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Sample records for albicans early stage

  1. Pathological analysis of the Candida albicans-infected tongue tissues of a murine oral candidiasis model in the early infection stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masashi; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Miyasaka, Takahiro; Abe, Shigeru; Satoh, Tazuko

    2013-04-01

    The early pathological process of Candida infection and immunological responses in tongues of the mice with experimental oral candidiasis was analysed. CD-1 mice, pretreated by prednisolone were orally inoculated with Candida albicans. Symptoms were monitored by measuring the area of white tongue coating and number of viable Candida cells in oral cavity. The histopathological analysis was carried by PAS-stain and immunofluorescent staining. IL-4, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α in recovered from the homogenates of the tongues were measured by ELISA. The fungus invaded the tongue surface of the mice and white patches developed within 24h after inoculation. Histopathological examination indicated the presence of local acute inflammation in superficial tissues of tongues covered by mycelium of C. albicans. Pathological exacerbation was observed from 24 to 48 h after the inoculation and from then the symptoms of oral candidiasis appeared to move into the recovery phase. Inflammatory cells mainly consisting of neutrophils was accumulated and located under the lesions covered by Candida-hyphae. An increase in IL-12p70 and IFN-γ in tongue homogenates was observed at 48 h after inoculation. The worst condition in the pathological process in experimental oral candidiasis was found 48 h after C. albicans inoculation. When the surface of the Candida-inoculated tongues was covered with Candida-hyphae, a dense accumulation of neutrophils was observed under the lesions and homogenates of the tongues contained increased levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ. These suggested that local pathological condition of Candida-infected tongues may be affected by neutrophils accumulation and increased levels of some cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. May one-stage exchange for Candida albicans peri-prosthetic infection be successful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, J-Y; Goukodadja, O; Boeri, C; Gaudias, J

    2016-02-01

    Fungal infection of a total joint arthroplasty has a low incidence but is generally considered as more difficult to cure than bacterial infection. As for bacterial infection, two-stage exchange is considered as the gold standard of treatment. We report two cases of one-stage total joint exchange for fungal peri-prosthetic infection with Candida albicans, where the responsible pathogens was only identified on intraoperative samples. This situation can be considered as a one-stage exchange for fungal peri-prosthetic infection without preoperative identification of the responsible organism, which is considered as having a poor prognosis. Both cases were free of infection after two years. One-stage revision has several potential advantages over two-stage revision, including shorter hospital stay and rehabilitation, no interim period with significant functional impairment, shorter antibiotic treatment, better functional outcome and probably lower costs. We suggest that one-stage revision for C. albicans peri-prosthetic infection may be successful even without preoperative fungal identification. Level IV-Historical cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  4. Stage-specific sampling by pattern recognition receptors during Candida albicans phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid E M Heinsbroek

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a medically important pathogen, and recognition by innate immune cells is critical for its clearance. Although a number of pattern recognition receptors have been shown to be involved in recognition and phagocytosis of this fungus, the relative role of these receptors has not been formally examined. In this paper, we have investigated the contribution of the mannose receptor, Dectin-1, and complement receptor 3; and we have demonstrated that Dectin-1 is the main non-opsonic receptor involved in fungal uptake. However, both Dectin-1 and complement receptor 3 were found to accumulate at the site of uptake, while mannose receptor accumulated on C. albicans phagosomes at later stages. These results suggest a potential role for MR in phagosome sampling; and, accordingly, MR deficiency led to a reduction in TNF-alpha and MCP-1 production in response to C. albicans uptake. Our data suggest that pattern recognition receptors sample the fungal phagosome in a sequential fashion.

  5. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  6. The novel Candida albicans transporter Dur31 Is a multi-stage pathogenicity factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François L Mayer

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most frequent cause of oral fungal infections. However, the exact pathogenicity mechanisms that this fungus employs are largely unknown and many of the genes expressed during oral infection are uncharacterized. In this study we sought to functionally characterize 12 previously unknown function genes associated with oral candidiasis. We generated homozygous knockout mutants for all 12 genes and analyzed their interaction with human oral epithelium in vitro. Eleven mutants caused significantly less epithelial damage and, of these, deletion of orf19.6656 (DUR31 elicited the strongest reduction in pathogenicity. Interestingly, DUR31 was not only involved in oral epithelial damage, but in multiple stages of candidiasis, including surviving attack by human neutrophils, endothelial damage and virulence in vivo. In silico analysis indicated that DUR31 encodes a sodium/substrate symporter with 13 transmembrane domains and no human homologue. We provide evidence that Dur31 transports histatin 5. This is one of the very first examples of microbial driven import of this highly cytotoxic antimicrobial peptide. Also, in contrast to wild type C. albicans, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to actively increase local environmental pH, suggesting that Dur31 lies in the extracellular alkalinization hyphal auto-induction pathway; and, indeed, DUR31 was required for morphogenesis. In agreement with this observation, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to assimilate the polyamine spermidine.

  7. The Novel Candida albicans Transporter Dur31 Is a Multi-Stage Pathogenicity Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, François L.; Wilson, Duncan; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Miramón, Pedro; Große, Katharina; Hube, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent cause of oral fungal infections. However, the exact pathogenicity mechanisms that this fungus employs are largely unknown and many of the genes expressed during oral infection are uncharacterized. In this study we sought to functionally characterize 12 previously unknown function genes associated with oral candidiasis. We generated homozygous knockout mutants for all 12 genes and analyzed their interaction with human oral epithelium in vitro. Eleven mutants caused significantly less epithelial damage and, of these, deletion of orf19.6656 (DUR31) elicited the strongest reduction in pathogenicity. Interestingly, DUR31 was not only involved in oral epithelial damage, but in multiple stages of candidiasis, including surviving attack by human neutrophils, endothelial damage and virulence in vivo. In silico analysis indicated that DUR31 encodes a sodium/substrate symporter with 13 transmembrane domains and no human homologue. We provide evidence that Dur31 transports histatin 5. This is one of the very first examples of microbial driven import of this highly cytotoxic antimicrobial peptide. Also, in contrast to wild type C. albicans, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to actively increase local environmental pH, suggesting that Dur31 lies in the extracellular alkalinization hyphal auto-induction pathway; and, indeed, DUR31 was required for morphogenesis. In agreement with this observation, dur31Δ/Δ was unable to assimilate the polyamine spermidine. PMID:22438810

  8. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  9. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on C. albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions. PMID:26276374

  10. Early-stage mantle cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabaja, B S; Zelenetz, A D; Ng, A K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) rarely presents as early-stage disease, but clinical observations suggest that patients who present with early-stage disease may have better outcomes than those with advanced-stage disease. Patients and methods: In this 13-institution study, we examined...

  11. Radical surgery for early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. Due to an effective screening programme, in the Netherlands cervical cancer is often detected in early stages of disease. For early stage (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB/IIA) cervical

  12. Early stages of technology intensive companies

    OpenAIRE

    Muhos, M. (Matti)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to clarify the early development stages of technology intensive companies. The current literature does not offer an extensive review of stage perspectives for company growth – the overall picture of the field is somewhat vague. The evolution of this field remains unclear as well as the current state. Further, recent empirical stage models focusing on technology intensive companies have not been delineated. As companies move through their early stages, they face ev...

  13. Distinct stages during colonization of the mouse gastrointestinal tract by Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePrieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a member of the human microbiota, colonizing both the vaginal and gastrointestinal tracts. This yeast is devoid of a life style outside the human body and the mechanisms underlying the adaptation to the commensal status remain to be determined. Using a model of mouse gastrointestinal colonization, we show here that C. albicans stably colonizes the mouse gut in about 3 days starting from a dose as low as 100 cells, reaching steady levels of around 107 cells/g of stools. Using fluorescent labeled strains we have assessed the competition between isogenic populations from different sources in cohoused animals. We show that long term (15 days colonizing cells have increased fitness in the gut niche over those grown in vitro or residing in the gut for 1-3 days. Therefore, two distinct states, proliferation and adaptation, seem to exist in the adaptation of this fungus to the mouse gut, a result with potential significance in the prophylaxis and treatment of Candida infections.

  14. Gene expression in early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, Petra; Buist, Marrije R.; Moerland, Perry D.; van Thernaat, Emiel Ver Loren; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Baas, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Pelvic lymph node metastases are the main prognostic factor for survival in early stage cervical cancer, yet accurate detection methods before surgery are lacking. In this study, we examined whether gene expression profiling can predict the presence of lymph node metastasis in early stage

  15. Systemic non-albicans infections presented as meningitis in chronic hepatitis B patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jing Lv; Hui Bu; Jun-Ying He; Ran-Ran Sun; Yue-Li Zou

    2014-01-01

    Non-albicans candida meningitis is a relatively rare disease, with nonspecific clinical manifestation, which makes the misdiagnosis occur sometimes, especially in the early stage of the disease. Abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, central vein cannulas, senility, big operation, malignancy, and total parenteral alimentation were all the susceptible factors of non-albicans candida infection. We present a case of this type of non-albicans infection in a 42-year-old woman who wa...

  16. Radiotherapy in early stage dupuytren's contracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamietz, B.; Sauer, R.; Gruenert, J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: In early stage Dupuytren's contracture radiotherapy was applied to prevent disease progression. Long-term results and late toxicity of this treatment were evaluated in a retrospective analysis. Patients and Methods: Between 1982 and 1994, 99 patients (176 hands) received orthovoltage radiotherapy, which consisted of two courses with 5 x 3 Gy (total dose: 30 Gy, daily fractionated; 120 kV, 4 mm Al), separated by a 6 to 8-week pause. The Dupuytren's contracture was staged according to the classification of Tubiana et al. The long-term outcome was analyzed at last follow-up between July and November 1999. The median follow-up was 10 years (range 7-18 years). Late toxicity was assessed using the LENT-SOMA criteria. Results: In Stage N 84% and Stage N/I 67% of cases remained stable. 65% of the cases in Stage I and 83% in Stage II showed progressive nodules and cords. In case of progression we saw no complications after a second radiotherapy or salvage operation. Conclusion: Radiotherapy effectively prevents disease progression for early stage Dupuytren's contracture (Stage N, N/I). Moreover, in case of disease progression despite radiotherapy salvage surgery is still feasible. (orig.) [de

  17. Fluorescence photodiagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Sakai, H.; Konaka, C.; Okunaka, T.; Furukawa, K.; Saito, Y.; Aizawa, K.; Hayata, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Sputum cytology examination is the most effective method to detect early stage central type squamous cell carcinoma. As sputum-positive early stage lung cancer usually does not show any abnormal findings on chest X-ray film, fiberoptic bronchoscopy is subsequently performed for localization. However, sometimes cases do not show any abnormal findings of cancer endoscopically because they are very early stage cases. For the purpose of localization of invisible lesions the photodynamic reaction was employed in this study. Photodynamic reaction is achieved by transfer of energy of an excited photo-sensitizer induced by photoradiation of light. This phenomenon was already recognized in the beginning of this century. Study of tumor localization of the bronchial tree using hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) and a mercury arc lamp was first performed in the Mayo Clinic in 1960s. In 1978, krypton laser was used first as a light source by Profio and Doiron. Authors have been doing research on early localization of such endoscopically occult early lung cancer since 1978. They recently developed an image processing system using an excimer dye laser for early localization of lung cancer. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. [Treatment of early stage Hodgkin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.

    1993-01-01

    indicate that we still do not definitively know whether or not the early addition of prophylactic chemotherapy improves survival. Arguments in favour of early chemotherapy are: that laparotomy may be avoided, that radiation fields and doses may perhaps be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing...... a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against early chemotherapy is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may be kept at a minimum. Recently, trials have been carried out...

  19. Larynx cancer in early stages: bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umana Herrera, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    A bibliographical analysis on the subject of early laryngeal cancer (neoplams staged as Tis, T1-T2 N0) was carried out through a bibliographic review of updated articles. The anatomy, epidemiology, generalities, clinical presentation and behavior of cancer were described. The biopsy, the clinical history, the physical examination and radiodiagnostic studies are used for a correct staging and according to the stage, to select the appropriate treatment. Treatment modalities and prescription dose for this type of cancer are compared and explained. The locoregional evaluation of glottic cancer is performed by Computed Axial Tomography (CAT), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Ultrasound (US) and Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET/CT). CAT and NMR have shown to be more accurate in the evaluation of glottic larynx cancer compared with clinical endoscopic examination alone. CAT, NMR, US and PET/CT were clearly more sensitive and specific in the assessment of the neck that only palpation. The preservation of the voice is an important parameter in choosing a therapeutic modality. Radiotherapy has proven to be the most used and known treatment. Radiation therapy with Cobalt 60 is commonly used in Costa Rica for the treatment of early larynx cancer [es

  20. Early stage cervical cancer of the uterine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneyasu, Yuuko; Fujiwara, Hisaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the present state of radiotherapy (RT) of early stage cervical cancer involving the history, outcomes of clinical trials, procedure for each stage, irradiation methods, concurrent chemo-RT (CCRT), late adverse events, and QOL after RT. It has a history of >100 years from the brachytherapy with radium, but is not yet completely established even now. There are many RT trials hitherto. Retrospectively, no significant difference is seen in outcomes of radical RT and surgery: 80-90% efficacy for stage I and 60-80% for II in the former, respectively, and 80-96% and 65-80%, in the latter. Between RT and surgery, there is a report of randomized comparative study in Italy. In Japan, reported are comparative outcomes based on patients' choice for therapy, retrospective studies including authors' one, prospective multi-institutional cooperative trials by Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group, and Treatment Guidelines for Cervical Cancer (2007). RT procedure depends on the stage defined by FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) and at stages I-II, intracavitary RT is major with optimal dose 29 Gy/5 fractions for I, and 23/4 Gy with external total pelvic radiation 50 Gy for II. In external radiation, the planning target volume includes the whole pelvic field with 1.8-2 Gy/5 weeks and optionally, the extended field when metastasis suspicious. Intracavitary RT with application device in the uterine is of significance for the cancer as 50% complete cure even in stage III is reported. CCRT brings about good prognosis, which is shown in a Japanese trial to compare postoperative RT alone and CCRT with CDDP and 5-FU. The late adverse events are seen mainly in the large bowel and studies of QOL, an important factor for choice of treatment, are now in progress. (T.T.)

  1. Radiotherapy of early stage glottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Chai, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the role of curative radiotherapy and salvage surgery in patients with T1, T2 glottic cancer. Between June 1989 and December 1994, 23 patients with early glottic cancer, 18 with T1N0M0 and 5 with T2N0M0, were treated with radiotherapy at Gyeongsang University Hospital. All patients were male. Median follow-up period was 46 months, and 100% were observed for at least 3 years. Actuarial survival rates at 5 years were 84.3% for 23 patients. The 5-year actuarial survival rates were 94.4% for T1 and 53.3% for T2 (P=0.05). The 5-year local control rates was 70.0% for T1 and 60.0% for T2 (P=0.44). Of 8 patients with treatment failure, 6 patients (75.0%) were salvaged with surgery. After surgical salvage, the 5-year local control rates were 87.2% for T1 and 80.0% for T2 (p=0.55). In early stage (Stage I and II) glottic cancer, curative radiotherapy can be a treatment of choice and surgery reserved for salvage of radiotherapy failure. (author)

  2. Hemodynamic characteristics of early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Masatoshi; Tomita, Shusuke; Tochio, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Hemodynamic characteristics were studied by using in vivo vascular imaging techniques in 17 resected early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (e-HCC) by comparing them with 49 resected advanced HCCs (ad-HCC) less than 3 cm in diameter. In this study, e-HCC was defined as the nodule being uniformly composed of well-differentiated HCC or adenomatous hyperplastic nodule containing well-differentiated HCC foci within the nodule. In vivo vascular imaging techniques are as follows; US angiography with intraarterial CO 2 microbubbles were performed to assess the tumor arterial vascularity, and CT during arterial portography (CTAP) was performed to assess the portal perfusion within the nodule. Of 17 e-HCC nodules 5 were hypervascular, 5 were isovascular, 4 were hypovascular, and 3 were vascular spot in hypovascular pattern in contrast to 49 ad-HCC nodules, 43 of which were hypervascular and 6 were isovascular. Of 14 e-HCCs, 9 nodules showed perfusion defect and 5 did not on CTAP, whereas all 37 ad-HCCs on which CTAP was performed, showed perfusion defect. Forty-one percent (7/17) of e-HCC showed fatty metamorphosis in contrast to 8% (4/49) of ad-HCC. In conclusion, hemodynamic characteristics of e-HCC are summarized as follows. (1) Arterial tumor neovascularization is relatively low. (2) Portal perfusion is present in some of e-HCC cases. (3) Hypoperfusion state both from arterial and portal supply is present in some of e-HCC cases. (4) Vascular spot in hypovascular pattern is characteristic arterial pattern in AH containing HCC foci. (5) Fatty metamorphosis may be related with hypoperfusion state of the nodule in e-HCC. (author)

  3. Preoperative PET/CT in early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M; Berthelsen, A K; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer.......The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer....

  4. Streptococcus mutans competence-stimulating peptide inhibits Candida albicans hypha formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Lucja M; Deng, Dong Mei; van der Mei, Henny C; Crielaard, Wim; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2009-11-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the human oral cavity, where it interacts with S. mutans. C. albicans is a polymorphic fungus, and the yeast-to-hypha transition is involved in virulence and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to investigate interkingdom communication between C. albicans and S. mutans based on the production of secreted molecules. S. mutans UA159 inhibited C. albicans germ tube (GT) formation in cocultures even when physically separated from C. albicans. Only S. mutans spent medium collected in the early exponential phase (4-h-old cultures) inhibited the GT formation of C. albicans. During this phase, S. mutans UA159 produces a quorum-sensing molecule, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP). The role of CSP in inhibiting GT formation was confirmed by using synthetic CSP and a comC deletion strain of S. mutans UA159, which lacks the ability to produce CSP. Other S. mutans strains and other Streptococcus spp. also inhibited GT formation but to different extents, possibly reflecting differences in CSP amino acid sequences among Streptococcus spp. or differences in CSP accumulation in the media. In conclusion, CSP, an S. mutans quorum-sensing molecule secreted during the early stages of growth, inhibits the C. albicans morphological switch.

  5. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects w...

  6. In Vitro Study on the Adhesion and Colonization of Candida Albicans on Metal and Acrylic Piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenov N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral/perioral piercing may provide an ideal environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to perform an “in vitro” research on the capabilities of adhesion of Candida albicans on oral piercings made of plastic and metal. Acrylic and metal piercings were incubated with Candida albicans and then were observed using scanning electron microscopy under different magnifications. A lot of irregularities and roughness were observed on the surface of the plastic piercing unlike the surface of the metal one, which is not so rough. Nevertheless, the number of Candida albicans colonies was considerably larger on the scanned metal surface in comparison to the plastic surface. In vitro the metal surface of the piercing creates better environment for the adhesion and colonization of microorganisms than the acrylic. This could be attributed to the electrostatic forces that most likely attract Candida albicans to the metal piercing in the early stages of biofilm formation.

  7. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.

    1992-01-01

    be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against the use of chemotherapy up front is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may...... metaanalysis of these trials indicate that we still do not definitively know whether or not the addition of prophylactic chemotherapy up front improves survival. Arguments in favour of the addition of chemotherapy up front are: that laparotomy may be avoided, that radiation fields and doses may perhaps...

  8. RESEARCH OF EARLY STAGES OF MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In represented article the questions of estimate of accuracy of an average integral characteristics of random process in the course of imitation modeling is considered. For the purposes of analytical treatment of initial stage of modeling a conditionally nonstationary Gaussian process is analyzed as stationary Gaussian process with boundary prehistory. A model of approximant autocorrelation function is recommended. Analytical expression for variance and mathematical expectation of average integral estimation are obtained. Statistical estimation efficiency criterion, the probability of belonging to correct parameter interval is introduced. Dependences of closeness in estimation statistics clearing interval at transient behavior are researched for various types of processes.

  9. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Carde, P; Mauch, P

    1992-01-01

    metaanalysis of these trials indicate that we still do not definitively know whether or not the addition of prophylactic chemotherapy up front improves survival. Arguments in favour of the addition of chemotherapy up front are: that laparotomy may be avoided, that radiation fields and doses may perhaps...... be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against the use of chemotherapy up front is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may...

  10. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  11. Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Coconut Oil, Probiotics, and Ketoconazole on Candida albicans Isolated in Children with Early Childhood Caries: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Shino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early childhood caries (ECC is associated with early colonisation and high levels of cariogenic microorganisms. With C. albicans being one of those, there is a need to determine the effectiveness of various chemotherapeutic agents against it. The study is aimed at isolating Candida species in children with ECC and at studying the antifungal effect of coconut oil, probiotics, Lactobacillus, and 0.2% chlorhexidine on C. albicans in comparison with ketoconazole. Materials and Methods. Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs, swabbed on the tooth surfaces from children with ECC of 3 to 6 yrs and streaked on Sabouraud dextrose agar (HI Media plates and incubated in a 5% CO2 enriched atmosphere at 37°C for 24 hours. Candida was isolated and its susceptibility to probiotics, chlorhexidine, ketoconazole, and coconut oil was determined using Disc Diffusion method. Results. The mean zone of inhibition for chlorhexidine was 21.8 mm, whereas for coconut oil it was 16.8 mm, for probiotics it was 13.5 mm, and for ketoconazole it was 22.3 mm. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant (Chi-square value 7.42, P value 0.06. Conclusion. Chlorhexidine and coconut oil have shown significant antifungal activity which is comparable with ketoconazole.

  12. [Cognitive rehabilitation in early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, E; Thöne-Otto, A; Bürger, K; Schröder, S G; Hoffmann, W; Schneider, W; Teipel, S

    2016-07-01

    Dementia impairs the coping with routine daily tasks and social relationships due to an increasing degeneration of cognitive abilities. An appropriate treatment must adequately consider the effects of declined cognitive abilities on patients and their environment. Therefore, in recent times, integrative procedures for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) have become increasingly important for the therapy of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia (MD). CR approaches provide compensatory possibilities for clearly defined routine challenges and the individual needs of those affected. This overview article in the form of a selective review elaborates factors for the effectiveness of CR on the basis of the currently available literature: 1) individuality - consideration of personal needs and targets, 2) compensation - mediation of skills and strategies to compensate for cognitive impairments, 3) interaction - inclusion of relatives and environmental conditions and 4) integration - integration of various therapeutic disciplines and methods. On the basis of this assessment with regards to the content, a critical analysis of the methods of short and long-term therapeutic effects on MCD and MD was carried out. Although the resulting factors were of high long-term relevance for the improvement of depression and quality of life, effects on cognition were more pronounced for MCI than for MD, which emphasizes the importance of beginning therapy as early as possible. The results show that future studies on effectiveness must employ endpoints relevant for routine daily life, and that the possibility of an implementation of therapeutic concepts in a healthcare system should be considered as an essential criterion.

  13. Early Stage Prurigo Pigmentosa : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel ONAYGİL

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Prurigo pigmentosa is a rare inflammatory dermatosis that primarily affects adolescents and young adults. Even though it is most commonly seen in Japanese women, other countries have reported cases with increasing frequency. It is characterized by erythematous papules and macules on the trunk, neck and chest that resolve leaving a reticulate hyperpigmentation. Some endogenous factors related with ketosis like fasting, diet, diabetes, pregnancy and exogenous agents like chrome, nickel, para-amino compounds have been accused of playing a role in etiology. Here we would like to present a case of a 16-year-old female patient who was referred to our clinic with pruritic lesions on the trunk and neck, consistent with the initial phase of prurigo pigmentosa, after a period of strict diet. Prurigo pigmentosa is a disease with distinctive histologic and clinical features. Due to its rare occurrence, an accurate diagnosis may be particularly challenging. Clinicopathological correlation is therefore crucial in the diagnosis of the disease in its early phase.

  14. SEOM clinical guidelines in early-stage breast cancer 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Saenz, J A; Bermejo, B; Estevez, L G; Palomo, A G; Gonzalez-Farre, X; Margeli, M; Pernas, S; Servitja, S; Rodriguez, C A; Ciruelos, E

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health problem. Despite remarkable advances in early diagnosis and treatment, one in three women may have metastases since diagnosis. Better understanding of prognostic and predictive factors allows us to select the most appropriate adjuvant therapy in each patient. In these guidelines, we summarize current evidence for the medical management of early-stage breast cancer.

  15. SEOM clinical guidelines in early-stage breast cancer 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Saenz, J. A.; Bermejo, B.; Estevez, L. G.; Palomo, A. G.; Gonzalez-Farre, X.; Margeli, M.; Pernas, S.; Servitja, S.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Ciruelos, E.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health problem. Despite remarkable advances in early diagnosis and treatment, one in three women may have metastases since diagnosis. Better understanding of prognostic and predictive factors allows us to select the most appropriate adjuvant therapy in each patient. In these guidelines, we summarize current evidence for the medical management of early-stage breast cancer.

  16. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  17. Early stage design and analysis of biorefinery networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Recent work regarding biorefineries resulted in many competing concepts and technologies for conversion of renewable bio-based feedstock into many promising products including fuels, chemicals, materials, etc. The design of a biorefinery process requires, at its earlier stages, the selection...... of the process configuration which exhibits the best performances, for a given set of economical, technical and environmental criteria. To this end, we formulate a computer-aided framework as an enabling technology for early stage design and analysis of biorefineries. The tool represents different raw materials......, different products and different available technologies and proposes a conceptual (early stage) biorefinery network. This network can then be the basis for further detailed and rigorous model-based studies. In this talk, we demonstrate the application of the tool for generating an early stage optimal...

  18. A comparison of tumor motion characteristics between early stage and locally advanced stage lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z. Henry; Lin, Steven H.; Balter, Peter; Zhang Lifei; Dong Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the increasing use of conformal radiation therapy methods for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is necessary to accurately determine respiratory-induced tumor motion. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the motion characteristics of early and locally advanced stage NSCLC tumors in a large population and correlate tumor motion with position, volume, and diaphragm motion. Methods and materials: A total of 191 (94 early stage, 97 locally advanced) non-small cell lung tumors were analyzed for this study. Each patient received a four-dimensional CT scan prior to receiving radiation treatment. A soft-tissue-based rigid registration algorithm was used to track the tumor motion. Tumor volumes were determined based on the gross tumor volume delineated by physicians in the end of expiration phase. Tumor motion characteristics were correlated with their standardized tumor locations, lobe location, and clinical staging. Diaphragm motion was calculated by subtracting the diaphragm location between the expiration and the inspiration phases. Results: Median, max, and 95th percentile of tumor motion for early stage tumors were 5.9 mm, 31.0 mm, and 20.0 mm, which were 1.2 mm, 12 mm, and 7 mm more than those in locally advanced NSCLC, respectively. The range of motion at 95th percentile is more than 50% larger in early stage lung cancer group than in the locally advanced lung cancer group. Early stage tumors in the lower lobe showed the largest motion with a median motion of 9.2 mm, while upper/mid-lobe tumors exhibited a median motion of 3.3 mm. Tumor volumes were not correlated with motion. Conclusion: The range of tumor motion differs depending on tumor location and staging of NSCLC. Early stage tumors are more mobile than locally advanced stage NSCLC. These factors should be considered for general motion management strategies when 4D simulation is not performed on individual basis.

  19. Functioning in early and late stages of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gazzi Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is frequently associated with a debilitating course and prominent impairment in social and occupational functioning. Although the criteria for classification into stages have not been defined in the literature, illness duration and functioning seem to be good candidates.OBJECTIVE:To compare functioning of patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the disease (early vs. late and healthy sex- and age-matched controls.METHODS: This double-blinded, case-controlled study included 79 individuals: 23 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed up to 5 years earlier; 19 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed at least 20 years earlier; and healthy matched controls. Diagnoses were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I Disorder. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST.RESULTS: Patients in the early stage had significantly higher scores than healthy controls in total FAST and in autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning and interpersonal relationships. Individuals in the late stage had significantly poorer functioning than controls in all domains. The comparison of functioning between the two groups of patients revealed no significant differences, except in occupational functioning, in which late stage patients had a poorer performance.CONCLUSION: Functioning impairment in schizophrenia tends to remain stable despite illness duration. Therefore, functioning should be effectively assessed at an early stage, as illness duration alone may not be the most reliable criterion to stage patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive......, the new knowledge is shared between the design team to reduce ambiguity with regards to its meaning and to build a shared understanding – reducing perceived uncertainty. Thus, we propose that Information-Processing Theory is suitable to describe designer activity in the early design stages...... uncertainty with regard to the knowledge necessary to solve a design challenge. They then process this information and compare if the new knowledge they have gained covers the previous knowledge gap. In engineering design, uncertainty plays a key role, particularly in the early design stages which has been...

  1. The early stages of oxidation of magnesium single crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, B.E.; Schweizer, E.; Koetz, R.; Bradshaw, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The early stages of oxidation of Mg(001) and Mg(100) single crystal surfaces at 300 K have been investigated by LEED, ELS, work function and ellipsometric measurements. A sharp decrease in work function on both surfaces during the first 12 L exposure indicates the incorporation of oxygen in the earliest stages of the interaction. The incorporated oxygen on Mg(001) gives rise to a broadening of the integral order LEED spots for an exposure 3 L. (orig.)

  2. Critical path analysis in early stage of nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ahai

    2009-01-01

    The technical program and contract model as well as project management system and preliminary design defined in the early stage of nuclear power project are the key condition impact on the quality, schedule and cost of the nuclear power project. This paper, taking the CPR1000 coastal nuclear power station as an example, analyzes the critical path in the early stage of nuclear power project for five fields, i.e. licensing, design and procurement, site preparation, tender of construction contracts and construction preparation, and organization. (authors)

  3. Minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy for pediatric early stage congenital cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Chul Ho; Jung, Eun Kyung; Sung, Chung Man; Kim, Seung Beom; Kim, Young Yoon; Seong, Jong Yuap; Kang, Sung Hoon; Cho, Yong Beom

    2016-11-01

    Recently, minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy (MITM), which is a useful surgical technique for early stage congenital cholesteatoma (CC) in children, was introduced. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the short-term surgical results of MITM in pediatric early stage CC. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 24 patients who underwent MITM between January 2013 and October 2015. The patients' ages ranged from 1 to 16 years (mean, 2.6 years). There were 17 male and 7 female patients. The right side (n = 13) was affected twice as often as the left side (n = 11). The most common site was the anterosuperior quadrant (15 cases). The diameter of the CC on axial computed tomography images ranged from 2.8 to 5.7 mm (mean, 3.9 mm). CCs were graded according to Potsic's system: 18 cases were classified as stage I, 3 case as stage II, and 3 cases as stage III. AllCCs except 1 were closed type. In21 patients, the tympanic membrane closed naturally without recurrence. Three patients showed small persistent dry perforation. Natural closure occurred in these patients, who were treated with paper patches. MITM is a simple, effective technique for removing an early stage CC from the middle ear, and it can minimize operative time, length of hospitalization, and postoperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiofrequency Ablation for Early-Stage Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Hiraki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines studies of radiofrequency ablation (RFA of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC and discusses the role of RFA in treatment of early-stage NSCLC. RFA is usually performed under local anesthesia with computed tomography guidance. RFA-associated mortality, while being rare, can result from pulmonary events. RFA causes pneumothorax in up to 63% of cases, although pneumothorax requiring chest drainage occurs in less than 15% of procedures. Other severe complications are rare. After RFA of stage I NSCLC, 31–42% of patients show local progression. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 78% to 100%, 53% to 86%, 36% to 88%, and 25% to 61%, respectively. The median survival time ranged from 29 to 67 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cancer-specific survival rates after RFA of stage I NSCLC were 89% to 100%, 92% to 93%, and 59% to 88%, respectively. RFA has a higher local failure rate than sublobar resection and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT. Therefore, RFA may currently be reserved for early-stage NSCLC patients who are unfit for sublobar resection or SBRT. Various technologies are being developed to improve clinical outcomes of RFA for early-stage NSCLC.

  5. Systemic non-albicans infections presented as meningitis in chronic hepatitis B patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Lv

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-albicans candida meningitis is a relatively rare disease, with nonspecific clinical manifestation, which makes the misdiagnosis occur sometimes, especially in the early stage of the disease. Abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, central vein cannulas, senility, big operation, malignancy, and total parenteral alimentation were all the susceptible factors of non-albicans candida infection. We present a case of this type of non-albicans infection in a 42-year-old woman who was early misdiagnosed as tuberculous meningitis and was treated with antibiotics and antituberculosis agents. The diagnosis of non-albicans infection was confirmed by fungus culture of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF with a low detectable rate. This case reminds us that the non-albicans candida meningitis had a nonspecific clinical presentations and laboratory data, and was difficult to differentiate from tuberculosis meningitis. Hence, we should highly suspect this disease if central nervous system infections with uncertain pathogens. Test cell counts; protein and fungus culture of CSF should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Once the diagnosis was established, the patients should receive antifungal treatment based on drug sensitivity tests as early as possible.

  6. Glycosylation of Candida albicans cell wall proteins is critical for induction of innate immune responses and apoptosis of epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Wagener

    Full Text Available C. albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen of humans, causing local and superficial mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Given that the key structure mediating host-C. albicans interactions is the fungal cell wall, we aimed to identify features of the cell wall inducing epithelial responses and be associated with fungal pathogenesis. We demonstrate here the importance of cell wall protein glycosylation in epithelial immune activation with a predominant role for the highly branched N-glycosylation residues. Moreover, these glycan moieties induce growth arrest and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Using an in vitro model of oral candidosis we demonstrate, that apoptosis induction by C. albicans wild-type occurs in early stage of infection and strongly depends on intact cell wall protein glycosylation. These novel findings demonstrate that glycosylation of the C. albicans cell wall proteins appears essential for modulation of epithelial immunity and apoptosis induction, both of which may promote fungal pathogenesis in vivo.

  7. Early morbidity after simultaneous and staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to investigate the early morbidity after bilateral simultaneous and staged total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to clarify potential benefits of a well-established fast-track regime. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was searched for all...

  8. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  9. Contemporary Management of Early-Stage Melanoma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosko, Andrew J; Vankoevering, Kyle K; McLean, Scott A; Johnson, Timothy M; Moyer, Jeffrey S

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing, with 76 380 new cases of invasive melanoma and 68 480 new cases of melanoma in situ expected in 2016. To review the contemporary management of early-stage melanoma. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases from January 1, 2011, to May 1, 2016, yielding 966 articles. We focused our search on early-stage (melanoma in situ, stage I, and stage II) cutaneous melanoma. After excluding articles, 41 articles were manually reviewed. A review of the bibliographies of selected articles generated additional references. While the majority of recent advances have been in the treatment of advanced melanoma, surgical excision with margins based on the presence and depth of invasion continues to be the cornerstone of management. Sentinel lymph node biopsy plays a central role in the staging and treatment of melanoma. Accurate diagnosis and adequate surgical excision are critical in reducing local recurrences and improving outcomes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is useful in staging the regional nodal basin and guiding treatment in appropriately selected patients.

  10. Nitrogen source and growth stage of Candida albicans influence expression level of vacuolar aspartic protease Apr1p and carboxypeptidase Cpy1p

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauerová, Václava; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2012), s. 678-681 ISSN 0008-4166 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA ČR GA310/09/1945 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida albicans * carboxypeptidase Y * nitrogen starvation * vacuole Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.199, year: 2012

  11. Brain Age in Early Stages of Bipolar Disorders or Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Tomas; Franke, Katja; Kolenic, Marian; Capkova, Jana; Matejka, Martin; Propper, Lukas; Uher, Rudolf; Stopkova, Pavla; Novak, Tomas; Paus, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Spaniel, Filip; Alda, Martin

    2017-12-20

    The greater presence of neurodevelopmental antecedants may differentiate schizophrenia from bipolar disorders (BD). Machine learning/pattern recognition allows us to estimate the biological age of the brain from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans (MRI). The discrepancy between brain and chronological age could contribute to early detection and differentiation of BD and schizophrenia. We estimated brain age in 2 studies focusing on early stages of schizophrenia or BD. In the first study, we recruited 43 participants with first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES) and 43 controls. In the second study, we included 96 offspring of bipolar parents (48 unaffected, 48 affected) and 60 controls. We used relevance vector regression trained on an independent sample of 504 controls to estimate the brain age of study participants from structural MRI. We calculated the brain-age gap estimate (BrainAGE) score by subtracting the chronological age from the brain age. Participants with FES had higher BrainAGE scores than controls (F(1, 83) = 8.79, corrected P = .008, Cohen's d = 0.64). Their brain age was on average 2.64 ± 4.15 years greater than their chronological age (matched t(42) = 4.36, P stages of BD showed comparable BrainAGE scores to controls (F(2,149) = 1.04, corrected P = .70, η2 = 0.01) and comparable brain and chronological age. Early stages of schizophrenia, but not early stages of BD, were associated with advanced BrainAGE scores. Participants with FES showed neurostructural alterations, which made their brains appear 2.64 years older than their chronological age. BrainAGE scores could aid in early differential diagnosis between BD and schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. 76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... dollars went to early stage or start-up businesses. Of the financings that went to early stage and start... went to early stage and start-up businesses not in those three states. SBA will seek to expand access...% decline from 2007. Less than a third of these financing dollars went to early stage or start-up businesses...

  13. Early stage crystallization kinetics in metallic glass-forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heterogeneous nucleation may precede the homogeneous one in an alloy. • High kinetic constants and the nucleation rate at the initial stage. • Metallic glasses have heterogeneous nucleation sites which saturate later. -- Abstract: The crystallization kinetics and structural changes of a few metallic glassy alloys were monitored using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetry methods. Microstructural observations were used to estimate the nucleation and growth rates. A clear comparison of the differences in the crystallization kinetics in the metallic glassy samples is observed at the early and later crystallization stages

  14. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyo [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Min [Research Institute of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In-Kyung [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yunsook [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Hyun, E-mail: jjhkim@cau.ac.kr [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  15. Early Contact Stage of Apoptosis: Its Morphological Features and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheri Mikadze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis has been a biological phenomenon of intense interest for 20 years, but the earlier morphological features of apoptosis have not been determined hitherto. Using the methods of semi- and ultrathin sections, the livers of intact embryos and young rats have been studied under the effect of cycloheximide to determine morphological features of an early stage of apoptosis. It is discovered that both in hepatoblasts and hepatocytes, apoptosis, besides the well-known stages, also includes an early contact stage, distinguishing features of which are agglutination of bound ribosomes (breaking of translation, elimination of the nucleolus, reduction of free polysomes (and in hepatocytes, reduction of cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum, formation of cytoplasmic excrescences, and cell shape changes. The early stage of apoptosis is characterized by close contact with neighboring cells. At a certain phase of the contact stage of apoptosis, the nucleolus reappears in the nucleus and the number of free polysomes in the cytoplasm increases, which suggests the renewal of synthesis of new RNA and proteins. Close contact of differentiating and mitotic hepatoblasts with apoptotic cells indicates a certain functional relationship between these cells that is realized not only by micropinocytosis, but through gap junctions as well. We assume that the apoptotic cell, besides proteolytic products, can contain newly synthesized, low-molecular substances, the relocation of which from apoptotic to neighboring cells may contribute to both functional activity and proliferation of adjacent hepatoblasts and, therefore, the function of apoptosis may not be limited only to the elimination of harmful, damaged, and unwanted cells.

  16. Multimodal imaging findings in 'hyper-early' stage MEWDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahuzac, Armelle; Wolff, Benjamin; Mathis, Thibaud; Errera, Marie-Hélène; Sahel, José-Alain; Mauget-Faÿsse, Martine

    2017-10-01

    To describe a new stage of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS), occurring at a very early phase of the disease. Retrospective analysis of clinical, angiographic and tomographic findings in four patients with 'hyper-early' stage MEWDS. In four patients seen within 1 week of the onset of symptoms, fundus analysis revealed macular granity and the classic yellow-white dots, some having no corresponding hyperautofluorescent pattern. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed central foveal disruption of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation layer with a hyper-reflective dome-shaped lesion. In two patients, fluorescein angiography (FA) revealed an intermediate hypofluorescent perimacular halo, whereas late indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) showed a hyperfluorescent halo as well as the classic MEWDS features. After a few days, the EZ disruption appeared complete on OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in all patients. Visual acuity, OCT and FAF findings had fully recovered within 3 months. We have shown a new feature of MEWDS on FAF, OCT, FA and ICGA, corresponding to a very early stage of the disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Mass loss in early stages of stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.P.; Kozlowski, M.; Schramm, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is known that stars lose mass between their birth on the main sequence and their death as white dwarfs, or as neutron stars or black holes for more massive stars. Solar wind considerations indicate that not all of the mass loss occurs in a 'last gasp' to form a planetary nebula. Mass loss has be observed in O-B stars and in red giants, but the mass loss observed in these stages do not appear sufficient to account for all the loss required for stars to become white dwarfs. The problem is at what stages and in what manner the excess mass is lost. Suggestions have tended to favour He flashes for stars with M < 2.25 M. and possibly double shell instability flashes for stars in the range from 2.25 M. to 8 M. Although is is possible that significant mass is lost during these stages, there appears to be no quantitative support for this suggestion, and in particular none for the He flash. It is shown here that there is increasing evidence for substantial mass loss during the immediate post main sequence stages when the star is moving from the main sequence to the giant branch. Mass loss at these early stages of evolution may have implications on the subsequent evolution of the star and the amount of nuclearly processed material that is ejected into the interstellar-medium. The behaviour of Arcturus is discussed in these connections. (U.K.)

  18. Primary Surgery vs Radiotherapy for Early Stage Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark A; Graboyes, Evan M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Neskey, David M; Kaczmar, John M; Schopper, Heather K; Sharma, Anand K; Morgan, Patrick F; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2018-04-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to determine the effect of primary surgery vs radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). In addition, this study attempts to identify factors associated with receiving primary RT. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013). Subjects and Methods Reviewing the NCDB from 2004 to 2013, patients with early stage I to II OCSCC were identified. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, Cox regression analysis, and propensity score matching were used to examine differences in OS between primary surgery and primary RT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with primary RT. Results Of the 20,779 patients included in the study, 95.4% (19,823 patients) underwent primary surgery and 4.6% (956 patients) underwent primary RT. After adjusting for covariates, primary RT was associated with an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.22). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with primary RT included age ≥70 years, black race, Medicaid or Medicare insurance, no insurance, oral cavity subsite other than tongue, clinical stage II disease, low-volume treatment facilities, and earlier treatment year. Conclusion Primary RT for early stage OCSCC is associated with increased mortality. Approximately 5% of patients receive primary RT; however, this percentage is decreasing. Patients at highest risk for receiving primary RT include those who are elderly, black, with public insurance, and treated at low-volume facilities.

  19. Early stages of bipolar disorder: characterization and strategies for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiel C. Rios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the early stages of bipolar disorder (BD, defined as the clinical prodrome/subsyndromal stage and first-episode phase, and strategies for their respective treatment. Methods: A selective literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and ISI databases from inception until March 2014 was performed. Included in this review were articles that a characterized prodromal and first-episode stages of BD or b detailed efficacy and safety/tolerability of interventions in patients considered prodromal for BD or those with only one episode of mania/hypomania. Results: As research has only recently focused on characterization of the early phase of BD, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment option in the early phase of BD. Case management; individual, group, and family therapy; supportive therapy; and group psychoeducation programs have been proposed. Most evidence-based treatment guidelines for BD do not address treatment specifically in the context of the early stages of illness. Evidence for pharmacotherapy is usually presented in relation to illness polarity (i.e., manic/mixed or depressed or treatment phase. Conclusions: Although early recognition and treatment are critical to preventing unfavorable outcomes, there is currently little evidence for interventions in these stages of BD.

  20. Hodgkin's disease part 1: pathology, staging, and management of early stage disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, Peter; Yahalom, Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 25 years there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of the epidemiology, biology, natural history, and treatment of Hodgkins disease. Hodgkin's disease is one of the few cancers where both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have provided dramatic improvements in cure of this once uniformly fatal disease. Part 1 of the refresher course on Hodgkin's disease will include a review of: 1) New Findings in epidemiology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology of the Reed-Sternberg cell including association with Epstein-Barr virus; 2) Review of pathology including discussions of NS 1 vs NS2, and nodular LP subclassifications; 3) Recommendations for staging including the role of staging laparotomy in Hodgkin's disease; 4) Standard techniques for commonly used radiation therapy fields for Hodgkin's disease and 5) Treatment of early stage Hodgkin's disease including an overview on recent and current clinical trials

  1. Neural changes underlying early stages of L2 vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, He; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-11-01

    Research has shown neural changes following second language (L2) acquisition after weeks or months of instruction. But are such changes detectable even earlier than previously shown? The present study examines the electrophysiological changes underlying the earliest stages of second language vocabulary acquisition by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) within the first week of learning. Adult native English speakers with no previous Spanish experience completed less than four hours of Spanish vocabulary training, with pre- and post-training ERPs recorded to a backward translation task. Results indicate that beginning L2 learners show rapid neural changes following learning, manifested in changes to the N400 - an ERP component sensitive to lexicosemantic processing and degree of L2 proficiency. Specifically, learners in early stages of L2 acquisition show growth in N400 amplitude to L2 words following learning as well as a backward translation N400 priming effect that was absent pre-training. These results were shown within days of minimal L2 training, suggesting that the neural changes captured during adult second language acquisition are more rapid than previously shown. Such findings are consistent with models of early stages of bilingualism in adult learners of L2 ( e.g. Kroll and Stewart's RHM) and reinforce the use of ERP measures to assess L2 learning.

  2. USANS investigation of early stages of metal foam formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bellmann, D; Banhart, J

    2002-01-01

    Metallic foams are on the verge of being used in industrial applications. However, the mechanism of foam creation, especially the early stages, are still unexplored. Ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), performed with the double-crystal diffractometer (DCD) at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF), is a promising method for obtaining a three-dimensional average of a pore size distribution in a wide size range from about 100 nm to about 20 mu m. Analysis of the neutron scattering curves yielded pore size distributions which conformed with the results obtained by microscopy. (orig.)

  3. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1...... in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...

  4. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements...... axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3...

  5. Factors influencing early stage healthcare-academia partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvhagen, Håkan; von Knorring, Mia; Hasson, Henna; Øvretveit, John; Hansson, Johan

    2018-02-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore factors influencing early implementation and intermediate outcomes of a healthcare-academia partnership in a primary healthcare setting. Design/methodology/approach The Academic Primary Healthcare Network (APHN) initiative was launched in 2011 in Stockholm County, Sweden and included 201 primary healthcare centres. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2013-2014 with all coordinating managers ( n=8) and coordinators ( n=4). A strategic change model framework was used to collect and analyse data. Findings Several factors were identified to aid early implementation: assignment and guidelines that allowed flexibility; supportive management; dedicated staff; facilities that enabled APHN actions to be integrated into healthcare practice; and positive experiences from research and educational activities. Implementation was hindered by: discrepancies between objectives and resources; underspecified guidelines that trigger passivity; limited research and educational activities; a conflicting non-supportive reimbursement system; limited planning; and organisational fragmentation. Intermediate outcomes revealed that various actions, informed by the APHN assignment, were launched in all APHNs. Practical implications The findings can be rendered applicable by preparing stakeholders in healthcare services to optimise early implementation of healthcare-academia partnerships. Originality/value This study increases understanding of interactions between factors that influence early stage partnerships between healthcare services and academia in primary healthcare settings.

  6. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified orality of fish eggs and larvae. This paper provides an analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) which indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment

  7. Sequential Dysfunction and Progressive Depletion of Candida albicans-Specific CD4 T Cell Response in HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengliang; Fan, Xiuzhen; Auclair, Sarah; Ferguson, Monique; Sun, Jiaren; Soong, Lynn; Hou, Wei; Redfield, Robert R.; Birx, Deborah L.; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Robb, Merlin L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Hu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Loss of immune control over opportunistic infections can occur at different stages of HIV-1 (HIV) disease, among which mucosal candidiasis caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans) is one of the early and common manifestations in HIV-infected human subjects. The underlying immunological basis is not well defined. We have previously shown that compared to cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD4 cells, C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells are highly permissive to HIV in vitro. Here, based on an antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve HIV infection cohort (RV21), we investigated longitudinally the impact of HIV on C. albicans- and CMV-specific CD4 T-cell immunity in vivo. We found a sequential dysfunction and preferential depletion for C. albicans-specific CD4 T cell response during progressive HIV infection. Compared to Th1 (IFN-γ, MIP-1β) functional subsets, the Th17 functional subsets (IL-17, IL-22) of C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells were more permissive to HIV in vitro and impaired earlier in HIV-infected subjects. Infection history analysis showed that C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells were more susceptible to HIV in vivo, harboring modestly but significantly higher levels of HIV DNA, than CMV-specific CD4 T cells. Longitudinal analysis of HIV-infected individuals with ongoing CD4 depletion demonstrated that C. albicans-specific CD4 T-cell response was preferentially and progressively depleted. Taken together, these data suggest a potential mechanism for earlier loss of immune control over mucosal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients and provide new insights into pathogen-specific immune failure in AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:27280548

  8. Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft, Diana Schack

    Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives......Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives...

  9. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Model atmospheres for novae during the early stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrse, R.; Hauschildt, P.H.; Shaviv, G.; Starrfield, S.; Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ

    1989-01-01

    Continuum and line blanketing models for the photospheres of novae in the early stages of their outbursts are presented. The expanding envelopes are characterized by a very slow increase of density with decreasing radius which leads to very large geometrical extensions and large temperature differences between the inner and outer parts. The spectra show a large IR excess and a small Balmer jump which may be either in absorption or in emission. For the parameters considered (T eff = 10 4 , 1.5 x 10 4 , 2 x 10 4 K, R = 10 11 cm, solar composition), most lines are in absorption. The effects of both modifications in the temperature structure (e.g. by heating from shock fronts) and changes in the abundances of the heavy elements on the emergent spectra are briefly discussed. 13 refs., 11 figs

  11. Early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sujuan; Sun, Yunlong; Lu, Anming; Wang, Guangyuan

    1987-09-01

    The early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng was studied. Protoplasts or single cells were isolated from the blades using enzyme mixture comprising 2% sea snail gut enzyme and 1% cellulase. The isolated protoplasts or single cells were incubated in the MES medium. The cell differentiations were examined under the microscope at intervals after incubation. Four types of cell differentiation, namely, normal, abnormal, carposporangial and spermatorangial, and rhizoidal types, were observed. Since normal cell differentiations occur mostly in small thalli 50 mm in length and middle portions of big thalli 200 mm in length, it is essential to select tissues from these two kinds of thalli essential for commercial production.

  12. Early stage of plastic deformation in thin films undergoing electromigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, B. C.; Tamura, N.; Spolenak, R.; Caldwell, W. A.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Bravman, J. C.; Batterman, B. W.; Nix, W. D.; Patel, J. R.

    2003-09-01

    Electromigration occurs when a high current density drives atomic motion from the cathode to the anode end of a conductor, such as a metal interconnect line in an integrated circuit. While electromigration eventually causes macroscopic damage, in the form of voids and hillocks, the earliest stage of the process when the stress in individual micron-sized grains is still building up is largely unexplored. Using synchrotron-based x-ray microdiffraction during an in-situ electromigration experiment, we have discovered an early prefailure mode of plastic deformation involving preferential dislocation generation and motion and the formation of a subgrain structure within individual grains of a passivated Al (Cu) interconnect. This behavior occurs long before macroscopic damage (hillocks and voids) is observed.

  13. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity.

  14. Flame acceleration in the early stages of burning in tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Fru, Gordon; Petchenko, Arkady [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Akkerman, V' yacheslav [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE) of Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Tulskaya 52, 115191 Moscow (Russian Federation); Eriksson, Lars-Erik [Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    Acceleration of premixed laminar flames in the early stages of burning in long tubes is considered. The acceleration mechanism was suggested earlier by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105 (1996) 225]. Acceleration happens due to the initial ignition geometry at the tube axis when a flame develops to a finger-shaped front, with surface area growing exponentially in time. Flame surface area grows quite fast but only for a short time. The analytical theory of flame acceleration is developed, which determines the growth rate, the total acceleration time, and the maximal increase of the flame surface area. Direct numerical simulations of the process are performed for the complete set of combustion equations. The simulations results and the theory are in good agreement with the previous experiments. The numerical simulations also demonstrate flame deceleration, which follows acceleration, and the so-called ''tulip flames''. (author)

  15. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P J

    2003-10-01

    The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54) or infrared coagulation (N = 46). Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years). The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months). The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale). Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059). The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03), but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03). Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  16. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Gupta

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54 or infrared coagulation (N = 46. Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years. The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months. The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale. Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059. The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03, but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03. Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  17. Paranasal Manifestations of Early Stage Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Günel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common adult leukemia. A few studies have been reported about the relationship between CLL and paranasal sinuses. We aimed to investigate the paranasal manifestations of CLL and to determine the expression of nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-kB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in the nasal mucosa in patients with CLL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a clinical trial that involved 40 patients. Group CLL (n=20 consisted of patients with early-stage CLL who were followed-up at the hematology clinic and who did not receive any treatment. The control group (n=20 consisted of patients who had undergone concha surgery because of nasal obstruction. Paranasal sinus computer tomography scans of all patients were taken, they were scored on the basis of the Lund–Mackay system, and sinusitis findings were recorded. The biopsy material taken from the inferior concha head of all patients was immunohistochemically stained with primary antibodies against NF-kB and TNF-α. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to NF-κB (p=0.716 and TNF-α staining scores (p=1.000. The Lund–Mackay scores were significantly higher in the CLL group than in the control group (p=0.004. Fourteen patients had sinusitis at different locations, while the most common diagnosis was maxillary sinusitis (n=8 in the CLL group. CONCLUSION: This study showed that patients with early-stage CLL tend to have rhinosinusitis. However, NF-kB and TNF-α may not have a role in the inflammatory process involving the paranasal sinuses in patients with CLL.

  18. Early diagnosis of sub-clinical stage of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Hui Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the early diagnosis of sub-clinic stage of diabetic retinopathy.METHODS: This was cross sectional study,multifocal retina electroretinogram(mf-ERG, contrast sensitivity(CSand central retinal artery color Doppler examination were recorded from 30 cases(30 eyesmatched control subjects, 35 cases(35 eyeswith type 2 diabetes mellitus(DMwithout diabetic retinopathy(NDRand 38 cases(38 eyeswith non-prolifera tive diabetic retinopathy(NPDR. One-way ANOVA and SNK-q test were used for data analysis.RESULTS: P1 response density of NDR patients were found decrease, N1 implicit time were delayed. Which were related with the degree of retinopathy(PPPP>0.05, The differences between normal group, NDR group and NPDR group were found statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: mf-ERG and CS are sensitive indexes for early evaluation of visual function in patients with diabetes mellitus, with development of the disease, CRA blood flow also appears to decline.

  19. Effects of Nanosilica on Early Age Stages of Cement Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forood Torabian Isfahani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of nanosilica on cement hydration have been broadly investigated in the literature and early age cement hydration, as a whole, has been mainly considered, disregarding the substages of the hydration. The hydration of cement is characterized by different substages and nanosilica effect on the hydration could be a result of diverse, even contradictory, behavior of nanosilica in individual stages of the hydration. In this study, effects of nanosilica on different substages of cement hydration are investigated. Isothermal calorimetry results show that at early ages (initial 72 hours the effects of nanosilica depend on the phenomenon by which the hydration is governed: when the hydration is chemically controlled, that is, during initial reaction, dormant period, and acceleratory period, the hydration rate is accelerated by adding nanosilica; when the hydration is governed by diffusion process, that is, during postacceleratory period, the hydration rate is decelerated by adding nanosilica. The Thermal Gravimetric Analysis on the samples at the hardened state (after 28 days of curing reveals that, after adding nanosilica, the hydration degree slightly increased compared to the plain paste.

  20. Alpha oscillations and early stages of visual encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eKlimesch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long time alpha oscillations have been functionally linked to the processing of visual information. Here we propose an new theory about the functional meaning of alpha. The central idea is that synchronized alpha reflects a basic processing mode that controls access to information stored in a complex long-term memory system, which we term knowledge system (KS in order to emphasize that it comprises not only declarative memories but any kind of knowledge comprising also procedural information. Based on this theoretical background, we assume that during early stages of perception, alpha ‘directs the flow of information’ to those neural structures which represent information that is relevant for encoding. The physiological function of alpha is interpreted in terms of inhibition. We assume that alpha enables access to stored information by inhibiting task irrelevant neuronal structures and by timing cortical activity in task relevant neuronal structures. We discuss a variety findings showing that evoked alpha and phase locking reflect successful encoding of global stimulus features in an early poststimulus interval of about 0 - 150 ms.

  1. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shulong; Fu, Yingyuan, E-mail: yingyuanfu@126.com; Wu, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoping; Kuang, Nanzhen; Zeng, Yurong

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca{sup 2+} concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca{sup 2+} concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, increasing

  2. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shulong; Fu, Yingyuan; Wu, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoping; Kuang, Nanzhen; Zeng, Yurong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca 2+ concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of 3 H-UdR, 3 H-TdR and 3 H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase, cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited 3 H-UdR, 3 H-TdR and 3 H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca 2+ concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase, increasing cytosolic Ca 2+ content and damaging the ultrastructure of C. albicans

  3. Radiation therapy for early stages of Morbus Ledderhose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyd, Reinhard [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Klinikum Offenbach (Germany); Dorn, Anne Pia; Mueller-Schimpfle, Marcus [Central Inst. of Radiology, Municipal Hospitals, Frankfurt/Main-Hoechst (Germany); Herkstroeter, Markus [Radiotherapeutic Practice at the Municipal Hospitals, Frankfurt/Main-Hoechst (Germany); Roedel, Claus; Fraunholz, Ingeborg [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Univ. Hospital Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of early stages of benign plantar fibromatosis (Morbus Ledderhose [ML]). Patients and Methods: From 2003 to 2008, 24 patients (33 sites) with a mean age of 52 years received RT for symptomatic ML. Prior to RT, 19 patients complained of pain and 15 had walking difficulties. 21 patients (28 sites) were irradiated with orthovolt-age X-rays and three (five sites) received electron-beam irradiation. The RT protocol consisted of five weekly fractions of 3.0 Gy (15 Gy), repeated after 6 weeks to a total dose of 30 Gy in 20 patients (28 sites). In four patients (five sites), two single fractions of 4.0 Gy were applied, repeated at intervals of 4 weeks to total doses of 24-32 Gy. Primary study endpoints were the prevention of disease progression and the avoidance of a surgical intervention. Secondary endpoints were pain relief, improvement of gait, and patients' subjective satisfaction measured with a linear analog scale (LAS). Results: After a median follow-up of 22.5 months, none of the patients experienced a progression of number and size of the lesions or the clinical symptoms. In eleven sites (33.3%) complete remission of cords or nodules occurred, in 18 (54.5%) a reduced number or size was noted, and four sites (12.1%) were unchanged. Pain relief was achieved in 13/19 patients (68.4%), and an improvement of gait abnormalities was noted in 11/15 patients (73.3%). The patients' subjective satisfaction measured by means of the LAS revealed a median improvement of 3.5 points in 22/24 patients (91.6%). Skin or soft tissues toxicities RTOG grade > 2 were not noted. Conclusion: RT is effective for treatment of the early stages of ML and may obviate the need for a surgical intervention. Long-term follow-up studies including a larger number of patients are required to define the role of RT in the management of this disorder. (orig.)

  4. Radiation therapy for early stages of Morbus Ledderhose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyd, Reinhard; Dorn, Anne Pia; Mueller-Schimpfle, Marcus; Herkstroeter, Markus; Roedel, Claus; Fraunholz, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of early stages of benign plantar fibromatosis (Morbus Ledderhose [ML]). Patients and Methods: From 2003 to 2008, 24 patients (33 sites) with a mean age of 52 years received RT for symptomatic ML. Prior to RT, 19 patients complained of pain and 15 had walking difficulties. 21 patients (28 sites) were irradiated with orthovolt-age X-rays and three (five sites) received electron-beam irradiation. The RT protocol consisted of five weekly fractions of 3.0 Gy (15 Gy), repeated after 6 weeks to a total dose of 30 Gy in 20 patients (28 sites). In four patients (five sites), two single fractions of 4.0 Gy were applied, repeated at intervals of 4 weeks to total doses of 24-32 Gy. Primary study endpoints were the prevention of disease progression and the avoidance of a surgical intervention. Secondary endpoints were pain relief, improvement of gait, and patients' subjective satisfaction measured with a linear analog scale (LAS). Results: After a median follow-up of 22.5 months, none of the patients experienced a progression of number and size of the lesions or the clinical symptoms. In eleven sites (33.3%) complete remission of cords or nodules occurred, in 18 (54.5%) a reduced number or size was noted, and four sites (12.1%) were unchanged. Pain relief was achieved in 13/19 patients (68.4%), and an improvement of gait abnormalities was noted in 11/15 patients (73.3%). The patients' subjective satisfaction measured by means of the LAS revealed a median improvement of 3.5 points in 22/24 patients (91.6%). Skin or soft tissues toxicities RTOG grade > 2 were not noted. Conclusion: RT is effective for treatment of the early stages of ML and may obviate the need for a surgical intervention. Long-term follow-up studies including a larger number of patients are required to define the role of RT in the management of this disorder. (orig.)

  5. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  6. Efficiency of teaching patients with early-stage rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Vladislavovna Orlova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education programs are an important part of the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Objective: to develop a unified model of an education program for RA patients and to evaluate its efficiency at the early stage of the disease.Material and methods. A group education program was worked out with the support of the All-Russian public organization of the disabled “The Russian rheumatology organization “Nadezhda” (Hope” and encompassed 4 daily classes lasting 90 min. All information was presented by a multidisciplinary team of specialists (rheumatologists, a cardiologist, a psychologist, a physiotherapist, and a physical trainer. The study included 55 patients with early RA (89.1% of women aged 18 to 62 years; the duration of the disease was 2 to 22 months; of them 25 were taught using the education program (a study group; 30 received drug therapy only (a control group. Following 3 and 6 months, the number of tender and swollen joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and pain were determined applying a 100-ml VAS, DAS28, HAQ, and RAPID3. Adherence to non-drug treatments was assessed employing a special patient questionnaire.Results. Three and six months after being taught, two patient groups showed increases in adherence to joint protection methods by 13 and 10 times (p<0.01, regular physical training by 4 and 3.25 times (p<0.01, uses of orthoses for the wrist joint by 2 times and 75% (p<0.01 and knee orthoses by 33.3 and 50.0% (p<0.01, and orthopedic insoles by 71.4 and 57.1% (p<0.01, respectively. Following 6 months, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in most parameters (p<0.05, except for ESR, CRP, and DAS28 (p>0.05. Further more, a good response to treatment was significantly more common in these periods, as shown by the EULAR response criteria (DAS28: 56.3% versus 40% in the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion. The education program decreases the intensity

  7. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  8. Nanoparticles target early-stage breast cancer metastasis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Evgeniya; Zinger, Assaf; da Silva, Dana; Yaari, Zvi; Kajal, Ashima; Vardi-Oknin, Dikla; Goldfeder, Mor; Schroeder, Josh E.; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Hershkovitz, Dov; Schroeder, Avi

    2017-10-01

    Despite advances in cancer therapy, treating cancer after it has metastasized remains an unmet clinical challenge. In this study we demonstrate that 100 nm liposomes target triple-negative murine breast-cancer metastases post intravenous administration. Metastatic breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice either experimentally, by a tail vein injection of 4T1 cells, or spontaneously, after implanting a primary tumor xenograft. To track their biodistribution in vivo the liposomes were labeled with multi-modal diagnostic agents, including indocyanine green and rhodamine for whole-animal fluorescent imaging, gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and europium for a quantitative biodistribution analysis. The accumulation of liposomes in the metastases peaked at 24 h post the intravenous administration, similar to the time they peaked in the primary tumor. The efficiency of liposomal targeting to the metastatic tissue exceeded that of a non-liposomal agent by 4.5-fold. Liposomes were detected at very early stages in the metastatic progression, including metastatic lesions smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Surprisingly, while nanoparticles target breast cancer metastasis, they may also be found in elevated levels in the pre-metastatic niche, several days before metastases are visualized by MRI or histologically in the tissue. This study highlights the promise of diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles for treating metastatic cancer, possibly even for preventing the onset of the metastatic dissemination by targeting the pre-metastatic niche.

  9. External radiation therapy in early stage prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Howard M.

    1996-01-01

    Optimal therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate is controversial. Numerous options are available, however, comparison of results is difficult in view of the insufficiency of phase III randomized trials comparing alternative treatment strategies. These options include such strategies as no curative therapy (so-called watchful waiting), radiotherapy (external and/or internal), cryotherapy, or radical prostatectomy. Clearly, a broad spectrum of clinical approaches. When reported experiences involving radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy are compared, surgical patients tend to be younger, of earlier stage, of higher performance status, and have lower pre-therapy PSA. These prognostic factors influence the probability of disease control, and since patient selection can have a profound impact on results reporting, these issues need to be carefully controlled. A review of patients who are potentially candidates for surgery at the University of Michigan treated with conformal therapy external beam treatment, indicates that these relatively early patients are doing well. These issues will be elaborated upon further during the presentation

  10. Ischemic penumbra in early stage of severe acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Shiokawa, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the existence of an ischemic penumbra, which indicates ischemic but still viable lesion, in the early stage of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Seventy-one consecutive patients with SAP were enrolled. We divided the pancreas into three regions, the head, body and tail, and measured pancreatic blood flow (F V ) and volume (V D ) in each region by perfusion CT with one compartment method within three days after the onset of symptoms. Three weeks later, all patients underwent contrast-enhanced CT to diagnose each region for the development of pancreatic necrosis. Of the 227 pancreatic regions from 71 SAP patients, 30 regions were diagnosed as positive for pancreatic necrosis. F V and V D in regions that developed pancreatic necrosis were significantly lower than those in regions without necrosis (35.7±50.7 vs. 197.0±227.6 ml/min, p V D V ≥37.5 ml/min and V D V D ≥3.4%, 4 (11.7%) developed necrosis. None of 141 regions with F V ≥37.5 ml/min and V D ≥3.4% developed necrosis. If F V or V D was low, not all regions developed pancreatic necrosis; therefore, we considered that these regions could include zones of ischemic penumbra. (author)

  11. Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Wendy; Palidis, Dimitrios J; Spering, Miriam; McKeown, Martin J

    2016-10-01

    Visual impairments are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and impact normal functioning in daily activities. Visual contrast sensitivity is a powerful nonmotor sign for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, it is usually assessed with static visual stimuli. Here we examined the interaction between perception and eye movements in static and dynamic contrast sensitivity tasks in a cohort of mildly impaired, early-stage PD patients. Patients (n = 13) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 12) viewed stimuli of various spatial frequencies (0-8 cyc/deg) and speeds (0°/s, 10°/s, 30°/s) on a computer monitor. Detection thresholds were determined by asking participants to adjust luminance contrast until they could just barely see the stimulus. Eye position was recorded with a video-based eye tracker. Patients' static contrast sensitivity was impaired in the intermediate spatial-frequency range and this impairment correlated with fixational instability. However, dynamic contrast sensitivity and patients' smooth pursuit were relatively normal. An independent component analysis revealed contrast sensitivity profiles differentiating patients and controls. Our study simultaneously assesses perceptual contrast sensitivity and eye movements in PD, revealing a possible link between fixational instability and perceptual deficits. Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity profiles may represent an easily measurable metric as a component of a broader combined biometric for nonmotor features observed in PD.

  12. Dream features in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugalho, Paulo; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the relation between dream features and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD), although vivid dreams, hallucinations and cognitive decline have been proposed as successive steps of a pathological continuum. Our objectives were therefore to characterize the dreams of early stage PD and to study the relation between dream characteristics, cognitive function, motor status, depression, dopaminergic treatment, and the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and hallucinations. Dreams of 19 male PD patients and 21 matched control subjects were classified according to Hall and van de Castle system. h statistics was used to compare the dream content between patients and controls. We tested the relation between patients' dreams characteristics and cognitive function (Frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Mini-Mental State Examination tests) depression (Beck depression inventory), motor function (UPDRS), dopaminergic treatment, the presence of RBD (according to clinical criteria) and hallucinations, using general linear model statistics. Patients and controls differed only on FAB scores. Relevant differences in the Hall and van de Castle scale were found between patient's dreams and those of the control group, regarding animals, aggression/friendliness, physical aggression, befriender (higher in the patient group) and aggressor and bodily misfortunes (lower in the patient group) features. Cognitive and particularly frontal dysfunction had a significant influence on the frequency of physical aggression and animal related features, while dopaminergic doses, depressive symptoms, hallucinations and RBD did not. We found a pattern of dream alteration characterized by heightened aggressiveness and the presence of animals. These were related to more severe frontal dysfunction, which could be the origin of such changes.

  13. Performance of mitochondrial DNA mutations detecting early stage cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakupciak, John P; Srivastava, Sudhir; Sidransky, David; O'Connell, Catherine D; Maragh, Samantha; Markowitz, Maura E; Greenberg, Alissa K; Hoque, Mohammad O; Maitra, Anirban; Barker, Peter E; Wagner, Paul D; Rom, William N

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) have been associated with cancer and many other disorders. These mutations can be point mutations or deletions, or admixtures (heteroplasmy). The detection of mtDNA mutations in body fluids using resequencing microarrays, which are more sensitive than other sequencing methods, could provide a strategy to measure mutation loads in remote anatomical sites. We determined the mtDNA mutation load in the entire mitochondrial genome of 26 individuals with different early stage cancers (lung, bladder, kidney) and 12 heavy smokers without cancer. MtDNA was sequenced from three matched specimens (blood, tumor and body fluid) from each cancer patient and two matched specimens (blood and sputum) from smokers without cancer. The inherited wildtype sequence in the blood was compared to the sequences present in the tumor and body fluid, detected using the Affymetrix Genechip ® Human Mitochondrial Resequencing Array 1.0 and supplemented by capillary sequencing for noncoding region. Using this high-throughput method, 75% of the tumors were found to contain mtDNA mutations, higher than in our previous studies, and 36% of the body fluids from these cancer patients contained mtDNA mutations. Most of the mutations detected were heteroplasmic. A statistically significantly higher heteroplasmy rate occurred in tumor specimens when compared to both body fluid of cancer patients and sputum of controls, and in patient blood compared to blood of controls. Only 2 of the 12 sputum specimens from heavy smokers without cancer (17%) contained mtDNA mutations. Although patient mutations were spread throughout the mtDNA genome in the lung, bladder and kidney series, a statistically significant elevation of tRNA and ND complex mutations was detected in tumors. Our findings indicate comprehensive mtDNA resequencing can be a high-throughput tool for detecting mutations in clinical samples with potential applications for cancer detection, but it is

  14. Exome sequencing identifies early gastric carcinoma as an early stage of advanced gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guhyun Kang

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC, whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes and AGCs (3104 genes. A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P = 0.010. The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis.

  15. Is knowledge translation adequate? A quality assurance study of staging investigations in early stage breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dolly; Hogeveen, Sophie; Sweet Goldstein, Miriam; George, Ralph; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Hoch, Jeffrey; Haq, Rashida; Simmons, Christine E

    2012-02-01

    After primary surgery, patients diagnosed with early stage breast cancer undergo radiological investigations based on pathologic stage of disease to rule out distant metastases. Published guidelines can aid clinicians in determining which tests are appropriate based on stage of disease. We wished to assess the consistency of radiological staging in an academic community oncology setting with standard guidelines and to determine the overall impact of non-adherence to these guidelines. A retrospective cohort study was conducted for new breast cancer patients seen at a single institution between January 2009 and April 2010. Patients were included if initial diagnosis and primary surgery was at this institution. Pathologic stage and radiological tests completed were recorded. A literature review was performed and the results were compared with those from this study to determine overall adherence rates. Subsequently, a cost analysis was performed to determine the financial impact at this centre. 231 patients met eligibility criteria for inclusion in this study. A large proportion of patients were over-staged with 129 patients (55%) undergoing unnecessary investigations according to guidelines. Specifically, 59% of stage I patients and 58% of stage II patients were over-investigated. Distant metastases at the time of diagnosis were found in three patients, all of whom had stage III disease (1.3%). The literature reviewed revealed similar non-adherence rates in other centres. The estimated cost of such non-adherence is in the range of $78 (CDN) per new early stage breast cancer patient seen at this centre. This oncology centre has a low adherence to practice guidelines for staging investigations in breast cancer patients, with 55% of patients undergoing unnecessary tests. Very few patients had metastases at diagnosis, and all had pathological stage III disease. Efforts may need to focus on improving knowledge translation across clinical oncology settings to increase

  16. Oxidative stress tolerance of early stage diabetic endothelial progenitor cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sukmawati

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Primitive BM-EPCs showed vasculogenic dysfunction in early diabetes. However the oxidative stress is not denoted as the major initiating factor of its cause. Our results suggest that primitive BM-KSL cell has the ability to compensate oxidative stress levels in early diabetes by increasing the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes.

  17. Cortical hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in Parkinson's disease is extensive: probably even at early disease stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, Mallar; Jonsdottir, Kristjana Yr

    2010-01-01

    independent samples of PD patients. We compared SPECT CBF images of 32 early-stage and 33 late-stage PD patients with that of 60 matched controls. We also compared PET FDG images from 23 late-stage PD patients with that of 13 controls. Three different normalization methods were compared: (1) GM normalization...

  18. The effect on esophagus after different radiotherapy techniques for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anni; Maraldo, M.; Brodin, Nils Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The cure rate of early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is excellent; investigating the late effects of treatment is thus important. Esophageal toxicity is a known side effect in patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the mediastinum, although little is known of this in HL survivors. This study inv...... investigates the dose to the esophagus in the treatment of early stage HL using different RT techniques. Estimated risks of early esophagitis, esophageal stricture and cancer are compared between treatments....

  19. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Early stage precipitation in aluminum alloys : An ab initio study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.

    2017-01-01

    Multiscale computational materials science has reached a stage where many complicated phenomena or properties that are of great importance to manufacturing can be predicted or explained. The word “ab initio study” becomes commonplace as the development of density functional theory has enabled the

  1. Treatment outcome in patients with triple negative early stage breast cancers compared with other molecular subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ja Young; Chang, Sei Kyung; Lee, Bo Mi; Shin, Hyun Soo; Park, Heily

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether triple negative (TN) early stage breast cancers have poorer survival rates compared with other molecular types. Between August 2000 and July 2006, patients diagnosed with stage I, II early stage breast cancers, in whom all three markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER]-2) were available and treated with modified radical mastectomy or breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed. Of 446 patients, 94 (21.1%) were classified as TN, 57 (12.8%) as HER-2 type, and 295 (66.1%) as luminal. TN was more frequently associated with young patients younger than 35 years old (p = 0.002), higher histologic grade (p 0.05). We found that patients with TN early stage breast cancers had no difference in survival rates compared with other molecular subtypes. Prospective study in homogeneous treatment group will need for a prognosis of TN early stage breast cancer.

  2. Stage 3 recommendations - the early recognition of breast cancer in Germany. Abridged version forr medical practioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, K.D.; Albert, U.S.; Kreienberg, R.; Fischer, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Aim of this level 3 good clinical practice guideline is to help physicians, women and patients in decision making about the appropriate health care for early detection of breast cancer. The principle of early detection of breast cancer comprise the detection and diagnosis of premalignant breast tumors (stage 0, Carcinoma in situ), risk reduction of cancer development as well as the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer at an early stage (stage I), with a 90% chance of cure as shown by a large number of clinical trials. To establish a nation wide, comprehensive quality assuring program for the early detection of breast cancer the guideline summarized in the following paper offers the basis for a timely mortality reduction of breast cancer. The cure of early stage disease will be additionally possible by less invasive treatment allowing patients to maintain quality of life. The guideline leads to a major improvement of women's health care. (orig.) [de

  3. Systemic immune markers characterizing early stages of rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalan, Paulina Luiza

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease occurring in ~1% of the world population. The main feature of the disease is ongoing joint inflammation, caused by immune cells and their soluble factors, leading to irreversible bone erosions and cartilage damage. Early treatment can halt

  4. Socioeconomic position and surgery for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Starr, Laila; Osler, Merete; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Register 2001-2008 (date of diagnosis, histology, stage, and treatment), the Central Population Register (vital status), the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research (socioeconomic position), and the Danish Hospital Discharge Register (comorbidity). Logistic regression analyses were performed overall......AIM: To examine possible associations between socioeconomic position and surgical treatment of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In a register-based clinical cohort study, patients with early-stage (stages I-IIIa) NSCLC were identified in the Danish Lung Cancer...

  5. Antibiofilm and Antihyphal Activities of Cedar Leaf Essential Oil, Camphor, and Fenchone Derivatives against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans can form biofilms composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal elements, and C. albicans cells in the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. The present study describes the chemical composition, antibiofilm, and antihyphal activities of cedar leaf essential oil (CLEO), which was found to possess remarkable antibiofilm activity against C. albicans but not to affect its planktonic cell growth. Nineteen components were identified in CLEO by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...

  6. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  7. SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF FORMING OF COLOR-BASED CARDS FOR ASSESSMENT OF EARLY STAGES INNOVATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Bragina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with functional program that allows to generate a visualrepresentation of the shareholder tothe innovative project early stage ofdevelopment, formed a color-based cards.

  8. Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the effect of salinity on the early growth stage of the common sunflower (Sanay cultivar) using spectral discrimination techniques. H Turhan, L Genc, SE Smith, YB Bostanci, OS Turkmen ...

  9. Development of a Combination Cell and Gene Therapy Approach for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Michael T

    2005-01-01

    The unique biology of the breast presents the opportunity to these cell and gene therapy techniques in a way that circumvents many of these technical limitations for the treatment of early stage breast cancer...

  10. New NIA Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Booklet By and For People With Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents ... you have a family member or friends with Alzheimer's disease? Are you wondering what they're going ...

  11. Macular micropseudocysts in early stages of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolada, Gemma; Pierro, Luisa; de Benedetto, Umberto; Margari, Sergio; Gagliardi, Marco; Maestranzi, Gisella; Calori, Giliola; Lorenzi, Mara; Lattanzio, Rosangela

    2011-01-01

    To identify by noninvasive means early retinal abnormalities that may predict diabetic macular edema. The authors analyzed retrospectively data from consecutive patients with Type 1 (n = 16) or Type 2 (n = 23) diabetes who presented for routine follow-up of early retinopathy, had no clinical signs or symptoms of diabetic macular edema, and were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Age- and gender-matched nondiabetic subjects provided normative data. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed in the macular region of diabetic patients small hyporeflective areas (median diameter, 55 μm) contained within discrete retinal layers that we named micropseudocysts (MPCs). Micropseudocysts are associated with vascular leakage. The patients showing MPCs had more frequently systemic hypertension and increased central foveal thickness than those without MPCs. The association with increased central foveal thickness was only in the patients with Type 2 diabetes. Macular MPCs in patients with mild diabetic retinopathy appear to reflect leakage and can precede macular thickening. The association of MPCs with increased central foveal thickness in patients with Type 2 diabetes, but not in patients with Type 1 diabetes, points to a greater tendency to retinal fluid accumulation in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Studies in larger cohorts will determine the usefulness of MPCs in strategies to abort diabetic macular edema.

  12. Zonulin, inflammation and iron status in patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Lukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Malyszko, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    Background/aims Zonulin is the only known regulator of intestinal permeability. It is also considered as a potential inflammatory marker in several conditions such as diabetes and inflammatory bowel syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate zonulin levels in patients with early stages of CKD and its possible correlation with inflammation, anemia and iron status parameters. Methods Eighty-eight patients with early stages of CKD and 23 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Zonu...

  13. Very early stage financing in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    A primer on early financing for oil and natural gas plays was provided. Basic elements of the Alberta Securities Act, the steps involved in raising money for exploration, development or purchase of an oil play, the various forms of structuring an enterprise (proprietorship, limited partnership, joint venture, farm-in, publicly traded corporation) were explained. The types of financing, ranging from 'love money' (money raised from relatives, friends, business associates, or from 'angel investors') through formal venture capital markets and public equity markets were outlined with the characteristic features, advantages and pitfalls of each. The subtle differences between Alberta's 'junior capital pool', 'initial capital offering' and 'exchange offering prospectus' were explained, along with a brief review of which one is the most appropriate under a given set of circumstances

  14. Modelling early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggieri M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we model early time dynamics of relativistic heavy ion collisions by an initial color-electric field which then decays to a plasma by the Schwinger mechanism. The dynamics of the many particles system produced by the decay is described by relativistic kinetic theory, taking into account the backreaction on the color field by solving self-consistently the kinetic and the field equations. Our main results concern isotropization and thermalization for a 1+1D expanding geometry. In case of small η/s (η/s ≲ 0.3 we find τisotropization ≈ 0.8 fm/c and τthermalization ≈ 1 fm/c in agreement with the common lore of hydrodynamics.

  15. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  16. Marine renewable energy sector early-stage supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Marine renewable energy is an emergent sector in Canada. Although supply chain studies have been performed on the United Kingdom and the United States markets, no study has been conducted yet in Canada. The aim of this study was therefore to perform a supply chain analysis in Canada to assess the maturity, strengths, and weaknesses of the sector and determine where the opportunities lie. The study emphasises that the sector is still at the prototype stage in Canada and that the industry must learn to improve its technology and begin to take on large scale projects. Canada has several strengths in the marine renewable energy sector, mainly in terms of resources and facilities, but there are also weaknesses pertaining to technology development and experience. The study concluded that the development of the sector must be centered on a solid vision; in the near term, technological innovation is needed to reach pre-commercialization while in the long term, the sector should aim for commercial application.

  17. Experimental study of CT perfusion in hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Sheng; Zhao Weidong; Zhou Kangrong; Peng Weijun; Mao Jian; Tang Feng; Wang Yong; Cao Guang; Sun Fei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of CT perfusion in the early diagnosis of hepatic diffuse disease. Methods: Fourteen male Wistar rats of control group and 14 of test group at stages of hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, hepatic cirrhosis which were induced with diethylnitrosamine (DEN), were studied with CT perfusion respectively. CT perfusion data of different stages were compared and pathologic analysis were performed. Results: Density-time curves of CT perfusion were satisfactory and all perfusion data could be obtained. During the period of hepatitis developing into early stage of hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic artery flow (HAF) trended to increase in test group, mean transmit time (MTT) prolonged obviously, blood flow (BF) and volume (BV) declined. While in control group, HAF declined slightly, MTT, BV and BF increased. Statistic analysis showed the differences of HAF and MTT at different stages between control and test groups were significant (P<0.05 ); the differences of BV and BF between hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of hepatic cirrhosis in test group were significant (P<0.05), but no significant difference between hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. The corresponding pathologic changes at stage of hepatitis was swelling of hepatic cells; sinusoids cap illarization and deposition of collagen in the extravascular Disse's spaces were the main changes relating to hepatic blood perfusion at stage of fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis. Conclusion: The method of CT scan can reflect some changes of hepatic blood perfusion in rats with hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis. The data of CT perfusion, especially the changes should be valuable for clinical early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. (authors)

  18. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  19. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  20. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA P.S. OTERO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20 from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching. Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm, but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm. From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  1. Nature versus nurture? Consequences of short captivity in early stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horreo, Jose L; Valiente, America G; Ardura, Alba; Blanco, Aida; Garcia-Gonzalez, Claudia; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Biological changes occurring as a consequence of domestication and/or captivity are not still deeply known. In Atlantic salmon (S almo salar ), endangered (Southern Europe) populations are enhanced by supportive breeding, which involves only 6 months of captive rearing following artificial spawning of wild-collected adults. In this work, we assess whether several fitness-correlated life-history traits (migratory behavior, straying rate, age at maturity, and growth) are affected by early exposure to the captive environment within a generation, before reproduction thus before genetic selection. Results showed significant differences in growth and migratory behavior (including straying), associated with this very short period of captivity in natural fish populations, changing even genetic variability (decreased in hatchery-reared adults) and the native population structure within and between rivers of the species. These changes appeared within a single generation, suggesting very short time of captivity is enough for initiating changes normally attributed to domestication. These results may have potential implications for the long-term population stability/viability of species subjected to restoration and enhancement processes and could be also considered for the management of zoo populations.

  2. Direct detection of early-stage cancers using circulating tumor DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phallen, Jillian; Sausen, Mark; Adleff, Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Early detection and intervention are likely to be the most effective means for reducing morbidity and mortality of human cancer. However, development of methods for noninvasive detection of early-stage tumors has remained a challenge. We have developed an approach called targeted error correction...

  3. Sustainability Evaluation of Retrofitting and Renovation of Buildings in Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir; Gohardani, Navid

    2013-01-01

    research results and ideas for the development of a tool, which can be used as decision support for renovation projects in early stages. The research is part of the Eracobuild project ACES – “A concept for promotion of sustainable retrofitting and renovation in early stages” with participants from Denmark...

  4. Advancing early detection of autism spectrum disorder by applying an integrated two-stage screening approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of

  5. Influence of hope, social support, and self-esteem in early stage dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Valerie T; Gonzalez, Elizabeth W; Fisher, Kathleen; Richards, Kathy C

    2018-02-01

    Background People in the early stages of dementia adjust to the illness through stages of awareness, coping, and evaluation. Studies have found that hope, social support, and self-esteem facilitate coping, adjustment, and adaptation in chronic illness. Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationships between hope, social support, and self-esteem in individuals with early stage dementia. Methods Data were obtained from 53 individuals with early stage dementia. The scores on the Herth Hope Index, Social Support Questionnaire Short-Form, and the State Self-Esteem Scale were analyzed using linear regression. Results Hope was moderately associated with self-esteem ( r = .49, p self-esteem and was a key component in predicting self-esteem. No significant relationship was found between social support and self-esteem. Conclusion Findings suggest that hope may be an important factor to help individuals manage potential threats to self-esteem in the experience of early stage dementia. Strategies to inspire hope and then enhance self-esteem are promising for individuals living with early stage dementia.

  6. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  7. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  8. Selection is stronger in early-versus-late stages of divergence in a Neotropical livebearing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingley, Spencer J; Johnson, Jerald B

    2016-03-01

    How selection acts to drive trait evolution at different stages of divergence is of fundamental importance in our understanding of the origins of biodiversity. Yet, most studies have focused on a single point along an evolutionary trajectory. Here, we provide a case study evaluating the strength of divergent selection acting on life-history traits at early-versus-late stages of divergence in Brachyrhaphis fishes. We find that the difference in selection is stronger in the early-diverged population than the late-diverged population, and that trait differences acquired early are maintained over time. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Indications for surgery in acute pancreatitis on the basis of abdominal CT in the early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Keishoku; Nakasaku, Osamu; Kim, Jung-hyo; Hatakeyama, Gen

    1986-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis clinically manifests various degrees of severity. In the present study, we performed a retrospective study on 39 cases of acute pancreatitis and examined the indications for surgery and infection as an aggravating factor in acute pancreatitis on the basis of CT in the early stage (about 48 hours after onset). CT in the early stage of acute pancreatitis permits objective determination of the extent of lesion enlargement. The cases could be classified into three grades: severe (CT score ≥ 6; surgical therapy), moderate (CT score = 5, 4; medical therapy possible), and mild (CT score ≤ 3; medical therapy) as determined by CT. Emergency surgery was performed in seven of 10 patients in whom pancreatitis was judged to be severe on the basis of CT and clinical findings. Of the seven, four had infection in the early stage (within 48 hours after onset). Three of the four had MOF complications and died. Two of the three patients without infection were relieved. The extent of inflammatory lesions of severe pancreatitis was severe by CT, and the CT scores were especially high in cases with infection. Infection in the early stage of acute pancreatitis was thus thought to be an serious aggravating factor. It was concluded, therefore, that, in the early stage, CT was very useful as a helpful guide to early judgement and an indicator for emergency surgery. (author)

  10. [An unexpected stage of alkalosis in the dynamics of the early posthemorrhagic period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, A V

    2000-01-01

    A study was made on acid-base metabolism in early posthemorrhagic period as exemplified by examination of patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It has been ascertained that hemorrhage is accompanied by a mixed variant of the acid-base state (ABS) deviation, namely metabolic lactate-acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. In the time-related course of posthemorrhagic period such deviations persist in patients with lethal outcome; with the disease running a favourable course the above deviations are found to return to normal quite soon. The development of complications leads to staging in ABC, its stages being as follows: stage I--the initial stage, stage II--persisting metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis, stage III--alkalosis, stage IV--normalization, with stage III of ABS being encouraged by hypocapnia caused by function disorders of the lungs in early posthemorrhagic period, normalization of cell metabolism, increase in the rate of urination as a reflection of the third earlier identified stage of water metabolism, with the H+ excretion in the urine at the previous level. The identified ABS stage III threatens coming trouble, being accompanied by metabolic deviations together with a risk of function disorder of the myocardium.

  11. Urine biomarkers in the early stages of diseases: current status and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jian; Gao, Youhe

    2018-02-01

    As a noninvasive and easily available biological fluid, the urine is becoming an important source for disease biomarker study. Change is essential for the usefulness of a biomarker. Without homeostasis mechanisms, urine can accommodate more changes, especially in the early stages of diseases. In this review, we summarize current status and discuss perspectives on the discovery of urine biomarkers in the early stages of diseases. We emphasize the advantages of urine biomarkers compared to plasma biomarkers for the diagnosis of diseases at early stages, propose a urine biomarker research roadmap, and highlight a novel membrane storage technique that enables large-scale urine sample collection and storage efficiently and economically. It is anticipated that urine biomarker studies will greatly promote early diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and prognosis of a variety of diseases, and provide strong support for translational and precision medicine.

  12. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  13. Living with early-stage dementia: a review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeman, Els; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Godderis, Jan; Grypdonck, Mieke

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a literature review whose aim was to provide better understanding of living with early-stage dementia. Even in the early stages, dementia may challenge quality of life. Research on early-stage dementia is mainly in the domain of biomedical aetiology and pathology, providing little understanding of what it means to live with dementia. Knowledge of the lived experience of having dementia is important in order to focus pro-active care towards enhancing quality of life. Qualitative research is fundamentally well suited to obtaining an insider's view of living with early-stage dementia. We performed a meta-synthesis of qualitative research findings. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO and reviewed the papers cited in the references of pertinent articles, the references cited in a recently published book on the subjective experience of dementia, one thesis, and the journal Dementia. Thirty-three pertinent articles were identified, representing 28 separate studies and 21 different research samples. Findings were coded, grouped, compared and integrated. Living with dementia is described from the stage a person discovers the memory impairment, through the stage of being diagnosed with dementia, to that of the person's attempts to integrate the impairment into everyday life. Memory loss often threatens perceptions of security, autonomy and being a meaningful member of society. At early stages of memory loss, individuals use self-protecting and self-adjusting strategies to deal with perceived changes and threats. However, the memory impairment itself may make it difficult for an individual to deal with these changes, thereby causing frustration, uncertainty and fear. Our analysis supports the integration of proactive care into the diagnostic process, because even early-stage dementia may challenge quality of life. Moreover, this care should actively involve both the individual with dementia and their family so that both parties can adjust positively

  14. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frielink, Lindy M J; Pijlman, Brenda M; Ezendam, Nicole P M; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The percentage of patients that received adjuvant chemotherapy was determined as well as the comprehensiveness of staging and outcome. Forty percent (54/135) of the patients with early-stage EOC received adjuvant chemotherapy. Treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with FIGO stage, clear-cell histology and nonoptimal staging. Optimal staging was achieved in 50%, and nonoptimal staging was associated with advanced age, comorbidity and treatment in a non-referral hospital. Overall, there was no difference in outcome between patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy. Yet, in grade 3 tumors, adjuvant chemotherapy seems beneficial. Selective treatment of patients with early-stage EOC might reduce adjuvant chemotherapy without compromising outcome. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Analysis of hip perfusion at early and reversible stages of aseptic hip necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predic, P.; Dodig, D.; Karner, I.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: A proper early diagnosis of aseptic hip necrosis is very important for further therapy.Since there has always been a question of the amount of perfusion in hips at different stages of aseptic hip necrosis we tried to impartially examine the perfusion in hips at early and reversible stages of aseptic hip necrosis. Material and Methods:Study included 143 patients with aseptic hip necrosis.The 550-740 MBq of Tc-99m-DPD were on bolus injected.All patients were subjected to 3-phase scintigraphy of hips and quantitative calculation of relative perfusion in the artery phase (3T) at early and repeated at reversible stages of aseptic hip necrosis. Results: At the early stage of aseptic hip necrosis the obtained 3T was decreased from 0.94-0.69 (3T=0.80).Scintigrams showed a moderate increase or diffuse accumulation. At the reversible stages we obtained 3T decreased from 0.92-0.71 (3T=0.79) thus evidencing hypoperfusion.Scintigrams showed an diffuse increased accumulation. Conclusion: With the aseptic hip necrosis quantitative analysis of perfusion in the artery phase-3T indicates that the perfusion is decreased at all stages of the process which however shows a significantly falling trend with the progress of the disease

  17. Using physiology and behaviour to understand the responses of fish early life stages to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, K A; McNeil, P L

    2012-12-01

    The use of early life stages of fishes (embryos and larvae) in toxicity testing has been in existence for a long time, generally utilizing endpoints such as morphological defects and mortality. Behavioural endpoints, however, may represent a more insightful evaluation of the ecological effects of toxicants. Indeed, recent years have seen a considerable increase in the use of behavioural measurements in early life stages reflecting a substantial rise in zebrafish Danio rerio early life-stage toxicity testing and the development of automated behavioural monitoring systems. Current behavioural endpoints identified for early life stages in response to toxicant exposure include spontaneous activity, predator avoidance, capture of live food, shoaling ability and interaction with other individuals. Less frequently used endpoints include measurement of anxiogenic behaviours and cognitive ability, both of which are suggested here as future indicators of toxicant disruption. For many simple behavioural endpoints, there is still a need to link behavioural effects with ecological relevance; currently, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underlie toxicant effects on behaviour so early in life has received far less attention, perhaps because physiological measurements can be difficult to carry out on individuals of this size. The most commonly established physiological links with behavioural disruption in early life stages are similar to those seen in juveniles and adults including sensory deprivation (olfaction, lateral line and vision), altered neurogenesis and neurotransmitter concentrations. This review highlights the importance of understanding the integrated behavioural and physiological response of early life stages to toxicants and identifies knowledge gaps which present exciting areas for future research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Early-stage valuation of medical devices: the role of developmental uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Alan; Young, Terry; Brown, Celia; Lilford, Richard

    2010-08-01

    At the concept stage, many uncertainties surround the commercial viability of a new medical device. These include the ultimate functionality of the device, the cost of producing it and whether, and at what price, it can be sold to a health-care provider (HCP). Simple assessments of value can be made by estimating such unknowns, but the levels of uncertainty may mean that their operational value for investment decisions is unclear. However, many decisions taken at the concept stage are reversible and will be reconsidered later before the product is brought to market. This flexibility can be exploited to enhance early-stage valuations. To develop a framework for valuing a new medical device at the concept stage that balances benefit to the HCP against commercial costs. This is done within a simplified stage-gated model of the development cycle for new products. The approach is intended to complement existing proposals for the evaluation of the commercial headroom available to new medical products. A model based on two decision gates can lead to lower bounds (underestimates) for product value that can serve to support a decision to develop the product. Quantifiable uncertainty that can be resolved before the device is brought to market will generally enhance early-stage valuations of the device, and this remains true even when some components of uncertainty cannot be fully described. Clinical trials and other evidence-gathering activities undertaken as part of the development process can contribute to early-stage estimates of value.

  19. Large-scale Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Potential Biomarkers for Early Stage Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueqin; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Wei; Li, Kang; Yu, Bo; Sun, Meng

    2017-09-18

    Coronary atherosclerosis (CAS) is the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, which is a prevalent and chronic life-threatening disease. Initially, this disease is not always detected until a patient presents with seriously vascular occlusion. Therefore, new biomarkers for appropriate and timely diagnosis of early CAS is needed for screening to initiate therapy on time. In this study, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify potential biomarkers that could enable highly sensitive and specific CAS detection. Score plots from partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated early-stage CAS patients from controls. Meanwhile, the levels of 24 metabolites increased greatly and those of 18 metabolites decreased markedly in early CAS patients compared with the controls, which suggested significant metabolic dysfunction in phospholipid, sphingolipid, and fatty acid metabolism in the patients. Furthermore, binary logistic regression showed that nine metabolites could be used as a combinatorial biomarker to distinguish early-stage CAS patients from controls. The panel of nine metabolites was then tested with an independent cohort of samples, which also yielded satisfactory diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.890). In conclusion, our findings provide insight into the pathological mechanism of early-stage CAS and also supply a combinatorial biomarker to aid clinical diagnosis of early-stage CAS.

  20. Falls and Fall Prevention in Older Adults With Early-Stage Dementia: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Helen W; Harrison, Barbara E; Phongphanngam, Sutthida

    2017-05-01

    Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage dementia have an increased risk of falling, with risks to their health and quality of life. The purpose of the current integrative review was to evaluate evidence on fall risk and fall prevention in this population. Studies were included if they examined falls or fall risk factors in older adults with MCI or early-stage dementia, or reported interventions in this population; 40 studies met criteria. Evidence supports the increased risk of falls in individuals even in the early stages of dementia or MCI, and changes in gait, balance, and fear of falling that may be related to this increased fall risk. Interventions included exercise and multifactorial interventions that demonstrated some potential to reduce falls in this population. Few studies had strong designs to provide evidence for recommendations. Further study in this area is warranted. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(03):139-148.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Initiation of an early-stage plasma during picosecond laser ablation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Samuel S.; Mao, Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Picosecond time-resolved images of plasma initiation were recorded during pulsed-laser ablation of metal targets in an air atmosphere. An early-stage plasma was observed to form before the release of a material vapor plume. Close to the target surface, interferometry measurements indicate that the early-stage plasma has an electron number density on the order of 10 20 cm -3 . The longitudinal expansion of the ionization front for this plasma has a velocity 10 9 cm/s, during the laser pulse. In contrast, a material--vapor plume forms approximately 200 ps after the laser pulse, and it moves away from the target at 10 6 cm/s. The experimental observations of the early-stage plasma were simulated by using a theoretical model based on a two-fluids description of laser plasmas. The results indicate that the initiation of the plasma is due to air breakdown assisted by electron emission from the target

  2. A case of urinary retention in the early stages of herpes simplex virus type-1 encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Takuya; Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Miyake, Akifumi; Tamura, Naotoshi; Araki, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Toshimasa

    2017-06-01

    A 70-year-old man developed urinary retention in the early stages of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1 encephalitis. A nerve conduction study suggested latent myeloradiculitis. This is the first report of human herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis followed by urinary retention at early stage from the onset like the Elsberg syndrome. Although relatively few similar cases have been reported, we consider that urinary retention is common in HSV-1 encephalitis, in which disturbances of consciousness usually require bladder catheterization from the onset. We further emphasize that urinary retention may occasionally occur in early stages of HSV-1 encephalitis, with a significant possibility of recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Photons from the early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, L.; Ruggieri, M.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Peng, G. X.; Greco, V.

    2017-07-01

    We present results about photon-production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The main novelty of our study is the calculation of the contribution of the early-stage photons to the photon spectrum. The initial stage is modeled by an ensemble of classical gluon fields which decay to a quark-gluon plasma via the Schwinger mechanism, and the evolution of the system is studied by coupling classical field equations to relativistic kinetic theory; photon production is then computed by including the pertinent collision processes into the collision integral. We find that the contribution of the early-stage photons to the direct photon spectrum is substantial for pT≈2 GeV and higher, the exact value depending on the collision energy; therefore, we identify this part of the photon spectrum as the sign of the early stage. Moreover, the amount of photons produced during the early stage is not negligible with respect to those produced by a thermalized quark-gluon plasma: We support the idea that there is no dark age in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  4. Establishment of a rat model of early-stage liver failure and Th17/Treg imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    LI Dong; LU Zhonghua; GAN Jianhe

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the methods for establishing a rat model of early-stage liver failure and the changes in Th17, Treg, and Th17/Treg after dexamethasone and thymosin interventions. MethodsA total of 64 rats were randomly divided into carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group and endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]/D-galactosamine (D-GalN) combination group to establish the rat model of early-stage liver failure. The activities of the rats and changes in liver function and whole blood Th17 and ...

  5. A robust prognostic gene expression signature for early stage lung adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzystanek, Marcin; Moldvay, Judit; Szüts, David

    2016-01-01

    Stage I lung adenocarcinoma is usually not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy; however, around half of these patients do not survive 5 years. Therefore, a reliable prognostic biomarker for early stage patients would be critical to identify those most likely to benefit from early additional treatm...... not given adjuvant therapy. Seven genes consistently obtained statistical significance in Cox regression for overall survival. The combined signature has a weighted mean hazard ratio of 3.2 in all cohorts and 3.0 (C.I. 1.3-7.4, p ...

  6. Confidence interval estimation of the difference between two sensitivities to the early disease stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tuochuan; Kang, Le; Hutson, Alan; Xiong, Chengjie; Tian, Lili

    2014-03-01

    Although most of the statistical methods for diagnostic studies focus on disease processes with binary disease status, many diseases can be naturally classified into three ordinal diagnostic categories, that is normal, early stage, and fully diseased. For such diseases, the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) is the most commonly used index of diagnostic accuracy. Because the early disease stage is most likely the optimal time window for therapeutic intervention, the sensitivity to the early diseased stage has been suggested as another diagnostic measure. For the purpose of comparing the diagnostic abilities on early disease detection between two markers, it is of interest to estimate the confidence interval of the difference between sensitivities to the early diseased stage. In this paper, we present both parametric and non-parametric methods for this purpose. An extensive simulation study is carried out for a variety of settings for the purpose of evaluating and comparing the performance of the proposed methods. A real example of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is analyzed using the proposed approaches. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. PTT functional recovery in early stage II PTTD after tendon balancing and calcaneal lengthening osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhault, Jean; Noël, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The decision to offer surgery for Stage II posterior tibial tendon deficiency (PTTD) is a difficult one since orthotic treatment has been documented to be a viable alternative to surgery at this stage. Taking this into consideration we limited our treatment to bony realignment by a lengthening calcaneus Evans osteotomy and tendon balancing. The goal of the study was to clinically evaluate PTT functional recovery with this procedure. The patient population included 17 feet in 13 patients. Inclusion was limited to early Stage II PTTD flatfeet with grossly intact but deficient PTT. Deficiency was assessed by the lack of hindfoot inversion during single heel rise test. The surgical procedure included an Evans calcaneal opening wedge osteotomy with triceps surae and peroneus brevis tendon lengthening. PTT function at follow up was evaluated by an independent examiner. Evaluation was performed at an average of 4 (range, 2 to 6.3) years. One case presented postoperative subtalar pain that required subtalar fusion. Every foot could perform a single heel rise with 13 feet having active inversion of the hindfoot during elevation. The results of this study provide evidence of PTT functional recovery without augmentation in early Stage II. It challenges our understanding of early Stage II PTTD as well as the surgical guidelines recommending PTT augmentation at this specific stage.

  8. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, Robert J; Becker, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the development of a personalized research trajectory, which optimizes the potential for career success.

  9. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research

    OpenAIRE

    Mentz, Robert J.; Becker, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the developmen...

  10. Hydrodynamic instability of elastic-plastic solid plates at the early stage of acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriz, A R; Sun, Y B; Tahir, N A

    2015-03-01

    A model is presented for the linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place at the early stage of acceleration of an elastic-plastic solid, when the shock wave is still running into the solid and is driven by a time varying pressure on the interface. When the the shock is formed sufficiently close to the interface, this stage is considered to follow a previous initial phase controlled by the Ritchmyer-Meshkov instability that settles new initial conditions. The model reproduces the behavior of the instability observed in former numerical simulation results and provides a relatively simpler physical picture than the currently existing one for this stage of the instability evolution.

  11. Radiotherapy in early-stage Dupuytren's contracture. Long-term results after 13 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, Nicolas; Ott, Oliver J.; Sauer, Rolf; Fietkau, Rainer; Adamietz, Boris; Keilholz, Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: In early-stage Dupuytren's contracture, radiotherapy is applied to prevent disease progression. Long-term outcome and late toxicity of the treatment were evaluated in a retrospective analysis. Patients and Methods: Between 12/1982 and 02/2006, 135 patients (208 hands) were irradiated with orthovoltage (120 kV; 20 mA; 4-mm Al filter), in two courses with five daily fractions of 3.0 Gy to a total dose of 30 Gy; separated by a 6- to 8-week interval. The extent of disease was described according to a modified classification of Tubiana et al. Long-term outcome was analyzed at last follow-up between 02/2008 and 05/2008 with a median follow-up of 13 years (range, 2-25 years). Late treatment toxicity and objective reduction of symptoms as change in stage and numbers of nodules and cords were evaluated and used as evidence to assess treatment response. Results: According to the individual stages, 123 cases (59%) remained stable, 20 (10%) improved, and 65 (31%) progressed. In stage N 87% and in stage N/I 70% remained stable or even regressed. In more advanced stages, the rate of disease progression increased to 62% (stage I) or 86% (stage II). 66% of the patients showed a long-term relief of symptoms (i.e., burning sensations, itching and scratching, pressure and tension). Radiotherapy did not increase the complication rate after surgery in case of disease progression and only minor late toxicity (skin atrophy, dry desquamation) could be observed in 32% of the patients. There was no evidence for a second malignancy induced by radiotherapy. Conclusion: After a mean follow-up of 13 years radiotherapy is effective in prevention of disease progression and improves patients' symptoms in early-stage Dupuytren's contracture (stage N, N/I). In case of disease progression after radiotherapy, a ''salvage'' operation is still feasible. (orig.)

  12. Flooding tolerance in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) at early vegetative and reproductive growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic flooding at any growth stage greatly affects growth and yield of crops. In order to develop flooding tolerant cotton cultivar and to identify the most sensitive growth stage to periodic flooding, a field experiment was conducted in which 60-cultivars/accessions/lines were subjected to two week flooding at seedling/early vegetative, flower and boll formation growth stages. Pre- and post-flooding soil analysis was also carried out. Nitrate-N was greatly reduced due to flooding applied at all growth stages, whereas NH4-N increased significantly. Similarly, Fe and Mn were also increased to many folds in flooded soils. Under hypoxic conditions, depletion of nitrates and toxic effects of accumulated NH4, Fe and Mn caused severe damages to cotton plants and even death of plants. Of the three growth stages, early vegetative growth stage is most sensitive to two week flooding. Flooding imposed at the flowering and boll formation growth stages caused a substantial amount of yield penalty. On the basis of survival percentage, the 60-cultivars/accessions/lines were categorized into tolerant (61%), moderately tolerant (31=60%) and sensitive (31%) to short term flooding. At the seedling or early vegetative growth stage, genotypes DPL-SR-2 followed by 124-F and MNH-427 were most tolerant to flooding, while AET-5, N-KRISHMA, LRA-5166, CEDIX and H-142 were ranked as sensitive to flooding stress. At the flowering stage, the genotype NIAB-92 followed by S-14 and MNH-427 were highly tolerant to flooding. At the boll formation stage, genotypes DPL-70010-N followed by GH-11-9-75 and B-2918-2 were highly tolerant waterlogging. More than 50% of the genotypes maintained the degree of flooding tolerance at three growth stages. However, on the basis of survival percentage at three growth stages, genotypes MNH-564, FH-114, MNH-786 and CIM-573 were included in the tolerant group and the genotypes N-KRISHMA, LRA-5166, CEDIX and H-142 were included in the sensitive group. These

  13. SPIRIT advance care planning intervention in early stage dementias: An NIH stage I behavioral intervention development trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E; Hepburn, Kenneth; Paul, Sudeshna; Shah, Raj C; Morhardt, Darby J

    2018-06-02

    People in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) are encouraged to engage in advance care planning (ACP) while they are still competent to appoint a surrogate decision maker and meaningfully participate in ACP discussions with the surrogate. In this NIH Stage I behavioral intervention development trial, we will adapt and test an efficacious ACP intervention, SPIRIT (Sharing Patient's Illness Representation to Increase Trust), with people with mild dementia and their surrogates to promote open, honest discussions while such discussions about end-of-life care are possible. We will first adapt SPIRIT (in person) to target people with mild dementia and their surrogates through a process of modification-pretesting-refinement using stakeholders (persons with mild dementia, family caregivers, and clinicians) and experts, including adapting the delivery mode to interactive web-based videoconference format (SPIRIT-remote). Then in a 3-group RCT with 120 patient-surrogate dyads, we will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of SPIRIT in-person and SPIRIT remote, and preliminary efficacy of SPIRIT compared to usual care on preparedness outcomes for end-of-life decision making (dyad congruence on goals of care, patient decisional conflict, and surrogate decision-making confidence) shortly after the intervention. This Stage I research of SPIRIT will generate valuable insights regarding how to improve ACP for people with mild dementia who will progress to an advanced stage of the disease in the foreseeable future. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03311711, Registered 10/12/2017. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Minimally Invasive Surgical Staging in Early-stage Ovarian Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Borghi, Chiara; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Lopez, Carlos; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Indini, Alice; Ferrero, Simone; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    Few studies investigated the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (eEOC). In this context, we aimed to review the current evidence comparing laparoscopy and the laparotomic approach for staging procedures in eEOC. This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Overall, 3065 patients were included: 1450 undergoing laparoscopy and 1615 undergoing laparotomic staging. Patients undergoing laparoscopy experienced a longer (but not statistically significant) operative time (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 28.3 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.59 to 59.2), a lower estimated blood loss (WMD = -156.5 mL; 95% CI, -216.4 to -96.5), a shorter length of hospital stay (WMD = -3.7 days; 95% CI, -5.2 to -2.1), and a lower postoperative complication rate (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.81) than patients undergoing laparotomy. The upstaging (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.55-1.20) and cyst rupture (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.52-3.38) rates were similar between groups. Laparoscopic staging is associated with a shorter time to chemotherapy than laparotomic procedures (WMD = -5.16 days; 95% CI, -8.68 to -1.64). Survival outcomes were not influenced by the route of surgery. Pooled data suggested that the minimally invasive surgical approach is equivalent to laparotomy for the treatment of eEOC and may be superior in terms of perioperative outcomes. However, because of the low level of evidence of the included studies, further randomized trials are warranted. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Candida Species Using MP65 Gene and Evaluation of the Candida albicans MP65 Gene Expression in BALB/C Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bineshian, Farahnaz; Yadegari, Mohammad Hossien; Sharifi, Zohre; Akbari Eidgahi, Mohammadreza; Nasr, Reza

    2015-05-01

    ). All species isolated by culture methods (100% positivity) were evaluated with PCR using species-specific primers to identify Candida species. Relative expression of Mp65 genes increased significantly after C. albicans injection into the mice (P < 0.05). The results of the current study showed that the PCR method is reproducible for rapid identification of Candida species with specific primers. Mp65 gene expression of C. albicans after injection into the mice was 2.3 folds higher than before injection, with this difference being significant. These results indicated that increase of Mp65 gene expression might be an early stage of infection; however definitive conclusions require further studies.

  16. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  17. Evaluation of Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation on Various Parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Aims: Candida albicans adhesion to any oral substrata is the first and essential stage in forming a .... kinds of resin, glass, and even metal surfaces.[14] ... various parts of implant materials [tissue level implant, bone level ...

  18. Funding opportunities for investigators in the early stages of career development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumandea, C Amelia; Balke, C William

    2009-03-10

    Many sources of advice and guidance are available to the early career investigator. Generally, mentors serve as the primary source of information, although program and review officers are the most underutilized resources. This article organizes these opportunities to enable early career investigators to plot a rational trajectory for career success. A list of the major agencies that provide grant support for early career investigators is included. In addition, funding opportunities are organized on the basis of the stage in career development pathway and the type of terminal degree.

  19. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix stage IB and early stage II. Prognostic value of the histological tumor regression after initial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calais, G.; Le Floch, O.; Chauvet, B.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P.

    1989-01-01

    In our center limited centro pelvic invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix (less than 4 cm) are treated with brachytherapy and surgery. With these therapeutic modalities no residual carcinoma was observed for 80% of the patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our results with this treatment, and to evaluate the prognostic value of the pathological status of the cervix. From 1976 to 1987 we have treated 115 patients with these modalities. Staging system used was the FIGO classification modified for Stage II (divided in early Stage II and late Stage II). Patients were Stage IB (70 cases) and early Stage II (45 cases); 60 Gy were delivered with utero vaginal brachytherapy before any treatment. Six weeks later a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Twenty-one patients with positive nodes received a pelvic radiotherapy (45 to 55 Gy). Local control rate was 97% (100% for Stage IB and 93% for early Stage II). Uncorrected 10-year actuarial survival rate was 96% for Stage IB and 80% for early Stage II patients. No treatment failure was observed for Stage IB patients. Ninety-two patients (80%) had no residual carcinoma in the cervix (group 1) and 23 patients (20%) had a residual tumor (group 2). The sterilization rate of the cervix was 87% for Stage IB tumors versus 69% for early Stage II, and was 82% for N- patients versus 68% for N+ patients. Ten year actuarial survival rate was 92% for group 1 and 78% for group 2 (p = 0, 1). Grade 3 complications rate was 6%. We conclude that brachytherapy + surgery is a safe treatment for limited centro pelvic carcinomas of the uterine cervix (especially Stage IB) and that pathological status of the cervix after brachytherapy is not a prognostic factor

  20. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  1. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  2. Patient Preferences for Minimally Invasive and Open Locoregional Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuttel, Floor; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Young-Afat, Danny A.; Emaus, Marleen J.; van den Bongard, Desirée H J G; Witkamp, Arjen J.; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    Background: Noninvasive or minimally invasive treatments are being developed as alternatives to surgery for patients with early-stage breast cancer. Patients' preferences with regard to these new treatments have not been investigated. Objectives: To assess preferences of patients with breast cancer

  3. Siting and early-stage project management of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Li Guojin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, difficulties and challenges facing in siting of nuclear power plant after Fukushima nuclear accident is introduced. The key points for siting are analyzed. The site characteristics related to nuclear safety and the evaluated methods are discussed. From project management perspective, main procedures and key points for the early-stage of a nuclear power project are described. (authors)

  4. Treatment of early-stage pressure ulcers by using autologous adipose tissue grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Pallara, Tiziano; Cagli, Barbara; Schena, Emiliano; Giurazza, Francesco; Faiella, Elio; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Persichetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs) in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients.

  5. Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B; Specht, L; Henrichsen, J

    1989-01-01

    response to pneumococcal type antigens was similar in healthy adults and in patients with early stage HD before therapy. After treatment, postvaccination antibody response became negligible. Even up to 7 years after cessation of therapy patients were not able to raise a significant antibody response....

  6. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakullukcu, Baris; van Oudenaarde, Kim; Copper, Marcel P.; Klop, W. M. C.; van Veen, Robert; Wildeman, Maarten; Bing Tan, I.

    2011-01-01

    The indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis-T2) to

  7. Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2013-01-01

    This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

  8. Early-stage detection of breakthrough-class scientific research : using micro-level citation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnink, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this PhD thesis describes ways of identifying at an early-stage, 2-3 years after their publication, discoveries in science that are expected to have a major impact on science. Bibliographic information extracted from those scientific publications is analysed to select

  9. Early positron emission tomography response-adapted treatment in stage I and II hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, Marc P.E.; Girinsky, Théodore; Federico, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Patients who receive combined modality treatment for stage I and II Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have an excellent outcome. Early response evaluation with positron emission tomography (PET) scan may improve selection of patients who need reduced or more intensive treatments. Methods We performed...

  10. Complexity Analysis of Resting-State MEG Activity in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, C.; Olde Dubbelink, K.T.E.; Stam, C.J.; Abasolo, D.; Berendse, H.W.; Hornero, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze resting-state brain activity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a degenerative disorder of the nervous system. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals were recorded with a 151-channel whole-head radial gradiometer MEG system in 18 early-stage

  11. Radioactive sulphur metabolism in rat organism in the early stages of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genesina, T.I.; Dmitriev, I.M.; Fedorov, Yu.A.; Chopovskaya, T.I.

    1978-01-01

    Metabolism disturbances in animal organs have been investigated at early stages of experimental dental caries by means of radioactive 35 S injected in the form of sodium sulfate. Changes in sulfate metabolism were detected directly not only in solid dental tissues but in the whole organism of animals

  12. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  13. The Effects of Problem-Focused Group Counseling for Early-Stage Gynecologic Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Lari B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compared the effect of a 5-week group counseling treatment to an information-only control condition for 37 women with early-stage gynecologic cancer. Women completed various measures related to mood, adjustment, and coping one week before treatment, at the last session, and at one month follow up. Differences are reported. (JBJ)

  14. Redefining radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer with single dose ablative treatment : a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charaghvandi, R K; van Asselen, B; Philippens, M E P; Verkooijen, H M; van Gils, C H; van Diest, P J; Pijnappel, R M; Hobbelink, M G G; Witkamp, A J; van Dalen, T; van der Wall, E; van Heijst, T C; Koelemij, R; van Vulpen, M; van den Bongard, H J G D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A shift towards less burdening and more patient friendly treatments for breast cancer is currently ongoing. In low-risk patients with early-stage disease, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an alternative for whole breast irradiation following breast-conserving surgery.

  15. Safety of laparoscopy versus laparotomy in early-stage endometrial cancer : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.J.E.; Bijen, C.B.; Arts, H.J.; Ter Brugge, H.G.; van der Sijde, R.; Paulsen, L.; Wijma, J.; Bongers, M.Y.; Post, W.J.; van der Zee, A.G.; de Bock, G.H.

    Background The standard surgery for early-stage endometrial cancer is total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, which is associated with substantial morbidity. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is less invasive and is assumed to

  16. Evaluation of the fuel-element assembly non-hermeticity at its early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznyakova, V.A.; Shevel', V.N.; Ostapenko, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    The given paper deals with control of the fuel-element assembly shell state at the early stage of failure development. Technique for the fuel-element assembly shell state evaluation are described. A method for assembly failure detection, used at WWR of the Institute for Nuclear Research is described also

  17. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  18. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  19. Treatment of Early-Stage Pressure Ulcers by Using Autologous Adipose Tissue Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Francesco Marangi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients.

  20. Stimuli-disassembling gold nanoclusters for diagnosis of early stage oral cancer by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Ingato, Dominique; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping; Kwon, Young Jik

    2018-01-01

    A key design consideration in developing contrast agents is obtaining distinct, multiple signal changes in diseased tissue. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been developed as contrast agents due to their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This study aims to demonstrate that stimuli-responsive plasmonic Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) can be used as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting early-stage cancer. Au NPs were clustered via acid-cleavable linkers to synthesize Au NCs that disassemble under mildly acidic conditions into individual Au NPs, simultaneously diminishing SPR effect (quantified by scattering intensity) and increasing Brownian motion (quantified by Doppler variance). The acid-triggered morphological and accompanying optico-physical property changes of the acid-disassembling Au NCs were confirmed by TEM, DLS, UV/Vis, and OCT. Stimuli-responsive Au NCs were applied in a hamster check pouch model carrying early-stage squamous carcinoma tissue. The tissue was visualized by OCT imaging, which showed reduced scattering intensity and increased Doppler variance in the dysplastic tissue. This study demonstrates the promise of diagnosing early-stage cancer using molecularly programmable, inorganic nanomaterial-based contrast agents that are capable of generating multiple, stimuli-triggered diagnostic signals in early-stage cancer.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Building performance simulation in the early design stage: An introduction to integrated dynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    , a visual programming language and a BPS to provide better support for the designer during the early stages of design as opposed to alternatives such as the current implementation of IFC or gbXML or the unaccompanied use of simulation packages. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias

    pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  3. Spawning strategies and transport of early stages of the two Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and short-term variability of environmental parameters influence the spawning strategies of fish species. In this study, the spawning strategies and the transport of early stages of the two Cape hake species off South Africa were investigated. Distribution of eggs and larvae of Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis ...

  4. 76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of public Webinars. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) announces that it is holding a series of public...

  5. Patients' preferences for adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer: is treatment worthwhile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S. J.; Kievit, J.; Nooij, M. A.; de Haes, J. C.; Overpelt, I. M.; van Slooten, H.; Maartense, E.; Stiggelbout, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    When making decisions about adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, costs and benefits of treatment should be carefully weighed. In this process, patients' preferences are of major importance. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine the minimum benefits that patients

  6. Cognitive impairment in early-stage non-demented Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Helle Cecilie Viekilde; Løkkegaard, A; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2013-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) are common. PD-MCI is a risk factor for developing PDD. Knowledge of cognition in early-stages PD is essential in understanding and predicting the dementia process....

  7. A decade of comparative dose planning studies for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Specht, Lena

    2014-01-01

    , especially in young patients with a long life expectancy. In this study, we review the current evidence for modern radiation therapy planning and delivery techniques in the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma with a focus on a reduced delivered dose, a reduced irradiated volume, and a more conformal...

  8. 77 FR 74908 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Early Stage SBICs, SBA seeks to expand entrepreneurs' access to capital and encourage innovation as part... addressing barriers to success for entrepreneurs and small businesses. II. Management Assessment... return expectations of a fund and excessive concentration in a single year could substantially increase...

  9. Creating Socionas : Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  10. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  11. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  12. Numerical insights into the early stages of nanoscale electrodeposition: nanocluster surface diffusion and aggregative growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamme, Mesfin Haile; Kohn, Christoph; Deconinck, Johan

    2018-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of the early stages of electrodeposition at the nanoscale is key to address the challenges in a wide range of applications. Despite having been studied for decades, a comprehensive understanding of the whole process is still out of reach. In this work, we introduce a nov...

  13. Organizational design configurations in the early stages of firm’s life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Luigi; Gianecchini, Martina; Campagnolo, Diego

    2017-01-01

    http://ocs.editorial.upv.es/index.php/CARMA/CARMA2016 Mosca, L.; Gianecchini, M.; Campagnolo, D. (2017). Organizational design configurations in the early stages of firm’s life cycle. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. doi:10.4995/CARMA2016.2015.3104. OCS

  14. Radical (Wertheim) hysterectomy for early stages (1B and 2A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of cases of early stages (1B & 2A) cancer of the cervix, managed by radical hysterectomy at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital Sagamu Nigeria between 1997 and 2004 was carried out to appraise the outcome in terms of the success and safety of the operation. Seventeen cases were so treated, and ...

  15. Effective Packet Number for 5G IM WeChat Application at Early Stage Traffic Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate network traffic classification at early stage is very important for 5G network applications. During the last few years, researchers endeavored hard to propose effective machine learning model for classification of Internet traffic applications at early stage with few packets. Nevertheless, this essential problem still needs to be studied profoundly to find out effective packet number as well as effective machine learning (ML model. In this paper, we tried to solve the above-mentioned problem. For this purpose, five Internet traffic datasets are utilized. Initially, we extract packet size of 20 packets and then mutual information analysis is carried out to find out the mutual information of each packet on n flow type. Thereafter, we execute 10 well-known machine learning algorithms using crossover classification method. Two statistical analysis tests, Friedman and Wilcoxon pairwise tests, are applied for the experimental results. Moreover, we also apply the statistical tests for classifiers to find out effective ML classifier. Our experimental results show that 13–19 packets are the effective packet numbers for 5G IM WeChat application at early stage network traffic classification. We also find out effective ML classifier, where Random Forest ML classifier is effective classifier at early stage Internet traffic classification.

  16. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  17. Photodynamic therapy of early stage cancer of lung, esophagus, and stomach with two different photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chissov, Valery I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Trakhtenberg, A. K.; Mamontov, A. S.; Vaschakmadze, L. A.; Frank, George A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Belous, T. A.; Gladunov, V. K.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Menenkov, V. D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early-stage cancer of lung (17 patients), esophagus (8 patients) and stomach (10 patients). Fifteen patients had second primary tumors. New drugs photoheme and photosens were used as photosensitizers. Complete remission was obtained in 87%. The patients are followed up without relapses to 2.5 years.

  18. Patients with old age or proximal tumors benefit from metabolic syndrome in early stage gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-li Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. METHODS: Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P=0.036. Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P=0.009 in multivariate analysis or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P=0.047 in multivariate analysis. No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P=0.052 in univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors.

  19. Clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, Lindy M J; Pijlman, Brenda M; Ezendam, N.P.M.; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The

  20. Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, L.M.; Pijlman, B.M.; Ezendam, N.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The

  1. Dual odontogenic origins develop at the early stage of rat maxillary incisor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriangkrai, Rungarun; Iseki, Sachiko; Eto, Kazuhiro; Chareonvit, Suconta

    2006-03-01

    Developmental process of rat maxillary incisor has been studied through histological analysis and investigation of tooth-related gene expression patterns at initial tooth development. The tooth-related genes studied here are fibroblast growth factor-8 (Fgf-8), pituitary homeobox gene-2 (Pitx-2), sonic hedgehog (Shh), muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1), paired box-9 (Pax-9) and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp-4). The genes are expressed in oral epithelium and/or ectomesenchyme at the stage of epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development. Both the histological observation and tooth-related gene expression patterns during early stage of maxillary incisor development demonstrate that dual odontogenic origins aligned medio-laterally in the medial nasal process develop, subsequently only single functional maxillary incisor dental placode forms. The cascade of tooth-related gene expression patterns in rat maxillary incisor studied here is quite similar to those of the previous studies in mouse mandibular molar, even though the origins of oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme involved in development of maxillary incisor and mandibular molar are different. Thus, we conclude that maxillary incisor and mandibular molar share a similar signaling control of Fgf-8, Pitx-2, Shh, Msx-1, Pax-9 and Bmp-4 genes at the stage of oral epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development.

  2. Role of chemotherapy and targeted therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, Misako; Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2018-01-01

    Adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy is accepted as standard of care in stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and is often considered in patients with stage IB disease who have tumors ≥ 4 cm. The survival advantage is modest with approximately 5% at 5 years. Areas covered: This review article presents relevant data regarding chemotherapy use in the perioperative setting for early stage NSCLC. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed as well as clinical trial.gov. Randomized phase III studies in this setting including adjuvant and neoadjuvant use of chemotherapy as well as ongoing trials on targeted therapy and immunotherapy are also discussed. Expert commentary: With increasing utilization of screening computed tomography scans, it is possible that the percentage of early stage NSCLC patients will increase in the coming years. Benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage NSCLC patients remain modest. There is a need to better define patients most likely to derive survival benefit from adjuvant therapy and spare patients who do not need adjuvant chemotherapy due to the toxicity of such therapy. Trials for adjuvant targeted therapy, including adjuvant EGFR-TKI trials and trials of immunotherapy drugs are ongoing and will define the role of these agents as adjuvant therapy.

  3. A deformation-based morphometry study of patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, P; Østergaard, Karen; Cumming, P

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) utilized primarily voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and investigated mostly patients with moderate- to late-stage disease. We now use deformation-based morphometry (DBM), a method...... purported to be more sensitive than VBM, to test for atrophy in patients with early-stage PD. METHODS: T1-weighted MRI images from 24 early-stage PD patients and 26 age-matched normal control subjects were compared using DBM. Two separate studies were conducted, where two minimally-biased nonlinear...... intensity-average were created; one for all subjects and another for just the PD patients. The DBM technique creates an average population-based MRI-average in an iterative hierarchical fashion. The nonlinear transformations estimated to match each subject to the MRI-average were then analysed. RESULTS...

  4. The power of personality in discriminating between healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchek, Janet M; Balota, David A; Storandt, Martha; Larsen, Randy

    2007-11-01

    This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO Five-Factor Inventory. On the basis of both self-report and informant report, there was an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness in persons with very mild DAT relative to healthy individuals without it, and in persons with mild DAT relative to those with very mild DAT. Moreover, informant reports of neuroticism and conscientiousness capture substantial unique variance in discriminating healthy aging and very mild DAT, above and beyond standard neuropsychological tests. Discussion focuses on the importance of personality traits as a noncognitive indicator of early-stage DAT.

  5. Impact of early stage non-equilibrium dynamics on photon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, L; Plumari, S; Scardina, F; Greco, V; Ruggieri, M

    2017-01-01

    In this study we discuss our results on the spectrum of photons emitted from the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies. Simulating the space-time evolution of the fireball by solving the relativistic Boltzmann transport equation and including two-particle scattering processes with photon emission allows us to make a first step in the description of thermal photons from the QGP as well as of those produced in the pre-equilibrium stage. Indeed, we consider not only a standard Glauber initial condition but also a model in which quarks and gluons are produced in the very early stage through the Schwinger mechanism by the decay of an initial color-electric field. In the latter approach relativistic kinetic equations are coupled in a self-consistent way to field equations. We aim at spotting the impact of early stage non-equilibrium dynamics on the photon production. (paper)

  6. Treatment of Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Surgery or Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esengül Koçak Uzel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC has improved recently due to advances in surgical and radiation modalities. Minimally-invasive procedures like Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS lobectomy decreases the morbidity of surgery, while the numerous methods of staging the mediastinum such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsies are helping to achieve the objectives much more effectively. Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR has become the frontrunner as the standard of care in medically inoperable early stage NSCLC patients, and has also been branded as tolerable and highly effective. Ongoing researches using SABR are continuously validating the optimal dosing and fractionation schemes, while at the same time instituting its role for both inoperable and operable patients.

  7. Assessment of Early Stage Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’sDisease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Gümüş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, our purpose is, in the early stage of PD, examining the frequency of occurrence of non-motor symptoms and discussing the effects of morbidity of disease. METHODS: Selcuk University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Neurology outpatient clinic in the study, which is followed by the United Kingdom Brain Bank criteria for Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease diagnosis and clinical staging according to Hoehn Yahr stages 1 and 2 of the 80 patients were studied. RESULTS: Cases, an increase in UPDRS scores were significantly higher non-motor symptoms. CONCLUSION: Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease can often go unnoticed. Symptomatic treatment is an important part of the success. Therefore, PH and the non-motor symptoms, early detection is important to treat them in accordance with

  8. Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed Ahmed; Skoetz, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined modality treatment (CMT) consisting of chemotherapy followed by localised radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, due to long term adverse effects such as secondary malignancies, the role of radiotherapy has been...... chemotherapy regimen plus radiotherapy. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing chemotherapy alone with CMT in patients with early stage HL. Trials in which the chemotherapy differed between treatment arms were excluded. Trials with more than 20% of patients in advanced stage were also...... excluded. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Effect measures used were hazard ratios (HR) for tumour control and OS as well as relative risks for response rates. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed quality of trials. We contacted study authors to obtain missing information. Since none...

  9. Environmental exposure of Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages to essential trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Aaron K; Dutton, Jessica; Sclafani, Matthew; Santangelo, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the accumulation Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages (egg, embryo and larvae) and compared the concentrations to the concentration of each element in sediment, pore water and overlying water for 5 sites across Long Island, NY. For the majority of the sites, all essential trace elements accumulated in the embryos and larvae. However, many of the embryos and larvae at specific sites presented different concentration patterns which had no apparent relationship with the local habitat sediment and water values. Generally, Cu, Fe, and Se sequentially increased from egg stage through larval stages for the majority of sites, while Co, Mn, and Ni only did for a few sites. Zinc also showed an increase across sites from embryo to larval stage, however was the only one to show a decrease in concentration from egg to embryo stage at all sites. Interestingly, Mn at Manhasset Bay presented embryo and larval stages to be 50 fold greater than all other sites while the egg stage showed similar values to other sites; this high degree of uptake could be due to a high concentration in the overlying water. All essential trace elements can be accumulated from the environment but greater concentrations may be influenced by abiotic factors and the predominant uptake route (aqueous versus diet) at each life stage. Future laboratory experiments are required to investigate factors that influence essential trace element accumulation and loss in horseshoe crab early life stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Features of psychoemotional state of pregnant women with missed abortion in the early stages of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Bala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine peculiarities of psychoemotional state of pregnant women with missed abortion in the early stages of pregnancy. Patients and methods. The study included 60 women with missed abortion in the early stages of pregnancy (I group and 30 women with an advanced pregnancy to 8 weeks of gestation (II control group. To determine peculiarities of psychoemotional status of women conducted a survey according to standard methods: determination of the level of neuropsychic tension on questionnaire Nemchina, the level of anxiety according to the scale Spielberg—Hanin, the level of anxiety on a scale of Taylor—Norakidze. Results. Analysis of psychoemotional state groups have demonstrated that pregnant women with physiological course of pregnancy at an early stage (group II is characterized by a moderate level of mental stress (40.8±1.3 on a scale of Nemchina, the average level of personal and reactive anxiety (38.6±1.1 and 37.2±1.2, respectively according to the scale Spielberg—Hanin, the average anxiety level on a scale of Taylor— Norakidze. In women with the missed abortion at the early stages of pregnancy there is a high level of psychoemotional load, reactive anxiety (57.3±1.6, mental stress (of 62.6±1.4 and anxiety (31.8±2.3 years. Conclusions. The obtained results indicate the need for strong psychological support and if necessary medical assistance to women with missed abortion in the early stages of pregnancy, since the accession of psychopathological symptoms does not contribute to the psycho-emotional adaptation and can provoke the development of psychosomatic pathological syndromes in postabortion period and on the phase of rehabilitation and subsequent pregravid preparation.

  11. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen-Xin; Xiang, Pu; Gong, Jian-Ping; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015), Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015), PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015), Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm) or early stage (≤3 cm) HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528) to liver resection (n=419) for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.98, P=0.04; and RR =0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.94, P=0.02, respectively). Ten studies involving 2,501 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=1,476) to liver resection (n=1,025) for single BCLC early HCC. In these ten studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were also significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (RR =0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98, P=0.003; RR =0.84, 95% CI

  12. Transarterial chemoembolization in very early and early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma patients excluded from curative treatment: A prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargellini, Irene; Sacco, Rodolfo; Bozzi, Elena; Bertini, Marco; Ginanni, Barbara; Romano, Antonio; Cicorelli, Antonio; Tumino, Emanuele; Federici, Graziana; Cioni, Roberto; Metrangolo, Salvatore; Bertoni, Michele; Bresci, Giampaolo; Parisi, Giuseppe; Altomare, Emanuele; Capria, Alfonso; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess clinical outcome of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in a series of patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), within Milan criteria, but clinically unfit for liver transplantation (OLT). Methods: From January 2006 to May 2009, 67 patients (43 males, mean age 70 ± 7.6 years) with very early or early-stage unresectable HCC, within Milan selection criteria but clinically unfit for OLT, underwent TACE. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were: safety, liver toxicity, 1-month tumour response according to the amended RECIST criteria, time to local and distant intrahepatic tumour recurrence and time to radiological progression. Results: Two major periprocedural complications occurred (3%), consisting of liver failure. Periprocedural mortality rate was 1.5% (1 patient). A significant increase in ALT and bilirubin levels 24 h after treatment was reported, with progressive decrease at discharge. At 1-month follow-up, complete and partial tumour response rates were 67.2% and 29.8%, respectively, with two cases of progressive disease. Mean follow-up was 37.3 ± 15 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 90.9%, 86.1%, and 80.5%, respectively. Median expected time to local tumour recurrence and intrahepatic tumour recurrence were 7.9 and 13.8 months, respectively. Radiological disease progression was observed in 12 patients (17.9%) with a mean expected time of 26.5 months. Conclusion: In patients with early-stage HCC, clinically excluded from OLT and unfit for surgery or percutaneous ablation, TACE is a safe and effective option, with favourable long-term survival.

  13. [Fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Yang, Chuan-Zhong; Li, Huan; Wen, Wei; Huang, Fang-Fang; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Shi, Yu-Ping; Yu, Yan-Liang; Chen, Li-Lian; Yuan, Rui-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Yu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth. A total of 98 preterm infants were enrolled and divided into extremely preterm infant group (n=17), early preterm infant group (n=48), and moderate-to-late preterm infant group (n=33). According to the dose of fat emulsion, they were further divided into low- and high-dose subgroups. The umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth were collected. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines. The extremely preterm infant and early preterm infant groups had a significantly lower content of long-chain acylcarnitines in the umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth than the moderate-to-late preterm infant group (Pemulsion subgroup had a significantly higher content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines than the high-dose fat emulsion subgroup among the extremely preterm infants (Pemulsion subgroups within 3 days after birth. Compared with moderate-to-late preterm infants, extremely preterm infants and early preterm infants have a lower capacity to metabolize long-chain fatty acids within 3 days after birth. Early preterm infants and moderate-to-late preterm infants may tolerate high-dose fat emulsion in the early stage after birth, but extremely preterm infants may have an insufficient capacity to metabolize high-dose fat emulsion.

  14. Effects of copper on early developmental stages of Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Phaeophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Loretto [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); Medina, Matias H. [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); CIIMAR - Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Andrade, Santiago [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); Oppliger, Valeria [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); Correa, Juan A. [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: jcorrea@bio.puc.cl

    2007-01-15

    Copper effects on the early developmental gametophytic and sporophytic stages of the kelp Lessonia nigrescens were tested in gradients of increasing concentrations of ASV-labile copper. The results demonstrated a high sensitivity to copper of all life-history stages of the alga, where even the lowest tested concentration affected spore release as well as their subsequent settlement. More significant, concentrations higher than 7.87 {mu}g L{sup -1} totally interrupted the development of the spores after they settle. This effect led to a failure in the formation of male and female gametophytes and, as a consequence, to a complete disruption of the normal life cycle of the kelp. Thus, we suggest that the absence of L. nigrescens from copper-enriched environments results from the high sensitivity of its early life cycle stages, which limits growth and maturation of the gametophytic microscopic phase and, as a consequence, prevents development of the macroscopic sporophytic phase. - Early developmental stages of Lessonia nigrescens are highly sensitive to copper.

  15. Identification of early B cell precursors (stage 1 and 2 hematogones) in the peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzer, Jason H; Weinberg, Olga K

    2018-05-25

    Differentiating malignant B-lymphoblasts from early benign B cell precursors (hematogones) is a vital component of the diagnosis of B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. It has been previously reported that only late-stage B cell precursors circulate in the peripheral blood. Consequently, flow cytometric detection of cells with immunophenotypic findings similar to earlier stage precursors in the peripheral blood justifiably raises concern for involvement by B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. We report here, however, that benign early B cell precursors can indeed be detected in the peripheral blood, thus complicating the interpretation of flow cytometric findings derived from these sample types. A retrospective search of our collective databases identified 13 cases containing circulating early stage B cell precursors. The patients ranged in age from 15 days to 85 years old. All positive cases demonstrated that the earlier B cell precursors were associated with later stage precursors, a finding that could help differentiate these cells from B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Effects of copper on early developmental stages of Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Phaeophyceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, Loretto; Medina, Matias H.; Andrade, Santiago; Oppliger, Valeria; Correa, Juan A.

    2007-01-01

    Copper effects on the early developmental gametophytic and sporophytic stages of the kelp Lessonia nigrescens were tested in gradients of increasing concentrations of ASV-labile copper. The results demonstrated a high sensitivity to copper of all life-history stages of the alga, where even the lowest tested concentration affected spore release as well as their subsequent settlement. More significant, concentrations higher than 7.87 μg L -1 totally interrupted the development of the spores after they settle. This effect led to a failure in the formation of male and female gametophytes and, as a consequence, to a complete disruption of the normal life cycle of the kelp. Thus, we suggest that the absence of L. nigrescens from copper-enriched environments results from the high sensitivity of its early life cycle stages, which limits growth and maturation of the gametophytic microscopic phase and, as a consequence, prevents development of the macroscopic sporophytic phase. - Early developmental stages of Lessonia nigrescens are highly sensitive to copper

  17. Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIUS SUWANTO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at early developmental stages. Biodiversitas 11 (2: 65-68.Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP was used to monitor the dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with early developmental stages of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. Samples for analysis were egg, hatching nauplii, 24 hours old nauplii, and 48 hours old nauplii which were collected from one cycle of production at commercial hatchery. T-RFLP results indicated that the bacterial community associated with early stages of shrimp development might be transferred vertically from broodstock via egg. There was no significant difference between bacterial communities investigated, except the bacterial community of 48 hours old nauplii. Diversity analyses showed that the bacterial community of egg had the highest diversity and evenness, meanwhile the bacterial community of 48 hours old nauplii had the lowest diversity. Nine phylotypes were found at all stages with high abundance. Those TRFs were identified as γ- proteobacteria, α-proteobacteria, and bacteroidetes group.

  18. Optimization of a novel enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y F; Bronlund, J E; Allsop, T F; Shilton, A N; Edmonds, R L

    2010-01-01

    An enzyme treatment process for early-stage processing of sheepskins has been previously reported by the Leather and Shoe Research Association of New Zealand (LASRA) as an alternative to current industry operations. The newly developed process had marked benefits over conventional processing in terms of a lowered energy usage (73%), processing time (47%) as well as water use (49%), but had been developed as a "proof of principle''. The objective of this work was to develop the process further to a stage ready for adoption by industry. Mass balancing was used to investigate potential modifications for the process based on the understanding developed from a detailed analysis of preliminary design trials. Results showed that a configuration utilising a 2 stage counter-current system for the washing stages and segregation and recycling of enzyme float prior to dilution in the neutralization stage was a significant improvement. Benefits over conventional processing include a reduction of residual TDS by 50% at the washing stages and 70% savings on water use overall. Benefits over the un-optimized LASRA process are reduction of solids in product after enzyme treatment and neutralization stages by 30%, additional water savings of 21%, as well as 10% savings of enzyme usage.

  19. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  20. Vascular Cognitive Impairment Linked to Brain Endothelium Inflammation in Early Stages of Heart Failure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Mateusz G; Sternak, Magdalena; Mohaissen, Tasnim; Kaczor, Dawid; Wierońska, Joanna M; Malinowska, Monika; Czaban, Iwona; Byk, Katarzyna; Lyngsø, Kristina S; Przyborowski, Kamil; Hansen, Pernille B L; Wilczyński, Grzegorz; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2018-03-26

    Although advanced heart failure (HF) is a clinically documented risk factor for vascular cognitive impairment, the occurrence and pathomechanisms of vascular cognitive impairment in early stages of HF are equivocal. Here, we characterize vascular cognitive impairment in the early stages of HF development and assess whether cerebral hypoperfusion or prothrombotic conditions are involved. Tgαq*44 mice with slowly developing isolated HF triggered by cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of G-αq*44 protein were studied before the end-stage HF, at the ages of 3, 6, and 10 months: before left ventricle dysfunction; at the stage of early left ventricle diastolic dysfunction (with preserved ejection fraction); and left ventricle diastolic/systolic dysfunction, respectively. In 6- to 10-month-old but not in 3-month-old Tgαq*44 mice, behavioral and cognitive impairment was identified with compromised blood-brain barrier permeability, most significantly in brain cortex, that was associated with myelin sheet loss and changes in astrocytes and microglia. Brain endothelial cells displayed increased E-selectin immunoreactivity, which was accompanied by increased amyloid-β 1-42 accumulation in piriform cortex and increased cortical oxidative stress (8-OHdG immunoreactivity). Resting cerebral blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging in vivo was preserved, but ex vivo NO-dependent cortical arteriole flow regulation was impaired. Platelet hyperreactivity was present in 3- to 10-month-old Tgαq*44 mice, but it was not associated with increased platelet-dependent thrombogenicity. We report for the first time that vascular cognitive impairment is already present in the early stage of HF development, even before left ventricle systolic dysfunction. The underlying pathomechanism, independent of brain hypoperfusion, involves preceding platelet hyperreactivity and brain endothelium inflammatory activation. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  1. Intrinsic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C; Schultz, Bernadette; Fruth, Daniela; Fabian, Eric; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Hidding, Björn; Salinas, Edward R

    2017-09-01

    Early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio, zf) are gaining attention as an alternative invivo test system for drug discovery, early developmental toxicity screenings and chemical testing in ecotoxicological and toxicological testing strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated transcriptional evidence for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) during early zf development. However, elaborate experiments on XME activities during development are incomplete. In this work, the intrinsic activities of representative phase I and II XME were monitored by transformation of putative zf model substrates analyzed using photometry and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques. Six different defined stages of zf development (between 2.5 h postfertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf) were investigated by preparing a subcellular fraction from whole organism homogenates. We demonstrated that zf embryos as early as 2.5 hpf possess intrinsic metabolic activities for esterase, Aldh, Gst, and Cyp1a above the methodological detection limit. The activities of the enzymes Cyp3a and Nat were measurable during later stages in development. Activities represent dynamic patterns during development. The role of XME activities revealed in this work is relevant for the assessing toxicity in this test system and therefore contributes to a valuable characterization of zf embryos as an alternative testing organism in toxicology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Complications after radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy in early-stage cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdin, E.; Cnattingius, S.; Johnson, P.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the overall complications, major as well as minor, in patients treated for early-stage cervical carcinoma as related to treatment parameters. Methods: In this retrospective study, 167 consecutive patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma treated with preoperative radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy were investigated. Clinical data were collected from the medical files. Results: Transient or permanent complications appeared in up to half of all patients. Seven percent exhibited intraoperative complications and 35% suffered from early postoperative urinary tract problems; most frequently urinary tract infection. After one year, the urinary tract complications dominated; voidance difficulties and incontinence being most common. Gastrointestinal complications occurred in 15% of patients. Lymphedema appeared during the first year in 21% of the patients but several of the mild or moderate cases improved after the first year. The relative risk of lymphedema was increased with shorter duration of surgery, extensive preoperative irradiation to the bladder and after external postoperative irradiation. Some form of late sequelae remained in every fifth patient, and every fourth patient, aged 23-44 years, periodically suffered from vasomotor symptoms despite estrogen replacement therapy. Conclusion: The complications after radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy in early stage cervical carcinoma suggest that attempts should be made to evaluate effective treatments designed to minimize risk to the patients. (au) 29 refs

  3. Driving in Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rebecca L; Ohman, Jennifer M

    2017-03-01

    One of the most difficult decisions for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is when to stop driving. Because driving is a fundamental activity linked to socialization, independent functioning, and well-being, making the decision to stop driving is not easy. Cognitive decline in older adults can lead to getting lost while driving, difficulty detecting and avoiding hazards, as well as increased errors while driving due to compromised judgment and difficulty in making decisions. The purpose of the current literature review was to synthesize evidence regarding how individuals with early-stage AD, their families, and providers make determinations about driving safety, interventions to increase driving safety, and methods to assist cessation and coping for individuals with early-stage AD. The evidence shows that changes in driving ability start early and progress throughout the trajectory of AD. Some individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early-stage AD may be safe to drive for a period of time. Support groups aimed at helping with the transition have been shown to be helpful for individuals who stop driving. Research and practice must support interventions to help individuals maintain safety while driving, as well as cope with driving cessation. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(2):86-100.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Complications after radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy in early-stage cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdin, E. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Gynecologic Oncology, Uppsala (Sweden); Cnattingius, S. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Social Medicine, Uppsala (Sweden); Johnson, P. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate the overall complications, major as well as minor, in patients treated for early-stage cervical carcinoma as related to treatment parameters. Methods: In this retrospective study, 167 consecutive patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma treated with preoperative radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy were investigated. Clinical data were collected from the medical files. Results: Transient or permanent complications appeared in up to half of all patients. Seven percent exhibited intraoperative complications and 35% suffered from early postoperative urinary tract problems; most frequently urinary tract infection. After one year, the urinary tract complications dominated; voidance difficulties and incontinence being most common. Gastrointestinal complications occurred in 15% of patients. Lymphedema appeared during the first year in 21% of the patients but several of the mild or moderate cases improved after the first year. The relative risk of lymphedema was increased with shorter duration of surgery, extensive preoperative irradiation to the bladder and after external postoperative irradiation. Some form of late sequelae remained in every fifth patient, and every fourth patient, aged 23-44 years, periodically suffered from vasomotor symptoms despite estrogen replacement therapy. Conclusion: The complications after radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy in early stage cervical carcinoma suggest that attempts should be made to evaluate effective treatments designed to minimize risk to the patients. (au) 29 refs.

  5. Subcortical grey matter changes in untreated, early stage Parkinson's disease without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Mi; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Kim, Min-Jik; Jang, Ji-Wan; Suh, Sang-Il; Koh, Seong-Beom; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Previous MRI studies have investigated cortical or subcortical grey matter changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), yielding inconsistent findings between the studies. We therefore sought to determine whether focal cortical or subcortical grey matter changes may be present from the early disease stage. We recruited 49 untreated, early stage PD patients without dementia and 53 control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate cortical grey matter changes, and automated volumetry and shape analysis were used to assess volume changes and shape deformation of the subcortical grey matter structures, respectively. Voxel-based morphometry showed neither reductions nor increases in grey matter volume in patients compared to controls. Compared to controls, PD patients had significant reductions in adjusted volumes of putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus (corrected p grey matter and clinical variables representing disease duration and severity. Our results suggest that untreated, early stage PD without dementia is associated with volume reduction and shape deformation of subcortical grey matter, but not with cortical grey matter reduction. Our findings of structural changes in the posterolateral putamen and ventromedial putamen/nucleus accumbens could provide neuroanatomical basis for the involvement of motor and limbic striatum, further implicating motor and non-motor symptoms in PD, respectively. Early hippocampal involvement might be related to the risk for developing dementia in PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by the Synthetic Lactoferricin Derived Peptide hLF1-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Paola; Fais, Roberta; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Tavanti, Arianna; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms. Exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) was used to rescue morphogenesis in cells exposed to the peptide. The results revealed that hLF1-11 exhibited an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all C. albicans isolates tested in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. Visual inspection of treated or untreated biofilm cells with an inverted microscope revealed a significant reduction in hyphal formation by hLF1-11 treated cells, as early as 3 hours of incubation. Moreover, hLF1-11 showed a reduced activity on preadherent cells. hLF1-11 induced the down-regulation of biofilm and hyphal-associated genes, which were predominantly regulated via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Indeed, exogenous db-cAMP restored morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated cells. The hLF1-11 peptide significantly inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans mainly at early stages, interfering with biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity, and affected morphogenesis through the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Our findings provide the first evidence that hLF1-11 could represent a potential candidate for the prevention of biofilm formation by C. albicans.

  7. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of chronic hepatitis C on the early stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Zhevnerova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – to assess the clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC on the early stages of development and their comparison with the level of galectin3. The study included 78 patients with oligosymptomatic course of the disease and minimal liver fibrosis in the most cases. In the most patients with stages of the disease exceeding 8 years, viral load was over a million copies/ml. In 10 % of patients on the early stages of the disease, changes corresponding to severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis F3 and F4 were detected. Moderate correlation of ALT activity, viral load and low severity with the duration of the disease was identified. There is a trend towards a higher level of galectin3 in a long course of CHC in comparison with earlier stages of its development, with significantly higher average level of galectin-3 in patients with minimal liver fibrosis (F0–F1 as compared to advanced stages, suggesting its importance in the launching and initial mechanisms of fibrogenesis.

  8. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 sigma factor K in early-stage sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David G; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-07-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σ(K) is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods.

  9. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Molls, Christoph; Luers, Jan C; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens P; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors in therapy and prognosis for patients with parotid gland cancer. Nevertheless, the extent of the primary tumor resection and the necessity of a neck dissection still is a common issue. Since little is known about lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymph node metastases in T1 and T2 carcinomas and its impact on local control and survival. We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients with early-stage (T1 and T2) primary parotid gland cancer. All patients were treated with parotidectomy and an ipsilateral neck dissection from 1987 to 2009. Clinicopathological and survival parameters were calculated. The median follow-up time was 51.7 months. A positive pathological lymph node stage (pN+) was found in 21.4% of patients with a significant correlation to the clinical lymph node stage (cN) (p = 0.061). There were no differences in the clinical and histopathological data between pN- and pN+ patients. In 73.3% of pN+ patients, the metastases were located intraparotideal. The incidence of occult metastases (pN+/cN-) was 17.2%. Of all patients with occult metastases, 30.0% had extraparotideal lymphatic spread. A positive lymph node stage significantly indicated a poorer 5-year overall as well as 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to pN- patients (p = 0.048; p = 0.011). We propose total parotidectomy in combination with at least a level II-III selective neck dissection in any case of early-stage parotid gland cancer.

  10. Early stages of the HIV epidemic among injecting drug users: Lessons to be learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Injecting drug use driving the HIV epidemic is currently a major global public health concern. However, the early epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs, more than three decades ago, was only concentrated in few places. The HIV epidemic among the IDUs in New York, USA; Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; and northern Italy provides examples of where the recorded prevalence exceeded 50% within a very short period of time. This brief review highlights historical perspectives of HIV transmission risk among IDUs during the early stages of the epidemic. Salient features and related experiences during this period might provide valuable insights for current HIV prevention. Our overview of the selected locations reemphasizes the importance of early prevention. The discussion also introduces to new researchers the early situation associated with the HIV epidemic in IDUs and highlights some crucial components need to be included during current HIV prevention activities.

  11. Renal cell carcinoma in long-term survivors of advanced stage neuroblastoma in early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleitz, Julie M.; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Kurzrock, Eric A.; Wyatt-Ashmead, Josephine; McGavran, Loris; Koyle, Martin; Odom, Lorrie F.; West, Daniel C.; Martin, Kenneth W.

    2003-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare in children and comprises only 1-3% of all pediatric primary renal tumors. Recently, several case reports have described RCC developing in patients previously treated for advanced stage neuroblastoma (NB). Our experience with four patients treated for advanced stage NB during early childhood who developed RCC later in life are added to 14 others in the literature. These patients and our review of the literature suggest an association between RCC and NB that warrants further study. (orig.)

  12. Change in radiosensitivity on the development of sea urchin eggs during the early cleavage stage, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Izumi

    1975-01-01

    The effect of cysteamine on the fluctuation of X-ray sensitivity during early cleavage stage of sea urchin eggs expressed by pluteus formation rate was examined. Sea urchin eggs were very resistant to radiation immediately after insemination or after S phase of the cleavage. When irradiation was given just prior to S phase or in the phase of cytokinesis, the eggs were very sensitive. In these sensitive stages, existence of cysteamine during X-irradiation apparently protected eggs against radiation effect. Dose modifying factor increased linearly from 1.8 to 3.4 with increasing dose of cysteamine (25mM-75mM) added. (auth.)

  13. ABC transporters and xenobiotic defense systems in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Christian; Segner, Helmut; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of oviparous fish, in contrast to (ovo) viviparous species, develop in the aquatic environment, and therefore need solute transport systems at their body surfaces for maintaining internal homeostasis and defending against potentially harmful substances. We hypothesized that solute transporters undergo changes in tissue distribution from the embryo to the larval stage. We therefore studied the mRNA profiles of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5, abcg2) and three solute carriers (oatp1d, putative oatp2 putative, mate1) in different body regions (head, yolk sac epithelium, abdominal viscera, skin/muscles) of developing rainbow trout. Additionally, we investigated mRNA levels of phase I (cyp1a, cyp3a) and phase II (gstp, putative ugt1, putative ugt2) biotransformation enzymes. The study covered the developmental period from the eleuthero-embryo stage to the first-feeding larval stage (1-20days post-hatch, dph). At 1dph, transcripts of abcc2, abcc4, abcg2, cyp3a, gstp, putative mate1, and putative oatp2 occurred primarily in the yolk sac epithelium, whereas at later stages expression of these genes was predominantly observed in the abdominal viscera. The functional activity of ABC transporters in fish early life stages was assessed by rhodamine B accumulation assays. Finally, we investigated the potential impact of xenobiotics (clotrimazole, clofibric acid) on the ABC and biotransformation systems of trout early life stages. While clofibric acid had no effect, clotrimazole lead to an increased rhodamine B accumulation. The results provide evidence that the transition from the eleuthero-embryo to the larval stage is accompanied by a major alteration in tissue expression of ABC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Inflammasome and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at early stage of burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Li, Jiahui; Xia, Zhaofan

    2014-06-01

    Inflammasomes are large multi-protein complexes that serve as a platform for caspase-1 activation, and this process induces subsequent maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as pyroptosis. As an important component of the innate immune system, early activation of inflammasomes in a variety of immune cell subsets can mediate inflammatory response and immunological conditions after burn injury. Here, we review the current knowledge of inflammasomes and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at the early stage of burn injury.

  15. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.O.; Orton, M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, B. [Univ. of Leicester, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, Leicester (United Kingdom); Tofts, P.S. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Univ. of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Sussex (United Kingdom); Buckley, D.L. [University of Leeds, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Huang, W. [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Advanced Imaging Research Centre, Portland, OR (United States); Horsfield, M.A. [Medical Physics Section, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chenevert, T.L. [Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Collins, D.J. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jackson, A. [Univ. of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Withington, Manchester, M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Lomas, D. [Univ. of Cambridge, Dept. of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Whitcher, B. [Unit 2 Greenways Business Park, Mango Solutions, Chippenham (United Kingdom); Clarke, L. [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States); Plummer, R. [Univ. of Newcastle Upon Tyne, The Medical School, Medical Oncology, Northern Inst. for Cancer Research, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Judson, I. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jones, R. [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Alonzi, R. [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood (United Kingdom); Brunner, T. [Gray Inst. for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Koh, D.M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Diagnostic Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2012-07-15

    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  16. Early stage cervical cancer, radical hysterectomy and sexual function: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Tine

    Background: Limited knowledge exists regarding the impact of treatment on the sexual function of early stage cervical cancer patients. We investigated the longitudinal course of self-reported sexual function after radical hysterectomy (RH) alone. Methods: 173 patients with lymph node-negative early...... stage cervical cancer who had undergone RH and pelvic lymphadenectomy alone were assessed prospectively using a validated self-assessment questionnaire 5 weeks and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after RH. Results were compared with an age-matched control group from the general population. At 12 months post......-surgery, the patients completed an extended version of the questionnaire with additional items assessing the patient’s perception of changes in sexual function compared with before the cancer diagnosis. Results: Compared with control women, patients experienced severe orgasmic problems and uncomfortable sexual...

  17. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  18. Method and simulation program informed decisions in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    variations. The program then presents the output in a way that enables designers to make informed decisions. The method and the program reduce the need for design iterations, reducing time consumption and construction costs, to obtain the intended energy performance and indoor environment....... for making informed decisions in the early stages of building design to fulfil performance requirements with regard to energy consumption and indoor environment. The method is operationalised in a program that utilises a simple simulation program to make performance predictions of user-defined parameter......The early stages of building design include a number of decisions which have a strong influence on the performance of the building throughout the rest of the process. It is therefore important that designers are aware of the consequences of these design decisions. This paper presents a method...

  19. The value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Brian; Tanev, Stoyan; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    of the needs of early stage start-ups since they: i) do not have a well-articulated business model but work towards establishing one; ii) operate under conditions of significantly high risks and uncertainties; and iii) have not developed the minimum viable set of partners that would enable them to demonstrate...... in specific incubation programs. The findings should contribute to existing literature within the topic of business-incubation, as well as provide managers of both incubators and start-ups with actionable insights about the ways of maximizing the value of incubation services.......The paper focuses on conceptualizing the value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups that are typical of university-based entrepreneurial ecosystems. The challenge of such conceptualization consists in two main issues. The first issue is taking into account the specificity...

  20. Tn5-induced pBS286 plasmid mutations blocking early stages of napthalene oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosheleva, I.A.; Tsoi, T.V.; Ivashina, T.V.; Selifonov, S.A.; Starovoitov, I.I.; Boronin, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present data on the further analysis of the structural and functional organization of the nah region of plasmid pBS286 controlling the constitutive oxidation of naphthalene by Pseudomonas putida cells. They have studied Tn5-induced mutations blocking early stages of naphthalene oxidation. They present and discuss data providing evidence that, in contrast to plasmid NAH7, the mechanism of regulation of the nahl operon of plasmid NPL-1, the parent plasmid of plasmid pBS286, with inducible synthesis of naphthalene dioxygenase can include elements of a negative control with participation of the regulatory locus R, located proximal to the structural nah genes and closely linked to or overlapped by the inverted control DNA segment (4.2 kb). They also present data on the possibility of regulation of the activity of the catechol-splitting meta-pathway genes with the participation of products of early stages of naphthalene oxidation

  1. Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for adults with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (Review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Oliver; von Tresckow, Bastian; Monsef, Ina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined modality treatment consisting of chemotherapy followed by localised radiotherapy is the standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, due to long- term adverse effects such as secondary malignancies the role of radiotherapy has been questioned...... recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chemotherapy alone compared to chemotherapy plus radiotherapy in adults with early stage HL . SEARCH METHODS: For the or i ginal version of this review, we searched MEDLINE, Embase......-related mortality (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.14 to 6.90; P = 0.99; low-quality evidence), there is no evidence for a difference between the use of chemotherapy alone and chemotherapy plus radiotherapy. CRR rate was not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review compared the effects of chemotherapy alone...

  2. Cognitive rehabilitation for elderly people with early-stage Alzheimer?s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive rehabilitation including tasks of cognitive training on performance of everyday activities in elderly people with early-stage Alzheimer?s disease. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three elderly people (15 men, 28 women) with a diagnosis of Alzheimer?s disease who had a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 18 or above were randomly assigned to two groups: the cognitive rehabilitation group (experimental) and co...

  3. The early-stage structural evolution of the Barmer Basin rift, Rajasthan, northwest India

    OpenAIRE

    Bladon, Andrew John

    2015-01-01

    The structural evolution of the Barmer Basin and the context of the rift within the northwest Indian region are poorly understood, despite being a prolific hydrocarbon province. In this work an integrated basin analysis is presented covering the outcrop-, seismic-, and lithosphere-scales. The early-stage structural evolution and the origin of poorly understood structural complications in the Barmer Basin subsurface are assessed. Subsequently, the findings are placed within the wider context o...

  4. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness

    OpenAIRE

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of seventy-two Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized tha...

  5. Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage uterine leiomyosarcoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Fucà, Giovanni; Maltese, Giuseppa; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Scaffa, Cono; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Lecce, Francesca; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Lorusso, Domenica

    2016-11-01

    We sought to review the current evidence in order to test the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in improving disease-free survival in patients affected by early stage uterine leiomyosarcoma. On July 2016, literature was searched in order to identify trials comparing different postoperative adjuvant strategies for patients diagnosed with early stage uterine leiomyosarcoma. Our analysis included 360 patients: 145 (40%), 53 (15%), and 155 (43%) had chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy), radiotherapy, and observation, respectively. Seven (2%) patients who had radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy were excluded from further analysis in order to reduce risk of biases. Administration of chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy) did not improve outcomes in comparison to observation (OR: 0.79 (95%CI: 0.48, 1.29)), or radiotherapy (OR: 0.90 (95%CI: 0.42, 1.94)). Loco-regional recurrence rate was similar comparing patients undergoing chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy) with having observation alone (OR: 0.84 (95%CI: 0.44, 1.60)). Similarly, pooled results suggested that chemotherapy administration did not affect distant recurrence rate in comparison to no chemotherapy (OR: 0.80 (95%CI: 0.50, 1.28)), and observation alone (OR: 0.99 (95%CI: 0.60, 1.64)). However, patients undergoing chemotherapy (with or without radiotherapy) experienced a trend towards lower risk of developing distant recurrences (OR: 0.49 (95%CI: 0.24, 1.03)) and a higher risk of developing loco-regional recurrences (OR: 3.45 (95%CI: 1.02, 11.73)) than patients undergoing radiotherapy. In early stage uterine leiomyosarcoma, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy remains unclear. Owing to the high recurrence rate, even in the early stage of disease, further innovative therapeutic strategies have to be tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Stages of Figure–Ground Segregation during Perception of the Face–Vase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michael A.; Martínez, Antígona; Brewer, James B.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    The temporal sequence of neural processes supporting figure–ground perception was investigated by recording ERPs associated with subjects’ perceptions of the face–vase figure. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously reported whether they perceived the face or the vase as the foreground figure by pressing one of two buttons. Each button press triggered a probe flash to the face region, the vase region, or the borders between the two. The N170/vertex positive potential (VPP) component of the ERP elicited by probes to the face region was larger when subjects perceived the faces as figure. Preceding the N170/VPP, two additional components were identified. First, when the borders were probed, ERPs differed in amplitude as early as 110 msec after probe onset depending on subjects’ figure–ground perceptions. Second, when the face or vase regions were probed, ERPs were more positive (at ~150–200 msec) when that region was perceived as figure versus background. These components likely reflect an early “border ownership” stage, and a subsequent “figure–ground segregation” stage of processing. To explore the influence of attention on these stages of processing, two additional experiments were conducted. In Experiment 2, subjects selectively attended to the face or vase region, and the same early ERP components were again produced. In Experiment 3, subjects performed an identical selective attention task, but on a display lacking distinctive figure–ground borders, and neither of the early components were produced. Results from these experiments suggest sequential stages of processing underlying figure–ground perception, each which are subject to modifications by selective attention. PMID:20146604

  7. Early stages of figure-ground segregation during perception of the face-vase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michael A; Martínez, Antígona; Brewer, James B; Hillyard, Steven A

    2011-04-01

    The temporal sequence of neural processes supporting figure-ground perception was investigated by recording ERPs associated with subjects' perceptions of the face-vase figure. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously reported whether they perceived the face or the vase as the foreground figure by pressing one of two buttons. Each button press triggered a probe flash to the face region, the vase region, or the borders between the two. The N170/vertex positive potential (VPP) component of the ERP elicited by probes to the face region was larger when subjects perceived the faces as figure. Preceding the N170/VPP, two additional components were identified. First, when the borders were probed, ERPs differed in amplitude as early as 110 msec after probe onset depending on subjects' figure-ground perceptions. Second, when the face or vase regions were probed, ERPs were more positive (at ∼ 150-200 msec) when that region was perceived as figure versus background. These components likely reflect an early "border ownership" stage, and a subsequent "figure-ground segregation" stage of processing. To explore the influence of attention on these stages of processing, two additional experiments were conducted. In Experiment 2, subjects selectively attended to the face or vase region, and the same early ERP components were again produced. In Experiment 3, subjects performed an identical selective attention task, but on a display lacking distinctive figure-ground borders, and neither of the early components were produced. Results from these experiments suggest sequential stages of processing underlying figure-ground perception, each which are subject to modifications by selective attention.

  8. Evaluating the Significance of Viscoelasticity in Diagnosing Early-Stage Liver Fibrosis with Transient Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingxin; Zhai, Fei; Cheng, Jun; He, Qiong; Luo, Jianwen; Yang, Xueping; Shao, Jinhua; Xing, Huichun

    2017-01-01

    Transient elastography quantifies the propagation of a mechanically generated shear wave within a soft tissue, which can be used to characterize the elasticity and viscosity parameters of the tissue. The aim of our study was to combine numerical simulation and clinical assessment to define a viscoelastic index of liver tissue to improve the quality of early diagnosis of liver fibrosis. This is clinically relevant, as early fibrosis is reversible. We developed an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model of the liver to evaluate the effects of different viscoelastic values on the propagation characteristics of the shear wave. The diagnostic value of the identified viscoelastic index was verified against the clinical data of 99 patients who had undergone biopsy and routine blood tests for staging of liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and the shear wave attenuation fitting coefficient (AFC) were calculated from the ultrasound data obtained by performing transient elastography. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to evaluate the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of LSM and AFC. Compared to LSM, the AFC provided a higher diagnostic accuracy to differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis, namely F1 and F2 stages, with an overall specificity of 81.48%, sensitivity of 83.33% and diagnostic accuracy of 81.82%. AFC was influenced by the level of LSM, ALT. However, there are no correlation between AFC and Age, BMI, TBIL or DBIL. Quantification of the viscoelasticity of liver tissue provides reliable measurement to identify and differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis.

  9. Patients' preferences for adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer: is treatment worthwhile?

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, S J T; Kievit, J; Nooij, M A; Haes, J C J M de; Overpelt, I M E; Slooten, H van; Maartense, E; Stiggelbout, A M

    2001-01-01

    When making decisions about adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, costs and benefits of treatment should be carefully weighed. In this process, patients' preferences are of major importance. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine the minimum benefits that patients need to find chemotherapy acceptable, and (2) to explore potential preference determinants, namely: positive experience of the treatment, reconciliation with the treatment decision, and demographic...

  10. The moral legitimacy of entrepreneurs: An analysis of early-stage entrepreneurship across 26 countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Kibler, Ewald; Kautonen, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    This article will develop our socio-cultural understanding of entrepreneurship by examining the influence of the moral legitimacy of entrepreneurs in society on an individual’s engagement in early-stage entrepreneurship. A multilevel analysis conducted across 26 countries shows that the higher the perceived degree of moral legitimacy, the more likely an individual is to think about starting a business compared to not thinking about it; to start preparing a business as against just considering...

  11. Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    do it. Thus, instead of simply sequencing all the FFPE samples, we used 10 tumor samples (5 recurrent and 5 non recurrent ) to test sequencing and...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0521 TITLE: Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0521 Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in

  12. Procarti Forte in the Complex Treatment of Patients with Early-Stage Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Burianov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of the treatment of osteoarthritis. The review of current recommendations on the feasibility of using glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, using of SYSADOA drugs, metabolic drugs was performed. The study on the efficacy and safety of using combination drug Procarti Forte in the system of treatment of patients with early-stage osteoarthritis is presented.

  13. Characteristics of juvenile survivors reveal spatio-temporal differences in early life stage survival of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2014-01-01

    with previous modeling studies on the survival chances of early-stage larvae and with general spatio-temporal patterns of larval prey availability suggests that differences in survival are related to food availability during the early larval stage. Results are discussed in relation to the recruitment process...

  14. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

    2014-07-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Ontogeny and growth of early life stages of captive-bred European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of viable eggs and larvae of European eel, providing the basis for studies on early life stages of this species in captivity. In this study, we describe and illustrate morphological characteristics of eggs, embryos, and larvae from fertilization to termination of the yolk sac stage and provide a comparison...... forms a large perivitelline space, reaching an egg diameter of 1.45 ± 0.12 mm at 3.0 to 3.5 h post fertilization. Embryonic development from fertilization to larval hatch lasted ~46–48 h at 20 °C with the larvae emerging in a relatively undeveloped stage with a protuberant yolk sac. During the period......-sustained aquaculture of this high-value and critically endangered species. Statement of relevance: European eel is a high-value species in aquaculture, however, production is presently hampered by reliance on wild caught fry. Captive production of glass eels will reopen markets in Europe and Asia, benefiting European...

  16. Mitochondrial Epigenetic Changes Link to Increased Diabetes Risk and Early-Stage Prediabetes Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Louise D.; Linarelli, Leah E.; Brooke, Joseph; Smith, Cayleen; Wall, Sarah S.; Greenawald, Mark H.; Seidel, Richard W.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Almeida, Fabio A.; Cheng, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by mitochondrial derangement and oxidative stress. With no known cure for T2D, it is critical to identify mitochondrial biomarkers for early diagnosis of prediabetes and disease prevention. Here we examined 87 participants on the diagnosis power of fasting glucose (FG) and hemoglobin A1c levels and investigated their interactions with mitochondrial DNA methylation. FG and A1c led to discordant diagnostic results irrespective of increased body mass index (BMI), underscoring the need of new biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis. Mitochondrial DNA methylation levels were not correlated with late-stage (impaired FG or A1c) but significantly with early-stage (impaired insulin sensitivity) events. Quartiles of BMI suggested that mitochondrial DNA methylation increased drastically from Q1 (20 40, morbidly obese). A significant change was also observed from Q1 to Q2 in HOMA insulin sensitivity but not in A1c or FG. Thus, mitochondrial epigenetic changes link to increased diabetes risk and the indicator of early-stage prediabetes. Further larger-scale studies to examine the potential of mitochondrial epigenetic marker in prediabetes diagnosis will be of critical importance for T2D prevention. PMID:27298712

  17. Risk of Fatal Cerebrovascular Accidents after External Beam Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Glottic Larynx Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Lin, Alexander; Ahn, Peter; Wan, Fei; O’Malley, Bert; Weinstein, Gregory S.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compared the risk of fatal cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials Using a competing risks survival analysis, we compared the risk of death due to CVA among patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or EBRT in the SEER database. Results The cumulative incidence of fatal CVA at 15 years was higher in patients receiving EBRT (2.8 %; 95% CI 2.3%–3.4%) compared to surgery (1.5 %; 95% CI 0.8 %–2.3%, p= 0.024). In multivariable competing risks regression models, EBRT remained associated with an increased risk of fatal CVA compared to surgery (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.04–2.96, p= 0.037). Conclusion Treatment of early stage glottic larynx cancer with EBRT was associated with a small increase in the risk of late fatal CVA events relative to surgery. PMID:23595858

  18. Promoting emancipated decision-making for surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer among Jordanian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana F Obeidat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To use the critical social theory as a framework to analyze the oppression of Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer in the decision-making process for surgical treatment and suggest strategies to emancipate these women to make free choices. This is a discussion paper utilizing the critical social theory as a framework for analysis. The sexist and paternalistic ideology that characterizes Jordanian society in general and the medical establishment in particular as well as the biomedical ideology are some of the responsible ideologies for the fact that many Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer are denied the right to choose a surgical treatment according to their own preferences and values. The financial and political power of Jordanian medical organizations (e.g., Jordan Medical Council, the weakness of nursing administration in the healthcare system, and the hierarchical organization of Jordanian society, where men are first and women are second, support these oppressing ideologies. Knowledge is a strong tool of power. Jordanian nurses could empower women with early stage breast cancer by enhancing their knowledge regarding their health and the options available for surgical treatment. To successfully emancipate patients, education alone may not be enough; there is also a need for health care providers′ support and unconditional acceptance of choice. To achieve the aim of emancipating women with breast cancer from the oppression inherent in the persistence of mastectomy, Jordanian nurses need to recognize that they should first gain greater power and authority in the healthcare system.

  19. A peroxidase gene expressed during early developmental stages of the parasitic plant Orobanche ramosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Verdejo, Clara Isabel; Barandiaran, Xabier; Moreno, Maria Teresa; Cubero, José Ignacio; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) are holoparasitic weeds that cause devastating losses in many economically important crops. The molecular mechanisms that control the early stages of host infection in Orobanche are poorly understood. In the present study, the role of peroxidase has been examined during pre-infection growth and development of O. ramosa, using an in vitro model system. Peroxidase activity was histochemically localized at the tips of actively growing radicles and nascent attachment organs. Addition of exogenous catalase resulted in a significant reduction in the apical growth rate of the radicle. The prx1 gene encoding a putative class III peroxidase was cloned from a cDNA library of O. ramosa and was found to be expressed specifically during the early stages of the parasitic life cycle. The exogenous addition of sucrose resulted in significantly reduced prx1 transcript levels and in a dramatic change in radicle development from polarized apical growth to isotropic growth and the formation of tubercle-like structures. The results indicate an important role of peroxidases during the early parasitic stages of Orobanche.

  20. Promoting emancipated decision-making for surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer among Jordanian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Rana F.

    2015-01-01

    To use the critical social theory as a framework to analyze the oppression of Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer in the decision-making process for surgical treatment and suggest strategies to emancipate these women to make free choices. This is a discussion paper utilizing the critical social theory as a framework for analysis. The sexist and paternalistic ideology that characterizes Jordanian society in general and the medical establishment in particular as well as the biomedical ideology are some of the responsible ideologies for the fact that many Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer are denied the right to choose a surgical treatment according to their own preferences and values. The financial and political power of Jordanian medical organizations (e.g., Jordan Medical Council), the weakness of nursing administration in the healthcare system, and the hierarchical organization of Jordanian society, where men are first and women are second, support these oppressing ideologies. Knowledge is a strong tool of power. Jordanian nurses could empower women with early stage breast cancer by enhancing their knowledge regarding their health and the options available for surgical treatment. To successfully emancipate patients, education alone may not be enough; there is also a need for health care providers’ support and unconditional acceptance of choice. To achieve the aim of emancipating women with breast cancer from the oppression inherent in the persistence of mastectomy, Jordanian nurses need to recognize that they should first gain greater power and authority in the healthcare system. PMID:27981122

  1. The treatment effect of porous titanium alloy rod on the early stage talar osteonecrosis of sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Kang Li

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the talus (ONT may severely affect the function of the ankle joint. Most orthopedists believe that ONT should be treated at an early stage, but a concise and effective surgical treatment is lacking. In this study, porous titanium alloy rods were prepared and implanted into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT (IM group. The curative effect of the rods was compared to treatment by core decompression (DC group. No significant differences in bone reconstruction were observed between the two groups at 1 month after intervention. After 3 months, the macroscopic view of gross specimens of the IM group showed ordinary contours, but the specimens of the DC group showed obvious partial bone defects and cartilage degeneration. Quantitative analysis of the reconstructed trabeculae by micro-CT and histological study suggested that the curative effect of the IM group was superior to that of the DC group at 3 months after intervention. These favorable short-term results of the implantation of porous titanium alloy rods into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT may provide insight into an innovative surgical treatment for ONT.

  2. The Assessment of Early Stage Computed Tomography Findings in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebahat Taşdemir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The imaging techniques have become important tools during diagnostic stage of acute ischemic stroke during the last 30 years. The improvement in these techniques further increased the clinical areas that these tools could be used. As computerized brain tomography (CT is a rapid, cheap, non-invasive and highly available imaging tool in most hospitals, it remains to be the primary scanning method for all acute patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate the early stage CT findings in the ischemic stroke patients which have been scanned in the first 8 to 12 hours after the incidence. Sixty four cases (26 male, 38 female who had clinical symptoms of ischemic stroke have been included in this study. CT scan was performed twice to these patients; first in the first 8 to 12 hours, and second in between 24 hours and 48 hours after the stroke. The middle cerebral artery perfused area was the most common arterial area affected among cases who had CT findings in early scans. Hypodense lesions were most common lesions encountered in CT findings. Hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign in early CT findings could be an indicator of ischemia due to arterial occlusion. We determined that the CT images obtained at the beginning of developing stroke appeared to show the lesions smaller than what they really were. There were significant differences between the emergency room evaluation and detailed clinical evaluation of CT scans. More findings have been observed in late CT scans performed between 24 hours and 48 hours than the ones performed in the first 8 hours and 12 hours. There was no correlation between the presence of CT findings in early scans and severity of clinical features of ischemia. CT appears to be an important tool in diagnosing ischemic strokes even at early stages. Developments in diagnostic precision of CT tools will further increase our understanding of ischemic strokes and their clinical progress.

  3. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  4. Treatment of early stage breast cancer by limited surgery and radical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, A.M.; Cope, O.; Russo, R.; Wang, C.C.; Schulz, M.D.; Wang, C.; Rodkey, G.

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-five female patients with early stage breast cancer, i.e., Stage I and II were treated by limited surgery followed by radical radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between January, 1956 and December, 1974. Patients included those who were medically inoperable or who refused mastectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 83% and 76% for Stage I and II, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival (absolute) was 67% and 42%. Although the number of patients so treated is small, there was no significant difference in survival from the results of the radical mastectomy series at the same institution. No major complications were encountered. Seventeen of eighty-five patients developed minor problems; mostly fibrosis and minimal arm lymphedema stemmming from older orthovoltage equipment and treatment techniques. With the current availability of megavoltage equipment, improvements in techniques and dosimetry, complications should decrease. Combined limited surgery and radical radiation therapy should be considered in those patients where a radical mastectomy is not feasible because of psychological or medical problems. Since this procedure results in a cosmetically acceptable breast, radical radiation in early stage breast cancer seems a reasonable alternative to radical mastectomy

  5. Effectiveness of oxfendazole against early and later 4th-stage Strongylus vulgaris in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M; Pennock, P; Ducharme, N G; Baird, J D

    1986-03-01

    Twenty pony foals (reared worm free), 6.5 to 10 weeks of age, were inoculated with Strongylus vulgaris and allocated to 5 groups, each with 4 foals. One week after inoculation, 1 group of 4 foals was given oxfendazole (OFZ) at a dosage rate of 10 mg/kg of body weight, another group was given 2 such treatments 48 hours apart, and a 3rd group was given a placebo. All treatments were administered by stomach tube. Three weeks later, foals were euthanatized and necropsied in a test for efficacy against early 4th-stage larvae. Oxfendazole was 80% and 94.9% effective against early 4th-stage S vulgaris with 1 and 2 doses, respectively. A 4th group of 4 foals was given 2 treatments of OFZ, 48 hours apart, about 8 weeks after inoculation, and a 5th group was given a placebo. These foals were euthanatized and necropsied 5 weeks after treatment in a test for efficacy against later 4th-stage larvae. Two doses of OFZ were 96.6% effective against later 4th-stage larvae.

  6. Practice patterns and long-term survival for early-stage rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Sanoff, Hanna K; Penn, Dolly C; Meyers, Michael O; Tepper, Joel E

    2013-12-01

    Standard of care treatment for most stage I rectal cancers is total mesorectal excision (TME). Given the morbidity associated with TME, local excision (LE) for early-stage rectal cancer has been explored. This study examines practice patterns and overall survival (OS) for early-stage rectal cancer. All patients in the National Cancer Data Base diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1998 to 2010 were initially included. Use of LE versus proctectomy and use of adjuvant radiation therapy were compared over time. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare OS based on treatment. LE was used to treat 46.5% of patients with T1 and 16.8% with T2 tumors. Use of LE increased steadily over time (P OS than those treated with proctectomy alone or multimodality therapy. Guideline-concordant adoption of LE for treatment of low-risk stage I rectal cancer is increasing. However, use of LE is also increasing for higher-risk rectal cancers that do not meet guideline criteria for LE. Treatment with LE alone is associated with poorer long-term OS. Additional studies are warranted to understand the factors driving increased use of LE.

  7. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Can early hepatic fibrosis stages be discriminated by combining ultrasonic parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzitoune, Razika; Meziri, Mahmoud; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Padilla, Frédéric; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we put forward a new approach to classify early stages of fibrosis based on a multiparametric characterization using backscatter ultrasonic signals. Ultrasonic parameters, such as backscatter coefficient (Bc), speed of sound (SoS), attenuation coefficient (Ac), mean scatterer spacing (MSS), and spectral slope (SS), have shown their potential to differentiate between healthy and pathologic samples in different organs (eye, breast, prostate, liver). Recently, our group looked into the characterization of stages of hepatic fibrosis using the parameters cited above. The results showed that none of them could individually distinguish between the different stages. Therefore, we explored a multiparametric approach by combining these parameters in two and three, to test their potential to discriminate between the stages of liver fibrosis: F0 (normal), F1, F3, and/without F4 (cirrhosis), according to METAVIR Score. Discriminant analysis showed that the most relevant individual parameter was Bc, followed by SoS, SS, MSS, and Ac. The combination of (Bc, SoS) along with the four stages was the best in differentiating between the stages of fibrosis and correctly classified 85% of the liver samples with a high level of significance (p<0.0001). Nevertheless, when taking into account only stages F0, F1, and F3, the discriminant analysis showed that the parameters (Bc, SoS) and (Bc, Ac) had a better classification (93%) with a high level of significance (p<0.0001). The combination of the three parameters (Bc, SoS, and Ac) led to a 100% correct classification. In conclusion, the current findings show that the multiparametric approach has great potential in differentiating between the stages of fibrosis, and thus could play an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prognostic factors for patients with early-stage uterine serous carcinoma without adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Keisei; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Uehara, Takashi; Ikeda, Shun Ichi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Kato, Tomoyasu

    2018-05-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is an aggressive type 2 endometrial cancer. Data on prognostic factors for patients with early-stage USC without adjuvant therapy are limited. This study aims to assess the baseline recurrence risk of early-stage USC patients without adjuvant treatment and to identify prognostic factors and patients who need adjuvant therapy. Sixty-eight patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-II USC between 1997 and 2016 were included. All the cases did not undergo adjuvant treatment as institutional practice. Clinicopathological features, recurrence patterns, and survival outcomes were analyzed to determine prognostic factors. FIGO stages IA, IB, and II were observed in 42, 7, and 19 cases, respectively. Median follow-up time was 60 months. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for all cases were 73.9% and 78.0%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, cervical stromal involvement and positive pelvic cytology were significant predictors of DFS and OS, and ≥1/2 myometrial invasion was also a significant predictor of OS. Of 68 patients, 38 patients had no cervical stromal invasion or positive pelvic cytology and showed 88.8% 5-year DFS and 93.6% 5-year OS. Cervical stromal invasion and positive pelvic cytology are prognostic factors for stage I-II USC. Patients with stage IA or IB USC showing negative pelvic cytology may have an extremely favorable prognosis and need not receive any adjuvant therapies. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  10. Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboulsi, Wael; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Voss, Don Marvin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors, and the treatment outcome of this disease is improved when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. This requires biomarkers allowing an accurate and early tumor diagnosis. To identify potential markers for such applications, we analyzed a patient cohort consisting of 50 patients (50 HCC and 50 adjacent nontumorous tissue samples as controls) using two independent proteomics approaches. We performed label-free discovery analysis on 19 HCC and corresponding tissue samples. The data were analyzed considering events known to take place in early events of HCC development, such as abnormal regulation of Wnt/b-catenin and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). 31 proteins were selected for verification experiments. For this analysis, the second set of the patient cohort (31 HCC and corresponding tissue samples) was analyzed using selected (multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM). We present the overexpression of ATP-dependent RNA helicase (DDX39), Fibulin-5 (FBLN5), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and Serpin H1 (SERPINH1) in HCC for the first time. We demonstrate Versican core protein (VCAN) to be significantly associated with well differentiated and low-stage HCC. We revealed for the first time the evidence of VCAN as a potential biomarker for early-HCC diagnosis.

  11. Neratinib for the treatment of HER2-positive early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarria, Isabel; López-Tarruella, Sara; Márquez-Rodas, Iván; Jerez, Yolanda; Martin, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Despite the advances in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer, resistance to actual chemotherapeutic regimens eventually occurs. Neratinib, an orally available pan-inhibitor of the ERBB family, represents an interesting new option for early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Areas covered: In this article, the development of neratinib, with a special focus on its potential value in the treatment of early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, has been reviewed. For this purpose, a literature search was conducted, including preclinical studies, early-phase trials in advanced cancer with neratinib in monotherapy and in combination, and phase II and large phase III trials in the early setting. Management of neratinib-induced toxicity, future perspectives for the drug, and ongoing trials are also discussed in this review. Expert commentary: Neratinib is emerging as a promising oral drug for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Although FDA and EMA approval is derived from the extended adjuvant treatment, this setting may not be the ideal scenario to obtain the beneficial effects of neratinib. Confirmatory data in the neoadjuvant setting and subgroup analysis from the ExTENET trial might bring some light into the best setting for neratinib therapy. Data from confirmatory trials in the metastatic setting are also required.

  12. COMPARISON OF EARLY AND DELAYED UMBILICAL CORD CLAMPING IN THE THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR

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    Tamara Serdinšek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Umbilical cord clamping in the third stage of labour is still controversial. Early cord clamping is defined as clamping at 10, 15, 30 or 60 seconds after delivery and delayed as clamping after 60 seconds or at 2-5 minutes after delivery, when the cord stops pulsating or when the placenta is visible within the birth canal. Early clamping is one of the three components of active management of the third stage of labour, which has been used widely in modern obstetrics during the last century. However, in some northern European countries, various parts of the USA and Canada and in developing countries physiological management is preferred.Conclusions: After publication of several trials describing advantages of delayed clamping, this has recently been progressively replacing early clamping. The most important advantages of delayed cord clamping are higher haemoglobin and ferritin levels, higher iron stores, lower incidence of iron deficiency anaemia, better cardiopulmonary adaptation, lower rate of respiratory distress syndrome, and longer duration of early breastfeeding in term neonates, while there is no increase in the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. Delayed clamping seems to bring some advantages for preterm neonates as well. However, caution is still advised because of the potential adverse effects, especially polycythaemia with hyperviscosity, hyperbilirubinaemia and respiratory distress.

  13. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

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    Tauna L Rankin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  14. Poor Prognosis Indicated by Venous Circulating Tumor Cell Clusters in Early-Stage Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Reddy, Rishindra M; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Zhao, Lili; Ishikawa, Martin K; Grabauskiene, Svetlana; Zhang, Zhuo; Lin, Jules; Chang, Andrew C; Carrott, Philip; Lynch, William R; Orringer, Mark B; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Beer, David G; Wicha, Max S; Ramnath, Nithya; Azizi, Ebrahim; Nagrath, Sunitha

    2017-09-15

    Early detection of metastasis can be aided by circulating tumor cells (CTC), which also show potential to predict early relapse. Because of the limited CTC numbers in peripheral blood in early stages, we investigated CTCs in pulmonary vein blood accessed during surgical resection of tumors. Pulmonary vein (PV) and peripheral vein (Pe) blood specimens from patients with lung cancer were drawn during the perioperative period and assessed for CTC burden using a microfluidic device. From 108 blood samples analyzed from 36 patients, PV had significantly higher number of CTCs compared with preoperative Pe ( P ontology analysis revealed enrichment of cell migration and immune-related pathways in CTC clusters, suggesting survival advantage of clusters in circulation. Clusters display characteristics of therapeutic resistance, indicating the aggressive nature of these cells. Thus, CTCs isolated from early stages of lung cancer are predictive of poor prognosis and can be interrogated to determine biomarkers predictive of recurrence. Cancer Res; 77(18); 5194-206. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Properties of early-stage concrete with setting-accelerating tablet in cold weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryou, Jae-Suk; Lee, Yong-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tablets were used as accelerators, which have a merit in cold weather. ► Tablets are almost not used at all as construction materials (powdered admixtures). ► 0.5 and 1.0% tablets satisfied workability and strength for early-frost prevention. ► It was found that it is possible for the 0.5 and 1.0% tablets in cold weather. - Abstract: Various methods are used at the early stages to control setting-time and strength of concrete, when cold-weather concrete is utilized. Among these methods is one that involves the use of an accelerator. Although economical, accelerators have difficulty securing workability because their early hydration makes them react rapidly. Therefore, how to make a tablet for cold-weather concrete, as with the existing medicines and foods, is discussed in this study, including the following items: mortar setting-time, workability by elapsed time, early strength to assure the development of adequate strength, and freezing–thawing resistance. As a result, both the 0.5 and 1.0% tablets were found to be superior. Thus, workability can be secured, as well as the development of early strength to prevent early frost.

  16. Outcome of Early Initiation of Peritoneal Dialysis in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kook-Hwan; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Cho, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Mira; Ju, Kyung Don; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies reported that early initiation of hemodialysis may increase mortality. However, studies that assessed the influence of early initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) yielded controversial results. In the present study, we evaluated the prognosis of early initiation of PD on the various outcomes of end stage renal failure patients by using propensity-score matching methods. Incident PD patients (n = 491) who started PD at SNU Hospital were enrolled. The patients were divided into 'early starters (n = 244)' and 'late starters (n = 247)' on the basis of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the start of dialysis. The calculated propensity-score was used for one-to-one matching. After propensity-score-based matching (n = 136, for each group), no significant differences were observed in terms of all-cause mortality (P = 0.17), technique failure (P = 0.62), cardiovascular event (P = 0.96) and composite event (P = 0.86) between the early and late starters. Stratification analysis in the propensity-score quartiles (n = 491) exhibited no trend toward better or poorer survival in terms of all-cause mortality. In conclusion, early commencement of PD does not reduce the mortality risk and other outcomes. Although the recent guidelines suggest that initiation of dialysis at higher eGFR, physicians should not determine the time to initiate PD therapy simply rely on the eGFR alone. PMID:22323864

  17. Current role and future developments of radiotherapy in early-stage favourable Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eich, H.T.; Mueller, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    The radiosensibility of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is well established since 1902, when Pusey was one of the first to publish about radiotherapeutical treatment of a HL. In the early years, radiotherapy was the only curative treatment for this systemic disease, but the reports of Kaplan and Rosenberg and Peters in the fifties and seventies showed that irradiation of involved lymph node regions only resulted in high local and distant recurrences. The introduction of linear accelerator based high dose extended field (EF)-radiotherapy by Kaplan in Stanford was a milestone in the evolution of definitive curative radiotherapy strategies. The application of the mantle field for supradiaphragmatic and the inverted Y (with or without including the spleen or splenic pedicle) for infradiaphragmatic disease resulted in a dramatic improvement of survival rates in the early stages I and II (Ann Arbor) from 25-30% in the sixties to 65-80% in the eighties. Kaplan reported about a close relationship between radiation dose and cure rates in the case of definitive radiotherapy. A dose of at least 40 Gy resulted in local recurrences below 5% and is today the standard dose for radiotherapy only outside protocols. Despite complete remission rates after radiotherapy of 90-100%, the overall recurrence rate (including in-field, marginal and distant relapses) was between 20 and 30%. Analysis of the relapses revealed some stage migrating risk factors: large mediastinal mass, extra nodal involvement, number of involved lymph node areas (≥ 3) and high ESR. The possibility of more accurate staging by using new imaging techniques like ultrasonography, CT and MRI as well as PET in the recent years resulted e.g. in the definition of early-favourable, early-unfavourable (intermediate) and high risk stages and more specific, risk adapted treatment strategies. The objective of this article is to show recent achievements and developments in the management of early-stage favourable HL exemplified by

  18. The prognostic value of age for 1030 patients with early stage breast cancer after postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Liming; Li Ruiying; Wang Ping; Xu Liang; Hao Jianlei; Liu Xiaobin; Pang Qingsong; Zhu Li; Cui Yong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the prognostic value of age in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 1030 patients with early stage breast cancer (the number of positive axillary lymph nodes was less than 3) were retrospectively reviewed. Of all the patients, 468(stage I, n = 227; and stage II , n = 241) received breast conserving surgery (BCS) and 562 (stage I, n =184; and stage II, n= 378) received modified mastectomy. Patients were divided into young-age group (≤35, 136 patients), middle-age group (> 35-≤60,738 patients) and old-age group (> 60, 156 patients). The number of patients without postoperative radiation therapy after BCS is 16, 60 and 39 in the three groups, respectively. Two-dimensional conventional fractionated radiotherapy was administered. The prognostic value of the tumor size, status of axillary lymph nodes or hormonal receptors, postoperative radiation therapy were analyzed. Results: The follow-up rate was 97.86%. Of 795 patients followed up more than 5 years, 110, 569 and 116 patients were devided into the three groups, respectively. There were 40, 202 and 87 patients without radiation therapy in the three groups. The 5-year recurrence rates of the three groups were 6.2%, 8.7% and 10.4% (χ 2 = 1.14, P= 0.567). The 5-year distant metastasis rates were 4.3% , 9.5 % and 2. 5% (χ 2 = 5.31 , P = 0.070) . The 5 - year survival rates were 91.2% , 92.6% and 82.1% (χ 2 = 6. 83, P = 0.033). The young-age group had more tumors smaller than 2. 0 cm (65.4%), less positive axillary lymph nodes (13.2%), poorer differential tumor and less positive hormone acceptors (48.0%). Of patients with tumor larger than 2. 0 cm who had no radiotherapy after BCS, the 5-year survival rates were 94%, 87% and 71% (χ 2 = 20.69, P= 0.000) in the three groups. The corresponding recurrence rates were 23%, 18% ,7%, (χ 2 = 9.97, P = 0.007), and distant metastasis rates were 23%, 25% and 10% (χ 2 =8.51, P=0.014). Conclusions: The age is

  19. Hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for medically inoperable early stage

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    Lee, Joo Ho; Wu, Hong Gyun; KIm, Hak Jae; Park, Charn Il; Lee, Se Hoon; Kim, Dong Wan; Heo, Dae Seong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) with three-dimensional conformal technique for medically inoperable patients with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate prognostic factors. We performed a retrospective review of 26 patients who underwent HFRT for early stage NSCLC between September 2005 and August 2011. Only clinical stage T1-3N0 was included. The median RT dose was 70 Gy (range, 60 to 72 Gy) and the median biologically equivalent dose (BED) was 94.5 Gy (range, 78.0 to 100.8 Gy). In 84.6% of patients, 4 Gy per fraction was used. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin was given to 2 of 26 patients. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 21 months (range, 13 to 49 months). The overall response rate was 53.9%, and the initial local control rate was 100%. The median survival duration was 27.8 months. Rates of 2-year overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), local control (LC), and locoregional-free survival (LRFS) were 54.3%, 61.1%, 74.6%, and 61.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that BED (>90 vs. {<=}90 Gy) was an independent prognostic factor influencing PFS, LC, and LRFS. Severe toxicities over grade 3 were not observed. Radical HFRT can yield satisfactory disease control with acceptable rates of toxicities in medically inoperable patients with early stage NSCLC. HFRT is a viable alternative for clinics and patients ineligible for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy. BED over 90 Gy and 4 Gy per fraction might be appropriate for HFRT.

  20. Understanding the management of early-stage chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. Aim To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Design and setting Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. Results A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Conclusion Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity. PMID:22520910

  1. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

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    Christine Petschow

    Full Text Available Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels.13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ and higher (E = 640 mJ target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale.No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex.Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Hallux abductus interphalangeus in normal feet, early-stage hallux limitus, and hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Lopez, Jose M; Ramos-Ortega, Javier; Reina-Bueno, Maria; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Palomo-Toucedo, Inmaculada C; Munuera, Pedro V

    2014-03-01

    Excessive deviation of the distal phalanx in abduction frequently occurs in advanced stages of hallux rigidus but not in hallux valgus. Therefore, theoretically there should be no significant differences in the hallux interphalangeal angle (HIPA) between individuals with normal feet, those with hallux valgus, and those with mild hallux limitus. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if significant differences in HIPA exist in the early stages of hallux valgus or hallux limitus deformities. The hallux interphalangeal angle was measured in three groups of participants: a control group with normal feet (45 participants), a hallux valgus group (49 participants), and a hallux limitus group (48 participants). Both of the pathologies were at an early stage. A dorsoplantar radiograph under weightbearing conditions was taken for each individual, and measurements (HIPA and hallux abductus angle [HAA]) were taken using AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, California) software. Intergroup comparisons of HIPA, and correlations between HIPA, HAA, and hallux dorsiflexion were calculated. The comparisons revealed no significant differences in the values of HIPA between any of the groups (15.2 ± 5.9 degrees in the control group, 15.5 ± 3.9 degrees in the hallux valgus group, and 16.15 ± 4.3 in the hallux limitus group; P  =  0.634). The Pearson correlation coefficients in particular showed no correlation between hallux dorsiflexion, HAA, and HIPA. For the study participants, there were similar deviations of the distal phalanx of the hallux with respect to the proximal phalanx in normal feet and in feet with the early stages of the hallux limitus and hallux valgus deformities.

  3. Treatment outcome of 40 patients with early stage nongastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua; Li Yexiong; Liu Qingfeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical features and prognosis of patients with stage I E /II E nongastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Methods: Between 2000 and 2006, 40 patients with previously untreated nongrastric MALT lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed. The primary site of lymphoma was the intestinal tract in 10 patients, the orbit in 9, the thyroid in 8, the lung in 5, the Waldeyer ring in 2, and the others organs in 6. At diagnosis, 27 patients had stage I E , and 13 had stage II E disease. Seventeen patients were treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, 18 with chemotherapy without radiotherapy, and 5 with surgery alone. The median age was 54 years. The ratio of male to female was 2: 1. Results: With a median follow-up of 58 months, the estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) rate and progression-free survival (PFS) rate were 86% and 82%, respectively. The 5-year OS and PFS rates were 92% and 85% for stage I E , 76% and 82% for stage II E disease, respectively (χ 2 =3.66, P =0. 060; χ 2 =1.04, P=0. 300). The 5-year OS and PFS rates were both 100% for patients with MALT lymphoma of the orbit and ocular adnexa. None of the 17 patients with radiotherapy had locoregional relapse, whereas 3 of 23 (13%) patients without radiotherapy had locoregional relapse. Conclusions: Patients with stage I E nongastric MALT lymphoma have a favorable prognosis. Radiotherapy is still a standard care for early stage disease. The treatment outcome of patients with MALT lymphoma of the orbit and ocular adnexa is even better. (authors)

  4. Lithium chloride inhibits early stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fu-Rong; Xie, Yin-Li; Liu, Ze-Zhong; Shao, Jun-Jun; Li, Shi-Fang; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Chang, Hui-Yun

    2017-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, swine, and sheep. FMD vaccine is the traditional way to protect against the disease, which can greatly reduce its occurrence. However, the use of FMD vaccines to protect early infection is limited. Therefore, the alternative strategy of applying antiviral agents is required to control the spread of FMDV in outbreak situations. As previously reported, LiCl has obviously inhibition effects on a variety of viruses such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV), and pseudorabies herpesvirus and EV-A71 virus. In this study, our findings were the first to demonstrate that LiCl inhibition of the FMDV replication. In this study, BHK-21 cell was dose-dependent with LiCl at various stages of FMDV. Virus titration assay was calculated by the 50% tissue culture infected dose (TCID 50 ) with the Reed and Muench method. The cytotoxicity assay of LiCl was performed by the CCK8 kit. The expression level of viral mRNA was measured by RT-qPCR. The results revealed LiCl can inhibit FMDV replication, but it cannot affect FMDV attachment stage and entry stage in the course of FMDV life cycle. Further studies confirmed that the LiCl affect the replication stage of FMDV, especially the early stages of FMDV replication. So LiCl has potential as an effective anti-FMDV drug. Therefore, LiCl may be an effective drug for the control of FMDV. Based on that, the mechanism of the antiviral effect of LiCl on FMDV infection is need to in-depth research in vivo. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Morphological and histomorphological structures of testes and ovaries in early developmental stages of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroki; Kirino, Yohei; Katsuma, Susumu; Aoki, Fugaku; Suzuki, Masataka G

    2016-01-01

    The gonad develops as a testis in male or an ovary in female. In the silkworm, B. mori , little is known about testis and ovary in the embryonic stages and early larval stages. In this study, we performed morphological and histomorphological observations of ovaries and testes from the late embryonic stage to the 1st instar larval stage. Results obtained with lack of accurate information on sex of examined individuals may be misleading, thus we performed phenotypic observations of gonads by utilizing sex-limited strain that enables us to easily discriminate female embryos from male ones based on those egg colors. In testis, four testicular follicles were clearly observed in the testis at the first instar larval stage, and boundary layers were formed between the testicular follicles. At the late embryonic stage, the testis consisted of four testicular follicles, while the boundary layers were still obscure. In ovary, four ovarioles were easily recognizable in the ovary at the first instar larval stage, and boundary layers were formed between the ovarioles. However, in the late embryonic stage, it was quite difficult to identify four ovarioles. Morphological characteristics were almost similar between testis and ovary in early developmental stages. Our present study demonstrates that the most reliable difference between testis and ovary in early developmental stages is the attaching point of the duct. Formation and development of the duct may be sensitive to the sex-determining signal and display sexual dimorphism in early embryonic stages.

  6. Pretreatment hemoglobin in early stage glottic cancer: red flag or red herring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, J. Curtis; Hixson, William C.; Kim, Robert Y.; Smith, Judy W.; Mayo, Matthew S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of pretreatment hemoglobin levels on the recurrence rate of patients with early stage glottic carcinoma treated with definitive radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Between May 1972 and December 1992, one hundred three patients with stage I or II glottic carcinoma were treated with definitive radiotherapy. The records were reviewed and analyzed for the effects of pretreatment hemoglobin and hematocrit, stage, dose per fraction (180 vs 200 cGy), treatment interruptions, and differentiation of the tumor. The majority of stage I patients were treated to a total dose of 64 to 66 Gy, and stage II patients were treated to 68 to 70 Gy. Mean and median follow up were 85 and 75 months, respectively. Results: With mean follow up of 85 months, the recurrence rate for patients with hemoglobin ≤13 g/dL was 33.3%, and patients with hemoglobin >13 g/dL was 20% (p 0.19). For stage I (n = 84), the recurrence rate with hemoglobin ≤13 g/dL and >13 g/dL was 26% and 17%, respectively (p = 0.51). For stage II patients (n = 19) with hemoglobin ≤13 g/dL and >13 g/dL, the recurrence rate was 50% and 36%, respectively (p = 0.66). Using a Fisher's exact test, the only variables showing a statistically significant prognosis for recurrence were treatment interruption and stage. The recurrence rate with a treatment interruption was 40% compared with 15% if there was no interruption (p 0.0039). The recurrence rate for stage I was 19%, and for stage II was 42% (p = 0.067). Other factors showed no significant increase in recurrence; dose per fraction (p = 0.421), grade of differentiation (p = 0.740). Conclusion: While pretreatment hemoglobin levels below 13 g/dL do not significantly affect the recurrence rates for T1N0 and T2N0 glottic carcinomas, treatment interruptions are a significant factor in the failure of these patients

  7. A novel immune evasion strategy of candida albicans: proteolytic cleavage of a salivary antimicrobial peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Meiller

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic infection considered to be a harbinger of AIDS. The etiologic agent Candida albicans is a fungal species commonly colonizing human mucosal surfaces. However, under conditions of immune dysfunction, colonizing C. albicans can become an opportunistic pathogen causing superficial or even life-threatening infections. The reasons behind this transition, however, are not clear. In the oral cavity, salivary antimicrobial peptides are considered to be an important part of the host innate defense system in the prevention of microbial colonization. Histatin-5 specifically has exhibited potent activity against C. albicans. Our previous studies have shown histatin-5 levels to be significantly reduced in the saliva of HIV+ individuals, indicating an important role for histatin-5 in keeping C. albicans in its commensal stage. The versatility in the pathogenic potential of C. albicans is the result of its ability to adapt through the regulation of virulence determinants, most notably of which are proteolytic enzymes (Saps, involved in tissue degradation. In this study, we show that C. albicans cells efficiently and rapidly degrade histatin-5, resulting in loss of its anti-candidal potency. In addition, we demonstrate that this cellular activity is due to proteolysis by a member of the secreted aspartic proteases (Sap family involved in C. albicans pathogenesis. Specifically, the proteolysis was attributed to Sap9, in turn identifying histatin-5 as the first host-specific substrate for that isoenzyme. These findings demonstrate for the first time the ability of a specific C. albicans enzyme to degrade and deactivate a host antimicrobial peptide involved in the protection of the oral mucosa against C. albicans, thereby providing new insights into the factors directing the transition of C. albicans from commensal to pathogen, with important clinical implications for alternative therapy. This report characterizes the

  8. Disruption of Smad-dependent signaling for growth of GST-P-positive lesions from the early stage in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Ryohei; Mizukami, Sayaka; Takahashi, Miwa; Taniai, Eriko; Kemmochi, Sayaka; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 - identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis - increased in the subpopulation of GST-P + foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter of Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P + lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P + foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P - foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad-dependent signaling prerequisites for induction

  9. In Vivo Dark-Field Radiography for Early Diagnosis and Staging of Pulmonary Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellbach, Katharina; Yaroshenko, Andre; Meinel, Felix G; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Conlon, Thomas M; Bech, Martin; Mueller, Mark; Velroyen, Astrid; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Bamberg, Fabian; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of in vivo x-ray dark-field radiography for early-stage diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in mice. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze how the dark-field signal correlates with morphological changes of lung architecture at distinct stages of emphysema. Female 8- to 10-week-old C57Bl/6N mice were used throughout all experiments. Pulmonary emphysema was induced by orotracheal injection of porcine pancreatic elastase (80-U/kg body weight) (n = 30). Control mice (n = 11) received orotracheal injection of phosphate-buffered saline. To monitor the temporal patterns of emphysema development over time, the mice were imaged 7, 14, or 21 days after the application of elastase or phosphate-buffered saline. X-ray transmission and dark-field images were acquired with a prototype grating-based small-animal scanner. In vivo pulmonary function tests were performed before killing the animals. In addition, lungs were obtained for detailed histopathological analysis, including mean cord length (MCL) quantification as a parameter for the assessment of emphysema. Three blinded readers, all of them experienced radiologists and familiar with dark-field imaging, were asked to grade the severity of emphysema for both dark-field and transmission images. Histopathology and MCL quantification confirmed the introduction of different stages of emphysema, which could be clearly visualized and differentiated on the dark-field radiograms, whereas early stages were not detected on transmission images. The correlation between MCL and dark-field signal intensities (r = 0.85) was significantly higher than the correlation between MCL and transmission signal intensities (r = 0.37). The readers' visual ratings for dark-field images correlated significantly better with MCL (r = 0.85) than visual ratings for transmission images (r = 0.36). Interreader agreement and the diagnostic accuracy of both quantitative and visual assessment were significantly higher

  10. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  11. The educative prevention of the early stage of educationist’s formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Alfonso Nazco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces a characterization of the educative prevention stage at the early professional formation process of educacionist in Sancti Spìritus province. The study is done by the indication analysis of assistant, learning, permanence and behavior at youths who course pedagogical carrers, and haven’t expressed a desire stage yet. The main shown results dealt with the assumption of the searching variables and its indicators, the construction of instruments and the definition of aspects concerning the educative prevention at the early stage of educationist’s formation in the selected choosing. Theoretical, empirical and statistical- math, methods were used which were helped by the constructed instruments and the triangulations among them thus arriving to generalizations for the caracterization. The results have better the work at the area project of the educative prevention in adolescents and youths in the territory, witch mainly concern the desing and implementation of actions withing the pedagogical process, foccuse in the integration of institutions, socializer and educative agents functioning to eductive prevention.

  12. Chronological shifts and changing causes of death after radiotherapy for early-stage oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Rina; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Harata, Naoki; Yuasa-Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Hayashi, Keiji

    2014-02-01

    Following recent improvements in the curability of oral cancer, chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death after treatment have been observed. We conducted a review of the post-treatment causes of death following radiotherapy for oral cancers. The medical records of 966 patients with early-stage (stage I and II) oral cancer treated at our institute between 1980 and 2001 were reviewed, and the chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death after radiotherapy were assessed. Of the 966 patients enrolled in this study, 365 have died to date. Two hundred and eleven patients died of their primary malignancy; 193 of these deaths occurred within 5 years of treatment for the primary oral cancer. The second most frequent cause of death was second primary cancer (n = 90). Twenty-three patients with head and neck cancers and 18 patients with esophageal cancers died within 10 years of radiotherapy, and six patients with lung cancers died after more than 10 years. Within the first 5 years following treatment, the major cause of death was the primary oral cancer. After 5-10 years, a second primary cancer, such as head and neck cancer or esophageal cancer, became the leading cause of death. Over a 10-year period, the proportion of deaths from a second primary cancer in the lung was significant. We have demonstrated that there are chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death following treatment for early-stage oral cancer.

  13. Radiation therapy and patient age in the survival from early-stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joslyn, Sue A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the use of radiation therapy following local excision of invasive localized breast cancer and subsequent survival by 5-year age category. Methods: Data for 27,399 women diagnosed with localized stage of breast cancer and treated with local excision surgery from 1983 through 1992 were collected and provided by the national Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Use of radiation therapy was analyzed by race, ethnic background, geographic location, and age at diagnosis. Survival for women treated with local excision plus radiation therapy was compared to that of women treated with local excision alone for each 5-year age category. Results: Subjects in older age groups were significantly less likely (p < 0.001) to receive radiation following local excision compared to younger age groups. Statistically significant survival advantages were conferred on women receiving radiation therapy in each 5-year age category from age 35 to 84 years (ranging from p = 0.02 to p < 0.0001). Conclusion: While the use of radiation therapy following local excision of early-stage breast tumors drops significantly in older age groups, women aged 35-84 years receiving radiation therapy had significant reductions in mortality. These results did not appear to be influenced by the presence of mortal comorbid conditions. These results strongly suggest the need to consider carefully patient characteristics other than age in deciding the course of treatment for early-stage breast cancer

  14. The prognostic value of quantified MRI at an early stage of Bell's palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, B.P.J.; Efinger, K.; Gottschalk, A.; Nissen, S.; Solbach, T.; Baehren, W.; Griesbeck, F.; Goriup, A.; Kornhuber, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess whether MRI has a prognostic value at an early stage of Bell's palsy. Material and Methods: Prospective, blinded study on 30 patients suffering from Bell's palsy, who came to hospital until the sixth day of illness, to receive high dosis steroid therapy. MRI was done on the first day of inpatient treatment as a gradient-echo-sequence with a slice thickness of 0.7 mm before and after i.v. administration of 0.1 mmol GdDTPA/kg weight. The signal intensity increase was evaluated quantitatively by region on interest (ROI). The results were compared to the clinical outcome and the results of electrophysiology. Results: The examinations of all patients could be evaluated. The 3 patients who developed a chronic facial paralysis were detected by MRI on the first day of inpatient treatment. The patients, who showed MR signs for an unfavorable course, had a highly significant pathologic compound muscle action potential (CMAP) as a result of the electrophysiologic measurement. Rather than using complex measurement procedures it is possible to obtain reliable prognostic information from just one measurement within the Internal auditory canal before and after i.v. administration of contrast. Conclusion: MRI has a prognostic value at an early stage of the illness. In the clinical setting this measurement is easy to perform, so that it is possible to obtain prognostic information at a stage when causal treatment is still possible. (orig.) [de

  15. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D A; Kirk, K J; Sampathkumar, A; Longbottom, C

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system

  16. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yumi

    1993-01-01

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author)

  17. Cosmetic results in early stage breast cancer patients with high-dose brachytherapy after conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Felipe; Pineda, Beatriz E

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: to reveal cosmetic results in patients at early stages of low risk breast cancer treated with partial accelerated radiotherapy using high dose rate brachytherapy. Methods and materials: from March 2001 to July 2003,14 stages l and ll breast cancer patients were treated at the Colombian national cancer institute in Bogota with conservative surgery and radiotherapy upon the tumor bed (partial accelerated radiotherapy), using interstitial implants with iridium 192 (high dose rate brachytherapy) with a dose of 32 Gys, over 4 days, at 8 fractions twice a day. Results: with an average follow up of 17.7 months, good cosmetic results were found among 71.4 % of patients and excellent results among 14.3% of patients, furthermore none of the patients neither local nor regional or distant relapses. Conclusion: among patients who suffer from breast cancer at early stages, it showed is possible to apply partial accelerated radiotherapy upon the tumor bed with high doses over 4 days with good to excellent cosmetic results

  18. An initial report of cyberknife radiosurgery treatment in early stage lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhiyong; Song Yongchun; Li Fengtong; Dong Yang; Wang Jingsheng; Wang Jun; Wang Changli; Wang Ping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy and toxicity of the cyberknife in the treatment of medically inoperable patients with early stage lung cancer. Methods: From September 2006 to July 2007,17 patients with clinical stage I a-I b lung cancer were treated with cyberknife at Tianjin Cancer Hospital. Of the 11 patients receiving CT guided biopsy, 3 were squamous cell cancer and 8 were adenocarcinoma. Six patients refused intrusive operation and were diagnosed by PET-CT scan. All patients were medically inoperable evaluated by a thoracic surgeon. The PTV=GTV + 3-5 mm, and the median volume of PTV was 36 cm 3 (6-82 cm 3 ). The median total prescription dose was 50 Gy(45-60 Gy) at 3-5 fractions. Results: The median follow-up time was 7 months(3-11 months). All the patients finished the treatment and were alive by the last follow-up. Slight fatigue was the most common complain. Evaluated by CT scan, 13 were complete response and 4 were partial response. No recurrence, progression or distant metastasis occurred. There were 3 patients with grade I granulocytopenia, 3 grade I pneumonitis and 1 grade II pneumonitis. Conclusions: The cyberknife radiosurgery treatment in early stage lung cancer shows a high rate of local control and minimal toxicity. Long time follow-up is necessary to evaluate the survival data and late toxicity. (authors)

  19. Assessments of plasma ghrelin levels in the early stages of parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning; Wang, Weiwei; Jia, Fengjv; Du, Xixun; Xie, Anmu; He, Qing; Shen, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jing; Rogers, Jack T; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are early events in Parkinson's disease (PD). The gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin was neuroprotective in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. The objective of this study was to assess ghrelin levels in the early stages of PD. Plasma was collected in the fasting state in 291 PD patients in stages 1-3 and 303 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Additional samples were taken in the glucose response test to assess nutrition-related ghrelin levels in 20 PD patients and 20 healthy controls. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure total and active plasma ghrelin levels. We reported that total and active plasma ghrelin levels were decreased in PD, although there was no difference across progressive PD stages. Postprandial ghrelin suppression and preprandial peak responses were both attenuated in PD. Plasma ghrelin levels were decreased in PD; however, this event might be irrelevant to PD progression. Ghrelin responses to meals were also impaired in PD. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  1. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  2. Dynamics of laser ablation at the early stage during and after ultrashort pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilnitsky, D K; Zhakhovsky, V V; Migdal, K P; Inogamov, N A; Khokhlov, V A; Petrov, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Study of material flow in two-temperature states is needed for a fundamental understanding the physics of femtosecond laser ablation. To explore phenomena at a very early stage of laser action on a metallic target our in-house two-temperature hydrodynamics code is used here. The early stage covers duration of laser pulse with next first few picoseconds. We draw attention to the difference in behavior at this stage between the cases: (i) of an ultrathin film (thickness of order of skin depth d skin or less), (ii) thin films (thickness of a film is 4-7 of d skin for gold), and (iii) bulk targets (more than 10 d skin for gold). We demonstrate that these differences follow from a competition among conductive cooling of laser excited electrons in a skin layer, electron-ion coupling, and hydrodynamics of unloading caused by excess of pressure of excited free electrons. Conductive cooling of the skin needs a heat sink, which is performed by the cold material outside the skin. Such sink is unavailable in the ultrathin films. (paper)

  3. Drug Repositioning Discovery for Early- and Late-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning is a popular approach in the pharmaceutical industry for identifying potential new uses for existing drugs and accelerating the development time. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. To reduce the biological heterogeneity effects among different individuals, both normal and cancer tissues were taken from the same patient, hence allowing pairwise testing. By comparing early- and late-stage cancer patients, we can identify stage-specific NSCLC genes. Differentially expressed genes are clustered separately to form up- and downregulated communities that are used as queries to perform enrichment analysis. The results suggest that pathways for early- and late-stage cancers are different. Sets of up- and downregulated genes were submitted to the cMap web resource to identify potential drugs. To achieve high confidence drug prediction, multiple microarray experimental results were merged by performing meta-analysis. The results of a few drug findings are supported by MTT assay or clonogenic assay data. In conclusion, we have been able to assess the potential existing drugs to identify novel anticancer drugs, which may be helpful in drug repositioning discovery for NSCLC.

  4. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

  5. Measurement of the human esophageal cancer in an early stage with Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    The esophageal cancer has a tendency to transfer to another part of the body and the surgical operation itself sometimes gives high risk in vital function because many delicate organs exist near the esophagus. So the esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. So, in order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, the investigation of the diagnosis methods or techniques of the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy are required. In this study, we performed the ex vivo experiments to obtain the Raman spectra from normal and early-stage tumor (stage-0) human esophageal sample by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are collected by the homemade Raman spectrometer with the wavelength of 785 nm and Raman probe with 600-um-diameter. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed after collection of spectra to recognize which materials changed in normal part and cancerous pert. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is performed to predict the tissue type. The result of PCA indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by LDA which model is made by tryptophan bands.

  6. Treatment of early-stage prostate cancer among rural and urban patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Andrilla, C Holly A; Porter, Michael P; Rosenblatt, Roger A; Patel, Shilpen; Doescher, Mark P

    2013-08-15

    Geographic barriers and limited availability of cancer specialists may influence early prostate cancer treatment options for rural men. This study compares receipt of different early prostate cancer treatments between rural and urban patients. Using 2004-2006 SEER Limited-Use Data, 51,982 early prostate cancer patients were identified (T1c, T2a, T2b, T2c, T2NOS; no metastases) who were most likely to benefit from definitive treatment (rural-urban residence overall, and for different sociodemographic and cancer characteristics, and different states based on logistic regression analyses, using general estimating equation methods to account for clustering by county. Adjusted definitive treatment rates were lower for rural (83.7%) than urban (87.1%) patients with early-stage prostate cancer (P ≤ .01). Rural men were more likely than urban men to receive non-definitive surgical treatment and no initial treatment. The lowest definitive treatment rates were among rural subgroups: 70 to 74 years (73.9%), African Americans (75.6%), American Indians/Alaska Natives (77.8%), single/separated/divorced (76.8%), living in New Mexico (69.3%), and living in counties with persistent poverty (79.6%). Between 2004 and 2006, this adjusted analysis found that men who were living in rural areas were less likely to receive definitive treatment for their early-stage prostate cancer than those living in urban areas. Certain rural patient groups with prostate cancer need particular attention to ensure their access to appropriate treatment. Rural providers, rural health care systems, and cancer advocacy and support organizations should ensure resources are in place so that the most vulnerable rural groups (men between 60 and 74 years of age; African American men; men who are single, separated, or divorced; and men living in rural New Mexico) can make informed prostate cancer treatment choices based on their preferences. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  7. A mid-term follow-up of Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy in adult-acquired flatfoot stage II and “early stage III”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvinius Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy has been widely described to treat adult-acquired flatfoot. However, few articles describe its midterm follow-up. Our aim was to study clinical and radiological outcomes at least one year after surgery and to analyze whether a combined procedure on the medial soft tissue affected these outcomes. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 30 feet of patients who underwent a Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy due to adult-acquired flatfoot stage II and “early stage III”: a stage III acquired flatfoot without any important structural deformities. The parameters studied were additional medial soft tissue procedures, clinical outcome through the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle and midfoot score as well as complications and radiological measurements. Results: Sixteen cases were “early stage III” and 14 stage II. Thirteen patients underwent an associated posterior tibial tendon (PTT revision: in three cases an end-to-end suture was possible, seven cases needed a FDL transposition, and three underwent synovectomy. Statistically significant improvement was found in the AOFAS score although no significant changes were seen radiologically. No additional benefit was found with the revision of the posterior tibial tendon. As to clinical and radiological results, no differences were found between stage II and “early stage III”. Five cases presented a mild dysesthesia but only one patient needed neurolysis. Conclusions: We consider the Koutsogiannis’ osteotomy to be a safe and effective procedure to reduce pain in patients with stage II and “early stage III” adult-acquired flatfoot.

  8. Astronomical constraints on the duration of the Early Jurassic Pliensbachian Stage and global climatic fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Micha; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Hinnov, Linda; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Xu, Weimu; Riding, James B.; Storm, Marisa; Minisini, Daniel; Ullmann, Clemens V.; Leng, Melanie J.

    2016-12-01

    The Early Jurassic was marked by multiple periods of major global climatic and palaeoceanographic change, biotic turnover and perturbed global geochemical cycles, commonly linked to large igneous province volcanism. This epoch was also characterised by the initial break-up of the super-continent Pangaea and the opening and formation of shallow-marine basins and ocean gateways, the timing of which are poorly constrained. Here, we show that the Pliensbachian Stage and the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian global carbon-cycle perturbation (marked by a negative shift in δ13 C of 2- 4 ‰), have respective durations of ∼8.7 and ∼2 Myr. We astronomically tune the floating Pliensbachian time scale to the 405 Kyr eccentricity solution (La2010d), and propose a revised Early Jurassic time scale with a significantly shortened Sinemurian Stage duration of 6.9 ± 0.4 Myr. When calibrated against the new time scale, the existing Pliensbachian seawater 87Sr/86Sr record shows relatively stable values during the first ∼2 Myr of the Pliensbachian, superimposed on the long-term Early Jurassic decline in 87Sr/86Sr. This plateau in 87Sr/86Sr values coincides with the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary carbon-cycle perturbation. It is possibly linked to a late phase of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) volcanism that induced enhanced global weathering of continental crustal materials, leading to an elevated radiogenic strontium flux to the global ocean.

  9. [Endocrinology of cancer and age: early and late stages of ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M

    2017-01-01

    Processes important for hormone-mediated carcinogenesis are present on different, even very early, ontogenesis stages. Early shifts in hormone-metabolic status often display opposite correlations with the risk of most common age-associated non-communicable pathologies (namely, hormone-dependent cancers and cardiovascular diseases). Additional known contradiction is the raise of reproductive system tumors incidence in the age associated with lower production of mitogenic hormones. Consequently, one should take into account production of steroids in target tissues themselves, recognize the importance of progenotoxic effect, which, apart from mitogenic function, is characteristic for estrogens and their derivatives, as well as the role of endocrine-genotoxic switchings forming so called basic triad, which is born under the influence of age-associated endocrine shifts and environmental factors. Aside from steroids-related system of increased cancer risk, attention should be paid to non-steroid ones (in particular insulin resistance- and inflammatory cytokines-associated), with their close connection to immune system functional state, low-grade chronic inflammation, obesity phenotype, and pro-/anti-inflammatory lipid factors ratio. In total, it confirms and importance of timely preventive interventions on both ontogenesis stages, early and late ones, which are often separated by several decades.

  10. Two consecutive pregnancies in early and late stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafov, Stayko; Doitchinova, Maryana; Karagiozova, Zhvka; Slancheva, Boriana; Dengler, Reinhard; Petri, Susanne; Kollewe, Katja

    2009-01-01

    There are few reports on pregnancies in sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We report on a young woman with sporadic ALS who gave birth twice during the course of her disease. The first pregnancy occurred 13 months after the onset of symptoms, and one month after diagnosis. The pregnancy was uncomplicated and resulted in vaginal delivery of a healthy boy. Fifteen months later, when she was already bed-ridden, she became pregnant again. She received a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in the 21st gestational week and underwent early Caesarean section in the 34th week of gestation. The child was ventilated for 72 h in a neonatological unit. The patient was tracheotomized and ventilated two months later, i.e. 47 months after symptom onset, and died nine months later from gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Her two children have developed without abnormalities to date. This case confirms that pregnancies in early-stage ALS can develop normally and may result in uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Pregnancies in late stages may be critical for mother and child, and early delivery by Caesarean section may become necessary although neonatal outcome can be good.

  11. Radiation induction of developmental effects during the very early stages of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.

    2009-01-01

    Various studies have shown that early embryos of several mouse strains are sensitive to radiation-induction of congenital anomalies. The presence of mutations in particular genes seems to increase the sensitivity of embryos to such effects, but studies in that field are extremely limited. The aim of these studies is to determine (1) whether the sensitivity to radiation-induction of congenital anomalies during very early stages of gestation is transmitted to the following generation; (2) how mutations in genes involved in important cellular processes, like DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis (cell suicide of a damaged cell), can influence the radiation sensitivity of the mammalian embryo during sensitive stages of early pregnancy. Emphasis is put on heterozygous mutations (in which only one of the two copies of the gene is mutated), which are relatively numerous in the human population and do not affect the viability and the fertility of individuals carrying them. The studies under way in that field are supported by contracts with the European Union and the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC-AFCN)

  12. Hematopoietic cytokines as therapeutic players in early stages Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle eFarmer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a devastating age related neurodegenerative disease that is believed to have a lengthy prodromal state. It is critical to find methods of interfering with the progression of this early degenerative stage by inducing compensatory recovery processes to slow or prevent the eventual clinical symptoms. The current perspective article argues that immune system signalling molecules represent such a promising therapeutic approach. Two cytokines of interest are granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and erythropoietin (EPO. These hematopoietic cytokines have been protective in models of stroke, neuronal injury, and more recently PD. It is our belief that these trophic cytokines can be used not only for cell protection but also regeneration. However, success is likely dependent on early intervention. This paper will outline our perspective on the development of novel trophic recovery treatments for PD. In particular, we present new data from our lab suggesting that EPO and GM-CSF can foster neural re-innervation in a mild or partial lesion PD model that could be envisioned as reflecting the early stages of the disease.

  13. Radiation therapy for early stage Hodgkin's disease: Australasian patterns of care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Michael; Boyages, John; Crennan, Elizabeth; Davis, Sidney; Fisher, Richard J; Hook, Carolyn; Johnson, Neva; Joseph, David; Liew, Kuen H; Morgan, Graeme; O' Brien, Peter; Pendlebury, Sue; Pratt, Gary; Quong, George; Thornton, Deborah; Walker, Quenten; Wallington, Margaret; Trotter, Grant

    1995-01-15

    Purpose: Analysis of treatment outcome for Stage I-IIA supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease treated solely by irradiation in Australia and New Zealand. Methods and Materials: Patients with supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease only who were treated by irradiation alone with curative intent between 1969 to 1988 were retrospectively reviewed. Ten radiation oncology departments in Australia and New Zealand contributed patient data to the study. Patient, tumor, and treatment variables were recorded. Disease-free interval, survival, and complications were analyzed. Results: Eight hundred and twenty patients were reviewed. The median age was 29 years. There were 437 men and 383 women. The distribution of 310 clinically staged patients was 170 stage IA, 5 IB, and 135 IIA. Five hundred and ten patients received laparotomies, and pathologic staging was as follows: IA 214, IB 13, IIA 283. The 10-year acturial disease-free rate was 69% and overall survival rate was 79%. Increasing age, male sex, higher number of involved sites, the use of involved field irradiation, no staging laparotomy, and earlier year of treatment were significantly associated with an increased risk of relapse and lower survival. Actuarial 10-year survival following recurrence was 48%. Acute complications requiring interruption to treatment occurred in 46 patients (6%), but < 1% had their treatment permanently suspended. Actuarial complication rates at 10 years were: cardiac 2%, pulmonary 3% and thyroid 5%. There were 44 second malignancies including 10 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 3 leukemias, 7 lung, and 6 breast cancers. Mean delay to the development of a second cancer was 6 years. The 10-year actuarial rate of second malignancy was 5%. Conclusions: The Australasian experience of early stage Hodgkin's disease is consistent with the results in the published literature and confirms that irradiation produces a high cure rate with minimal toxicity.

  14. Radiation therapy for early stage Hodgkin's disease: Australasian patterns of care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Michael; Boyages, John; Crennan, Elizabeth; Davis, Sidney; Fisher, Richard J.; Hook, Carolyn; Johnson, Neva; Joseph, David; Liew, Kuen H.; Morgan, Graeme; O'Brien, Peter; Pendlebury, Sue; Pratt, Gary; Quong, George; Thornton, Deborah; Walker, Quenten; Wallington, Margaret; Trotter, Grant

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Analysis of treatment outcome for Stage I-IIA supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease treated solely by irradiation in Australia and New Zealand. Methods and Materials: Patients with supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease only who were treated by irradiation alone with curative intent between 1969 to 1988 were retrospectively reviewed. Ten radiation oncology departments in Australia and New Zealand contributed patient data to the study. Patient, tumor, and treatment variables were recorded. Disease-free interval, survival, and complications were analyzed. Results: Eight hundred and twenty patients were reviewed. The median age was 29 years. There were 437 men and 383 women. The distribution of 310 clinically staged patients was 170 stage IA, 5 IB, and 135 IIA. Five hundred and ten patients received laparotomies, and pathologic staging was as follows: IA 214, IB 13, IIA 283. The 10-year acturial disease-free rate was 69% and overall survival rate was 79%. Increasing age, male sex, higher number of involved sites, the use of involved field irradiation, no staging laparotomy, and earlier year of treatment were significantly associated with an increased risk of relapse and lower survival. Actuarial 10-year survival following recurrence was 48%. Acute complications requiring interruption to treatment occurred in 46 patients (6%), but < 1% had their treatment permanently suspended. Actuarial complication rates at 10 years were: cardiac 2%, pulmonary 3% and thyroid 5%. There were 44 second malignancies including 10 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 3 leukemias, 7 lung, and 6 breast cancers. Mean delay to the development of a second cancer was 6 years. The 10-year actuarial rate of second malignancy was 5%. Conclusions: The Australasian experience of early stage Hodgkin's disease is consistent with the results in the published literature and confirms that irradiation produces a high cure rate with minimal toxicity

  15. Efficacy of transvaginal contrast-enhanced MRI in the early staging of cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akata, Deniz; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Oezmen, Mustafa N.; Akhan, Okan; Koese, Faruk

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transvaginal contrast for local staging of cervical carcinoma. Fifty patients diagnosed with cervical carcinoma prospectively underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before and after vaginal opacification (VO) with a mixture of 25 ml saline and 25 ml barium. T2-weighted (T2W) TSE images in axial and sagittal planes were compared before and after vaginal opacification. Dynamic T1W images in sagittal and fat-suppressed T1W images in transverse planes were also evaluated after intravenous contrast administration. Involvement of vaginal wall, lumen, and fornices; parametrium; rectum; and bladder were noted. Changes in local tumor staging and in treatment planning were also assessed after vaginal opacification. MR results were later compared with surgical pathological findings. Twenty-eight patients who went through surgical staging were included in the study. VO did not change any of the MR interpretations in 14 patients (50%). Correct staging was achieved with T2W TSE images with and without VO (in sagittal and transverse planes) in 78.5% and 50% of the patients, respectively. VO correctly lowered staging in seven and increased it in three patients compared with sagittal standard T2W images. Treatment planning was also changed in four (14%) of these patients. When overall accuracy of MR staging to indicate the appropriate treatment was evaluated, patients would have received the proper treatment in 90% and 79% of the cases when only T2W sagittal images with and without VO were evaluated, respectively. Dynamic gradient-echo images in sagittal planes and postcontrast T1W images in transverse planes evaluated with T2W series after VO, accomplished correct staging in 23 (82%) of the patients. MRI staging in early cervical cancer may be difficult and overestimated, especially if the tumor is slightly extended into the proximal vagina. Use of vaginal contrast medium is an easy, well-tolerated, and effective

  16. Organophosphorus pesticides effect on early stages of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Mendoza, C; García-Basilio, C; Cram-Heydrich, S; Hernández-Quiroz, M; Vanegas-Pérez, C

    2009-02-01

    Ambystoma mexicanum is an endemic salamander of Xochimilco, a wetland of the basin of Mexico valley. Nowadays, axolotl populations are decreasing due environmental stressors. Particularly, studies about organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs; i.e. chlorpyrifos and malathion) toxicity are of great importance due to their intensive use in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate under controlled conditions the toxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and malathion (MLT) on embryos and larvae (stage 44 and 54) of A. mexicanum. Embryos and larvae were exposure 96h from 0.5 to 3mg CPFL(-1) and from 10 to 30mg MLTL(-1) in independent tests. Embryos at the end of this period were maintained 9d without pesticide in order to identify possible recuperation. Differences obtained in mortality, hatching success, development, morphological abnormalities, behaviour and activity, suggest that toxicity of CPF and MLT differs in embryos and larval stages. Embryos were less sensitive to OPPs acute exposure than axolotl larvae; additionally, toxicity of CPF in larval stages was greater than MLT. On the other hand, data obtained in axolotl embryos during the period of recuperation to CPF in particular as delay and inhibition of development, malformations and success of hatching, indicated that these responses turned out more sensitive than mortality. This study allowed to identify the toxicological potential of OPPs on early developmental stages of A. mexicanum and it is a valuable contribution for the future management of the axolotl wild population.

  17. Pretreatment prognostic Factors in Early Stage Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Ha, Sung Whan

    1992-01-01

    From March 1979 through December 1986, 124 patients with early stage carcinoma of the uterine cervix received curative radiation therapy. According to FIGO classification, 35 patients were stage IB and 89 were stage IIA. In stage IB, five year locoregional control, five year disease A, five year locoregional control, five disease free survival, and five year overall survival were 78.0%, 66.8%, and 72.1%, respectively. To identify prognostic factor, pretreatment including age, ECOG performance status, number of pregnancies, history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, histology, size and shape of primary tumor, CT findings and blood parameters were retrospectively analyzed in terms of locoregional control, disease free survival and overall survival using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. In univariate analysis, tumor size on physical examination and rectal invasion on CT significantly affected locoregional control, disease free survival and overal survival. Parametrial involvement on CT was a significant prognostic factor on locoregional control and disease free survival. Hemoglobin level affected disease free survival and overall survival. Histology and age were significant pronostic factor on locoregional control. In multivariate analysis excluding CT finding, tumor size on physical examination was a significant factor in terms of locoregional control and overall survival. Hemoglobin level was significant in terms of disease free survival. In multivarate analysis including CT, histology was a prognostic factor on locoregional control and disease free survival. Hemoglobin level and rectal invasion on CT were significant factors on locoregional control

  18. Early-stage precipitation in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (7050)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Gang; Cerezo, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    GP zone and metastable η ' formation during the early-stage precipitation of a 7050 Al alloy aged at 121 deg. C has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy, together with 3-dimensional atom probe analysis (of the chemistry and morphology) of individual precipitates. Small Mg-rich clusters (GPI zones) are found in the alloy after short ageing times at 121 deg. C, together with larger GPI zones (Zn/Mg=1.0). Zn-rich η ' platelets are seen to form mainly between 30 and 240 min ageing, coexisting with larger GPI zones. A significant fraction of elongated clusters have also been observed over this period of ageing. The dominant mechanism for η ' formation at this stage is shown to be by transformation of small GPI zones, via these elongated clusters and not by nucleation on larger zones

  19. Operative link on gastritis assessment stage is an appropriate predictor of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Ge, Zhi-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Bo

    2016-04-07

    To assess the predictive value of Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment (OLGIM) stages in gastric cancer. A prospective study was conducted with 71 patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) and 156 patients with non-EGC. All patients underwent endoscopic examination and systematic biopsy. Outcome measures were assessed and compared, including the Japanese endoscopic gastric atrophy (EGA) classification method and the modified OLGA method as well as the modified OLGIM method. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status was determined for all study participants. Stepwise logistic regression modeling was performed to analyze correlations between EGC and the EGA, OLGA and OLGIM methods. For patients with EGC and patients with non-EGC, the proportions of moderate-to-severe EGA cases were 64.8% and 44.9%, respectively (P = 0.005), the proportions of OLGA stages III-IV cases were 52.1% and 22.4%, respectively (P cancer.

  20. Phytoplankton dynamics in contrasting early stage North Atlantic spring blooms: composition, succession, and potential drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniels, C.J.; Poulton, A. J.; Esposito, M.

    2015-01-01

    The spring bloom is a key annual event in the phenology of pelagic ecosystems, making a major contribution to the oceanic biological carbon pump through the production and export of organic carbon. However, there is little consensus as to the main drivers of spring bloom formation, exacerbated......) of the 2012 North Atlantic spring bloom. The plankton composition and characteristics of the initial stages of the bloom were markedly different between the two basins. The Iceland Basin (ICB) appeared well mixed to > 400 m, yet surface chlorophyll a (0.27–2.2 mg m–3) and primary production (0.06–0.66 mmol C...... suggest micro-zooplankton grazing, potentially coupled with the lack of a seed population of bloom forming diatoms, was restricting diatom growth in the NWB, and that large diatoms may be absent in NWB spring blooms. Despite both phytoplankton communities being in the early stages of bloom formation...

  1. Early stages in the biogenesis of eukaryotic β-barrel proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jores, Tobias; Rapaport, Doron

    2017-09-01

    The endosymbiotic organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts harbour, similarly to their prokaryotic progenitors, β-barrel proteins in their outer membrane. These proteins are encoded on nuclear DNA, translated on cytosolic ribosomes and imported into their target organelles by a dedicated machinery. Recent studies have provided insights into the import into the organelles and the membrane insertion of these proteins. Although the cytosolic stages of their biogenesis are less well defined, it is speculated that upon their synthesis, chaperones prevent β-barrel proteins from aggregation and keep them in an import-competent conformation. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge about the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins, focusing on the early stages from the translation on cytosolic ribosomes to the recognition on the surface of the organelle. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 1 - The Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhamra, T.; Evans, S.; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    1999-01-01

    environmental decisions into their product development process which is very unusual in that ecodesign is significantly different for the pre- and post-specification stages of the design process. This paper explains the findings related to the first phase being the very early stages of the product development...... in the UK, Central Europe and the USA are carrying out Ecodesign. The survey also investigated the successes and failures companies had experienced and the lessons they had learnt along the way. From this survey we identified a number of success factors that enabled companies to successfully integrate...... process prior to the specification being finalised. A second paper, considers the findings from the later phases of the product development process....

  3. Uncertainties in early-stage capital cost estimation of process design – a case study on biorefinery design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales, and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early-stage design is a challenging task, which......) the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data are not available. Four well-known models for early-stage cost estimation are reviewed and analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early-stage process design...

  4. Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H-H.; Hüssy, K.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1744–1752.To disentangle the effects of different drivers on recruitment variability of marine fish, a spatially and temporally...... explicit understanding of both the spawning stock size and the early life stage dynamics is required. The objectives of this study are to assess the transport of western Baltic cod early life stages as well as the variability in environmentally-mediated survival along drift routes in relation to both...

  5. CT and MRI findings of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the early stage. The usefulness of diffusion-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukisu, Ryutaro; Kushihashi, Tamio; Gokan, Takehiko

    2001-01-01

    To detect subtle CT and MRI features of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in the early stage is important to prevent a human-to-human transmission. This study included 10 patients of CJD who underwent CT and/or MRI in its early stage. CT, T1- and T2-weighted MRI, DWI, and FLAIR images were obtained in 10, 6, 4, and 2 patients respectively. On DWI, abnormal hyperintensities were observed in both cerebral cortex, and in basal ganglia in all patients. On FLAIR images, abnormal hyperintensies were observed in one patient. Detection of abnormal intensities may be possible in the early stage of CJD using MRI, particularly with DWI. (author)

  6. CT and MRI findings of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the early stage. The usefulness of diffusion-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukisu, Ryutaro; Kushihashi, Tamio; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    2001-02-01

    To detect subtle CT and MRI features of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in the early stage is important to prevent a human-to-human transmission. This study included 10 patients of CJD who underwent CT and/or MRI in its early stage. CT, T1- and T2-weighted MRI, DWI, and FLAIR images were obtained in 10, 6, 4, and 2 patients respectively. On DWI, abnormal hyperintensities were observed in both cerebral cortex, and in basal ganglia in all patients. On FLAIR images, abnormal hyperintensies were observed in one patient. Detection of abnormal intensities may be possible in the early stage of CJD using MRI, particularly with DWI. (author)

  7. Analysis of factors responsible for the image in early stage emphysema and research concerning the diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Hirotaka

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the utility of the CT image to a clinical diagnosis of the early stage emphysema, the relation of CT value to the level of the lung destruction, the change in the lung density and pulmonary function was examined. Experimental pulmonary emphysema model in canine was produced by inhalation of aerosolized papain solution. In this model, the relationship between the destruction in lung tissues and the analysis of CT images was investigated. Changes in the alveolar surface area per unit lung volume well reflected those in mean CT value in the lung parenchyma. Also, it was clarified that the degree of the lung destruction in this model corresponded to that in patients with the early stage emphysema. Mean CT value in the area that formed lowest 5th percentile of the CT value histogram (mCT (5%ile)) was developed to analyze CT images in emphysema. To develop this study, changes of the mCT (5%ile) at the respiratory level from 5% to 95% inspiratory vital capacity (mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC))) was examined. In experimental studies, there was statistical significance between control and emphysema model. In clinical study using 14 patients with emphysema, the mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC)) reflected well the values of pulmonary function tests which indicated air flow limitation such as %pred. FEV 1.0 and MMF. The present studies demonstrated that it might be useful to detect the pathological and functional impairment in the early stage emphysema by using mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC)). (author)

  8. Use of spiral CT in demonstrating early carcinoma of the stomach - I stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this lecture is to provide practical information about the methodology and technique of spiral computed tomography, which provide maximum diagnostic efficiency in early gastric cancer - I stage, and to present the semiotics of CT images seen in early gastric cancer stage I - a own and literature data. Methodology of the study covers optimal drug muscle relaxation of the abdominal wall by injection of 2 sg buskolizin intravenous; maximum distension of the stomach lumen by ingestion of 3 effervescent disintegrated tablets Vit. C with 1-2 sips of water, necessarily using of non-ionic contrast media - 100 ml / 300 mg iodine / 1 ml liquid bolus introduced for 30 seconds. Start scanning - 30 seconds of the start of injection - to visualize the arterial phase, use of slices with a thickness of 3 mm and 2 mm interval; exponential data 120 kV, 160 mAc. Earlier form of gastric cancer have to be presented by 5 CT image: unequal unsmooth, scallop or polycyclic contours of the lining, thinning the complete disappearance of the lining; undulating thickening of the lining; nodal formation like a polyp on a broad basis with a 2-5 mm, double contour of the lining - like a wave. These amendments are localized only in a limited segment of the gastric mucosa. Spiral CT is an effective diagnostic performance in gastric cancer, including the early stage I of cancer development. This is realized only by using the specific methodology of the study as well as good knowledge of the CT images semiology for carcinoma, localized only within a certain perimeter of the stomach lining

  9. Jasmonate signaling is activated in the very early stages of iron deficiency responses in rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Senoura, Takeshi; Oikawa, Takaya; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Minoru; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2016-07-01

    Under low iron availability, plants induce the expression of various genes involved in iron uptake and translocation at the transcriptional level. This iron deficiency response is affected by various plant hormones, but the roles of jasmonates in this response are not well-known. We investigated the involvement of jasmonates in rice iron deficiency responses. High rates of jasmonate-inducible genes were induced during the very early stages of iron deficiency treatment in rice roots. Many jasmonate-inducible genes were also negatively regulated by the ubiquitin ligases OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and positively regulated by the transcription factor IDEF1. Ten out of 35 genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were rapidly induced at 3 h of iron deficiency treatment, and this induction preceded that of known iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation. Twelve genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were also upregulated in HRZ-knockdown roots. Endogenous concentrations of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl isoleucine tended to be rapidly increased in roots in response to iron deficiency treatment, whereas these concentrations were higher in HRZ-knockdown roots under iron-sufficient conditions. Analysis of the jasmonate-deficient cpm2 mutant revealed that jasmonates repress the expression of many iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation under iron sufficiency, but this repression is partly canceled under an early stage of iron deficiency. These results indicate that jasmonate signaling is activated during the very early stages of iron deficiency, which is partly regulated by IDEF1 and OsHRZs.

  10. Patient-specific core decompression surgery for early-stage ischemic necrosis of the femoral head.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Core decompression is an efficient treatment for early stage ischemic necrosis of the femoral head. In conventional procedures, the pre-operative X-ray only shows one plane of the ischemic area, which often results in inaccurate drilling. This paper introduces a new method that uses computer-assisted technology and rapid prototyping to enhance drilling accuracy during core decompression surgeries and presents a validation study of cadaveric tests.Twelve cadaveric human femurs were used to simulate early-stage ischemic necrosis. The core decompression target at the anterolateral femoral head was simulated using an embedded glass ball (target. Three positioning Kirschner wires were drilled into the top and bottom of the large rotor. The specimen was then subjected to computed tomography (CT. A CT image of the specimen was imported into the Mimics software to construct a three-dimensional model including the target. The best core decompression channel was then designed using the 3D model. A navigational template for the specimen was designed using the Pro/E software and manufactured by rapid prototyping technology to guide the drilling channel. The specimen-specific navigation template was installed on the specimen using positioning Kirschner wires. Drilling was performed using a guide needle through the guiding hole on the templates. The distance between the end point of the guide needle and the target was measured to validate the patient-specific surgical accuracy.The average distance between the tip of the guide needle drilled through the guiding template and the target was 1.92±0.071 mm.Core decompression using a computer-rapid prototyping template is a reliable and accurate technique that could provide a new method of precision decompression for early-stage ischemic necrosis.

  11. Emerging treatments for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: focus on neratinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourie HR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hampig Raphael Kourie,1 Elie El Rassy,1 Florian Clatot,2,3 Evandro de Azambuja,4 Matteo Lambertini3,4 1Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Medical Oncology and IRON/U1245, Centre Henri Becquerel, Rouen, France; 3Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory, 4Department of Medicine, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: Over the last decades, a better understanding of breast cancer heterogeneity provided tools for a biologically based personalization of anticancer treatments. In particular, the overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 by tumor cells provided a specific target in these HER2-positive tumors. The development of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, and its approval in 1998 for the treatment of patients with metastatic disease, radically changed the natural history of this aggressive subtype of breast cancer. These findings provided strong support for the continuous research in targeting the HER2 pathway and implementing the development of new anti-HER2 targeted agents. Besides trastuzumab, a series of other anti-HER2 agents have been developed and are currently being explored for the treatment of breast cancer patients, including those diagnosed with early-stage disease. Among these agents, neratinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that irreversibly inhibits HER1, HER2, and HER4 at the intracellular level, has shown promising results, including when administered to patients previously exposed to trastuzumab-based treatment. This article aims to review the available data on the role of the HER2 pathway in breast cancer and on the different targeted agents that have been studied or are currently under development for the treatment of patients with early-stage HER2-positive disease with a particular focus on neratinib. Keywords: breast cancer, HER2-positive, neratinib, early-stage, targeted

  12. Cognitive and social processes predicting partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners' psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner's diagnosis (N=253), 9 (N=167), and 18 months (N=149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners' processing depends upon whether these efforts result in changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners' adaptation to cancer.

  13. Low-Dose Consolidation Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Unfavorable Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Jordan A., E-mail: jordan.torok@dm.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wu, Yuan [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Prosnitz, Leonard R.; Kim, Grace J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Beaven, Anne W.; Diehl, Louis F. [Division of Hematologic Malignancy and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trial HD11 established 4 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and 30 Gy of radiation therapy (RT) as a standard for early stage (I, II), unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Additional cycles of ABVD may allow for a reduction in RT dose and improved toxicity profile. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with combined modality therapy at the Duke Cancer Institute for early stage, unfavorable HL by GHSG criteria from 1994 to 2012 were included. Patients who did not undergo post-chemotherapy functional imaging (positron emission tomography or gallium imaging) or who failed to achieve a complete response were excluded. Clinical outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Late effects were also evaluated. Results: A total of 90 patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. Median follow-up was 5 years. Chemotherapy consisted primarily of ABVD (88%) with a median number of 6 cycles. The median dose of consolidation RT was 23.4 Gy. Four patients had relapses, 2 of which were in-field. Ten-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.97) and 98% (95% CI: 0.92-0.99), respectively. For the subset of patients (n=46) who received 5 to 6 cycles of chemotherapy and ≤24 Gy, the 10-year PFS and OS values were 88% (95% CI: 70%-96%) and 98% (95% CI: 85% - 99%), respectively. The most common late effect was hypothyroidism (20%) with no cardiac complications. Seven secondary malignancies were diagnosed, with only 1 arising within the RT field. Conclusions: Lower doses of RT may be sufficient when combined with more than 4 cycles of ABVD for early stage, unfavorable HL and may result in a more favorable toxicity profile than 4 cycles of ABVD and 30 Gy of RT.

  14. Iodine-125 seed brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancer: a single-institution review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, Simon; Weiß, Susan; Baaske, Dieter; Schöpe, Michael; Stevens, Simon; Bodis, Stephan; Zwahlen, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting the five-year biochemical control, toxicity profile and dosimetric parameters using iodine-125 low dose rate brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer at a single institution. Between April 2006 and December 2010, 169 men with early stage prostate cancer were treated with BT. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL). Treatment-related morbidities, including urinary, rectal and sexual function, were measured, applying the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the 7-grade Quality of Life Scale (QoL) and medical status, the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.03). Seed migration and loss, dosimetric parameters and learning effects were also analyzed. Medium follow-up time was 50 months (range, 1–85 months). The five-year biochemical failure rate was 7%. Acute proctitis rates were 19% (grade 1) and 1% (grade 2), respectively. The overall incidence of incontinence was 19% (mild), 16% (moderate) and < 1% (severe). An increase in IPSS ≥ 5 points was detected in 59% of patients, with 38% regaining their baseline. Seed dislocation was found in 24% of patients and correlated with D90 and V100. A learning curve was found for seed migration, D90 and V100. QoL correlated with the general health condition of patient, incontinence symptoms and IPSS. BT for early stage prostate cancer offers excellent five-year biochemical control with low toxicities. QoL aspects are favorable. A learning curve was detected for procedural aspects but its impact on patient relevant endpoints remains inconclusive

  15. Trastuzumab in early stage breast cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis for Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyt, Mattias; Huybrechts, Michel; Hulstaert, Frank; Vrijens, France; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2008-08-01

    Although trastuzumab is traditionally used in metastatic breast cancer treatment, studies reported on the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab in adjuvant setting for the treatment of early stage breast cancer in HER2+ tumors. We estimated the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of reimbursing trastuzumab in this indication from a payer's perspective. We constructed a health economic model. Long-term consequences of preventing patients to progress to metastatic breast cancer and side effects such as congestive heart failure were taken into account. Uncertainty was handled applying probabilistic modeling and through probabilistic sensitivity analyses. In the HERA scenario, applying an arbitrary threshold of euro30000 per life-year gained, early stage breast cancer treatment with trastuzumab is cost-effective for 9 out of 15 analyzed subgroups (according to age and stage). In contrast, treatment according to the FinHer scenario is cost-effective in 14 subgroups. Furthermore, the FinHer regimen is most of the times cost saving with an average incremental cost of euro668, euro-1045, and euro-6869 for respectively stages I, II and III breast cancer patients whereas the HERA regimen is never cost saving due to the higher initial treatment costs. The model shows better cost-effectiveness for the 9-week initial treatment (FinHer) compared to no trastuzumab treatment than for the 1-year post-chemotherapy treatment (HERA). Both from a medical and an economic point of view, the 9-week initial treatment regimen with trastuzumab shows promising results and justifies the initiation of a large comparative trial with a 1-year regimen.

  16. Clinical Significance of IGFBP-3 Methylation in Patients with Early Stage Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Tae Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IGFBP-3 is a multifunctional protein that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Hypermethylation of the promoter represses expression of the IGFBP-3 gene. We undertook this study to assess the impact of IGFBP-3 methylation on survival of early stage gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Of the 482 tissue samples from gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery, IGFBP-3 methylation was tested in 138 patients with stage IB/II gastric cancer. We also analyzed IGFBP-3 methylation in 26 gastric cancer cell lines. IGFBP-3 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight. Statistical analyses, all two-sided, were performed to investigate the prognostic effects of methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter on various clinical parameters. RESULTS: Hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 was observed in 26 (19% of the 138 stage IB/II gastric cancer patients. Clinicopathological factors such as age, Lauren classification, sex, tumor infiltration, lymph node metastasis, and histologic grade did not show a statistically significant association with the methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter. Patients with a hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter had similar 8-year disease-free survival compared with those without a hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter (73% vs 75%, P = .78. In subgroup analyses, females, but not males, seemed to have poorer prognosis for DFS and OS in the subset of patients with IGFBP-3 methylation as compared with those without IGFBP-3 methylation (8-year DFS: 55.6% vs 71.6%, P = .3694 and 8-year overall survival: 55.6% vs 68.4%, P = .491, respectively even with no statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The status of IGFBP-3 methylation as measured by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction proposed the modest role for predicting survival in specific subgroups of patients with early-stage gastric cancer who undergo curative surgery. However, this needs further investigation.

  17. Predictors of delay in starting radiation treatment for patients with early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benk, Veronique; Ho, Vivian; Fortin, Paul R.; Zhang, G.; Levinton, Carey; Freeman, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the factors predicting waiting time for radiation treatment in early breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 1992 and December 1993, 739 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative treatment at three McGill University Hospitals. Waiting time was defined as the interval between the date of surgery and the date of the first radiation treatment. Delay was defined as a waiting time of more than 7 weeks for women who did not receive chemotherapy (Group NC, n 478), and as a waiting time of more than 24 weeks for those who received chemotherapy (Group C, n = 261). We analyzed predictive factors related to the patient (age, stage, treatment on protocol, income by postal code) and to the referring hospital (university or community hospital). Results: For the entire population, 54% of patients were delayed, 72% in Group NC and 21.4% in Group C. Univariate analysis showed an impact of referring hospital in both groups, and of stage and treatment on protocol in Group C (all p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that delays were significantly less in Group NC for women referred from a community hospital (p = 0.001) and in Group C for women with Stage I disease (p = 0.06), those treated on protocol, and those referred from a university hospital (p = 0.001). Conclusion: More than half of patients with early breast cancer waited more than the recommended intervals for radiation therapy. However, lower income breast cancer patients did not wait longer for treatment than higher income patients, possibly a result of the Canadian Medicare system which provides universal access to health care

  18. What Determines the Growth Ambition of Dutch Early-Stage Entrepreneurs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Verheul; Linda van Mil

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the ambition to grow among Dutch early-stage entrepreneurs (nascents and young business owners). We use Adult Population Survey data of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for the Netherlands. Merging cross-sectional data of the years 2002 to 2007, we arrive at a sample of 409 nascents and 336 young business owners. Growth ambition is measured by asking the respondent which statement fits him or her best: (1) I want my company to be as large a...

  19. SSX2-4 expression in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, K B V; Pøhl, M; Olsen, K E

    2014-01-01

    The expression of cancer/testis antigens SSX2, SSX3, and SSX4 in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) was examined, since they are considered promising targets for cancer immunotherapy due to their immunogenicity and testis-restricted normal tissue expression. We characterized three SSX antibodies...... was only detected in 5 of 143 early-stage NSCLCs, which is rare compared to other cancer/testis antigens (e.g. MAGE-A and GAGE). However, further studies are needed to determine whether SSX can be used as a prognostic or predictive biomarker in NSCLC....

  20. Geographic access to radiation therapy facilities and disparities of early-stage breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Few studies of breast cancer treatment have focused on the Northern Plains of the United States, an area with a high mastectomy rate. This study examined the association between geographic access to radiation therapy facilities and receipt of breast cancer treatments among early-stage breast cancer patients in South Dakota. Based on 4,209 early-stage breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2012 in South Dakota, the study measured geographic proximity to radiation therapy facilities using the shortest travel time for patients to the closest radiation therapy facility. Two-level logistic regression models were used to estimate for early stage cases i the odds of mastectomy versus breast conserving surgery (BCS; ii the odds of not receiving radiation therapy after BCS versus receiving follow-up radiation therapy. Covariates included race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, tumour grade, tumour sequence, year of diagnosis, census tract-level poverty rate and urban/rural residence. The spatial scan statistic method was used to identify geographic areas with significantly higher likelihood of experiencing mastectomy. The study found that geographic accessibility to radiation therapy facilities was negatively associated with the likelihood of receiving mastectomy after adjustment for other covariates, but not associated with radiation therapy use among patients receiving BCS. Compared with patients travelling less than 30 minutes to a radiation therapy facility, patients travelling more than 90 minutes were about 1.5 times more likely to receive mastectomy (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.11 and patients travelling more than 120 minutes were 1.7 times more likely to receive mastectomy (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-2.42. The study also identified a statistically significant cluster of patients receiving mastectomy who were located in south-eastern South Dakota, after adjustment for other factors. Because

  1. Modeling of thin films growth processes in the early stage for atoms with covalent bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupik, V A; Margolin, V I; Su, Chu Trong

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulation for obtaining thin film’s growth process at an early stage with the proposed model of atoms with isotropic and anisotropic interactions been considered. Carrying out the procedure for analyzing the problem on the basis of the program being implemented, computer simulation of thin film growth processes has been carried out on several examples. The results of computer simulation of the growth process of thin film on a given substrate and an aggregate in a vacuum condition are shown. Some characteristic distributions of the obtained structure have been carried out to evaluate the proposed adequate model and to reflect the high complexity of thin films growth process. (paper)

  2. Early industrial stage of modernization pre-revolutionary Russia: sources, tendencies and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Михайловна Братченко

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the sources, occurrence and development of industrialization of pre-revolutionary Russia at its early stage are analyzed. The authors have shown the basic tendencies and directions of these processes. In the article the set of the reasons of industrialization of Russia is opened, among which not internal conditions, and external factors were basic. Is shown also, that the earli-industrial modernization in the liberal - conservative form has put a society in the extremely unstable, «transitive» condition, that was fraught with social shocks.

  3. Positron annihilation and electron microscopy study in the early stage of fatigue of polycrystalline copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, L.; Pareja, R.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Gonzalez, R.

    1985-01-01

    Positron annihilation and transmission electron microscopy are used to study the early stage of fatigue in polycrystalline copper cyclically deformed at various temperatures. The concentration of positron traps is correlated to the cumulative plastic strain and to the work done during deformation. The average lifetimes of the trapped positrons are (177 +- 4) and (186 +- 3) ps for samples fatigued at T 15 s -1 for the samples deformed at T <= 293 K. Vacancy clusters like small dislocation loops, are proposed as the main defects responsible for the positron trapping. (author)

  4. MR diffusion weighted imaging experimental study on early stages of articular cartilage degeneration of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jingru; Dai Shipeng; Pang Jun; Xu Xiaokun; Wang Yuexin; Zhang Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the appearance of MR diffusion weighted imaging in early stages of cartilage degeneration and to detect its values. Methods: In 20 goat left knees, intra- articular injection of 5 units of papain was performed causing a loss of cartilage proteoglycan. Twenty right knees were used as control group. MR diffusion weighted imaging was performed at 24 hours after intra-articular injection of papain. ADC of each part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. The proteoglycan content was measured biochemically and histochemically. Routine MRI and DWI were performed in 100 patients with osteoarthritis and 20 healthy people. The ADC of each interested part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. Results: In experimental control group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (14.2±2.3) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. In early stages of cartilage degeneration group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (17.5±4.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. The ADCav of the control group was lower than that of the early stages of cartilage degeneration group (t=2.709; P=0.016). The proteloglycan content of articular cartilage was 4.22 x 10 6 μg/kg in control group, and 0.82 x 10 6 μg/kg in experimental group at 24 hours after injection of papain. The difference between control group and experimental group was significant (t=2.705, P=0.018). In healthy people, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (7.6±2.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. In osteoarthritis group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (10.3±4.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. The ADCav in the healthy group was significantly lower than that in the osteoarthritis group (t=2.609,P=0.014). Conclusion: DWI is an useful method in detecting early stages of cartilage degeneration which can not be showed on routine sequences. (authors)

  5. Assessment methods for comfort of consumer products at early stages of the development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos

    Design engineers who are involved in the early conceptual phase of the development of products such as seats, headphones and domestic appliances stress the increasing importance of comfort. Comfort is taken into account in the purchasing decisions of buying a chair, a bed, and when driving a car...... stages of the design process and, to investigate the factors that influence the different dimensions of comfort (physical, physiological and psychological). The investigation has been conducted in strong collaboration with an industrial partner working with ear-worn devices, providing access to data...

  6. Photoluminescence due to early stage of oxygen precipitation in multicrystalline Si for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Fumito; Tajima, Michio; Ogura, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the early stage of oxygen precipitation in n-type multicrytalline Si, the spectral change of photoluminescence (PL) induced by thermal treatment at 450-650 °C was investigated in relation to the changes in excess donor and interstitial oxygen concentrations. We observed the characteristic PL bands in the near-band-edge region and sharp lines in the deep-level region in correspondence with the generation of thermal donors and new donors. The observed PL spectral variation is essentially the same as that in Czochralski-grown Si annealed at 450-650 °C.

  7. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...... in the second half of the 2000s, new analyses of stomach content of sprat and herring were conducted, to elucidate the contribution of changes in predation pressure on cod recruitment. Comparison of stomach contents of sprat and herring in 2004–2008 with data from the 1990s showed a similar diet composition...

  8. Bone density does not reflect mechanical properties in early-stage arthrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, CC; Hvid, I

    2001-01-01

    : medial arthrosis, lateral control, normal medial and normal lateral controls. The specimens were tested in compression to determine mechanical properties and then physical/compositional properties. Compared to the normal medial control, we found reductions in ultimate stress, Young's modulus, and failure...... cancellous bone and the 3 controls. None of the mechanical properties of arthrotic cancellous bone could be predicted by the physical/compositional properties measured. The increase in bone tissue in early-stage arthrotic cancellous bone did not make up for the loss of mechanical properties, which suggests...

  9. Second cancers following radiotherapy for early stage head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Oota, Sayako; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Miura, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    Different site specificity of second primary cancer following treatment for early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was found in the analysis of post-treatment long-term follow up cases. The highest risk of second primary cancer was observed in the oro-hypo-pharynx cancer groups, and the lowest risks were observed in the epi-pharynx cancer and maxillary sinus cancer groups. Squamous cell carcinoma in the irradiated head and neck region with long latency periods could be included in the radiation induced cancer from comparison with post-irradiation cases for malignant lymphoma, benign diseases as well as breast cancers. (author)

  10. Clean Energy Finance: Challenges and Opportunities of Early-Stage Energy Investing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heap, D.; Pless, J.; Aieta, N.

    2013-12-01

    Characterized by a changing landscape and new opportunities, today's increasingly complex energy decision space will need innovative financing and investment models to appropriately assess risk and profitability. This report provides an overview of the current state of clean energy finance across the entire spectrum but with a focus on early stage investing, and it includes insights from investors across all investment classes. Further, this report aims to provide a roadmap with the mechanisms, limitations, and considerations involved in making successful investments by identifying risks, challenges, and opportunities in the clean energy sector.

  11. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (pworking hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  12. Investigating the early stages of person perception: the asymmetry of social categorization by sex vs. age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Jasmin; Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimensions), the relative influence that sex and age have on each other during categorization of infant, younger adult, and older adult faces was investigated. Results of these experiments demonstrate that when sex and age dimensions are simultaneously categorized, only for infant faces does age influence sex categorization. In contrast, the sex of both young and older adults was shown to influence age categorization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed in light of previous person perception research.

  13. Selective attention to signs of success: social dominance and early stage interpersonal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maner, Jon K; DeWall, C Nathan; Gailliot, Matthew T

    2008-04-01

    Results from two experiments suggest that observers selectively attend to male, but not female, targets displaying signs of social dominance. Participants overestimated the frequency of dominant men in rapidly presented stimulus arrays (Study 1) and visually fixated on dominant men in an eyetracking experiment (Study 2). When viewing female targets, participants attended to signs of physical attractiveness rather than social dominance. Findings fit with evolutionary models of mating, which imply that dominance and physical attractiveness sometimes tend to be prioritized preferentially in judgments of men versus women, respectively. Findings suggest that sex differences in human mating are observed not only at the level of overt mating preferences and choices but also at early stages of interpersonal perception. This research demonstrates the utility of examining early-in-the-stream social cognition through the functionalist lens of adaptive thinking.

  14. Survival after early-stage breast cancer of women previously treated for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis Frederik Palm; Johansen, Christoffer; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    treatment of depression and risk of receiving nonguideline treatment of breast cancer were assessed in multivariable logistic regression analyses. We compared the overall survival, breast cancer-specific survival, and risk of death by suicide of women who were and were not treated for depression before......Purpose The aim of this nationwide, register-based cohort study was to determine whether women treated for depression before primary early-stage breast cancer are at increased risk for receiving treatment that is not in accordance with national guidelines and for poorer survival. Material...... and Methods We identified 45,325 women with early breast cancer diagnosed in Denmark from 1998 to 2011. Of these, 744 women (2%) had had a previous hospital contact (as an inpatient or outpatient) for depression and another 6,068 (13%) had been treated with antidepressants. Associations between previous...

  15. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elisabete; Azevedo, Vitor; Melo, Tânia; Rego, Andreia M; V Evtuguin, Dmitry; Domingues, Pedro; Calado, Ricardo; Pereira, Rui; Abreu, Maria H; Domingues, Maria R

    2018-01-17

    Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for "sushi" preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n -3 and n- 6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica : the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) framework. Both the blades (gametophyte) and conchocelis (sporophyte) are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q-Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS) platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis): 14/15 glycolipids (GLs), 93/79 phospholipids (PLs), and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4( n -6) and 20:5( n -3) fatty acids that contribute to n -3 and n -6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs' profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n -6 and n -3 precursors and in both life stages of Porphyra

  16. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete da Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for “sushi” preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica: the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA framework. Both the blades (gametophyte and conchocelis (sporophyte are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q–Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis: 14/15 glycolipids (GLs, 93/79 phospholipids (PLs, and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4(n-6 and 20:5(n-3 fatty acids that contribute to n-3 and n-6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs’ profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n-6 and n-3 precursors and in both life stages of

  17. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2012-01-01

    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages...... differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were...

  18. Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Vincent; Panatier, Aude; Hiba, Bassem; Ducourneau, Eva-Gunnel; Raffard, Gerard; Dubourdieu, Nadège; Maitre, Marlène; Lesté-Lasserre, Thierry; Brochet, Bruno; Dousset, Vincent; Desmedt, Aline; Oliet, Stéphane H; Tourdias, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient. We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Distribution of Surgical-Pathologic Risk Factors in Relation to Stage in Patients with Early Stage Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süha Özer

    2008-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Stage did not clearly predict surgical pathologic risk factors, a result of uncertainty of clinical staging. Without surgery, it is impossible to determine the actual limits of the disease with the tests available at this time.

  20. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  1. An approach to quantitative sustainability assessment in the early stages of process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Santarelli, Francesco; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-06-15

    A procedure was developed for the quantitative assessment of key performance indicators suitable for the sustainability analysis of alternative processes, mainly addressing the early stages of process design. The methodology was based on the calculation of a set of normalized impact indices allowing a direct comparison of the additional burden of each process alternative on a selected reference area. Innovative reference criteria were developed to compare and aggregate the impact indicators on the basis of the site-specific impact burden and sustainability policy. An aggregation procedure also allows the calculation of overall sustainability performance indicators and of an "impact fingerprint" of each process alternative. The final aim of the method is to support the decision making process during process development, providing a straightforward assessment of the expected sustainability performances. The application of the methodology to case studies concerning alternative waste disposal processes allowed a preliminary screening of the expected critical sustainability impacts of each process. The methodology was shown to provide useful results to address sustainability issues in the early stages of process design.

  2. An early stage evaluation of the Supporting Program for Obstetric Care Underserved Areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Baeg Ju; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jin Yong

    2014-06-01

    "The Supporting Program for Obstetric Care Underserved Areas (SPOU)" provides financial aids to rural community (or district) hospitals to reopen prenatal care and delivery services for regions without obstetrics and gynecology clinics or hospitals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early stage effect of the SPOU program. The proportion of the number of birth through SPOU was calculated by each region. Also survey was conducted to investigate the extent of overall satisfaction, elements of dissatisfaction, and suggestions for improvement of the program; 209 subjects participated from 7 to 12 December, 2012. Overall, 20% of pregnant women in Youngdong (71 cases) and Gangjin (106 cases) used their community (or district) hospitals through the SPOU whereas Yecheon (23 cases) was 8%; their satisfaction rates were high. Short distance and easy accessibility was the main reason among women choosing community (or district) hospital whereas the reasons of not selecting the community (or district) hospital were favor of the outside hospital's facility, system, and trust in the medical staffs. The SPOU seems to be currently effective at an early stage. However, to successfully implement this program, the government should make continuous efforts to recruit highly qualified medical staffs and improve medical facility and equipment.

  3. Whole-genome analysis of a patient with early-stage small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J-Y; Lee, Y-S; Kim, B C; Lee, G K; Lee, S; Kim, E-H; Kim, H-M; Bhak, J

    2014-12-01

    We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of a case of early-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to analyze the genomic features. WGS revealed a lot of single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), small insertion/deletions and chromosomal abnormality. Chromosomes 4p, 5q, 13q, 15q, 17p and 22q contained many block deletions. Especially, copy loss was observed in tumor suppressor genes RB1 and TP53, and copy gain in oncogene hTERT. Somatic mutations were found in TP53 and CREBBP. Novel nonsynonymous (ns) SNVs in C6ORF103 and SLC5A4 genes were also found. Sanger sequencing of the SLC5A4 gene in 23 independent SCLC samples showed another nsSNV in the SLC5A4 gene, indicating that nsSNVs in the SLC5A4 gene are recurrent in SCLC. WGS of an early-stage SCLC identified novel recurrent mutations and validated known variations, including copy number variations. These findings provide insight into the genomic landscape contributing to SCLC development.

  4. Molecular Mechanism of the Early Stage of Amyloidogenic Hexapeptides (NFGAIL) Aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Bi-Yun; Zhou Bo; Cai Zhuo-Wei; Yang Zai-Xing; Xiu Peng

    2013-01-01

    Peptides/proteins aggregation can give rise to pathological conditions of many human diseases. Small partially ordered oligomers formed in the early stage of aggregation, rather than mature fibrils, are thought to be the main toxicity agent for the living cell. Thus, understanding the pathway and the underlying physical mechanism in the early stage of aggregation is very important for prevention and treatment of these protein functional diseases. Herein we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the aggregation of four NFGAIL hexapeptides (NFGAIL peptide is a core segment of human islet amyloid polypeptide and exhibits similar aggregation kinetics as the full-length polypeptide). We observe that the peptide monomers in water mainly adopt non-structural coil configurations; the four peptides which are randomly placed in water aggregate spontaneously to partially ordered oligomer (β-sheets) through dimerization or trimerization, with the dimerization predominated. Both parallel and anti-parallel β-sheets are observed. The hydrophobic interactions drive the initial peptides associations, and the subsequent conformational fluctuations promote the formation of more hydrogen bonds between the dangling hydrogen sites in the main chains of peptides. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  5. Estimation of Wheat Plant Density at Early Stages Using High Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyang Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crop density is a key agronomical trait used to manage wheat crops and estimate yield. Visual counting of plants in the field is currently the most common method used. However, it is tedious and time consuming. The main objective of this work is to develop a machine vision based method to automate the density survey of wheat at early stages. RGB images taken with a high resolution RGB camera are classified to identify the green pixels corresponding to the plants. Crop rows are extracted and the connected components (objects are identified. A neural network is then trained to estimate the number of plants in the objects using the object features. The method was evaluated over three experiments showing contrasted conditions with sowing densities ranging from 100 to 600 seeds⋅m-2. Results demonstrate that the density is accurately estimated with an average relative error of 12%. The pipeline developed here provides an efficient and accurate estimate of wheat plant density at early stages.

  6. Hypo Activity of Cholinergic System in Patients with Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidescu, L.; Codorean, I.; Matei, C.; Barret, O.; Mazere, J.; Guyot, M.; Rimbu, A.; Allard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Objective A cholinergic dysfunction was documented in advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease. In order to specify the cholinergic involvement in early stages, we performed a presynaptic imaging study of the cholinergic system using a vesicular Acetylcholine transporter ligand labelled with iodine 123 ( 123 I-IBVM - Iodobenzovesamicol) Materials And Methods Eight patients (5 women and 3 men, 74-89 years, MMS>23) and 8 controls (6 women and 2 men, 72-80 years, MMS>30) have been evaluated using the neuropsychological tests; cerebral SPECT was performed 6 hours after intravenous injection of 218±19 MBq of 123 I - IBVM (30 min, 3 volume, 128x128) and the 3D MRI (T1 weighted images). Acquisition data were processed by filtered retroprojection (Butterworth 5.35) and analysed with SPM software. Each examination was co-registered with the MRI of the patient, normalised in the MNI template and smoothed (10mm). Results The analyse of the group (two sample T-test, p 123 I-IBVM has been detected in the patients group, compared to the control. Conclusions Our results indicate that cholinergic dysfunctions appear very early in the development of Alzheimer's disease and affect the cortical structures involved in the attention process. Some studies are in progress to analyze imaging data with cognitive impairments of each patient. (author)

  7. Toxicity of crude oil to early life stages of two fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, L.M.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; King, T.; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2004-07-01

    Fish exposed to crude oil in their early life stages exhibit signs of dioxin-like toxicity which is linked to the presence of alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure is characterized by the presence of blue-sac disease which manifests itself in edema, hemorrhaging, deformities and induction of CYP1A enzymes. In this study, the extent of CYP1A induction and BSD was compared in the early life stages of rainbow trout and Japanese medaka following exposure to two crude oils (Scotian Shelf and Alaskan North Slope Crude). Embryos were exposed to a broad range of concentrations of chemically enhanced water fractions of both oils which have unique PAH composition and chemical characteristics. It was assumed that Alaskan North Slope Crude would be more toxic than Scotian Shelf because it has a higher PAH concentration. The occurrence and severity of BSD was characterized along with the extent of PAH exposure. Preliminary results confirm that PAH exposure is greater for Alaskan North Slope Crude and that the responses of the two fish species were highly correlated.

  8. Early stages of oxidation of ion-implanted nickel at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peide, Z.; Grant, W.A.; Procter, R.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    The early stages of oxidation of nickel implanted with nickel, chromium, or lithium ions in oxygen at 1100 0 C have been studied using various electron-optical techniques. The unimplanted metal develops initially a fine-grained, convoluted scale having a ridged, cellular structure. Subsequently, the oxide grains increase in size significantly and oxidation becomes predominantly controlled by diffusion of Ni /sup 2+/ ions across a compact, columnar scale. Implantation of the surface with nickel ions has no significant effect on the initial oxidation behavior. However, after implantation with chromium or lithium ions, the development of the NiO scale is, in the early stages of oxidation, suppressed by formation of NiCr 2 O 4 or LiO 2 nodules, respectively. Subsequently, the implanted species are incorporated into the steady-state NiO scale where they dope the oxide and thus influence the diffusion rate of Ni /sup 2+/ ions through it. As would be predicted, the steady-state oxidation rate of chromium-implanted nickel is increased while that of lithium- implanted nickel is decreased compared with that of the unimplanted metal

  9. Effect of light Sphagnum peat on odour formation in the early stages of biowaste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurola, Jukka M; Arnold, Mona; Kontro, Merja H; Talves, Matti; Romantschuk, Martin

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of two bulking materials, Sphagnum peat and pine wood chips, on the early stages of biowaste composting in two pilot-scale processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the formation conditions of malodorous compost gases in the initial phases of the processes. The results showed that gas emission leaving an open windrow and a closed drum composting system contained elevated concentrations of fermentative microbial metabolites when acid Sphagnum peat (pH 3.2) was used as a bulking material. Moreover, the gas emission of the peat amended drum composter contained a high concentration of odour (up to 450,000oum(-3) of air). The highest odour values in the outlet gas of peat amended composts coincided with the elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds such as acetoin and buthanedion. We conclude that the acidifying qualities of composting substrates or bulking material may intensify odour emission from biowaste composts and prolong the early stages of the composting process. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FDG PET/CT in initial staging and early response to chemotherapy assessment of paediatric rhabdomyosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eugene, T.; Ansquer, C.; Oudoux, A.; Carlier, T.; Kraeber-Bodere, T.; Bodet-Milin, C.; Corradini, N.; Thomas, C.; Dupas, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), in comparison with conventional imaging modalities (CIM), for initial staging and early therapy assessment in paediatric rhabdomyosarcoma. Patients and methods: Prior to treatment, 18 patients (age range, 9 months to 18 years) with histologically proven rhabdomyosarcoma underwent FDG PET/CT in addition to CIM (magnetic resonance imaging of primary site, whole body CT and bone scintigraphy). After three courses of chemotherapy, 12 patients underwent FDG PET/CT in addition to CIM. RECIST criteria and visual analysis of FDG uptake were used for assessment of response. The standard of reference was determined by an interdisciplinary tumor board based on imaging material, histopathology and follow-up data (median = 5 years). Results: PET/CT sensitivity was superior to CIM's concerning lymph node involvement (100% versus 83%, respectively) and metastases detection (100% versus 50%, respectively). PET/CT results changed therapeutic management in 11% of cases. After three courses of chemotherapy, the rate of complete response was 66% with PET/CT versus 8% with CIM. Five percent of patients relapsed during follow-up (median = 5 years). Conclusion: This study confirms that PET/CT depicts important additional information in initial staging of paediatric rhabdomyosarcomas and suggests a superior prognostic value of PET/CT in early response to chemotherapy assessment. (authors)

  11. Genetic identification of female Cannabis sativa plants at early developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techen, Natascha; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2010-11-01

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were used to identify female plants at an early developmental stage in four different varieties of Cannabis sativa. Using the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method, DNA was isolated from two-week-old plants of three drug-type varieties (Terbag W1, Terbag K2, and Terbag MX) and one fiber-type variety (Terbag Fedora A7) of C. sativa grown under controlled environmental conditions through seeds. Attempts to use MADC2 (male-associated DNA from Cannabis sativa) primers as a marker to identify the sex of Cannabis sativa plants were successful. Amplification of genomic DNA using MADC2-F and MADC2-R primers produced two distinct fragments, one with a size of approximately 450 bp for female plants and one for male plants with a size of approximately 300 bp. After harvesting the tissues for DNA extraction, plants were subjected to a flowering photoperiod (i.e., 12-h light cycle), and the appearance of flowers was compared with the DNA analysis. The results of the molecular analysis were found to be concordant with the appearance of male or female flowers. The results of this study represent a quick and reliable technique for the identification of sex in Cannabis plants using SCAR markers at a very early developmental stage. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Early stage detection of β→α transition in Sn by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarek, Agata, E-mail: askwarek@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland); Zachariasz, Piotr [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland); Żukrowski, Jan [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Center for Materials and Nanotechnology, A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Synkiewicz, Beata; Witek, Krzysztof [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, Zabłocie 39, 30-701 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for the early stage detection of the β→α transition (tin pest) in Sn matrix. The results were compared with the data from X-ray diffraction and a variance in the sensitivity for both methods has been proven. Mössbauer spectroscopy is more responsive method than XRD to tin pest finding and with possible detection level of even 1.8%. Furthermore, in reference sample, suspected to be pure α-Sn, large content of white tin (β-Sn), even after 6 years of exposure at sub-zero temperature, has been identified. 48% of α-Sn phase but also 52% of non-transferred β-Sn has been still detectable. - Highlights: • β→α transition (tin pest) could completely disintegrate Sn-rich material. • Early stage detection of β→α transition still exhibits substantial difficulties. • Mössbauer spectroscopy is very sensitive method in detection of β→α transition in Sn matrix. • Different values of Mössbauer-Lamb factors for β and α-Sn allow to detect tin pest at the level of 1.8%.

  13. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy seems safe in women with early-stage endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Havemann, Maria Cecilie; Palle, Connie

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Robotic surgery is increasingly used in the management of endometrial cancer; and although it is known that minimally invasive surgery reduces post-operative morbidity, the outcomes of this novel treatment should be monitored carefully. The aim of this study was to examine the incid......INTRODUCTION: Robotic surgery is increasingly used in the management of endometrial cancer; and although it is known that minimally invasive surgery reduces post-operative morbidity, the outcomes of this novel treatment should be monitored carefully. The aim of this study was to examine...... the incidence of complications according to the Clavien-Dindo scale after robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH) for early-stage endometrial cancer and atypical complex hyperplasia. The Clavien-Dindo scale grades the severity of complications. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive cohort....... CONCLUSION: The types and frequency of complications observed in this study resemble those reported in similar studies of RALH for malignant gynaecologic conditions. Health-care professionals treating and caring for women with early-stage endometrial cancer should know of the types and frequency of post...

  14. Emerging treatments for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: focus on neratinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; El Rassy, Elie; Clatot, Florian; de Azambuja, Evandro; Lambertini, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, a better understanding of breast cancer heterogeneity provided tools for a biologically based personalization of anticancer treatments. In particular, the overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) by tumor cells provided a specific target in these HER2-positive tumors. The development of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, and its approval in 1998 for the treatment of patients with metastatic disease, radically changed the natural history of this aggressive subtype of breast cancer. These findings provided strong support for the continuous research in targeting the HER2 pathway and implementing the development of new anti-HER2 targeted agents. Besides trastuzumab, a series of other anti-HER2 agents have been developed and are currently being explored for the treatment of breast cancer patients, including those diagnosed with early-stage disease. Among these agents, neratinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that irreversibly inhibits HER1, HER2, and HER4 at the intracellular level, has shown promising results, including when administered to patients previously exposed to trastuzumab-based treatment. This article aims to review the available data on the role of the HER2 pathway in breast cancer and on the different targeted agents that have been studied or are currently under development for the treatment of patients with early-stage HER2-positive disease with a particular focus on neratinib.

  15. Cancer-specific self-efficacy and psychosocial and functional adaptation to early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Ostroff, Jamie S; Norton, Tina R; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Goldstein, Lori

    2006-04-01

    Although self-efficacy is considered a key psychological resource in adapting to chronic physical illness, this construct has received less attention among individuals coping with cancer. To examine changes in cancer self-efficacy over time among women with early stage breast cancer and associations between task-specific domains of self-efficacy and specific psychological, relationship, and functional outcomes. Ninety-five women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer completed surveys postsurgery and 1 year later. Cancer-related self-efficacy was relatively stable over 1 year, with only 2 domains of efficacy-(a) Activity Management and (b) Self-Satisfaction-evidencing significant increases over the 1-year time period. Cross-sectional findings were relatively consistent with predictions and suggested that specific domains of self-efficacy were more strongly related to relevant domains of adaptation. Longitudinal findings were not as consistent with the domain-specificity hypothesis but did suggest several predictive associations between self-efficacy and outcomes. Personal Management self-efficacy was associated with higher relationship satisfaction, higher Communication Self-Efficacy was associated with less functional impairment, and higher Affective Management self-efficacy was associated with higher self-esteem 1 year later. Specific domains of cancer-related self-efficacy are most closely related to relevant areas of adaptation when considered cross-sectionally, but further study is needed to clarify the nature of these relationships over time.

  16. On the creation of scalar particles in an early stage of the Friedmann closed-universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hideki; Nariai, Hidekazu.

    1982-03-01

    Under impetus of the two experimental studies on neutrinos by Reines-group and Lyubimov's, it has been shown by Zel'dovich et al. that the cosmological universe is closed, provided that the neutrino masses m sub(#betta#sub(i)) (i = e, μ, tau) satisfy the inequality μ/i m sub(#betta#sub(i))c 2 >= 20 ev. In a previous paper, the senior author dealt with the creation of scalar particles in an expanding universe with non-flat 3-space, but the case of a closed universe was practically ignored owing to the situation that the positive frequency part (in the sense of the author) of a quantized scalar field is not well-defined in that universe. In view of these circumstances, the creation of scalar particles in an early stage of the Friedmann closed-universe is searched for, on the supposition that the Fulling condition is preferable to define the positive frequency part in question near the early stage (as well as the later one). (author)

  17. Study on the mechanism of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in early stage of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Dong Gu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the mechanism of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in early stage of streptozotocin(STZ-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group(CONand diabetes mellitus group(DM. Diabetic rat model was produced by intraperitoneal injection of 1% STZ in 30 adult male SD rats. At 4, 8, 12wk,the rats were killed and eyeballs were enucleated for the HE staining, TUNEL staining, transmission electron microscopy detection respectively, and laser confocal microscope detection was used to detect the calcium ion concentration.RESULTS:At 8wk RGCs decreased gradually and appeared disordered arrangement and got worse at 12wk in DM group. In DM group, mitochondrial swelling was detected at 4wk., and became more obvious, more in number at 8wk with reduction in some cells' volume and the number of organelles decreased. In DM group, few TUNEL positive RGCs were seen at 4wk, and became more and more at 8 and 12wk. The apoptosis index was significantly higher in DM group compared with CON group in different time points(PPPCONCLUSION: The study suggested that RGCs apoptosis occurs in early stage of diabetes, the mechanism might be associated with increased intracellular calcium ion concentration.

  18. Limited vaginal hysterectomy after brachytherapy in patients with early stage cervix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resbeut, M.; Honnoun-Levi, J.M.; Alzieu, C.; Cowen, D.; Cravello, L.; Agostini, A.

    1998-01-01

    In patients with early cervix carcinoma, both radiotherapy and surgery or combined modalities provide effective therapies. In the two last modalities, recommended surgery is radical hysterectomy. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the value of a limited vaginal hysterectomy after brachytherapy in patients without any unfavorable prognostic factor. Twenty-two patients (stage la2 with vascular invasion: three patients, stage lb1:19 patients) with 1 cm median maximal tumor size and with previous negative laparoscopic lymphadenectomy (median number of lymph nodes:12) underwent a limited vaginal hysterectomy 6 weeks after utero-vaginal brachytherapy. Two mild intra-operative complications were noted. Venous hemorrhage (100 mL) occurred in one patient during lymphadenectomy and another patient presented bladder injury during hysterectomy. These two complications were successfully controlled with no need for laparotomy. Only one late complication was observed: bladder grade G2(b). With a 29 months follow-up (20-48 months), no recurrence was reported. These results appear promising in patients with very early cervix carcinoma but remain to be confirmed on a larger scale. (authors)

  19. SiGe/Si layers-early stages of plastic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, R; Raidt, H; Neumann, W; Pfeiffer, J-U; Schaefer, H; Richter, U

    2005-01-01

    The plastic relaxation of SiGe/Si is closely related to the nucleation of misfit dislocations at early stages. We have investigated the very early stages at annealing temperatures ranging from 520 deg. C to 670 deg. C by means of x-ray topography (XRT), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy. At misfit dislocation densities within the range accessible by XRT, i.e. up to about 1000 cm -1 , dislocations bundles predominate. This is verified by AFM and is explained by heterogeneous nucleation. The fewer the dislocations that are contained within dislocation bundles the rarer the blocking and cross slip that are observed. It is demonstrated that laser heating increases the number of nucleation centres drastically and is well suited to induce nucleation at selected sites. Furthermore, these nucleation centres provide dislocation bundles containing only a few dislocations. In contrast to this, implantation can produce defects that stop dislocation propagation quite effectively at the comparatively low temperatures used in our experiments

  20. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  1. Zonulin, inflammation and iron status in patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Lukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Malyszko, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    Zonulin is the only known regulator of intestinal permeability. It is also considered as a potential inflammatory marker in several conditions such as diabetes and inflammatory bowel syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate zonulin levels in patients with early stages of CKD and its possible correlation with inflammation, anemia and iron status parameters. Eighty-eight patients with early stages of CKD and 23 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Zonulin, hepcidin-25, soluble transferrin receptor, interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured using commercially available assays. Zonulin was significantly lower among patients with CKD in comparison with healthy volunteers. There were no statistically significant differences in zonulin concentration between patients with and without inflammation. Zonulin was significantly correlated with hepcidin only in patients with inflammation. Zonulin was neither related to iron nor related to ferritin. Zonulin cannot be considered as an inflammatory marker in CKD. It does not play a role in the disturbances of iron metabolism in CKD. Its physiological role remains to be elucidated.

  2. Asymmetry and polymorphism of hybrid male sterility during the early stages of speciation in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jeffrey M; Handel, Mary Ann; Nachman, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    House mice offer a powerful system for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypes that isolate species in the early stages of speciation. We used a series of reciprocal crosses between wild-derived strains of Mus musculus and M. domesticus to examine F(1) hybrid male sterility, one of the primary phenotypes thought to isolate these species. We report four main results. First, we found significantly smaller testes and fewer sperm in hybrid male progeny of most crosses. Second, in some crosses hybrid male sterility was asymmetric and depended on the species origin of the X chromosome. These observations confirm and extend previous findings, underscoring the central role that the M. musculus X chromosome plays in reproductive isolation. Third, comparisons among reciprocal crosses revealed polymorphism at one or more hybrid incompatibilities within M. musculus. Fourth, the spermatogenic phenotype of this polymorphic interaction appears distinct from previously described hybrid incompatibilities between these species. These data build on previous studies of speciation in house mice and show that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility is fairly complex, even at this early stage of divergence.

  3. Arab American women's lived experience with early-stage breast cancer diagnosis and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Rana Fakhri; Lally, Robin M; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2012-01-01

    Currently, limited literature addresses Arab American women's responses to the impact of breast cancer and its treatments. The objective of the study was to understand the experience of being diagnosed with and undergoing surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer among Arab American women. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 10 Arab American women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer in the United States was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Arab American women accepted breast cancer diagnosis as something in God's hands that they had no control over. Although they were content with God's will, the women believed that the diagnosis was a challenge that they should confront. The women confronted this challenge by accessing the healthcare system for treatment, putting trust in their physicians, participating when able in treatment decisions, using religious practices for coping, maintaining a positive attitude toward the diagnosis and the treatment, and seeking information. Arab American women's fatalistic beliefs did not prevent them from seeking care and desiring treatment information and options when diagnosed with breast cancer. It is important that healthcare providers encourage patients to express meanings they attribute to their illness to provide them with appropriate supportive interventions. They should also individually assess patients' decision-making preferences, invite them to participate in decision making, and provide them with tailored means necessary for such participation without making any assumptions based on patients' ethnic/cultural background.

  4. The Role of Lipid Rafts in the Early Stage of Enterovirus 71 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhe Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although it has been widely accepted that Enterovirus 71 (EV71 enters permissive cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, the details of entry mechanism for EV71 still need more exploration. This study aimed to investigate the role of lipid rafts in the early stage of EV71 Infection. Methods: The effect of cholesterol depletion or addition of exogenous cholesterol was detected by immunofluorescence assays and quantitative real-time PCR. Effects of cholesterol depletion on the association of EV71 with lipid rafts were determined by flow cytometry and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Localization and internalization of EV71 and its receptor were assayed by confocal microscpoy and sucrose gradient analysis. The impact of cholesterol on the activation of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway during initial virus infection was analyzed by Western-blotting. Results: Disruption of membrane cholesterol by a pharmacological agent resulted in a significant reduction in the infectivity of EV71. The inhibitory effect could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Cholesterol depletion post-infection did not affect EV71 infection. While virus bound equally to cholesterol-depleted cells, EV71 particles failed to be internalized by cholesterol-depleted cells. EV71 capsid protein co-localized with cholera toxin B, a lipid-raft-dependent internalization marker. Conclusion: Lipid rafts play a critical role in virus endocytosis and in the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the early stage of EV71 infection.

  5. Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, Klaus; Salmenhaara, Seppo; Backe, Steinar; Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan; Callander, Clas; Efraimsson, Henrik; Andersson, Inga; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and

  6. Sexual functioning and vaginal changes after radical vaginal trachelectomy in early stage cervical cancer patients: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froeding, LP; Ottesen, C; Rung-Hansen, H

    2014-01-01

    Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce.......Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers low complication rate, good survival, and possibility for future childbearing for young women with early stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life (QOL) and sexual functioning in patients undergoing RVT is scarce....

  7. Model for Physical Education Content Standards at Early Stages of Primary Education in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Klincarov, Ilija; Popeska, Biljana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a model for designing national physical education content standards in early stages of primary education in the Republic of Macedonia. Proposed model is based on the findings about motor structure of children at the early stage of primary education obtained in researches realized in 5 primary schools in Skopje, the Republic of Macedonia, in relation with Macedonian PE curriculum, and overarching standards for children at this age in California, USA,chosen...

  8. Selecting postoperative adjuvant systemic therapy for early stage breast cancer: A critical assessment of commercially available gene expression assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuur, Eric; Angel Aristizabal, Javier; Bargallo Rocha, Juan Enrique; Cabello, Cesar; Elizalde, Roberto; García‐Estévez, Laura; Gomez, Henry L.; Katz, Artur; Nuñez De Pierro, Aníbal

    2017-01-01

    Risk stratification of patients with early stage breast cancer may support adjuvant chemotherapy decision‐making. This review details the development and validation of six multi‐gene classifiers, each of which claims to provide useful prognostic and possibly predictive information for early stage breast cancer patients. A careful assessment is presented of each test's analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility, as well as the quality of evidence supporting its use. PMID:28211064

  9. AN INTEGRATED MODEL FOR MANAGING INNOVATION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN SMES(RIKON Group)

    OpenAIRE

    Flinders, Clare; Lynch, Patrick; Holden, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper centralises the management of innovation in the early stages of the new product development (NPD) process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the critical episodes that enabled an SME to successfully manage the development of new product concepts from inception and, in so doing, presents implementable guidelines that can be used by SMEs to manage the delivery of creative and attractive new product concepts in the early stages of NPD. Action research was used to conduct a thre...

  10. Ocriplasmin for treatment of stage 2 macular holes: early clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John B; Kim, Leo A; Wu, David M; Vavvas, Demetrios G; Eliott, Dean; Husain, Deeba

    2014-01-01

    To review clinical and structural outcomes of ocriplasmin for treatment of stage 2 macular holes. A retrospective review of the first patients with stage 2 macular holes to be treated with ocriplasmin at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. All patients were imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Eight patients with stage 2 macular holes received a single injection of 125 μg of ocriplasmin. One patient (12.5%) demonstrated macular hole closure. The posterior hyaloid separated from the macula in six eyes (75%). All seven holes that remained open showed enlargement in hole diameters (narrowest, apical, and basal) at 1 week and 1 month. All seven were successfully closed with surgery. Ellipsoid zone disruptions were observed by OCT in four eyes (50%) and persisted throughout follow-up (more than 6 months on average). In early clinical results, the authors found a lower macular hole closure rate with ocriplasmin than previously reported. Enlargement was observed in all holes that failed to close with ocriplasmin. The authors found ellipsoid zone disruptions that persisted through 6 months of follow-up after ocriplasmin injection. Further work is needed to investigate the cause for these ellipsoid zone changes. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Application of Carnegie stages of development to unify human and baboon ultrasound findings early in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; De Leon-Luis, Juan; Friel, Lara A; Wolf, Roman

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if very early ultrasonographic measurements obtained from human and baboon are comparable. For this purpose, the gestational, amniotic and yolk sacs, embryonic crown rump length (CRL) and heart rate were measured ultrasonographically between 35 and 47 days from the mean day of a three-day mating period in baboons (n=18) and between 42 to 58 days from fertilization as calculated from the CRL measurements in human pregnancies (n=82). Ultrasonographic measurements from both species were then plotted in the same graph using Carnegie stages of embryonic development as the independent variable to allow for visual comparisons. Mean gestational age at ultrasonographic studies was significantly different for humans and baboons (50.4 vs. 41 days, respectively; p>0.01). Significant correlations (p>0.01) were noted between ultrasonographic measurements and Carnegie stages of development in both humans and baboons. Only the gestational and the yolk sacs were significantly smaller in baboons than in humans (p>0.05). The findings that embryonic CRL, extra-embryonic space and heart rate are very similar between the 17th and 23rd Carnegie developmental stages make the baboon a promising surrogate of human pregnancy for investigations using celocentesis.

  12. Favorable outcomes of radiotherapy for early-stage mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Natsuo; Kodaira, Takeshi; Tachibana, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Mizoguchi, Nobutaka; Takada, Akinori

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) for early-stage mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Materials and methods: Patients with stage ΙE (n = 48) and stage ΠE (n = 2) MALT lymphoma treated with RT were reviewed. The primary tumor originated in the stomach in 20 patients, in the orbit in 9 patients, in the conjunctiva or eyelid and the parotid glands in 6 patients each, and 9 patients in the others. The median total RT dose was 32 Gy (range, 25.6-50 Gy). The median follow-up time was 50 months. Results: Although disease did not recur in the RT field in any patient regardless of the total dose, disease recurred outside the RT field in the seven patients. As all recurrences were localized, salvage RT was performed for each recurrence and achieved complete response without recurrence in the field. The 5-year overall survival, local control, and progression-free survival rates were 96.6%, 100%, and 82.2%, respectively. Conclusions: A total dose of 25-30 Gy is appropriate for local control of MALT lymphoma. RT is also an effective salvage therapy in cases of localized recurrence

  13. Changes in corneal sensitivity following cross-linking for progressive early-stage keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise de Medeiros Lago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate changes in corneal sensitivity following corneal cross-linking (CXL in patients with progressive earlier stage keratoconus. Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 19 patients (11 women, 8 men were included in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical study. The mean patient age was 22 years (range, 18-26 years. Inclusion criteria were early stage bilateral progressive keratoconus, a transparent cornea, and a thickness of ≥440 µm in the thinnest area of the cornea. Using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, central corneal sensitivity was measured before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and once a month thereafter until recovery of baseline preoperative levels. Central corneal sensitivity >40 mm was considered normal. Results: Corneal sensitivity gradually returned to preoperative levels in all treated eyes. The mean central corneal sensitivity was 52.2, 24.0, 38.2, 42.5, 50.0, and 52.5 mm before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months after surgery, respectively. Normal levels of corneal sensation, but not baseline (preoperative levels, were observed 2 months after surgery. The preoperative levels were observed 3 months after surgery. Conclusions: Our results suggest that central corneal sensitivity can be decreased for as long as 3 months after CXL for progressive earlier stage keratoconus.

  14. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  15. Lack of miRNA misregulation at early pathological stages in Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eReinhardt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Late onset neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health concern as the population in many countries ages. Both frequent diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD, 14% incidence for 80-84 year old Europeans or Parkinson disease (PD, 1.4% prevalence for > 55 years old share, with other low-incidence neurodegenerative pathologies such as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs, 0.01% prevalence and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, 0.02% prevalence, a lack of efficient treatment in spite of important research efforts. Besides significant progress, studies with animal models have revealed unexpected complexities in the degenerative process, emphasizing a need to better understand the underlying pathological mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs, a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. The current data supporting a role of miRNAs in PD, tauopathies, dominant ataxias and FTLD will first be discussed to emphasize the different levels of the pathological processes which may be affected by miRNAs. To investigate a potential involvement of miRNA dysregulation in the early stages of these neurodegenerative diseases we have used Drosophila models for 7 diseases (PD, 3 FTLD, 3 dominant ataxias that recapitulate many features of the human diseases. We performed deep sequencing of head small RNAs after 3 days of pathological protein expression in the fly head neurons. We found no evidence for a statistically significant difference in miRNA expression in this early stage of the pathological process. In addition, we could not identify small non coding CAG repeat RNAs (sCAG in polyQ disease models. Thus our data suggest that transcriptional deregulation of miRNAs or sCAG is unlikely to play a significant role in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.

  17. Investigating the early stages of mineral precipitation by potentiometric titration and analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermeier, Matthias; Cölfen, Helmut; Gebauer, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of crystallization for various areas of research, our understanding of the early stages of the mineral precipitation from solution and of the actual mechanism of nucleation is still rather limited. Indeed, detailed insights into the processes underlying nucleation may enable a systematic development of novel strategies for controlling mineralization, which is highly relevant for fields ranging from materials chemistry to medicine. In this work, we describe experimental aspects of a quantitative assay, which relies on pH titrations combined with in situ metal ion potentiometry and conductivity measurements. The assay has originally been designed to study the crystallization of calcium carbonate, one of the most abundant biominerals. However, the developed procedures can also be readily applied to any compound containing cations for which ion-selective electrodes are available. Besides the possibility to quantitatively assess ion association prior to nucleation and to directly determine thermodynamic solubility products of precipitated phases, the main advantage of the crystallization assay is the unambiguous identification of the different stages of precipitation (i.e., prenucleation, nucleation, and early postnucleation) and the characterization of the multiple effects of additives. Furthermore, the experiments permit targeted access to distinct precursor species and intermediate stages, which thus can be analyzed by additional methods such as cryo-electron microscopy or analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). Regarding ion association in solution, AUC detects entities significantly larger than simple ion pairs, so-called prenucleation clusters. Sedimentation coefficient values and distributions obtained for the calcium carbonate system are discussed in light of recent insights into the structural nature of prenucleation clusters. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Are Early Relapses in Advanced-Stage Ovarian Cancer Doomed to a Poor Prognosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Vidal

    Full Text Available Early recurrence (ER after completion of therapeutic regimen in advanced-stage ovarian cancer is a challenging clinical situation. Patients are perceived as invariably having a poor prognosis. We investigated the possibility of defining different prognostic subgroups and the parameters implicated in prognosis of ER patients.We analyzed a multi-centric database of 527 FIGO stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients. We defined patients relapsing within 12 months as ER and investigated using Cox logistic regression the prognostic factors in ER group. We subsequently divided ER patients into good and poor prognosis groups according to a lower or higher overall survival (OS at 12 months after relapse and determined parameters associated to poor prognosis.The median follow up was 49 months. One hundred and thirty eight patients recurred within 12 months. OS and Disease Free Survival (DFS were 24.6 and 8.6 months, respectively, in this group of patients. Among the ER patients, 73 had a poor prognosis with an OS after relapse below 12 months (mean OS = 5.2 months and 65 survived after one year (mean OS = 26.9 months. Residual disease (RD after debulking surgery and mucinous histological subtype negatively impacted prognosis (HR = 1.758, p = 0.017 and HR = 8.641, p = 0.001 respectively. The relative risk of death within 12 months following relapse in ER patients was 1.61 according to RD status. However, RD did not affect DFS (HR = 0.889, p = 0.5.ER in advanced-stage ovarian cancer does not inevitably portend a short-term poor prognosis. RD status after initial cytoreduction strongly modulates OS, that gives additional support to the concept of maximum surgical effort even in patients who will experience early recurrence. The heterogeneity in outcomes within the ER group suggests a role for tumor biology in addition to classical clinical parameters.

  19. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Elyn H. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Mougalian, Sarah S. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status.

  20. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Elyn H.; Mougalian, Sarah S.; Soulos, Pamela R.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Gross, Cary P.; Yu, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status

  1. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes predicts severe weight loss in patients with early stage laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langius, Jacqueline A.E.; Doornaert, Patricia; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene; Schueren, Marian A.E. van Bokhorst-de van der

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although patients with early stage (T1/T2) laryngeal cancer (LC) are thought to have a low incidence of malnutrition, severe weight loss is observed in a subgroup of these patients during radiotherapy (RT). The objective of this study was to evaluate weight loss and nutrition-related symptoms in patients with T1/T2 LC during RT and to select predictive factors for early identification of malnourished patients. Methods: Of all patients with T1/T2 LC, who received primary RT between 1999 and 2007, the following characteristics were recorded: sex, age, TNM classification, tumour location, radiation schedule, performance status, quality of life, weight loss, and nutrition-related symptoms. The association between baseline characteristics and malnutrition (>5% weight loss during RT) was investigated by Cox regression analysis. Results: The study population consisted of 238 patients. During RT, 44% of patients developed malnutrition. Tumour location, TNM classification, RT on the neck nodes, RT dose, nausea/vomiting, pain, swallowing, senses problems, trouble with social eating, dry mouth and the use of painkillers were all significantly associated with malnutrition. In the multivariate analysis, RTs on both the neck nodes (HR 4.16, 95% CI 2.62-6.60) and dry mouth (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.14-2.60) remained predictive. Nevertheless, RT on the neck nodes alone resulted in the best predictive model for malnutrition scores. Conclusions: Patients with early stage laryngeal cancer are at risk of malnutrition during radiotherapy. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes is the best predictor of malnutrition during radiotherapy. Therefore, we suggest to offer nutritional counselling to all the patients who receive nodal irradiation.

  2. [Prenatal cerebrovascular accidents diagnosed in the early infant stage: a series of 10 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Jover, María; Martinez-Del Villar, María; Lillo-Laguna, Lucía; Jadraque-Rodriguez, Rocío; Martinez-Pastor, Pedro; Jover-Cerda, Jenaro; Gomez-Gosalvez, Francisco

    2013-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. A foetal or prenatal cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is defined as an ischaemic, thrombotic or arterial or venous haemorrhagic event that occurs between the 14th week of gestation and the onset of labour. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We report a retrospective study of a series of 10 patients suffering from a, presumably foetal, stroke that went unnoticed during the pregnancy and was diagnosed in the early infant stage. The symptoms and the age at which they were identified are highlighted. RESULTS. None of the 10 patients studied presented any relevant events in the mothers' medical history, but there were four threats of a preterm birth that were solved using the usual means and without the occurrence of any alterations that later affected the foetus. The studies that led to the diagnosis were carried out between the sixth and ninth months of life, and the reason for visiting was reported by the family as being a lower degree of mobility on one side of the body with respect to the other. Two patients presented thrombophilia. With a mean follow-up time of six years, all the patients have an associated infantile cerebral palsy, a third of them have epilepsy and 75% have learning difficulties or intellectual disability. CONCLUSIONS. When CVA are not detected in the prenatal period, it is important in primary care to look for and detect the warning signs of the psychomotor development of the infant at an early stage in order to begin a study of the case and to undertake rehabilitation as early as possible.

  3. Evaluating Post-Radiotherapy Laryngeal Function with Laryngeal Videostroboscopy in Early Stage Glottic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Marciscano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDysphonia is common among patients with early stage glottic cancer. Laryngeal videostroboscopy (LVS has not been routinely used to assess post-radiotherapy (RT voice changes. We hypothesized that LVS would demonstrate improvement in laryngeal function after definitive RT for early-stage glottic cancer.Study designBlinded retrospective review of perceptual voice and stroboscopic parameters for patients with early glottic cancer and controls.SettingHigh-volume, single-institution academic medical center.Subjects and methodsFifteen patients underwent RT for Tis-T2N0M0 glottic cancer and were evaluated with serial LVS exams pre- and post-RT. Stroboscopic assessment included six parameters: vocal fold (VF vibration, VF mobility, erythema/edema, supraglottic compression, glottic closure, and secretions. Grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain (GRBAS voice perceptual scale was graded in tandem with LVS score. Assessments were grouped by time interval from RT: pre-RT, 0–4, 4–12, and >12 months post-RT.Results60 LVS exams and corresponding GRBAS assessments were reviewed. There were significant improvements in ipsilateral VF motion (P = 0.03 and vibration (P = 0.001 and significant worsening in contralateral VF motion (P < 0.001 and vibration (P = 0.008 at >12 months post-RT. Glottic closure significantly worsened, most prominent >12 months post-RT (P = 0.01. Composite GRBAS scores were significantly improved across all post-RT intervals.ConclusionLVS proved to be a robust tool for assessing pre- and post-RT laryngeal function. We observed post-RT improvement in ipsilateral VF function, a decline in contralateral VF function, and decreased glottic closure. These results demonstrate that LVS can detect meaningful changes in VF and glottic function and support its use for post-RT evaluation of glottic cancer patients.

  4. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivak, Stefan [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Jessenius Medical Faculty, Clinic of Neurology, Martin (Slovakia); Bittsansky, Michal; Dobrota, Dusan [Comenius University, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Kurca, Egon; Turcanova-Koprusakova, Monika; Grofik, Milan; Nosal, Vladimir [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Polacek, Hubert [Comenius University, Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia)

    2010-12-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Due to relative fast progression of the disease, early diagnosis is essential. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) is used for objectivization of upper motor neuron (UMN) lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the use of {sup 1}H-MRS in the early stages of ALS. Eleven patients with clinically definite (n = 2), probable (n = 7), and probable laboratory-supported (n = 2) diagnosis of ALS with disease duration of less than 14 months were studied. Control group consists of 11 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. All subjects underwent assessment of functional disability using revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS examination of both precentral gyri, pons, medulla oblongata, and occipital lobe. Spectra were evaluated with LCModel software. The mean disease duration was 6.5 {+-} 3.5 months. The median ALSFRS-R was 42. Significant decrease between patient and control groups was found in the NAA/Cre ratio in the left and right precentral gyri (p = 0.008, p = 0.040). Other metabolite ratios in other areas did not show significant differences. Total ALSFRS-R score weakly positively correlated with NAA/Cre ratio in the left precentral gyrus (p = 0.047). {sup 1}H-MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes caused by neurodegeneration processes during ALS and can be used for detection of UMN dysfunction. These MRS changes in the early stages of ALS are most prominent in motor cortex. (orig.)

  5. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivak, Stefan; Bittsansky, Michal; Dobrota, Dusan; Kurca, Egon; Turcanova-Koprusakova, Monika; Grofik, Milan; Nosal, Vladimir; Polacek, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Due to relative fast progression of the disease, early diagnosis is essential. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) is used for objectivization of upper motor neuron (UMN) lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the use of 1 H-MRS in the early stages of ALS. Eleven patients with clinically definite (n = 2), probable (n = 7), and probable laboratory-supported (n = 2) diagnosis of ALS with disease duration of less than 14 months were studied. Control group consists of 11 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. All subjects underwent assessment of functional disability using revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and single-voxel 1 H-MRS examination of both precentral gyri, pons, medulla oblongata, and occipital lobe. Spectra were evaluated with LCModel software. The mean disease duration was 6.5 ± 3.5 months. The median ALSFRS-R was 42. Significant decrease between patient and control groups was found in the NAA/Cre ratio in the left and right precentral gyri (p = 0.008, p = 0.040). Other metabolite ratios in other areas did not show significant differences. Total ALSFRS-R score weakly positively correlated with NAA/Cre ratio in the left precentral gyrus (p = 0.047). 1 H-MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes caused by neurodegeneration processes during ALS and can be used for detection of UMN dysfunction. These MRS changes in the early stages of ALS are most prominent in motor cortex. (orig.)

  6. Role of preoperative PET-CT in assessing mediastinal and hilar lymph node status in early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yang Lin

    2012-05-01

    Conclusion: Integrated PET-CT is a useful tool for predicting the negativity of mediastinal LN status pre-operatively in clinically early stage (Stages I and II lung cancer but may be relatively inaccurate in predicting hilar LN status and largely confounded by false positives caused by inflammatory process.

  7. Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma - Accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morton, DL; Cochran, AJ; Thompson, JF; Elashoff, R; Essner, R; Glass, EC; Mozzillo, N; Nieweg, OE; Roses, DF; Hoekstra, HJ; Karakousis, CP; Reintgen, DS; Coventry, BJ; Wang, HJ

    Objective:The objective of this study was to evaluate, in an international multicenter phase III trial, the accuracy, use, and morbidity of intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy (LM/SNB) for staging the regional nodal basin of patients with early-stage melanoma. Summary

  8. Stages of recovery in early psychosis: Associations with symptoms, function, and narrative development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, Geneviève; Lecomte, Tania; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to explore the links between recovery stages, symptoms, function, and narrative development among individuals with a recent onset of psychosis. A qualitative longitudinal study was conducted including quantitative data at baseline. Forty-seven participants were administered the Indiana Psychiatric Illness Interview three times over 9 months and content analysis was performed. Participants also completed the Social Functioning Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale--Expanded, the California Verbal Learning Test, and the Trailing Making Test at baseline. Descriptive discriminant analysis was performed. Results suggested that participants were mostly in the first two stages of recovery (moratorium, awareness) and that being in the awareness, rather than moratorium, stage was associated, to a different extent, with richer narrative development, better levels of psychosocial function, less negative and positive symptoms, and more years of education. Furthermore, recovery appeared to be a stable process over the assessment period. Recovery is a complex concept including objective and subjective aspects. In the recovery path of persons recently diagnosed with psychosis, social engagement, narrative development, and occupational functioning seem to be particularly important aspects. This study is a first step, and future research is needed with larger and more diverse participant pools, and assessments conducted over longer periods of time. As greater level of social engagement was the most robust predictor of membership in the awareness versus moratorium stage, treatment of early psychosis should include interventions targeting social relations and social skills. As greater narrative development was the second most robust predictor, enhancing it via psychotherapy could be a pertinent clinical goal. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  9. The effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özeren, Ersin; Er, Uygur; Güvenç, Yahya; Demirci, Adnan; Arıkök, Ata Türker; Şenveli, Engin; Ergün, Rüçhan Behzat

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos. We looked at four groups with a total of 36 embryos. There was a control group, a normal saline group, a normal-dose group and a high-dose group with ten, ten, eight and eight eggs with embryo respectively. Two embryos in the control group, studied with light microscopy at 48 h, were consistent with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton System. They had open neural tubes. The other embryos in this group were considered normal. One embryo in the normal saline group was on the occlusion stage at 48 h. One embryo showed an open neural tube. They were compatible with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton system. The remaining eight embryos showed normal development. In the normal dose group, one embryo showed underdevelopment of the embryonic disc and the embryo was dead. In four embryos, the neural tubes were open. One cranial malformation was found that was complicated with anencephaly in one embryo. In two embryos the neural tubes were closed, as they showed normal development, and they reached their expected stages according to the Hamburger-Hamilton classification. There was no malformation or growth retardation. Four experimental embryos were anencephalic in the high dose group, and three embryos had open neural tubes. One embryo exhibited both anencephaly and a neural tube closure defect. None of the embryos in this group showed normal development. Even the usual therapeutic doses of flurbiprofen increased the risk of neural tube defect. Flurbiprofen was found to significantly increase the risk of anencephaly. The provision of improved technical materials and studies with larger sample sizes will reveal the stage of morphological disruption during the development of embryos.

  10. Theta oscillations are sensitive to both early and late conflict processing stages: effects of alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Sanja; Azma, Sheeva; Irimia, Andrei; Sherfey, Jason; Halgren, Eric; Marinkovic, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging evidence indicates that decision conflict activates medial and lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. Theoretical accounts of cognitive control highlight anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a central node in this network. However, a better understanding of the relative primacy and functional contributions of these areas to decision conflict requires insight into the neural dynamics of successive processing stages including conflict detection, response selection and execution. Moderate alcohol intoxication impairs cognitive control as it interferes with the ability to inhibit dominant, prepotent responses when they are no longer correct. To examine the effects of moderate intoxication on successive processing stages during cognitive control, spatio-temporal changes in total event-related theta power were measured during Stroop-induced conflict. Healthy social drinkers served as their own controls by participating in both alcohol (0.6 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg women) and placebo conditions in a counterbalanced design. Anatomically-constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) approach was applied to complex power spectra for theta (4-7 Hz) frequencies. The principal generator of event-related theta power to conflict was estimated to ACC, with contributions from fronto-parietal areas. The ACC was uniquely sensitive to conflict during both early conflict detection, and later response selection and execution stages. Alcohol attenuated theta power to conflict across successive processing stages, suggesting that alcohol-induced deficits in cognitive control may result from theta suppression in the executive network. Slower RTs were associated with attenuated theta power estimated to ACC, indicating that alcohol impairs motor preparation and execution subserved by the ACC. In addition to their relevance for the currently prevailing accounts of cognitive control, our results suggest that alcohol-induced impairment of top-down strategic processing

  11. Posttreatment biopsy results following interstitial brachytherapy in early-stage prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestidge, Bradley R.; Hoak, David C.; Grimm, Peter D.; Ragde, Haakon; Cavanagh, William; Blasko, John C.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess pathologic control rates for prostatic carcinoma as determined by postimplant prostate biopsy in a large series of consecutive patients who have received permanent interstitial brachytherapy using a contemporary transrectal ultrasound-directed, transperineal, computer generated, volume technique. Methods and Materials: Four hundred and two patients received permanent 125 I or 103 Pd interstitial brachytherapy as primary treatment for early stage prostatic carcinoma at the Northwest Tumor Institute between January 1988 and January 1994. Of these, 201 have consented to biopsy 12 or more months postimplant with a median follow-up of 40 months (range: 12-83 months). None had received homonal manipulation. A total of 361 biopsies was performed on 201 patients with a range of one to six annual biopsies per patient (91 received multiple, serial biopsies). Of the 161 patients more than 12 months postimplant who have not been biopsied, most have been unwilling or unable to submit to biopsy. Only six patients with biochemical progression have not been biopsied. There was no difference in the presenting characteristics or implant parameters between those patients biopsied and those that were not. One hundred and forty-three received 125 I (71%) prescribed to a MPD of 160 Gy with a median activity of 35.5 mCi, and 58 (29%) received 103 Pd prescribed to a MPD of 115 Gy with a median activity of 123 mCi. Multiple biopsies were performed under transrectal ultrasound guidance, and all specimens were classified as either negative, indeterminate, or positive. Results: At the time of last biopsy, 161 (80%) have achieved negative pathology, 34 (17%) remain indeterminate, and 6 (3%) have been positive. Only 2 of the 186 patients with a PSA < 4.0 ng/ml at the time of biopsy were positive. Among those 33 indeterminate patients with a subsequent biopsy, 28 have converted to negative, 2 to positive, and 3 remain unchanged to date. Conclusions: These data demonstrate at

  12. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  13. Dosimetric comparison of 3DCRT versus IMRT in whole breast irradiation of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ashraf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The counseling regarding the treatment option is an important objective in the management of early stages breast cancer. In this study, we attempt to compare and analyze the dosimetric aspects of 3DRT over IMRT in the whole breast radiotherapy.Methods and Materials:  Both right and left sided computed tomography simulations of 14 women with early stage breast cancer were used for our retrospective study to compare the 3DCRT and IMRT. The dose prescribed was 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the whole breast PTV. The PTV was defined by adding unequal margins to the directional safety margin status of each lumpectomy cavity (i.e., medial, lateral, superior, inferior and deep margins measured from the tumor front after the examination of the surgical specimen: 2, 1.5, and 1 cm for resection margins < 1 cm, 1-2 cm, and > 2cm, respectively. And than modified so that it was no longer closer than 3mm to the skin surface and was no deep than the lung –chest interface. The prescribed dose delivered in 5 fractions per week schedule. Treatment plans were compared for target minimum dose, maximum dose, mean dose, conformity index, heterogeneity index and doses to organs at risk were compared and analysed.Results: The target coverage was achieved with 90% prescription to the 95% of the PTV. Conformity to the PTV was significantly higher with 3DCRT technique than IMRT. 3DCRT technique seems better in sparing critical organs parameters like lung V20 and Mean, heart, V25, Maximum, both lungs V20, Mean and Dose to the Normal Healthy tissue.Conclusion: We conclude from our study that treatment technique selection for whole Breast irradiation is an important factor in sparing the adjacent normal structures and in determining the associated risk. 3DCRT produces better conformity and heterogeneity indices of the target volume, also reduces dose to OARs the 3DCRT reduces the risk of radiation induced heart diseases

  14. Novel Pectate Lyase Genes of Heterodera glycines Play Key Roles in the Early Stage of Parasitism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Peng

    Full Text Available Pectate lyases are known to play a key role in pectin degradation by catalyzing the random cleavage of internal polymer linkages (endo-pectinases. In this paper, four novel cDNAs, designated Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7, that encode pectate lyases were cloned and characterized from the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The predicted protein sequences of HG-PEL-3, HG-PEL-4 and HG-PEL-6 differed significantly in both their amino acid sequences and their genomic structures from other pectate lyases of H. glycines (HG-PEL-1, HG-PEL-2 and HG-PEL-7. A phylogenetic study revealed that the pectate lyase proteins of H. glycines are clustered into distinct clades and have distinct numbers and positioning of introns, which suggests that the pectate lyase genes of H. glycines may have evolved from at least two ancestral genes. A Southern blot analysis revealed that multiple Hg-pel-6-like genes were present in the H. glycines genome. In situ hybridization showed that four novel pectate lyases (Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7 were actively transcribed in the subventral esophageal gland cells. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay supported the finding that the expression of these genes was strong in the egg, pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile (J2 and early parasitic J2 stages and that it declined in further developmental stages of the nematode. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins play a role in the migratory phase of the nematode life cycle. Knocking down Hg-pel-6 using in vitro RNA interference resulted in a 46.9% reduction of the number of nematodes that invaded the plants and a 61.5% suppression of the development of H. glycines females within roots compared to the GFP-dsRNA control. Plant host-derived RNAi induced the silencing of the Hg-pel-6gene, which significantly reduced the nematode infection levels at 7 Days post inoculation (dpi. Similarly, this procedure reduced the number of female adults at 40 dpi

  15. Gram negative bacteria are associated with the early stages of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Carlisle

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC affects 5-10% of infants born weighing less than 1500 g. Most models of NEC recapitulate late-stage disease with gut necrosis and elevated inflammatory mediators. Evaluation of NEC at earlier, less lethal stages of disease will allow investigation of initial disease triggers and may advance our understanding of temporal relationships between factors implicated in NEC pathogenesis. In this manuscript, we describe our investigation of early NEC and test the hypothesis that bacteria and inflammatory mediators differ between animals with early NEC and disease free animals. METHODS: On DOL7 C3HeB/FeJ pups were fed liquid formula with 1×10(4 Streptococcus thoraltensis, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa every 3 h. To initiate NEC, pups underwent asphyxia (100% N(2 for 90 s and hypothermia (4°C for 10 min after feeding. Pups were euthanized at 72 h. Intestines were collected for histologic NEC scoring and DNA/RNA extraction. Bacterial populations were identified by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and principal component analysis (PCA. RNA isolates underwent QRT-PCR for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. RESULTS: Despite histologic, intestinal damage in mice with NEC, no gross necrosis was observed suggesting early disease. QRT-PCR yielded no difference between groups in TLR4 or iNOS mRNA levels. PCA demonstrated relative clustering of microbial communities based on presence or absence of NEC. 16S pyrosequencing demonstrated similar phyla between groups (Firmicutes and Proteobacteria predominated in all animals. However, the colonic microbiota of animals with NEC had more Citrobacter (p<0.01, Klebsiella (p<0.05, and Tatumella (p<0.05, while that of animals without NEC had more Streptococcus (p<0.01 and Enterococcus (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Citrobacter, Klebsiella, and Tatumella are associated with NEC. Differential colonic bacteria were identified despite the lack of

  16. Evaluation of severity and indication for surgery in acute pancreatitis on the basis of CT in the early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Keishouku; Nakasaku, Osamu; Kim, Jung-hyo; Hatakeyama, Gen

    1985-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis clinically manifests various degrees of severity. In the present study, we performed a retrospective study on 32 cases of acute pancreatitis and examined the evaluation of severity and indication for surgery in acute pancreatitis on the basis of computed tomography (CT) at the early stage (about 48 hours after onset). CT in the early stage of acute pancreatitis permits objective determination of the extent of lesion enlargement. The cases could be classified into three grades, severe, moderate, and mild, as determined by CT. It was concluded, therefore, that in the early stage CT was very useful as an indicator for emergency surgery and a helpful guide to early judgement. Emergency surgery was performed on seven of nine cases in which pancreatitis was judged to be severe on the basis of abdominal CT and clinical findings. Of the seven, four had infection in the early stage (within 48 hours after onset). Three of the four had MOF complications and died. Two of three patients without infection were relieved. The pancreatitic lesion of the cases with infection was severe as assessed via CT and the CT score was especially high. Infection in the early stage of acute pancreatitis was thus thought to be a seriouns aggravating factor. A. severe (CT score ≥ 6: surgical therapy). B. moderate (CT score = 4,5: medical therapy possible). C. mild (CT score ≤ 3: medical therapy). (author)

  17. EARLY STAGE OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN OROGENIC BELT BUILDING: EVIDENCES FROM THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN CRATON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Gladkochub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO. Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan area to south-east (Baikal area and further to north-east (Patom area. Here we present the synthesis of all available and reliable LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronological studies of detrital zircons from these sedimentary successions.

  18. Octogenarians with early stage NSCLC undergoing SBRT-same outcomes as younger patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stefan Starup; Schytte, T.; Brink, C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The increase in life expectancy leads to an increased number of elderly patients (pts) diagnosed with NSCLC. Octogenarians can be a treatment challenge due to frailty and comorbidity. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) has become the standard treatment for medical inoperable...... pts with early stage NSCLC. However, it is unknown if all pts have same benefit of SBRT due to lack of randomized studies. This retrospective single-institution study reports survival and control rates for medical inoperable octogenarians vs. pts 80 and 80 and 137 were 80 and 0.05). No difference...... in comorbidity measured by Charlson Score Index was observed. SBRT was generally well tolerated. A log rank test showed a significant difference of OS between patients >80 and 80 and 80 and...

  19. Early-stage cervical carcinoma, radical hysterectomy, and sexual function. A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille T; Groenvold, Mogens; Klee, Marianne C

    2004-01-01

    with an age-matched control group from the general population. RESULTS: Compared with control women, patients experienced severe orgasmic problems and uncomfortable sexual intercourse due to a reduced vaginal size during the first 6 months after RH, severe dyspareunia during the first 3 months, and sexual......BACKGROUND: Limited knowledge exists concerning the impact of radical hysterectomy (RH) alone on the sexual function of patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma. The authors investigated the longitudinal course of self-reported sexual function after RH. METHODS: The current study was comprised...... dissatisfaction during the 5 weeks after RH. A persistent lack of sexual interest and lubrication were reported throughout the first 2 years after RH. Long-term lack of sexual interest and insufficient vaginal lubrication were confirmed by the patient's self-reported changes 12 months after RH compared...

  20. The Evolution of Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity Influencing Factors in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Petra PETRU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the main influencing factors of the probability of becoming an early-stage entrepreneur in Romania. The analyzed factors are: gender, age, education, household income, work status, network, opportunity perception, perception regarding the trust in own entrepreneurial skills, perception on the society’s appreciation regarding the principle of equality in life standard, perception on the society’s appreciation regarding the entrepreneurial career, perception on the proper promotion of entrepreneurial successes by mass media. We estimate a logit model for each year of the 2007-2009 period and we study the main influencing perceptional and sociodemographic factors, based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM Adult Population Survey database for Romania.

  1. Polymeric composite devices for localized treatment of early-stage breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Kan-Dapaah

    Full Text Available For early-stage breast cancers mastectomy is an aggressive form of treatment. Therefore, there is a need for new treatment strategies that can enhance the use of lumpectomy by eliminating residual cancer cells with limited side effects to reduce local recurrence. Although, various radiotherapy-based methods have been developed, residual cells are found in 20-55% of the time at the first operation. Furthermore, some current treatment methods result in poor cosmesis. For the last decade, the authors have been exploring the use of polymeric composite materials in single and multi-modal implantable biomedical devices for post-operative treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, the concept and working principles of the devices, as well as selected results from experimental and numerical investigations, are presented. The results show the potential of the biomedical implants for cancer treatment.

  2. Proton-Based Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR, a recent implementation in the practice of radiation oncology, has been shown to confer high rates of local control in the treatment of early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. This technique, which involves limited invasive procedures and reduced treatment intervals, offers definitive treatment for patients unable or unwilling to undergo an operation. The use of protons in SABR delivery confers the added physical advantage of normal tissue sparing due to the absence of collateral radiation dose delivered to regions distal to the target. This may translate into clinical benefit and a decreased risk of clinical toxicity in patients with nearby critical structures or limited pulmonary reserve. In this review, we present the rationale for proton-based SABR, principles relating to the delivery and planning of this modality, and a summary of published clinical studies.

  3. Scientific writing seminar for early-stage investigators in substance abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guydish, Joseph; Masson, Carmen; Flentje, Annesa; Shopshire, Michael; Sorensen, James L

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on how to increase the scientific writing productivity of early-stage investigators in the addictions field. A scientific writing seminar is presented in this article, aiming to encourage manuscript writing and dissemination of addiction research, and outcomes are reported for 14 years of the seminar. In 14 years, there were 113 postdoctoral fellow enrollments in a 6-month writing seminar. Records of submission and publication rates of manuscripts were collected for 14 cohorts. Of the 113 participant enrollments, 97 (86%) submitted a manuscript for publication, and 87 participants (77%) published their manuscript. A scientific writing seminar may benefit writing productivity, but more research is needed to compare this training model with other existing models.

  4. Results of a survey of the treatment policy for early stage tongue and oral floor cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Kohji; Kataura, Akikatsu; Hareyama, Masato

    1998-01-01

    To realize the treatment policy for early stage oral cancer, a survey of 102 institutes in Japan was performed by questionnaire. A majority of the otolaryngologists preferred surgery for the treatment of T1N0 and T2N0 cases of oral cancer. The preferred method of treatment for the T1N0 cases was simple tumor resection and that for the T2N0 cases was extended tumor resection with plastic surgery, elective neck dissection and combined radio-and/or chemotherapy. A majority of the radiologists preferred brachytherapy for T1N0 and non-invasive T2N0 cases. For invasive cases of T2N0 oral cancer, radiologists preferred either surgical treatment or the combination of brachytherapy and external irradiation. (author)

  5. Effect of obesity on prognosis after early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Gunnarsdóttir, Katrín Á

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was performed to characterize the impact of obesity on the risk of breast cancer recurrence and death as a result of breast cancer or other causes in relation to adjuvant treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS Information on body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis was available for 18......,967 (35%) of 53,816 women treated for early-stage breast cancer in Denmark between 1977 and 2006 with complete follow-up for first events (locoregional recurrences and distant metastases) up to 10 years and for death up to 30 years. Information was available on prognostic factors and adjuvant treatment...... of dying as a result of breast cancer after 30 years was significantly increased by 38% for patients with a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or more. BMI had no influence on the risk of locoregional recurrences. Both chemotherapy and endocrine therapy seemed to be less effective after 10 or more years for patients...

  6. Is ADHD an early stage in the development of borderline personality disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Simonsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies report associations between adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. AIMS: To explore the association between BPD and a history of ADHD in childhood. METHOD: A comprehensive search......: Most of the 15 articles showed a statistical association between ADHD and BPD. The data, most strongly provided a basis for the hypotheses that ADHD is either an early developmental stage of BPD, or that the two disorders share an environmental and genetic aetiology. Furthermore, one of the disorders...... seems to give a synergic effect, reinforce the other or complicate the disorders. In one prospective study, the risk factor for children with ADHD to develop BPD was as high as odds ratio 13.16. No studies have looked at treatment of ADHD as a mediator of the risk for BPD. CONCLUSIONS: Many studies...

  7. Early-stage focal nodular hyperplasia: US/CT/MR features correlated with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfieri, R.; Giampalma, E.; Berardi, R.; Caputo, M.; Lalli, A.; Grazi, G.; Mazziotti, A.; Gozzetti, G.; D'Errico, A.; Grigioni, W.; Gavelli, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), in which ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) studies detected an atypical hemorrhagic pattern associated with an intrahepatic arterio venous malformation (AVM) around the growths, are presented. In both cases, histology demonstrated a very early regenerative stage and necrotic-hemorrhagic areas within the lesions. In these cases, the analysis of radiological findings, surgical specimens and histology seemed to confirm the pathogenetic hypothesis suggested by Wanless: in normal liver parenchyma, a ''blood steal'' phenomenon due to congenital or acquired intrahepatic AVM could cause ischemic damage, appearing as a hemorrhagic necrotic area, the extent of which depends on the degree of residual portal supply. (orig.)

  8. Comparative toxicity of four crude oils to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, L.M.J.; Khan, C.W.; Akhtar, P.; Hodson, P.V.; Short, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Crude oil is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aquatic ecosystems. Fish that are chronically exposed to alkyl PAHs show dioxin-like toxicity characterized by the presence of blue sac disease (BSD) and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Light Crude, MESA, the synthetic Federated Crude, and Alaska North Slope Crude) to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The study examined the influence of the four crudes in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. Mortality in the direct exposure experiment increased as the oil concentration increased. The same trend was observed for the BSD prevalence. The study showed that Scotian Light Crude was the least toxic, with BSD increasing only at the highest concentration. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  9. [Quantitative histoenzymatic analysis of the adenohypophysis and adrenal cortex during the early stages of involution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochukhanov, R A; Rostovtseva, T I

    1977-11-01

    A method of quantitative histenzymatic analysis was applied for determination of the involution changes of the neuroendocrine system. The activity of NAD- and NADP-reductases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, glucose-6-phosphoric dehydrogenase, 3-OH-steroid-dehydrogenase, 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases was investigated in the adenohypophysis and in the adrenal cortex of rats aged 4 and 12 months. There were revealed peculiarities attending the structural-metabolic provision of physiological reconstructions of the neuro-endocrine system under conditions of the estral cycle at the early involution stages. An initial reduction of the cell ular-vascular transport with the retention of the functional activity of the intracellular organoids was demonstrated in ageing animals.

  10. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy seems safe in women with early-stage endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Havemann, Maria Cecilie; Palle, Connie

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Robotic surgery is increasingly used in the management of endometrial cancer; and although it is known that minimally invasive surgery reduces post-operative morbidity, the outcomes of this novel treatment should be monitored carefully. The aim of this study was to examine...... the incidence of complications according to the Clavien-Dindo scale after robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH) for early-stage endometrial cancer and atypical complex hyperplasia. The Clavien-Dindo scale grades the severity of complications. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive cohort...... study of 235 women with endometrial cancer or atypical complex hyperplasia who had RALH. Surgeries were stratified into two groups: with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy. RESULTS: A total of 6% developed a grade 3 or higher complication with no significant difference (p = 0.24) between the groups...

  11. Molecular profiling of early stage liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieche, Ivan; Asselah, Tarik; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Vidaud, Dominique; Degot, Claude; Paradis, Valerie; Bedossa, Pierre; Valla, Dominique-Charles; Marcellin, Patrick; Vidaud, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, end-stage hepatitis (cirrhosis), and hepatocellular carcinoma have been extensively studied, but little is known of the changes in liver gene expression during the early stages of liver fibrosis associated with chronic HCV infection, that is, the transition from normal liver (NL) of uninfected patients to the first stage of liver fibrosis (F1-CH-C). To obtain insight into the molecular pathogenesis of F1-CH-C, we used real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to study the mRNA expression of 240 selected genes in liver tissue with F1-CH-C, in comparison with NL. The expression of 54 (22.5%) of the 240 genes was significantly different between F1-CH-C and NL; 46 genes were upregulated and 8 were downregulated in F1-CH-C. The most noteworthy changes in gene expression mainly affected the transcriptional network regulated by interferons (IFNs), including both IFN-α/β-inducible genes (STAT1, STAT2, ISGF3G/IRF9, IFI27, G1P3, G1P2, OAS2, MX1) and IFN-γ-inducible genes (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11). Interesting, upregulation of IFN-α/β-inducible genes (but not IFN-γ-inducible genes) was independent of histological scores (grade and stage of fibrosis) and HCV characteristics (hepatic HCV mRNA levels and the HCV genotype), and was specific to HCV (as compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV)). Other genes dysregulated in F1-CH-C, albeit less markedly than IFN-α/β- and IFN-γ-inducible genes, were mainly involved in the activation of lymphocytes infiltrating the liver (IFNG, TNF, CXCL6, IL6, CCL8, CXCR3, CXCR4, CCR2), cell proliferation (p16/CDKN2A, MKI67, p14/ARF), extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP9, ITGA2), lymphangiogenesis (XLKD1/LYVE), oxidative stress (CYP2E1), and cytoskeleton microtubule organization (STMN2/SCG10). Thus, a limited number of signaling pathways, and particularly the transcriptional network regulated by interferons, are dysregulated in the first

  12. Study of the early stages of precipitation of molybdenum in steelwelds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, H.U.

    2001-01-01

    The addition of molybdenum to steel welds in quite small concentrations leads to a variety of anomalous microstructural and mechanical property effects. In some cases, the effects manifest even there are no obvious changes in microstructure at the resolution of a transmission electron microscope. It has been reported in the published literature, that an increase in the molybdenum concentration leads to a corresponding increase in the proportion of primary microstructure in multipass welds. Another striking anomaly with molybdenum containing welds, identified in the published literature, is that the strength of such welds is much higher than is estimated using normally reliable models for he prediction of mechanical properties. The surprising feature of this anomaly is that it is present even for the as-deposited microstructure, which has not been deliberately or otherwise tempered. The anomaly cannot therefore be attributed to easily observed secondary hardening effects, and indeed precipitates such a molybdenum carbides are not found to occur in the as-deposited state at the resolution of a conventional transmission electron microscope. An investigation has been carried out to study the possible existence of the early stages of precipitation/clustering of molybdenum atoms, using the atomic resolution method know as APFIM (Atom Probe Field Ion Microscopy). The results has given a strong indication that the anomalous strengthening in the as deposited welds is due to sub-microscopic effects, arising from the fine scale clustering of molybdenum atoms. This clustering appears to occur in the ferrite as the weld cools to ambient temperature after solidification. The effect is essentially secondary hardening, but at the very early stages. (author)

  13. Partial Breast Irradiation Versus Whole Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, David J.; Wittenberg, Eve; Taghian, Alphonse G.; Bellon, Jennifer R.; Punglia, Rinaa S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality-adjusted life expectancy between women treated with partial breast irradiation (PBI) vs. whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states in the 15 years after radiotherapy for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Breast cancer recurrences were separated into local recurrences and elsewhere failures. Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) risk was extracted from the Oxford overview, and rates and utilities were adapted from the literature. We studied two cohorts of women (aged 40 and 55 years), both of whom received adjuvant tamoxifen. Results: Assuming a no evidence of disease (NED)-PBI utility of 0.93, quality-adusted life expectancy after PBI (and WBRT) was 12.61 (12.57) and 12.10 (12.06) years for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively. The NED-PBI utility thresholds for preferring PBI over WBRT were 0.923 and 0.921 for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively, both slightly greater than the NED-WBRT utility. Outcomes were sensitive to the utility of NED-PBI, the PBI hazard ratio for local recurrence, the baseline IBTR risk, and the percentage of IBTRs that were local. Overall the degree of superiority of PBI over WBRT was greater for 55-year-old women than for 40-year-old women. Conclusions: For most utility values of the NED-PBI health state, PBI was the preferred treatment modality. This result was highly sensitive to patient preferences and was also dependent on patient age, PBI efficacy, IBTR risk, and the fraction of IBTRs that were local

  14. DPEP1, expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis, affects cancer cell invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiyama, Yuji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Hiromi; Saigusa, Susumu; Yokoe, Takeshi; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Tanaka, Koji; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2011-02-01

    We investigated changes in the gene expression profile in colon cancer in order to identify gene markers that may be useful in the management of this disease. The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project was used to detect differences in gene expression between normal and cancer tissue. The overexpression of dipeptidase-1 (DPEP1) in cancer tissue was confirmed in a sample of 76 patients by real-time PCR. To identify the function of DPEP1, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inactivate this gene in the colon cancer cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize the pattern of DPEP1 expression in colon cancer. DPEP1 expression in cancer was significantly higher than that in normal tissue. However, DPEP1 expression decreased with pathological differentiation, lymph-node and distant metastasis. Patients with tumors with decreased DPEP1 expression showed a poorer prognosis, and this was also true of patients with tumors who are treated with curative intent. RNAi-mediated DPEP1 reduction in the colon cancer cell line did not result in cell proliferation or apoptosis, but was associated with an increased invasive ability. DPEP1 protein was observed on the apical side of the cancer cells, and is expressed in the early stages of carcinogenesis, even in adenomas of both sporadic colorectal cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis patients. DPEP1 expression in normal colonic mucosa is very low, but it is highly expressed in colorectal adenoma and cancer specimens and is negatively correlated with parameters of pathological aggressiveness and poor prognosis. DPEP1 is expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and affects cancer cell invasiveness.

  15. Subjective cognitive concerns and neuropsychiatric predictors of progression to the early clinical stages of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Nancy J; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Zoller, Amy S; Rudel, Rebecca K; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Blacker, Deborah; Hyman, Bradley T; Locascio, Joseph J; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Marshall, Gad A; Rentz, Dorene M

    2014-12-01

    To examine neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological predictors of progression from normal to early clinical stages of Alzheimer disease (AD). From a total sample of 559 older adults from the Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center longitudinal cohort, 454 were included in the primary analysis: 283 with clinically normal cognition (CN), 115 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 56 with subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) but no objective impairment, a proposed transitional group between CN and MCI. Two latent cognitive factors (memory-semantic, attention-executive) and two neuropsychiatric factors (affective, psychotic) were derived from the Alzheimer's Disease Centers' Uniform Data Set neuropsychological battery and Neuropsychiatric Inventory brief questionnaire. Factors were analyzed as predictors of time to progression to a worse diagnosis using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with backward elimination. Covariates included baseline diagnosis, gender, age, education, prior depression, antidepressant medication, symptom duration, and interaction terms. Higher/better memory-semantic factor score predicted lower hazard of progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.4 for 1 standard deviation [SD] increase, p factor score predicted higher hazard (HR = 1.3 for one SD increase, p = 0.01). No other predictors were significant in adjusted analyses. Using diagnosis as a sole predictor of transition to MCI, the SCC diagnosis carried a fourfold risk of progression compared with CN (HR = 4.1, p factors as significant predictors of more rapid progression from normal to early stages of cognitive decline and highlight the subgroup of cognitively normal elderly with SCC as those with elevated risk of progression to MCI. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alterations in biomechanical properties and microstructure of colon wall in early-stage experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaohui; Xu, Xiaojuan; Lin, Sisi; Cheng, Yu; Tong, Jianhua; Li, Yongyu

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of early-stage dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis on the biomechanical properties and microstructure of colon walls. In the present study, colitis was induced in 8-week-old mice by the oral administration of DSS, and then 10 control and 10 experimental colitis samples were harvested. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed to measure the ultimate tensile strength and ultimate stretches of colon tissues. In addition, histological investigations were performed to characterize changes in the microstructure of the colon wall following treatment. The results revealed that the ultimate tensile stresses were 232±33 and 183±25 kPa for the control and DSS groups, respectively (P=0.001). Ultimate stretches at rupture for the control and DSS groups were 1.43±0.04 and 1.51±0.06, respectively (P=0.006). However, there was no statistically significant difference in tissue stiffness between the two groups. Histological analysis demonstrated high numbers of inflammatory cells infiltrated into the stroma in the DSS group, leading to significant submucosa edema. Hyperplasia was also identified in the DSS-treated submucosa, causing a disorganized microstructure within the colon wall. Furthermore, a large number of collagen fibers in the DSS-treated muscular layer were disrupted, and fiber bundles were thinner when compared with the control group. In conclusion, early-stage experimental colitis alters the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the colon walls, further contributing to tissue remodeling in the pathological process.

  17. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A, takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  18. Genomic Prediction of Single Crosses in the Early Stages of a Maize Hybrid Breeding Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwar C. Kadam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of single-cross performance has been a major goal of plant breeders since the beginning of hybrid breeding. Recently, genomic prediction has shown to be a promising approach, but only limited studies have examined the accuracy of predicting single-cross performance. Moreover, no studies have examined the potential of predicting single crosses among random inbreds derived from a series of biparental families, which resembles the structure of germplasm comprising the initial stages of a hybrid maize breeding pipeline. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of genomic prediction for identifying superior single crosses early in the hybrid breeding pipeline and optimize its application. To accomplish these objectives, we designed and analyzed a novel population of single crosses representing the Iowa Stiff Stalk synthetic/non-Stiff Stalk heterotic pattern commonly used in the development of North American commercial maize hybrids. The performance of single crosses was predicted using parental combining ability and covariance among single crosses. Prediction accuracies were estimated using cross-validation and ranged from 0.28 to 0.77 for grain yield, 0.53 to 0.91 for plant height, and 0.49 to 0.94 for staygreen, depending on the number of tested parents of the single cross and genomic prediction method used. The genomic estimated general and specific combining abilities showed an advantage over genomic covariances among single crosses when one or both parents of the single cross were untested. Overall, our results suggest that genomic prediction of single crosses in the early stages of a hybrid breeding pipeline holds great potential to redesign hybrid breeding and increase its efficiency.

  19. Modeling screening, prevention, and delaying of Alzheimer's disease: an early-stage decision analytic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siemers Eric R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's Disease (AD affects a growing proportion of the population each year. Novel therapies on the horizon may slow the progress of AD symptoms and avoid cases altogether. Initiating treatment for the underlying pathology of AD would ideally be based on biomarker screening tools identifying pre-symptomatic individuals. Early-stage modeling provides estimates of potential outcomes and informs policy development. Methods A time-to-event (TTE simulation provided estimates of screening asymptomatic patients in the general population age ≥55 and treatment impact on the number of patients reaching AD. Patients were followed from AD screen until all-cause death. Baseline sensitivity and specificity were 0.87 and 0.78, with treatment on positive screen. Treatment slowed progression by 50%. Events were scheduled using literature-based age-dependent incidences of AD and death. Results The base case results indicated increased AD free years (AD-FYs through delays in onset and a reduction of 20 AD cases per 1000 screened individuals. Patients completely avoiding AD accounted for 61% of the incremental AD-FYs gained. Total years of treatment per 1000 screened patients was 2,611. The number-needed-to-screen was 51 and the number-needed-to-treat was 12 to avoid one case of AD. One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that duration of screening sensitivity and rescreen interval impact AD-FYs the most. A two-way sensitivity analysis found that for a test with an extended duration of sensitivity (15 years the number of AD cases avoided was 6,000-7,000 cases for a test with higher sensitivity and specificity (0.90,0.90. Conclusions This study yielded valuable parameter range estimates at an early stage in the study of screening for AD. Analysis identified duration of screening sensitivity as a key variable that may be unavailable from clinical trials.

  20. Treatment outcome with low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy in early-stage oral tongue cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalavat Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Although radical radiotherapy is known to be equally effective for early-stage oral tongue cancers (T1-2 N0 with the added advantage of organ and function preservation, surgery remains the preferred treatment. We present outcome of patients treated with brachytherapy (BT either radical or boost. Materials and Methods : Fifty-seven patients (T1/T2 31/26 were studied. Seventeen patients (30% were treated with radical BT (50-67 Gy while 40 (70% with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT + BT (36-56 Gy + 15-38 Gy]. Low-dose-rate (LDR BT was delivered with 192 Ir wires, using plastic bead technique with varied dose rates (< 60 cGy/h in 29 patients, 60-90 cGy/h in 17, and> 90 cGy/h in 11. Results : The overall local control (LCR was achieved in 59.7% (34/57 patients. LCR for T1 and T2 was 67.8% and 50%, respectively. A total of 23 patients had failures [local: 20 (T1: 8; T2: 12 patients, node: 5 (T1:2; T2: 3, and local + nodal: 3]. Overall 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival (OAS were 51% and 67%, respectively and those for T1 and T2 was 64.5/77.4% and 38.5/54% respectively (P = 0.002. All 16 patients were salvaged. Median survival after salvage treatment was 13.5 months (6-100 months. Soft tissue necrosis was observed in 12.3% (7/57 and osteoradionecrosis in two patients. Conclusion : BT, as an integral part of radical radiation therapy in early-stage tongue cancers, appears to be an effective alternative treatment modality with preservation of the organ and function without jeopardizing the outcome.

  1. Modeling screening, prevention, and delaying of Alzheimer's disease: an early-stage decision analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furiak, Nicolas M; Klein, Robert W; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Siemers, Eric R; Sarpong, Eric; Klein, Timothy M

    2010-04-30

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) affects a growing proportion of the population each year. Novel therapies on the horizon may slow the progress of AD symptoms and avoid cases altogether. Initiating treatment for the underlying pathology of AD would ideally be based on biomarker screening tools identifying pre-symptomatic individuals. Early-stage modeling provides estimates of potential outcomes and informs policy development. A time-to-event (TTE) simulation provided estimates of screening asymptomatic patients in the general population age > or =55 and treatment impact on the number of patients reaching AD. Patients were followed from AD screen until all-cause death. Baseline sensitivity and specificity were 0.87 and 0.78, with treatment on positive screen. Treatment slowed progression by 50%. Events were scheduled using literature-based age-dependent incidences of AD and death. The base case results indicated increased AD free years (AD-FYs) through delays in onset and a reduction of 20 AD cases per 1000 screened individuals. Patients completely avoiding AD accounted for 61% of the incremental AD-FYs gained. Total years of treatment per 1000 screened patients was 2,611. The number-needed-to-screen was 51 and the number-needed-to-treat was 12 to avoid one case of AD. One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that duration of screening sensitivity and rescreen interval impact AD-FYs the most. A two-way sensitivity analysis found that for a test with an extended duration of sensitivity (15 years) the number of AD cases avoided was 6,000-7,000 cases for a test with higher sensitivity and specificity (0.90,0.90). This study yielded valuable parameter range estimates at an early stage in the study of screening for AD. Analysis identified duration of screening sensitivity as a key variable that may be unavailable from clinical trials.

  2. Hypothesis: primary antiangiogenic method proposed to treat early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retsky, Michael W; Hrushesky, William JM; Gukas, Isaac D

    2009-01-01

    Women with Down syndrome very rarely develop breast cancer even though they now live to an age when it normally occurs. This may be related to the fact that Down syndrome persons have an additional copy of chromosome 21 where the gene that codes for the antiangiogenic protein Endostatin is located. Can this information lead to a primary antiangiogenic therapy for early stage breast cancer that indefinitely prolongs remission? A key question that arises is when is the initial angiogenic switch thrown in micrometastases? We have conjectured that avascular micrometastases are dormant and relatively stable if undisturbed but that for some patients angiogenesis is precipitated by surgery. We also proposed that angiogenesis of micrometastases very rarely occurs before surgical removal of the primary tumor. If that is so, it seems possible that we could suggest a primary antiangiogenic therapy but the problem then arises that starting a therapy before surgery would interfere with wound healing. The therapy must be initiated at least one day prior to surgical removal of the primary tumor and kept at a Down syndrome level perhaps indefinitely. That means the drug must have virtually no toxicity and not interfere meaningfully with wound healing. This specifically excludes drugs that significantly inhibit the VEGF pathway since that is important for wound healing and because these agents have some toxicity. Endostatin is apparently non-toxic and does not significantly interfere with wound healing since Down syndrome patients have no abnormal wound healing problems. We propose a therapy for early stage breast cancer consisting of Endostatin at or above Down syndrome levels starting at least one day before surgery and continuing at that level. This should prevent micrometastatic angiogenesis resulting from surgery or at any time later. Adjuvant chemotherapy or hormone therapy should not be necessary. This can be continued indefinitely since there is no acquired resistance that

  3. Information Needs of Older Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer When Making Radiation Therapy Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Yi; Kelly, Gabrielle; Gross, Cary; Killelea, Brigid K; Mougalian, Sarah; Presley, Carolyn; Fraenkel, Liana; Evans, Suzanne B

    2017-07-15

    To identify the information older women with early-stage breast cancer need when making radiation therapy decisions, and who patients identify as the main decision maker. We surveyed (through face-to-face interview, telephone, or mail) women aged ≥65 years who received lumpectomy and were considering or receiving adjuvant radiation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. The survey instrument was constructed with input from patient and professional advisory committees, including breast cancer survivors, advocates of breast cancer care and aging, clinicians, and researchers. Participants rated the importance (on a 4-point scale) of 24 statements describing the benefits, side effects, impact on daily life, and other issues of radiation therapy in relation to radiation therapy decision making. Participants also designated who was considered the key decision maker. The response rate was 56.4% (93 of 165). Mean age was 72.5 years, ranging from 65 to 93 years. More than 96% of participants indicated they were the main decision maker on receiving radiation therapy. There was wide variation in information needs regarding radiation therapy decision making. Participants rated a mean of 18 (range, 3-24) items as "essential." Participants rated items related to benefits highest, followed by side effects. Participants who were older than 75 years rated 13.9 questions as essential, whereas participants aged ≤74 years rated 18.7 as essential (P=.018). Older women desire information and have more agency and input in the decision-making process than prior literature would suggest. The variation in information needs indicates that future decision support tools should provide options to select what information would be of interest to the participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proliferation of endogenous retroviruses in the early stages of a host germ line invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Zhao, Kai; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 8% of the human genome and are common in all vertebrate genomes. The only retrovirus known to be currently transitioning from exogenous to endogenous form is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), making koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) ideal for examining the early stages of retroviral endogenization. To distinguish endogenous from exogenous KoRV proviruses, we isolated koala genomic regions flanking KoRV integration sites. In three wild southern Australian koalas, there were fewer KoRV loci than in three captive Queensland koalas, consistent with reports that southern Australian koalas carry fewer KoRVs. Of 39 distinct KoRV proviral loci examined in a sire-dam-progeny triad, all proved to be vertically transmitted and endogenous; none was exogenous. Of the 39 endogenous KoRVs (enKoRVs), only one was present in the genomes of both the sire and the dam, suggesting that, at this early stage in the retroviral invasion of a host germ line, very large numbers of ERVs have proliferated at very low frequencies in the koala population. Sequence divergence between the 5'- and 3'-long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a provirus can be used as a molecular clock. Within each of ten enKoRVs, the 5'-LTR sequence was identical to the 3'-LTR sequence, suggesting a maximum age for enKoRV invasion of the koala germ line of approximately 22,200-49,900 years ago, although a much younger age is possible. Across the ten proviruses, seven LTR haplotypes were detected, indicating that at least seven different retroviral sequences had entered the koala germ line. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Proliferation of Endogenous Retroviruses in the Early Stages of a Host Germ Line Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Zhao, Kai; Greenwood, Alex D.; Roca, Alfred L.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 8% of the human genome and are common in all vertebrate genomes. The only retrovirus known to be currently transitioning from exogenous to endogenous form is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), making koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) ideal for examining the early stages of retroviral endogenization. To distinguish endogenous from exogenous KoRV proviruses, we isolated koala genomic regions flanking KoRV integration sites. In three wild southern Australian koalas, there were fewer KoRV loci than in three captive Queensland koalas, consistent with reports that southern Australian koalas carry fewer KoRVs. Of 39 distinct KoRV proviral loci examined in a sire–dam–progeny triad, all proved to be vertically transmitted and endogenous; none was exogenous. Of the 39 endogenous KoRVs (enKoRVs), only one was present in the genomes of both the sire and the dam, suggesting that, at this early stage in the retroviral invasion of a host germ line, very large numbers of ERVs have proliferated at very low frequencies in the koala population. Sequence divergence between the 5′- and 3′-long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a provirus can be used as a molecular clock. Within each of ten enKoRVs, the 5′-LTR sequence was identical to the 3′-LTR sequence, suggesting a maximum age for enKoRV invasion of the koala germ line of approximately 22,200–49,900 years ago, although a much younger age is possible. Across the ten proviruses, seven LTR haplotypes were detected, indicating that at least seven different retroviral sequences had entered the koala germ line. PMID:25261407

  6. Accuracy of episodic autobiographical memory in children with early thyroid hormone deficiency using a staged event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Willoughby

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is a highly constructive cognitive process that often contains memory errors. No study has specifically examined AM accuracy in children with abnormal development of the hippocampus, a crucial brain region for AM retrieval. Thus, the present study investigated AM accuracy in 68 typically and atypically developing children using a staged autobiographical event, the Children's Autobiographical Interview, and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The atypically developing group consisted of 17 children (HYPO exposed during gestation to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone (TH, a critical substrate for hippocampal development, and 25 children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH, who were compared to 26 controls. Groups differed significantly in the number of accurate episodic details recalled and proportion accuracy scores, with controls having more accurate recollections of the staged event than both TH-deficient groups. Total hippocampal volumes and anterior hippocampal volumes were positively correlated with proportion accuracy scores, but not total accurate episodic details, in HYPO and CH. In addition, greater severity of TH deficiency predicted lower proportion accuracy scores in both HYPO and CH. Overall, these results indicate that children with early TH deficiency have deficits in AM accuracy and that the anterior hippocampus may play a particularly important role in accurate AM retrieval.

  7. Risk Identification in the Early Design Stage Using Thermal Simulations—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Masoud Sajjadian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The likely increasing temperature predicted by UK Climate Impacts Program (UKCIP underlines the risk of overheating and potential increase in cooling loads in most of UK dwellings. This could also increase the possibility of failure in building performance evaluation methods and add even more uncertainty to the decision-making process in a low-carbon building design process. This paper uses a 55-unit residential unit project in Cardiff, UK as a case study to evaluate the potential of thermal simulations to identify risk in the early design stage. Overheating, increase in energy loads, carbon emissions, and thermal bridges are considered as potential risks in this study. DesignBuilder (DesignBuilder Software Ltd., Stroud, UK was the dynamic thermal simulation software used in this research. Simulations compare results in the present, 2050, and 2080 time slices and quantifies the overall cooling and heating loads required to keep the operative temperature within the comfort zone. Overall carbon emissions are also calculated and a considerable reduction in the future is predicted. Further analysis was taken by THERM (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA and Psi THERM (Passivate, London, UK to evaluate the thermal bridge risk in most common junctions of the case study and the results reveal the potential of thermal assessment methods to improve design details before the start of construction stage.

  8. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at pchemicals provides a rationale for regulatory surveillance and monitoring of both chemicals in the fragile Niger Delta environment.

  9. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event ''sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the ''immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Modeling bacterial attachment to surfaces as an early stage of biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moustaid, Fadoua; Eladdadi, Amina; Uys, Lafras

    2013-06-01

    Biofilms are present in all natural, medical and industrial surroundings where bacteria live. Biofilm formation is a key factor in the growth and transport of both beneficial and harmful bacteria. While much is known about the later stages of biofilm formation, less is known about its initiation which is an important first step in the biofilm formation. In this paper, we develop a non-linear system of partial differential equations of Keller-Segel type model in one-dimensional space, which couples the dynamics of bacterial movement to that of the sensing molecules. In this case, bacteria perform a biased random walk towards the sensing molecules. We derive the boundary conditions of the adhesion of bacteria to a surface using zero-Dirichlet boundary conditions, while the equation describing sensing molecules at the interface needed particular conditions to be set. The numerical results show the profile of bacteria within the space and the time evolution of the density within the free-space and on the surface. Testing different parameter values indicate that significant amount of sensing molecules present on the surface leads to a faster bacterial movement toward the surface which is the first step of biofilm initiation. Our work gives rise to results that agree with the biological description of the early stages of biofilm formation.

  11. Environmental impact of a nuclear industry at an early stage of development: peculiar aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Baptista, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impact of a nuclear industry at an early stage of development is examined vis-a-vis the experience accumulated in studies on the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle in a developed country. Differences in the optics of the nuclear industry in a developed country and that of segments of the public opinion are briefly discussed. Some peculiar aspects of a nuclear industry being implanted in a developing nation, including adoption of new legislation and regulations, are presented, taking into account the unusual opportunity to attack potential problems in advance. The unique example of the pre-operational survey of a region surrounding a uranium mine in a developing nation is mentioned as an example of cooperation between the nuclear industry and the scientific community to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining operations. The potential environmental impact of other stages of the nuclear fuel cycle is also examined. Further cooperation between the nuclear industry and the scientific community of Latin American countries is suggested to minimize the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle in nations starting nuclear programs. (author)

  12. Visual information constrains early and late stages of spoken-word recognition in sentence context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunellière, Angèle; Sánchez-García, Carolina; Ikumi, Nara; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2013-07-01

    Audiovisual speech perception has been frequently studied considering phoneme, syllable and word processing levels. Here, we examined the constraints that visual speech information might exert during the recognition of words embedded in a natural sentence context. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to words that could be either strongly or weakly predictable on the basis of the prior semantic sentential context and, whose initial phoneme varied in the degree of visual saliency from lip movements. When the sentences were presented audio-visually (Experiment 1), words weakly predicted from semantic context elicited a larger long-lasting N400, compared to strongly predictable words. This semantic effect interacted with the degree of visual saliency over a late part of the N400. When comparing audio-visual versus auditory alone presentation (Experiment 2), the typical amplitude-reduction effect over the auditory-evoked N100 response was observed in the audiovisual modality. Interestingly, a specific benefit of high- versus low-visual saliency constraints occurred over the early N100 response and at the late N400 time window, confirming the result of Experiment 1. Taken together, our results indicate that the saliency of visual speech can exert an influence over both auditory processing and word recognition at relatively late stages, and thus suggest strong interactivity between audio-visual integration and other (arguably higher) stages of information processing during natural speech comprehension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Precipitation and clustering in the early stages of ageing in Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Talukder; Chaturvedi, Mahesh; Ringer, Simon P.; Cairney, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → IN718 could be age hardened rapidly by secondary phase formation. → Co-located phases were observed in the earliest stage of detection. → Clustering of Ti/Al and Nb atoms was observed prior to precipitation. - Abstract: In this report we investigate the onset and evolution of precipitation in the early stages of ageing in the alloy WE 91, a variant of the Ni-Fe-Cr superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718). Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography were used to study the size and volume fraction of γ' and γ'' precipitates and the extent of pre-precipitate clustering of Al/Ti and Nb. Co-located γ' and γ'' precipitates were observed from the shortest ageing times that precipitates could be visualised using atom probe. At shorter times, prior to the observation of precipitates, clustering of Al/Ti and Nb was shown to occur. The respective volume fraction of the γ' and γ'' precipitates and the clustering of Al/Ti and Nb suggest that γ'' nucleates prior to γ' during ageing at 706 deg. C for this alloy.

  14. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Precipitation and clustering in the early stages of ageing in Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Talukder, E-mail: talukder.alam@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Chaturvedi, Mahesh [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6 (Canada); Ringer, Simon P.; Cairney, Julie M. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} IN718 could be age hardened rapidly by secondary phase formation. {yields} Co-located phases were observed in the earliest stage of detection. {yields} Clustering of Ti/Al and Nb atoms was observed prior to precipitation. - Abstract: In this report we investigate the onset and evolution of precipitation in the early stages of ageing in the alloy WE 91, a variant of the Ni-Fe-Cr superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718). Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography were used to study the size and volume fraction of {gamma}' and {gamma}'' precipitates and the extent of pre-precipitate clustering of Al/Ti and Nb. Co-located {gamma}' and {gamma}'' precipitates were observed from the shortest ageing times that precipitates could be visualised using atom probe. At shorter times, prior to the observation of precipitates, clustering of Al/Ti and Nb was shown to occur. The respective volume fraction of the {gamma}' and {gamma}'' precipitates and the clustering of Al/Ti and Nb suggest that {gamma}'' nucleates prior to {gamma}' during ageing at 706 deg. C for this alloy.

  16. Results and survival after photodynamic therapy in early-stage esophageal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Mancini, Andrea; dal Fante, Marco; Meroni, Emmanuele; Jasinskas, Algirdas

    1996-01-01

    From January 1985 to December 1994, 23 early stage carcinomas of the esophagus were treated by photodynamic therapy in 21 patients. The stage of the tumors was assessed by esophagoscopy with multiple biopsies, CT scan and, from June 1991, also by endoscopic ultrasonography: 7 lesions were classified as carcinoma in situ (Tis) and 16 as invasive (T1). The photosensitizers used for PDT were hematoporphyrin derivative 3 mg/kg in 4 patients and dihematoporphyrin ether 2 mg/kg in 17. Light irradiation was performed using an Argon-dye laser system at a wavelength of 630 nm with an average energy of 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. A complete response was achieved in 17/23 (74%) tumors, 15/21 (71%) patients. In the follow-up period from 6 to 78 months (median 36 months) 3 recurrences occurred 6, 12, and 14 months after PDT, respectively. Seven patients died due to concomitant diseases, not related to tumor progression. The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 75% and 37% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications included 1 case of sunburn and 2 cases of esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage.

  17. Regulatory T cells predict the time to initial treatment in early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lukas; Melchardt, Thomas; Egle, Alexander; Grabmer, Christoph; Greil, Richard; Tinhofer, Inge

    2011-05-15

    Early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by a highly variable course of disease. Because it is believed that regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) are potent suppressors of antitumor immunity, the authors hypothesized that increased T(regs) may favor disease progression. T(reg) levels (cluster of differentiation 3 [CD3]-positive, [CD4]-positive, CD25-positive, and CD127-negative) in peripheral blood from 102 patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate correlations with clinical data. The relative T(reg) numbers in CD4-positive T cells were significantly greater in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared with the numbers in a control group of 170 healthy individuals (P = .001). Patients were divided into 2 groups using a median T(reg) value of 9.7% (the percentage of CD4-positive T cells). Patients with higher T(reg) levels had a significantly shorter time to initial treatment (median, 5.9 years) compared with patients who had lower T(reg) levels (median, 11.7 years; log-rank P = .019). Furthermore, T(reg) levels (the percentage of CD4-positive T cells) had significant prognostic power to predict the time to initial treatment in univariate analysis (P = .023) and in multivariate Cox regression analysis that included the variables Rai stage, immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene mutational status, chromosomal aberrations, and CD38 expression (P = .028). Higher T(reg) levels had significant and independent prognostic power for predicting the time to initial treatment in patients with low to intermediate stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 2010 American Cancer Society.

  18. Cancerous Tumour Model Analysis and Constructing schemes of Anti-angiogenesis Therapy at an Early Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Mukhomorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenesis therapy is an alternative and successfully employed method for treatment of cancerous tumour. However, this therapy isn't widely used in medicine because of expensive drugs. It leads naturally to elaboration of such treatment regimens which use minimum amount of drugs.The aim of the paper is to investigate the model of development of illness and elaborate appropriate treatment regimens in the case of early diagnosis of the disease. The given model reflects the therapy at an intermediate stage of the disease treatment. Further treatment is aimed to destroy cancer cells and may be continued by other means, which are not reflected in the model.Analysis of the main properties of the model was carried out with consideration of two types of auxiliary systems. In the first case, the system is considered without control, as a model of tumour development in the absence of medical treatment. The study of the equilibrium point and determination of its type allowed us to describe disease dynamics and to determine tumour size resulting in death. In the second case a model with a constant control was investigated. The study of its equilibrium point showed that continuous control is not sufficient to support satisfactory patient's condition, and it is necessary to elaborate more complex treatment regimens. For this purpose, we used the method of terminal problems consisting in the search for such program control which forces system to a given final state. Selecting the initial and final states is due to medical grounds.As a result, we found two treatment regimens | one-stage treatment regimen and multi-stage one. The properties of each treatment regimen are analyzed and compared. The total amount of used drugs was a criterion for comparing these two treatment regimens. The theoretical conclusions obtained in this work are supported by computer modeling in MATLAB environment.

  19. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (S.B.R.T.) for early-stage lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraok, M.; Matsuo, Y.; Nagata, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a new treatment modality for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer, and has been developed in the United States, the European Union, and Japan. We started a feasibility study of this therapy in July 1998, using a stereotactic body frame. The eligibility criteria for primary lung cancer were: 1) solitary tumor less than 4 cm (T1-3NOM); 2) inoperable, or the patient refused operation; 3) no necessity for oxygen support; 4) performance status equal to or less than 2; 5) the peripheral tumor which dose constraints of mediastinal organs are maintained. A total dose of 48 Gy was delivered in four fractions in 2 weeks in most patients. Lung toxicity was minimal. No grade II toxicities for spinal cord, bronchus, pulmonary artery, or esophagus were observed. The 3 years overall survival for 32 patients with stage IA, and 13 patients with stage IB were 83% and 72%, respectively. Only one local recurrence was observed in a follow-up of 6 1 months. We retrospectively analyzed 241 patients from 13 Japanese institutions. The local recurrence rate was 20% when the biological equivalent dose (BED) was less than 100 Gy, and 6.5% when the BED was over 100 Gy. Overall survival at 3 years was 42% when the BED was less than 100 Gy, and 46% when it was over 100 Gy. In tumors, which received a BED of more than 100 Gy, overall survival at 3 years was 91% for operable patients, and 50% for inoperable patients. Long-term results, in terms of local control, regional recurrence, survival, and complications, are not yet evaluated. However, this treatment modality is highly expected to be a standard treatment for inoperable patients, and it may be an alternative to lobectomy for operative patients. A prospective trial, which is now ongoing, will, answer these questions. (author)

  20. Mismatch negativity as a potential neurobiological marker of early-stage Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shixiang; Yan, Chang; Qiao, Zhengxue; Yao, Haiqian; Jiang, Shiquan; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Fang, Deyu; Yang, Yanjie; Zhang, Limei; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Liming

    2017-04-24

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are serious, irreversible forms of cognitive impairment, which means that an early diagnosis is essential to slow down their progression. One potential neurophysiological biomarker of these diseases is the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials (ERP) component, which reflects an automatic detection mechanism at the pre-attentive stages of information processing. We evaluated the auditory MMN response in individuals from two patient groups: those in the prodromal stages of AD (P-AD) and those in the prodromal stages of VD (P-VD). Thirty patients (15 P-AD patients and 15 P-VD patients) and 30 age-matched controls were recruited to undergo electrophysiological recordings during the presentation of an auditory deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm that was used to elicit genuine MMN responses. We show that over the frontal-central area, the mean amplitude of the MMN was significantly reduced in both the P-AD (p=0.017) and P-VD groups (p=0.013) compared with controls. The MMN peak latency in P-VD patients was significantly shorter than in controls (p=0.027). No MMN response differences between the P-AD and P-VD were found in either the frontal-central or the temporal areas. These results indicate that P-AD and P-VD patients exhibit impaired pre-attentive information processing mechanisms as revealed by the frontal-central area MMN response, which is associated with sensory memory and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tissue redox activity as a hallmark of carcinogenesis: from early to terminal stages of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio; Saga, Tsuneo

    2013-05-01

    The study aimed to clarify the dynamics of tissue redox activity (TRA) in cancer progression and assess the importance of this parameter for therapeutic strategies. The experiments were carried out on brain tissues of neuroblastoma-bearing, glioma-bearing, and healthy mice. TRA was visualized in vivo by nitroxide-enhanced MRI on anesthetized animals or in vitro by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy on isolated tissue specimens. Two biochemical parameters were analyzed in parallel: tissue total antioxidant capacity (TTAC) and plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). In the early stage of cancer, the brain tissues were characterized by a shorter-lived MRI signal than that from healthy brains (indicating a higher reducing activity for the nitroxide radical), which was accompanied by an enhancement of TTAC and MMP9 plasma levels. In the terminal stage of cancer, tissues in both hemispheres were characterized by a longer-lived MRI signal than in healthy brains (indicating a high-oxidative activity) that was accompanied by a decrease in TTAC and an increase in the MMP2/MMP9 plasma levels. Cancer progression also affected the redox potential of tissues distant from the primary tumor locus (liver and lung). Their oxidative status increased in both stages of cancer. The study shows that tissue redox balance is very sensitive to the progression of cancer and can be used as a diagnostic marker of carcinogenesis. The study also suggests that the noncancerous tissues of a cancer-bearing organism are susceptible to oxidative damage and should be considered a therapeutic target. ©2013 AACR.

  2. Exaggerated blood pressure response to early stages of exercise stress testing and presence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Picone, Dean S; Nikolic, Sonja B; Williams, Andrew D; Sharman, James E

    2016-12-01

    Exaggerated exercise blood pressure (EEBP) recorded during exercise testing at moderate-intensity is independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. It is hypothesized that EEBP may be indicative of underlying hypertension unnoticed by standard clinic (resting) BP measures (thus explaining increased mortality risk), but this has never been confirmed by association with hypertension defined using ambulatory BP monitoring, which was the aim of this study. Cross-sectional study. 100 consecutive patients free from coronary artery disease (aged 56±9 years, 72% male) underwent clinically indicated exercise stress testing. Exercise BP was recorded at each stage of the Bruce protocol. Presence of hypertension was defined as 24-hour systolic BP ≥130mmHg or daytime systolic BP ≥135mmHg. Exercise systolic BP at stage 1 and 2 of the test was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension (P130mmHg (AUC=0.752, 95% CI's 0.649-0.846, P150mmHg predicting hypertension independently of age, sex and in-clinic hypertension status (OR=4.83, 95% CI's 1.62-14.39, P=0.005). Irrespective of resting BP, systolic BP ≥150mmHg during early stages of the Bruce exercise stress test is associated with presence of hypertension. EEBP should be a warning signal to health/exercise professionals on the presence of hypertension and the need to provide follow up care to reduce cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of early and late stages of physiologic PVD in emmetropic elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Christoph; Ivastinovic, Domagoj; Borkenstein, Andreas; Lackner, Eva-Maria; Wedrich, Andreas; Velikay-Parel, Michaela

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the early and late stages of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in the foveal area in correlation with age and gender. Three hundred and thirty-five emmetropic eyes of 271 Caucasian patients (216 women/119 men) were examined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound (US). Eyes were classified into groups according to the patients age (up to 69.9; 70-74.9; 75-79.9; over 80 years) and to the clinical findings [Vitreous state: Detached in US; Detached in OCT; Foveal adhesion (FA); Attached vitreous]. The mean age was 76 ± 8 ranging from 44 to 89 years in female and 72 ± 10 ranging from 46 to 87 years in male subjects. The vitreous was attached in 32% of all eyes, 18.5% had FA, 18.5% were detached in OCT and 68% were detached in US. While prevalence of FA decreases with increasing age, OCT-diagnosed detachments did not change significantly with age. Between the ages of 70 and 75, an increase in PVD rates occurred. The prevalence of PVD was similar in both genders. Women were significantly older than men in the late-stage PVD in the eyes. The use of OCT and US enabled us to detect a partial or total PVD in 80% of the eyes. A sudden increase in late-stage PVD between the ages of 70 and 75 was observed, correlating with the reported age prevalence of various macular diseases. In contrast to myopics, both genders of elderly emmetropics have a similar prevalence of PVD. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  4. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deficient strains of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, A F; Steed, J R; Sogin, S J

    1980-03-01

    We analyzed a series of germ tube-negative variants isolated from Candida albicans 3153A for deoxyribonucleic acid content. As analyzed by flow microfluorometry, the deoxyribonucleic acid level in these variant strains was 50% of that of the parental strain and equivalent to that of haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding was confirmed by comparison of survival rates when exposed to the mutagens ultraviolet light, ethyl methane sulfonate, and methyl methane sulfonate. The diameter of the variant cells as compared to the diameter of the parental 3153A strain showed a relationship similar to that of the diameters of haploid versus diploid S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that those strains may be representative of the imperfect stage of C. albicans.

  5. Liquid Crystal Enabled Early Stage Detection of Beta Amyloid Formation on Lipid Monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadati, Monirosadat [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Apik, Aslin Izmitli [Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA; Armas-Perez, Julio C. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan P. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Departamento de Materiales y Minerales, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, Calle 75 # 79A-51, Bloque M17 Medellín Colombia; Abbott, Nicholas L. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA; de Pablo, Juan J. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA

    2015-09-09

    Liquid crystals (LCs) can serve as sensitive reporters of interfacial events, and this property has been used for sensing of synthetic or biological toxins. Here it is demonstrated that LCs can distinguish distinct molecular motifs and exhibit a specific response to beta-sheet structures. That property is used to detect the formation of highly toxic protofibrils involved in neurodegenerative diseases, where it is crucial to develop methods that probe the early-stage aggregation of amyloidogenic peptides in the vicinity of biological membranes. In the proposed method, the amyloid fibrils formed at the lipid-decorated LC interface can change the orientation of LCs and form elongated and branched structures that are amplified by the mesogenic medium; however, nonamyloidogenic peptides form ellipsoidal domains of tilted LCs. Moreover, a theoretical and computational analysis is used to reveal the underlying structure of the LC, thereby providing a detailed molecular-level view of the interactions and mechanisms responsible for such motifs. The corresponding signatures can be detected at nanomolar concentrations of peptide by polarized light microscopy and much earlier than the ones that can be identified by fluorescence-based techniques. As such, it offers the potential for early diagnoses of neurodegenerative diseases and for facile testing of inhibitors of amyloid formation.

  6. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  7. Submandibular Gland Involvement in Early Stage Oral Cavity Carcinomas: Can the Gland be left behind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, A.; Khan, M.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of submandibular gland involvement in early oral cavity tumors. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Data of 110 oral cavity tumors operated over 2008 - 2011 was retrieved from ENT OPD, tumor registry in AFIP and from Head and Neck Oncology Forum Registry. Cases of oral cavity tumors that had undergone elective neck dissections were retrospectively studied for invasion of the submandibular gland, TNM Staging, perineural, perivascular, lymphovascular invasion, site specific frequency of oral cavity tumors and frequency of lymph node metastasis. Results: Tumors of tongue were the most common constituting 42%, squamous cell carcinoma was the histological diagnosis in 90% cases. Sixty eight (61.8%) cases were node negative. Selective neck dissection was done in 55.5% of the cases. Submandibular gland was involved in 2 cases (1.8%). Conclusion: Submandibular gland metastasis from early oral cavity tumors is rare; any neoplastic involvement of the gland usually occurs via direct spread. (author)

  8. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E.; Tijerina, Pamella B.; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S.; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873

  9. A pilot study on factors involved with work participation in the early stages of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Van der Hiele

    Full Text Available Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation.To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job.Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years.Patients with a paid job (57% reported better physical functioning (p<0.001, better memory functioning (p = 0.01 and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p = 0.018 than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r = 0.54, p = 0.005 and a lower social impact of fatigue (r =  -0.46, p = 0.029 correlated with an increased number of working hours.Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS.

  10. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) early stage graft failure in eyes with preexisting glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Maximilian; Alnawaiseh, Maged; Eter, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of a preexisting glaucoma on the early postoperative outcome of a descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). All patients who underwent DMEK surgery at the Department of Ophthalmology of the University of Muenster with a follow-up of at least 3 months (90d) were included in this study. The best corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), the intraocular pressure (IOD), the rate of re-keratoplasty and the rebubbling rate were inter alia recorded. The results of patients with (group 1) and without a preexisting glaucoma (group 2) were compared. 74 eyes of 59 patients with a mean follow-up of 152 ± 70 days were included. 65 eyes were in group 1 and 9 eyes in group 2. The BCDVA significantly improved in both groups after surgery (p glaucoma compared to patients with a preexisting glaucoma. In the early stage outcome of DMEK no significant impact of a preexisting glaucoma was found.

  11. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Lauterstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq. Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  12. Early stages of formation and dispersal of the temperate flora in the Boreal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budantsev, L.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The thesis of this review is that the composition of a flora can be understood only as a process, or separate stage, in the context of migration in time and space of various floristic assemblages and their isolation, as induced by transformation of continental and ocean shapes, changes in climate, and the environment as a whole. Thus the formation of geofloras of the past was influenced by gradually changing environments that determined the spread, patterning, and spatial differentiation of floras and their evolution. Parallel to the more commonly-seen names of eras-Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic-we can speak of the Paleophytic, Mesophytic, and Cenophytic eras. Eras defined in these two ways (by faunistic or by floristic criteria) do not completely coincide. Generally, changes in the flora have, necessarily, preceded changes in the fauna. It is the Cenophytic with which this review is mostly concerned, the era of Angiosperm dominance. The movement of early subtropical and warm temperate floras in the Early Cenophytic, followed by temperate or even boreal floras, as the climate changes, is traced in detail

  13. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Corneal and Retinal Neuronal Degeneration in Early Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Dehghani, Cirous; Pritchard, Nicola; Edwards, Katie; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    2017-12-01

    To examine the neuronal structural integrity of cornea and retina as markers for neuronal degeneration in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Participants were recruited from the broader Brisbane community, Queensland, Australia. Two hundred forty-one participants (187 with diabetes and 54 nondiabetic controls) were examined. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was graded according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale. Corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), corneal nerve branch density (CNBD), corneal nerve fiber tortuosity (CNFT), full retinal thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), focal (FLV) and global loss volumes (GLV), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular measures were examined. The central zone (P = 0.174), parafoveal thickness (P = 0.090), perifovea (P = 0.592), RNFL (P = 0.866), GCC (P = 0.798), and GCC GLV (P = 0.338) did not differ significantly between the groups. In comparison to the control group, those with very mild NPDR and those with mild NPDR had significantly higher focal loss in GCC volume (P = 0.036). CNFL was significantly lower in those with mild NPDR (P = 0.004) in comparison to the control group and those with no DR. The CNBD (P = 0.094) and CNFT (P = 0.458) did not differ between the groups. Both corneal and retinal neuronal degeneration may occur in early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Further studies are required to examine these potential markers for neuronal degeneration in the absence of clinical signs of DR.

  15. C. albicans growth, transition, biofilm formation, and gene expression modulation by antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial peptides have been the focus of much research over the last decade because of their effectiveness and broad-spectrum activity against microbial pathogens. These peptides also participate in inflammation and the innate host defense system by modulating the immune function that promotes immune cell adhesion and migration as well as the respiratory burst, which makes them even more attractive as therapeutic agents. This has led to the synthesis of various antimicrobial peptides, including KSL-W (KKVVFWVKFK-NH2), for potential clinical use. Because this peptide displays antimicrobial activity against bacteria, we sought to determine its antifungal effect on C. albicans. Growth, hyphal form, biofilm formation, and degradation were thus examined along with EFG1, NRG1, EAP1, HWP1, and SAP 2-4-5-6 gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR. Results This study demonstrates that KSL-W markedly reduced C. albicans growth at both early and late incubation times. The significant effect of KSL-W on C. albicans growth was observed beginning at 10 μg/ml after 5 h of contact by reducing C. albicans transition and at 25 μg/ml by completely inhibiting C. albicans transition. Cultured C. albicans under biofilm-inducing conditions revealed that both KSL-W and amphotericin B significantly decreased biofilm formation at 2, 4, and 6 days of culture. KSL-W also disrupted mature C. albicans biofilms. The effect of KSL-W on C. albicans growth, transition, and biofilm formation/disruption may thus occur through gene modulation, as the expression of various genes involved in C. albicans growth, transition and biofilm formation were all downregulated when C. albicans was treated with KSL-W. The effect was greater when C. albicans was cultured under hyphae-inducing conditions. Conclusions These data provide new insight into the efficacy of KSL-W against C. albicans and its potential use as an antifungal therapy. PMID:24195531

  16. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  17. Decrease in urinary creatinine excretion in early stage chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tynkevich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD. We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. METHODS: We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR by (51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. RESULTS: Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3 ± 3.1 to 12.1 ± 3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.04 mmol/kg/24 h in men, with mGFR falling from ≥ 60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m(2, and from 9.6 ± 1.9 to 7.6 ± 2.5 (0.16 ± 0.03 to 0.12 ± 0.03 in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53 ± 0.12 mL/min/1.73 m(2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28 ± 0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass.

  18. Public-private partnerships improve health outcomes in individuals with early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, James E; Tolea, Magdalena I; George, Nika; Wingbermuehle, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between the Missouri Department of Health, Area Agencies on Aging (AAA), Alzheimer Association, and academic researchers, we tested whether early dementia detection and comprehensive care consultations would improve health outcomes in care receivers (CRs) and their family caregivers (FCGs), therefore addressing an important public health concern. A total of 244 community-dwelling older adults screened for early-stage dementia by the AAA field staff were referred to the Alzheimer Association and participated in Project Learn MORE (Missouri Outreach and Referral Expanded) (PLM) - a 2-year, nonrandomized multisite intervention consisting of comprehensive care consultations to improve coping skills. PLM participants were compared against 96 controls receiving the Alzheimer Association's "usual services" between January 2011 and December 2012. We examined CR and FCG outcomes, including burden, care confidence, and mood, as effects of PLM, on delaying transitions in level of care. CRs showed improved knowledge (P=0.002) and reduced depression (P=0.007), while FCGs demonstrated improved knowledge (P=0.003) and ability to identify sources of support for the CR (P=0.032) and for themselves (P=0.043). However, FCGs were more burdened after PLM (P=0.02), due to increased awareness of Alzheimer's disease. PLM delayed transitions in care (odds ratio [OR] 3.32, 95% confidence level [CI]: 1.25-8.83) with the number needed to treat =6.82. PLM was successful in improving detection of incident cases of dementia in the community and in connecting patients and their families with needed services. Our findings support the use of state agencies and community service partners to detect dementia. Early implementation of psychosocial interventions could have significant impact in improving patient- and family-centered outcomes, potentially providing a cost-efficient alternative to pharmacotherapy.

  19. Upgrading the definition of early gastric cancer: better staging means more appropriate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoni, Luca

    2015-12-01

    Since Murakami defined early gastric cancer (EGC) as a "carcinoma limited to the gastric mucosa and/or submucosa regardless of the lymph node status", several authors have focused on the most influential histopathological parameters for predicting the development of lymph node metastases by considering the lymph node status as an important prognostic factor. A few authors have also considered the depth of invasion as one of the keys to explaining the existence of subgroups of patients affected by EGC with poor prognoses. In any case, EGC is still considered an initial phase of tumor progression with good prognosis. The introduction of modern endoscopic devices has allowed a precise diagnosis of early lesions, which can lead to improved definitions of tumors that can be radically treated with endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Given the widespread use of these techniques, the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) identified in 2011 the standard criteria that should exclude the presence of lymph node metastases. At that time, EGCs with nodal involvement should have been asserted as no longer fitting the definition of an early tumor. Some authors have also demonstrated that the morphological growth pattern of a tumor, according to Kodama's classification, is one of the most important prognostic factors, thereby suggesting the need to report it in histopathological drafts. Notwithstanding the acquired knowledge regarding the clinical behavior of EGC, Murakami's definition is still being used. This definition needs to be upgraded according to the modern staging of the disease so that the appropriate treatment would be selected.

  20. Eag1 channels as potential early-stage biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez-López MG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available María de Guadalupe Chávez-López,1 Violeta Zúñiga-García,1 Julio Isael Pérez-Carreón,2 Arturo Avalos-Fuentes,3 Yesenia Escobar,4 Javier Camacho1 1Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 2Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, 3Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neuroscience, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 4Centro de Investigación Clínica Acelerada Sc, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. HCC is usually asymptomatic at potential curative stages, and it has very poor prognosis if detected later. Thus, the identification of early biomarkers and novel therapies is essential to improve HCC patient survival. Ion channels have been proposed as potential tumor markers and therapeutic targets for several cancers including HCC. Especially, the ether à-go-go-1 (Eag1 voltage-gated potassium channel has been suggested as an early marker for HCC. Eag1 is overexpressed during HCC development from the cirrhotic and the preneoplastic lesions preceding HCC in a rat model. The channel is also overexpressed in human HCC. Astemizole has gained great interest as a potential anticancer drug because it targets several proteins involved in cancer including Eag1. Actually, in vivo studies have shown that astemizole may have clinical utility for HCC prevention and treatment. Here, we will review first some general aspects of HCC including the current biomarkers and therapies, and then we will focus on Eag1 channels as promising tools in the early diagnosis of HCC. Keywords: ion channels, Eag1, hepatocellular carcinoma, astemizole, diethylnitrosamine

  1. Methylation changes associated with early maturation stages in the Atlantic salmon

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    Pérez-Figueroa Andrés

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early maturation in the Atlantic salmon is an interesting subject for numerous research lines. Prior to sea migration, parr can reach sexual maturation and successfully fertilize adult female eggs during the reproductive season. These individuals are known as precocious parr, mature parr or "sneakers". Reasons for early maturation are unknown and this transitory stage is usually considered to be a threshold trait. Here, we compare methylation patterns between mature and immature salmon parr from two different rivers in order to infer if such methylation differences may be related to their maturation condition. First we analyzed genetic differences between rivers by means of AFLPs. Then, we compared the DNA methylation differences between mature and immature parrs, using a Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP, which is a modification of the AFLPs method by making use of the differential sensitivity of a pair of restriction enzymes isoschizomeres to cytosine methylation. The tissues essayed included brain, liver and gonads. Results AFLPs statistical analysis showed that there was no significant differentiation between rivers or a significant differentiation between maturation states in each river. MSAP statistical analysis showed that among the three tissues sampled, the gonads had the highest number of significant single-locus variation among populations with 74 loci followed by brain with 70 and finally liver with only 12. Principal components analysis (PCA of the MSAP profiles revealed different profiles among different tissues (liver, brain and testis clearly separating maturation states in the testis tissue when compared to the liver. Conclusions Our results reveal that genetically-similar mature and immature salmon parr present high levels of DNA methylation variation in two of the three analyzed tissues. We hypothesize that early maturation may be mostly mediated by epigenetic processes rather than by

  2. Tau-PET Binding Distinguishes Patients With Early-stage Posterior Cortical Atrophy From Amnestic Alzheimer Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Gregory S; Gordon, Brian A; Jackson, Kelley; Christensen, Jon J; Rosana Ponisio, Maria; Su, Yi; Ances, Beau M; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Morris, John C

    2017-01-01

    Flortaucipir (tau) positron emission tomography (PET) binding distinguishes individuals with clinically well-established posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) due to Alzheimer disease (AD) from cognitively normal (CN) controls. However, it is not known whether tau-PET binding patterns differentiate individuals with PCA from those with amnestic AD, particularly early in the symptomatic stages of disease. Flortaucipir and florbetapir (β-amyloid) PET imaging were performed in individuals with early-stage PCA (N=5), amnestic AD dementia (N=22), and CN controls (N=47). Average tau and β-amyloid deposition were quantified using standard uptake value ratios and compared at a voxelwise level, controlling for age. PCA patients [median age-at-onset, 59 (51 to 61) years] were younger at symptom onset than similarly staged individuals with amnestic AD [75 (60 to 85) years] or CN controls [73 (61 to 90) years; P=0.002]. Flortaucipir uptake was higher in individuals with early-stage symptomatic PCA versus those with early-stage amnestic AD or CN controls, and greatest in posterior regions. Regional elevations in florbetapir were observed in areas of greatest tau deposition in PCA patients. Flortaucipir uptake distinguished individuals with PCA and amnestic AD dementia early in the symptomatic course. The posterior brain regions appear to be uniquely vulnerable to tau deposition in PCA, aligning with clinical deficits that define this disease subtype.

  3. Tau PET binding distinguishes patients with early-stage posterior cortical atrophy from amnestic Alzheimer disease dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Gregory S.; Gordon, Brian A.; Jackson, Kelley; Christensen, Jon J.; Ponisio, Maria Rosana; Su, Yi; Ances, Beau M; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Morris, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Flortaucipir (tau) PET binding distinguishes individuals with clinically well-established posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) due to Alzheimer disease (AD) from cognitively normal (CN) controls. However, it is not known whether tau PET binding patterns differentiate individuals with PCA from those with amnestic AD, particularly early in the symptomatic stages of disease. Methods Flortaucipir and florbetapir (β-amyloid) PET-imaging were performed in individuals with early-stage PCA (N=5), amnestic AD dementia (N=22), and CN controls (N=47). Average tau and β-amyloid deposition were quantified using standard uptake value ratios and compared at a voxel-wise level, controlling for age. Results PCA patients (median age-at-onset, 59 [51–61] years) were younger at symptom-onset than similarly-staged individuals with amnestic AD (75 [60–85] years) or CN controls (73 [61–90] years; p=0.002). Flortaucipir uptake was higher in individuals with early-stage symptomatic PCA versus those with early-stage amnestic AD or CN controls, and greatest in posterior regions. Regional elevations in florbetapir were observed in areas of greatest tau deposition in PCA patients. Conclusions and Relevance Flortaucipir uptake distinguished individuals with PCA and amnestic AD dementia early in the symptomatic course. The posterior brain regions appear to be uniquely vulnerable to tau deposition in PCA, aligning with clinical deficits that define this disease subtype. PMID:28394771

  4. Adjuvant high dose rate vaginal cuff brachytherapy for early stage endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannehill, S.P.; Petereit, D.G.; Schink, J.C.; Grosen, E.A.; Hartenbach, E.M.; Thomadsen, B.R.; Buchler, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    outpatient insertions is effective in preventing vaginal cuff recurrences in women with early stage endometrial cancer with essentially no late tissue effects. The advantages of HDR VCB compared to LDR VCB include patient convenience, markedly shorter treatment times (1 hr per insertion) and a reduction in the cost and potential morbidity of hospitalization. This brachytherapy approach is a cost-effective alternative to either low dose rate brachytherapy or no further therapy

  5. Identification and validation of novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for staging early Alzheimer's disease.

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    Richard J Perrin

    Full Text Available Ideally, disease modifying therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD will be applied during the 'preclinical' stage (pathology present with cognition intact before severe neuronal damage occurs, or upon recognizing very mild cognitive impairment. Developing and judiciously administering such therapies will require biomarker panels to identify early AD pathology, classify disease stage, monitor pathological progression, and predict cognitive decline. To discover such biomarkers, we measured AD-associated changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF proteome.CSF samples from individuals with mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 1 (n = 24 and cognitively normal controls (CDR 0 (n = 24 were subjected to two-dimensional difference-in-gel electrophoresis. Within 119 differentially-abundant gel features, mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS identified 47 proteins. For validation, eleven proteins were re-evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Six of these assays (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I, transthyretin, cystatin C distinguished CDR 1 and CDR 0 groups and were subsequently applied (with tau, p-tau181 and Aβ42 ELISAs to a larger independent cohort (n = 292 that included individuals with very mild dementia (CDR 0.5. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses using stepwise logistic regression yielded optimal biomarker combinations to distinguish CDR 0 from CDR>0 (tau, YKL-40, NrCAM and CDR 1 from CDR<1 (tau, chromogranin A, carnosinase I with areas under the curve of 0.90 (0.85-0.94 95% confidence interval [CI] and 0.88 (0.81-0.94 CI, respectively.Four novel CSF biomarkers for AD (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I can improve the diagnostic accuracy of Aβ42 and tau. Together, these six markers describe six clinicopathological stages from cognitive normalcy to mild dementia, including stages defined by increased risk of cognitive decline. Such a panel might improve clinical trial efficiency by guiding

  6. Breast Density Notification Legislation and Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis: Early Evidence from the SEER Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Ilana; Asch, Steven M; Bendavid, Eran; Bhattacharya, Jay; Owens, Douglas K

    2017-06-01

    Twenty-eight states have passed breast density notification laws, which require physicians to inform women of a finding of dense breasts on mammography. To evaluate changes in breast cancer stage at diagnosis after enactment of breast density notification legislation. Using a difference-in-differences analysis, we examined changes in stage at diagnosis among women with breast cancer in Connecticut, the first state to enact legislation, compared to changes among women in control states. We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) registry, 2005-2013. Women ages 40-74 with breast cancer. Breast density notification legislation, enacted in Connecticut in October of 2009. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Our study included 466,930 women, 25,592 of whom lived in Connecticut. Legislation was associated with a 1.38-percentage-point (95 % CI 0.12 to 2.63) increase in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states who had localized invasive cancer at the time of diagnosis, and a 1.12-percentage-point (95 % CI -2.21 to -0.08) decline in the proportion of women with ductal carcinoma in situ at diagnosis. Breast density notification legislation was not associated with a change in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states with regional-stage (-0.09 percentage points, 95 % CI -1.01 to 1.02) or metastatic disease (-0.24, 95 % CI -0.75 to 0.28). County-level analyses and analyses limited to women younger than 50 found no statistically significant associations. Single intervention state, limited follow-up, potential confounding from unobserved trends. Breast density notification legislation in Connecticut was associated with a small increase in the proportion of women diagnosed with localized invasive breast cancer in individual-level but not county-level analyses. Whether this finding reflects potentially beneficial early detection or potentially harmful overdiagnosis is not known. Legislation was not

  7. Breast conservation treatment of early stage breast cancer: patterns of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leborgne, Felix; Leborgne, Jose H; Ortega, Bettys; Doldan, Raquel; Zubizarreta, Eduardo

    1995-02-15

    Purpose: This study retrospectively assesses the patterns of failure in conservatively treated early stage breast cancer patients by correlating various clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors with local, axillary, and distant relapse. Methods and Materials: Between 1973 and 1990, 796 patients (817 breasts) received breast conservation surgery followed by radiotherapy. Local recurrences were counted as events even if they occurred simultaneously or after the appearance of axillary or distant metastases. Results: The 10-year actuarial relative disease-free survival (DFS) rate for T1N0, T2N0, and T1-2N1 was 82%, 71%, and 54%, respectively. Stage N0 patients had a significant DFS advantage over N1 patients (p = 0.02). The 15-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for T1 and T2 tumors was 82% and 87%, respectively (p = nonsignificant). Univariate analysis identified three significant risk factors for local relapse: (a) 48 breasts with tumors showing an extensive intraductal component had a crude local recurrence rate of 23% compared to 8% for 769 breasts without intraductal component (p 0.0016); (b) the actuarial 10-year local recurrence-free rate for patients under age 40 years was 64% compared to 88% for patients over 40 years (p < 0.0001); (c) the 10-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for 416 postmenopausal women without adjuvant tamoxifen was 83% compared to 97% for 107 postmenopausal women with tamoxifen (p = 0.0479). Salvage therapy for operable local recurrent patients resulted in a 8-year actuarial DFS rate of 47%, significantly lower than that obtained with primary treatment. The incidence of axillary relapse as the first sign of recurrence was 2%, and could be correlated with the lack of axillary dissection (p < 0.0000005) and primary tumor size (p = 0.03). Radiotherapy to the axilla did not influence axillary relapse. Actuarial 5-year DFS rate after treatment of isolated axillary recurrence was 27%. Axillary failure was a marker for

  8. Breast conservation treatment of early stage breast cancer: patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leborgne, Felix; Leborgne, Jose H.; Ortega, Bettys; Doldan, Raquel; Zubizarreta, Eduardo

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This study retrospectively assesses the patterns of failure in conservatively treated early stage breast cancer patients by correlating various clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors with local, axillary, and distant relapse. Methods and Materials: Between 1973 and 1990, 796 patients (817 breasts) received breast conservation surgery followed by radiotherapy. Local recurrences were counted as events even if they occurred simultaneously or after the appearance of axillary or distant metastases. Results: The 10-year actuarial relative disease-free survival (DFS) rate for T1N0, T2N0, and T1-2N1 was 82%, 71%, and 54%, respectively. Stage N0 patients had a significant DFS advantage over N1 patients (p = 0.02). The 15-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for T1 and T2 tumors was 82% and 87%, respectively (p = nonsignificant). Univariate analysis identified three significant risk factors for local relapse: (a) 48 breasts with tumors showing an extensive intraductal component had a crude local recurrence rate of 23% compared to 8% for 769 breasts without intraductal component (p 0.0016); (b) the actuarial 10-year local recurrence-free rate for patients under age 40 years was 64% compared to 88% for patients over 40 years (p < 0.0001); (c) the 10-year actuarial local recurrence-free rate for 416 postmenopausal women without adjuvant tamoxifen was 83% compared to 97% for 107 postmenopausal women with tamoxifen (p = 0.0479). Salvage therapy for operable local recurrent patients resulted in a 8-year actuarial DFS rate of 47%, significantly lower than that obtained with primary treatment. The incidence of axillary relapse as the first sign of recurrence was 2%, and could be correlated with the lack of axillary dissection (p < 0.0000005) and primary tumor size (p = 0.03). Radiotherapy to the axilla did not influence axillary relapse. Actuarial 5-year DFS rate after treatment of isolated axillary recurrence was 27%. Axillary failure was a marker for

  9. Different effects of ERβ and TROP2 expression in Chinese patients with early-stage colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ji-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Pei-Rong; Ou, Qing-Jian; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Jiang, Wu; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and TROP2 expressed in colon carcinoma and might play an important role there. We explored the relationship of ERβ and TROP2 expression with the prognosis of early-stage colon cancer. ERβ and TROP2 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa and tumoral tissues from 220 Chinese patients with T(3)N(0)M(0) (stage IIa) and T(4)N(0)M(0) (stage IIb) colon cancer in the Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, who underwent curative surgical resection between 1995 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) data, and the ROC curve, Kaplan-Meier estimate, log rank test, and Jackknife method were used to show the effect of ERβ and TROP2 expression at different stages of cancer. The 5-year survival rates were not significantly different between the patients with stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer (83 vs. 80 %, respectively). The high expression of ERβ was related to decreasing OS in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, while the high expression of TROP2 was related to decreasing OS in stage IIb colon cancer. The expression of ERβ and TROP2 has tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effect in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, respectively.

  10. No Value for Routine Chest Radiography in the Work-Up of Early Stage Cervical Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendam, Jacob P.; Zweemer, Ronald P.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; de Jong, Pim A.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; Verheijen, René H. M.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Evidence supporting the recommendation to include chest radiography in the work-up of all cervical cancer patients is limited. We investigated the diagnostic value of routine chest radiography in cervical cancer staging. Methods All consecutive cervical cancer patients who presented at our tertiary referral center in the Netherlands (January 2006 – September 2013), and for whom ≥6 months follow-up was available, were included. As part of the staging procedure, patients underwent a routine two-directional digital chest radiograph. Findings were compared to a composite reference standard consisting of all imaging studies and histology obtained during the 6 months following radiography. Results Of the 402 women who presented with cervical cancer, 288 (71.6%) underwent chest radiography and had ≥6 months follow-up. Early clinical stage (I/II) cervical cancer was present in 244/288 (84.7%) women, while 44 (15.3%) presented with advanced disease (stage III/IV). The chest radiograph of 1 woman – with advanced pre-radiograph stage (IVA) disease – showed findings consistent with pulmonary metastases. Radiographs of 7 other women – 4 early, 3 advanced stage disease – were suspicious for pulmonary metastases which was confirmed by additional imaging in only 1 woman (with pre-radiograph advanced stage (IIIB) disease) and excluded in 6 cases, including all women with early stage disease. In none of the 288 women were thoracic skeletal metastases identified on imaging or during 6 months follow up. Radiography was unremarkable in 76.4% of the study population, and showed findings unrelated to the cervical carcinoma in 21.2%. Conclusion Routine chest radiography was of no value for any of the early stage cervical cancer patients presenting at our tertiary center over a period of 7.7 years. PMID:26135733

  11. Growth of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbery, Peter E

    2011-08-16

    The fungus Candida albicans is often a benign member of the mucosal flora; however, it commonly causes mucosal disease with substantial morbidity and in vulnerable patients it causes life-threatening bloodstream infections. A striking feature of its biology is its ability to grow in yeast, pseudohyphal and hyphal forms. The hyphal form has an important role in causing disease by invading epithelial cells and causing tissue damage. This Review describes our current understanding of the network of signal transduction pathways that monitors environmental cues to activate a programme of hypha-specific gene transcription, and the molecular processes that drive the highly polarized growth of hyphae.

  12. Antibiofilm and Antihyphal Activities of Cedar Leaf Essential Oil, Camphor, and Fenchone Derivatives against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans can form biofilms composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal elements, and C. albicans cells in the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. The present study describes the chemical composition, antibiofilm, and antihyphal activities of cedar leaf essential oil (CLEO, which was found to possess remarkable antibiofilm activity against C. albicans but not to affect its planktonic cell growth. Nineteen components were identified in CLEO by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and phenolics were the main constituents. Of these, camphor, fenchone, fenchyl alcohol, α-thujone, and borneol significantly reduced C. albicans biofilm formation. Notably, treatments with CLEO, camphor, or fenchyl alcohol at 0.01% clearly inhibited hyphal formation, and this inhibition appeared to be largely responsible for their antibiofilm effects. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that camphor and fenchyl alcohol downregulated some hypha-specific and biofilm related genes (ECE1, ECE2, RBT1, and EED1. Furthermore, camphor and fenchyl alcohol reduced C. albicans virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model. These results demonstrate CLEO, camphor, and fenchyl alcohol might be useful for controlling C. albicans infections.

  13. Prognosis after local recurrence after conservative surgery and radiation for early-stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galper, Sharon; Blood, Emily; Gelman, Rebecca; Abner, Anthony; Recht, Abram; Kohli, Anita; Wong, Julia S.; Smith, Darrell; Bellon, Jennifer; Connolly, James; Schnitt, Stuart; Winer, Eric; Silver, Barbara B.A.; Harris, Jay R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term prognosis of patients who develop a local recurrence (LR) after conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT) for early-stage invasive breast cancer. Methods and materials: Between 1970 and 1987, 2102 patients with clinical Stage I-II breast cancer were treated with CS+RT. LR was defined as any recurrence within the ipsilateral breast with or without simultaneous regional nodal or distant metastasis. Patients were at risk for a LR until the first of distant metastases, second nonbreast malignancy, or death (DF/S/D). The final study population comprised 341 patients with LR. The median time to LR was 72 months. The median follow-up time after LR was 85 months. A proportional hazards model of time from LR to DF/S/D was done to investigate the influence of factors at initial diagnosis and at LR on subsequent outcome. Results: The actuarial freedom from DF/S/D 5 years after LR was 65% and the survival was 81%. Variables significantly associated with time to DF/S/D were: LR histology (invasive vs. ductal carcinoma in situ, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.1, p 5 years, HR = 2.6, p 5 years, HR = 1.8, p = 0.006); and age at initial diagnosis (≥60 vs. < 60, HR = 1.6, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Many patients with LR after CS+RT have prolonged distant disease-free survival, particularly those able to be treated with mastectomy. Patients with a noninvasive LR, longer interval to LR, or age <60 had a longer time to distant failure, second malignancy, or death than other patients

  14. Evidence from neglect dyslexia for morphological decomposition at the early stages of orthographic-visual analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, Julia; Friedmann, Naama

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether and how the morphological structure of written words affects reading in word-based neglect dyslexia (neglexia), and what can be learned about morphological decomposition in reading from the effect of morphology on neglexia. The oral reading of 7 Hebrew-speaking participants with acquired neglexia at the word level—6 with left neglexia and 1 with right neglexia—was evaluated. The main finding was that the morphological role of the letters on the neglected side of the word affected neglect errors: When an affix appeared on the neglected side, it was neglected significantly more often than when the neglected side was part of the root; root letters on the neglected side were never omitted, whereas affixes were. Perceptual effects of length and final letter form were found for words with an affix on the neglected side, but not for words in which a root letter appeared in the neglected side. Semantic and lexical factors did not affect the participants' reading and error pattern, and neglect errors did not preserve the morpho-lexical characteristics of the target words. These findings indicate that an early morphological decomposition of words to their root and affixes occurs before access to the lexicon and to semantics, at the orthographic-visual analysis stage, and that the effects did not result from lexical feedback. The same effects of morphological structure on reading were manifested by the participants with left- and right-sided neglexia. Since neglexia is a deficit at the orthograph