaris were collected in Gossypium hirsutum L. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of host plants contributing to L. lineolaris populations in central Texas.

  7. Daily rhythm of aggregation in the haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

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    S A Minoli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Triatomine bugs show a temporal modulation of many activities. Here, we analyse the daily modulation of the aggregation behaviour of Triatoma infestans larvae and its chronobiological basis. In the laboratory, groups of six bugs were released over an experimental arena during six consecutive days, where their aggregation behaviour was quantified every hour. When submitted to a 12/12 h photoperiod (L/D, the larvae of T. infestans exhibited a cyclic pattern of aggregation with a 24 h period, evincing the existence of a daily rhythm of aggregation in this species. Bugs exhibited the maximum aggregation tendency at the end of the scotophase (7:00 h, moment in which they naturally search for refuges. The minimum aggregation (i.e. maximal dispersion was observed during the last part of the photophase and beginning of the scotophase (15:00 to 1:00 h. This cyclic pattern disappeared when constant conditions of illumination (L/L or darkness (D/D were imposed to the bugs, suggesting the absence of an endogenous circadian control of this behaviour. Insects submitted to L/L and D/D photoperiods presented lower global levels of aggregation than those submitted to L/D conditions. The lack of an endogenous control and the relevance of light cycles as a synchronization signal are discussed as the temporal modulation of this behaviour might play an important role in the nocturnal habits of this species.

  8. Taxonomic and numerical resolutions of nepomorpha (insecta: heteroptera in cerrado streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia França da Silva Giehl

    Full Text Available Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity, although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77. The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively. The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation actions, and faunal complementarity and/or inventories.

  9. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Hassan; Moulet, Pierre; Rider, David A

    2014-07-15

    Seven families of Pentatomoidea including Acanthosomatidae, Dinidoridae, Pentatomidae, Plataspididae, Scutelleridae, Thaumastellidae, and Thyreocoridae are discussed in this catalog. The Iranian fauna of Pentatomoidea (excl. Cydnidae) is represented by 99 genera and 271 species and subspecies. Elasmostethus interstinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Acanthosomatidae) and Derula flavoguttata Mulsant & Rey, 1856 (Pentatomidae) are new records for Iran. 

  10. A taxonomic synopsis of Limnogeton Mayr, 1853 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Belostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José Ricardo I; Meyin-A-Ebong, Solange E; Le-Gall, Philippe; Guilbert, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Afrotropical Belostomatidae fauna has long proved to be a difficult taxonomic problem, not so much for the overwhelmingly large number of species involved but rather because of a lack of trained specialists. The rarity of some taxa also contributes to confusion, because some species remain poorly described or are known only from one or two specimens. During a visit to the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France and the Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium, it was possible to comprehensively review the Limnogeton species based mainly on the specimens housed in the aforementioned collections. An updated key to adults of all species presently included in the genus, particularly based on male genitalia characters studied during the present study, has been provided.

  11. Pentatomiana beckerae gen. nov. and sp. nov., a new Neotropical Pentatomini (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocélia Grazia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus, Pentatomiana, and a new species, P. beckerae, are described, based on specimens from Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina States, Brazil. Brachyptery is present in the males of the new species. Pentatomiana gen. nov. is compared with Lojus McDonald, 1982, which also presents brachyptery in one of the species, but in females. Illustrations of male and female external genitalia are provided.Um novo gênero, Pentatomiana, e uma nova espécie, P. beckerae, são descritos, com base em espécimes do Rio de Janeiro e de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Machos da nova espécie apresentam braquipteria. Pentatomiana gen. nov. é comparado com Lojus McDonald, 1982, o qual também apresenta braquipteria em uma das espécies, mas em fêmeas. São fornecidas ilustrações da genitália externa masculina e feminina.

  12. Effect of diet on male reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    W. P Lemos

    Full Text Available The morphology and histology of the reproductive tract of males of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas fed on different diets were studied. P. nigrispinus was fed on diets of: larvae of Alabama argillacea (Hübner, Tenebrio molitor L., Musca domestica L., and an artificial diet. The male reproductive tract, independent of diet, showed testes with intense red coloration in a compact, circular, or slightly oval structure. The vasa deferentia were similar in color to the testes and formed long filaments, which joined with the yellow-cream colored ejaculatory duct. The morphological characteristics of the male reproductive tract were similar under all diets, except for the artificial one. The histological studies demonstrated that independent of the diet the testes of P. nigrispinus were composed of four to six follicles. The testes with six follicles generally had four developed and two atrophied follicles. The morphological and histological differences of the testes of P. nigrispinus when fed with different prey are presented and discussed.

  13. CLASIFICACIÓN Y HÁBITATS DE GERRIDAE (HETEROPTERA - GERROMORPHA EN COLOMBIA

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    SERRATO-HURTADO CLEMENCIA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Como una contribución al conocimiento taxonómico y ecológico de la familia Gerridae en Colombia, se presenta un listado de las especies conocidas discriminadas para cada región biogeográfica. Se reportan 16 géneros y 51 especies, distribuidas entre 0 y 2,890 m de altura. Se encontró que los gerridos tienen como hábitos y hábitat preferentes los de agua dulce (81%, se amplió el conocimiento de los hábitats ocupados por estos insectos en el país y se incluye una clave dicotómica basada en estas categorías de hábitats.

  14. Development and thermal requirement of Anthocoris minki pistaciae ( Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) at different temperatures%锈褐原花蝽在不同温度下的发育与积温必需条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zohreh POURALI; Katayoon KHERADMAND; Mohammad Reza MEHRNEJAD; Hamid GHAJARIEH

    2010-01-01

    阿月浑子树木虱Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer(半翅目:木虱总科)是伊朗园林树木阿月浑子树上常见的最具破坏性的害虫,其捕食性天敌锈褐原花蝽Anthocoris minki pistaciae Wagner在伊朗阿月浑子树种植区为该害虫的生防因子.本研究在17.5~35℃的8个恒温以及相对湿度55%±5%,光照周期16L:8D的控制条件下.在A.pistaciae若虫上饲养这种捕食性花蝽的同时,调查温度对其发育的影响.结果表明:这种捕食性花蝽在17.5~32℃下可成功发育;然而在35℃下,卵不能孵化,且只有10%的若虫进入成虫阶段.30℃下从卵至成虫羽化的发育历期最短.据测算估计,这种捕食性花蝽的卵、若虫发育以及整个发育(卵至成虫)的积温分别为77,200和263度·日;卵、若虫和整个发育的低温度阈值分别为8.53,9.2和9.47℃.这些结果为建立阿月浑子树木虱的综合防治计划提供了宝贵的信息.

  15. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Morais,Alexandre Augusto; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moraes,Jair Campos; Godoy,Maurício Sekiguchi; Cosme,Luciano Veiga

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say). Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml), cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml), ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml), fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml) e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml). As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada...

  16. Revisão e análise cladística de Serdia Stål (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini Review and cladistic analysis of Serdia Stål (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Denise Fortes de Fortes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Treze espécies são hoje incluídas no gênero: S. apicicornis, Stål, 1860; S. beckerae Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. calligera Stål, 1860; S. concolor Ruckes, 1958; S. costalis Ruckes, 1958; S. delphis Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. inspersipes Stål, 1860; S. lobata Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. rotundicornis Becker, 1967 e S. ruckesi Thomas & Rolston, 1985. Cinco novas espécies são descritas: S. indistincta sp. nov (Irai, Rio Grande do Sul, S. bicolor sp. nov (Ponta Grossa, Paraná, S. maculata sp. nov (Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, S. máxima sp. nov (Imbituba, Santa Catarina e S. robusta sp. nov (Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro do Brasil. A análise cladística foi realizada usando 40 caracteres e 21 táxons. O gênero Tibilis Stål, 1860; Neotibilis Grazia & Barcellos, 1994 e Similliserdia Fortes & Grazia, 1998 foram usados como grupo-externo. A monofilia de Serdia foi sustentada por 3 sinapomorfias: ápice do escutelo com margens enegrecidas, machos com a parede da taça genital espessada com processos em aba, fêmeas com o espessamento da íntima vaginal situado na metade posterior das gonapófises 9 e projetando-se ventralmente. O subgênero Brasiliicola Kirkaldy, 1909 é considerado sinônimo junior de Serdia. São fornecidas ilustrações, mapas de distribuição geográfica e chave para as espécies.Thirteen species are presently included in the genus: S. apicicornis Stål, 1860; S. beckerae Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. bihamulata, Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. calligera Stål, 1860; S. concolor Ruckes, 1958; S. costalis Ruckes, 1958; S. delphis Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. inspersipes Stål, 1860; S. limbatipennis Stål, 1860; S. lobata Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. quadridens Thomas & Rolston, 1985; S. rotundicornis Becker, 1967, and S. ruckesi Thomas & Rolston, 1985. Five new species are described: S.indistincta sp. nov. (Iraí; Rio Grande do Sul, S. bicolor sp. nov. (Ponta Grossa; Paraná S. maculata sp. nov. (Itatiaia; Rio de Janeiro S. maxima sp. nov. (Imbituba; Santa Catarina and S. robusta sp. nov. (Itatiaia; Rio de Janeiro from Brazil. A cladistic analysis was performed using 40 characters and 21 taxa. The genera Tibilis Stål, 1860; Neotibilis Grazia & Barcellos, 1994 and Similliserdia Fortes & Grazia, 1998 were used as outgroups. The monophyly of Serdia is supported by three synapomorphies: scutellum apex with darkned margins; males with the inner wall of genital cup thicker and with brim-shaped processes; females with the thickennings of the vaginal intima arising at posterior half of gonapophyses 9, and projected ventrad. The subgenus Brasiliicola Kirkaldy, 1909 is considered junior synonym of Serdia. Illustrations, a map of geographical distribution and a key for the species are also provided.

  17. Os Cimicídeos e sua importância em Saúde Pública (Hemiptera-Heteroptera; Cimicidae The Cimicidae and their importance in Public Health (Hemiptera-Heteroptera; Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se atualização de conhecimentos sobre insetos da família Cimicidae, ou percevejos, de interesse em saúde pública. Após fornecer elementos de morfologia, externa e interna, dedica-se atenção à biologia e ecologia desses insetos, em especial modo, focalizando o relacionamento com o homem e seu ambiente. As espécies Cimex lectularius e C. hemipterus são tratadas em particular, com revisão dos dados disponíveis sobre o possível papel vetor desses percevejos na transmissão de agentes infecciosos. São apresentados dados sobre a classificação e distribuição geográfica. Fornecem-se dados sobre meios de controle. Inclui chaves para identificação de formas adultas e imaturas, além de vestígios que possam servir de indícios para as atividades de vigilância epidemiológica.A review of the Cimicidae of importance in public health is presented. After a general morphological study, special attention is given to knowledge of the biology and ecology of bed-bugs, mainly as regards their relation to the human environment and the possibility of their role in disease transmission. The species Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus are given particular attention and data on their relevance to questions of public health are revised. Taxonomy, biosystematic and geographical distribution are presented, the epidemiologically important groups listed and control measures discussed. The paper ends with identification keys for both adult and immature stages as well as for arthropod indoor fecal traces.

  18. Taxonomía y distribución del género Leptoscelis en Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Leptoscelis in Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini

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    Harry Brailovsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa el género Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini para Costa Rica y se describe una especie nueva, L. conspicuus. Se discuten sus relaciones con L. quadrisignatus (Distant y L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin es sinonimizada con L. quadrisignatus. Se cita por primera vez L. tricolor para Costa Rica. El trabajo incluye nuevos datos de distribución para el género, ilustraciones de las especies y de los parámeros y una clave para la identificación de las especies costarricenses.The genus Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini from Costa Rica is revised. One new species, L. conspicuus, is described and compared with L. quadrisignatus (Distant and L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin is synonymized with L. quadrisignatus. Leptoscelis tricolor is recorded for the first time from Costa Rica. New distribution records are presented. Habitus illustrations and drawings of parameres are provided. A key to the known Costarican species is presented.

  19. Description of the immature stages of Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae: Corixini, with ecological notes Descripción de los estadios larvales de Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Heteroptera: Corixidae, con notas acerca de su ecología

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    María Cecilia Melo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski is the smallest species of the subgenus ranging from 4.2-4.7 mm, and it is characterized by the absence of a strigil, the small and narrow genital capsule with a short hypandrium in males, and the shape of the abdominal tergite VII in females. This species is endemic to the Patagonian subregion (Andean region in Argentina. A monthly sampling study was performed during a year in northern Mendoza, and additional material was collected in southern Mendoza, more precisely from Bañado Carilauquen in the Llancanelo Lake Reserve (Malargüe Department. Since little is known about the ecological requirements of S. (T. jensenhaarupi, herein we describe its habitat, the environmental conditions and its association with other macroinvertebrates. Also, we provide a morphological description of larval stages, and provide new records of this species.Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski es la especie más pequeña del subgénero (4.2-4.7 mm, y se caracteriza por la ausencia de estrigilo, la cápsula genital masculina pequeña y angosta con el hipandro corto, y la forma característica del tergito abdominal VII en las hembras. Esta especie es endémica de la subregión Patagónica (región Andina en Argentina. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales durante un año en el norte de la provincia de Mendoza, material adicional fue recolectado en el sur de la provincia, más precisamente en el Bañado Carilauquen en la Reserva Laguna Llancanelo (Departamento de Malargüe. Poco se conoce acerca de los requerimientos ecológicos de S. (T. jensenhaarupi, por lo que en este trabajo describimos su hábitat, las condiciones ambientales y su asociación con otros macroinvertebrados. Además, describimos los estadios larvales y damos nuevos registros de esta especie.

  20. Diversidade de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no sul de Santa Catarina Diversity of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in southern Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Luiz A. Campos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A composição e a variação sazonal da fauna de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera foi avaliada entre setembro de 2005 e agosto de 2006 em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica na região sul de Santa Catarina (Brasil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W e Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W. Foram realizadas coletas mensais ao longo de trilhas nas três áreas, utilizando guarda-chuva entomológico e rede de varredura para amostrar nas bordas de mata. Para um esforço amostral de 108 horas foram coletados 595 indivíduos, distribuídos em 4 famílias, 29 gêneros e 49 espécies. Pentatomidae foi a família mais abundante (82,69% seguida de Cydnidae (15,97%, Scutelleridae (0,84% e Tessaratomidae (0,50%. Pentatomidae também apresentou a maior riqueza com 37 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes foram Mormidea notulifera Stål, 1860, Oebalus ypsilongriseus (De Geer, 1773, Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer, 1773, Edessa subrastrata Bergroth, 1891, Galgupha schulzii (Fabricius, 1781 e Agroecus scabricornis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1844. O período de maior captura foi entre o final da primavera e início do outono, representando 71,76% do total coletado. O Parque do Maracajá apresentou abundância e riqueza sgnificativamente maiores do que as demais áreas. Este estudo representa o primeiro inventário da diversidade de Pentatomoidea em habitats naturais no estado de Santa Catarina.The composition and the seasonal variation of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera were evaluated between September 2005 and August 2006 in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in the southern region of the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W and Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W. Monthly sampling had been carried out in the three areas, using beating tray and sweeping nets to sample forest edge vegetation. After an effort of 108 hours, 595 individuals of 4 families, 29 genera and 49 species. were collected. Pentatomidae was the most abundant family (82.69%, followed by Cydnidae (15.97%, Scutelleridae (0.84% and Tessaratomidae (0.50%. Pentatomidae also presented the greatest richness with 37 species. The most abundant species were Mormidea notulifera Stål, 1860, Oebalus ypsilongriseus (De Geer, 1773, Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer, 1773, Edessa subrastrata Bergroth, 1891, Galgupha schulzii (Fabricius, 1781 and Agroecus scabricornis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1844. More individuals were captured between the end of the spring and the beginning of autumn, representing 71.76% of the total collected. Parque do Maracajá presented significantly higher abundance and richness. This study portrays the first inventory of the diversity of Pentatomoidea in natural habitats in the State of Santa Catarina.

  1. Desenvolvimento de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae com Zophobas confusa Gebien (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae comparado à duas outras presas alternativas Development of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae compared with two another alternative preys

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    Teresinha V Zanuncio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nymphs of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 were fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae under 25±0.5ºC, 60±10% of RH and photophase of 12h. Nymphal viability of P. nigrispinus were 64.0%, 80.0% and 92.0% with Z. confusa, M. domestica and T. molitor, respectively. No differences were found for pre-oviposition period, number of egg masses, number of eggs, egg viability, and longevity for females of this predator fed with any of these preys.

  2. Unusual looking pentatomids: reassessing the taxonomy of Braunus Distant and Lojus McDonald (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

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    Barão, Kim Ribeiro; Garbelotto, Thereza De Almeida; Campos, Luiz Alexandre; Grazia, Jocelia

    2016-02-09

    The Neotropical genus Braunus Distant is revised. Based on general morphology, Braunus is transferred to the Pentatominae and Lojus is proposed as a junior synonym of Braunus. The male and female genitalia of Braunus sciocorinus (Walker) are described for the first time. Three new species from the Peruvian and Bolivian Andes and from Colombia are described, Braunus machadoi Barão & Garbelotto sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in AMNH: Peru, Cuzco, 01.XII.2011, C. Weirauch leg.), Braunus gibbus Garbelotto & Barão sp. nov. (Holotype female deposited in AMNH: Bolivia, Santa Cruz, Prov. Caballero, 15-21.X.2001, S. Spector & J. Ledezma leg.), and Braunus prionotus Barão & Garbelotto sp. nov. (Holotype female deposited in MNHN: Colombia, VII.1974, Steinheil leg.), respectively. Also, we describe the internal male and female genitalia of Braunus ocellatus (Thomas) comb. nov. A key to species and comments on subfamilial and tribal placements and on wing polymorphism are provided.

  3. Distribution Pattern and Climate Preferences of the Representatives of the Cosmopolitan Genus Sirthenea Spinola, 1840 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae.

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    Dominik Chłond

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to predict, through the use of GIS tool as ecological niche modelling, potentially suitable ecological niche and defining the conditions of such niche for the representatives of the cosmopolitan genus Sirthenea. Among all known genera of the subfamily Peiratinae, only Sirthenea occurs on almost all continents and zoogeographical regions. Our research was based on 521 unique occurrence localities and a set of environmental variables covering the whole world. Based on occurrence localities, as well as climatic variables, digital elevation model, terrestrial ecoregions and biomes, information about the ecological preferences is given. Potentially useful ecological niches were modelled using Maxent software, which allowed for the creation of a map of the potential distribution and for determining climatic preferences. An analysis of climatic preferences suggested that the representatives of the genus were linked mainly to the tropical and temperate climates. An analysis of ecoregions also showed that they preferred areas with tree vegetation like tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biomes as well as temperate broadleaf and mixed forest biomes. Therefore, on the basis of the museum data on the species occurrence and ecological niche modelling method, we provided new and valuable information on the potentially suitable habitat and the possible range of distribution of the genus Sirthenea along with its climatic preferences.

  4. Distribution Pattern and Climate Preferences of the Representatives of the Cosmopolitan Genus Sirthenea Spinola, 1840 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae).

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    Chłond, Dominik; Bugaj-Nawrocka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to predict, through the use of GIS tool as ecological niche modelling, potentially suitable ecological niche and defining the conditions of such niche for the representatives of the cosmopolitan genus Sirthenea. Among all known genera of the subfamily Peiratinae, only Sirthenea occurs on almost all continents and zoogeographical regions. Our research was based on 521 unique occurrence localities and a set of environmental variables covering the whole world. Based on occurrence localities, as well as climatic variables, digital elevation model, terrestrial ecoregions and biomes, information about the ecological preferences is given. Potentially useful ecological niches were modelled using Maxent software, which allowed for the creation of a map of the potential distribution and for determining climatic preferences. An analysis of climatic preferences suggested that the representatives of the genus were linked mainly to the tropical and temperate climates. An analysis of ecoregions also showed that they preferred areas with tree vegetation like tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biomes as well as temperate broadleaf and mixed forest biomes. Therefore, on the basis of the museum data on the species occurrence and ecological niche modelling method, we provided new and valuable information on the potentially suitable habitat and the possible range of distribution of the genus Sirthenea along with its climatic preferences.

  5. New species of Narnia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini) from Mexico and key to the known species of the genus.

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    Brailovsky, Harry; Barrera, Ernesto

    2013-11-13

    One new species of Narnia is described from Mexico, N. anaticula sp. nov. A key to the species is provided together with dorsal view photograph of each known species of Narnia. The genus is divided in two groups according the color of the dorsal abdominal segments.

  6. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae

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    Thomas Henry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Renodaeus group, a monophyletic assemblage of genera within the New World orthotyline tribe Ceratocapsini, comprising eight genera, including four new ones, is defined; and 48 species are treated, including 26 described as new and 12 transferred from Ceratocapsus Reuter as new combinations. Ceratocapsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the new species C. bahamaensis sp. n., from the Bahamas; C. baranowskii sp. n., from Jamaica; C. dominicanensis sp. n., from the Dominican Republic; C. rileyi sp. n., from Texas; C. taeniola sp. n., from Jamaica; C. texensis sp. n., from Texas; C. transversa sp. n., from Mexico (Neuvo León; and C. variabilis sp. n., from Jamaica; and Ceratocapsus balli Knight, comb. n., C. complicatus Knight, comb. n., C. consimilis Reuter, comb. n., C. fusiformis Van Duzee, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus, C. nigropiceus Reuter, comb. n., and C. rufistigmus Blatchley, comb. n. [and a neotype designated], Ceratocapsus clavicornis Knight, syn. n. and C. divaricatus Knight, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Ceratocapsus fusiformis Van Duzee. The genus Marininocoris Carvalho and the only included species M. myrmecoides Carvalho are redescribed. The genus Pilophoropsis Poppius is redescribed and revised, Renodaeus texanus Knight, comb. n. is transferred into it and the three new species P. bejeanae sp. n., from Sonora, Mexico; P. cunealis sp. n., from Oaxaca, Mexico; P. quercicola sp. n., from Arizona, USA, are described. Pilophoropsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the 12 new species P. brailovskyi sp. n., from Federal District, Mexico; P. cuneata sp. n., from Chiapas, Mexico; P. dimidiata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; P. fuscata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA; P. keltoni sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; P. maxima sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; P. pueblaensis sp. n., from Puebla, Mexico; P. schaffneri sp. n., from Neuvo León and San Luis Potosi, Mexico; P. serrata sp. n., from Michoacan, Mexico; P. touchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla; P. truncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero; P. tuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero; and Ceratocapsus barberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus camelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus, and Ceratocapsus fascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate P. schaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca. The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species R. mimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Z. diegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero. Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsidea camelus, Pilophoropsis brachyptera Poppius, Renodaeus mimeticus, and Zanchisme mexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner, male and female (when available color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species.

  7. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Renodaeus group, a monophyletic assemblage of genera within the New World orthotyline tribe Ceratocapsini, comprising eight genera, including four new ones, is defined; and 48 species are treated, including 26 described as new and 12 transferred from Ceratocapsus Reuter as new combinations. Ceratocapsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the new species Ceratocapsidea bahamaensis sp. n., from the Bahamas; Ceratocapsidea baranowskii sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsidea dominicanensis sp. n., from the Dominican Republic; Ceratocapsidea rileyi sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsidea taeniola sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsidea texensis sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsidea transversa sp. n., from Mexico (Neuvo León); and Ceratocapsidea variabilis sp. n., from Jamaica; and Ceratocapsus balli Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus complicatus Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsidea consimilis Reuter, comb. n., Ceratocapsus fusiformis Van Duzee, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), Ceratocapsus nigropiceus Reuter, comb. n., and Ceratocapsus rufistigmus Blatchley, comb. n. [and a neotype designated], Ceratocapsus clavicornis Knight, syn. n. and Ceratocapsus divaricatus Knight, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Ceratocapsus fusiformis Van Duzee. The genus Marininocoris Carvalho and the only included species Marinonicoris myrmecoides Carvalho are redescribed. The genus Pilophoropsis Poppius is redescribed and revised, Renodaeus texanus Knight, comb. n. is transferred into it and the three new species Pilophoropsis bejeanae sp. n., from Sonora, Mexico; Pilophoropsis cunealis sp. n., from Oaxaca, Mexico; Pilophoropsis quercicola sp. n., from Arizona, USA, are described. Pilophoropsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the 12 new species Pilophoropsidea brailovskyi sp. n., from Federal District, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea cuneata sp. n., from Chiapas, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea dimidiata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea fuscata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA; Pilophoropsidea keltoni sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea maxima sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea pueblaensis sp. n., from Puebla, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea schaffneri sp. n., from Neuvo León and San Luis Potosi, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea serrata sp. n., from Michoacan, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea touchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla); Pilophoropsidea truncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); Pilophoropsidea tuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); and Ceratocapsus barberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus camelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), and Ceratocapsus fascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate Pilophoropsidea schaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca). The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species Renodaeus mimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Zanchismeopsidea diegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero). Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsidea camelus, Pilophoropsis brachyptera Poppius, Renodaeus mimeticus, and Zanchisme mexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner), male and female (when available) color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species. PMID:25878535

  8. Comparative Meiotic Studies in Triatoma sordida (Stål and T. guasayana Wygodzinsky & Abalos (Reduviidae, Heteroptera

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    P Rebagliati

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma sordida and T. guasayana are competent Trypanosoma cruzi vectors, with overlapping distribution areas in Argentina. Both species are morphologically similar, and their immature stages are hard to discriminate. Cytogenetic studies in the genus Triatoma reveal scarce karyotypic variations, being 2n= 20 + XY the most frequent diploid number in males. In the present work the meiotic behaviour of different Argentinian populations of T. sordida and T. guasayana has been analyzed; the meiotic karyotype of both species has also been compared. The species differ in total chromosome area and in the relative area of the sex chromosomes. These meiotic karyotypic differences constitute an additional tool for the taxonomic characterization of T. sordida and T. guasayana. The analysis of an interpopulation hybrid of T. sordida (Brazil x Argentina reveals a regular meiotic behaviour, despite the presence of heteromorphic bivalents. Our observations support the hypothesis that karyotype variations through the gain or loss of heterochromatin can not be considered as a primary mechanism of reproductive isolation in Triatoma.

  9. A new species of Xiphovelia Lundblad, 1933 and notes on Pseudovelia Hoberlandt, 1950 (Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Vietnam.

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    Ye, Zhen; Bu, Wenjun

    2016-07-12

    The genus Xiphovelia Lundblad is recorded for the first time from Vietnam and X. vietnamica sp. nov. is described as new. Photographs of the male and female dorsal habitus, male legs, and male genitalic structures are provided. Pseudovelia vittiformis Ye, Polhemus & Bu, 2013 and P. tibialis tibialis Esaki & Miyamoto, 1955 are newly recorded from Vietnam. Together with two other species of Pseudovelia Hoberlandt from southern Vietnam, four species of Pseudovelia are now known from the country. A distribution map for the species of Xiphovelia and Pseudovelia occurring in Vietnam also is provided.

  10. Nutritional value of pupae versus larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as food for rearing Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

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    Factitious prey are often more suitable for use in mass production of beneficial insects than natural prey. Life table analysis yielded demographic parameter values that indicate Tenebrio molitor (L.) pupae are promising as factitious prey to mass produce Podisus maculiventris (Say) and are more sui...

  11. FIRST RECORD OF THE GENUS Ocyochterus FROM COLOMBIA AND NEW RECORDS OF OCHTERIDAE FROM COSTA RICA (HEMIPTERA:HETEROPTERA

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    Federico HERRERA MADRIGAL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez Ocyochterus para Colombia, con lo cual se expande el rango de distribución conocido hasta el momento. Además, se proveen registros para dos especies de Ochterus en Costa Rica. El material examinado se encuentra depositado en el Museo de Zoología de la Universidad de Costa Rica (MZUCR, San José, Costa Rica.

  12. Bed bugs are back and also arriving is the southernmost record of Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndez, Eduardo I; Carvajal, Máriom A

    2014-09-01

    The arrival and establishment of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L., 1755 in Magallanes Region (Chile) is reported. The present record is the southernmost for this species in America. The circumstances that provided for the species reaching this southern locality are discussed.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA and morphology show independent evolutionary histories of bedbug Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) on bats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvín, Ondřej; Munclinger, Pavel; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Vilímová, Jitka

    2012-07-01

    The bedbug, Cimex lectularius, is a well-known human ectoparasite that is reemerging after a long absence of several decades in developed countries of North America and Western Europe. Bedbugs' original hosts were likely bats, and the bedbugs are still common in their roosts. Using morphometry and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S genes, we showed that the populations on bats and humans are largely isolated and differ in morphology. The character of the morphological difference suggests it to be due to adaptation to different hosts, namely adaptations to different sensory, feeding, and dispersal needs. Using the molecular data, we estimated the time of splitting into bat- and human-parasitizing groups using the isolation-with-migration model. The estimate is surprisingly long ago and seems to predate the expansion of modern human from Africa. The gene flow between bat- and human-parasitizing bedbugs is limited and asymmetric with prevailing direction from human-parasitizing populations to bat-parasitizing populations. The differentiation of the populations fits the concept of host races and supports the idea of sympatric speciation. Furthermore, our findings contradict recently formulated hypotheses suggesting bat roosts as a source of bedbug's resurgence as a human pest. Also, we extend the known host range of the bedbug by two bat species.

  14. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae): a survey across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadílek, David; Sťáhlavský, František; Vilímová, Jitka; Zima, Jan

    2013-10-03

    Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4) and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57). The karyotype of all the specimens of Cimex lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3%) from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments could affect population dynamics of variable populations.

  15. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: a survey across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sadílek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4 and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57. The karyotype of all the specimens of C. lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3% from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments could affect population dynamics of variable populations.

  16. Review of the genus Lanchnophorus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae) with description of three new species and other nomenclatural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Carapezza, Attilio; Jindra, Zdeněk; Kondorosy, Előd

    2017-01-25

    The generic name Lanchnophorus Reuter, 1887, deemed for a long time to be unavailable as incorrect original spelling of Lachnophorus (in fact Lachnophorus Distant, 1903 is an unjustified emendation of the former), is restored as a valid name of the genus. Lachnesthus Bergroth, 1915, syn. nov. (new name for the preoccupied Lachnophorus Distant, 1903) is considered junior synonym of Lanchnophorus. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Lanchnophorus flavus (Scudder, 1971) comb. nov. = Lachnesthus chinai Scudder, nomen nudum; Lanchnophorus guttulatus Reuter, 1887, comb. restit. = Lachnophorus albidomaculatus Distant, 1913, syn. nov. = Lachnesthus rodriguezensis China, 1925, syn. nov.; Lanchnophorus leucospilus (Walker, 1872) comb. nov.; Lanchnophorus merula (Distant, 1903) comb. nov.; and Lanchnophorus singalensis (Dohrn, 1860) comb. nov. Three new species are described: Lanchnophorus gaoqingae Kment & Jindra sp. nov. from China (Yunnan), Lanchnophorus seminitens Kment & Carapezza sp. nov. from Socotra Island (Yemen), and Lanchnophorus webbi Kondorosy sp. nov. from India: Tamil Nadu. Bibliographies and known distribution of all the included species are reviewed. The following new country and state records are provided: L. flavus from Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Malawi, Niger, Zambia and Zimbabwe; L. leucospilus from China (Yunnan) and Laos, L. merula from India (Kerala/Tamil Nadu) and Thailand; L. singalensis from Angola, Benin, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, China (Hainan), Iran (Sistan and Ba-luchestan), Oman, Pakistan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Rajasthan), Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand.

  17. Response of the reduviid bug, Rhynocoris marginatus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) to six different species of cotton pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahayaraj, Kitherian; Muthu Kumar, Subramanian; Enkegaard, Annie

    2016-01-01

    In Indian agro-ecosystems Rhynocoris marginatus (F.) is one of the most abundant predatory arthropods and feeds on a wide range of insect pests. We investigated the responses of R. marginatus to six species of cotton pests: Spodoptera litura (F.), Sylepta derogata (F.), Pericallia ricini (F.), My...

  18. Waveform library for chinch bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Blissidae): Characterization of Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) waveforms at multiple input impedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring has been used extensively to elucidate mechanisms of resistance in plants to insect herbivores with piercing-sucking mouthparts, or stylets. Characterization of waveforms produced by insects during stylet probing is essential to the application of this ...

  19. Influence of light and habitat on predation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae by the waterbugs(Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabaneeta Saha; Gautam Aditya; Animesh Bal; Goutam K. Saha

    2008-01-01

    The influence of light and habitat structure on the predation of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae by the common heteropteran water bug, Diplonychus (= Sphaerodema)annulatus, D. rusticus and Anisops bouvieri was assessed in the laboratory. It was revealed that water bugs predate more in presence of light than in dark conditions. While A. bouvieri consumed more prey in structured conditions, D. annulatus and D. rusticus consumed more prey in open conditions. The selection of prey size as well as the respective numbers varied between predators and treatments significantly. Prey vulnerability (PV), an indicator of predatory efficiency, was highest for D. annulatus, moderate for D. rusticus and low forA.bouvieri. Prey consumption and PV values under different treatment conditions indicate that for belostomatid water bugs D. annulatus and D. rusticus, the order of prey consumption under different habitat and light/dark combinations is light open > dark open > light vegetated > dark vegetated. In the case of the backswimmer, A. bouvieri, the order of prey consumption appeared to be light structured > dark structured > light open > dark open. These findings were consistent with resource-partitioning by water bug species sharing the same guild. If the observed results are extended to natural settings the efficiency of these predators in controlling mosquito populations will vary with the structural complexity of habitats and the intensity of light.

  20. Rhodnius amazonicus Almeida, Santos & Sposina, 1973, Bona Species, Close to R. pictipes Stål, 1872 (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-M Bérenger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of two atypical specimens of Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1872 in French Guiana and the examination of the female holotype of R. amazonicus Almeida, Santos & Sposina, 1973, the only specimen of this species so far known, lead us to propose the rehabilitation of R. amazonicus synonymized with R. pictipes. The male is described for the first time and the female redescribed. Both external characters and genitalia distinguish R. amazonicus from R. pictipes. R. amazonicus shows affinities not only with pictipes but also with R. stali Lent, Jurberg & Galvão, 1993 and R. paraensis Sherlock, Guitton & Miles, 1977. A key is provided for these four species forming, in all likelihood, a natural group, i.e. the "pictipes group".

  1. Importance of species of Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Grant-Guillén, Y; Morales-Corona, Z Y; Haro-Rodríguez, S; Ventura-Rodríguez, L V; Nogueda-Torres, B; Bustos-Saldaña, R

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiological risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas in human populations of western Mexico is still under study. Although most vectors in this region and their vector capability are already known, new studies estimating the risk and the importance of individual Triatominae species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) for T. cruzi transmission are necessary. For 1 yr, every month, > 400 human dwellings and their surroundings in eight communities of two western Mexico states were searched for triatomines. More than 1,000 specimens representing four species were collected and checked for T. cruzi infection. Based on the usual entomological indices, only the inhabitants of Gavilán El Progreso-La Villita are at serious risk of vectorial infection by T. cruzi. A population of Meccus longipennis (Usinger) was found living in peridomestic rock pile boundary walls after an insecticide spraying. It was confirmed the major role of peridomestic habitats as shelter areas for triatomines, particularly in rock pile boundary walls and chicken roosts. Triatominae presence also was verified in certain sylvatic habitats, including primarily heaps of stones. The important role of M. longipennis in the potential transmission of T. cruzi in the region and the secondary role of M. picturatus (Usinger) and Triatoma barberi Usinger also were confirmed. Null colonization of houses by T. barberi, which was collected primarily in peridomestic habitats, differs from its common intradomiciliary collection in other studies. Meccus pallidipennis (Stål) most probably does not exist in Nayarit. Meccus mazzottii (Usinger) and Meccus phyllosomus (Burmeister) are no longer found in Nayarit and Jalisco. Additional studies are necessary to determine the current epidemiological situation in other areas of western Mexico.

  2. Water Striders:The Biomechanics of Water Locomotion and Functional Morphology of the Hydrophobic Surface (Insecta: Hemiptera-Heteroptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. J. Perez Goodwyn; Jin-tong Wang; Zhou-ji Wang; Ai-hong Ji; Zhen-dong Dai; K. Fujisaki

    2008-01-01

    Water striders are insects living on the water surface, over which they can move very quickly and rarely get wetted. We measured the force of free walking in water striders, using a hair attached to their backs and a 3D strain gauge. The error was calculated by comparing force and data derived from geometry and was estimated as 13%. Females on average were stronger (1.32 mN) than males (0.87 mN), however, the ratio of force to weight was not significantly different. Compared with other lighter species, Aquarius paludum seems stronger, but the ratio of force to weight is actually lower. A. paludum applies about 0.3 mN·cm-1 to 0.4 mN·cm-1 with its mid-legs, thus avoiding penetrating the surface tension layer while propelling itself rapidly over the water surface.We also investigated the external morphology with SEM. The body is covered by effectively two layers of macro-and micro-hairs, which renders them hydrophobic. The setae are long (40 um-60 um) and stiff, being responsible for waterproofing, and the microtrichia are much smaller (<10 um), slender, and flexible, holding a bubble over the body when submerged.

  3. Sôbre o órgão abdominal glandular de Arilus carinatus (Forster, 1771: (Heteroptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um órgão glandular, encontrado na fêmea de Arilus carinatus, de um tipo ainda desocnhecido em insetos. Localiza-se, em forma de um saco membranoso, nos dois lados da linha ventral, entre os 8º e 9º segmentos abdominais. O órgão é expulso por um aumento da pressão interna da cavidade abdominal e volta ao estado de repouso, no interior do corpo, por meio de contração muscular. A vesícula retal volumosa forma, em direção distal, um amplo divertículo, do qual partem dois "tubos retais" que penetram nas vesículas membranosas, tendo na superfície destas uma abertura em forma de fenda. A hipoderme do divertículo, bem como a de uma região da vesícula retal e da parte basal dos tubos retais é glandular. A secreção possui um cheiro intenso e ardido que lembra o gás de acetileno. Trata-se, provàvelmente, de uma glândula repugnatória. Não se sabe nada sôbra a ocorrência do aparelho no macho e em outras espécies de Reduviídeos.

  4. Review of the genus Arhaphe (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Largidae) with descriptions of nine new species from Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlík, Jaroslav L; Brailovsky, Harry

    2016-03-24

    Nine new species of the genus Arhaphe Herrich-Schaeffer, 1850 are described: A. ferruginea sp. nov. from Mexico (Guerrero), A. flavoantennata sp. nov. from Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province), Honduras (Intibuca Department) and Nicaragua (Granada Province), A. hirsuta sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca), A. kmenti sp. nov. from Mexico (Guanajuato, Michoacán), A. longula sp. nov. from Mexico (Guerrero), A. magna sp. nov. from Mexico (Colima), A. myrmicoides sp. nov. from Mexico (Guerrero, Nayarit), A. oaxacana sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca), and A. pilifera sp. nov. from Mexico (Nayarit). The fifth instar larvae of A. arguta (Bliven, 1956), A. carolina Herrich-Schaeffer, 1850, A. cicindeloides Walker, 1873, A. flavoantennata sp. nov., A. mexicana Halstead, 1972, and A. morelensis Brailovsky & Marquez, 1974 are described. Additional state faunistic records of the already described species are provided: A. arguta (Bliven, 1956) (Mexico: Guanajuato, Sonora), A. capitata Halstead, 1972 (Costa Rica; Mexico: Chiapas, Estado de México, Guerrero, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Puebla), A. carolina Herrich-Schaeffer, 1850 (Mexico: Guanajuato, Tamaulipas), A. cicindeloides Walker, 1873 (Mexico: Hidalgo, Querétaro), A. deviatica Brailovsky, 1981 (Nicaragua), A. furcata Brailovsky, 1981 (Mexico: Michoacán), A. halsteadi Brailovsky, 1981 (Mexico: Oaxaca), A. mimetica Barber, 1911 (Mexico: Chihuahua), A. morelensis Brailovsky & Marquez, 1974 (Mexico: Estado de México, Guerrero, Puebla), and A. rustica Brailovsky, 1981 (Mexico: Morelos, Oaxaca).

  5. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    The Renodaeus group, a monophyletic assemblage of genera within the New World orthotyline tribe Ceratocapsini, comprising eight genera, including four new ones, is defined; and 48 species are treated, including 26 described as new and 12 transferred from Ceratocapsus Reuter as new combinations. Ceratocapsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the new species Ceratocapsideabahamaensis sp. n., from the Bahamas; Ceratocapsideabaranowskii sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsideadominicanensis sp. n., from the Dominican Republic; Ceratocapsidearileyi sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsideataeniola sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsideatexensis sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsideatransversa sp. n., from Mexico (Neuvo León); and Ceratocapsideavariabilis sp. n., from Jamaica; and Ceratocapsusballi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsuscomplicatus Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsideaconsimilis Reuter, comb. n., Ceratocapsusfusiformis Van Duzee, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), Ceratocapsusnigropiceus Reuter, comb. n., and Ceratocapsusrufistigmus Blatchley, comb. n. [and a neotype designated], Ceratocapsusclavicornis Knight, syn. n. and Ceratocapsusdivaricatus Knight, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Ceratocapsusfusiformis Van Duzee. The genus Marininocoris Carvalho and the only included species Marinonicorismyrmecoides Carvalho are redescribed. The genus Pilophoropsis Poppius is redescribed and revised, Renodaeustexanus Knight, comb. n. is transferred into it and the three new species Pilophoropsisbejeanae sp. n., from Sonora, Mexico; Pilophoropsiscunealis sp. n., from Oaxaca, Mexico; Pilophoropsisquercicola sp. n., from Arizona, USA, are described. Pilophoropsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the 12 new species Pilophoropsideabrailovskyi sp. n., from Federal District, Mexico; Pilophoropsideacuneata sp. n., from Chiapas, Mexico; Pilophoropsideadimidiata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsideafuscata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA; Pilophoropsideakeltoni sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsideamaxima sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsideapueblaensis sp. n., from Puebla, Mexico; Pilophoropsideaschaffneri sp. n., from Neuvo León and San Luis Potosi, Mexico; Pilophoropsideaserrata sp. n., from Michoacan, Mexico; Pilophoropsideatouchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla); Pilophoropsideatruncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); Pilophoropsideatuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); and Ceratocapsusbarberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsuscamelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), and Ceratocapsusfascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate Pilophoropsideaschaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca). The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species Renodaeusmimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Zanchismeopsideadiegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero). Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsideacamelus, Pilophoropsisbrachyptera Poppius, Renodaeusmimeticus, and Zanchismemexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner), male and female (when available) color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species.

  6. Neuropeptides in Heteroptera: Identification of allatotropin-related peptide and tachykinin-related peptides using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, the peptidomic analysis of neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex and abdominal perisympathetic organs of polyphagous stinkbugs (Pentatomidae) revealed the group-specific sequences of pyrokinins, CAPA peptides (CAPA-periviscerokinins/PVKs and CAPA-pyrokinin), myosuppressin, corazonin...

  7. Diel flight behaviour and dispersal patterns of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera species with special emphasis on the importance of seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabai, Zoltán; Kálmán, Zoltán; Szivák, Ildikó; Boda, Pál

    2012-09-01

    Dispersal flight is the most important and almost the only way for primary aquatic insects to find new water habitats. During a 30-week-long project, we monitored the flight dispersal behaviour of aquatic beetles and bugs with using highly and horizontally polarizing agricultural black plastic sheets laid onto the ground. Based on the flight data of more than 45,000 individuals and 92 species, we explored and described eight different diel flight activity patterns. We found that seven of eight dispersal patterns are consistent with the previous knowledge, while three conspicuous mass dispersal periods can be identified as in the mid morning and/or around noon and/or at nightfall. As an exception, we found a `daytime' pattern occurred exclusively in spring, in which mass dispersal can be seen from mid morning to late afternoon. In contrast to previous studies, we emphasize here that the seasonality has to be considered in evaluation of the diurnal flight activity. According to the seasons, a `three code sign' was proposed to indicate the diel dispersal flight behaviour of a species for a year. Most of the species utilize different diel activity patterns in different seasons. In spring, the daytime pattern was the preferred type, but in summer and autumn, the evening types were the most popular patterns. We stated that the seasonal change of air temperature has a crucial role in that a pattern could be manifested in a given season or not and brings a need to change the diel dispersal pattern among seasons.

  8. The significance of cytogenetics for the study of karyotype evolution and taxonomy of water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae) native to Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela, Chirino Mónica; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Bressa, María José

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Male meiosis behaviour and heterochromatin characterization of three big water bug species were studied. Belostoma dentatum (Mayr, 1863), Belostoma elongatum Montandon, 1908 and Belostoma gestroi Montandon, 1903 possess 2n = 26 + X1X2Y (male). In these species, male meiosis is similar to that previously observed in Belostoma Latreille, 1807. In general, autosomal bivalents show a single chiasma terminally located and divide reductionally at anaphase I. On the other hand, sex chromosomes are achiasmatic, behave as univalents and segregate their chromatids equationally at anaphase I. The analysis of heterochromatin distribution and composition revealed a C-positive block at the terminal region of all autosomes in Belostoma dentatum, a C-positive block at the terminal region and C-positive interstitial dots on all autosomes in Belostoma elongatum, and a little C-positive band at the terminal region of autosomes in Belostoma gestroi. A C-positive band on one bivalent was DAPI negative/CMA3 positive in the three species. The CMA3-bright band, enriched in GC base pairs, was coincident with a NOR detected by FISH. The results obtained support the hypothesis that all species of Belostoma with multiple sex chromosome systems preserve NORs in autosomal bivalents. The karyotype analyses allow the cytogenetic characterization and identification of these species belonging to a difficult taxonomic group. Besides, the cytogenetic characterization will be useful in discussions about evolutionary trends of the genome organization and karyotype evolution in this genus. PMID:24260694

  9. Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera, Tingidae) using a genome skimming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; Guilbert, Éric; Lhuillier, Émeline; Murienne, Jerôme

    2015-03-01

    Lace bugs (Tingidae) are a family of phytophagous heteropterans, some of which are important agricultural and forestry pests. They currently comprise around 2500 species distributed worldwide, for which only one mitochondrial genome has been described so far. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome and the nuclear ribosomal gene segment of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae using a genome skimming approach on an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. Fifty-four additional heteropteran mitogenomes, including the one of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata, were retrieved to allow for comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. P. perseae mitochondrial genome was determined to be 15,850 bp long, and presented the typical organisation of insect mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analysis placed P. perseae as a sister to C. ciliata but did not confirm the monophyly of Miroidae including Tingidae. Our results contradicted widely accepted phylogenetic hypothesis, which highlights the limits of analyses based on mitochondrial data only. Shotgun sequencing approaches should provide substantial improvements in harmonizing mitochondrial and nuclear databases.

  10. Dermatosis caused by Corythuca ciliata (Say, 1932) (Heteroptera, Tingidae). Diagnostic and clinical aspects of an unrecognized pseudoparasitosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Summary The present article discusses three cases of human infestation by Corythuca ciliata (Lace bugs), a parasite of plane trees. The cases were all in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy and the symptoms involved a large number of hives on the subjects' bodies which were scarcely or not at all itchy and which spontaneously cleared up in all the cases in less than 24 hours. It can be concluded that the Lace bug can be an agent of insect-caused dermatosis and this should be considered in ...

  11. Dermatosis caused by Corythuca ciliata (Say, 1932) (Heteroptera, Tingidae). diagnostic and clinical aspects of an unrecognized pseudoparasitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Bertero, M

    2013-03-01

    The present article discusses three cases of human infestation by Corythuca ciliata (Lace bugs), a parasite of plane trees. The cases were all in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy and the symptoms involved a large number of hives on the subjects' bodies which were scarcely or not at all itchy and which spontaneously cleared up in all the cases in less than 24 hours. It can be concluded that the Lace bug can be an agent of insect-caused dermatosis and this should be considered in examining subjects who visit or live near wooded areas which are infested.

  12. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27596436

  13. A new species of Oncopeltus Stål, 1868 (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) in the nominate subgenus from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndez, Eduardo I; Rocca, Javiera R

    2017-03-02

    Oncopeltus Stål is a lygaeine genus currently comprising 39 species classified in two subgenera (Slater & O'Donnell, 1995). Oncopeltus is distributed in both hemispheres in tropical and temperate areas. Species on this genus are commonly known as milkweed bugs, because of their trophic association with plants in the family Apocynaceae (Scudder & Duffey, 1971). From these plants, the bugs sequester cardenolides making them unpalatable for predators (Duffey & Scudder, 1972). These habits are also accompanied with their brightly reddish coloration, which has been interpreted as aposematism (Duffey & Scudder, 1972, O'Rourke, 1979; Faúndez et al., 2016). As these bugs attack several plants in the subfamily Asclepiadoideae; they have an economic impact on several ornamentally used species, and may sometimes be considered as garden pests (Faúndez & Rocca, 2016; Faúndez et al., 2016). Species of this group are also well known for generating some natural hybrids (O'Rourke, 1979); because of this, their systematic treatment at specific level has been confused, and the identity of several taxa remain unclear. The purpose of this contribution is to describe a new species in this genus from Ecuador.

  14. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  15. Population Genetic Baseline of the First Plataspid Stink Bug Symbiosis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae Reported in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D. Eaton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The stink bug, Megacopta cribraria, has an obligate relationship with a bacterial endosymbiont which allows it to feed on legumes. The insect is a pest of soybeans in Asia and was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in October 2009 on kudzu vine, Pueraria montana, in North Georgia, USA. By October 2010 M. cribraria had been confirmed in 80 counties in Georgia actively feeding on kudzu vine and soybean plants. Since the symbiosis may support the bug’s ecological expansions, a population genetic baseline for the symbiosis was developed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nuDNA gene sequence collected from each insect and its primary g- proteobacterium and secondary a -proteobacterium endosymbionts. A single mitochondrial DNA haplotype was found in all insects sampled in Georgia and South Carolina identified as GA1. The GAI haplotype appears to be rapidly dispersing across Georgia and into contiguous states. Primary and secondary endosymbiont gene sequences from M. cribraria in Georgia were the same as those found in recently collected Megacopta samples from Japan. The implications of these data are discussed.

  16. Nutritional Value of Pupae Versus Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as Food for Rearing Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe; Shelby, Kent S; Coudron, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    Life-table analysis yielded demographic parameter values that indicate that Tenebrio molitor (L.) pupae are potentially more suitable factitious prey to mass-produce the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) and are more suitable prey than the larvae. P. maculiventris developed faster (23.2 vs. 25.5 d), weighed more (females 80.9 vs. 66.6 mg and males 64.7 vs. 53.7 mg), and had a higher survival rate (0.88 vs. 0.7), fecundity, and reproductive output (87.1 vs. 22.8 eggs/female) when reared on pupae compared with larvae of T. molitor. The total protein content and soluble protein content were significantly higher in pupae (60.2 and 23%, respectively) than larvae (53.1 and 14.4%, respectively). Lipid content was significantly lower in pupae (32.1%) than larvae (35.9%), and larvae had more polyunsaturated fatty acids (83.6 vs. 56.6 mg/g) and less oleic (0.1 mg/g) and steric (6.1 mg/g) acids than pupae (37.3 and 12.3 mg/g, respectively). The total sugar content was not significantly different between pupae and larvae. However, larvae had significantly more fructose than pupae, but pupae had more galactose, glucosamine, glucose, mannose, and trehalose than larvae. Differences in nutritional composition and its impact on predator demographic parameters are potential factors that make the pupal stage a better food source.

  17. Morphology of female reproductive tract of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkymário de Paulo Lemos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas females fed with Alabama argillacea (Hübner larvae, artificial diet, Tenebrio molitor L. larvae or Musca domestica L. larvae were studied. The reproductive tract of females of this species presented yellow coloration and independent of the diet, each ovary had seven ovarioles joined through terminal filaments and forming a bunch shape structure. The histological data revealed that the ovary of P. nigrispinus was of meroistic telotrophic type, with each individual ovariole divided in a terminal filament, a tropharium (trophic chamber, a vitellarium, and a pedicel. The prey type affected the development and morphometry of these structures. Females of P. nigrispinus fed with 3rd or 5th instar larvae of cotton leafworm (A. argillacea presented developed ovaries with ovarioles showing a great number of oocytes in advanced stages of development. Females fed with artificial diet presented atrophic ovaries and ovarioles practically without oocytes. Females fed with T. molitor or M. domestica showed ovaries in intermediary stage of development. The central ovariole was longer in females fed with 5th instar larvae of cotton leafworm and shorter in those fed with artificial diet. Most developed oocytes were observed in ovaries of females fed with 5th or 3rd instar larvae of cotton leafworm, and the majority of atrophic oocytes were found in females fed with artificial diet.Este estudo apresenta a morfologia do sistema reprodutor feminino de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas alimentado com larvas de Alabama argillacea (Hübner, Musca domestica L. e de Tenebrio molitor L. ou dieta artificial. As gônadas internas desse predador apresentaram coloração amarelada e, independente da dieta, cada ovário apresentou sete ovaríolos unidos pelos filamentos terminais em uma estrutura em forma de cacho. A análise histológica revelou que o ovário de P. nigrispinus é do tipo meroístico telotrófico com cada ovaríolo dividido morfologicamente em filamento terminal, trofário (câmara nutridora, vitelário e pedicelo. A dieta recebida por esse predador alterou o desenvolvimento e a morfometria de seus ovários. Fêmeas de P. nigrispinus alimentadas com larvas de terceiro ou quinto estádio de A. argillacea apresentaram ovários desenvolvidos com grande número de ovócitos em estágio avançado de desenvolvimento nos ovaríolos. Fêmeas com dieta artificial apresentaram ovários atrofiados e ovaríolos, praticamente, sem ovócitos em seu interior enquanto aquelas alimentadas com larvas de T. molitor ou M. domestica tiveram ovários em estágios intermediários de desenvolvimento. O comprimento do ovaríolo central foi maior em fêmeas alimentadas com larvas de quinto estádio de A. argillacea e menor naquelas com dieta artificial. Ovócitos em estágios mais avançados de desenvolvimento foram observados para fêmeas alimentadas com larvas de terceiro ou quinto estádios de A. argillacea, enquanto ovócitos atrofiados foram observados para aquelas com dieta artificial.

  18. Revalidation of Ditomotarsus hyadesi Signoret, 1885 stat. rest. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Acanthosomatidae with notes on its Natural History

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    Máriom A. Carvajal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ditomotarsus hyadesi Signoret, 1885 is revalidated. An historical analysis of the references belonging to this species is provided. Ditomotarsus gayi virens Jensen-Haarup, 1931 is proposed as new junior synonym of Ditomotarsus hyadesi. New data is provided on the biology of D. hyadesi. First observations on oviposition process are delivered and discussed. New data on sexual behavior is recorded and discussed. Ontogenic coloration changes for this species are for first time recorded, becoming the first in the Ditomotarsinae. The distribution and life history of the species are summarized.

  19. The morphology and histology of the male reproductive system in Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)--light and scanning electron micoscope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2013-01-01

    The male reproductive system of Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus 1758) is studied morphologically and histologically using both light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The reproductive system of the male D. baccarum consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands (mesadenia, ectadenia), a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The number of testicular follicles varies from four to six. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are fine-long and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius which is balloon-shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which connected to the aedeagus.

  20. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S; Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Roe, R Michael

    2016-09-16

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  1. Revision of the Ambrysus guttatipennis Stål species complex (Heteroptera: Naucoridae: Cryphocricinae) with the descriptions of six new species from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel; Sites, Robert W

    2016-08-22

    The Ambrysus guttatipennis Stål species complex is revised and includes A. arizonus La Rivers, A. bispinus La Rivers, A. drakei La Rivers, A. guttatipennis Stål, A. mexicanus Montandon, and A. mormon Montandon. Six new species that belong to this complex are described from Mexico: A. ayoyolin n. sp., A. bowlesi n. sp., A. contrerasi n. sp., A. itsipatsari n. sp., A. noveloi n. sp., and A. veracruzanus n. sp. The subspecies A. mormon australis La Rivers, A. m. heidemanni Montandon, and A. m. minor La Rivers are proposed as junior synonyms of A. m. mormon Montandon. A supplemental redescription of A. guttatipennis Stål based on the holotype is provided and a lectotype of A. mexicanus Montandon is designated. Ambrysus arizonus is newly recorded from Mexico and A. bispinus from Guatemala. Most of the species in this complex occur only in Mexico, although A. arizonus and A. mormon are distributed in Mexico and the United States, and A. bispinus is distributed in Mexico and Guatemala. Ambrysus mormon has the widest distribution of any species in this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and structures associated with male and female genitalia.

  2. Susceptibilidad a endosulfan y monitoreo de resistencia en poblaciones de Piezodorus guildinii (Insecta, Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, en cultivos de soja de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro STADLER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la susceptibilidad a endosulfan en diferentes poblaciones de P. guildinii (Westwood, que afectan los cultivos de soja en las provincias argentinas de Santiago del Estero, Chaco y Santa Fe. Se estableció su estatus de susceptibilidad actual para todas las poblaciones estudiadas, y se monitoreó la resistencia a endosulfan en una población de P. guildinii , de Santiago del Estero desde 2002 a 2005, para detectar los cambios en la respuesta al insecticida, con la finalidad de alertar acerca de posibles fallas de control. Los insectos fueron colectados en plantaciones de soja en las localidades de Oliveros, Reconquista, San Justo, Bandera y Coronel Du Graty. Los bioensayos se desarrollaron en laboratorio por el método del tópico, en el marco de los protocolos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El estatus de susceptibilidad actual a endosulfan, en las poblaciones de P. guildinii estudiadas fue de: DL95 = 0,680 ìg/ìL [0,489-1,338] a 2,277ìg/ìL [1,526-5,418]. De los resultados de los bioensayos se desprende que las poblaciones estudiadas, muy distantes geográficamente unas de otras, muestran algunas diferencias en su tolerancia a endosulfan (capacidad de detoxificación, exhibiendo, además, un incremento gradual de la misma desde la zona sur de Sta. Fe (Oliveros hacia el norte (Bandera - Chaco, que probablemente se relaciona con los factores ambientales propios de cada región, y se pueden deber también a procesos toxicodínámicos o toxicocinéticos. La población de P. guildinii de Coronel Du Graty (Santiago del Estero monitoreada desde 2002 a 2005, no mostró un incremento de tolerancia al endosulfan a lo largo del tiempo, que sugiera la presencia de fenómenos de resistencia. Factores poblacionales y ambientales son corresponsables de las variaciones temporales y espaciales de la susceptibilidad de una población a un biocida, esto hace que los límites entre la plasticidad fenotípica y las diferencias en la susceptibilidad a xenobióticos con base genética, resulten difusos. Dentro del área de cultivo de la soja en la Argentina, que abarca regiones con importantes diferencias climáticas y florísticas, la plasticidad fenotípica que muestran diferentes poblaciones de P. guildinii , no debe ser omitida, distinguiendo los cambios de susceptibilidad a insecticidas relacionados con la plasticidad, de aquellos de origen genético. Comprender los mecanismos responsables de cambios en la susceptibilidad a xenobióticos, permitirá discernir entre los efectos de la plasticidad fenotípica y de los cambios genéticos, esto llevará a seleccionar las medidas adecuadas para el control de poblaciones de insectos plaga. La información acerca del estatus actual de susceptibilidad a endosulfan, obtenida a través del presente estudio, resultará de utilidad para el monitoreo de resistencia así como para el diagnóstico de fallas en el control de esta plaga.

  3. Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2014-05-05

    Five new species of Leptoglossus are described: L.caicosensis from Turks and Caicos Island, L. egeri and L. impensus from Bolivia, L. franckei from Costa Rica, and L. polychromus from Ecuador, Cooperative Republic of Guiana (British Guiana), and French Guiana. Leptoglossus argentinus Bergroth is synonymized under L. chilensis chilensis (Spinola) and Narnia anaticula Brailovsky & Barrera under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann. Dorsal view drawings and key to the 61 known species and 1 subspecies are included; a complete checklist, and the position of each species within the species-group defined herein, are given except for two species L. macrophylus Stål and L. polychromus sp.nov., that are insertae-sedis. The pronotal disk, hind legs, and male genital capsule of the new species here described are illustrated.

  4. Observations on the life history of giant water bugs Lethocerus Mayr, 1853 (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Belostomatidae in the Gangetic plains of India and Nepal

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    H. Nesemann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of giant water bugs Lethocerus were found in the Gangetic plains of northern India and Nepal. Lethocerus indicus is widespread, whereas a single record of Lethocerus patruelis confirms the eastern distribution range in Bihar. Four instars of aquatic nymphs occur exclusively in temporary shallow stagnant water bodies which harbor rich amphibian populations but lack permanent fish fauna. From mid-August to the first week of November adults fly. Later they live submerged in aquatic habitats of large rivers and permanent stagnant water bodies which harbor diverse fish fauna. Repeated findings of adults with ventrally attached egg-shaped pupae of aquatic mites (Hydracarina suggest that these are host-specific ones of Lethocerus. Thus, the occurrence of protelean parasites on giant water bugs in the Gangetic plains is a previously unknown unique finding since apparently mites have been noticed only from other Nepomorpha families.

  5. Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Parker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (BMSB is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.

  6. A new species of the stilt bug genus Gampsocoris from Senegal and a new generic combination for Gampsocoris gomeranus Wagner (Heteroptera: Berytidae: Gampsocorinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationships the African gampsocorine (Gampsocorinae) genera Gampsoacantha Josifov and Štusak, Gampsocoris Fuss, and Micrometacanthus are discussed. Gampsocoris gomeranus Wagner, having a median anterior spine, three basal processes on the pronotum, and a short, round antennal segment IV, is t...

  7. NUEVOS REGISTROS Y AMPLIACIÓN DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE HETERÓPTEROS ACUÁTICOS EN COLOMBIA (HEMIPTERA, HETEROPTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORA NANCY PADILLA GIL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registran 33 especies de chinches acuáticas; 21 semiacuáticas y 12 acuáticas (Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha. Se amplia el rango geográfico para 24 especies y nueve especies son registradas por primera vez para Colombia: Cryptocricos rufus DeCarlo, 1940; Gelastocoris bolivianus De Carlo, 1954; Ranatra tuberculifrons Montandon, 1907; Neoplea borelii (Kirkaldy, 1899; Hydrometra exalla Drake y Lauck, 1959; Hebrus plaumanni Porter, 1952; Merragata hebroides White, 1877; Rheumatobates drakei (Hungerford, 1954; Microvelia hinei Drake, 1920; para cada una de estas especies se considera una diagnosis e ilustración de los caracteres taxonómicos. Para todas las especies se proporcionan la distribución por departamento y municipio y un mapa ilustrativo.

  8. Cimidíase (dermatose por percevejo: uma causa de prurigo a ser lembrada Bedbugs (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: an etiology of pruritus to be remembered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Criado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos uma doente de 19 anos que nos procurou com quadro de intenso prurido há 2 semanas e demonstrando lesões eritêmato-pápulo-urticadas mais intensamente distribuídas nos membros superiores e inferiores. A anamnese detalhada excluiu causas internas e medicamentos como uma possível causa do prurigo. Após orientações quanto a dedetização do domicílio a doente retornou no consultório após 3 semanas sem lesões cutâneas e trazendo em um pote de vidro vários percevejos coletados após a dedetização.This report describes a 19-year old female patient, who sought medical attention for severe itching of two weeks' duration. Erythematous papules and wheals were found, principally on her upper and lower limbs. Careful anamnesis excluded other etiologies of the pruritus, including those related to internal diseases and medication. Following counseling regarding the need to contract a domestic pest control company, the patient returned to the clinic three weeks later with no skin lesions and bearing a glass jar containing several bedbugs collected following pest control treatment.

  9. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos sobre a subfamilia Triatominae (Heteroptera, reduviidae: cérebro e seus nervos de Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available A fim de apresentar um conhecimento detalhado da estrutura e função dos diferentes sistemas nervosos dos Triatominae, começamos neste estudo com a descrição do sistema senso-motor. Como primeira parte escolhemos o cérebro e os nervos deste. A forma externa do cérebro é predeterminada pela anatomia da cápsula craniana. O cérebro localiza-se na parte posterior da cabeça, embaixo e por trás dos dois ocelos. É caracterizado por um encurtamento em sentido longitudinal, de modo que as conectivas entre sincérebro e Gnatocérebro são extremamente curtas, porém largas, além disto, a terceira comissura é incluída na massa do segmento mandibular do Gnatocérebro. As três massas ópticas são de formação típica, bem como a comissura óptica. O corpo central é grande e está em ligação direta com a maioria dos centros do Protocérebro e do Deutocérebro. O corpo pedunculado possui apenas um único glomérulo em forma de cogumelo pedunculado sem sinal de formação de um cálice como em formigas e outros insetos mais evoluídos. As extremidades do pedúnculo desfazem-se embaixo do Corpo central em um grande complexo de anexos claviformes como encontrado nos Machilidae. O Deutocérebro é caracterizado por um grande centro antenal, composto de numerosos pequenos glomérulos em situação periférica. O Tritocérebro é pequeno, mostrando na sua parte anterior duas conectivas frontais muito curtas, de modo que o gãnglio frontal se situa perto do Tritocérebro. A massa compacta do Gnatocérebro mostra sua composição por três pares de gânglios apenas em séries de cortes. Além dos Lobos ópticos, saem do cérebro 8 pares de nervos e 3 nervos ímpares: Do Protocérebro: Os nervos dos ocelos e o nervo do Corpus allatum; Do Deutocérebro: Os nervos das antenas e os da faringe; Do tritocérebro: Os nervos labrais e, através do gânglio frontal, o nervo recurrente e o nervo dos músculos da faringe; Do gnatocérebro: Os nervos das mandíbulas, maxilas, do lábio e das glândulas salivares.

  10. CICLO BIOLÓGICO Y ANÁLISIS DE RIESGO DE Leptoglossus zonatus DALLAS (HETEROPTERA: COREIDAE) PARA EL SORGO EN EL ESTADO DE MORELOS

    OpenAIRE

    Tepole García, Rosa Elba

    2015-01-01

    Leptoglossus zonatus es una especie generalista, a pesar de su importancia económica en sorgo, nogal y piñón mexicano, en México no hay estudios de su ciclo biológico ni métodos de prevención. Por lo que en el presente trabajo se estudió la supervivencia de L. zonatus alimentadas con cuatro hospederas, para el establecimiento de una cría, su ciclo de vida en cinco condiciones y el riesgo de su incidencia para el cultivo de sorgo en el estado de Morelos. Se alimentó con maíz (elote), frijol (e...

  11. Heat coma as an indicator of resistance to environmental stress and its relationship to ocean dynamics in the sea skaters, Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuo Harada; Shiho Takenaka; Takero Sekimoto; Mitsuru Nakajyo; Takao Inoue; Takamasa Ishibashi; Chihiro Katagiri

    2011-01-01

    The tolerance to temperature increase was tested for Halobates individuals collected during two cruises in the western tropical Pacific Ocean (MR-06-05-Leg 3,December 21,2006-January 12,2007,0°N-8°N; KH-06-02-Leg 5,August 18-31,2006,12°N-1 7°N).High temperature coma experiments were conducted on adults and 5th instar larvae.On average,H.sericeus (distributed in the wide latitude zone of 5°N-40°N),H.germanus (distributed in the moderate latitude zone of 0°N-35°N) and H.micans (distributed mainly in the lower latitudes around the equator) were on average paralyzed at 35.6℃ (SD:0.89),32.9℃ (SD:2.17) and 31.6℃ (SD:2.60),respectively (P =0.035).According to the current dynamics during the cruise,the colony of H.sericeus at one station (5°N 137°E) may have been transferred from the northern area of 14°N by three currents (North Equatorial Current,Mindanao Current and North Equatorial Counter Current) to the area of 5°N 138°E.Extremely high heat resistance was shown by the adults of H.germanus in the sea area around the equator.Dynamic current and air movements in this area around the equator,that is a “warm seawater pool”,could be hypothesized to be related to the high resistance to heat shown in this study.

  12. A review of the jumping tree bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Isometopinae) of Argentina and nearby areas of Brazil and Paraguay, with descriptions of nine new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine new species of jumping tree bugs, or Isometopinae, from Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil are described. The genus Aristotelesia is revised and the two new species A. fuscata (Brazil) and A. medialis (Argentina) are described, and the Argentine and Paraguayan species of Myiomma are revie...

  13. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae: A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Dhammi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F., poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. Biodiversidad y conservación de Hemiptera: Heteroptera (Insecta) en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Las medidas de biodiversidad proveen una base de información sobre distribución, riqueza de especies y abundancia relativa de los taxa. En los últimos años, su estudio ha adquirido mayor relevancia, debido a su posible relación con el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas y por su modificación como resultado de las actividades humanas. Las acciones del hombre habitualmente reducen la riqueza de especies en ecosistemas, generando pérdidas de biodiversidad, modificando los ambientes naturales media...

  15. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet

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    Maribel Portilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F., is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo, including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8 isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois, the commercial strain BotaniGard® (GHA (Victor, NY, USA, and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC, were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 106, n × 107 of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 104, n × 105 were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8 are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98–4.98 viable spores per mm2.

  16. Novel Detection of Insecticide Resistance Related P450 Genes and Transcriptome Analysis of the Hemimetabolous Pest Erthesina fullo (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Haoyang; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Erthesina fullo (Thunberg, 1783) is an economically important heteropteran species in China. Since only three nucleotide sequences of this species (COI, 16S rRNA, and 18S rRNA) appear in the GenBank database so far, no analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying E. fullo's resistance to insecticide and environmental stress has been accomplished. We reported a de novo assembled and annotated transcriptome for adult E. fullo using the Illumina sequence system. A total of 53,359,458 clean reads of 4.8 billion nucleotides (nt) were assembled into 27,488 unigenes with an average length of 750 bp, of which 17,743 (64.55%) were annotated. In the present study, we identified 88 putative cytochrome P450 sequences and analyzed the evolution of cytochrome P450 superfamilies, genes of the CYP3 clan related to metabolizing xenobiotics and plant natural compounds, in E. fullo, increasing the candidate genes for the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance in P450. The sequenced transcriptome greatly expands the available genomic information and could allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of insecticide resistance at the systems biology level.

  17. Cephalocteinae Mulsant et Rey, 1866 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera), a subfamily of Cydnidae new for the Italian fauna: first record of Cephalocteus scarabaeoides (Fabricius, 1807) from Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancello, Luca; Cillo, Davide; Bazzato, Erika

    2016-01-25

    Cephalocteus scarabaeoides is recorded from the south-western coast of Sardinia, in sandy habitat (marine dunes near the beach), for the first time. The species and the subfamily are new for the Italian fauna.

  18. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  19. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingyang; Lu, Zhongxian; Heong, Kongluen; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Yang, Yajun; Nicol, Helen I; Gurr, Geoff M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.

  20. Ten new species of Rhagovelia in the angustipes complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Colombia, with a key to the Colombian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gil, Dora Nancy

    2015-12-21

    Ten new species of Rhagovelia are described from Colombia as follows: Rhagovelia penta sp. n., and Rhagovelia santanderi sp. n., from the Upper and Middle Magdalena River Valley respectively; Rhagovelia carina sp. n., Rhagovelia tricoma sp. n., and Rhagovelia barbacoensis sp. n., from Altaquer, Río Ñambi; Rhagovelia caunapi sp. n. from Río Caunapi; Rhagovelia tumaquensis sp. n., from Tumaco, Río Mejicano; Rhagovelia jagua sp. n., from Eastern Andes; Rhagovelia mocoa sp. n. and Rhagovelia umbria sp. n., from Amazonas region. Rhagovelia tantilla Drake & Harris is recorded from Colombia, for the first time; the description of macropterous morph of Rhagovelia espriella Padilla-Gil, 2011 and a key to the Rhagovelia, angustipes complex of Colombian species are provided.

  1. Neotropical Pentatomidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera of the collection of Massimiliano Spinola preserved in the "Museo Regionale de Scienze Naturali", Turin, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocélia Grazia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty specimens of Neotropical pentatomids of the Spinola collection were examined and identified and are listed in the present work. Lectotypes are designated for Arvelius gladiator Spinola, 1837; Arvelius laciniatus Spinola, 1837; Audinetella bipunctata Spinola, 1850; Ochlerus cinctus Spinola, 1837; Pentatoma albocostatum Spinola, 1852; Pentatoma dimidiaticollis (Spinola, 1852; Pentatoma unidentatum Spinola, 1852; Schaefferella litigiosa Spinola, 1850, Sympiezorhincus tristis Spinola, 1837; and Thoreyella brasiliensis Spinola, 1850. A lectotype is also designated for Chlorocoris tau, putting aside the previous Neotype designation. The preservation status of each specimen is provided.

  2. First Indochinese records of the plant bug genus Hypseloecus Reuter (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae: Pilophorini), with descriptions of eight new species from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Yamada, Kazutaka; Artchawakom, Taksin

    2015-02-26

    The phyline plant bug genus Hypseloecus Reuter is reported from Thailand as well as the Indochina region for the first time, diagnosed, and discussed on its phylogenetic position. Eight new species, Hypseloecus castaneus, H. katrinae, H. nigrobrevis, H. phuvasae, H. sakaerat, H. schuhianus, H. sericosagus and H. siamensis, are described, all with color photographic images of live individuals. Four species were confirmed to be associated with inflorescence and/or fruits of Loranthaceae mistletoe (Santalales), particularly Scurrula spp. in Thailand. A checklist of Asian and New Guinean congeners and a key to Asian species (from Japan, Indochina and Philippines) are provided.

  3. Review of the plant bug genus Fingulus Distant in Indochina (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Deraeocorini), with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Yamada, Kazutaka; Duangthisan, Jomsurang; Artchawakom, Taksin

    2016-08-24

    The deraeocorine plant bug genus Fingulus Distant from Indochina is reviewed, diagnosed and discussed. Seven species are currently recognized, including two new species described herein: F. angkorensis and F. rubricatus from Cambodia and Thailand. Behavior and habitat of F. angkorensis are documented, which was observed to be associated with two anthocorids and a thrips in leaf margin curl-galls produced by the thrips on a banyan tree Ficus microcarpa. A checklist including two species of the assumed sister genus Angerianus Distant is provided, with available distributional records; images of two Angerianus species are also shown for the first time.

  4. Estimation of median lethal concentration of three isolates of Beauveria bassiana for control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) bioassayed on solid Lugys Spp. Diet²

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for biological control of a variety of pests. The objectives of this study were isolate and identify the fungus from Kudzu bugs and determine its infectivity comparing with two highly pathogenic isolates including the Mississipp...

  5. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-06-30

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²).

  6. Acrolophyses, a new seed bug genus and two new species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae: Myodochini) from forest-canopy fogging in Ecuador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new myodochine (Rhyparochromidae) genus Acrolophyses is described to accommodate the two new species A. aboricolous from Ecuador and Peru, designated as the type species, and A. hadros from Ecuador. The new species are diagnosed and described, and adult photographs, scanning electron photomicro...

  7. Susceptibilidad a endosulfan y monitoreo de resistencia en poblaciones de Piezodorus guildinii (Insecta, Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, en cultivos de soja de Argentina Susceptibility to endosulphan and resistance monitoring in «green stinkbug» populations, Piezodorus guildinii (Insecta, Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, in soya crops in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Stadler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la susceptibilidad a endosulfan en diferentes poblaciones de P. guildinii (Westwood, que afectan los cultivos de soja en las provincias argentinas de Santiago del Estero, Chaco y Santa Fe. Se estableció su estatus de susceptibilidad actual para todas las poblaciones estudiadas, y se monitoreó la resistencia a endosulfan en una población de P. guildinii , de Santiago del Estero desde 2002 a 2005, para detectar los cambios en la respuesta al insecticida, con la finalidad de alertar acerca de posibles fallas de control. Los insectos fueron colectados en plantaciones de soja en las localidades de Oliveros, Reconquista, San Justo, Bandera y Coronel Du Graty. Los bioensayos se desarrollaron en laboratorio por el método del tópico, en el marco de los protocolos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El estatus de susceptibilidad actual a endosulfan, en las poblaciones de P. guildinii estudiadas fue de: DL95 = 0,680μg/μL [0,489-1,338] a 2,277μg/μL [1,526-5,418]. De los resultados de los bioensayos se desprende que las poblaciones estudiadas, muy distantes geográficamente unas de otras, muestran algunas diferencias en su tolerancia a endosulfan (capacidad de detoxificación, exhibiendo, además, un incremento gradual de la misma desde la zona sur de Sta. Fe (Oliveros hacia el norte (Bandera - Chaco, que probablemente se relaciona con los factores ambientales propios de cada región, y se pueden deber también a procesos toxicodínámicos o toxicocinéticos. La población de P. guildinii de Coronel Du Graty (Santiago del Estero monitoreada desde 2002 a 2005, no mostró un incremento de tolerancia al endosulfan a lo largo del tiempo, que sugiera la presencia de fenómenos de resistencia. Factores poblacionales y ambientales son corresponsables de las variaciones temporales y espaciales de la susceptibilidad de una población a un biocida, esto hace que los límites entre la plasticidad fenotípica y las diferencias en la susceptibilidad a xenobióticos con base genética, resulten difusos. Dentro del área de cultivo de la soja en la Argentina , que abarca regiones con importantes diferencias climáticas y florísticas, la plasticidad fenotípica que muestran diferentes poblaciones de P. guildinii , no debe ser omitida, distinguiendo los cambios de susceptibilidad a insecticidas relacionados con la plasticidad, de aquellos de origen genético. Comprender los mecanismos responsables de cambios en la susceptibilidad a xenobióticos, permitirá discernir entre los efectos de la plasticidad fenotípica y de los cambios genéticos, esto llevará a seleccionar las medidas adecuadas para el control de poblaciones de insectos plaga. La información acerca del estatus actual de susceptibilidad a endosulfan, obtenida a través del presente estudio, resultará de utilidad para el monitoreo de resistencia así como para el diagnóstico de fallas en el control de esta plaga.The susceptibility status to endosulphan of different populations of P. guildinii (Westwood that affect soybean crops in the Argentinean provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco and Santa Fe was determined. Also, to detect possible changes in P. guildinii response to the insecticide, resistance was monitored in a population of P. guildinii from Santiago del Estero from 2002 to 2005. Insects were collected from soybean fields in five localities, Oliveros, Reconquista, San Justo, Bandera and Coronel Du Graty. Topical bioassays were conducted in the laboratory, in the framework of standard World Health Organization test methods. The status of the susceptibility of the P. guildinii populations was: DL95 = 0,680μg/μL [0,489- 1,338] to 2,277μg/μL [1,526-5,418]. The results obtained suggest that the populations studied, which are geographically distant, show differences in their tolerance to endosulphan (detoxifying capabilities that could be related to environmental factors and linked to any toxicocinetic or toxicodynamic processes. P. guildini populations studied show a trend towards increased tolerance to endosulphan from southern Santa Fe (Oliveros to northern populations from Bandera (Chaco that is probably related to environmental factors characteristic of each region. The population of P. guildinii monitored from 2002 to 2005 did not show an increase in tolerance to endosulphan with time. Population and environmental factors are both responsible for the temporal and spatial variations of susceptibility of a population to a biocide, making it hard to distinguish between phenotypic plasticity and susceptibility changes with a genetic basis. The soybean growing area in Argentina occupies a region with a huge range of climatic conditions and flora. In such a varied environment, phenotypic plasticity expressed by different P. guildinii should not be omitted, and should be differentiated from changes in susceptibility caused by genetic differences. Understanding the underlying mechanisms responsible for changes in susceptibility to pesticides, will allow us to distinguish between the effects of phenotypic plasticity and genetic changes and in turn this will aid in the selection of the appropriate measures for insect pest control. The susceptibility data on endosulphan obtained in this study will be useful for insecticide resistance monitoring and control failure diagnosis.

  8. Efeitos da temperatura e da defesa da presa no consumo pelo predador Supputius cincticeps (Stäl (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae Effects of temperature and of the prey defense on the consumption by the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stäl (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae

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    Francisco Roberto de Azevedo

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou determinar se a temperatura e a defesa da presa afetam o consumo e a utilização de larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. por ninfas de Supputius cincticeps (Stäl. Quantificaram-se em cada um dos ínstares do predador Supputius cincticeps os consumos bruto e diário das larvas de T. molitor com e sem defesa, ganho de peso total e ganho de peso diário pelo predador. Foram determinados os efeitos da defesa da presa e da temperatura ambiente no consumo de alimento pelas ninfas de 2º, 3º, 4º e 5º ínstares de S. cincticeps. A pesquisa foi conduzida na Unidade de Controle Biológico da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodão, em Campina Grande, PB, a 20, 25, e 30ºC, 60±10% UR e fotofase de 14 horas. Os resultados mostraram que o consumo bruto de larvas de T. molitor pelo S. cincticeps depende do ínstar do predador e da temperatura, do ínstar do predador e da defesa da presa, e da temperatura e defesa da presa; o consumo diário de S. cincticeps depende do ínstar do predador e da temperatura, e do ínstar do predador e da defesa da presa, e o ganho de peso de S. cincticeps depende do seu ínstar, da temperatura e da defesa apresentada pelas larvas de T. molitor. O tamanho das larvas de T. molitor funciona como defesa ao ataque de S. cincticeps.The objective of the research was to determine if the temperature and pray defense affect the consumption and utilization of Tenebrio molitor L. larvae by nymphs of Supputius cincticeps (Stäl. The gross and daily consumptions of T. molitor larvae with and without defense by the predator Supputius cincticeps, and the gross and daily weight gains of the predator were quantified. Effects of the prey defense and temperature on the food consumption by the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar nimphs of S. cincticeps were determined. The research was carried out in the Biological Control Unit of the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodão, at Campina Grande, PB, Brazil, at 20, 25, and 30°C, 60±10% RH and 14L:10D photoperiod. The results showed that the gross consumption of T. molitor larvae by S. cincticeps depends on the predator instar and on temperature, on the predator instar and on the prey defense, and on temperature and on the prey defense; the daily consumption of S. cincticeps depends on its instar and on temperature, and on its instar and on the prey defense; and S. cincticeps weight gain depends on its instar, on temperature and on the prey defense. The size of T. molitor larvae works as a defense to attack of S. cincticeps.

  9. Desenvolvimento de Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae e Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae Development of Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae fed with Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B. Beserra

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Egg viability and nymphal development of the predatory bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål, 1860 were evaluated during two generations in the Biological Control Laboratory of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (Bioagro/UFV in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil at 24.72±1.10ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Three treatments were represented by S. cincticeps fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Higher egg viability of this predator was found when the preys were Z. confusa and T. molitor, 74.46% and 80.91 %, than in M. domestica, 57.02%, but incubation period showed no differences between preys. Shorter nymphal development and higher nymphal viability were found with Z. confusa and T. molitor than with M. domestica. Higher weight increase was found for nymphs which originated males and females in the second generation specialy with the first two preys.

  10. Life-history analysis of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in a newly designed mass rearing strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, G.; López, L.; Cantero, G.; González, A.; Dicke, M.

    2014-01-01

    The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero et Dellape (Heteroptera Thaumastocoridae), is one of the most important emerging pests of Eucalyptus LHeritier plantations worldwide. In the development of strategies to control this pest, establishing effective rearing protocols is fundamental to

  11. Los coleópteros y heterópteros acuáticos del Parque Nacional El Palmar (Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina: lista faunística, diversidad y distribución

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    Patricia L. M. TORRES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las especies de Coleoptera y Heteroptera presentes en cuerpos de agua del Parque Nacional El Palmar. Se registraron 67 especies de Coleoptera incluidas en 32 géneros y siete familias, y 42 especies de Heteroptera distribuidas en 28 géneros y 12 familias; sólo 17 especies de Coleoptera y cinco de Heteroptera fueron citadas previamente del parque. Se citan por primera vez para la Argentina un género (Platyvelia J. T. Polhemus & D. A. Polhemus y tres especies (Microvelia venustatis Drake & Harris, Rhagovelia novana Drake, Stridulivelia ayacucho Polhemus & Spangler de Veliidae (Heteroptera. Además, se citan por primera vez para la provincia de Entre Ríos nueve especies y cuatro géneros de Coleoptera (Brachyvatus Zimmermann, Derovatellus Sharp, Paracymus Thomson, Pelonomus Erichson, así como 16 especies y 10 géneros de Heteroptera (Mesovelia Mulsant & Rey, Lipogomphus Berg, Merragata White, Microvelia Westwood, Rhagovelia Mayr, Platyvelia, Steinovelia J. T. & D. A. Polhemus, Stridulivelia Hungerford, Metrobates Uhler, Ctenipocoris Montandon. La riqueza de especies registrada en el Parque Nacional El Palmar constituye el 63,8% de las especies de Coleoptera acuáticos y el 95,5% de las de Heteroptera acuáticos citadas hasta el momento de Entre Ríos, lo cual destaca el valor de esta área protegida para la conservación de la biodiversidad acuática de la provincia.

  12. Evaluación del riesgo ecológico de insecticidas utilizados contra plagas hortícolas en el agente de control biológico Nesidicoris tenuis Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El Manejo Integrado de Plagas (MIP) propone el uso de todas las medidas disponibles para disminuir el crecimiento de las poblaciones plaga, priorizando las actuaciones preventivas y evitando el uso de insecticidas siempre que sea posible. El MIP contribuye al logro de una agricultura más sostenible, basada en el equilibrio entre las necesidades de producción y la conservación de la biodiversidad (Bianchi et al. 2006). La identificación y uso de insecticidas que no afecten negativamente a los...

  13. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos sôbre a subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae: V parte: anatomia do testículo e espermiocitogênese do Triatoma infestans

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    Rudolf Barth

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, faz-se o estudo das estruturas anatômica e histológica do testículo de Triatoma infestans. Da espermiogênese, descrevem-se apenas as fases que medeiam entre a formação dos espermiogônios e a dos espermídeos (espermiocitogênese. A espermiohistogênese bem como as anatomias do vas deferens e das glândulas anexas serão tratados na segunda parte dêste trabalho, já em preparo. O testículo de Triatoma infestans possui 7 folículos dos quais cada um se abre num vas efferens próprio, curto, desembocando êstes num único vas deferens geral. Na zona de transição entre vas efferens e vas deferens, encontra-se sempre um conjunto de massas tissulares que se estão necrosando em virtude da decomposição das paredes dos cistos. Em conseqüência, os feixes de espérmios são libertados e passam através do vas efferens para o vas deferens. As substâncias líquidas que então se formam, resultado da necrose, são reabsorvidas pelo epitélio do vas efferens, entrando novamente em circulação na hemolinfa; o epitélio possui um rabdório muito longo. A parte superior do conteúdo de cada folículo dispõe-se ao redor de grande célula apical cuja função principal deve ser a de uma atividade reguladora que está relacionada com a diferenciação das células do conjunto germinativo em espermiogônios primários e em núcleos das paredes dos cistos. Nos espermiogônios, serão verificadas 8 divisões de multiplicação, o que vai dar a formação de 256 espermiócitos, número êsse que depois das duas divisões de maturação, que se seguem, originará 1 024 espermídeos. Em seguida, são descritos os fenômenos que ocorrem durante a prófase e as duas divisões de maturação. Temos que admitir a existência de uma parasíndese. Pela formação das tétrades, pode-se concluir que a primeira divisão é reducional e a segunda equacional, existindo, pois, uma pré-redução. Triatoma infestans possui 22 cromosomas no espermiogônio, dos quais 2 são heterocromosomas, sendo X, o maior e Y, o menor, pois, por observações comparadas de oogônios, verificou-se que o grande está ausente, enquanto o pequeno existe em número duplo. Os autosomas da guarnição equatorial, reduzidos pela primeira e segunda divisões de maturação, podem ser distribuídos, quanto ao seu tamanho, em três grupos: 3 grandes (A,B e C, 2 médios (D e E e 5 pequenos (F, G, H, I e K. A, B e C, bem como os heterocromosomas, são heteropicnóticos, formando, tanto nos espermiogônios como nos espermiócitos, depois da sinapsis, um corpo de 8 valores, respectivamente de 5 valores, corpos êsses que permanecem fortemente condensados, mesmo quando os outros cromosomas se individualizam ou quando formam os cromosomas difusos. O estádio dos cromosomas é analisado e considerado como uma fase ativa durante o tempo do crescimento intensivo dos espermiócitos.

  14. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos sôbre a subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae: VII. Estudo anatômico do ducto intestinal do Triatoma infestans

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    Dyrce Lacombe

    1957-05-01

    Full Text Available Devido à imprtãncia que certos Triatomíneos hematófagos representam na vida humana, continuarmos a série de estudos já iniciados em nosso laboratório sôbre seus organismos. É feito, no presente trabalho, a anatomia e microanatomai do aparelho digestivo de Triatoma infestans. Das três distintas regiões do duto intestinal estomodeo, mesêntero e proctodeo, a primeira e a terceira são de origem ectodérmica. A região do estomodeo é constituída pela faringe e esôfago; a do proctodeo pelo piloro, íleo e reto. A segunda, de origem endodérmica, consta promesêntero, postmesêntero e da zona de transição. A anatomia e a microanatomia do faringe já foi estudada minuciosamente por BARTH (1952. O esôfago possui numerosas dobras no seu interior revestida de fina cutícula. A musculatura longitudinal e circular acham-se representadas por feixes que, provàvelmente, trabalham, preistàlticamente, transportando o alimento. Não encontramos um proventrículo, de maneira que o esôfago está ligado diretamente à primeira parte endodérmica, isto é, ao promesêntero. No início do promesêntero existe a válvula cardíaca, que, juntamente com as dobras do fim do esôfago, impedem que haja um refluxo do alimento. Durante a alimentação, a parede do preomesêntero, que apresenta numerosas dobras, sofre uma dilatação, a fim de reter u'a maior quantidade de sangue. Entre promesêntero e postmesêntero há um pequeno esfíncter formado pelo aumento da musculatura e das dobras do epitélio. O postmesêntero alcança cinco vêzes mais que o tamanho total do corpo do inseto, e dispõe no abdome em curvas completas, que, muitas vêzes, se superpõem. O seu epitélio possue célula altas e estreitas, e forma muitas dobras para dentro do seu lume. Na parte apical as células possuem um rabdório. O postmesêntero termina após a válvula cardíaca situada atrás do desembocamento das quatro ampolas dos tubos de Malpighi. Entre postmesêntero e proctodeo está situada a zona de transição, que é constituída pelas ampolas dos tubos de Malpighi, válcula pilórica e zona clara de células cubóides. Os quatro tubos de Malpighi são longos, finos e simples formando emaranhados. As ampolas são dilatações das bases dos tubos de Malpighi. Apresentam sempre células características. A formação da válvula pilórica pode ser acompanhada na série de cortes de 27-44. O piloro é revestido, internamente, por fina cutícula, e sua hipoderme é sinsicial. No íleo temos dobras mais elevadas e maior quantidade de musculatura. O reto acha-se deslocado para a região dorsal do corpo devido ao aumento exagerado do aparelho copulador. As células de sua hipoderme são bem limitadas.

  15. Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, with new records and taxonomic notes on Ectrichodiinae from Brazil, and with keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Baena, Manuel; Grillo, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Berengeria Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005 is considered a junior synonym of Ectrichodiella Fracker & Bruner, 1924. Ectrichodiella minima (Valdés, 1910) and E. rafaeli (Gil-Santana & Coletto-Silva, 2005), new. comb. are redescribed. Taxonomic notes on Brontostoma alboannulatum (Stål, 1860), B. discus (Burmeister, 1835), B. nanus Carpintero, 1980, B. rubrovenosum (Stål, 1860), and B. trux (Stål, 1859) are given. Brontostoma diringshofeni Gil-Santana & Baena, 2009, B. nanus, and Racelda robusta Bérenger & Gil-Santana, 2005 are recorded from Brazil for the first time. Keys to Ectrichodiinae and Reduviinae genera of the New World are presented.

  16. Review of the mirine plant bug genus Eurystylus Stål from Japan and Taiwan (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae), with descriptions of two new species, a new synonymy and a new combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Nakatani, Yukinobu; Chérot, Frédéric

    2017-02-03

    Species of the Old World mirine plant bug genus Eurystylus Stål (the Head Bugs) in Japan and Taiwan are reviewed. Four species are currently recognized. Two new species are diagnosed and described: E. ryukyus n. sp. (from SW Japan and Taiwan) and E. jingfui n. sp. (Taiwan). Two known species, E. coelestialium (Kirkaldy) and E. sauteri Poppius, are diagnosed; new distributional records are added for the latter. Two keys are provided to aid the identifications of (1) Eurystylus and four related genera and (2) the species of Eurystylus known from Japan and Taiwan. The phylogenetic relationships of Eurystylus with the assumed related genera are discussed. Eurystylomorpha Poppius is synonymized with Eurystylopsis Poppius, and a new combination, Eurystylopsis crassicornis (Poppius), is accordingly proposed.

  17. Note on a New Species and New Records of Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae) from China%中国盲蝽科新种及新记录(半翅目:异翅亚目:盲蝽科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国卿; 许静杨; 张旭

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, one new species and 14 new records of Miridae from China are reported. Photographs of the dorsal habitus and figures of the male genitalia of genus Hypseloecus are given. The type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China. New records for China are Hypseloecus takahashii Yasunaga, 2001, Cimidaeorus hasegawai Nakatani, Yasunaga & Takai, 2000, Deraeocoris (Camptobrochis) orientalis (Distant, 1904), D. (Deraeocoris) ainoicus Kerzhner, 1979, D. (D.) kimotoi Miyamoto, 1965, D. (D.) sanghonami Lee & Kerzhner, 1995, D. (D.) yasunagai Nakatani, 1995, D. (Knightocapsus) elegantulus Horváth, 1905, Fingulus apoensis Stonedahl & Cassis, 1991, F. collaris Miyamoto, 1965, F. umbonatus Stonedahl & Cassis, 1991, Stethoconus pyri (Mella, 1869), S. rhoksane Linnavuori, 1995 and Termatophylum hikosanum Miyamoto, 1965. Hypseloecus megistus Liu & Zhang, sp. nov. (Figs. 1-6) Recognized by the relatively larger body, ovoid, reddish brown, covered with yellowish white, flat scalelike setae and a distinctive form of male genitalia. Male genitalia: vesica slightly C-shaped, left paramere very wide, hypophysis slender, sensory lobe blunt; right paramere leflike, covered with dense setae; phallotheca elongate, beaklike apically. Holotype: ♂, Mt. Yulong, Yunnan Province, China, 14-Ⅵ-1996, ZHENG Le-yi leg. Paratypes: 1♂2♀ ♀, same data as holotype. Distribution: China (Yunnan).%记述中国拱盲蝽属 Hypseloecus Reuter 2种,其中包括1新种:巨拱盲蝽Hypseloecus megistus Liu & zhang,sp.nov.;报道盲蝽科14中国新记录种;提供了拱盲蝽属中种的特征图和整体背面观照片.模式标本保存在南开大学昆虫学研究所标本馆.

  18. New contributions to the study of Corixoidea: cytogenetic characterization of three species of Sigara from Argentina and the plausible mechanisms of karyotype evolution within Nepomorpha

    OpenAIRE

    Bressa, María José; Papeschi, Alba Graciela

    2007-01-01

    Los estudios citogenéticos en Heteroptera contribuyen al análisis de las tendencias evolutivas en el taxón. Los Heteroptera se caracterizan por poseer cromosomas holocinéticos, diferentes sistemas de cromosomas sexuales y un par de cromosomas m en algunas especies. En este trabajo describimos el cariotipo y la meiosis masculina de Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin), S. chrostowskii Jaczewski y S. rubyae (Hungerford). Las tres especies tienen un número diploide de 24, con un par de cromosomas m ...

  19. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the abu

  20. An immunological approach to quantify consumption of protein-tagged Lygus hesperus by the entire cotton predator assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new method for post-mortem quantification of predation on prey items marked with protein antigens is described. First, short-term protein marking retention tests were conducted on the targeted prey, immature Lygus hesperus Knight (Heteroptera: Miridae). Chicken IgG, rabbit IgG, or soy milk protein...

  1. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  2. Evaluation of mirid predatory bugs and release strategy for aphid control in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Schelt, van J.; Ingegno, B.L.; Tavella, L.

    2015-01-01

    Zoophytophagous predators of the family Miridae (Heteroptera), which feed both on plant and prey, often maintain a close relationship with certain host plants. In this study, we aimed to select a suitable mirid predatory bug for aphid control in sweet pepper. Four species were compared: Macrolophus

  3. Environmental Noise and Nonlinear Relaxation in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, B; Spezia, S; Curcio, L; Pizzolato, N; Dubkov, A A; Fiasconaro, A; Adorno, D Persano; Bue, P Lo; Peri, E; Colazza, S

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the effects of environmental noise in three different biological systems: (i) mating behaviour of individuals of \\emph{Nezara viridula} (L.) (Heteroptera Pentatomidae); (ii) polymer translocation in crowded solution; (iii) an ecosystem described by a Verhulst model with a multiplicative L\\'{e}vy noise.

  4. First Record of Aradacrates Slater and Wilcox (Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea:Blissidae) in China, with Description of One New Species%修长蝽属在中国首次报道及一新种记述(异翅亚目:长蝽总科:杆长蝽科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翠青; 党凯; 卜文俊

    2011-01-01

    报道了中国杆长蝽科1新记录属,修长蝽属Aradacrates Slater and Wilcox(国外分布:马来西亚,马达加斯加;国内分布:云南)1新种:郑氏修长蝽Aradacrates zhengi,sp.nov..模式标本保存在南开大学昆虫学研究所.郑氏修长蝽Aradacrates zhengi,新种(图1~15)本种与A malayensis Slater较为相似,主要区别如下:新种的小颊伸达触角第Ⅰ节端部,而后者小颊不伸达触角第Ⅰ节端部;新种小盾片具粉被,具有光泽“T”型隆脊,后者小盾片不具粉被,具中纵脊;新种第3跗节黑色,与足的其它各节对比显著;后者第3跗节亮黄色,与足的其它各节一色;新种革片Cu脉和爪片翅脉具深褐色带,膜片翅脉亦深褐色,与淡色膜片对比显著;后者革片Cu脉和爪片翅脉无深褐色带,膜片翅脉与膜片底色同色.新种与A cochlear Slater and Wilcox的不同之处在于,后者个体较小,小颊更加延长,并且侧缘具缺刻,革片仅伸达腹部第Ⅱ背板.词源:本新种以南开大学郑乐怡教授的姓氏命名,以感谢他在长蝽昆虫分类研究中做出的突出贡献!正模:♂,云南西双版纳勐腊县勐仑镇勐远村南宫山,1000m,2010-Ⅷ-13,党凯采.%The genus Aradacrates Slater and Wilcox,1969 has been previously known from Madagascar and Malaysia.This article describes a new species ofAradacrates zhengi from southern China.A key to the species of Aradacrates is given.The type specimen is deposited in the Institute of Entomology,College of Life Sciences,Nankai University,Tianjin.

  5. DIEL RHYTHM OF REPRODUCTIVE ACTIVITY AND ITS TEMPORAL CORRELATION WITH RELEASE OF MALE-SPECIFIC SEX PHEROMONES IN THE WHITE SPOTTED SPINED BUG EYSARCORIS PARVUS (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE)%尖角二星蝽(半翅目:蝽科)生殖行为的昼夜节律及其释放雄性性信息素间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门宏超; Tetsuo Ya-bu; Walter S.Leal

    2001-01-01

    在室温条件下(26℃,16L:8D),雌雄两性在光期的后半部由活跃的行走开始,并由此导致的配对是诱发其它性行为的关键因素.虽然在蝽象的性行为中观察到它们的交配延长和多次交配现象,但是性成熟的成虫在行走行为,交配以及产卵的起始和终止等方面都有明显的性行为节律.以上的各种行为大都发生在光周期的后半部并在黑暗前的两小时达到高峰.与行为相一致,利用气相收集法从成熟雄虫体内获得的三种化合物通过气相色谱分析也呈现出类似的节律,两个主要组分的峰值出现与交配峰值出现时刻相吻合.除此之外,所获得的组分与行走行为有相关性.交配终止时间主要出现在光期的前半,成虫在暗期和光期的前半几乎处于静止状态.在文中对交配行为和雄性产生的性信息素之间的相关性也进行了讨论.%Under the laboratory condition (26°C, 16L: 8D), active walking by either male or female in the second half of photophase led individual pair to arriving in the range of vigilant position and female' s advance and arrival within 1 cm range of male after there seemed to serve as a trigger for the continuance of other active close-range courtship behaviors by males within a transparent plastic dish (90 × 15 mm). Sexually mature bugs showed a clear diel rhythm of walking activity, start and termination of copulation, and oviposition, although a typical prolonged (26.1 ±11.6 h, Mean ± SD) and multiple mating system was observed in this bug. Active walking, oviposition and start of copulation mosfly occurred within the later half of photophase and a sharp peak of copulation was observed around 2-hour before light off. Similarly, although characterization of chemical structures of male-specific sex pheromone components is underway, quantitative analysis of aeration extracts from sexually mature males on gas chromatography (GC) showed that 3 male-speeific sex pheromone compounds were released at similar diel rhythm to the start of copulation and peak patterns of the two major components were also similar to that of start of copulation. Temporal correlation between the diel rhythm of pheromone candidate release and start of copulation or walking activity was found. On the other hand, most copulation terminated within the first half of photophase and insects were inactive during the dark period and the former half of photophase. Courtship behavior and its relation to the male-specific sex pheromone compoumds were discussed.

  6. New contributions to the study of Corixoidea: cytogenetic characterization of three species of Sigara from Argentina and the plausible mechanisms of karyotype evolution within Nepomorpha Nuevas contribuciones al estudio de Corixoidea: caracterización citogenética de tres especies de Sigara de Argentina y los posibles mecanismos de evolución del cariotipo en Nepomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Bressa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies in Heteroptera contribute to the analysis of evolutionary trends within the group. Heteroptera are characterized by the possession of holokinetic chromosomes, different sex chromosome mechanisms and a pair of m chromosomes in some species. In the present work, the male karyotype and meiosis in Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin, S. chrostowskii Jaczewski, and S. rubyae (Hungerford are described. The three species share a diploid chromosome number of 2n= 24 with a pair of m chromosomes and an XY/XX sex chromosome system. With this study the chromosome number of 30 species of Corixoidea are known and the modal karyotype is 2n= 20+2m+XY in males. The available cytogenetic information in Heteroptera led us to suggest that the presence of a pair of m chromosomes and an XY/XX sex chromosome system could be considered as plesiomorphic for Nepomorpha. The absence of m chromosomes in species of Ochteroidea and Nepoidea, and the sex chromosome systems X0 and Xn0 (male in species of Corixoidea, Naucoroidea, and Nepoidea should be considered as derived characters, which arose later in evolution.Los estudios citogenéticos en Heteroptera contribuyen al análisis de las tendencias evolutivas en el taxón. Los Heteroptera se caracterizan por poseer cromosomas holocinéticos, diferentes sistemas de cromosomas sexuales y un par de cromosomas m en algunas especies. En este trabajo describimos el cariotipo y la meiosis masculina de Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin, S. chrostowskii Jaczewski y S. rubyae (Hungerford. Las tres especies tienen un número diploide de 24, con un par de cromosomas m y un sistema de cromosomas sexuales XY/XX. Con estos resultados son 30 las especies de Corixoidea estudiadas citogenéticamente y el cariotipo modal de la superfamilia es 2n= 20+2m+XY en machos. La información citogenética disponible hasta el presente en Heteroptera nos permite sugerir que la presencia de cromosomas m y cromosomas sexuales XY/XX, ser

  7. Nysius cymoides (Spinola on Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Family: Amaranthaceae – APG classification is an Andean grain recently introduced on the European market and cultivated in experimental fields. In one of these experimental fields, in San Giorgio Piacentino (Italy, a heavy bug infestation was observed. The species was identified as Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Heteroptera Lygaeidae, a polyphagous species known as a pest of different crops. It occurs in the Mediterranean area from the sea level to the alpine meadows.

  8. Supplementary notes to the biology of Cordyceps entomorrhiza (Dicks. ex Fr.) Link and the morphology of its conidial stages

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Bałazy

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps entomorrhiza develops on the larvae, pupae and adults on the ground beetles Carabus spp. (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and on the bugs (Heteroptera, Nabidae) ot the genera Himacerus Wolff et Nabis Latr. There are two forms of the conidial sporulation of this fungus with an identical sporogenesis type (Phialosporae) but different as to the arrangement of sporogenous cells (Tilachiadtopsis and Hymenostilbe-like) The names Tilachlidiopsis hippotrichoides (Lindau) Keisler and T. nigra Yakushi...

  9. Systemic Nicotinoid Toxicity against the Predatory Mirid Pilophorus typicus : Residual Side Effect and Evidence for Plant Sucking

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahira, Kengo; Kashitani, Ryoya; Tomoda, Masafumi; Kodama, Rika; Ito, Katsura; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Momoshita, Mitsutoshi; Arakawa, Ryo; Takagi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    The predatory mirid Pilophorus typicus (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a potential biological control agent against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), but the sucking for host plant is unknown. To investigate collaboration use of P. typicus and nicotinoid granules and to confirm the sucking for pepper plant, residual harmful toxicity of 4 nicotinoids: acetamiprid; imidacloprid; nitempyram; and thiamethoxam on P. typicus adult were investigated at 7, 14 21, 28 and 35 d after treatment of the n...

  10. New contributions to the study of Corixoidea: cytogenetic characterization of three species of Sigara from Argentina and the plausible mechanisms of karyotype evolution within Nepomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José BRESSA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios citogenéticos en Heteroptera contribuyen al análisis de las tendencias evolutivas en el taxón. Los Heteroptera se caracterizan por poseer cromosomas holocinéticos, diferentes sistemas de cromosomas sexuales y un par de cromosomas m en algunas especies. En este trabajo describimos el cariotipo y la meiosis masculina de Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin, S. chrostowskii Jaczewski y S. rubyae (Hungerford. Las tres especies tienen un número diploide de 24, con un par de cromosomas m y un sistema de cromosomas sexuales XY/XX. Con estos resultados son 30 las especies de Corixoidea estudiadas citogenéticamente y el cariotipo modal de la superfamilia es 2n= 20+2m+XY en machos. La información citogenética disponible hasta el presente en Heteroptera nos permite sugerir que la presencia de cromosomas m y cromosomas sexuales XY/XX, serían caracteres plesiomórficos para Nepomorpha. La ausencia de cromosomas m en especies de Nepoidea y Ochteroidea, y los sistemas de cromosomas sexuales X0 y Xn0 (en machos en especies de Corixoidea, Naucoroidea y Nepoidea, serían caracteres derivados que habrían surgido evolutivamente más tarde.

  11. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  12. Host-Symbiont Interactions for Potentially Managing Heteropteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Souza Prado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects in the suborder Heteroptera, the so-called true bugs, include over 40,000 species worldwide. This insect group includes many important agricultural pests and disease vectors, which often have bacterial symbionts associated with them. Some symbionts have coevolved with their hosts to the extent that host fitness is compromised with the removal or alteration of their symbiont. The first bug/microbial interactions were discovered over 50 years ago. Only recently, mainly due to advances in molecular techniques, has the nature of these associations become clearer. Some researchers have pursued the genetic modification (paratransgenesis of symbionts for disease control or pest management. With the increasing interest and understanding of the bug/symbiont associations and their ecological and physiological features, it will only be a matter of time before pest/vector control programs utilize this information and technique. This paper will focus on recent discoveries of the major symbiotic systems in Heteroptera, highlighting how the understanding of the evolutionary and biological aspects of these relationships may lead to the development of alternative techniques for efficient heteropteran pest control and suppression of diseases vectored by Heteroptera.

  13. 黄河三角洲芦苇湿地植物群落的数量分类与环境梯度关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹爱兰; 冯光海; 李艳

    2011-01-01

    运用双向指示种TWINSPAN分析方法将黄河三角洲芦苇(Phragmites communis)湿地植物群落划分为4个群落类型,分别是柽柳-翅碱蓬-青蒿-补血草-碱蓬群落(Tamarix chinensis Lour-Suaeda heteroptera-Hera Artemisiae Annuae-Limoninum bicolor Bunge--Suaeda glauca Bunge community)、柽柳-翅碱蓬-芦苇群落(Tamarix chinensis Lour -Suaeda heteroptera-Phragmites communis(L.)Trin community)、芦苇-罗布麻-苣荬菜-翅碱蓬-柽柳群落(Phragmites communis(L.)Trin-Apocyman venetum-Sonchus brachyotus-Suaeda heteroptera-Tamarix chinensis Lour com munity)和芦苇-香蒲-狐尾藻群落(Phragmites communis(L.)Trin-Lepiironia rticulate(Retz)Domin-Myriophyllun spicatum community).通过分析了解了影响芦苇湿地植被分布的关键因子,确定了黄河三角洲芦苇湿地的主要环境梯度是水位和土壤盐分、Na+、K+、Cl.根据各环境因子之间的相关性,确定黄河三角洲湿地土壤盐分的主要构成形式是NaClKCl,并指出引水提高水深可以显著降低土壤盐分.

  14. Los heterópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Ernesto Tornquist (Provincia de Buenos Aires, República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. KONOPKO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las especies de Heteroptera presentes en los cuerpos de agua del Parque Provincial Ernesto Tornquist. Se registraron 18 especies de Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha distribuidas en 10 géneros y 8 familias; sólo 4 especies fueron citadas previamente para el parque. El género Merragata White, con la especie M. hebroides White, son citados aquí por primera vez para la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Se incluye una clave para las especies de Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha presentes o esperables en el Parque Provincial Ernesto Tornquist.

  15. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  16. Análise das relações taxonômicas e sistemáticas entre espécies de triatomíneos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) de colônias mantidas pelo Serviço Especial de Saúde de Araraquara, inferida de seqüências de genes mitocondriais

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Ceretti Junior

    2008-01-01

    Os insetos da subfamília Triatominae Jeannel, 1919 de Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), também conhecidos como barbeiros, constituem um grupo amplamente distribuído pela região Neotropical que comporta hoje, 142 espécies ocorrentes e uma fóssil, distribuídas em 18 gêneros, são insetos hematófagos estritos em todas as fases da vida e reconhecidos vetores da Doença de Chagas. Essa enfermidade é considerada um dos mais importantes problemas de saúde na América Latina, com cerca de...

  17. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

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    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  18. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Harley Nonato de; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Pedruzzi,Eder Pin; Espindula,Marcelo Curitiba

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  19. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

    OpenAIRE

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira; Dirceu Pratissoli; Eder Pin Pedruzzi; Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  20. Insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina. Inventario preliminar Aquatic insects from Somuncura plateau, Patagonia, Argentina. Preliminary inventory

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    Javier Muzón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Se brinda un inventario preliminar de los insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura y su área de influencia (Patagonia, Argentina realizado sobre la base de colecciones y registros previos de especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (familias Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae y Psychodidae y Coleoptera. Se han relevado diversos tipos de ambientes en 14 localidades. El número de especies registrado asciende a 78, agrupadas en 51 géneros y 26 familias, de las cuales 33 se citan por primera vez del área. De los taxa registrados 83% de los géneros corresponden a grupos de amplia distribución (neotropicales, americanos o cosmopolitas, mientras que 41% de las especies presentan una distribución patagónica o andina.ABSTRACT. A preliminary inventory of the aquatic insects from the Somuncura plateau and its area of influence (Patagonia, Argentina is presented. It was done on the basis of the study of collections and previous records of species belonging to the orders Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (families Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, and Psychodidae and Coleoptera. Different kinds of environments were surveyed in 14 localities. Seventy eigth species grouped in 51 genera and 26 families were registered, and 33 species are new records for the area. Eighty three % of the registered genera are widely distributed (neotropical, american or cosmopolitan, while 41 % of the species exhibit patagonic or andean distribution.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Yu, Weiwei; Du, Yuzhou

    2013-12-10

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata, was sequenced in this study. It represents the first sequenced mitogenome of family Tingidae in Heteroptera. The mitogenome of C. ciliata is 15,257bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a large non-coding region. Gene arrangement, nucleotide content, codon usage, and amino acid composition and asymmetry indicate a high degree of conservation with six other species of Cimicomorpha. The 13 PCGs initiated with ATN as the start codon and terminated with TAA, TA or T as stop codon. The evolutionary rate of each PCG was different, among which ATP8 showed the highest rate while ATP6 indicated the lowest rate. The 22 tRNAs genes apparently fold into a typical cloverleaf structure; however, the anticodon (TTC) of trnSer (AGN) differs from other Heteropteran insects. Secondary structure modeling of rRNA genes revealed similarity to other insects, except for two incomplete helices (H1648 and H2735) in lrRNA. The predicted secondary structure of lrRNA indicates 45 helices in six domains, whereas srRNA has 27 helices in three domains. Three potential stem-loops and two tandem repeats (-TCTAAT-) were identified in the A+T-rich region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that C. ciliata is a sister group to other Heteroptera species based on analysis of the 13 PCGs.

  2. High diversity in CMA3/DAPI-banding patterns in Heteropterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, V B; Grazia, J; Fernandes, J A M; Vanzela, A L L

    2014-01-01

    Heteroptera is the most numerous and diverse suborder of Hemiptera, with about 38,000 species. This diversity also involves cytogenetic features, including chromosome number and a sex determining system. Information about heterochromatin occurrence and distribution is scarce in heteropterans, but still, there is some evidence of variability. We determined the chromosome number and CMA3/DAPI-banding pattern of 179 individuals of 25 heteropteran species from Brazil. Eight species of Pentatomidae exhibited a constant chromosome number (2n = 12 + XY), but in Coreidae (12 species), Largidae (1 species), Rhopalidae (1 species), and Pyrrhocoridae (3 species), the numbers ranged from 2n = 10 + 2m + X0 to 2n = 24 + 2m + X0. Although there were no large differences in the chromosome size between species, the CMA3/DAPI-banding patterns differed markedly. Among the genera, species of Edessa, Spartocera, Hypselonotus, Phtia,Holhymenia and Euryophthalmus showed a large accumulation of heterochromatin, while the other species exhibited few or no heterochromatic bands. In general, when heterochromatin was more accumulated, this occurred preferentially at terminal positions, except in Holhymenia histrio, which exhibited intercalary bands. This study made it possible to identify some chromosome rearrangements and to enhance our knowledge of the evolutionary mechanisms that determine karyotype differentiation in Heteroptera.

  3. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification.

  4. Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Het.: Pentatomidae fed with larvae of Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Col.: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (Dip.: Muscidae

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    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae larvae were studied during two generations at 24.7 ± 1.1ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12 h of photophase. Body weight of newly-emerged adults, oviposition period, number of egg masses, total number of eggs and longevity of S. cincticeps were higher when fed on Z. confusa or T. molitor larvae than on M. domestica larvae. Regardless of diet, S. cincticeps showed better reproduction and longevity in the second generation in laboratory conditions.Foram avaliadas, em duas gerações, a reprodução e a longevidade de Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae ou Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae a 24,7 ± 1,1ºC, 70 ± 10% de U.R. e fotofase de 12 h. O peso de adultos recém emergidos, o período de oviposição, o número de posturas, de ovos totais e a longevidade de fêmeas de S. cincticeps foram maiores com larvas de Z. confusa ou T. molitor que com M. domestica. Independentemente do tipo de presa, S. cincticeps mostrou melhor performance reprodutiva e longevidade na segunda geração.

  5. Acquisition of Cry1Ac protein by non-target arthropods in Bt soybean fields.

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    Huilin Yu

    Full Text Available Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentration was highest in the grasshopper Atractomorpha sinensis and represented about 50% of the concentration in soybean leaves. Other species/taxa did not contain detectable toxin or contained a concentration that was between 1 and 10% of that detected in leaves. These Cry1Ac-positive arthropods included a number of mesophyll-feeding Hemiptera, a cicadellid, a curculionid beetle and, among the predators, a thomisid spider and an unidentified predatory bug belonging to the Anthocoridae. Within an arthropod species/taxon, the Cry1Ac content sometimes varied between life stages (nymphs/larvae vs. adults and sampling dates (before, during, and after flowering. Our study is the first to provide information on Cry1Ac-expression levels in soybean plants and Cry1Ac concentrations in non-target arthropods in Chinese soybean fields. The data will be useful for assessing the risk of non-target arthropod exposure to Cry1Ac in soybean.

  6. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  7. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Salamanca, Jordano; Holdcraft, Robert; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day) control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1–7 days) larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries. PMID:27092527

  8. Multiple mating in the traumatically inseminating Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes: effects on fecundity and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Amy; Sait, Steven M; Cameron, Tom C

    2012-10-23

    Optimal mating frequencies differ between sexes as a consequence of the sexual differentiation of reproductive costs per mating, where mating is normally more costly to females than males. In mating systems where sexual reproduction is costly to females, sexual conflict may cause both direct (i.e. by reducing female fecundity or causing mortality) and indirect (i.e. increased risk of mortality, reduced offspring viability) reductions in lifetime reproductive success of females, which have individual and population consequences. We investigated the direct and indirect costs of multiple mating in a traumatically inseminating (TI) predatory Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), where the male penetrates the female's abdomen during copulation. This study aimed to quantify the effects of TI on female fecundity, egg viability, the lifetime fecundity schedule, longevity and prey consumption in this cosmopolitan biocontrol agent. We found no difference in the total reproductive output between mating treatments in terms of total eggs laid or offspring viability, but there were significant differences found in daily fecundity schedules and adult longevity. In terms of lifetime reproduction, female Warehouse pirate bugs appear to be adapted to compensate for the costs of TI mating to their longevity.

  9. Eggs of Ephestia kuehniella and Ceratitis capitata, and motile stages of the astigmatid mites Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Carpoglyphus lactis as factitious foods for Orius spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Jochem; de Walle, Anaïs Van; Conlong, Des; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-11-17

    Several factitious foods were assessed for rearing the anthocorid predators Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in the laboratory. Developmental and reproductive traits of both Orius species were examined when offered frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, frozen processed eggs of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, or mixed motile stages of the astigmatid mites Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) or Carpoglyphus lactis (L). Whereas C. lactis and T. putresecentiae proved to be an inferior food for rearing O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, eggs of C. capitata eggs fully supported development and reproduction of both predators. Results on medfly eggs were similar or slightly inferior to those on E. kuehniella eggs, which is the standard food for culturing these anthocorid bugs. O. thripoborus could be maintained for four consecutive generations on C. capitata eggs indicating that processed medfly eggs can be a suitable and cheaper alternative to E. kuehniella eggs for prolonged rearing of these Orius spp. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1–7 days larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries.

  11. Arthropods associated with medicinal plants in coastal South Carolina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROLANDO LOPEZ; B. MERLE SHEPARD

    2007-01-01

    Arthropods were sampled from feverfew [Tanacetum parthenium (L.) SchultzBip], Echinaceapurpurea (L.) Moench, Echinaceapallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Valeriana officinalis L., and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) during 1998-2001. In addition,arthropods were sampled on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from 2001-2004. In general,50-60 arthropod species where collected and identified among all of the medicinal plant species. Among the predators, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Geocoris punctipes (Say) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and spiders were most abundant from 1998-2004.The three-cornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say), was the most abundant herbivore found from 1998 to 2001. Orius insidiosus and G. punctipes were 3-4 times more abundant on T. parthenium than on any other medicinal plant species. Based on the numbers of predatory arthropods found on T. parthenium, this crop could be suitable as a companion or "banker" plant to attract and maintain populations of predators, especially O. insidiosus and G. punctipes. Whitefly nymphs attacked by predators with piercing/sucking mouthparts are easily identified using a microscope because of the general appearance of the carcass left by the predators. Thus, populations of predators on T. parthenium suppressed Bemisia tabaci populations on E. purpurea when these crops were planted as companion crops.

  12. Búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande(thysanoptera: thripidae, sobre Dendranthema grandijlorum en el municipio de Piendamo, cauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro V. Ulises

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la empresa "Flores del Cauca" en el municipio de Piendamó a 1S00 m.s.n.m. con temperatura promedia de 18° C y HR de SO ± 5%, se hizo una búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de F. occidentalis (Thysanóptera: Thripidae sobre eras experimentales de Dendranthema grandiflorum libres de control químico. La búsqueda se extendió a los hospedantes alternos del tisanóptero en áreas aledañas al cultivo. Semanalmente se cosechaban plantas de crisantemo, se llevaban al laboratorio para la recolección de thrips y sus enemigos naturales nativos. En el laboratorio se realizaron bioensayos para probar la acción depredadora de algunos de los enemigos de F. occídentalis que fueron encontrados en crisantemo. Se encontraron los siguientes enemigos naturales nativos: El hemíptero Orius sp. (Anthocoridae. los ácaros Amblyseius herbjcolus. Euseius naindaimei y Thyplodromalus peregrinus (Phytoseiidae, larvas de Chrysopidae; los thrips leptothirs sp. y Haplotrips gowdeyi (Phlaeothripidae, un ácaro de la familia Ascidae; difereflles especies de arañas; larvas de la familia Coccinellidae y adultos de F. occidentalis infectados por hongos no identificados.

  13. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Salamanca, Jordano; Holdcraft, Robert; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera

    2016-04-15

    Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day) control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1-7 days) larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries.

  14. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  15. Acquisition of Cry1Ac protein by non-target arthropods in Bt soybean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentration was highest in the grasshopper Atractomorpha sinensis and represented about 50% of the concentration in soybean leaves. Other species/taxa did not contain detectable toxin or contained a concentration that was between 1 and 10% of that detected in leaves. These Cry1Ac-positive arthropods included a number of mesophyll-feeding Hemiptera, a cicadellid, a curculionid beetle and, among the predators, a thomisid spider and an unidentified predatory bug belonging to the Anthocoridae. Within an arthropod species/taxon, the Cry1Ac content sometimes varied between life stages (nymphs/larvae vs. adults) and sampling dates (before, during, and after flowering). Our study is the first to provide information on Cry1Ac-expression levels in soybean plants and Cry1Ac concentrations in non-target arthropods in Chinese soybean fields. The data will be useful for assessing the risk of non-target arthropod exposure to Cry1Ac in soybean.

  16. Natural Enemies of the Frankliniella Complex Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ataulfo Mango Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Franklin H; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Ibarra-Nuñez, Guillermo; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E

    2015-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Ataulfo mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of determining the natural enemies of the Frankliniella complex species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Seven species of this genus feed and reproduce in large numbers during the mango flowering. Two representative orchards were selected: the orchard "Tres A" characterized by an intensive use of agrochemicals directed against thrips, and the orchard "La Escondida" that did not spray insecticides. During mango flowering, five inflorescences were randomly collected every 5 d in both orchards, for a total of 18 sampling dates. Results revealed the presence of 18 species of arthropods that were found predating on Frankliniella. There were 11 species in the families Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Formicidae, Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae; and seven species of spiders in the families Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, and Uloboridae. Over 88% of predators were anthocorids, including, Paratriphleps sp. (Champion), Orius insidiosus (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), and O. perpunctatus (Reuter). The orchard that did not spray insecticides had a significantly higher number of predators suggesting a negative effect of the insecticides on the abundance of these organisms.

  17. Kaolin and copper-based products applications: ecotoxicology on four natural enemies.

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    Bengochea, P; Amor, F; Saelices, R; Hernando, S; Budia, F; Adán, A; Medina, P

    2013-05-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of kaolin clays and two copper-based products on four natural enemies found in olive orchards Anthocoris nemoralis (F.) (Hem. Anthocoridae), Chelonus inanitus (L.) (Hym. Braconidae), Chilocorus nigritus (F.) (Col. Coccinellidae) and Scutellysta cyanea Motschulsky (Hym. Pteromalidae) are described. Both kaolin and copper can be applied for controlling the olive fruit fly and the olive moth, two important pests of this crop. The products did not increase the mortality of any of the insects studied, with the exception of A. nemoralis. The sublethal effects, however, differed depending on the parameter evaluated and the insect studied. Both kaolin and coppers slightly, but significantly, reduced the life span of C. inanitus and S. cyanea. Number of eggs laid by A. nemoralis females were reduced, but not significantly compared to the controls. In the behavioural experiments, clear preference for remaining on kaolin-untreated surfaces when insects were able to choose was observed. Despite having some negative effects, the negative impact on natural enemies was lower than the impact caused by products commonly applied in this crop against the pests stated above. Therefore, both kaolin and copper can be considered as alternative products to be applied in olive orchards if an effective resistance management programme is to be developed. Furthermore, both of them are allowed in organic farming, in which the number of products that can be applied is more restricted.

  18. Identification and impact of natural enemies of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2012-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest of potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and peppers (Capsicum spp.). The purpose of our research was to identify and determine the impact of natural enemies on B. cockerelli population dynamics. Through 2 yr of field studies (2009-2010) at four different sites and laboratory feeding tests, we identified minute pirate bug, Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); western bigeyed bug, Geocoris pallens Stål (Hemiptera:Geocoridae), and convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as key natural enemies of B. cockerelli in southern California potatoes, tomatoes, and bell peppers. In natural enemy exclusion cage experiments in the potato crop and in American nightshade, Solanum americanum Miller, the number of B. cockerelli surviving was significantly greater in the closed cage treatments, thus confirming the affect natural enemies can have on B. cockerelli. We discuss how this information can be used in an integrated pest management program for B. cockerelli.

  19. MACROINVERTEBRATES COMPOSITION IN THE BLIZNEC STREAM, SECOND AND THIRD MAKSIMIR LAKE

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    Marina Piria

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrates in spring period was investigated during two years in the first and second Maksimir Lake and Bliznec stream. The domination of Gastropoda was outstanding at these three investigated sites. From time to time stronger development of Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Diptera and Crustacea was noted at the second Maksimir Lake. Gastropoda was dominant at the third Maksimir Lake (from 1.484 to 2.506 g m–2 while Crustacea, Oligochaeta and Hirudinea made important biomass. Species density in the Bliznec stream was quantitative higher than the one at other stations. The dominant group was Gastropoda (from 0.568 to 3.026 g m–2 and there was higher development of Trichoptera, Crustacea, Diptera, Heteroptera and Bivalvia (Table 3 and 4. Bliznec stream water quality, observed by biological method given by Kerovec, ranged from polluted to highly polluted.

  20. Morphological and behavioral convergence in extinct and extant bugs: the systematics and biology of a new unusual fossil lace bug from the eocene.

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    Torsten Wappler

    Full Text Available The bug Gyaclavator kohlsi Wappler, Guilbert, Wedmann et Labandeira, gen. et sp. nov., represents a new extinct genus of lace bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingidae occurring in latest early Eocene deposits of the Green River Formation, from the southern Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado, in North America. Gyaclavator can be placed within the Tingidae with certainty, perhaps it is sistergroup to Cantacaderinae. If it belongs to Cantacaderinae, it is the first fossil record of this group for North America. Gyaclavator has unique, conspicuous antennae bearing a specialized, highly dilated distiflagellomere, likely important for intra- or intersex reproductive competition and attraction. This character parallels similar antennae in leaf-footed bugs (Coreidae, and probably is associated with a behavioral convergence as well.

  1. MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SIRET RIVER FROM HARGHITA, MARAMUREŞ AND VRANCEA MOUNTAINS AND MOLDOVEI PLATEAU

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    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  2. Description of Phytomonas oxycareni n. sp. from the Salivary Glands of Oxycarenus lavaterae.

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    Seward, Emily A; Votýpka, Jan; Kment, Petr; Lukeš, Julius; Kelly, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Phytomonas spp. (phytomonads) are a diverse and globally distributed group of unicellular eukaryotes that parasitize a wide range of plants and are transmitted by insect hosts. Here we report the discovery and characterisation of a new species of Phytomonas, named Phytomonas oxycareni n. sp., which was obtained from the salivary glands of the invasive species of true bug Oxycarenus lavaterae (Heteroptera). The new Phytomonas species exhibits a long slender promastigote morphology and can be found both within the lumen of the insect host's salivary glands as well as within the cells of the salivary gland itself. Sampling multiple individuals from the same population post-winter hibernation on two consecutive years revealed that infection was persistent over time. Finally, phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes revealed that this species is sister to other species within the genus Phytomonas, providing new insight into the evolutionary history of the clade.

  3. Supplementary notes to the biology of Cordyceps entomorrhiza (Dicks. ex Fr. Link and the morphology of its conidial stages

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    Stanisław Bałazy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps entomorrhiza develops on the larvae, pupae and adults on the ground beetles Carabus spp. (Coleoptera, Carabidae and on the bugs (Heteroptera, Nabidae ot the genera Himacerus Wolff et Nabis Latr. There are two forms of the conidial sporulation of this fungus with an identical sporogenesis type (Phialosporae but different as to the arrangement of sporogenous cells (Tilachiadtopsis and Hymenostilbe-like The names Tilachlidiopsis hippotrichoides (Lindau Keisler and T. nigra Yakushiji et Kumazawa should be treated as synonymous; they refer to the conidial stage of C. entomorrhiza, Hirsutella dla eleutheratorum (Nees ex Fr. Petch — contrary to the hitherto existing notion — is not connected with the above mentioned fungus. It constitutes a separate species, close to or identical with H. entomophila Pat.

  4. The Impact of Geomorphology and Human Disturbances on the Faunal Distributions in Tiquara and Angico Caves of Campo Formoso, Bahia, Brazil

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    André Vieira de Araujo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of fauna is important for the understanding of communities and ecosystems, enabling the design of actions for conservation. In the present piece of work, we identified total 45 morphospecies belonging to the order Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Dictyoptera, Araneida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Plecoptera, Amphipoda, Zygentoma, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Psocoptera from two distinct types of caves of Campo Formoso, state of Bahia in Brazil. It was made to provide subsidies for conservation studies. The targeted caves were Tiquara Cave suffered for many years from saltpeter extraction and Angico Cave less visited cave having high tourist potential. Though the conservation status is much better in Angico cave, but we found comparatively more morphospecies in Tiquara cave.

  5. Wolbachia-Free Heteropterans Do Not Produce Defensive Chemicals or Alarm Pheromones.

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    Becerra, Judith X; Venable, Gabriela X; Saeidi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    The true bugs, or heteropterans, are known for their widespread production of anti-predator chemicals and alarm pheromones in scent glands, a derived trait that constitutes one of the defining characters of the suborder Heteroptera and a potential novel trait that contributed to their diversification. We investigated whether symbiotic bacteria could be involved in the formation of these chemicals using Thasus neocalifornicus, a coreid bug that produces semiochemicals frequently found in other bugs. Using DNA phylogenetic methodology and experiments using antibiotics coupled with molecular techniques, we identified Wolbachia as the microorganism infecting the scent glands of this bug. Decreasing the level of Wobachia infection using antibiotics was correlated with a diminution of heteropteran production of defensive compounds and alarm pheromones, suggesting that this symbiotic bacterium might be implicated in the formation of chemicals.

  6. Changes in mechanical properties of the cuticle and lipid accumulation in relation to adult diapause in the bean bug, Riptortus clavatus.

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    Morita, A; Soga, K; Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S; Numata, H

    1999-03-01

    Photoperiodically controlled adult diapause in the bean bug, Riptortus clavatus (Thunberg) (Heteroptera: Alydidae) was due to suppression of corpus allatum activity under short-day conditions. The mechanical extensibility of the cuticle of the pronotum was significantly higher in nondiapause adults reared under long-day conditions than in diapause adults reared under short-day conditions. Furthermore, diapause adults accumulated significantly larger amount of lipids than nondiapause ones. It was then examined whether these two characteristics of adult diapause also depend on activity of the corpus allatum, by removal of the corpus allatum and transection of the nervi corporis allati. Even after these two kinds of surgery, adults responded to photoperiod and showed similar differences both in mechanical properties of the cuticle and in lipid content between long-day and short-day conditions. Therefore, inactivity of the corpus allatum is not responsible for the stiffer cuticle or higher lipid accumulation in diapause adults.

  7. Insects as vectors: systematics and biology.

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    Rodhain, F

    2015-04-01

    Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara). The authors provide a rapid overview of the morphology, systematics, development cycle and bio-ecology of each of these groups of vectors. Finally, their medical and veterinary importance is briefly reviewed.

  8. Male Reproductive System and Spermatogenesis in Homoptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)%同翅类昆虫的雄性生殖系统及精子发生(昆虫纲:半翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润刚; 袁锋; 张雅林

    2006-01-01

    本文比较了同翅类昆虫雄性生殖系统的结构、减数分裂期间染色体的行为和精子尾部的超微结构.研究表明蜡蝉总科和异翅类的精巢具有被膜,而蝉总科、叶蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科、木虱总科、蚜总科、粉虱总科和蚧总科的精巢均不具有被膜.也可以根据精巢小叶的形状将精巢分为三类,蝉总科、叶蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科、蚜总科和粉虱总科的精巢小叶为球形,蜡蝉总科、木虱总科和蚧总科的精巢小叶为管状,而异翅类的精巢小叶为片层状.减数分裂可以被分为5类:①蝉型(Cicadoid type);②蜡蝉型(Fulgoroid type);③木虱型(Psyloid type);④蚜型(Aphidoid type);⑤粉虱型(Aleyrodoid type)和⑥蚧型(Coccoid type),至少具有四个类群的减数分裂前期I具有弥散期,它们是:木虱总科、蜡蝉总科、蚧总科和异翅类.除粉虱总科和蚧总科的精子尾部退化以外,其余种类的精子鞭毛均具有典型的9+9+2轴丝结构.%Morphology of the male reproductive system, chromosome behaviors during meiosis and spem tail structures in Homoptera and Heteroptera are compared in this paper. The sheathed testis is found in Fulgoroidea and Heteroptera, and unsheathed testis occurs in Cicadoidea, Cicadelloidea, Cercopoidea, Membracoidea, Psyloidea, Aphidoidea, Aleyrodoidea and Coccoidea. The testis also can be divide into three types by the shape of testicular follicles. The sphere-shaped type is found in Cicadoidea, Cicadelloidea, Cercopoidea, Membracoidea, Aphidoidea and Aleyrodoidea, the tube-shaped type observed in Fulgoroidea, Psyloidea and Coccoidea, and the lamella-shaped type represented by Heteroptera. It is suggested the unsheathed testis may be the primitive type in Homoptera. Meiosis can be divided into 6 type at least, i.e. 1) Cicadoid type; 2) Fulgoroid type; 3) Psyloid type; 4) Aphidoid type; 5) Aleyrodoid type; and 6) Coccoid type. At

  9. Inverted meiosis: the true bugs as a model to study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, A; Page, J; Rufas, J S

    2009-01-01

    Most of the meiotic literature is based on species with monocentric chromosomes, however meiosis in protoctist, plant and animal species with holocentric chromosomes is less characterized. In some cases, an inverted meiotic sequence is claimed to occur, in which segregation of homologs is postponed until the second meiotic division. Additionally, other features also deserve interest, namely: (i) the different behavior of sex chromosomes if compared to that of the autosomes; (ii) the absence of a canonical kinetochore structure; (iii) the restriction of the kinetic activity to the chromosomal ends; (iv) the variations in the orientation of bivalents at the division plate, and (v) the possible occurrence of chiasma terminalization. Here we summarize the current knowledge on these topics in the meiosis of Hemiptera (Heteroptera) and present novel results that illustrate some of the special features mentioned above. We also point out the necessity of reviewing the term 'inverted meiosis' and propose some future prospects to study this peculiar meiosis.

  10. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

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    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  11. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot

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    MA. Manhães

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.

  12. Sapindaceae, cyanolipids, and bugs.

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    Aldrich, J R; Carroll, S P; Lusby, W R; Thompson, M J; Kochansky, J P; Waters, R M

    1990-01-01

    Scentless plant bugs (Heteroptera: Rhopalidae) are so named because adults of the Serinethinae have vestigial metathoracic scent glands. Serinethines are seed predators of Sapindales, especially Sapindaceae that produce toxic cyanolipids. In two serinethine species whose ranges extend into the southern United States,Jadera haematoloma andJ. sanguinolenta, sequestration of host cyanolipids as glucosides renders these gregarious, aposematic insects unpalatable to a variety of predators. The blood glucoside profile and cyanogenesis ofJadera varies depending on the cyanolipid chemistry of hosts, and adults and larvae fed golden rain tree seeds (Koelreuteria paniculata) excrete the volatile lactone, 4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone, to which they are attracted.Jadera fed balloon vine seeds (Cardiospermum spp.) do not excrete the attractive lactone. Loss of the usual heteropteran defensive glands in serinethines may have coevolved with host specificity on toxic plants, and the orientation ofJadera to a volatile excretory product could be an adaptive response to save time.

  13. OBSERVATION ON THE ENTOMOFAUNA BIODIVERSITY IN SOME CROPS

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    Ionela Mocanu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For gathering the material were used the soil traps type Barber, which were installed in a wheat crop area Tişiţa, Vrancea county. The observations were made in 2013 in May-June. The traps gathering was done on the following dates: 17.05; 29.05; 13.06; 27.06 using three variants: • Option 1 - untreated wheat consumption • Option 2 - treated drinking wheat • Option 3 - treated wheat seed The collected insect species belonging to the following orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Heteroptera, Diptera and Colembolla etc. Were collected in addition to insects, a species belonging to the Subphylum Crustacea, ord. Isopoda and species belonging to the class Arachnida, ord. Araneae.

  14. Contamination as the Cause of Erroneous Records of Brochosomes

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    Roman Rakitov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brochosomes are ultramicroscopic particles produced in large quantities by the Malpighian tubules of leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, and Cicadellidae and applied by leafhoppers as a coat to their integuments. A recent study has described brochosomes on museum specimens of Heteroptera and Psylloidea, suggesting a wider distribution of brochosomes among Hemiptera. Here, I report that the majority of adult Sthenarus rotermundi (Scholtz (Miridae and Kleidocerys resedae (Panzer (Lygaeidae reared in captivity and handled with clean tools had no brochosomes on them, suggesting that the earlier records of brochosomes in these and perhaps other species outside of the Cicadellidae were due to contamination. Additionally, simple experiments demonstrated that insects can become contaminated with brochosomes via entomological tools that had been in contact with leafhoppers and via preservation in ethanol together with leafhoppers. Contamination of host plants, predators, and parasites of leafhoppers with brochosomes is also expected but remains to be demonstrated.

  15. Insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina. Inventario preliminar

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    Javier MUZÓN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda un inventario preliminar de los insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura y su área de influencia (Patagonia, Argentina realizado sobre la base de colecciones y registros previos de especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (familias Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae y Psychodidae y Coleoptera. Se han relevado diversos tipos de ambientes en 14 localidades. El número de especies registrado asciende a 78, agrupadas en 51 géneros y 26 familias, de las cuales 33 se citan por primera vez del área. De los taxa registrados 83% de los géneros corresponden a grupos de amplia distribución (neotropicales, americanos o cosmopolitas, mientras que 41% de las especies presentan una distribución patagónica o andina.

  16. Primeiro registro de Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae em plantas de Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Nota Científica. First record of Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: geometridae in Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Scientific Note.

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    Claubert Wagner Guimarães de MENEZES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a oviposição e o desenvolvimento de uma nova espécie de lepidóptera associada à Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Ovos, imaturos e adultos de Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram encontrados em plantas de E. cloeziana no município de Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Este trabalho é o primeiro registro desse desfolhador em plantas de eucalipto. Ninfas de Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae foram também observadas predando as lagartas de F. sartinaria, isto indica que este predador poderá ser um potencial agente de controle biológico da espécie. A ocorrência de F. sartinaria ovipositando e se desenvolvendo em plantas de E. cloeziana mostra que este lepidóptero pode se tornar um desfolhador importante da espécie, sendo recomendável sua inclusão em monitoramentos de pragas do eucalipto visando seu manejo integrado.The aim of this study was to record the oviposition and development of a new species of lepidopteran pests of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Eggs, immatures and adults of Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were found in plants of E. cloeziana in Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This work is the first record of this defoliator in eucalyptus plants. Nymphs of the Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have also been observed preying on the larvae of F. sartinaria, this indicates that this predator is a probable potential biological control agent of the species. The occurrence of F. sartinaria developing and laying eggs on plants of E. cloeziana shows that this insect can become an important defoliator and it is recommended its inclusion in monitoring pest of eucalyptus for integrated pest management.

  17. Miridae, Reduviidae and Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera collected in Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Iberá watershed, Corrientes, Argentina Reduviidae, Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera recolectados en Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Esteros de Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina

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    María C. Melo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of contributing to the knowledge of the biodiversity in the protected areas of Argentina, terrestrial Heteroptera were collected in the Natural Reserve of the Iberá. The sampling site was the locality of Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57° 09'W and the following collection methods were used: sweeping, beating, fogging and light-trapping. A list is presented, with 90 species belonging to the superfamilies Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae, and Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae and Rhyparochromidae, 13 of them are new records for the Argentine Republic (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis, Oncopeltus luctuosus, Ischnodemus gayi, Oedancala nana, Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus, Pseudopachybrachius vinctus and 36 new records for the province of Corrientes.Con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad en las áreas protegidas de la Argentina, se realizaron recoleccciones de Heteroptera terrestres en la Reserva Natural del Iberá. El sitio de muestreo fue la localidad de Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57°09'W y se utilizaron los siguientes métodos de recoleccion: rastreo, golpeteo, fogging y trampa de luz. Se presenta una lista con 90 especies pertenecientes a las superfamilias Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae y Rhyparochromidae, de las cuales 13 representan primeras citas para la República Argentina (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis , Oncopeltus luctuosus , Ischnodemus gayi , Oedancala nana , Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus

  18. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor Development of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor

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    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em lagartas de S. frugiperda e em larvas de T. molitor, em laboratório. A presa S. frugiperda proporcionou ao predador menor longevidade, maior produção e viabilidade de ovos do que as larvas de T. molitor. Esses resultados demonstram que a lagarta S. frugiperda melhora as características reprodutivas de P. nigrispinus, de forma que a sua utilização como presa alternativa pode servir para incrementar a produção massal desse inimigo natural.Nymphys of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have been reared on Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, in laboratory conditions. However, there are no reports on P. nigrispinus predation, in field or laboratory, on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, one of the most damaging pests in crops in Brazil. This research had the objective to evaluate nymphal development and reproductive characteristics of the predator P. nigrispinus when reared on caterpillars of S. frugiperda and on larvae of T. molitor, in laboratory conditions. S. frugiperda provided a smaller longevity, higher egg production and viability to predator than T. molitor. The nutricional quality of this caterpillar improves the reproductive characteristics of the predator, so that its utilization as factitious host can increase mass production of this natural enemy.

  19. Soil organisms associated to the weed suppressant Crotalaria juncea (fabaceae and its importance as a refuge for natural enemies Organismos de solo associados à supressora de plantas daninhas Crotalaria juncea (fabaceae e sua importância como refúgio para inimigos naturais

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    W.S Tavares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organisms play an important role in organic crops of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae and are associated with the natural conservation of the environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the population of soil organisms in the organic culture of C. juncea, as well as its importance as a refuge for natural enemies. Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Diabrotica sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, Gryllus assimilis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, Lagria villosa (Coleoptera: Lagriidae, Melanotus sp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae, Meloidogyne incognita (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae, Nephila clavipes (Araneae: Nephilidae, Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Myrmicidae, Phyllophaga sp. (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae, Procornitermes sp. (Isoptera: Termitidae, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae were identified in C. juncea. The organisms that were found during a 3-month period in 144 trenches in C. juncea were pest species (84.47% and natural enemies (15.53% as well. Natural enemies had an average of 11.89 individuals per 1.08 m³ of soil cultivated with C. juncea. The abundance of organisms in the pod stage (5.49% of C. juncea was lower than that in the vegetative (83.50% and flowering (11.01% stages. Crotalaria juncea plants can be used as part of a crop system for Integrated Pest Management.Organismos de solo desempenham um importante papel em cultivos orgânicos de Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae e estão associados com a conservação natural do ambiente. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a população de organismos de solo no cultivo orgânico de C. juncea, bem como sua importância como um refúgio para inimigos naturais. Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Diabrotica sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, Gryllus assimilis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, Lagria villosa (Coleoptera

  20. Seletividade fisiológica de inseticidas aos inimigos naturais de Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae em brássicas Insecticide physiological selectivity to natural enemies of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae in Brassicae

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    Leandro Bacci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A conservação de inimigos naturais é um componente fundamental no manejo integrado de pragas. Neste trabalho, estudou-se a seletividade de sete inseticidas usados no manejo de Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae ao parasitóide Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae e aos predadores Discodon sp. (Coleoptera: Cantharidae e Lasiochilus sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. Os organofosforados metamidofós e paratiom metílico e o carbamato carbaril foram altamente tóxicos aos três inimigos naturais estudados. Dimetoato apresentou seletividade em favor do Discodon sp., na dose e subdose. O inseticida acefato apresentou alto impacto ao Discodon sp., no momento da aplicação e seu efeito foi reduzido com a metade da concentração do princípio ativo. Deltametrina apresentou seletividade à O. sokolowskii nas duas dosagens. Já permetrina foi seletiva a Lasiochilus sp., somente na subdose. Discodon sp. foi mais tolerante à dose e subdose do dimetoato e à subdose do acefato do que O. sokolowskii e Lasiochilus sp. O predador Lasiochilus sp. foi mais tolerante à dose e subdose da permetrina do que O. sokolowskii e Discodon sp. O parasitóide O. sokolowskii foi mais tolerante à dose e subdose da deltametrina do que Lasiochilus sp. e Discodon sp. Os resultados desta pesquisa foram obtidos em condições de exposição extrema, portanto indicam que os inseticidas seletivos possivelmente não serão prejudiciais aos inimigos naturais, em condições de campo.The conservation of natural enemies is a fundamental component in the integrated pest management. In this work, one studied the selectivity of seven insecticides, used in the management of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, to the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, and to the predators Discodon sp. (Coleoptera: Cantharidae and Lasiochilus sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. The organophosphates methamidophos and methyl parathion

  1. Comparison of Relative Bias, Precision, and Efficiency of Sampling Methods for Natural Enemies of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

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    Bannerman, J A; Costamagna, A C; McCornack, B P; Ragsdale, D W

    2015-06-01

    Generalist natural enemies play an important role in controlling soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America. Several sampling methods are used to monitor natural enemy populations in soybean, but there has been little work investigating their relative bias, precision, and efficiency. We compare five sampling methods: quadrats, whole-plant counts, sweep-netting, walking transects, and yellow sticky cards to determine the most practical methods for sampling the three most prominent species, which included Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). We show an important time by sampling method interaction indicated by diverging community similarities within and between sampling methods as the growing season progressed. Similarly, correlations between sampling methods for the three most abundant species over multiple time periods indicated differences in relative bias between sampling methods and suggests that bias is not consistent throughout the growing season, particularly for sticky cards and whole-plant samples. Furthermore, we show that sticky cards produce strongly biased capture rates relative to the other four sampling methods. Precision and efficiency differed between sampling methods and sticky cards produced the most precise (but highly biased) results for adult natural enemies, while walking transects and whole-plant counts were the most efficient methods for detecting coccinellids and O. insidiosus, respectively. Based on bias, precision, and efficiency considerations, the most practical sampling methods for monitoring in soybean include walking transects for coccinellid detection and whole-plant counts for detection of small predators like O. insidiosus. Sweep-netting and quadrat samples are also useful for some applications, when efficiency is not paramount.

  2. Predatory potential of Geocoris spp. and Orius insidiosus on fall armyworm in resistant and susceptible turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S V; Braman, S K

    2009-06-01

    Predatory potential and performance of the predaceous heteropterans, Geocoris punctipes (Say), G. uliginosus (Say) (Geocoridae), and Orius insidiosus (Say) (Anthocoridae), were evaluated using fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), as prey on different turfgrass taxa (resistant zoysiagrasses, 'Cavalier' and 'Palisades'; moderately resistant Bermuda grass, 'TifSport'; and susceptible seashore paspalum, 'Sea Isle 1') through laboratory and field studies. When background mortality was taken into account, in small arena trials in the laboratory, the greatest mortality by predators occurred on TifSport. The predator impact on TifSport by O. insidiosus was 92.6% above the mortality in the no-predator treatment on that grass. Predator induced mortality was rarely significant on the highly resistant zoysiagrass cultivar Cavalier because mortality, even in the absence of predators, was so high. Survival of larvae on TifSport Bermuda grass was significantly reduced by the addition of just two O. insidiosus per pot in laboratory pot trials. An increase in predator density to 4, 6, 8, or 10 further suppressed larval survival. O. insidiosus reduced larval survival on Sea Isle 1 at all densities. On Sea Isle 1, a density of two O. insidiosus resulted in > 50% reduction in live fall armyworms compared with the no predator treatment in laboratory trials. However, addition of O. insidiosus did not significantly reduce survival of fall armyworm larvae on this cultivar in the field in the presence of alternative prey and predators. O. insidiosus densities of six or higher per 181.4 cm2 did significantly reduce larval survival on TifSport Bermuda grass by as much as 80% during a 5-d trial period in the field. Predator-induced mortality among all trials was most consistent on a grass of intermediate resistance, TifSport Bermuda grass.

  3. 两类枣园昆虫群落结构的比较分析%Primary Analysis of Structure of Insect Community in Two Kinds of Jujube Orchards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜学梅; 赵爱玲; 王翠英; 李登科; 师光禄

    2010-01-01

    2009年3-4月初步研究了山西农业大学枣园(记作Ⅰ)和山西省农科院果树研究所枣园(记作Ⅱ)的早春昆虫群落结构特征.结果表明:枣园Ⅰ昆虫有34种,分别隶属8个目27个科,其中网目拟地甲(Opatrum subaratum Faldermann),蒙古拟地甲(Gonocephalum mongolicum Reiner),菱蝗科(Teaigidae)和中华广肩步甲(Calosoma maderae chinense Kirby)是群落优势种.枣园Ⅱ昆虫有55种,分别隶属6个目39个科,其中三点盲蝽(Adelphocods taeniophorus Reuter),隐翅甲科(Staphilinidae)和花蝽科(Anthocoridae)是群落优势种.枣园Ⅱ中,昆虫群落的丰富度、个体总数、多样性指数、均匀度均高于同时期的枣园Ⅰ,其中捕食性昆虫和寄生性昆虫的比例较高.通过聚类分析得出,两园昆虫群落的时间动态格局较相似,可分为两个阶段:发展初期,物种数和个体总数均较少;上升期,物种数和个体总数都显著增加,昆虫群落的稳定性增强.

  4. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Damsel Bug Alloeorhynchus bakeri (Hemiptera: Nabidae

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    Hu Li, Haiyu Liu, Liangming Cao, Aimin Shi, Hailin Yang, Wanzhi Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of the damsel bug, Alloeorhynchus bakeri, has been completed and annotated in this study. It represents the first sequenced mitochondrial genome of heteropteran family Nabidae. The circular genome is 15, 851 bp in length with an A+T content of 73.5%, contains the typical 37 genes that are arranged in the same order as that of the putative ancestor of hexapods. Nucleotide composition and codon usage are similar to other known heteropteran mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs use standard initiation codons (methionine and isoleucine, except COI, which started with TTG. Canonical TAA and TAG termination codons are found in eight protein-coding genes, the remaining five (COI, COII, COIII, ND5, ND1 have incomplete termination codons (T or TA. PCGs of two strands present opposite CG skew which is also reflected by the nucleotide composition and codon usage. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, except the dihydrouridine (DHU arm of tRNASer (AGN which forms a simple loop as known in many other metazoa. Secondary structure models of the ribosomal RNA genes of A. bakeri are presented, similar to those proposed for other insect orders. There are six domains and 45 helices and three domains and 27 helices in the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS, respectively. The major non-coding region (also called control region between the small ribosomal subunit and the tRNAIle gene includes two special regions. The first region includes four 133 bp tandem repeat units plus a partial copy of the repeat (28 bp of the beginning, and the second region at the end of control region contains 4 potential stem-loop structures. Finally, PCGs sequences were used to perform a phylogenetic study. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support Nabidae as the sister group to Anthocoridae and Miridae.

  5. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts.

  6. Efeito de milho Bt sobre a entomofauna não alvo Side-effect of maize Bt on non-target arthropods

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    Filomena Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objectivo de verificar o impacte de milho Bt na fauna auxiliar de artrópodes, cultivaram-se, durante três anos (2002-2004, duas variedades de milho geneticamente modificadas (Compa CB e Elgina e as suas isogénicas (Dracma e Cecília. Os ensaios foram realizados no Núcleo de Ensaios e de Controlo do Escaroupim, no Ribatejo. As amostragens de artrópodes auxiliares foram realizadas quinzenalmente, durante o ciclo vegetativo da cultura, em quatro talhões, usando o método de aspiração. Não se encontraram diferenças na fauna auxiliar existente, entre as cultivares Bt e as suas isogénicas. Os artrópodes auxiliares mais abundantes, em qualquer dos anos e cultivares, foram os antocorídeos. Os himenópteros foram o segundo grupo mais representado, seguido das aranhas.In order to study the impact of transgenic maize on beneficial arthropods, two varieties of maize Bt (Compa CB and Elgina and the normal ones (Dracma and Cecília were sown. The trials were carried out, in Escaroupim, Ribatejo, from 2002 to 2004. The surveys were done by using a cordless hand vacuum machine, every 15 days, during the growing season. The results showed no significant differences between arthropods caught in maize Bt and the normal one. The beneficials with the highest numbers caught during the three years were Anthocoridae, Hymenoptera and Aranea were the first, second and third most representative groups of beneficial arthropods during the three years.

  7. Sensory response of the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi to stimuli from the bug Euschistus heros Resposta sensorial do parasitóide de ovos Telenomus podisi a estímulos provenientes do percevejo Euschistus heros

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    Cleonor Cavalcante Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the foraging behavior of Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae in the presence of stimuli from its host, Euschistus heros (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. The stimuli selected were: egg mass; virgin males and females; volatile extracts of sexually mature males and females; components of male sex pheromone; a component of the alarm pheromone, hexane and an empty cage as control. In a closed arena, the parasitoids were given the choice between single and combined stimuli presented to them simultaneously. To find the host egg, T. podisi primarily uses the sensory cues released from the male insects. The orientation toward odors of male chemical extract indicates that a source of kairomone was detected. Gas chromatographic analyses of this substance showed peak of methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoate, the main component of male sexual pheromone. The sensory response to methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoate confirms that this compound may act as a kairomone to find host eggs. Females and egg mass stimuli were weakly attractive to the parasitoid.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento de busca de Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae, em presença de estímulos provenientes do hospedeiro Euschitus heros (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. As fontes de estímulos utilizadas foram: massas de ovos, machos e fêmeas virgens, extratos químicos de machos e fêmeas sexualmente maduros, componentes sintéticos do feromônio sexual do macho de E. heros, um composto sintético do feromônio de alarme, hexano e uma gaiola vazia como controle. Os testes foram conduzidos em arenas, onde foi dada a oportunidade para os parasitóides escolherem entre estímulos isolados e estímulos combinados. Para encontrar o hospedeiro, T. podisi utiliza principalmente estímulos olfativos emitidos pelos machos. As respostas sensoriais aos odores liberados pelos extratos químicos do macho indicam que uma fonte de

  8. Integrating evo-devo with ecology for a better understanding of phenotypic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M Emília; Berger, Chloé S; Refki, Peter N; Khila, Abderrahman

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has provided invaluable contributions to our understanding of the mechanistic relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Similarly, evolutionary ecology has greatly advanced our understanding of the relationship between the phenotype and the environment. To fully understand the evolution of organismal diversity, a thorough integration of these two fields is required. This integration remains highly challenging because model systems offering a rich ecological and evolutionary background, together with the availability of developmental genetic tools and genomic resources, are scarce. In this review, we introduce the semi-aquatic bugs (Gerromorpha, Heteroptera) as original models well suited to study why and how organisms diversify. The Gerromorpha invaded water surfaces over 200 mya and diversified into a range of remarkable new forms within this new ecological habitat. We summarize the biology and evolutionary history of this group of insects and highlight a set of characters associated with the habitat change and the diversification that followed. We further discuss the morphological, behavioral, molecular and genomic tools available that together make semi-aquatic bugs a prime model for integration across disciplines. We present case studies showing how the implementation and combination of these approaches can advance our understanding of how the interaction between genotypes, phenotypes and the environment drives the evolution of distinct morphologies. Finally, we explain how the same set of experimental designs can be applied in other systems to address similar biological questions.

  9. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with macrophyte habitats in a tropical man-made lake (Lake Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

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    Kouamé M. K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study was done on Lake Taabo with the main objective of characterising macroinvertebrate communities associated with the microhabitats created mainly by Eichhornia crassipes and other littoral native macrophytes. We sampled organisms in patches of those aquatic macrophytes. Also, some abiotic variables (temperature, transparency, turbidity, pH, TDS, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, NH$_{4}^{+}$+4, NO$_{3}^{-}$−3, NO$_{2}^{-}$−2, PO$_{4}^{3-}$3−4 and SiO$_{2}^{-}$−2 were measured. Overall, forty-three taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Ten of them were exclusively associated with water hyacinth while five were only associated with littoral macrophytes. Macroinvertebrate taxa with some of the highest family richness were Gastropoda, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Odonata and Diptera. The taxon with highest density in both microhabitats was Chironomidae. Although higher values of taxonomic richness (Rs, the Shannon index (H′ and evenness (J were obtained with the water hyacinth habitat, significant differences between the two microhabitats were not observed. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that samples of E. crassipes collected in the dry season were characterised by Gastropoda and Odonata, as well as higher values of transparency and ammonia-nitrogen. Baetidae, Hydrophilidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Coenagrionidae, Naucoridae and Ostracoda were most abundant in both E. crassipes and littoral macrophyte habitats during the rainy season. This season was characterised by higher levels of nitrates and conductivity.

  10. ESTRUCTURA NUMÉRICA DE LA ENTOMOFAUNA ACUÁTICA EN OCHO QUEBRADAS DEL DEPARTAMENTO DEL QUINDÍO-COLOMBIA

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    JOHN JADER RIVERA-USME

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de la entomofauna acuática de ocho quebradas del depar- tamento del Quindío, Colombia en La Tebaida y Calarcá. Entre agosto y diciembre de 2004 se colectaron 1917 especimenes distribuidos así: Trichoptera con 524 (la familia más abundante fue Hydropsychidae con 425, Coleoptera 421 (Elmidae con 396 individuos, Heteroptera 391, Odonata 216, seguido por Ephemeroptera, Diptera y Neuroptera. Los índices ecológicos empleados fueron la diversidad de Shannon-Wiener, la riqueza total y la equidad de Pielou, los cuales arrojaron valores altos; la similitud de Jaccard para las quebradas La Tebaida y Calarcá fue de 0,66 evidenciando pocas variaciones en la entomofauna acuática. Mediante el análisis de las variables físicas y químicas se determinó que estas quebradas presentan un buen nivel de conservación.

  11. Sexual Success after Stress? Imidacloprid-Induced Hormesis in Males of the Neotropical Stink Bug Euschistus heros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddi, Khalid; Mendes, Marcos V.; Lino-Neto, José; Freitas, Hemerson L.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Oliveira, Eugênio E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress in newly-emerged adult insects can have dramatic consequences on their life traits (e.g., dispersion, survival and reproduction) as adults. For instance, insects sublethally exposed to environmental stressors (e.g., insecticides) can gain fitness benefits as a result of hormesis (i.e., benefits of low doses of compounds that would be toxic at higher doses). Here, we experimentally tested whether sublethal exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid would hormetically affect the sexual fitness of newly-emerged adults of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), which is the most abundant and prevalent insect pest in Neotropical soybean fields. We evaluated the sexual fitness of four couple combinations: unexposed couples, exposed females, exposed males, and exposed couples. Sublethal exposure to dry residues (i.e., contact) of imidacloprid (at 1% of recommended field rate) did not affect insect survival, but led to higher mating frequencies when at least one member of the couple was exposed. However, the average mating duration was shortened when only females were exposed to imidacloprid. Moreover, exposed males showed higher locomotory (walking) activity, lower respiration rates and induced higher fecundity rates when mated to unexposed females. Although the reproductive tracts of exposed males did not differ morphometrically from unexposed males, their accessory glands exhibited positive reactions for acidic and basic contents. Our findings suggest that males of the Neotropical brown stink bug hormetically increase their sexual fitness when cued by impending insecticidal stress in early adulthood. PMID:27284906

  12. ESTRUCTURA NUMÉRICA DE LA ENTOMOFAUNA ACUÁTICA EN OCHO QUEBRADAS DEL DEPARTAMENTO DEL QUINDÍO-COLOMBIA

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    RIVERA-USME JOHN JADER

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se realizó un estudio de la entomofauna acuática de ocho quebradas del departamento del Quindío, Colombia en La Tebaida y Calarcá. Entre agosto y diciembre de 2004 se colectaron 1917 especimenes distribuidos así: Trichoptera con 524 (la familia más abundante fue Hydropsychidae con 425, Coleoptera 421 (Elmidae con 396 individuos, Heteroptera 391, Odonata 216, seguido por Ephemeroptera, Diptera y Neuroptera. Los índices ecológicos empleados fueron la diversidad de Shannon-Wiener, la riqueza total y la equidad de Pielou, los cuales arrojaron valores altos; la similitud de Jaccard para las quebradas La Tebaida y Calarcá fue de 0,66 evidenciando pocas variaciones en la entomofauna acuática. Mediante el análisis de las variables físicas y químicas se determinó que estas quebradas presentan un buen nivel de conservación.

  13. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  14. Insecticides Susceptibility Status of the Bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) in a Rural Area of Magugu, Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mwang'onde, Beda J; Kimaro, Epiphania E; Msangi, Shandala; Tenu, Filemoni; Mahande, Aneth M

    2009-07-01

    The recent spread of bedbugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae), has received attention of the public health sector for designing of effective plan of action for control. Several studies have focused on determining the distribution and abundance of bedbug populations in tropical areas. This study establishes baseline information on deltamethrin, permethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambdacypermethrin and K-O tab susceptibility status in a bedbug population collected from Magugu area in northern Tanzania. The evolution of insecticide resistance could be a primary factor in explaining this resurgence of bedbugs in many areas, both rural and urban. Evaluation of the bedbug population from houses in Magugu indicates that the population of bedbugs is susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides, which are commonly used. Without the development of new tactics for bedbug resistance management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected when resistant gene spreads within the population. These results suggest that although all concentrations kill bedbugs, more evaluations should be done using WHO kits and mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance should be evaluated, such as metabolic and knockdown resistance gene, to have a broad picture for better design of control methodologies.

  15. Insecticides susceptibility status of the bedbugs (Cimex lectularius in a rural area of Magugu, Northern Tanzania

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    Eliningaya J Kweka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of bedbugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae, has received attention of the public health sector for designing of effective plan of action for control. Several studies have focused on determining the distribution and abundance of bedbug populations in tropical areas. This study establishes baseline information on deltamethrin, permethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambdacypermethrin and K-O tab susceptibility status in a bedbug population collected from Magugu area in northern Tanzania. The evolution of insecticide resistance could be a primary factor in explaining this resurgence of bedbugs in many areas, both rural and urban. Evaluation of the bedbug population from houses in Magugu indicates that the population of bedbugs is susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides, which are commonly used. Without the development of new tactics for bedbug resistance management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected when resistant gene spreads within the population. These results suggest that although all concentrations kill bedbugs, more evaluations should be done using WHO kits and mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance should be evaluated, such as metabolic and knockdown resistance gene, to have a broad picture for better design of control methodologies.

  16. Principal Disease and Insect Pests of Jatropha curcas L. in the Lower Valley of the Senegal River

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    Terren, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. seed oil is proven to be toxic to many microorganisms, insects and animals. Despite its toxicity, Jatropha is not pest and disease resistant. The following major pests and diseases affecting Jatropha in the lower valley of the Senegal river have been identified: the leaf miner Stomphastis thraustica (Meyrick, 1908 (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, the leaf and stem miner Pempelia morosalis (Saalmuller, 1880 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae and the shield-backed bug Calidea panaethiopica (Kirkaldy, 1909 (Heteroptera, Scutelleridae, which can cause flower and fruit abortion. Damage from these pests was particularly great during the second year after the plantations were set up (2009 and before later receding. Nevertheless, the worst attacks were caused by a vascular disease transmitted through the soil, which killed 65% of the plants in four years. It is mainly characterised by collar and root rot, which causes foliage to yellow and wilt, before the plant eventually dies. These threats should increase if larger areas are planted with Jatropha. Considering the scale of the damage caused by these attacks in Bokhol, the development of an integrated pest management programme adapted to the local context should be considered.

  17. Chromosomal divergence and evolutionary inferences in Rhodniini based on the chromosomal location of ribosomal genes

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    Sebastian Pita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridisation to determine the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in 10 species of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae. The results showed striking inter and intraspecific variability, with the location of the rDNA clusters restricted to sex chromosomes with two patterns: either on one (X chromosome or both sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes. This variation occurs within a genus that has an unchanging diploid chromosome number (2n = 22, including 20 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes and a similar chromosome size and genomic DNA content, reflecting a genome dynamic not revealed by these chromosome traits. The rDNA variation in closely related species and the intraspecific polymorphism in Rhodnius ecuadoriensis suggested that the chromosomal position of rDNA clusters might be a useful marker to identify recently diverged species or populations. We discuss the ancestral position of ribosomal genes in the tribe Rhodniini and the possible mechanisms involved in the variation of the rDNA clusters, including the loss of rDNA loci on the Y chromosome, transposition and ectopic pairing. The last two processes involve chromosomal exchanges between both sex chromosomes, in contrast to the widely accepted idea that the achiasmatic sex chromosomes of Heteroptera do not interchange sequences.

  18. Inter and intra-guild interactions in egg parasitoid species of the soybean stink bug complex

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    Sujii Edison Ryoiti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the parasitism behavior of Telenomus podisi Ashmead, Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston e Trissolcus urichi Crawford (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae on eggs of Nezara viridula L., Euschistus heros F., Piezodorus guildinii Westwood and Acrosternum aseadum Rolston (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, in no choice and multiple choice experiments. For all parasitoid species, the results demonstrated the existence of a main host species that maximizes the reproductive success. The competitive interactions among the parasitoid species were investigated in experiments of sequential and simultaneous release of different combinations of parasitoid pairs on the hosts N. viridula, E. heros and A. aseadum. Exploitative competition was observed for egg batches at the genus level (Telenomus vs. Trissolcus and interference competition at the species level (T. basalis vs. T. urichi. Trissolcus urichi was the most aggressive species, interfering with the parasitism of T. basalis. Generally, T. basalis showed an opportunistic behavior trying to parasitise eggs after T. urichi had abandoned the egg batch. The selection of parasitoid species for use in augmentative biological control programs should take into account the diversity of pentatomids present in soybean in addition to the interactions among the different species of parasitoids.

  19. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae, a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper.

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    Yanan Hao

    Full Text Available Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera.

  20. Venoms of Heteropteran Insects: A Treasure Trove of Diverse Pharmacological Toolkits

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    Andrew A. Walker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The piercing-sucking mouthparts of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera have allowed diversification from a plant-feeding ancestor into a wide range of trophic strategies that include predation and blood-feeding. Crucial to the success of each of these strategies is the injection of venom. Here we review the current state of knowledge with regard to heteropteran venoms. Predaceous species produce venoms that induce rapid paralysis and liquefaction. These venoms are powerfully insecticidal, and may cause paralysis or death when injected into vertebrates. Disulfide-rich peptides, bioactive phospholipids, small molecules such as N,N-dimethylaniline and 1,2,5-trithiepane, and toxic enzymes such as phospholipase A2, have been reported in predatory venoms. However, the detailed composition and molecular targets of predatory venoms are largely unknown. In contrast, recent research into blood-feeding heteropterans has revealed the structure and function of many protein and non-protein components that facilitate acquisition of blood meals. Blood-feeding venoms lack paralytic or liquefying activity but instead are cocktails of pharmacological modulators that disable the host haemostatic systems simultaneously at multiple points. The multiple ways venom is used by heteropterans suggests that further study will reveal heteropteran venom components with a wide range of bioactivities that may be recruited for use as bioinsecticides, human therapeutics, and pharmacological tools.

  1. Venoms of Heteropteran Insects: A Treasure Trove of Diverse Pharmacological Toolkits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Weirauch, Christiane; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2016-02-12

    The piercing-sucking mouthparts of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) have allowed diversification from a plant-feeding ancestor into a wide range of trophic strategies that include predation and blood-feeding. Crucial to the success of each of these strategies is the injection of venom. Here we review the current state of knowledge with regard to heteropteran venoms. Predaceous species produce venoms that induce rapid paralysis and liquefaction. These venoms are powerfully insecticidal, and may cause paralysis or death when injected into vertebrates. Disulfide-rich peptides, bioactive phospholipids, small molecules such as N,N-dimethylaniline and 1,2,5-trithiepane, and toxic enzymes such as phospholipase A2, have been reported in predatory venoms. However, the detailed composition and molecular targets of predatory venoms are largely unknown. In contrast, recent research into blood-feeding heteropterans has revealed the structure and function of many protein and non-protein components that facilitate acquisition of blood meals. Blood-feeding venoms lack paralytic or liquefying activity but instead are cocktails of pharmacological modulators that disable the host haemostatic systems simultaneously at multiple points. The multiple ways venom is used by heteropterans suggests that further study will reveal heteropteran venom components with a wide range of bioactivities that may be recruited for use as bioinsecticides, human therapeutics, and pharmacological tools.

  2. Field Evaluation of Some Insecticides on Whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Predator (Macrolophus caliginosus on Brinjal and Tomato Plants

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    Mohd Rasdi, Z.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect treatments with the recommended application rates of avermectin, buprofezin, white oil, lambda-cyhalothrin and cyromazine on Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera was evaluated. Pesticides were applied against larvae infesting brinjal (Solanum melongena L. and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants in a natural environment of the Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia. We also examined whether these pesticides affect the whitefly predator, Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae. Tested pesticides significantly reduced the larval populations of the whitefly and affect throughout the survey period. Similar effects were observed on the predator except for the white oil. Avermectin was the most effective insecticide against the population of T. vaporariorum. However, it was highly toxic to the predator, M. caliginosus. Considering relatively low mammalian toxicity of buprofezin and white oil, these two insecticides were more suitable for controlling whiteflies, particularly during fruiting period. Proper selection of effective pesticides against the pest, but less harmful to natural enemies and also good timing of their applications are essential in formulating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM programme for whiteflies.

  3. Prey records of robber fLies(Diptera:AsiLidae)in Iran%伊朗食虫虻(双翅目:食虫虻科)的猎物记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Najmeh SAMIN; Hamid SAKENIN; Hassan GHAHARI; Reza MONAEM

    2014-01-01

    Up on the revising of the pubLished data on Iranian AsiLidae,in a totaL 130 insect species are Listed in this paper as the preys for 104 species of Iranian AsiLidae. These preys beLong to 37 famiLies of 7 orders incLuding Hyme-noptera,Diptera,CoLeoptera,Orthoptera,Lepidoptera,Heteroptera and Neuroptera. In addition to the diverse preys in the cLass Insecta,one spider species( Aranei)was determined as prey too.%本文根据伊朗食虫虻科AsiLidae的文献资料,记录了伊朗104种食虫虻的130种猎物。这些猎物隶属昆虫纲Insecta的7个目(膜翅目Hymenoptera,双翅目Diptera,鞘翅目CoLeoptera,直翅目Orthoptera,鳞翅目Lepidoptera,半翅目异翅亚目Heteroptera和脉翅目Neuroptera)37科,此外,还有1种蜘蛛也是食虫虻的猎物。

  4. Influences of extreme weather, climate and pesticide use on invertebrates in cereal fields over 42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Julie A; Wheatley, Christopher J; Aebischer, Nicholas J; Moreby, Stephen J; Duffield, Simon J; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Morecroft, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Cereal fields are central to balancing food production and environmental health in the face of climate change. Within them, invertebrates provide key ecosystem services. Using 42 years of monitoring data collected in southern England, we investigated the sensitivity and resilience of invertebrates in cereal fields to extreme weather events and examined the effect of long-term changes in temperature, rainfall and pesticide use on invertebrate abundance. Of the 26 invertebrate groups examined, eleven proved sensitive to extreme weather events. Average abundance increased in hot/dry years and decreased in cold/wet years for Araneae, Cicadellidae, adult Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Braconidae, Enicmus and Lathridiidae. The average abundance of Delphacidae, Cryptophagidae and Mycetophilidae increased in both hot/dry and cold/wet years relative to other years. The abundance of all 10 groups usually returned to their long-term trend within a year after the extreme event. For five of them, sensitivity to cold/wet events was lowest (translating into higher abundances) at locations with a westerly aspect. Some long-term trends in invertebrate abundance correlated with temperature and rainfall, indicating that climate change may affect them. However, pesticide use was more important in explaining the trends, suggesting that reduced pesticide use would mitigate the effects of climate change.

  5. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COLLECTED SPECIES OF INVERTEBRATES IN PLUM ORCHARDS

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    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the observations made in a plum fruit growing plantation in the years 2013 and 2014, belonging Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi within USAMV, Iasi County, at the Stanley variety. The material gathering it was made using soil traps type Barber, from May until August, at intervals between 10 and 20 days. The collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 30.05, 15.06, 28.06, 12.07, 26.07, 10.08 and 24.08. In total 2013 were collected 151 species belonging to 19 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Heteroptera species (bedbugs with 28 species, Dermestes laniarius L. with 27 species, Coccinella septempunctata L. with 27 species, Polydrosus sericeus Schall. with 15 species and Harpalus calceatus Duft. with 11 species. The collection of biological material in 2014 was made on the following dates: 19.05, 10.06, 29.06, 16.07, 06.08. In total in 2014 it was collected 402 species belonging to 29 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Pseudophonus rufipes De Geer with 86 species, Harpalus distinguendus Duft. 68 species, Pseudephonus griseus Payk. 38 species, Orthoptera (locusts species with 33 species and Hymenoptera (ants species with 20 species.

  6. OBSERVATIONS REGARDING EXISTING INVERTEBRATES FROM PLUM ORCHARDS

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    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The observations were made during the two years, 2013 and 2014 in a plantation belonging plum fruit growing from Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi of USAMV Iasi, Iasi County Rivers Early variety.Collecting the material was done with traps type Barber from May until August at intervals between 10 and 20 days. Collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 20.05, 30.05, 15.06, 5.07, 25.07, 10.08 and 23.08.In total 2013 were collected 265 samples belonging to 22 species (taxa. Species (taxa with the largest number of samples collected were Dermestes laniarius L. 42 samples Heteroptera. (bedbugs with 38 samples, and Polydrosus sericeus Schall. 26 samples. In 2014 collection of the biological material was made on the following dates: 07.05, 21.05, 19.06, 08.07, 27.07, 15.08, 04.09. In total in 2014 were collected 744 samples belonging to 41 species (taxa with the highest number of samples were colected: Hymenoptera (bees with 92 saples, Orthoptera (locusts with 87 samples, Lepidoptera (larvae with 37samplres, and Homoptera (cycads with 31samples.

  7. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Triatoma brasiliensis males to volatiles produced in the metasternal glands of females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Ana C R; Bohman, Björn; Unelius, C Rikard; Lorenzo, Marcelo G

    2009-10-01

    In many insects, mate finding is mediated by volatile sex pheromones, but evidence for this phenomenon in triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is still fragmentary. Recently, it was shown that metasternal glands (MGs) are involved in producing signals related to the sexual communication of Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus. Based on this, we tested whether MG volatiles could be involved in the sexual communication of Triatoma brasiliensis. Odor-mediated orientation responses were studied by using a T-tube olfactometer. These tests showed that males exhibit positive anemotaxis when confronted with adult odor-laden air currents. Moreover, females that had their metasternal glands occluded did not elicit significant orientation by males. Compounds produced by the MGs of T. brasiliensis females were identified by means of SPME, GC-FID, and GC-MS, with achiral and chiral columns. All substances identified were ketones and alcohols, and similar compound profiles were found in the secretions produced by both sexes. The most abundant compounds identified were 3-pentanone, followed by (4R)-methyl-1-heptanol, 3-pentanol, and (2S)-methyl-1-butanol. In addition, GC-EAD recordings showed that the antennae of males responded to several of the main components of female MG secretions. Our results showed that compounds produced by the MGs of T. brasiliensis females are involved in the sexual communication of this species.

  8. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitats of Silent Valley National Park and New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Western Ghats, India

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    K.A. Nishadh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitat of a tropical rainforest, Silent Valley National Park, and the adjacent moist deciduous forest, New Amarambalam Reserve Forest, of the Western Ghats, 28 different species were recorded from 150 tree hole aquatic habitats with an average of 3-5 species per tree hole. Most of the recorded organisms (96.8% belong to Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies, Heteroptera (bugs, Diptera (flies, Coleoptera (beetles and Trichoptera (caddisflies. The study reports the first record of toe-winged beetle larvae (Ptilodactylidae in a tree hole aquatic habitat. The most significant observation is the prolific occurrence of trichopteran larvae as the second most abundant taxa in tree holes of Silent Valley National Park, and this stands as the first comprehensive record of the entire order in the habitat studied. The study upholds the importance of less explored microhabitats in the Western Ghats region in terms of sustaining unique community composition in the most delicate and extreme habitat conditions. It also puts forward important ecological research questions on biodiversity ecosystem functionality which could impart important lessons for managing and conserving the diminishing tropical evergreen forests which are significant for these unique habitats.

  9. Neuropeptides of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Reinhard; Russell, William K; Russell, David H; Suh, Charles P-C; Nachman, Ronald J

    2012-03-01

    The cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), is an economically important pest of cotton, and increasing concerns over resistance, detrimental effects on beneficial insects and safety issues associated with traditional insecticide applications have led to an interest in research on novel, alternative strategies for control. One such approach requires a more basic understanding of the neurohormonal system that regulates important physiological properties of the fleahopper; e.g. the expression of specific messenger molecules such as neuropeptides. Therefore we performed a peptidomic study of neural tissues from the fleahopper which led to the first identification of the sequences of native peptide hormones. These peptide hormones include the following neuropeptides: corazonin, short neuropeptide F (sNPF), myosuppressin, CAPA-pyrokinin and CAPA-PVK peptides. The CAPA-pyrokinin, sNPF, and CAPA-PVK peptides represent novel sequences. A comparison of fleahopper neuropeptides with those of related heteropteran species indicates that they are quite different. The sNPF of P. seriatus shows, among others, a novel substitution of Leu with Phe within the C-terminal region; a modification that sets it apart from the known sNPFs of not only other Heteroptera but of other arthropod species as well. The identity of the neuropeptides native to the fleahopper can aid in the potential development of biostable, bioavailable mimetic agonists and antagonists capable of disrupting the physiological functions that these neuropeptides regulate.

  10. A Male Aggregation Pheromone in the Bronze Bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Thaumastocoridae

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    Andrés González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations in Uruguay have doubled in the past decade, with Eucalyptus spp. leading this growth. The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae, originally restricted to Australia, is an important emerging pest of Eucalyptus plantations in the Southern hemisphere. T. peregrinus feeds on mature Eucalyptus leaves, causing them to turn brown and often fall from the tree. Although population dynamics and behavioural patterns are not clearly understood, circumstantial observations suggest that males and nymphs aggregate. We used gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to analyze volatile organic compounds emitted by virgin males and females, and characterized a male-specific compound, 3-methylbut-2-enyl butanoate, based on mass spectral data and chromatographic comparison with a synthetic standard. We also performed Y-olfactometer bioassays to test the attraction of virgin males and females toward live virgin males, male volatile extracts, and synthetic 3-methylbut-2-enyl butanoate. Males were attracted toward conspecific males, while virgin females showed no preference, suggesting that male volatiles are not involved in sexual communication. Further olfactometer tests showed that males were attracted to male volatile extracts and to synthetic 3-methylbut-2-enyl butanoate. The ecological significance of this compound and its potential use for the management of T. peregrinus in Eucalyptus forests will be further investigated.

  11. Evaluation of Blood Regimen on the Survival of Cimex lectularius L. Using Life Table Parameters

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    Edwin G. Rajotte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of bed bug development under varying conditions can lead to more sophisticated management techniques. Development rate, age and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain (HS and field strain (ECL-05 of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera reared on two blood regimens: human or rabbit blood. Harlan and ECL-05 bed bugs reared on human blood had a life expectancy of 207 and 208 days respectively from the egg stage. Egg to adult development of HS bed bugs reared on human blood (~35 days was significantly longer than that of the ECL-05 strain (~33 days in the third, fourth, and fifth instars. The HS and ECL-05 bed bugs reared on rabbit blood had a life expectancy of 149 and 174 days respectively. Egg to adult development time of HS on rabbit blood (~52 days was significantly longer than ECL-05 (~37 days in every instar, and HS total life span was significantly shorter compared to ECL-05. Developmental differences based on strain and blood regimen suggest rabbit blood is an inferior blood source for colony maintenance, and strain has variable effects on bed bug development. Findings suggest that blood regimen should strongly be considered in bed bug colony maintenance.

  12. Preliminary results on the ability of pentatomidae to transfer fire blight Erwinia amylovora under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peusens, G; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    With their piercing-sucking mouthparts stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a major pest in especially organic orchards, create wounds in fruit of pear trees. As Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.), a wide spread bacterial disease affecting many rosaceous plants including pome fruit trees and hawthorn, enters through openings in flowers, leaves, shoots and fruit, feeding punctures caused by these bugs might be inoculated with Erwinia bacteria. In order to investigate the ability of the bugs Pentotoma rufipes L. and Polomena prasina L. to transmit fire blight, insects were caught in an organically managed orchard without fire blight, brought into contact with artificially inoculated immature pear fruit/slices and transferred to healthy, mechanically wounded pear fruit/slices. After an incubation period potential transmission of bacteria was examined by evaluation of symptom expression (necrosis, ooze production). To assess the presence of bacteria on the exoskeleton of the tested bugs, all bugs were forced to walk on a semiselective nutrient agar medium. In another experiment the viability of Ea on the exoskeleton was tested -after previous contact with ooze- through washing and plating of the wash water. All experiments were conducted under optimal climatological conditions and according to quarantine standards. Results demonstrated the ability of stink bugs to transfer E. amylovora to fruit and the viability of bacteria on stink bugs externally - both under lab conditions.

  13. Reproductive characteristics of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed with an insect resistant soybean variety Características reprodutivas do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com variedade de soja resistente a insetos

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    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the insect resistant soybean genotype IAC 17 on reproductive characteristics of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae females compared to the soybean insect susceptible genotype UFV 16. Treatments were: T1 females of P. nigrispinus fed on plants of the UFV 16 and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae caterpillars reared on leaves of this variety; T2 females of P. nigrispinus fed on plants of the IAC 17 and A. gemmatalis caterpillars reared on leaves of this variety. Longevity of females, pre-oviposition, oviposition and pos-oviposition periods, number of eggs and egg masses/female, egg weight, interval between egg mass laying, number of eggs/egg mass, percentage of nymphs, number of nymphs/female and total number of prey killed/female of P. nigrispinus were evaluated. Most of the characteristics evaluated showed similar results between treatments, but the oviposition period was longer for females reared on the resistant genotype than on the susceptible one and the percentage of total females that laid eggs was lower on the IAC 17. Also, the resistant genotype caused higher mortality of P. nigrispinus females at the beginning of its adult stage and egg production by females of this predator was better spread along its adult stage with this resistant genotype. On the other hand, results suggest no effect of the resistant genotype on the offspring of this predator.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do genótipo IAC 17, resistente a insetos, nas características reprodutivas de fêmeas de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, utilizando o genótipo susceptível UFV 16 como controle. Os tratamentos foram: T1 fêmeas de P. nigrispinus alimentadas com plantas de UFV 16 e lagartas de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, criadas em folhas desta cultivar; T2 fêmeas de P. nigrispinus alimentadas com plantas de IAC

  14. Alimentação e fator de condição de peixes characidiíneos no sistema do Ribeirão Grande, Sudeste do Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1336 Feeding and condition factor of characidiin fish in Ribeirão Grande system, Southeastern Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1336

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Manoel de Souza Braga

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Os peixes foram amostrados quatro vezes em cada local, de julho de 2001 a abril de 2002: inverno (julho de 2001, primavera (outubro de 2001, verão (fevereiro de 2002 e outono (abril de 2002. Foram amostrados segmentos de cinco riachos no sistema do Ribeirão Grande (22o 47’ 08’’ S, 45o 28’ 17’’W. Coletas quantitativas foram feitas com um aparelho de pesca-elétrica ligado a um gerador com capacidade máxima de 1.500 V e 8,7 A de 600 Hz de corrente alternada. Alimentação, mudanças na gordura visceral e fator de condição foram comparados em duas espécies de characidiíneos, Characidium lauroi e C. Alipioi do sistema do Ribeirão Grande, sudeste do Brasil. Nas dietas das duas espécies ninfas de Ephemeroptera, foram registradas larvas de Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, ninfas de Plecoptera, larvas de Trichoptera (Hydroptilidae, Psychoyiidae, insetos terrestres (Coleoptera, Isoptera, Hemiptera [Heteroptera, Homoptera], larvas de Megaloptera (Corydalidae, Arachnida, Ostracoda e restos vegetais. A gordura visceral decresceu em fevereiro, coincidindo com o declínio do fator de condição em ambas as espécies. O aumento da atividade alimentar durante o verão proporciona o acúmulo de gordura. Durante as estações seguintes, esses peixes devem utilizar as reservas de gordura visceral para manutenção e reproduçãoFeeding, seasonal changes in visceral fat and condition factor were compared in two species of characidiin fishes, Characidium lauroi and C. alipioi from Ribeirão Grande system, southeastern Brazil. Five streams of Ribeirão Grande system were sampled (22o 47’ 08’’ S, 45o 28’ 17’’W. The samples were taken four times per site, from July, 2001 to April, 2002: winter (July 2001, spring (October 2001, summer (February 2002 and autumn (April 2002. Quantitative collections were made with an electro-fishing device powered by a generator with maximum capacity of 1,500 V and 8.7 A of 60 Hz alternating current

  15. Espermiogênese como ferramenta citotaxonômica para diferenciar Triatoma guazu e T. williami, espécies vetoras da doença de Chagas

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    Yago Visinho Reis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Os triatomíneos pertencem à ordem Hemiptera, subordem Heteroptera, família Reduviidae e subfamília Triatominae. Todas as 148 espécies são hematófagas estritas e potenciais vetoras do protozoário Trypanosoma cruzi, agente etiológico da doença de Chagas. Algumas espécies são extremamente semelhantes do ponto de vista morfológico, o que pode dificultar o trabalho dos programas de controle de vetores. Triatoma guazu e T. williami são consideradas como espécies irmãs e não podem ser diferenciadas por diferentes abordagens, como análises morfométricas, isoenzimáticas e cromossômicas. Assim, o presente trabalho analisou as células haplóides durante a espermiogênese, com o objetivo de auxiliar na diferenciação desses vetores. A análise das espermátides de T. guazu e T. williami permitiu diferenciá-los, pois T. williami apresentou apenas um filamento heteropicnótico nas espermátides iniciais que foi parcialmente mantido durante o alongamento celular e T. guazu apresentou dois filamentos heteropicnóticos periféricos que se uniram durante o alongamento celular, dando origem a uma espermátide alongada totalmente heteropicnótica. Assim, ressaltando a importância dessa ferramenta na diferenciação de espécies relacionadas. No entanto, sugerimos que cruzamentos híbridos experimentais devem ser realizados entre esses triatomíneos, com o intuito de confirmar o status específico desses insetos vetores da doença de Chagas.Palavras-chave: Citogenética. Espermátides. Triatominae. Subcomplexo Matogrossensis. ABSTRACT Triatomines belong to the Hemiptera order, Heteroptera suborder, Reduviidae family and Triatominae subfamily. All the 148 species are haematophagous strict and potential vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Some species are very similar from a point of view morphological, what can difficult the work of vector control programs. Triatoma guazu and T. williami are

  16. Intraguild interactions between two egg parasitoids of a true bug in semi-field and field conditions.

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    Ezio Peri

    Full Text Available Research on interspecific competitive interactions among insect parasitoids has often been characterized by laboratory studies in which host insects are exposed to female parasitoids of different species in various sequences and combinations. In the last years, an increasing number of studies have investigated interspecific interactions under field and semi-field conditions although just a few number of works focused on egg parasitoids. In this work, we undertook a two-year study to investigate interspecific interactions between Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Ooencyrtus telenomicida (Vassiliev (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, two egg parasitoids of the pest Nezara viridula (L. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae that co-occur in cultivated crops. Under semi-field (in out-door mesh cages and field conditions, we investigated: 1 the seasonal occurrence of competing parasitoid species on sentinel egg masses; 2 the impact achieved by competing species on the shared host on naturally laid egg masses; 3 the outcome of intraguild interactions under controlled conditions. Results from sentinel egg masses showed that T. basalis occurs in May and successfully parasitizes hosts until the end of September/beginning of October, whereas O. telenomicida is mainly occurring in July-August. In both years, it was found that T. basalis is predominant. From naturally laid egg masses, results indicated that T. basalis achieves higher impact on the hosts, even in those egg masses which are parasitized by more than one female of different species ( =  multiparasitism. Results from manipulating intraguild interactions showed that T. basalis achieves higher impact on N. viridula when released alone, but it suffers from competition with O. telenomicida. The ecological factors that play a role in intraguild interactions in the context of biological control perspective are discussed.

  17. Is Response to Fire Influenced by Dietary Specialization and Mobility? A Comparative Study with Multiple Animal Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bros, Vicenç; Brotons, Lluís; De Mas, Eva; Herraiz, Joan A.; Herrando, Sergi; Miño, Àngel; Olmo-Vidal, Josep M.; Quesada, Javier; Ribes, Jordi; Sabaté, Santiago; Sauras-Yera, Teresa; Serra, Antoni; Vallejo, V. Ramón; Viñolas, Amador

    2014-01-01

    Fire is a major agent involved in landscape transformation and an indirect cause of changes in species composition. Responses to fire may vary greatly depending on life histories and functional traits of species. We have examined the taxonomic and functional responses to fire of eight taxonomic animal groups displaying a gradient of dietary and mobility patterns: Gastropoda, Heteroptera, Formicidae, Coleoptera, Araneae, Orthoptera, Reptilia and Aves. The fieldwork was conducted in a Mediterranean protected area on 3 sites (one unburnt and two burnt with different postfire management practices) with five replicates per site. We collected information from 4606 specimens from 274 animal species. Similarity in species composition and abundance between areas was measured by the Bray-Curtis index and ANOSIM, and comparisons between animal and plant responses by Mantel tests. We analyze whether groups with the highest percentage of omnivorous species, these species being more generalist in their dietary habits, show weak responses to fire (i.e. more similarity between burnt and unburnt areas), and independent responses to changes in vegetation. We also explore how mobility, i.e. dispersal ability, influences responses to fire. Our results demonstrate that differences in species composition and abundance between burnt and unburnt areas differed among groups. We found a tendency towards presenting lower differences between areas for groups with higher percentages of omnivorous species. Moreover, taxa with a higher percentage of omnivorous species had significantly more independent responses of changes in vegetation. High- (e.g. Aves) and low-mobility (e.g. Gastropoda) groups had the strongest responses to fire (higher R scores of the ANOSIM); however, we failed to find a significant general pattern with all the groups according to their mobility. Our results partially support the idea that functional traits underlie the response of organisms to environmental changes caused

  18. Comunidades de insectos acuáticos de charcos temporarios y lagunas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina Aquatic insect communities of temporary pools and permanent ponds in Buenos Aires City (Argentina

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    María S. Fontanarrosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la comunidad de insectos acuáticos presente en charcos temporarios de parques y plazas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y en lagunas permanentes de la Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur, situada en la ribera del Río de la Plata. Se revisaron 3436 charcos y se visitaron, en 149 oportunidades, seis lagunas de la reserva. Para el conjunto de ambientes, se registraron 85 taxones pertenecientes a cinco órdenes de insectos. Los coleópteros fueron los más diversos (36 taxones, seguidos por los dípteros (27, heterópteros (17, odonatos (4 y efemerópteros (1. Se observaron altos valores de riqueza en los charcos temporarios (58 taxones y las lagunas sin vegetación flotante (64 taxones. La diversidad estimada de los charcos temporarios fue significativamente (pWe studied the community of aquatic insects inhabiting both temporary pools and permanent ponds occuring in Buenos Aires City. A total of 3436 rain pools were examined, and six permanent ponds at the "Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur" in the Río de la Plata riverside were visited 149 times. A total of 85 taxa were recorded from both habitats, included in five orders of Insecta. The order Coleoptera showed the highest diversity values (36 taxa, followed by Diptera (27, Heteroptera (17, Odonata (4, and Ephemeroptera (1. High values of richness were observed in temporary pools (58 taxa and permanent ponds without floating vegetation (64 taxa. The diversity index for temporary ponds was significantly (p<0,05 lower than in permanent habitats.

  19. 赣南师范学院(黄金校区)访花昆虫物种多样性研究%Species Diversity of Flower-Visiting Insects at Huangjin Main Campus of Gannan Normal University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐家生; 王茜

    2012-01-01

    为了解赣南师范学院黄金校区访花昆虫种类,笔者于2010年10月-2011年10月开花期间在校园内采用随机取样和系统取样法,以网捕和手捕方式采集访花昆虫并进行鉴定.结果表明:师院校园共有访花昆虫135种,分属于7目,39科.从目级分类阶元物种数量水平上分析,鳞翅目〉膜翅目〉鞘翅目〉双翅目〉半翅目〉蜻蜓目〉同翅目,其中优势访花昆虫种类为意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera)、黑带食蚜蝇(Episyrphus baheatus)和异色瓢虫(Harmonia axyidis).%Flower-visiting insects include pollinators, natural enemies and herbivores on flowers. In order to understand their species composition at Huangjin Campus of Gannan Normal University, flower-visiting insects were collected by net or by hand through the way of random sampling and systematic sampling durying October 2010 to October 2011. Totally 135 species were collected, which belongs to 39 fam- ilies, 7 orders. The species number of each insect order are ordered as follows: Lepidoptera " Hymenoptera " Coleoptera " Diptera " Heteroptera " Odonata " Homoptera; while Apis mellifera ,Episyrphus baheatus and Harmonia axyidis are the dominant species on the campus.

  20. Preference and Prey Switching in a Generalist Predator Attacking Local and Invasive Alien Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Coline C.; Bompard, Anaïs; Genies, Laure; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae) when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage) may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology), the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato. PMID:24312646

  1. The effects of thermal acclimation on lethal temperatures and critical thermal limits in the green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

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    Pol eChanthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to geographical distribution, Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae can be found across tropical, subtropical and temperate regions and this pattern is assumed to reflect differences in thermal adaptation, particularly in cold tolerance. Here the lethal temperature and critical thermal limits (thermal tolerance are examined for N. viridula. The upper lethal temperature for N. viridula at two contrasting climate locations (Breeza and Grafton, New South Wales, Australia was 40.3ºC with 20% survival under the stress of high temperature. The lower lethal temperature did not differ between these two populations and was -8.0ºC with 20% survival under low temperature stress. Survival of N. viridula increased after acclimation at high temperature for seven days. In contrast, when acclimated at lower temperatures (10 and 15ºC, survival of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula was lower than 20% at -8.0ºC.Control-reared N. viridula adults (25ºC had a mean CTMinOnset (cold stupor of 1.3 ± 2.1ºC and a mean CTMax (heat coma of 45.9 ± 0.9ºC. After 7 days of acclimation at 10, 20, 30, or 35ºC, N. viridula adults exhibited a 1ºC change in CTMax and a ~ 1.5ºC change in CTMinOnset. CTMax and CTMinOnset of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula populations did not differ across acclimation temperatures. These results suggest that short-term temperature acclimation is more important than provenance for determining lethal temperatures and critical thermal limits in N. viridula.

  2. Double strand RNA delivery system for plant-sap-feeding insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saikat Kumar B; Hunter, Wayne B; Park, Alexis L; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E

    2017-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing, also known as RNA interference (RNAi), has been a breakthrough technology for functional genomic studies and represents a potential tool for the management of insect pests. Since the inception of RNAi numerous studies documented successful introduction of exogenously synthesized dsRNA or siRNA into an organism triggering highly efficient gene silencing through the degradation of endogenous RNA homologous to the presented siRNA. Managing hemipteran insect pests, especially Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is critical to food productivity. BMSB was recently introduced into North America where it is both an invasive agricultural pest of high value specialty, row, and staple crops, as well as an indoor nuisance pest. RNAi technology may serve as a viable tool to manage this voracious pest, but delivery of dsRNA to piercing-sucking insects has posed a tremendous challenge. Effective and practical use of RNAi as molecular biopesticides for biocontrol of insects like BMSB in the environment requires that dsRNAs be delivered in vivo through ingestion. Therefore, the key challenge for molecular biologists in developing insect-specific molecular biopesticides is to find effective and reliable methods for practical delivery of stable dsRNAs such as through oral ingestion. Here demonstrated is a reliable delivery system of effective insect-specific dsRNAs through oral feeding through a new delivery system to induce a significant decrease in expression of targeted genes such as JHAMT and Vg. This state-of-the-art delivery method overcomes environmental delivery challenges so that RNAi is induced through insect-specific dsRNAs orally delivered to hemipteran and other insect pests.

  3. The effects of thermal acclimation on lethal temperatures and critical thermal limits in the green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthy, Pol; Martin, Robert J; Gunning, Robin V; Andrew, Nigel R

    2012-01-01

    According to geographical distribution, Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) can be found across tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions and this pattern is assumed to reflect differences in thermal adaptation, particularly in cold tolerance. Here the lethal temperature (LT) and critical thermal limits (CTL) (thermal tolerance) are examined for N. viridula. The upper LT for N. viridula at two contrasting climate locations (Breeza and Grafton, New South Wales, Australia) was 40.3°C with 20% survival under the stress of high temperature. The lower LT did not differ between these two populations and was -8.0°C with 20% survival under low temperature stress. Survival of N. viridula increased after acclimation at high temperature for 7 days. In contrast, when acclimated at lower temperatures (10 and 15°C), survival of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula was lower than 20% at -8.0°C. Control-reared N. viridula adults (25°C) had a mean CT(MinOnset) (cold stupor) of 1.3 ± 2.1°C and a mean CT(Max) (heat coma) of 45.9 ± 0.9°C. After 7 days of acclimation at 10, 20, 30, or 35°C, N. viridula adults exhibited a 1°C change in CT(Max) and a ~1.5°C change in CT(MinOnset). CT(Max) and CT(MinOnset) of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula populations did not differ across acclimation temperatures. These results suggest that short-term temperature acclimation is more important than provenance for determining LTs and CTL in N. viridula.

  4. Field trials of aggregation pheromones for the stink bugs Chlorochroa uhleri and Chlorochroa sayi (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Jocelyn G; McBrien, Heather M; McElfresh, J Steven

    2010-10-01

    In field trials, adult Chlorochroa uhleri (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of both sexes were caught in significant numbers in cylindrical screen traps baited with gray rubber septum lures loaded with the main component of the male-produced pheromone, methyl (E)-6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate. Addition of the two possible minor components of the pheromone, methyl (E)-5-2,6,10-trimethyl-5,9-undecadienoate and methyl (2E,6E)-farnesoate, did not affect attraction. Combining the pheromone with different concentrations of volatiles mimicking the odors of a known host plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), had no significant effect on attraction of adult bugs, whereas combining the pheromone with the pheromones of two sympatric stink bug species, Chlorochroa sayi (Stål) and Euschistus conspersus Uhler, decreased trap captures, suggesting interference between the pheromones. Small numbers of Chlorochroa ligata (Say) adults also were attracted, but numbers caught were too low to allow statistical comparisons between lure blends. In field trials with C. sayi, all three of the male-specific pheromone compounds [methyl geranate, methyl citronellate, and methyl (E) -6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate] were required for optimal attraction. As with C. uhleri, adults of both sexes were attracted to pheromone lures in approximately equal numbers. Because of the decreased volatility (=release rate) of methyl (E)-6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate in comparison with the other two, lower molecular weight pheromone components, lures needed to be loaded with a disproportionately high amount of methyl (E)-6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate to obtain the best trap catch. There was no indication that the pheromone components of C. uhleri or E. conspersus interfered with the attractiveness of the C. sayi pheromone in lures containing a blend of all three pheromones.

  5. Double strand RNA delivery system for plant-sap-feeding insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saikat Kumar B.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Park, Alexis L.; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E.

    2017-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing, also known as RNA interference (RNAi), has been a breakthrough technology for functional genomic studies and represents a potential tool for the management of insect pests. Since the inception of RNAi numerous studies documented successful introduction of exogenously synthesized dsRNA or siRNA into an organism triggering highly efficient gene silencing through the degradation of endogenous RNA homologous to the presented siRNA. Managing hemipteran insect pests, especially Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is critical to food productivity. BMSB was recently introduced into North America where it is both an invasive agricultural pest of high value specialty, row, and staple crops, as well as an indoor nuisance pest. RNAi technology may serve as a viable tool to manage this voracious pest, but delivery of dsRNA to piercing-sucking insects has posed a tremendous challenge. Effective and practical use of RNAi as molecular biopesticides for biocontrol of insects like BMSB in the environment requires that dsRNAs be delivered in vivo through ingestion. Therefore, the key challenge for molecular biologists in developing insect-specific molecular biopesticides is to find effective and reliable methods for practical delivery of stable dsRNAs such as through oral ingestion. Here demonstrated is a reliable delivery system of effective insect-specific dsRNAs through oral feeding through a new delivery system to induce a significant decrease in expression of targeted genes such as JHAMT and Vg. This state-of-the-art delivery method overcomes environmental delivery challenges so that RNAi is induced through insect-specific dsRNAs orally delivered to hemipteran and other insect pests. PMID:28182760

  6. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly.

  7. St. Augustine grass germplasm resistant to Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Katharine M; Milla-Lewis, Susana R; Brandenburg, Rick L; Cardoza, Yasmin J

    2014-08-01

    St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze) is an economically important turfgrass in the southeastern United States. However, this turf species is prone to southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber (Heteroptera: Blissidae) outbreaks. This insect is the most destructive pest of St. Augustine grass wherever this turf grass is grown. Host plant resistance has historically been an effective management tool for southern chinch bug. Since 1973, the 'Floratam' St. Augustine grass cultivar effectively controlled southern chinch bug in the southeast. However, southern chinch bug populations from Florida and Texas have now circumvented this resistance, through mechanisms still unknown. Therefore, identifying and deploying new cultivars with resistance to the southern chinch bug is imperative to combat this pest in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. Currently, the number of cultivars with resistance against southern chinch bug is limited, and their efficacy, climatic adaptability, and aesthetic characters are variable. Hence, the main focus of this study is the identification of alternative sources of resistance to southern chinch bugs in previously uncharacterized St. Augustine grass plant introductions (PIs) and its closely related, crossbreeding species, Pembagrass (Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) Brongniart). The PIs exhibited a wide range of responses to southern chinch bug feeding, as indicated by damage ratings. Damage ratings for seven PIs grouped with our resistant reference cultivars. Moreover, nine PIs exhibited antibiosis, based on poor development of southern chinch bug neonates, when compared with our susceptible reference cultivars. Altogether our study has produced strong support to indicate these materials are good candidates for future southern chinch bug resistance breeding in St. Augustine grass.

  8. Effects of vegetated field borders on arthropods in cotton fields in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E; Bradley, J R

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurred. Early season thrips populations appeared to be unaffected by the presence of a border. Pitfall sampling disclosed no differences in ground-dwelling predaceous arthropods but did detect increased populations of crickets around fields with borders. Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations were too low during the study to adequately assess border effects. Heliothines, Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), egg numbers and damage rates were largely unaffected by the presence or absence of a border, although in one instance egg numbers were significantly lower in fields with borders. Overall, foliage-dwelling predaceous arthropods were somewhat more abundant in fields with borders than in fields without borders. Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae) were significantly more abundant in fields with borders, but stink bugs, Acrosternum hilare (Say), and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) numbers appeared to be largely unaffected by border treatment. Few taxa clearly exhibited distributional edge effects relative to the presence or absence of border vegetation. Field borders like those examined in this study likely will have little impact on insect pest management in cotton under current insect management regimens.

  9. Relationships between physical and chemical factors and aquatic macroinvertebrates in perennial streams in the arid northern mountain basin El Batinah, Oman

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    S. Boulaaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between physical properties, water chemistry and aquatic macroinvertebrates were investigated in riffles of four perennial streams in the arid northern Oman. Samples were collected monthly in autumn, winter and spring with a Surber net. Thirty two invertebrate taxa were recorded, most species are widely distributed, but few species with very restricted distribution were also captured. Diptera followed by Pulmonata, Coleoptera and Odonata were the most represented taxa, Trichoptera and Heteroptera were a significant component only in one station (the Fezeh, where the lowest mean water temperature (23°C was recorded. In the dry months from May to October, aquatic macroinvertebrates were completely absent. In order to summarise the community response some biotic indices were calculated. The highest diversity was observed in the Fezeh station. A seasonal gradient was also observed, with the highest diversity values in January, April, and December. The low faunal diversity was attributed to the high air and water temperature and the hydrological regime instability. A between station and a between month coinertia analysis was carried out, to analyse the response to spatial and seasonal factors. The first coinertia axis was correlated with altitude and substrate composition, while the second axis was correlated with air and water temperature. The present research emphasizes the urgency for preserving the less disturbed wadis in arid zones, because, despite their species poorness, their uniqueness in faunal composition requires special attention. The presence of few endemic species with very restricted distribution highlights the topicality and the value in investigating these areas, allowing the increase of our knowledge on biodiversity, ecology and biogeography about the benthic macroinvertebrates living in these extreme habitats.

  10. The 70 kDa heat shock protein assists during the repair of chilling injury in the insect, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

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    Vladimír Kostál

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pyrrhocoris apterus (Insecta: Heteroptera adults attain high levels of cold tolerance during their overwintering diapause. Non-diapause reproducing adults, however, lack the capacity to express a whole array of cold-tolerance adaptations and show relatively low survival when exposed to sub-zero temperatures. We assessed the competence of non-diapause males of P. apterus for responding to heat- and cold-stresses by up-regulation of 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsps and the role of Hsps during repair of heat- and cold-induced injury. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The fragments of P. apterus homologues of Hsp70 inducible (PaHsp70 and cognate forms (PaHsc70 were cloned and sequenced. The abundance of mRNA transcripts for the inducible form (qPCR and corresponding protein (Western blotting were significantly up-regulated in response to high and low temperature stimuli. In the cognate form, mRNA was slightly up-regulated in response to both stressors but very low or no up-regulation of protein was apparent after heat- or cold-stress, respectively. Injection of 695 bp-long Pahsp70 dsRNA (RNAi caused drastic suppression of the heat- and cold-stress-induced Pahsp70 mRNA response and the up-regulation of corresponding protein was practically eliminated. Our RNAi predictably prevented recovery from heat shock and, in addition, negatively influenced repair of chilling injuries caused by cold stress. Cold tolerance increased when the insects were first exposed to a mild heat shock, in order to trigger the up-regulation of PaHsp70, and subsequently exposed to cold stress. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that accumulation of PaHsp70 belongs to a complex cold tolerance adaptation in the insect Pyrrhocoris apterus.

  11. Phytophagy on eucalyptus plants increases the development and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae = Fitofagia em plantas de eucaliptos aumenta o desenvolvimento e a reprodução do predador Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

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    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant feeding on biological aspects of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae was evaluated. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae on Eucalyptus urophylla plants inthe field or only with pupae of this prey in the laboratory. The development and nymphal survival, as well as the pre-oviposition period, number of egg masses, number, fertility and viability of eggs and the longevity of females of this predator were evaluated. The eucalyptus plants improved the development of P. nigrispinus. This demonstrates that this predator can present higher population growth with eucalyptus plants and T. molitor pupae than in the laboratory (controlled conditions only with this prey. These plants can supply nutrients that can the population growth and efficiency of P. nigrispinus for biological control in eucalyptus plantations.O efeito da alimentação em plantas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae foi avaliado. Ninfas e adultos desse predador foram alimentados com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleotpera: Tenebrionidae em plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla no campo ou, apenas, em laboratório. O desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência ninfal desse predador, além do período de pré-oviposição, número de posturas, viabilidade dos ovos e afertilidade e longevidade de fêmeas foram avaliados. A planta de eucalipto proporcionou um incremento no desenvolvimento de P. nigrispinus. Isto demonstra que esse predador pode apresentar maior crescimento populacional com plantas de eucalipto e pupas de T. molitor alimentado com apenas a presa (condições controladas. A planta pode fornecer nutrientes que aumentam o crescimento populacional e a eficiência de P. nigrispinus para o controle biológico em plantios de eucalipto.

  12. Spread of plant pathogens and insect vectors at the northern range margin of cypress in Italy

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    Zocca, Alessia; Zanini, Corrado; Aimi, Andrea; Frigimelica, Gabriella; La Porta, Nicola; Battisti, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    The Mediterranean cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens) is a multi-purpose tree widely used in the Mediterranean region. An anthropogenic range expansion of cypress has taken place at the northern margin of the range in Italy in recent decades, driven by ornamental planting in spite of climatic constraints imposed by low winter temperature. The expansion has created new habitats for pathogens and pests, which strongly limit tree survival in the historical (core) part of the range. Based on the enemy release hypothesis, we predicted that damage should be lower in the expansion area. By comparing tree and seed cone damage by pathogens and pests in core and expansion areas of Trentino, a district in the southern Alps, we showed that tree damage was significantly higher in the core area. Seed cones of C. sempervirens are intensively colonized by an aggressive and specific pathogen (the canker fungus Seiridium cardinale, Coelomycetes), associated with seed insect vectors Megastigmus wachtli (Hymenoptera Torymidae) and Orsillus maculatus (Heteroptera Lygaeidae). In contrast, we observed lower tree damage in the expansion area, where a non-aggressive fungus ( Pestalotiopsis funerea, Coelomycetes) was more frequently associated with the same insect vectors. Our results indicate that both insect species have a great potential to reach the range margin, representing a continuous threat of the arrival of fungal pathogens to trees planted at extreme sites. Global warming may accelerate this process since both insects and fungi profit from increased temperature. In the future, cypress planted at the range margin may then face similar pest and pathogen threats as in the historical range.

  13. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em sistemas de manejo para produção de forragens no Estado do Piauí Characterization of edaphic fauna in management systems for forage production in the State of Piauí

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    Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da fauna em função da umidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo para a produção de forragens com capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, capim-Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. R. de Wit. tendo como controle uma Mata dos Cocais. A coleta da fauna foi feita utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo Pitfall em duas épocas do ano: setembro de 2007 e março de 2008, período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente. Os sistemas com capim-Tifton, capim-Tanzânia e Leucena mostraram maior número de indivíduos nos dois períodos avaliados. A queimada ocorrida no capim-Andropogon antes da primeira coleta resultou em uma redução na abundância e diversidade da fauna edáfica. Os maiores valores em riqueza, diversidade e uniformidade de fauna foram obtidos na amostragem realizada no período úmido. A mata mostrou maior diversidade e equitabilidade nos dois períodos avaliados. Em situação de estresse hídrico alguns grupos como Formicidae e Collembola predominaram nos sistemas de manejo diminuindo a uniformidade, enquanto no período úmido vários grupos mostraram boa representatividade o que favoreceu a uniformidade. A análise multivariada de componentes principais evidenciou que os sistemas com mata, capim-Tifton e capim-Tanzania e Leucena mostraram associação com vários grupos da fauna edáfica nos dois períodos avaliados enquanto que o sistema com capim-Andropogon, que sofreu queimada, apresentou afinidade apenas com o grupo Heteroptera, no período seco.The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of fauna as a function of soil moisture in different fodder-production management systems of Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, Andropogon Grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth and

  14. A taxonomic monograph of the assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): 71 species based on 10,000 specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanyang; Hart, Elwood R; Weirauch, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The New World assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius, 1803 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Harpactorini) is revised based on more than 10,000 specimens. Seventy-one species are recognized and twenty-four described as new: Zelus aithaleos sp. n., Zelus amblycephalus sp. n., Zelus antiguensis sp. n., Zelus auralanus sp. n., Zelus bahiaensis sp. n., Zelus banksi sp. n., Zelus casii sp. n., Zelus championi sp. n., Zelus cordazulus sp. n., Zelus fuliginatus sp. n., Zelus gilboventris sp. n., Zelus gracilipes sp. n., Zelus grandoculus sp. n., Zelus kartaboides sp. n., Zelus lewisi sp. n., Zelus panamensis sp. n., Zelus paracephalus sp. n., Zelus rosulentus sp. n., Zelus russulumus sp. n., Zelus spatulosus sp. n., Zelus truxali sp. n., Zelus umbraculoides sp. n., Zelus umbraculus sp. n., and Zelus xouthos sp. n. Five species, Zelus araneiformis Haviland, 1931, Zelus gradarius Bergroth, 1905, Zelus modestus (Stål, 1862), Zelus subfasciatus Stål, 1860 and Zelus vittaticeps Stål, 1866, are removed from Zelus and placed incertae sedis within Harpactorini. Nine new synonyms are recognized (senior synonym in parentheses): Zelus atripes Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus conjungens [Stål, 1860]), Zelus dispar Fabricius, 1803 syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris Fabricius, 1803), Zelus formosus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853), Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål, 1860) syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris), Zelus pallidinervus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus kartabensis Haviland, 1931), Zelus personatus Berg, 1879 syn. nov. (=Zelus versicolor Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848), Zelus trimaculatus Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus means Fabricius, 1803), Zelus trimaculicollis (Stål, 1855) syn. nov. (=Zelus means), and Zelus tristis Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis). Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860) stat. rev. Is resurrected from junior synonymy with zealous armillatus (Lepeletier & Seville, 1825). Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862 stat. rev. and Zelus

  15. 8%高效氯氟氰菊酯微乳剂对环境生物的安全性评价%Safety evaIuation of 8% Iambda-cyhaIothrin on environmentaI organisms

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    史梦竹; 李建宇; 傅建炜; 游泳; 林涛; 郑丽祯; 魏辉

    2014-01-01

    Background Lambda-cyhalothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide , targeting various insects of Lepidoptera , Coleop-tera, Heteroptera and mites .Several studies have examined the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin on single species but not on several organisms.[Method]Toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin on six species (Japanese quail, bee, silkworm, zebrafish, daphnia and earth-worm) was tested in laboratory in accordance with the criteria for chemical pesticide environmental safety assessment .[Result]Ac-cording to the data obtained from the tests, lambda-cyhalothrin had low toxicity for Eisenia fetida (32.3313 mg・ kg-1, 14 d-LC50), medium toxicity levels for Coturnix japonica (54.4762 mg・ kg-1, 7 d-LD50) and Daphnia magna (1.2716 mg・ L-1, 48 h-EC50), high toxicity for Apis mellifera (2.7391 mg・ L-1 , 48 h-LC50 ), and extremely high toxicity for Bombyx mori and Danio rerio (0.0067 mg・ L-1 and 0.0007 mg・ L-1, 96 h-LC50).[Conclusion and significance]This paper demonstrated the toxicity of lamb-da-cyhalothrin on six groups of species .%高效氯氟氰菊酯是一种拟除虫菊酯类杀虫剂,对鳞翅目、鞘翅目和半翅目等多种害虫以及螨类都有一定的防治效果。关于拟除虫菊酯类杀虫剂对某种环境生物的单一安全性评价的研究颇多,但缺乏系统的评价。根据《化学农药环境安全评价试验准则》,测定了8%高效氯氟氰菊酯微乳剂对6种非靶标环境生物鹌鹑、蜜蜂、家蚕、斑马鱼、大型溞和蚯蚓的毒性,并进行了环境安全性评价。8%高效氯氟氰菊酯微乳剂对鹌鹑的经口毒性7 d LD50为54.4762 mg・ kg-1,属中毒;对蜜蜂经口毒性的48 h LC50为2.7391 mg・ L-1,属高毒;对家蚕和斑马鱼的96 h LC50分别为0.0067和0.0007 mg・ L-1,均为剧毒;对大型溞的抑制毒性EC50(48 h)为1.2716 mg・ L-1,属中毒;对蚯蚓的14 d LC50为32.3313 mg・ kg-1,属低毒。本文明确了高效氯氟氰菊

  16. Análise citológica e cariométrica da ação da colchina sôbre a espermatogênese dos hemípteros Cytologic and caryometric analysis of the action of colchicine on the spermatogenesis in hemiptera

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    G. Schreiber

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available The action of colchicine upon the spermatogenesis of Triatoma infestans, (Hemipt. Heteroptera, has been studied and the different categories of giant spermatids that appear during the treatment have been compared with the nuclear volumes of the whole series of normal spermatogenetic stages. The following facts have been ascertained: 1 4 hours after the treatment the gonial mitotic metaphases, and the 1st. and 2nd. metaphases of meiosis are stopped. The prophasic stages of meiosis and diakynesis appear to be normal. After 9 days of treatment, all the tetrads are broken in the meiotic metaphases and the cells appear with 44 and 22 chromosomes respectively, scattered in the cytoplasm. 2 At 9 days, practically all spermatogenetic stages have disappeared except for a few cysts of spermatogonia, and practically the whole testicle is full of cysts of spermatozoa and spermatid, with some large zones of necrosis with pycnotic nuclei. The spermatids appear to be of different sizes and the statistical analysis of the nuclear volumes gives a polymodal hystogram with 4 modes, whose volumes are in the ratio of 1:2:4:8. Ripe spermatozoa seem to have a certain volume variability, that has not been possible to analyse quantitatively. All these facts confirm what DOOLEY found in the colchicinized Orthoptera testicle. 3 The caryometric analysis conducted statistically on the normal stages of the spermatogenesis (resting spermatogonia, gonial prophases, leptotene, "confused stage", diakynesis, and spermatid revealed the following facts: a Considering the volume of the resting, spermatogonia as 1, their mitotic prophases have a volume of 2. Some rare prophases appear to have a volume of 4 and probably belong to tetraployd spermatogonia normally present in the testicle of Hemiptera. b The first spermatocyte at the beginning of the auxocitary growth (leptotene has a volume of 2, which is equal to that of them gonial prophase. It grows further during the "confused