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Sample records for albicans early stage

  1. Probiotic lactobacilli inhibit early stages of Candida albicans biofilm development by reducing their growth, cell adhesion, and filamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor Haruo; Wang, Yi; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus species on different phases of Candida albicans biofilm development. Quantification of biofilm growth and ultrastructural analyses were performed on C. albicans biofilms treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus planktonic cell suspensions as well as their supernatants. Planktonic lactobacilli induced a significant reduction (p  0.05), but significantly reduced the early stages of Candida biofilm formation (p < 0.01). Microscopic analyses revealed that L. rhamnosus suspensions reduced Candida hyphal differentiation, leading to a predominance of budding growth. All lactobacilli negatively impacted C. albicans yeast-to-hyphae differentiation and biofilm formation. The inhibitory effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus on C. albicans entailed both cell-cell interactions and secretion of exometabolites that may impact on pathogenic attributes associated with C. albicans colonization on host surfaces and yeast filamentation. This study clarifies, for the first time, the mechanics of how Lactobacillus species may antagonize C. albicans host colonization. Our data elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms that define the probiotic candicidal activity of lactobacilli, thus supporting their utility as an adjunctive therapeutic mode against mucosal candidal infections. PMID:27087525

  2. Probiotic lactobacilli inhibit early stages of Candida albicans biofilm development by reducing their growth, cell adhesion, and filamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor Haruo; Wang, Yi; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus species on different phases of Candida albicans biofilm development. Quantification of biofilm growth and ultrastructural analyses were performed on C. albicans biofilms treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus planktonic cell suspensions as well as their supernatants. Planktonic lactobacilli induced a significant reduction (p  0.05), but significantly reduced the early stages of Candida biofilm formation (p lactobacilli negatively impacted C. albicans yeast-to-hyphae differentiation and biofilm formation. The inhibitory effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus on C. albicans entailed both cell-cell interactions and secretion of exometabolites that may impact on pathogenic attributes associated with C. albicans colonization on host surfaces and yeast filamentation. This study clarifies, for the first time, the mechanics of how Lactobacillus species may antagonize C. albicans host colonization. Our data elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms that define the probiotic candicidal activity of lactobacilli, thus supporting their utility as an adjunctive therapeutic mode against mucosal candidal infections.

  3. Intestinal Cell Tight Junctions Limit Invasion of Candida albicans through Active Penetration and Endocytosis in the Early Stages of the Interaction of the Fungus with the Intestinal Barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Goyer

    Full Text Available C. albicans is a commensal yeast of the mucous membranes in healthy humans that can also cause disseminated candidiasis, mainly originating from the digestive tract, in vulnerable patients. It is necessary to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interaction of C. albicans with enterocytes to better understand the basis of commensalism and pathogenicity of the yeast and to improve the management of disseminated candidiasis. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of tight junction (TJ formation in parallel with the invasion of C. albicans into the Caco-2 intestinal cell line. Using invasiveness assays on Caco-2 cells displaying pharmacologically altered TJ (i.e. differentiated epithelial cells treated with EGTA or patulin, we were able to demonstrate that TJ protect enterocytes against invasion of C. albicans. Moreover, treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of endocytosis decreased invasion of the fungus into Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ, suggesting that facilitating access of the yeast to the basolateral side of intestinal cells promotes endocytosis of C. albicans in its hyphal form. These data were supported by SEM observations of differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ, which highlighted membrane protrusions engulfing C. albicans hyphae. We furthermore demonstrated that Als3, a hypha-specific C. albicans invasin, facilitates internalization of the fungus by active penetration and induced endocytosis by differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ. However, our observations failed to demonstrate binding of Als3 to E-cadherin as the trigger mechanism of endocytosis of C. albicans into differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ.

  4. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Diagnosis Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Find your local Chapter Zip code: Search by state Get Weekly E-News Stay up-to-date on Alzheimer's treatments and care. First ...

  5. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R.; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Methods Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4 Results A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman’s correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (pcaries severity (pcaries-free children). Among 18 child-mother pairs, >60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child-mother pairs demonstrated similar susceptibility to

  6. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  7. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  8. Early stages of Ostwald ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2013-07-01

    The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

  9. Role of Candida albicans-Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases (Saps in Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is strongly associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC. However, the roles of secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps, an important virulence factor of C. albicans, in the progress of S-ECC are not clear. In our study, the Saps activities were evaluated by the yeast nitrogen base–bovine serum albumi (YNB–BSA agar plate method and by the MTT method with bovine serum albumin (BSA as the substrate. Genotypes of C. albicans and gene expression of Sap1–5 were evaluated. The relationships of Saps activities and genotypes with S-ECC were analyzed. The results showed that enzyme activities of Saps in the S-ECC group were significantly higher than those in the caries free (CF group (p < 0.05. Genotypes A, B and C were detected in the S-ECC group, and genotypes A and C were detected in the CF group. In the genotype A group, Saps activity in the S-ECC group was significantly different from that in the CF group (p < 0.05. The gene expression level of Sap1 in the S-ECC group was significantly higher than that in the CF group (p = 0.001, while Sap4 expression was significantly lower than that in the CF group (p = 0.029. It can be concluded that Sap1–5 are the predominant proteinase genes expressed in C. albicans from dental biofilm and Sap1 may play an important role in the development of S-ECC.

  10. Dislocation generation during early stage sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J. E.; Lenel, F. V.; Ansell, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of capillarity-induced stresses on dislocations during early stage sintering. A special version of Hirth's (1963) theoretical calculation procedures modified to describe dislocation nucleation on planes meeting the sintering body's neck surface obliquely is shown to predict plastic flow at stress levels know to exist between micron size metal particles in the early stages of sintering.

  11. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions.

  12. Distinct stages during colonization of the mouse gastrointestinal tract by Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePrieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a member of the human microbiota, colonizing both the vaginal and gastrointestinal tracts. This yeast is devoid of a life style outside the human body and the mechanisms underlying the adaptation to the commensal status remain to be determined. Using a model of mouse gastrointestinal colonization, we show here that C. albicans stably colonizes the mouse gut in about 3 days starting from a dose as low as 100 cells, reaching steady levels of around 107 cells/g of stools. Using fluorescent labeled strains we have assessed the competition between isogenic populations from different sources in cohoused animals. We show that long term (15 days colonizing cells have increased fitness in the gut niche over those grown in vitro or residing in the gut for 1-3 days. Therefore, two distinct states, proliferation and adaptation, seem to exist in the adaptation of this fungus to the mouse gut, a result with potential significance in the prophylaxis and treatment of Candida infections.

  13. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Carde, P; Mauch, P;

    1992-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a glob...

  14. Radiotherapy versus combined modality in early stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.;

    1992-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment for the individual patient is still an unresolved issue. So far, twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out worldwide. The preliminary results of a global...... be reduced, and that the stress of experiencing a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against the use of chemotherapy up front is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may...

  15. [Treatment of early stage Hodgkin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Carde, P.; Mauch, P.;

    1993-01-01

    In early stage Hodgkin's disease the optimal choice of treatment is still an unresolved issue. Twenty-two randomized trials of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy have been carried out world-wide. The preliminary results of a global meta-analysis of these trials...... a relapse is avoided in many patients. The major argument against early chemotherapy is: that by careful staging and selection of patients and by careful radiotherapy techniques the number of patients exposed to potentially toxic chemotherapy may be kept at a minimum. Recently, trials have been carried out...... testing chemotherapy alone, results are, however, conflicting. In order not to jeopardize the good results achieved with the standard treatments developed over the last three decades, newer treatment approaches should be carefully tested in large randomized trials before being implemented for general...

  16. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Factors associated with the risk of suicide in the early phase of schizophrenia are previous suicidal attempts and social aspects: the lack of social support and stable relationships, social drift after the first episode, and social impairment. Also, several psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, paranoid delusions, mental disintegration and agitation, negative symptoms, depression and hopelessness, and command hallucinations) and substance abuse are associated with higher risk of suicide. It has been described that perfectionism and good levels of insight among individuals who have recently developed psychotic symptoms are significantly associated with higher numbers of suicidal attempts. Moreover, recent evidences show that prefrontal cortex-based circuit dysfunction may be related to suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia. This narrative review summarizes available evidences on suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia and deals with issues to be further studied and discussed. PMID:27445872

  17. Local excision carcinoma in early stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Dong Gao; Yong-Fu Shao; Jian-Jun Bi; Su-Sheng Shi; Jun Liang; Yu-Hua Hu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the validity of local excision for the early stage low rectal cancer as an effective treatment alternative to radical resection.METHODS: A retrospective medical chart review was done in 47 patients with early stage low rectal carcinoma who underwent local excision from November 1980 through November 1999 at Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS). The patients were treated by either transanal (40 cases), trans-sacral (5 cases), or trans-vaginal (2 cases) excision of tumors and no death was related to surgery. Sixteen patients received postoperative radiotherapy.RESULTS: T1 and T2 lesion was found in 36 (76.6 %) and 11 patients (23.4 %) respectively. The overall local tumor recurrence rate was 14.9 % (7/47), with an average recurrence time of 21 months. Among these 7 recurrent patients, there were 4 T1 and 3 T2 lesions. Microscopically,the surgical incisal margin was negative in 45 (95.7 %) and positive in 2 patients (4.3 %); Both of the later had developed local recurrence. The overall 5-year survival rate was 91.7 %,in which there were 94.4 % for T1 and 83.3 % for T2 tumors.T stage, intravessel tumor thrombosis, lymphocytic infiltration and histological grade were not found to be significant by related to the local recurrence and survival (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Local tumor excision was a safe procedure for the treatment of early stage low rectal carcinoma with minimal morbidity and mortality, which might serves as one of the primary surgical treatment methods for the disease of this kind.

  18. Early Stage of Pulsed Discharge in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢新培; 潘垣; 刘克富; 刘明海; 张寒虹

    2001-01-01

    The bubble radius at the early stage of discharge in water is investigated using high-speed photography. Some simulation results on the bubble radius are presented, which are in agreement with the experimental results, with a maximum difference of about 10%. The reasons why the peak pressure of the first shock wave is only related to the energy released in the bubble during the first half period are addressed. The energy released in the bubble after the first half period increases the bubble pulsation period, but it produces no more than 10% under the peak pressure of the second shock wave.

  19. Divergence and convergence in early embryonic stages of metazoans

    OpenAIRE

    Galis, Frietson; Sinervo, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The early stages of organogenesis in metazoans differ drastically between higher order taxa such as phyla and classes. The segmented germ band stage in insects, the nauplius stage of crustaceans, and the neurula/pharyngula stage in vertebrates are examples of this diversification. In striking contrast with this divergence, is the similarity of these stages within these taxa, i.e., within insects, crustaceans, and vertebrates. The early stages of organogenesis, or phylotypic stages, have, thus...

  20. Divergence and convergence in early embryonic stages of metazoans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galis, Frietson; Sinervo, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The early stages of organogenesis in metazoans differ drastically between higher order taxa such as phyla and classes. The segmented germ band stage in insects, the nauplius stage of crustaceans, and the neurula/pharyngula stage in vertebrates are examples of this diversification. In striking contra

  1. Preoperative PET/CT in early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M; Berthelsen, A K; Wielenga, V T;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer.......The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of preoperative positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in the initial staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer....

  2. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong

    2015-05-01

    Interpretation: Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC.

  3. Pancreatic Perfusion CT in Early Stage of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihisa Tsuji; Naoki Takahashi; Chiba Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Early intensive care for severe acute pancreatitis is essential for improving SAP mortality rates. However, intensive therapies for SAP are often delayed because there is no ideal way to accurately evaluate severity in the early stages. Currently, perfusion CT has been shown useful to predict prognosis of SAP in the early stage. In this presented paper, we would like to review the clinical usefulness and limitations of perfusion CT for evaluation of local and systemic complications in early s...

  4. Pancreatic Perfusion CT in Early Stage of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Tsuji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early intensive care for severe acute pancreatitis is essential for improving SAP mortality rates. However, intensive therapies for SAP are often delayed because there is no ideal way to accurately evaluate severity in the early stages. Currently, perfusion CT has been shown useful to predict prognosis of SAP in the early stage. In this presented paper, we would like to review the clinical usefulness and limitations of perfusion CT for evaluation of local and systemic complications in early stage of SAP.

  5. Suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Ventriglio; Alessandro Gentile; Iris Bonfitto; Eleonora Stella; Massimo Mari; Luca Steardo; Antonello Bellomo

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first-episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjec...

  6. Genomic aberrations relate early and advanced stage ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zaal; W.J. Peyrot (Wouter ); P.M.J.J. Berns (Els); M.E.L. van der Burg (Maria); J.H.W. Veerbeek (Jan ); J.B. Trimbos; I. Cadron (Isabelle); P.J. van Diest (Paul); W.N. Wieringen (Wessel); O. Krijgsman (Oscar); G.A. Meijer (Gerrit); J.M.J. Piek (Jurgen ); P.J. Timmers (Petra); I. Vergote (Ignace); R.H.M. Verheijen (René); B. Ylstra (Bauke); R.P. Zweemer (Ronald )

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground Because of the distinct clinical presentation of early and advanced stage ovarian cancer, we aim to clarify whether these disease entities are solely separated by time of diagnosis or whether they arise from distinct molecular events. Methods Sixteen early and sixteen advanced

  7. Diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of early stage breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the diagnostic work up and minimally invasive surgical treatment of early stage breast carcinoma is studied. Although the surgical treatment of breast carcinoma has improved significantly over the past decades, there is still room for improvement. On the one hand the focus is on early

  8. Early stage design and analysis of biorefinery networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Recent work regarding biorefineries resulted in many competing concepts and technologies for conversion of renewable bio-based feedstock into many promising products including fuels, chemicals, materials, etc. The design of a biorefinery process requires, at its earlier stages, the selection...... of the process configuration which exhibits the best performances, for a given set of economical, technical and environmental criteria. To this end, we formulate a computer-aided framework as an enabling technology for early stage design and analysis of biorefineries. The tool represents different raw materials......, different products and different available technologies and proposes a conceptual (early stage) biorefinery network. This network can then be the basis for further detailed and rigorous model-based studies. In this talk, we demonstrate the application of the tool for generating an early stage optimal...

  9. Cognitive restructuring as an early stage in problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.; McMillen, Theresa L. B.

    This article examines the hypothesis that there are preliminary stages in problem solving which most chemists neglect when trying to teach their students how to solve problems in introductory chemistry courses. It is during these early stages that relevant information is disembedded from the question and the problem is restructured. Unless students can successfully complete these cognitive restructuring stages, they cannot proceed on to the more analytic stages in problem solving that have received more attention from chemists.Preliminary evidence for this hypothesis consists of linear correlations between student ability to handle disembedding and cognitive restructuring tasks in the spatial domain and their ability to solve chemistry problems.

  10. Functioning in early and late stages of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gazzi Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is frequently associated with a debilitating course and prominent impairment in social and occupational functioning. Although the criteria for classification into stages have not been defined in the literature, illness duration and functioning seem to be good candidates.OBJECTIVE:To compare functioning of patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the disease (early vs. late and healthy sex- and age-matched controls.METHODS: This double-blinded, case-controlled study included 79 individuals: 23 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed up to 5 years earlier; 19 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed at least 20 years earlier; and healthy matched controls. Diagnoses were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I Disorder. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST.RESULTS: Patients in the early stage had significantly higher scores than healthy controls in total FAST and in autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning and interpersonal relationships. Individuals in the late stage had significantly poorer functioning than controls in all domains. The comparison of functioning between the two groups of patients revealed no significant differences, except in occupational functioning, in which late stage patients had a poorer performance.CONCLUSION: Functioning impairment in schizophrenia tends to remain stable despite illness duration. Therefore, functioning should be effectively assessed at an early stage, as illness duration alone may not be the most reliable criterion to stage patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Prognostic factors in early-stage leiomyosarcoma of the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelmus, Manuela; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Guillou, Louis; Collin, Françoise; Bertrand, Gérard; Trassard, Martine; Leroux, Agnès; Floquet, Anne; Stoeckle, Eberhard; Thomas, Laurence; MacGrogan, Gaëtan

    2009-04-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are rare cancers representing less than 1% of all uterine malignancies. Clinical International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage is the most important prognostic factor. Other significant prognostic factors, especially for early stages, are difficult to establish because most of the published studies have included localized and extra-pelvian sarcomas. The aim of our study was to search for significant prognostic factors in clinical stage I and II uterine LMS. The pathologic features of 108 uterine LMS including 72 stage I and II lesions were reviewed using standardized criteria. The prognostic significance of different pathologic features was assessed. The median follow-up in the whole group was 64 months (range, 6-223 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and metastasis-free interval and local relapse-free interval rates in the whole group and early-stage group (FIGO stages I and II) were 40% and 57%, 42% and 50%, 56% and 62%, respectively. Clinical FIGO stage was the most important prognostic factor for OS in the whole group (P = 4 x 10). In the stage I and II group, macroscopic circumscription was the most significant factor predicting OS (P = 0.001). In the same group, mitotic score and vascular invasion were associated with metastasis-free interval (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Uterine LMSs diagnosed using standardized criteria have a poor prognosis, and clinical FIGO stage is an ominous prognostic factor. In early-stage LMS, pathologic features such as mitotic score, vascular invasion, and tumor circumscription significantly impact patient outcome. PMID:19407564

  12. Early Stage Software Reliability Estimation with Stochastic Reward Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; LIU Hong-wei; CUI Gang; YANG Xiao-zong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents software reliability modeling issues at the early stage of a software development for fault tolerant software management system. Based on Stochastic Reward Nets, an effective model of hierarchical view for a fault tolerant software management system is put forward, and an approach that consists of system transient performance analysis is adopted. A quantitative approach for software reliability analysis is given. The results show its usefulness for the design and evaluation of the early-stage software reliability modeling when failure data is not available.

  13. Geterogenety walls of heart on stages of early human cardiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored dynamics of structural-functional transformations of tissue and cellular components of walls of heart during the early embryology development of man. We took the hearts served by material 10 embryos of man 6-10 weeks of prenatal development, which fixed by the liquid Buen as a research material and made cuts on the generally accepted methods. The research showed, that forming of walls of early embryonic heart has already had definite geteromorphology on the most early stages of cardiogenesis. Exposed some stages of forming of walls of heart: formation of the three-layered wall of early tubular heart; delyamination of myocardium of cardiac wall of ventricles; perforation of delyamination plate of ventricles and formation of the myocardial thrusting out in the road clearance of heart in ventricules that is formation of trabeculas; union of basal parts of trabecul; forming of the multilevel spiral system of myocardium.

  14. In Vitro Study on the Adhesion and Colonization of Candida Albicans on Metal and Acrylic Piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenov N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral/perioral piercing may provide an ideal environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to perform an “in vitro” research on the capabilities of adhesion of Candida albicans on oral piercings made of plastic and metal. Acrylic and metal piercings were incubated with Candida albicans and then were observed using scanning electron microscopy under different magnifications. A lot of irregularities and roughness were observed on the surface of the plastic piercing unlike the surface of the metal one, which is not so rough. Nevertheless, the number of Candida albicans colonies was considerably larger on the scanned metal surface in comparison to the plastic surface. In vitro the metal surface of the piercing creates better environment for the adhesion and colonization of microorganisms than the acrylic. This could be attributed to the electrostatic forces that most likely attract Candida albicans to the metal piercing in the early stages of biofilm formation.

  15. O-mannosylation in Candida albicans enables development of interkingdom biofilm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Lindsay C; Nobbs, Angela H; Jepson, Katy; Jepson, Mark A; Vickerman, M Margaret; Aqeel Alawfi, Sami; Munro, Carol A; Lamont, Richard J; Jenkinson, Howard F

    2014-04-15

    Candida albicans is a fungus that colonizes oral cavity surfaces, the gut, and the genital tract. Streptococcus gordonii is a ubiquitous oral bacterium that has been shown to form biofilm communities with C. albicans. Formation of dual-species S. gordonii-C. albicans biofilm communities involves interaction of the S. gordonii SspB protein with the Als3 protein on the hyphal filament surface of C. albicans. Mannoproteins comprise a major component of the C. albicans cell wall, and in this study we sought to determine if mannosylation in cell wall biogenesis of C. albicans was necessary for hyphal adhesin functions associated with interkingdom biofilm development. A C. albicans mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant, with deleted α-1,2-mannosyltransferase genes and thus defective in O-mannosylation, was abrogated in biofilm formation under various growth conditions and produced hyphal filaments that were not recognized by S. gordonii. Cell wall proteomes of hypha-forming mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant cells showed growth medium-dependent alterations, compared to findings for the wild type, in a range of protein components, including Als1, Als3, Rbt1, Scw1, and Sap9. Hyphal filaments formed by mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant cells, unlike wild-type hyphae, did not interact with C. albicans Als3 or Hwp1 partner cell wall proteins or with S. gordonii SspB partner adhesin, suggesting defective functionality of adhesins on the mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant. These observations imply that early stage O-mannosylation is critical for activation of hyphal adhesin functions required for biofilm formation, recognition by bacteria such as S. gordonii, and microbial community development. IMPORTANCE In the human mouth, microorganisms form communities known as biofilms that adhere to the surfaces present. Candida albicans is a fungus that is often found within these biofilms. We have focused on the mechanisms by which C. albicans becomes incorporated into communities containing bacteria, such as Streptococcus. We find that

  16. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  17. Early-Stage Design and Analysis of Biorefinery Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Quaglia, Alberto; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina;

    2015-01-01

    A systematic framework with a superstructure-based optimization approach was presented for the early-stage design and analysis of biorefinery alternatives. This chapter presents a generic process modeling approach together with data collection and management for the multidisciplinary and multidim...

  18. Radiation Plus Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not

  19. Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Coconut Oil, Probiotics, and Ketoconazole on Candida albicans Isolated in Children with Early Childhood Caries: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shino, Beena; Peedikayil, Faizal C; Jaiprakash, Shyamala R; Ahmed Bijapur, Gufran; Kottayi, Soni; Jose, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is associated with early colonisation and high levels of cariogenic microorganisms. With C. albicans being one of those, there is a need to determine the effectiveness of various chemotherapeutic agents against it. The study is aimed at isolating Candida species in children with ECC and at studying the antifungal effect of coconut oil, probiotics, Lactobacillus, and 0.2% chlorhexidine on C. albicans in comparison with ketoconazole. Materials and Methods. Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs, swabbed on the tooth surfaces from children with ECC of 3 to 6 yrs and streaked on Sabouraud dextrose agar (HI Media) plates and incubated in a 5% CO2 enriched atmosphere at 37°C for 24 hours. Candida was isolated and its susceptibility to probiotics, chlorhexidine, ketoconazole, and coconut oil was determined using Disc Diffusion method. Results. The mean zone of inhibition for chlorhexidine was 21.8 mm, whereas for coconut oil it was 16.8 mm, for probiotics it was 13.5 mm, and for ketoconazole it was 22.3 mm. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant (Chi-square value 7.42, P value 0.06). Conclusion. Chlorhexidine and coconut oil have shown significant antifungal activity which is comparable with ketoconazole.

  20. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.I. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark). Dept. of Ecotoxicology; Kristensen, P. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. for Cleaner Technology

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to those for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.

  1. Hodgkin's disease - Part I: Epidemiology, pathology, staging, and management of early stage disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of the refresher course on Hodgkin's disease (HD) will: 1. Update the epidemiology, review the theories regarding the etiology and discuss new development in the histologic classification of HD. 2. Review the modifications of staging system and discuss the role of staging laparotomy and the implications of modern imaging information. 3. Review the alternatives for treatment of early-stage HD and results of recent clinical trials. 4. Review principles and techniques of radiation therapy that are relevant to the management of HD

  2. CT perfusion at early stage of hepatic diffuse disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Guan; Wei-Dong Zhao; Kang-Rong Zhou; Wei-Jun Peng; Jian Mao; Feng Tang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the validity of the non-invasive method of CT perfusion (CTP) in rat model of hepatic diffuse disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Liver diffuse lesions were induced by dietthylnitrosamine in 14 rats of test group. Rats in control groupwere bred with pure water. From the 1st to 12th wk after the test group was intervened, both groups were studied every week with CTP. CTP parameters of liver parenchymain different periods and pathologic changes in two groups were compared and analyzed.RESULTS: The process of hepatic diffuse lesions in test groups was dassified into three stages or periods according to the pathologic alterations, namely hepattitis, hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis. During this period, hepatic artery flow (HAF)of control group declined slightly, mean transit time (MTT),blood flow (BF) and volume (BV) increased, but there wereno significant differences between different periods. Tntest group, HAF tended to increase gradually, MTT prolonged obviously, BV and BF decreased at the same time. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the difference in the HAF ratio of test group to control group was significant.The ratio of BV and BF in test group to control group in stageof hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of hepatic cirrhosis was significantly different, but there was no significant difference between hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. The main pathological changes in stage of hepatitis were swelling of hepatic cells, while sinusoid capillarization and deposition of collagen aggravated gradually in the extravascular Disse's spaces in stage of fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis.CONCLUSION: The technique could reflect some early changes of hepatic blood perfusion in rat with liver diffuse disease and is valuable for their early diagnosis.

  3. Early morbidity after simultaneous and staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to investigate the early morbidity after bilateral simultaneous and staged total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to clarify potential benefits of a well-established fast-track regime. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was searched for all...... with 14 % (CI 11.5-20.1) after bilateral staged TKA within 7-18 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this nationwide study indicate that bilateral simultaneous TKA can safely be performed in a fast-track set-up....

  4. Surgical Treatment of Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Sara Y; Ulrich, Uwe A

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of cervical cancer has been a cornerstone in the management of this malignancy for more than 100 years. Today, for early-stage and low-risk cervical cancer, surgery is still considered the gold standard. If the preoperative assessment of the tumor reveals a situation prompting postoperative adjuvant radiochemotherapy, the latter should be planned as the primary treatment option, being preceded by staging laparoscopy including pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection. As an alternative to the open approach, the definitive surgical treatment should be either performed laparoscopically, or be laparoscopic-assisted, or laparoscopically robotic-assisted. PMID:27614875

  5. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu; Long, Jiang; Li, Hai; Chen, Shuhong; Liu, Qiqi; Zhang, Bei; He, Xiaomin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Chenzhen; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minli; Li, Qing; Cao, Bangwei; Bai, Zhigang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Zhongtao; Zhu, Shengtao; Zheng, Jiasheng; Ou, Xiaojuan; Ma, Hong; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong; Wang, Shengqi; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide and early diagnosis of HCC is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. Methods Serum was screened first by immunoproteomic analysis for HCC-related tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Selected TAAs were clinically evaluated retrospectively in patients with HCC, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and healthy controls. Levels of autoantibody to the selected TAAs were measured by protein microarrays containing protein antigens of the candidate TAAs. Analyses were done by using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to calculate diagnostic accuracy. Findings Twenty-two candidate TAAs were assessed by protein microarray analysis in 914 participants with serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) available. Twelve candidate TAAs were statistically different in signal intensity between HCC and controls. Among them, CENPF, HSP60 and IMP-2 showed AUC (area under the curve) values of 0.826, 0.764 and 0.796 respectively for early HCC. The highest prevalence of autoantibody positivity was observed in HCC cases with BCLC tumor stage A, well-differentiated histology and Child-Pugh grade C. Specifically, 73.6% or 79.3% cases of early HCC with negative AFP were positive for autoantibody to CENPF or HSP60. Interpretation Tumor-associated autoimmune reactions may be triggered by early stage HCCs. Measurement of serum autoantibody to TAAs may be complementary to AFP measurements and improve diagnosis of early HCC. PMID:26137588

  6. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive......, the new knowledge is shared between the design team to reduce ambiguity with regards to its meaning and to build a shared understanding – reducing perceived uncertainty. Thus, we propose that Information-Processing Theory is suitable to describe designer activity in the early design stages......Developing appropriate theory is one of the main challenges facing engineering design (Cross, 2007). Theory helps to both explain design activity but also support greater research impact in the domain. It is useful for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of design activity and developing...

  7. Comprehensive Transcriptional Analysis of Early-Stage Urothelial Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Jakob; Lamy, Philippe; Nordentoft, Iver;

    2016-01-01

    Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a heterogeneous disease with widely different outcomes. We performed a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of 460 early-stage urothelial carcinomas and showed that NMIBC can be subgrouped into three major classes with basal- and luminal-like charac......Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a heterogeneous disease with widely different outcomes. We performed a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of 460 early-stage urothelial carcinomas and showed that NMIBC can be subgrouped into three major classes with basal- and luminal...... cytoskeletal functions. Furthermore, mutations in well-known cancer driver genes (e.g., TP53 and ERBB2) were primarily found in high-risk tumors, together with APOBEC-related mutational signatures. The identification of subclasses in NMIBC may offer better prognostication and treatment selection based on...

  8. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyo [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Min [Research Institute of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In-Kyung [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yunsook [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Hyun, E-mail: jjhkim@cau.ac.kr [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  9. Contingency Table Browser − prediction of early stage protein structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table − this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the ...

  10. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. → Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. → These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-κB and TNF-α expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results suggest that genistein

  11. Early Contact Stage of Apoptosis: Its Morphological Features and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheri Mikadze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis has been a biological phenomenon of intense interest for 20 years, but the earlier morphological features of apoptosis have not been determined hitherto. Using the methods of semi- and ultrathin sections, the livers of intact embryos and young rats have been studied under the effect of cycloheximide to determine morphological features of an early stage of apoptosis. It is discovered that both in hepatoblasts and hepatocytes, apoptosis, besides the well-known stages, also includes an early contact stage, distinguishing features of which are agglutination of bound ribosomes (breaking of translation, elimination of the nucleolus, reduction of free polysomes (and in hepatocytes, reduction of cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum, formation of cytoplasmic excrescences, and cell shape changes. The early stage of apoptosis is characterized by close contact with neighboring cells. At a certain phase of the contact stage of apoptosis, the nucleolus reappears in the nucleus and the number of free polysomes in the cytoplasm increases, which suggests the renewal of synthesis of new RNA and proteins. Close contact of differentiating and mitotic hepatoblasts with apoptotic cells indicates a certain functional relationship between these cells that is realized not only by micropinocytosis, but through gap junctions as well. We assume that the apoptotic cell, besides proteolytic products, can contain newly synthesized, low-molecular substances, the relocation of which from apoptotic to neighboring cells may contribute to both functional activity and proliferation of adjacent hepatoblasts and, therefore, the function of apoptosis may not be limited only to the elimination of harmful, damaged, and unwanted cells.

  12. Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Xess, Immaculata; Khan, Luqman A; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2014-03-15

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which causes disease mainly in immunocompromised patients. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes is essential for virulence of C. albicans and so is the capacity of these cells to undergo transition from yeast to mycelial form of growth. Ocimum sanctum is cultivated worldwide for its essential oil which exhibits medicinal properties. This work evaluates the anti-virulence activity of O. sanctum essential oil (OSEO) on 22 strains of C. albicans (including a standard strain ATCC 90028) isolated from both HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Candida isolates were exposed to sub-MICs of OSEO. In vitro secretion of proteinases and phospholipases was evaluated by plate assay containing BSA and egg yolk respectively. Morphological transition from yeast to filamentous form was monitored microscopically in LSM. For genetic analysis, respective genes associated with morphological transition (HWP1), proteinase (SAP1) and phospholipase (PLB2) were also investigated by Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and had a significant inhibitory effect on extracellular secretion of proteinases and phospholipases. Expression profile of respective selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by qRT-PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, SAP1 and PLB2 genes in cells treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of OSEO. This work suggests that OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and decreases the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the early stage of infection as well as down regulates the associated genes. Further studies will assess the clinical application of OSEO and its constituents in the treatment of fungal infections. PMID:24252340

  13. Requirement Defect Mitigation Technique: An Early Stage Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rizwan Beg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Requirement defect identification and mitigation at early stage of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC is very cost effective than to later stages. The requirements analysis in requirement engineering process is critical and major foundation of requirement defect identification. A poor requirement analysis process may lead to software requirement specification (SRS full of defects akin to misplaced, ambiguous, incompatible, misinterpreted, and incomplete requirements. In this paper, requirement defects are being identified and properly mitigated as per its severity in the requirement phase to get rid of major rework by spending extra cost and effort at the later stages. Here, a Defect Mitigation Technique (DMT is proposed for mitigating the identified requirement defect and also the reliability of requirement is being assessed to deliver Reliable Requirement. The proposed algorithm is helping the DMT for its proper processing, defect mitigation and reliability assessment. The prime motive of this study is an effort to put off requirements stage defects from entering into later stages of SDLC.

  14. Hodgkin's disease part 1: pathology, staging, and management of early stage disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 25 years there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of the epidemiology, biology, natural history, and treatment of Hodgkins disease. Hodgkin's disease is one of the few cancers where both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have provided dramatic improvements in cure of this once uniformly fatal disease. Part 1 of the refresher course on Hodgkin's disease will include a review of: 1) New Findings in epidemiology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology of the Reed-Sternberg cell including association with Epstein-Barr virus; 2) Review of pathology including discussions of NS 1 vs NS2, and nodular LP subclassifications; 3) Recommendations for staging including the role of staging laparotomy in Hodgkin's disease; 4) Standard techniques for commonly used radiation therapy fields for Hodgkin's disease and 5) Treatment of early stage Hodgkin's disease including an overview on recent and current clinical trials

  15. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements...... axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3...

  16. Nontrivial dynamics in the early stages of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Calzetta, E A

    1995-01-01

    Abstract: Inflationary cosmologies, regarded as dynamical systems, have rather simple asymptotic behavior, insofar as the cosmic baldness principle holds. Nevertheless, in the early stages of an inflationary process, the dynamical behavior may be very complex. In this paper, we show how even a simple inflationary scenario, based on Linde's ``chaotic inflation'' proposal, manifests nontrivial dynamical effects such as the breakup of invariant tori, formation of cantori and Arnol'd's diffusion. The relevance of such effects is highlighted by the fact that even the occurrence or not of inflation in a given Universe is dependent upon them.

  17. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  18. In vivo research using early life stage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Rita; Bhogal, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Scientists, for a variety of reasons, need to carry out in vivo research. Since experiments that require the use of adult animals pose various logistical, economical and ethical issues, the use of embryonic and larval forms of some organisms are potentially attractive alternatives. Early life stages are appealing because, in general, large numbers of individuals can be maintained in relatively simple housing, minimising costs, and their use involves fewer legal formalities. With this succinct review, we aim to provide an overview of different biological issues that have been successfully explored with the help of eggs, embryos and larvae from the frog, zebrafish and chicken.

  19. A patient with medulloblastoma in its early developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinojima, Naoki; Nakamura, Hideo; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Kameno, Kouki; Anai, Shigeo; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Ando, Yukio; Seto, Hiroshi; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2014-12-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor of the posterior fossa in children and is considered an embryonal tumor. It has been suggested that medulloblastomas be categorized into 4 distinct molecular subgroups- WNT (DKK1), SHH (SFRP1), Group 3 (NPR3), or Group 4 (KCNA1)-since each subgroup is distinct and there is no overlap. The authors report on a 13-year-old boy with medulloblastoma. He presented with sudden-onset nausea and vomiting due to intratumoral hemorrhage. The medulloblastoma was thought to be in an early developmental stage because the tumor volume was extremely small. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the tumor was mainly composed of DKK1- and NPR3-positive areas. The individual areas of the tumor stained only for DKK1 or NPR3, with no overlap-that is, DKK1 and NPR3 expression were mutually exclusive. Samples obtained by laser microdissection of individual areas and subjected to mass spectrometry confirmed that the expression patterns of proteins were different. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosome 6 showed there were 2 distinct types of cells that exhibited monosomy or disomy of chromosome 6. These results demonstrated that distinct subtypes of medulloblastoma may be present within a single tumor, an observation that has not been previously reported. Our findings in this case indicate that early-stage medulloblastoma may include more than 1 distinct subtype and hint at factors involved in the origin and development of medulloblastomas.

  20. On Branching Processes and the Early Stages of the Spread of an Epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed E; Yassen M T

    1998-01-01

    Branching process (BP) is used to model the early stages of the spread of a sexually transmitted disease. The early stages of AIDS spread which is transmitted both homosexually and heterosexually are studied as a BP.

  1. Early stage health technology assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices: the MATCH experience

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Craven, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Early stage Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices requires different methods than those usually employed for pharmaceuticals. This paper reviews widely used methods for HTA, discusses their limits for early stage evaluation of biomedical devices and presents two methods for early stage HTA being developed in the Multidisciplinary Assessment of Technology Centre for Healthcare (MATCH) project: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to elicit user needs; and early stage economic e...

  2. Early Stage Disease Diagnosis System Using Human Nail Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S. Indi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human’s hand nail is analyzed to identify many diseases at early stage of diagnosis. Study of person hand nail color helps in identification of particular disease in healthcare domain. The proposed system guides in such scenario to take decision in disease diagnosis. The input to the proposed system is person nail image. The system will process an image of nail and extract features of nail which is used for disease diagnosis. Human nail consist of various features, out of which proposed system uses nail color changes for disease diagnosis. Here, first training set data is prepared using Weka tool from nail images of patients of specific diseases. A feature extracted from input nail image is compared with the training data set to get result. In this experiment we found that using color feature of nail image average 65% results are correctly matched with training set data during three tests conducted.

  3. Locomotor function in the early stage of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinella, Ilaria; Crenna, Paolo; Calabrese, Elena; Rabuffetti, Marco; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Nemni, Raffaello; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2007-12-01

    The cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been widely investigated with particular reference to abnormalities of steady-state walking. The great majority of studies, however are related to severe forms of PD patients (phases > = 3 of Hoehn and Yahr scale), where locomotor abnormalities are clearly manifested. Goal of the present study was to quantitatively describe locomotor symptoms in subjects with mild PD. Accordingly, a multitask protocol involving instrumental analysis of steady-state linear walking, initiation of gait, and turning while walking was applied to a group of patients with idiopathic PD in their early clinical stage (phases 1 and 2 of Hoehn and Yahr scale), as well as in age-matched elderly controls. Kinematic, kinetic, and myoelectric measures were obtained by optoelectronic motion analysis, force platform, and telemetric electromyography. Results in PD patients showed a tendency to bradykinetic gait, with reduction of walking speed and cadence. Impairments of gait initiation consisted in reduction of the backward shift of the center of pressure (CoP) and prolongation of the stepping phase. Alterations of the turning task were more consistent and included delayed reorientation of the head toward the new direction, altered head-upper trunk rotational strategy, and adoption of a greater number of steps to complete the turning. It is concluded that patients in the early stage of PD reveal mild alterations of steady-state linear walking and more significant anomalies in the transitional conditions, especially during changes in the travel direction. Quantitative analysis of nonstationary locomotor tasks might be a potentially useful starting point for further studies on the pathophysiology of PD.

  4. Paranasal Manifestations of Early Stage Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Günel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common adult leukemia. A few studies have been reported about the relationship between CLL and paranasal sinuses. We aimed to investigate the paranasal manifestations of CLL and to determine the expression of nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-kB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in the nasal mucosa in patients with CLL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a clinical trial that involved 40 patients. Group CLL (n=20 consisted of patients with early-stage CLL who were followed-up at the hematology clinic and who did not receive any treatment. The control group (n=20 consisted of patients who had undergone concha surgery because of nasal obstruction. Paranasal sinus computer tomography scans of all patients were taken, they were scored on the basis of the Lund–Mackay system, and sinusitis findings were recorded. The biopsy material taken from the inferior concha head of all patients was immunohistochemically stained with primary antibodies against NF-kB and TNF-α. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to NF-κB (p=0.716 and TNF-α staining scores (p=1.000. The Lund–Mackay scores were significantly higher in the CLL group than in the control group (p=0.004. Fourteen patients had sinusitis at different locations, while the most common diagnosis was maxillary sinusitis (n=8 in the CLL group. CONCLUSION: This study showed that patients with early-stage CLL tend to have rhinosinusitis. However, NF-kB and TNF-α may not have a role in the inflammatory process involving the paranasal sinuses in patients with CLL.

  5. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Gupta

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54 or infrared coagulation (N = 46. Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years. The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months. The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale. Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059. The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03, but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03. Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  6. Early-stage mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizawa T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Nizawa1, Toshiyuki Oshitari1, Ryuta Kimoto1, Fusae Kajita1, Jiro Yotsukura1, Kaoru Asanagi1, Takayuki Baba1, Yoko Takahashi2, Takashi Oide2, Takako Kiyokawa2, Takashi Kishimoto2, Shuichi Yamamoto11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Chiba, JapanAbstract: We present the findings of an early-stage primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma in the lower eyelid of a Japanese patient. The patient was a 73-year-old man who had had a nodule on the left lower eyelid for two years. He was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of a swollen chalazion. The clinical and histopathological records were reviewed and the mass was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography excluded systemic metastases. After the histopathological findings, a complete surgical excision of the margins of the adenocarcinoma was performed, with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. After the final histopathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with a primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the left eyelid. Six months after the surgery, no recurrence has been observed. Because the appearance of mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the eyelid is quite variable, the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. A complete surgical excision is recommended.Keywords: complete surgical excision, eyelid, initial stage, mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma

  7. Alpha oscillations and early stages of visual encoding

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    Wolfgang eKlimesch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long time alpha oscillations have been functionally linked to the processing of visual information. Here we propose an new theory about the functional meaning of alpha. The central idea is that synchronized alpha reflects a basic processing mode that controls access to information stored in a complex long-term memory system, which we term knowledge system (KS in order to emphasize that it comprises not only declarative memories but any kind of knowledge comprising also procedural information. Based on this theoretical background, we assume that during early stages of perception, alpha ‘directs the flow of information’ to those neural structures which represent information that is relevant for encoding. The physiological function of alpha is interpreted in terms of inhibition. We assume that alpha enables access to stored information by inhibiting task irrelevant neuronal structures and by timing cortical activity in task relevant neuronal structures. We discuss a variety findings showing that evoked alpha and phase locking reflect successful encoding of global stimulus features in an early poststimulus interval of about 0 - 150 ms.

  8. Investigation of Nuclear Development at the Early Stage in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past fifty years there has been a great progress in a field of nuclear technology in Korea. At this point, it is highly desirable for the present generation to collect and preserve the invaluably hidden information and historical materials obtained in the relevant field from which the next generation can learn a precept. In other words, an opportunity of supplementing the history of the early stage of the nuclear field in Korea should be provided by tracing out historical materials which have not yet been exposed. It is noted that development of human resources, which had extensively emphasized at the incipient stage of the nuclear field, has played a pivotal role for the progress of science and industrial technology. Nuclear technology which has rapidly been grown up in Korea has greatly given rise to a high level of industrial development and economic growth. From this point of view, it is necessary to find out and compile a lot of historical materials produced at the early stage of the nuclear field in Korea, which have not yet been revealed to date and may be instructible for us if uncovered. Although it is supposed that the R and D work history of nuclear technology piled up during the past five decades may be useful for making people at large understand the nuclear field better, it has not been utilized fully. It is recognized that the general public can not be readily accessible to the nuclear field. At this moment, a maximum effort of the nuclear society is needed for making them get rid of possible misunderstandings. There are several publications, even if they do not secure readers in general, by a private author and institutional bodies. It is advisable to publish booklets on the nuclear field which is of interest and preceptive to people at large. Booklets to be written may be based on our own nuclear history of the last fifty years, which has so far been submerged but should be highlightened at the moment

  9. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  10. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  11. Efficiency of teaching patients with early-stage rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Vladislavovna Orlova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education programs are an important part of the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Objective: to develop a unified model of an education program for RA patients and to evaluate its efficiency at the early stage of the disease.Material and methods. A group education program was worked out with the support of the All-Russian public organization of the disabled “The Russian rheumatology organization “Nadezhda” (Hope” and encompassed 4 daily classes lasting 90 min. All information was presented by a multidisciplinary team of specialists (rheumatologists, a cardiologist, a psychologist, a physiotherapist, and a physical trainer. The study included 55 patients with early RA (89.1% of women aged 18 to 62 years; the duration of the disease was 2 to 22 months; of them 25 were taught using the education program (a study group; 30 received drug therapy only (a control group. Following 3 and 6 months, the number of tender and swollen joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and pain were determined applying a 100-ml VAS, DAS28, HAQ, and RAPID3. Adherence to non-drug treatments was assessed employing a special patient questionnaire.Results. Three and six months after being taught, two patient groups showed increases in adherence to joint protection methods by 13 and 10 times (p<0.01, regular physical training by 4 and 3.25 times (p<0.01, uses of orthoses for the wrist joint by 2 times and 75% (p<0.01 and knee orthoses by 33.3 and 50.0% (p<0.01, and orthopedic insoles by 71.4 and 57.1% (p<0.01, respectively. Following 6 months, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in most parameters (p<0.05, except for ESR, CRP, and DAS28 (p>0.05. Further more, a good response to treatment was significantly more common in these periods, as shown by the EULAR response criteria (DAS28: 56.3% versus 40% in the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion. The education program decreases the intensity

  12. Endoscopic mucosal resection of early stage colon neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yasushi; Uedo, Noriya; Ishihara, Ryu; Tomita, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Early stage colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma is rare. A small colon tumour was found in a 56-year-old man during diagnostic colonoscopy performed after a positive faecal occult blood test, and he was referred for treatment. A slightly reddish superficial elevated lesion with a shallow depression 10 mm in size was found in the transverse colon. Magnifying narrow-band imaging revealed disrupted irregular microvessels and the absence of a surface pattern in the depressed area. En bloc endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of the tumour was undertaken. The tumour was positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin, and had a mitotic rate of >20/10 high-power fields and a Ki-67 proliferative index of >50%; it was diagnosed as a neuroendocrine carcinoma. The tumour minimally invaded the submucosa (300 μm) without lymphovascular involvement. The patient was followed up carefully, and at 1 year after EMR, no recurrence was found using colonoscopy and CT scans. PMID:25737221

  13. Cognitive Stimulation for Apathy in Probable Early-Stage Alzheimer's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Buettner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied changes in apathy among 77 community-dwelling older persons with mild memory loss in a randomized clinical trial comparing two nonpharmacological interventions over four weeks. The study used a pre-post design with randomization by site to avoid contamination and diffusion of effect. Interventions were offered twice weekly after baseline evaluations were completed. The treatment group received classroom style mentally stimulating activities (MSAs while the control group received a structured early-stage social support (SS group. The results showed that the MSA group had significantly lower levels of apathy (P<.001 and significantly lower symptoms of depression (P<.001. While both groups improved on quality of life, the MSA group was significantly better (P=.02 than the SS group. Executive function was not significantly different for the two groups at four weeks, but general cognition improved for the MSA group and declined slightly for the SS group which produced a significant posttest difference (P<.001. Recruitment and retention of SS group members was difficult in this project, especially in senior center locations, while this was not the case for the MSA group. The examination of the data at this four-week time point shows promising results that the MSA intervention may provide a much needed method of reducing apathy and depressive symptoms, while motivating participation and increasing quality of life.

  14. A microengineered pathophysiological model of early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonseok; Hyun, Eunjeh; Seo, Jeongyun; Blundell, Cassidy; Kim, Hee Chan; Lee, Eunhee; Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Aree; Moon, Woo Kyung; Huh, Dongeun

    2015-08-21

    A mounting body of evidence in cancer research suggests that the local microenvironment of tumor cells has a profound influence on cancer progression and metastasis. In vitro studies on the tumor microenvironment and its pharmacological modulation, however, are often hampered by the technical challenges associated with creating physiological cell culture environments that integrate cancer cells with the key components of their native niche such as neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic complex microarchitecture of cancerous tissue. Using early-stage breast cancer as a model disease, here we describe a biomimetic microengineering strategy to reconstitute three-dimensional (3D) structural organization and microenvironment of breast tumors in human cell-based in vitro models. Specifically, we developed a microsystem that enabled co-culture of breast tumor spheroids with human mammary ductal epithelial cells and mammary fibroblasts in a compartmentalized 3D microfluidic device to replicate microarchitecture of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We also explored the potential of this breast cancer-on-a-chip system as a drug screening platform by evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of an anticancer drug (paclitaxel). Our microengineered disease model represents the first critical step towards recapitulating pathophysiological complexity of breast cancer, and may serve as an enabling tool to systematically examine the contribution of the breast cancer microenvironment to the progression of DCIS to an invasive form of the disease. PMID:26158500

  15. Blood biomarkers in the early stage of cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrini, I; Ducroquet, A; Moulin, S; Leys, D; Cordonnier, C; Bordet, R

    2016-03-01

    In ischemic stroke patients, blood-based biomarkers may be applied for the diagnosis of ischemic origin and subtype, prediction of outcomes and targeted treatment in selected patients. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia has led to the evaluation of proteins, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids and lipids as potential biomarkers. The present report focuses on the role of blood-based biomarkers in the early stage of ischemic stroke-within 72h of its onset-as gleaned from studies published in English in such patients. Despite growing interest in their potential role in clinical practice, the application of biomarkers for the management of cerebral ischemia is not currently recommended by guidelines. However, there are some promising clinical biomarkers, as well as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) peptide and NMDA-receptor (R) autoantibodies that appear to identify the ischemic nature of stroke, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) that might be able to discriminate between acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, genomics and proteomics allow the characterization of differences in gene expression, and protein and metabolite production, in ischemic stroke patients compared with controls and, thus, may help to identify novel markers with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Additional studies to validate promising biomarkers and to identify novel biomarkers are needed. PMID:26988891

  16. Metformin inhibits early stage diethylnitrosamine‑induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Woori; Yu, Eun-Sil; Chang, Minsun; Park, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Hyun-Ji; Ryu, Jae-Eun; Jang, Sungwoong; Lee, Hyo-Ju; Jang, Ja-June; Son, Woo-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effects of metformin have recently emerged despite its original use for type II diabetes. In the present study, the effects of metformin on the development and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated using the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)‑induced rat model of HCC. Tumor foci were characterized by gross examination and by histopathological characteristics, including proliferation, hepatic progenitor cell content and the expression of hepatocarcinoma‑specific molecular markers. Potential target molecules of metformin were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of metformin on chemically induced liver tumorigenesis. The antitumor effects of metformin were increased by the reduction of surface nodules and decreased the incidence of altered hepatocellular foci, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma. Also, decreased expression levels of glutathione S‑transferase placental form, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytokeratin 8 described the inhibitory effects of metformin on HCC. In the present study, Wistar rats receiving treatment with DEN were administered metformin for 16 weeks. In addition, metformin suppressed liver tumorigenesis via an AMPK‑dependent pathway. These results suggested that metformin has promising effects on the early stage of HCC in rats. Therefore, metformin may be used for the prevention of HCC recurrence following primary chemotherapy for HCC and/or for high‑risk patients, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

  17. Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

    2013-01-28

    A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements. PMID:23387626

  18. Early Stage of Hypertensive Retinopathy; Is It Really Important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KARAMAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between early stage hypertensive retinopathy (HTRP and endothelial dysfunction (ED in atherogenesis. MATERIAL and METHODS: A total of 99 subjects consisting of 73 patients diagnosed with Essential Hypertension (HT and 26 healthy subjects were included to the study. Flow mediated dilatation (FMD was performed to detect ED. Asymmetric dimethylarginine-ADMA was measured as a marker of ED and the hsCRP and sTWEAK levels were measured for microvascular inflammation. All patients were screened for retinopathy. RESULTS: The mean blood pressure of the hypertensive patients and the control subjects was 140.1±13.7/86.1±10.7 and 107.12±10.0/65.38±10.2 respectively. HTRP was positive in 60.3% (n=44 and negative in 39.7% (n=29 of the patients with hypertension. There was grade 1 retinopathy in 52.1% and grade 2 retinopathy in 8.2% of hypertensive patients. The hsCRP, sTWEAK and ADMA levels were significantly higher in hypertensive patients than in the control group (respectively, p=0,011, p=0,001, p=0,001. FMD levels were lower in the hypertensive group, as expected. FMD levels were lower in the retinopathy group when the hypertensive group with and without retinopathy and the control group compared. hsCRP, sTWEAK and ADMA levels were significantly higher in subjects with retinopathy. hsCRP, sTWEAK and ADMA levels were also significantly higher in subjects with retinopathy (p=0.039, p=0.001, p=0.001. CONCLUSION: ED is thought to play a role in HT etiology and is also important in the development of HT complications. It would be appropriate to evaluate hypertensive patients more carefully and perform the necessary laboratory tests to detect ED so that the proper treatment can be started (ACEI, exercise, lifestyle changes.

  19. Sequential Dysfunction and Progressive Depletion of Candida albicans-Specific CD4 T Cell Response in HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengliang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of immune control over opportunistic infections can occur at different stages of HIV-1 (HIV disease, among which mucosal candidiasis caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans is one of the early and common manifestations in HIV-infected human subjects. The underlying immunological basis is not well defined. We have previously shown that compared to cytomegalovirus (CMV-specific CD4 cells, C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells are highly permissive to HIV in vitro. Here, based on an antiretroviral treatment (ART naïve HIV infection cohort (RV21, we investigated longitudinally the impact of HIV on C. albicans- and CMV-specific CD4 T-cell immunity in vivo. We found a sequential dysfunction and preferential depletion for C. albicans-specific CD4 T cell response during progressive HIV infection. Compared to Th1 (IFN-γ, MIP-1β functional subsets, the Th17 functional subsets (IL-17, IL-22 of C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells were more permissive to HIV in vitro and impaired earlier in HIV-infected subjects. Infection history analysis showed that C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells were more susceptible to HIV in vivo, harboring modestly but significantly higher levels of HIV DNA, than CMV-specific CD4 T cells. Longitudinal analysis of HIV-infected individuals with ongoing CD4 depletion demonstrated that C. albicans-specific CD4 T-cell response was preferentially and progressively depleted. Taken together, these data suggest a potential mechanism for earlier loss of immune control over mucosal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients and provide new insights into pathogen-specific immune failure in AIDS pathogenesis.

  20. Cholecystectomy is associated with higher risk of early recurrence and poorer survival after curative resection for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Shu-Kang; Zhi, Xu-Ting; Zhou, Jian; Dong, Zhao-Ru; Zhang, Zong-Li; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Ye, Qing-Hai; Fan, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Although cholecystectomy has been reported to be associated with increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the association between cholecystectomy and prognosis of HCC patients underwent curative resection has never been examined. Through retrospective analysis of the data of 3933 patients underwent curative resection for HCC, we found that cholecystectomy was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients at early stage (BCLC stage 0/A) (p = 0.020, HR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04-1.59), and the 1-, 3-, 5-year RFS rates for patients at early stage were significantly worse in cholecystectomy group than in non-cholecystectomy group (80.5%, 61.8%, 52.0% vs 88.2%, 68.8%, 56.8%, p = 0.033). The early recurrence rate of cholecystectomy group was significantly higher than that of non-cholecystectomy group for patients at early stage (59/47 vs 236/333, p = 0.007), but not for patients at advanced stage (BCLC stage C) (p = 0.194). Multivariate analyses showed that cholecystectomy was an independent risk factor for early recurrence (p = 0.005, HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.13-2.03) of early stage HCC, but not for late recurrence (p = 0.959). In conclusion, cholecystectomy is an independent predictor for early recurrence and is associated with poorer RFS of early stage HCC. Removal of normal gallbladder during HCC resection may be avoided for early stage patients. PMID:27320390

  1. Exome sequencing identifies early gastric carcinoma as an early stage of advanced gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guhyun Kang

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment leads to an excellent prognosis in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC, whereas the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC remains poor. It is unclear whether EGCs and AGCs are distinct entities or whether EGCs are the beginning stages of AGCs. We performed whole exome sequencing of four samples from patients with EGC and compared the results with those from AGCs. In both EGCs and AGCs, a total of 268 genes were commonly mutated and independent mutations were additionally found in EGCs (516 genes and AGCs (3104 genes. A higher frequency of C>G transitions was observed in intestinal-type compared to diffuse-type carcinomas (P = 0.010. The DYRK3, GPR116, MCM10, PCDH17, PCDHB1, RDH5 and UNC5C genes are recurrently mutated in EGCs and may be involved in early carcinogenesis.

  2. Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S. [Inst. de Ciencias Ambientales y Salud, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa Seguridad Quimica; Cardellini, P.; Pavanati, C. [Univ. degli Studi di Padova Via Trieste (Italy). Dept. di Biologia

    1997-02-01

    The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surface ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.

  3. Estimates of the duration of the early and late stage of gambiense sleeping sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Chandramohan Daniel; Haydon Daniel T; Filipe João AN; Checchi Francesco; Chappuis François

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The durations of untreated stage 1 (early stage, haemo-lymphatic) and stage 2 (late stage, meningo-encephalitic) human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are poorly quantified, but key to predicting the impact of screening on transmission. Here, we outline a method to estimate these parameters. Methods We first model the duration of stage 1 through survival analysis of untreated serological suspects detected during Médecins Sans...

  4. Systemic immune markers characterizing early stages of rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Chalan, Paulina Luiza

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease occurring in ~1% of the world population. The main feature of the disease is ongoing joint inflammation, caused by immune cells and their soluble factors, leading to irreversible bone erosions and cartilage damage. Early treatment can halt progression of the disease and development of irreversible damage. Early recognition is therefore very important. Present research is geared at recognizing development of RA as early as possible by identi...

  5. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  6. Is there a difference between intrapreneurs and early-stage entrepreneurs in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamária BENYOVSZKI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the differences between being an intrapreneur and an early-stage entrepreneur in Romania. We first present an international comparison of intrapreneurial and early-stage entrepreneurial activity rate, followed by the individual level analysis of these new venture creators using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM database of Romania from 2012.

  7. A robust prognostic gene expression signature for early stage lung adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzystanek, Marcin; Moldvay, Judit; Szüts, David;

    2016-01-01

    Stage I lung adenocarcinoma is usually not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy; however, around half of these patients do not survive 5 years. Therefore, a reliable prognostic biomarker for early stage patients would be critical to identify those most likely to benefit from early additional treatm...

  8. Estimating plant stem emerging points (PSEPs) of sugar of beets in early growth stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtiby, Henrik; Mosgaard Giselsson, Thomas; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2012-01-01

    Successful intra--row mechanical weed control of sugar beet 
(beta vulgaris) in early growth stages requires precise 
knowledge about location of crop plants.
A computer vision system for locating Plant Stem Emerging Point (PSEP) 
of sugar beet in early growth stages was developed and tested...

  9. Targeted labeling of early-​stage tumor spheroid in chorioallantoic membrane model with upconversion nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Liu; J.A. Holz; Y. Ding; X. Liu; Y. Zhang; L. Tu; X. Kong; B. Priem; A. Nadort; S.A.G. Lambrechts; M.C.G. Aalders; W.J. Buma; Y. Liu; H. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In vivo detection of cancer at early-​stage, i.e. smaller than 2 mm, is a challenge in biomedicine. In this work target labeling of early-​stage tumor spheroid (∼500 μm) is realized for the first time in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with monoclonal antibody functionalized upconv

  10. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  11. Triaging early-stage lung cancer patients into non-surgical pathways: who, when, and what?

    OpenAIRE

    Sroufe, Rameses; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    More lung cancer patients are being diagnosed at an earlier stage due to improved diagnostic imaging techniques, a trend that is expected to accelerate with the dissemination of lung cancer screening. Surgical resection has always been considered the standard treatment for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, non-surgical treatment options for patients with early-stage NSCLC have evolved significantly over the past decade with many new and exciting alternativ...

  12. From Cyrus to Abbas: staging Persia in Early Modern England

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Hafiz Abid

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers the different ways Persia was perceived in early modern England. Persia, understudied in recent scholarship, played an important role in the early modern English imagination, both as a classical civilization and as a counterweight to the Ottoman threat to Christendom. This classical heritage and anti-Ottomanism, when intersected with a Persian Muslim identity, resulted in a complex phenomenon. This thesis is an attempt to understand the various cross currents that constr...

  13. The effect on esophagus after different radiotherapy techniques for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anni; Maraldo, M.; Brodin, Nils Patrik;

    2013-01-01

    The cure rate of early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is excellent; investigating the late effects of treatment is thus important. Esophageal toxicity is a known side effect in patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the mediastinum, although little is known of this in HL survivors. This study inv...... investigates the dose to the esophagus in the treatment of early stage HL using different RT techniques. Estimated risks of early esophagitis, esophageal stricture and cancer are compared between treatments....

  14. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shulong; Fu, Yingyuan, E-mail: yingyuanfu@126.com; Wu, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoping; Kuang, Nanzhen; Zeng, Yurong

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca{sup 2+} concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca{sup 2+} concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, increasing

  15. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca2+–Mg2+ ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca2+ concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of 3H-UdR, 3H-TdR and 3H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca2+–Mg2+ ATPase, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited 3H-UdR, 3H-TdR and 3H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca2+–Mg2+ ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca2+ concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca2+–Mg2+ ATPase, increasing cytosolic Ca2+ content and damaging the ultrastructure of C. albicans

  16. Early feeding: setting the stage for healthy eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Ventura, Alison K

    2011-01-01

    Food habits, an integral part of all cultures, have their beginnings during early life. This chapter reviews the development of the senses of taste and smell, which provide information on the flavor of foods, and discusses how children's innate predispositions interact with early-life feeding experiences to form dietary preferences and habits. Young children show heightened preferences for foods that taste sweet and salty and rejection of that which tastes bitter. These innate responses are salient during development since they likely evolved to encourage children to ingest that which is beneficial, containing needed calories or minerals, and to reject that which is harmful. Early childhood is also characterized by plasticity, partially evidenced by a sensitive period during early life when infants exhibit heightened acceptance of the flavors experienced in amniotic fluid and breast milk. While learning also occurs with flavors found in formulae, it is likely that this sensitive period formed to facilitate acceptance of and attraction to the flavors of foods eaten by the mother. A basic understanding of the development and functioning of the chemical senses during early childhood may assist in forming evidence-based strategies to improve children's diets. PMID:22044898

  17. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  18. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Bai; Xian-Hua Liu; Qing-Ying Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA).METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogenfree mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer's patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA.RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced.Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased.CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specificpathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus.

  19. Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS.

  20. Socioeconomic position and surgery for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Starr, Laila; Osler, Merete; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    Register 2001-2008 (date of diagnosis, histology, stage, and treatment), the Central Population Register (vital status), the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research (socioeconomic position), and the Danish Hospital Discharge Register (comorbidity). Logistic regression analyses were performed overall...... and separately for stages I, II and IIIa. RESULTS: Of the 5538 eligible patients with stages I-IIIa NSCLC diagnosed 2001-2008, 53% underwent surgery. Higher stage, older age, being female and diagnosis early in the study period were associated with higher odds for not receiving surgery. Low disposable income...... the association with income or living alone for early-stage NSCLC patients. CONCLUSION: Early-stage NSCLC patients with low income or who live alone are less likely to undergo surgery than those with a high income or who live with a partner, even after control for possible explanatory factors. Thus, even...

  1. Hedgehog/Ras interactions regulate early stages of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pasca di Magliano, Marina; Sekine, Shigeki; Ermilov, Alexandre; Ferris, Jenny; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) constitutes a lethal disease that affects >30,000 people annually in the United States. Deregulation of Hedgehog signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PDA. To gain insights into the role of the pathway during the distinct stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis, we established a mouse model in which Hedgehog signaling is activated specifically in the pancreatic epithelium. Transgenic mice survived to adulthood and developed undifferentiated ca...

  2. Detection of gene expression pattern in the early stage after spinal cord injury by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成龙; 靳安民; 童斌辉

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the gene expression pattern of spinal cord tissues in the early stage after injury by DNA microarray (gene chip). Methods: The contusion model of rat spinal cord was established according to Allen's falling strike method and the gene expression patterns of normal and injured spinal cord tissues were studied by gene chip. Results: The expression of 45 genes was significantly changed in the early stage after spinal cord injury, in which 22 genes up-regulated and 23 genes down-regulated. Conclusions: The expression of some genes changes significantly in the early stage after spinal cord injury, which indicates the complexity of secondary spinal cord injury.

  3. Analysis thrombolysis with anticoagulation treatment for early stage of deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘心; 张梅; 刘陕西; 祈光裕; 刘亚民

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of thrombolysis with anticoagulation treatment for early stage of deep vein thrombosis of lower extremity. Methods: The clinical data of 106 patients at the early stage of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities treated by thrombolysis with anticoagulation and dispersion drugs were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The thrombolytic effect was significant. After treatment, the deep veins were recanalized without regurgitation in 75.3% of the patients. The total effective rate was 100%. Only three patients had hemorrhagic complication, but none of the patients died. Conclusion: Thrombolysis with anticoagulation treatment is an effective and safe method for DVT at the early stage.

  4. An Analysis of Immunoreactive Signatures in Early Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hong; Jiang Long; Hai Li; Shuhong Chen; Qiqi Liu; Bei Zhang; Xiaomin He; Yan Wang; Hongyi Li; Yimei Li; Tao Zhang; Chenzhen Lu; Hao Yan; Minli Zhang; Qing Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is prevalent worldwide and early diagnosis of HCC is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. Methods: Serum was screened first by immunoproteomic analysis for HCC-related tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Selected TAAs were clinically evaluated retrospectively in patients with HCC, liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and healthy controls. Levels of autoantibody to the selected TAAs were measured by protein microarrays containing pro...

  5. Perception of Imitation in the Early Stage of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nasu, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how children, younger than one and up to age three, in the first stage of development act when they are being imitated by an adult. When a child perceives that it is being imitated by an adult, it indicates that the child is making a clear distinction between itself and another person. The child objectively compares his behavior with the adult's behavior, and the child needs to be able to perceive the adult's intention. Perception of being imitated is a very important ...

  6. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  7. Perennial atopic rhinitis as an early stage of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniazdowski, R

    1979-01-01

    Etiologic factors and incidence of bronchial hyperreactivity as a 'stigma' of bronchial asthma were studied in 237 patients suffering from perennial atopic rhinitis. All pateints underwent detailed laryngologic and allergologic examiniation and pulmonary function tests at rest, after exercise, and after histamine inhalation. Most often the patients were sensitized tungal allergens. Bronchial hyperreactivity, typical of bronchial asthma, was observed in 48.52% of patients. Results were analysed statistically. It was concluded that early institution of causal therapy can cure the symptoms of rhinitis and prevent evolution of the disease into atopic bronchial asthma in patients already suffering from bronchial hyperreactivity. PMID:495074

  8. Early-stage visual processing abnormalities in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Joshua M; Casanova, Manuel F; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2010-06-01

    It has been reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal responses to the sensory environment. For these individuals sensory overload can impair functioning, raise physiological stress, and adversely affect social interaction. Early-stage (i.e. within 200ms of stimulus onset) auditory processing abnormalities have been widely examined in ASD using event-related potentials (ERP), while ERP studies investigating early-stage visual processing in ASD are less frequent. We wanted to test the hypothesis of early-stage visual processing abnormalities in ASD by investigating ERPs elicited in a visual oddball task using illusory figures. Our results indicate that individuals with ASD have abnormally large cortical responses to task irrelevant stimuli over both parieto-occipital and frontal regions-of-interest (ROI) during early stages of visual processing compared to the control group. Furthermore, ASD patients showed signs of an overall disruption in stimulus discrimination, and had a significantly higher rate of motor response errors.

  9. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective.

  10. Dutasteride May Slow the Growth of Early-Stage Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    For men who are undergoing active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer, the drug dutasteride (Avodart) could help control the disease and prevent the need for more aggressive treatments. |

  11. Personalized Unicompartmental Knee Implant Treats Early Stage Arthritis While Preserving Bone

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Personalized Unicompartmental Knee Implant Treats Early Stage Arthritis while Preserving Bone (6:00pm CST) You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the ...

  12. Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a clinical trial.

  13. Analysis on Gene Expression Profile in Oncospheres and Early Stage Metacestodes from Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Huang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonosis of great public health concern. Analysis of genome data for Echinococcus multilocularis has identified antigen families that can be used in diagnostic assays and vaccine development. However, little gene expression data is available for antigens of the egg and early larval stages. To address this information gap, we used a Next-Generation Sequencing approach to investigate three different stages (non-activated and activated oncospheres, and early stage metacestodes of E. multilocularis (Nemuro strain. Transcriptome data analysis revealed that some diagnostic antigen gp50 isoforms and the antigen Eg95 family dominated in activated oncospheres, and the antigen B family dominated in early stage metacestodes. Furthermore, heat shock proteins and antigen II/3 are constantly expressed in the three stages. The expression pattern of various known antigens in E. multilocularis may give fundamental information for choosing candidate genes used in diagnosis and vaccine development.

  14. Analysis on Gene Expression Profile in Oncospheres and Early Stage Metacestodes from Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; Dang, Zhisheng; Suzuki, Yutaka; Horiuchi, Terumi; Yagi, Kinpei; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Irie, Takao; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2016-04-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonosis of great public health concern. Analysis of genome data for Echinococcus multilocularis has identified antigen families that can be used in diagnostic assays and vaccine development. However, little gene expression data is available for antigens of the egg and early larval stages. To address this information gap, we used a Next-Generation Sequencing approach to investigate three different stages (non-activated and activated oncospheres, and early stage metacestodes) of E. multilocularis (Nemuro strain). Transcriptome data analysis revealed that some diagnostic antigen gp50 isoforms and the antigen Eg95 family dominated in activated oncospheres, and the antigen B family dominated in early stage metacestodes. Furthermore, heat shock proteins and antigen II/3 are constantly expressed in the three stages. The expression pattern of various known antigens in E. multilocularis may give fundamental information for choosing candidate genes used in diagnosis and vaccine development. PMID:27092774

  15. Effect of Early Intervention Applied to Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease at Different Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, W.; M-H Chen; Y-C Pan; C-Y Chen; Y-L Cai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Early intervention in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes health education, smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and enhancing immunity (administration of influenza vaccine and polysaccharide nucleic acid fraction of bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG-PSN]). The effect of early intervention was investigated systematically in patients with COPD at different stages. Methods: We enrolled 422 patients with COPD at different stages without symptoms and then random...

  16. Iodine-125 seed brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancer: a single-institution review

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, Simon; Weiß, Susan; Baaske, Dieter; Schöpe, Michael; Stevens, Simon; Bodis, Stephan; Zwahlen, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We are reporting the five-year biochemical control, toxicity profile and dosimetric parameters using iodine-125 low dose rate brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer at a single institution. Material and methods Between April 2006 and December 2010, 169 men with early stage prostate cancer were treated with BT. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL). Treatment-related morbidities, including urinary, rectal and sexual fu...

  17. Iodine-125 seed brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancer: a single-institution review

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, Simon; Weiß, Susan; Baaske, Dieter; Schöpe, Michael; Stevens, Simon; Bodis, Stephan; Zwahlen, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We are reporting the five-year biochemical control, toxicity profile and dosimetric parameters using iodine-125 low dose rate brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer at a single institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between April 2006 and December 2010, 169 men with early stage prostate cancer were treated with BT. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL). Treatment-related morbidities, including urinary, rectal and sexu...

  18. Sentinel node biopsy as an indicator for pelvic nodes dissection in early stage cervical cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, Chae-Chun; Park, Jong-Sup; Bae, Seog-Nyeon; Namkoong, Sung-Eun

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of sentinel node frozen biopsy to minimize the extensive pelvic lymph nodes dissection in early stage cervical cancer patients on the basis that the risk of skip metastasis to the paraaortic area is negligible. Twenty-six patients with early stage cervical cancer were enrolled in this study. Technetium-99m colloid albumin (Tc(99m)) was injected intradermally around the tumor for allowing preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoper...

  19. The Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine in Early Stage of Focal Ischemia Rodent Model

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hui-Seung; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Shin, Jeoung-A; Park, Joo-Hyun; Song, Kwan-Young; Kim, Doh-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to elucidate neuroprotective effect of carnosine in early stage of stroke. Methods Early stage of rodent stroke model and neuroblastoma chemical hypoxia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and antimycin A. Neuroprotective effect of carnosine was investigated with 100, 250, and 500 mg of carnosine treatment. And antioxidant expression was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in brain and blood. Results I...

  20. Temperature Influences Selective Mortality during the Early Life Stages of a Coral Reef Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Tauna L.; Su Sponaugle

    2011-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen...

  1. AB103. Prostatectomy versus active surveillance for early stage prostate cancer: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, You; Fu, Shengjun; Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival effect between radical prostatectomy (RP) and active surveillance (AS) for the treatment of early stage prostate cancer. Method Randomized controlled trials were computerized searched from Medline, Cochrane Library, ISI web of knowledge, Science Direct, Google scholar, CBM database for the evaluation of prognosis of treatment for early stage prostate cancer—RP versus AS. Prognosis of the treatment includes all-cause mortality, prostate cancer specific mortali...

  2. Reduced treatment intensity in patients with early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Engert, A.; Pluetschow, A.; Eich, H.T.; Lohri, A.; Doerken, B.; Borchmann, P; Berger, B; Greil, R; Willborn, K.C.; Wilhelm, M.; Debus, J; Eble, M.J.; Soekler, M.; Ho, A.; Rank, A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether it is possible to reduce the intensity of treatment in early (stage I or II) Hodgkin's lymphoma with a favorable prognosis remains unclear. We therefore conducted a multicenter, randomized trial comparing four treatment groups consisting of a combination chemotherapy regimen of two different intensities followed by involved-field radiation therapy at two different dose levels. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1370 patients with newly diagnosed early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma w...

  3. Combined effects of elevated CO2 and food limitation on early life stages of Clanus finmarchicus

    OpenAIRE

    Ostebrøt, Embla Oddvarsdotter

    2014-01-01

    The early life stages of Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to two levels of pCO2, 380 ppm (control) and 2080 ppm (elevated CO2) and two different food concentrations, ~ 600 µg C/L (high food concentration) and ~150 µg C/L (food limited). Carbon and nitrogen analysis were performed at the first feeding stage (nauplii stage 3), and the last nauplii stage before moulting to copepodit (nauplii stage 6). The elevated CO2 and food limitation had a significant negative additive effect, whe...

  4. Analyses of the early stages of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintott, Christopher John

    This thesis presents a study of the physical and chemical properties of star forming regions, both in the Milky Way and in the distant Universe, building on the existing astrochem- ical models developed by the group at UCL. Observations of the nearby star-forming region, L134A, which were carried out with the James Clark Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawai'i are compared to the predictions of a model of star formation from gas rich in atomic (rather than molecular) hydrogen. A similar model is used to investigate the effect of non-equilibrium chemistry on the derivation of the cosmic-ray ionization rate, an important parameter in controlling both the chemistry and the physics of star forming clumps. A collapse faster than free-fall is proposed as an explanation for differences be tween the distribution of CS and N2H+ in such regions. Moving beyond the Milky Way, JCMT observations of sulphur-bearing species in the nearby starburst galaxy, M82, are presented and compared with existing molecular observations of similar systems. M82 is a local anlogue for star forming systems in the early Universe, many of which have star formation rates several thousand times that of the Milky Way. A model which treats the molecular gas in such systems as an assembly of 'hot cores' (protostellar cores which have a distinctive chemical signature) has been developed, and is used to predict the abundance of many species. An application of this model is used to explain the observed deviation in the early Universe from the otherwise tight relation between infrared and HCN luminosity via relatively recent star formation from near-primordial gas. Many of the stars formed in the early Universe must now be in massive elliptical systems, and work on the structure of these systems is presented. Data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is analysed to show that such galaxies have cores dominated by baryons rather than dark matter, and the dark matter profile is constrained by adiabatic contraction.

  5. Modelling early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggieri M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we model early time dynamics of relativistic heavy ion collisions by an initial color-electric field which then decays to a plasma by the Schwinger mechanism. The dynamics of the many particles system produced by the decay is described by relativistic kinetic theory, taking into account the backreaction on the color field by solving self-consistently the kinetic and the field equations. Our main results concern isotropization and thermalization for a 1+1D expanding geometry. In case of small η/s (η/s ≲ 0.3 we find τisotropization ≈ 0.8 fm/c and τthermalization ≈ 1 fm/c in agreement with the common lore of hydrodynamics.

  6. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  7. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 1 - The Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhamra, T.; Evans, S.; McAloone, Timothy Charles;

    1999-01-01

    environmental decisions into their product development process which is very unusual in that ecodesign is significantly different for the pre- and post-specification stages of the design process. This paper explains the findings related to the first phase being the very early stages of the product development...

  8. Dyadic Intervention for Family Caregivers and Care Receivers in Early-Stage Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlatch, Carol J.; Judge, Katherine; Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention (EDDI) program provides a structured, time-limited protocol of one-on-one and dyadic counseling for family caregivers and care receivers who are in the early stages of dementia. The goals and procedures of EDDI are based on previous research suggesting that dyads would benefit from an intervention…

  9. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  10. Cortical gyrification and sulcal spans in early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition.

  11. Reduced intensity treatment in early-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Prodduturi, Prathima

    2011-01-01

    Prathima Prodduturi, James O ArmitageUniversity of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Early-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma which includes patients with Ann Arbor stages I or II, accounts for more than 50% of all cases of the illness and is curable in a high proportion of patients. Long-term follow-up has shown that the mortality in favorable-risk patients with early-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma is exceeded by other causes including secondary malignancies and cardiac di...

  12. EARLY-STAGE HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA IN A CHILD: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Kandukuri Mahesh; Kazi Wajid; Chinthakindi; Swarupa; Konduru

    2014-01-01

    Of all the paediatric malignancies, lymphomas account for about 10-15% of the cases with half of them diagnosed as Hodgkin’s lymphoma. With a 5-year survival rate approaching 95%, a high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose Hodgkin’s lymphoma at an early stage, since many children in the developing countries present with an advanced stage. We report a typical case of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma, mixed cellularity subtype in a 10-year old girl with early-stage unfavourable disease pres...

  13. Methods for Surgical Targeting of the STN in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camalier, Corrie R; Konrad, Peter E; Gill, Chandler E; Kao, Chris; Remple, Michael R; Nasr, Hana M; Davis, Thomas L; Hedera, Peter; Phibbs, Fenna T; Molinari, Anna L; Neimat, Joseph S; Charles, David

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience progressive neurological decline, and future interventional therapies are thought to show most promise in early stages of the disease. There is much interest in therapies that target the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with surgical access. While locating STN in advanced disease patients (Hoehn-Yahr Stage III or IV) is well understood and routinely performed at many centers in the context of deep brain stimulation surgery, the ability to identify this nucleus in early-stage patients has not previously been explored in a sizeable cohort. We report surgical methods used to target the STN in 15 patients with early PD (Hoehn-Yahr Stage II), using a combination of image guided surgery, microelectrode recordings, and clinical responses to macrostimulation of the region surrounding the STN. Measures of electrophysiology (firing rates and root mean squared activity) have previously been found to be lower than in later-stage patients, however, the patterns of electrophysiology seen and dopamimetic macrostimulation effects are qualitatively similar to those seen in advanced stages. Our experience with surgical implantation of Parkinson's patients with minimal motor symptoms suggest that it remains possible to accurately target the STN in early-stage PD using traditional methods. PMID:24678307

  14. Formation of Jupiter's Core and Early Stages of Envelope Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, G.; Weidenschilling, S.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodenheimer, P.; Hubickyj, O.

    2012-12-01

    We are performing calculations of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core starts as a seed body of a few hundred kilometers in radius and orbits within a swarm of planetesimals whose initial size distribution ranges from ~10 m to ~100 km. The planetesimals are immersed in a gaseous disk, representative of an early solar nebula. The evolution of the swarm of planetesimals accounts for collisions and gravitational stirring due to mutual interactions among bodies, and for migration and velocity damping due to interactions with the nebula gas. Collisions among planetesimals lead to growth and/or fragmentation, altering the size distribution of the swarm over time. Collisions of planetesimals with the seed body lead to its growth, resulting in the formation of a planetary core. Gas capture by the core leads to the accumulation of a tenuous atmosphere, which later becomes a massive envelope, increasing the size-dependent effective cross-section of the planet for planetesimals' accretion. Planetesimals that travel through the core's envelope release energy, affecting the thermal budget of the envelope, and deliver mass, affecting the opacity of the envelope. The calculation of dust opacity, which is especially important for envelope contraction, is performed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust and small particles that are released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. We find that, in a disk of planetesimals with a surface density of about 10 g/cm2 at 5.2 AU, a one Earth mass core accumulates in less than 1e5 years, and that it takes over 1.5e6 years to accumulate a core of 3 Earth masses, when the core's geometrical cross-section is used for the accretion of planetesimals. Gas drag in the core's envelope increases the ability of the planet to accrete planetesimals. Smaller planetesimals are affected to a greater extent than are larger planetesimals. We find that the effective

  15. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  16. Photodynamic Therapy With YAG-OPO Laser for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harubumi Kato

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT utilizing Photofrin is proving to be effective for the treatment of early stage lung cancers. The effect of PDT utilizing YAG-OPO laser as new light source was evaluated in 26 patients (29 lesions with early stage lung cancers. YAG-OPO laser is solid state tunable laser which is easy to change wavelength between 620 and 670 nm exciting various kinds of photosensitizers. Moreover, YAG-OPO laser is more reliable, smaller and has less consumables than argon-dye laser or excimer-dye laser. As the result of PDT with YAG-OPO laser, complete remission (CR was obtained in 82.6% of the 29 lesions, partial remission (PR in 13.8% and no change (NC was obtained in 3.4%. We conclude that PDT utilizing YAG-OPO laser is efficacious in the treatment of early stage lung cancers and can achieve complete remission.

  17. Building energy optimization in the early design stages: A simplified method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    2015-01-01

    . To obtain relevant feedback from multi-objective optimizations in early design stages, evaluation speed is a key concern. The paper presents a fast evaluation method fit for the early design stages. It uses a combination of two different quasi-steady-state methods for energy and indoor environment....... It is concluded, that quasi-steady-state methods implemented as part of integrated dynamic models are fast and flexible enough to support building energy-, indoor environment- and cost-optimization the early design stages.......This paper presents the application of multi-objective genetic algorithms for holistic building design that considers multiple criteria; building energy use, capital cost, daylight distribution and thermal indoor environment. The optimization focus is related to building envelope parameters...

  18. The relation between cognitive impairment and clinical presentation in early stages of Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Căpuşan; Adela M. Şerban; Doina Cosman

    2011-01-01

    Objective: we studied patients in early stage of Parkinson’s disease (PD), after the onset of first motor signs of disease. We evaluated if any cognitive function were affected and if there was a link between such impairment and clinical and imagistic data. Material and Methods: 30 patients previously diagnosed with PD stage I and II were evaluated with COGTEST software. Conclusion: the research concluded that, even if cognitive impairment was detected in patients with tremor, significant def...

  19. Clinical Significance of IGFBP-3 Methylation in Patients with Early Stage Gastric Cancer 1

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Tae Kim; Hye-Lim Jang; Jeeyun Lee; Se Hoon Park; Young Suk Park; Ho Yeong Lim; Min Gew Choi; Jae Moon Bae; Tae Sung Sohn; Jae Hyung Noh; Sung Kim; Kyoung-Mee Kim; Won Ki Kang; Joon Oh Park

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IGFBP-3 is a multifunctional protein that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Hypermethylation of the promoter represses expression of the IGFBP-3 gene. We undertook this study to assess the impact of IGFBP-3 methylation on survival of early stage gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Of the 482 tissue samples from gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery, IGFBP-3 methylation was tested in 138 patients with stage IB/II gastric cancer. We also analyzed ...

  20. Triaging early-stage lung cancer patients into non-surgical pathways: who, when, and what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, Rameses; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring

    2015-08-01

    More lung cancer patients are being diagnosed at an earlier stage due to improved diagnostic imaging techniques, a trend that is expected to accelerate with the dissemination of lung cancer screening. Surgical resection has always been considered the standard treatment for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, non-surgical treatment options for patients with early-stage NSCLC have evolved significantly over the past decade with many new and exciting alternative treatments now available. These alternative treatments include radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), percutaneous cryoablation therapy (PCT), photodynamic therapy (PDT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy. We describe the established alternatives to surgical resection, their advantages and disadvantages, potential complications and efficacy. We then describe the optimal treatment approach for patients with early-stage NSCLC based on tumor operability, size and location. Finally, we discuss future directions and whether any alternative therapies will challenge surgical resection as the treatment of choice for patients with operable early-stage lung cancer. PMID:26380185

  1. Early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the pyriform sinus: A review of treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Krstevska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review of the literature was to present treatment options for early stage pyriform sinus cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma of the pyriform sinus, as the most frequent cancer arising from the hypopharynx, is rarely diagnosed in its early stage. Based on evidence from retrospective studies, conservation surgery and definitive radiotherapy are considered the available treatment modalities for patients presenting with stage T1 and T2 pyriform sinus carcinomas without clinical evidence of neck lymph node metastases, offering similar results with respect to disease control and functional organ preservation. Also, the high risk of occult metastatic nodal disease even in the earliest stage of pyriform sinus cancer entails elective neck dissection or elective neck irradiation to be considered mandatory. However, for patients with early stage pyriform sinus cancer, no level 1 study exists in which conservation surgery is compared with radiotherapy alone for the evaluation of local control or survival. Randomized multicenter controlled trials evaluating efficacy of conservation surgery and definitive radiotherapy, and correctly interpreting functional outcome for each of the treatment procedures examined are necessary to obtain sufficient evidence to influence the decision in the choice of the most effective treatment for early pyriform sinus cancer.

  2. Treatment outcome in patients with triple negative early stage breast cancers compared with other molecular subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Chang, Sei Kyung; Lee, Bo Mi; Shin, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heily [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Presbyterian Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To determine whether triple negative (TN) early stage breast cancers have poorer survival rates compared with other molecular types. Between August 2000 and July 2006, patients diagnosed with stage I, II early stage breast cancers, in whom all three markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER]-2) were available and treated with modified radical mastectomy or breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed. Of 446 patients, 94 (21.1%) were classified as TN, 57 (12.8%) as HER-2 type, and 295 (66.1%) as luminal. TN was more frequently associated with young patients younger than 35 years old (p = 0.002), higher histologic grade (p < 0.0001), and nuclear (p < 0.0001). The median follow-up period was 78 months (range, 4 to 130 months). There were 9 local relapses (2.0%), 15 nodal (3.4%), 40 distant metastases (9.0%), and 33 deaths (7.4%) for all patients. The rates of 5-year OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS for all patients were 95.5%, 89.9%, 95.4%, and 91.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS between triple negative and other subtypes (p > 0.05). We found that patients with TN early stage breast cancers had no difference in survival rates compared with other molecular subtypes. Prospective study in homogeneous treatment group will need for a prognosis of TN early stage breast cancer.

  3. Predictors of recurrence in early stage oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar Mani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many histopathological parameters in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC have been identified as predictive factors. Certain tumor-related factors increase the risk of nodal metastasis, and many pathological factors affect survival. Objective: The objective of this study is to identify that tumor-related histopathological prognostic factors that can predict recurrence and potentially influence the decision for adjuvant radiotherapy in early stage OTSCC. Materials and Methods: A total of 51 patients who underwent surgery for early stage OTSCC (stage I, II from 2007 to 2013 were selected. Demographic and clinical details were retrieved. Histopathological reports were reviewed for the following parameters-Margin status (close <5 mm, positive - Invasive squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], carcinoma in situ, marked dysplasia, microscopic depth of invasion, skeletal muscle infiltration (SMI, tumor differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival (RFS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Predictors of recurrence were identified using Univariate analysis. Results: Median follow-up was 22 months (range, 5-89 months, the overall survival and RFS were 88% and 81% respectively. The recurrence rate was 19.5% during this time period. The only significant predictor of recurrence in pathologically early stage OTSCC was SMI (P = 0.003 on univariate analysis. Eighty-seven percentage of the recurrences in our study occurred within the 1 st year, with a disease specific mortality rate of 12.5%. Conclusion: In early stage OTSCC, Failure occurred predominantly in patients who had SMI.

  4. Microsurgical repair at early stage for soft tissue defect of limbs wounded by modern firearm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋才; 彭学良; 刘荫秋; 赖西南; 李曙光; 王民刚; 黄海洋; 杜全印; 孙红振

    2002-01-01

    To explore an early stage repair method for soft tissue defect of limbs of modern firearm wound, and to improve treating result. Methods: Defects of the hind limbs of dogs were repaired with skin, muscle and myocutaneous flaps. Results: Wounds healed within 2 weeks in the experimental group except one that healed in 3 weeks because of infection. Limb function was close to normal. The treatment result was better in the experimental group than the control. Conclusions: Skin, muscle and myocutaneous flaps can cover soft tissue defect at an early stage, prevent and reduce infection, promote the healing and recovery of combined injury, reduce the time of treatment and disability rate.

  5. Photodynamic Therapy With YAG-OPO Laser for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Harubumi Kato; Tetsuya Okunaka; Chimori Konaka; Kiyoyuki Furuse; Yoko Kusunoki; Takeshi Horai; Nobuhide Takifuji; Syunichi Negoro; Masahiro Fukuoka; Takashi Yaya; Ichiro Kawase

    1997-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizing Photofrin is proving to be effective for the treatment of early stage lung cancers. The effect of PDT utilizing YAG-OPO laser as new light source was evaluated in 26 patients (29 lesions) with early stage lung cancers. YAG-OPO laser is solid state tunable laser which is easy to change wavelength between 620 and 670 nm exciting various kinds of photosensitizers. Moreover, YAG-OPO laser is more reliable, smaller and has less consumables than argon-dye laser ...

  6. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment in the s......Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...

  7. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias;

    Cod (Gadus morhua L.) recruitment success in the central Baltic Sea is influenced by various abiotic and biotic factors, which include ambient salinity and oxygen conditions as well as predation pressure on early life stages by planktivore clupeids, such as sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring...... pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  8. Investigating the Early Stages of Person Perception: The Asymmetry of Social Categorization by Sex vs. Age

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmin Cloutier; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Nalini Ambady

    2014-01-01

    Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimens...

  9. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A.T.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2012-01-01

    differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (<24h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were...... kg of concentrates were strongly constrained by high dietary fiber concentration. They consumed 16.5 g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of body weight and spent more time eating silage than cows offered other diets. The highest concentrate level within each silage quality produced similar or lower ECM...

  10. A quantification model for apoptosis in mouse embryos in the early stage of fetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PengFei; FU JianHua; MA WanYun; CHEN DieYan; Lü DanYu; BAI WenJia

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is the most important inducement and modulator for embryos in the early stage of fetation, i.e. after the 8-cell stage, mostly the morula and blastula stage, to proceed to the stage of nonlinear development. Using a two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) system, we obtained 3-dimensional (3D) fluorescent images of preimplantation mouse embryos. A model for quantification was established. The statistical results for the spatial location of apoptosis bodies in embryos was obtained following image processing, as well as investigation of the kinetics of apoptosis. It was found that most (70%) apoptosis occurred in the trophectoderm, and the departure between the centroid and geometric center of embryos had a step transition when embryos developed into the 32-cell stage,which was consistent with the theoretical prediction that the blastocele would induce a symmetry break of the distribution of cells in embryos.

  11. A quantification model for apoptosis in mouse embryos in the early stage of fetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is the most important inducement and modulator for embryos in the early stage of fetation, i.e. after the 8-cell stage, mostly the morula and blastula stage, to proceed to the stage of nonlinear development. Using a two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) system, we obtained 3-dimensional (3D) fluorescent images of preimplantation mouse embryos. A model for quantification was established. The statistical results for the spatial location of apoptosis bodies in embryos was obtained following image processing, as well as investigation of the kinetics of apoptosis. It was found that most (70%) apoptosis occurred in the trophectoderm, and the departure between the centroid and geometric center of embryos had a step transition when embryos developed into the 32-cell stage, which was consistent with the theoretical prediction that the blastocele would induce a symmetry break of the distribution of cells in embryos.

  12. Reduced intensity treatment in early-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armitage JO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathima Prodduturi, James O ArmitageUniversity of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Early-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma which includes patients with Ann Arbor stages I or II, accounts for more than 50% of all cases of the illness and is curable in a high proportion of patients. Long-term follow-up has shown that the mortality in favorable-risk patients with early-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma is exceeded by other causes including secondary malignancies and cardiac disease. Over the decades the treatment paradigm in Hodgkin’s lymphoma has evolved from extended field radiotherapy to combined modality therapy using involved field radiotherapy to using chemotherapy alone. The data on long-term complications from using low dose and limited field radiation therapy is still awaited since we know that most of the secondary malignancies occur late (ie, more than 10 years after the treatment. By changing the chemotherapy regimens from mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone (MOPP to doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD the incidence of infertility and leukemia has been reduced. Since the late toxicity was high with radiotherapy, recent studies have focused on using chemotherapy alone. The results of interim positron emission tomography (PET scans after two cycles of chemotherapy are being tested to see whether minimizing therapy in rapidly-responding patients will still maintain excellent cure rates. Here, we have reviewed some of the important clinical trials in early-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma and focus on some of the recent trials emphasizing reduced intensity treatment in early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma.Keywords: Hodgkin’s lymphoma, treatment, early-stage, intensity, mortality

  13. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  14. Sentinel node dissection is safe in the treatment of early-stage vulvar cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, A.G. Van der; Oonk, M.H.; Hullu, J.A. de; Ansink, A.C.; Vergote, I.; Verheijen, R.H.; Maggioni, A.; Gaarenstroom, K.N.; Baldwin, P.J.; Dorst, E.B. van; Velden, J. van der; Hermans, R.H.; Putten, H. van der; Drouin, P.; Schneider, A.; Sluiter, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the safety and clinical utility of the sentinel node procedure in early-stage vulvar cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter observational study on sentinel node detection using radioactive tracer and blue dye was performed in patients with T1/2 (< 4 cm) squamous

  15. 77 FR 74908 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... evaluation criteria for an Early Stage SBIC, including the vintage year and geographic diversification... they commence operations (``vintage year'') and (ii) geographic location. 1. Vintage Year Diversification. Vintage year has a major impact on the return expectations of a fund and excessive...

  16. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes predicts severe weight loss in patients with early stage laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langius, Jacqueline A. E.; Doornaert, Patricia; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although patients with early stage (T1/T2) laryngeal cancer (LC) are thought to have a low incidence of malnutrition, severe weight loss is observed in a subgroup of these patients during radiotherapy (RI). The objective of this study was to evaluate weight loss and nutrition

  17. Sydney, Australia Community Meets Classroom: Celebrating Families and Difference in the Early Stages of Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kellie

    2006-01-01

    Teachers and teacher educators are often hard pressed to find resources that creatively integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex issues into the early stages of primary education. While there is a growing number of academics who stress the importance of addressing topics of sexual and gender diversity during the early…

  18. Focal Targeted Therapy Will Be a Future Treatment Modality for Early Stage Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M.C.H. de la Rosette; V. Mouraviev; T.J. Polascik

    2009-01-01

    Context: Focal targeted therapy of early stage prostate cancer (PCa) can ideally facilitate the concept of personalized medicine in contemporary surgical oncology. Objective: To present indications and outcomes of subtotal glandular ablation. This treatment approach aims at the elimination of the ca

  19. Early-stage cervical carcinoma, radical hysterectomy, and sexual function. A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille T; Groenvold, Mogens; Klee, Marianne C;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited knowledge exists concerning the impact of radical hysterectomy (RH) alone on the sexual function of patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma. The authors investigated the longitudinal course of self-reported sexual function after RH. METHODS: The current study was comprise...

  20. ECT2 amplification and overexpression as a new prognostic biomarker for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshihiko; Minami, Yuko; Iwakawa, Reika; Yokota, Jun; Usui, Shingo; Tsuta, Koji; Shiraishi, Kouya; Sakashita, Shingo; Satomi, Kaishi; Iijima, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Masayuki

    2014-04-01

    Genetic abnormality in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma was examined to search for new prognostic biomarkers. Six in situ lung adenocarcinomas and nine small but invasive adenocarcinomas were examined by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and candidate genes of interest were screened. To examine gene abnormalities, 83 cases of various types of lung carcinoma were examined by quantitative real-time genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results were then verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas. Array-comparative genomic hybridization indicated frequent amplification at chromosome 3q26. Of the seven genes located in this region, we focused on the epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) oncogene, as ECT2 amplification was detected only in invasive adenocarcinoma, and not in in situ carcinoma. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses also detected overexpression of ECT2 in invasive adenocarcinoma, and this was correlated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and mitotic index. In addition, it was associated with disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. These results were verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas resected at another hospital. Abnormality of the ECT2 gene occurs at a relatively early stage of lung adenocarcinogenesis and would be applicable as a new biomarker for prognostication of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24484057

  1. Cognitive impairment in early-stage non-demented Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Helle Cecilie Viekilde; Løkkegaard, A; Zoetmulder, Marielle;

    2013-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) are common. PD-MCI is a risk factor for developing PDD. Knowledge of cognition in early-stages PD is essential in understanding and predicting the dementia process....

  2. Early-Stage Comparative Sustainability Assessment of New Bio-based Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.D.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Uil, den H.; Jong, de E.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analy

  3. 77 FR 25042 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... assets or cash flow for traditional bank funding. Although the venture capital industry provided over $22... form of SBA- guaranteed debentures to SBICs that plan to provide early stage venture capital financing... such as the Institutional Limited Partners Association, the National Venture Capital Association,...

  4. 76 FR 76907 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... provide early stage venture capital financing to small businesses. The standard debenture is generally... operating history may qualify under this definition. The venture capital industry employs various... investment fund draws its initial capital from investors). Because of the cyclical nature of venture...

  5. Building performance simulation in the early design stage: An introduction to integrated dynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    , a visual programming language and a BPS to provide better support for the designer during the early stages of design as opposed to alternatives such as the current implementation of IFC or gbXML or the unaccompanied use of simulation packages. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for a Vietnam Veteran with PTSD and Early-Stage Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duax, Jeanne M.; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Adams, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Although prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is considered an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, there has been little published about the use of this treatment for older adults with comorbid early-stage dementia. As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, so will their unique mental health needs. The present article…

  7. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. karakullukcu (Baris); K. Oudenaarde (Kim); M.P. Copper (Marcel); W.M.C. Klop; R. van Veen (Robert); M. Wildeman (Maarten); I. Bing Tan

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis

  8. Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People with Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia E.; Watson, Jennifer; Rice-Oeschger, Laura; Kakos, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a l0-session group program designed to provide information about…

  9. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  10. Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  11. Patterns of recurrence and survival after surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage NSCLC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Liseth L.; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Widder, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Surgery is the standard treatment for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For medically inoperable patients, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has emerged as widely used standard treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze survival and patterns of tumor recurren

  12. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  13. Target volume delineation variation in radiotherapy for early stage rectal cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Jasper; de Haas-Kock, Danielle F. M.; Beukema, Jannet C.; Neelis, Karen J.; Woutersen, Dankert; Ceha, Heleen; Rozema, Tom; Slot, Annerie; Vos-Westerman, Hanneke; Intven, Martijn; Spruit, Patty H.; van der Linden, Yvette; Geijsen, Debby; Verschueren, Karijn; van Herk, Marcel B.; Marijnen, Corrie A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure and improve the quality of target volume delineation by means of national consensus on target volume definition in early-stage rectal cancer. Methods and materials: The CTV's for eight patients were delineated by 11 radiation oncologists in 10 institutes

  14. A step-by-step approach to early stage cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, J. van de

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of choice for early stage cervical cancer to date has been a radical hysterectomy including pelvic lymph node dissection. In case of more extensive disease chemoradiation is given in an adjuvant setting. On one hand the combination of both modalities may lead to severe morbidity, and,

  15. 77 FR 25775 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... startups and small firms, accelerating research, and addressing barriers to success for entrepreneurs and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage SBICs AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...

  16. 76 FR 81430 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...- creating startups and small firms, accelerate research, and address barriers to success for entrepreneurs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 Small Business Investment Companies--Early Stage SBICs; Public Webinars AGENCY:...

  17. Treatment of Early-Stage Pressure Ulcers by Using Autologous Adipose Tissue Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Francesco Marangi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients.

  18. Test Design Optimization in CAT Early Stage with the Nominal Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E.

    2007-01-01

    The early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) refers to the phase of the trait estimation during the administration of only a few items. This phase can be characterized by bias and instability of estimation. In this study, an item selection criterion is introduced in an attempt to lessen this instability: the D-optimality criterion. A…

  19. Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2013-01-01

    This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

  20. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  1. Assessment of Early Stage Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’sDisease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Gümüş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, our purpose is, in the early stage of PD, examining the frequency of occurrence of non-motor symptoms and discussing the effects of morbidity of disease. METHODS: Selcuk University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Neurology outpatient clinic in the study, which is followed by the United Kingdom Brain Bank criteria for Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease diagnosis and clinical staging according to Hoehn Yahr stages 1 and 2 of the 80 patients were studied. RESULTS: Cases, an increase in UPDRS scores were significantly higher non-motor symptoms. CONCLUSION: Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease can often go unnoticed. Symptomatic treatment is an important part of the success. Therefore, PH and the non-motor symptoms, early detection is important to treat them in accordance with.

  2. The δ-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis of Brassica rapa L. under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, O. A.; Popova, A. F.

    We present some results of comparison studying of Brassica embryo development and the δ-cyclin genes expression under slow horizontal clinorotation and in the laboratory control. Some backlog of the δ1-cyclin genes expression at early stages of embryogenesis under clinorotation was revealed in comparison with the laboratory control. The similar level of the δ3-cyclin expression at all stages of embryo formation (from one to nine days) in both variants is shown. Some delays in the rate of Brassica rapa embryo development under clinorotation in comparison with the laboratory control can be a result of decrease of a level and some backlog of the δ1-cyclin expression at early stages of embryogenesis.

  3. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the early stages of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees...... of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system.......The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. The overall aim...

  4. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.

  5. Dosemetric Parameters Predictive of Rib Fractures after Proton Beam Therapy for Early-Stage Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yojiro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Kato, Takahiro; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Motohisa; Azami, Yusuke; Hareyama, Masato; Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Proton beam therapy (PBT) is the preferred modality for early-stage lung cancer. Compared with X-ray therapy, PBT offers good dose concentration as revealed by the characteristics of the Bragg peak. Rib fractures (RFs) after PBT lead to decreased quality of life for patients. However, the incidence of and the risk factors for RFs after PBT have not yet been clarified. We therefore explored the relationship between irradiated rib volume and RFs after PBT for early-stage lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and the risk factors for RFs following PBT for early-stage lung cancer. We investigated 52 early-stage lung cancer patients and analyzed a total of 215 irradiated ribs after PBT. Grade 2 RFs occurred in 12 patients (20 ribs); these RFs were symptomatic without displacement. No patient experienced more severe RFs. The median time to grade 2 RFs development was 17 months (range: 9-29 months). The three-year incidence of grade 2 RFs was 30.2%. According to the analysis comparing radiation dose and rib volume using receiver operating characteristic curves, we demonstrated that the volume of ribs receiving more than 120 Gy3 (relative biological effectiveness (RBE)) was more than 3.7 cm(3) at an area under the curve of 0.81, which increased the incidence of RFs after PBT (P < 0.001). In this study, RFs were frequently observed following PBT for early-stage lung cancer. We demonstrated that the volume of ribs receiving more than 120 Gy3 (RBE) was the most significant parameter for predicting RFs. PMID:27087118

  6. Transarterial chemoembolization in very early and early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma patients excluded from curative treatment: A prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess clinical outcome of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in a series of patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), within Milan criteria, but clinically unfit for liver transplantation (OLT). Methods: From January 2006 to May 2009, 67 patients (43 males, mean age 70 ± 7.6 years) with very early or early-stage unresectable HCC, within Milan selection criteria but clinically unfit for OLT, underwent TACE. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were: safety, liver toxicity, 1-month tumour response according to the amended RECIST criteria, time to local and distant intrahepatic tumour recurrence and time to radiological progression. Results: Two major periprocedural complications occurred (3%), consisting of liver failure. Periprocedural mortality rate was 1.5% (1 patient). A significant increase in ALT and bilirubin levels 24 h after treatment was reported, with progressive decrease at discharge. At 1-month follow-up, complete and partial tumour response rates were 67.2% and 29.8%, respectively, with two cases of progressive disease. Mean follow-up was 37.3 ± 15 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 90.9%, 86.1%, and 80.5%, respectively. Median expected time to local tumour recurrence and intrahepatic tumour recurrence were 7.9 and 13.8 months, respectively. Radiological disease progression was observed in 12 patients (17.9%) with a mean expected time of 26.5 months. Conclusion: In patients with early-stage HCC, clinically excluded from OLT and unfit for surgery or percutaneous ablation, TACE is a safe and effective option, with favourable long-term survival.

  7. A role for E2-2 at the DN3 stage of early thymopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Ingela; Forssell, Johan; Penha-Goncalves, Mario N;

    2008-01-01

    proteins, Id2 displayed a prominent expression exclusively in DN1, whereas Id3 showed some expression in DN1, followed by a down regulation and then a prominent induction, peaking in the DP stage. E2-2 was expressed during the DN stages, as well as in the DP stage, suggesting that E2-2 operates in concert...... with the other E-proteins during early thymocyte development. We found that E2-2 null thymocytes displayed a partial block at the DN3 stage of development, as well as a reduced expression of pre-T alpha, known to be regulated also by E2A and HEB. The fact that E2-2 deficient thymocytes develop without gross...

  8. Histological study of the early stage of 32P-induced experimental osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P radioisotope as an orthophosphate solution was injected intraperitoneally into C.F. Wistar strain albino rats to induce primary osteosarcoma. To capture the early stage of tumor formation, bone scintigraphy employing technetium-99m ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and soft radiography were conducted from week 16 after the beginning of 32P administration. The histological findings were compared at the stages when both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram showed no abnormalities (Group A), the soft radiogram showed no abnormality but the bone scintigram revealed abnormal deposition (Group B), similar findings to those in Group B were obtained but 2 weeks later (Group C), and both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram were positive (Group D). The histological picture before osteosarcoma formation demonstrated a marked reduction of bone marrow tissue, many irregular bone trabeculae in the metaphysis due to abnormal endochondral ossification, and zonal obliteration of the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. The histological findings at the ultra-early stage of osteosarcoma formation included irregularity in the growing cartilage zone and highly atypical osteoblast-like cells among the irregular trabeculae. Osteoid formation occurred 2 weeks later. In conclusion, we were able to observe the morphological changes of the osteosarcoma tissue at a very early stage of tumor formation. (author)

  9. Plausibility in Early Stages of Architectural Design: A New Tool for High-Rise Residential Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk Donath; Danny Lobos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of the design of envelopes for high-rise isolated residential build-ings. The phenomenon of envelope creation appears in the early stages of the architectural design. Vari-ables that influence the final shape and size of such envelopes are then identified. This paper presents the state-of-the-art tools for the current solutions at the commercial and academic/scientific level. The variables identified in this research are the client's needs, the urban code and architectural practice, and their specific components for the final creation of a new decision support system tool based on the building information modeling (BIM) software platform, to facilitate the work in the project development and drawing production stages. This tool generates several options for building envelopes according to the parameters required by the city Zoning Planning Commission. These options then lead to deliver reliable data and a geometry that can be analyzed in a timely fashion by the engineers, builders, architects, government, and clients in the early stages of the building's design. The results show that use of specific information and communication technologies (ICT) tools in the early stages of a building design helps reduce the working time, increases confidence in the generated solution, and contributes to the exploration of altematives in a short period of time.

  10. Effects of copper on early developmental stages of Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Phaeophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Loretto [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); Medina, Matias H. [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); CIIMAR - Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Andrade, Santiago [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); Oppliger, Valeria [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile); Correa, Juan A. [Departamento de Ecologia, Center for Advanced Studies in Ecology and Biodiversity, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Post-code 6513677, Alameda 340, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: jcorrea@bio.puc.cl

    2007-01-15

    Copper effects on the early developmental gametophytic and sporophytic stages of the kelp Lessonia nigrescens were tested in gradients of increasing concentrations of ASV-labile copper. The results demonstrated a high sensitivity to copper of all life-history stages of the alga, where even the lowest tested concentration affected spore release as well as their subsequent settlement. More significant, concentrations higher than 7.87 {mu}g L{sup -1} totally interrupted the development of the spores after they settle. This effect led to a failure in the formation of male and female gametophytes and, as a consequence, to a complete disruption of the normal life cycle of the kelp. Thus, we suggest that the absence of L. nigrescens from copper-enriched environments results from the high sensitivity of its early life cycle stages, which limits growth and maturation of the gametophytic microscopic phase and, as a consequence, prevents development of the macroscopic sporophytic phase. - Early developmental stages of Lessonia nigrescens are highly sensitive to copper.

  11. Radiofrequency ablation versus resection for Barcelona clinic liver cancer very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He ZX

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhen-Xin He,1 Pu Xiang,2 Jian-Ping Gong,1 Nan-Sheng Cheng,3 Wei Zhang4 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, 3Department of Bile Duct Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 4Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Yue Bei People’s Hospital, Shaoguan, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Aim: To compare the long-term survival outcomes of radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early/early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods: The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2015, Embase (1974 to March 15, 2015, PubMed (1950 to March 15, 2015, Web of Science (1900 to March 15, 2015, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to March 15, 2015 were searched to identify relevant trials. Only trials that compared radiofrequency ablation and liver resection for single very early stage (≤2 cm or early stage (≤3 cm HCC according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC staging system were considered for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year overall survival (OS rates, and the secondary outcomes that we analyzed were the 3-year and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS rates. Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform a cumulative meta-analysis. Possible publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. A random-effects model was applied to summarize the various outcomes. Results: Six studies involving 947 patients were identified that compared radiofrequency ablation (n=528 to liver resection (n=419 for single BCLC very early HCC. In these six studies, the rates of 3-year OS, 5-year OS, 3-year DFS, and 5-year DFS were significantly lower in the radiofrequency ablation group than in the liver resection group (risk ratio [RR] =0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83–0.98, P=0.01; RR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.95, P=0.004; RR =0.77, 95% CI

  12. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI. PMID:23329298

  13. Complications after radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy in early-stage cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdin, E. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Gynecologic Oncology, Uppsala (Sweden); Cnattingius, S. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Social Medicine, Uppsala (Sweden); Johnson, P. [Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate the overall complications, major as well as minor, in patients treated for early-stage cervical carcinoma as related to treatment parameters. Methods: In this retrospective study, 167 consecutive patients with early-stage cervical carcinoma treated with preoperative radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy were investigated. Clinical data were collected from the medical files. Results: Transient or permanent complications appeared in up to half of all patients. Seven percent exhibited intraoperative complications and 35% suffered from early postoperative urinary tract problems; most frequently urinary tract infection. After one year, the urinary tract complications dominated; voidance difficulties and incontinence being most common. Gastrointestinal complications occurred in 15% of patients. Lymphedema appeared during the first year in 21% of the patients but several of the mild or moderate cases improved after the first year. The relative risk of lymphedema was increased with shorter duration of surgery, extensive preoperative irradiation to the bladder and after external postoperative irradiation. Some form of late sequelae remained in every fifth patient, and every fourth patient, aged 23-44 years, periodically suffered from vasomotor symptoms despite estrogen replacement therapy. Conclusion: The complications after radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy in early stage cervical carcinoma suggest that attempts should be made to evaluate effective treatments designed to minimize risk to the patients. (au) 29 refs.

  14. Lycopene induces apoptosis in Candida albicans through reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun

    2015-08-01

    Lycopene, a well-known carotenoid pigment found in tomatoes, has shown various biological functions. In our previous report, we showed that lycopene induces two apoptotic hallmarks, plasma membrane depolarization and G2/M cell cycle arrest, in Candida albicans. In this study, we investigated the ability of lycopene to induce apoptosis, and the mechanism by which it regulates apoptosis. FITC-Annexin V staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) assay showed that lycopene exerted its antifungal activity during the early and late stages of apoptosis in C. albicans. During apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased, and specifically the hydroxyl radicals contributed to the fungal cell death. Furthermore, lycopene treatment caused intracellular Ca(2+) overload and mitochondrial dysfunction, such as mitochondrial depolarization and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. At last caspase activation was triggered. In summary, lycopene exerted its antifungal effects against C. albicans by inducing apoptosis via ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  15. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  16. Radiation protection during the early stages of site decommissioning at the UKAEA's Dounreay site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the experience gained during the various stages of decommissioning in the fast reactors and nuclear fuel cycle reprocessing plants, focusing on the Dounreay Fast Reactor, the Prototype Fast Reactor, a criticality test facility, fuel reprocessing plants, laboratories and associated environment. The UKAEA at Dounreay is dedicated to restoring the environment both safely and cost effectively. This paper discusses the practical radiation protection issues that have been encountered during the early stages of a number of decommissioning projects on the site. The conference presentation will give an update on our experience and discuss lessons learnt

  17. Chemotherapy plus involved-field radiation in early-stage Hodgkin's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fermé, Christophe; Eghbali, Houchingue; Meerwaldt, Jacobus; Rieux, Chantal; Bosq, Jacques; Berger, Françoise; Girinsky, Théodore; Brice, Pauline; Veer, Mars; Walewski, Jan; Lederlin, Pierre; Tirelli, Umberto; Carde, Patrice; Neste, Eric,; Gyan, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin's disease is usually tailored in line with prognostic factors that allow for reductions in the amount of chemotherapy and extent of radiotherapy required for a possible cure. METHODS: From 1993 to 1999, we identified 1538 patients (age, 15 to 70 years) who had untreated stage I or II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease with favorable prognostic features (the H8-F trial) or unfavorable features (the H8-U trial). In the H8-F trial, we co...

  18. Advances in Medical Management of Early Stage and Advanced Breast Cancer: 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherby, Sabrina; Rizack, Tina; Sakr, Bachir J; Legare, Robert D; Sikov, William M

    2016-01-01

    Standard management of early stage and advanced breast cancer has been improved over the past few years by knowledge gained about the biology of the disease, results from a number of eagerly anticipated clinical trials and the development of novel agents that offer our patients options for improved outcomes or reduced toxicity or both. This review highlights recent major developments affecting the systemic therapy of breast cancer, broken down by clinically relevant patient subgroups and disease stage, and briefly discusses some of the ongoing controversies in the treatment of breast cancer and promising therapies on the horizon.

  19. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dun [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Chen, Hai-Xiao, E-mail: Hxchen-1@163.net [Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Yu, Hai-Qiang [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Liang, Yong; Wang, Carrie [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Lian, Qing-Quan [The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); Deng, Hai-Teng, E-mail: dengh@mail.rockefeller.edu [Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Ge, Ren-Shan, E-mail: rge@popcbr.rockefeller.edu [Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not form a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.

  20. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Adjuvant Management of Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Andrew O; Gaffney, David K; Jhingran, Anuja; Yashar, Catheryn M; Biagioli, Matthew; Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Jolly, Shruti; Kidd, Elizabeth; Lee, Larissa J; Li, Linna; Moore, David H; Rao, Gautam G; Williams, Ned L; Small, William

    2016-09-15

    These consensus guidelines on adjuvant radiotherapy for early-stage endometrial cancer were developed from an expert panel convened by the American College of Radiology. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria® are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method; and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation, or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. After a review of the published literature, the panel voted on three variants to establish best practices for the utilization of imaging, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy after primary surgery for early-stage endometrial cancer. PMID:27633412

  1. Transarterial embolization chemotherapy at early stage after hepatectomy of 45 patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao-long; ZHU Wei-bing; FANG Xue-jun; ZHOU jie; ZOU Yan-tai; LIN Jian-hua; LIN Zhi-qi; YU Xiao-yuan; L(U) Xiang-zhi

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effect of transarterial embolization (TAE) at early stage postoperatively to prevent tumor recurence after hepatectomy in patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Forty-five volunteer patients with large HCC received TAE 2 to 4 weeks after the hepatectomy. Another 48 patients with large HCC without postoperative TAE treatment served as control. Results: No severe complications associated with TAE or hepatectomy occurred, and follow-up visit of all patients revealed that 1-year recurrence rate for patients with PAE was markedly lower than those without (43.24 %vs 70.73%, P<0.05). Conclusion: The treatment with TAE at early stage after hepatectomy is safe and feasible for the patients with liver function Child-Pugh score not higher than 8, and it may help reduce the postoperative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Tn5-induced pBS286 plasmid mutations blocking early stages of napthalene oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present data on the further analysis of the structural and functional organization of the nah region of plasmid pBS286 controlling the constitutive oxidation of naphthalene by Pseudomonas putida cells. They have studied Tn5-induced mutations blocking early stages of naphthalene oxidation. They present and discuss data providing evidence that, in contrast to plasmid NAH7, the mechanism of regulation of the nahl operon of plasmid NPL-1, the parent plasmid of plasmid pBS286, with inducible synthesis of naphthalene dioxygenase can include elements of a negative control with participation of the regulatory locus R, located proximal to the structural nah genes and closely linked to or overlapped by the inverted control DNA segment (4.2 kb). They also present data on the possibility of regulation of the activity of the catechol-splitting meta-pathway genes with the participation of products of early stages of naphthalene oxidation

  3. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  4. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.O.; Orton, M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, B. [Univ. of Leicester, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, Leicester (United Kingdom); Tofts, P.S. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Univ. of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Sussex (United Kingdom); Buckley, D.L. [University of Leeds, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Huang, W. [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Advanced Imaging Research Centre, Portland, OR (United States); Horsfield, M.A. [Medical Physics Section, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chenevert, T.L. [Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Collins, D.J. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jackson, A. [Univ. of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Withington, Manchester, M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Lomas, D. [Univ. of Cambridge, Dept. of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Whitcher, B. [Unit 2 Greenways Business Park, Mango Solutions, Chippenham (United Kingdom); Clarke, L. [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States); Plummer, R. [Univ. of Newcastle Upon Tyne, The Medical School, Medical Oncology, Northern Inst. for Cancer Research, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Judson, I. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jones, R. [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Alonzi, R. [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood (United Kingdom); Brunner, T. [Gray Inst. for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Koh, D.M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Diagnostic Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2012-07-15

    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  5. Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed Ahmed; Skoetz, Nicole;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined modality treatment (CMT) consisting of chemotherapy followed by localised radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, due to long term adverse effects such as secondary malignancies, the role of radiotherapy has been...... questioned recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing chemotherapy alone with CMT in patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma with respect...... to response rate, progression-free survival (alternatively tumour control) and overall survival (OS). SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL as well as conference proceedings from January 1980 to November 2010 for randomised controlled trials comparing chemotherapy alone to the same...

  6. [Factors influencing the effectiveness of ergotherapy in the early rehabilitation stage in patients with cerebral stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushevichene, D P; Krishchiunas, A I; Savitskas, R Iu

    2007-01-01

    An objective of the study was to assess factors influencing the effectiveness of ergotherapy in the early rehabilitation stage depending on the character and localization of cerebral stroke, degree of brain damage, age and sex of the patient. One hundred patients, 47 men and 53 women, with verified ischemic or hemorrhage cerebral stroke were examined. The Functional Independence Scale was used to assess the degree of rehabilitation of cognitive and psychosocial functions. After the evaluation of disturbances of patient's daily activity, the individual complexes of ergotherapy were worked out in order to improve this kind of activity and self-service. The data obtained revealed that age, sex, degree of brain damage and character of stroke influenced the effectiveness of ergotherapy in the early rehabilitation stage. The best effectiveness was observed in men (p < 0.05), in cases up to 59 years (p < 0.05), in hemiparesis (p < 0.05) and in hemorrhage stroke. PMID:18924475

  7. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  8. Early stages of precipitation in Mg-RE alloys studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlček, M.; Čížek, J.; Melikhova, O.; Hruška, P.; Procházka, I.; Vlach, M.; Stulíková, I.; Smola, B.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with rare earth (RE) elements are promising structural materials exhibiting favourable mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. However, the processes occurring during early stages of precipitation in these alloys are still not completely understood. In this work positron lifetime spectroscopy combined with coincidence Doppler broadening was employed for investigation of early stages of precipitation in Mg-RE alloys. Presence of quenched-in vacancy clusters was observed after solution treatment of studied alloys. These quenched-in vacancy clusters are bound to RE solutes and thereby stabilized at room temperature. During natural aging, RE clusters are formed by vacancy-assisted long-range diffusion. In addition, hardness of studied materials increases and quenched-in vacancy clusters are annealed out during the course of natural aging. Simple model was developed to describe hardening during natural aging.

  9. Extended Culture of Early Stage Embryos in Frozen-thawed Cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-bo WANG; Yan-hui LI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of extended culture of early stage embryos on pregnancy outcome of frozen embryo transfer (FET).Methods The survival rates of embryos after thawing and pregnancy outcome following FET were compared retrospectively between zygote and cleavage embryos which cultured to cleavage stage or extended cultured to blastocysts. Results A total of 425 zygote embryos in 67 cycles were thawed. After thawing, the survival rate was 94.4% and with an average transfer of 2.8 embryos, the clinical pregnancy rate was 55.2% (37/67). In 222 FET cycles, totally 1 270 cleavage stage embryos were thawed and the overall survival rates were 80.3%. With an average transfer of 2.7 embryos, the clinical pregnancy rate was 55.4% (123/222). A significantly lower percentage of degenerated embryos were found for zygotes (5.6%) than that for cleavage stage embryos (19.7%) (P0.05). Conclusion Although the clinical pregnancy rate was not different between patients with freeze-thaw zygote and cleavage stage embryo transfer, higher survival rate for zygote was shown compared with that for cleavage stage embryo. However, the present studies did not demonstrate that extended culture thawing embryos to blastocyst could achieve favor clinical outcome.

  10. Targeted labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid in a chorioallantoic membrane model with upconversion nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Liu; J.A. Holz; Y. Ding; X. Liu; Y. Zhang; L. Tu; X. Kong; B. Priem; A. Nadort; S.A.G. Lambrechts; M.C.G. Aalders; W.J. Buma; Y. Liu; H. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In vivo detection of cancer at an early-stage, i.e. smaller than 2 mm, is a challenge in biomedicine. In this work target labeling of an early-stage tumor spheroid (similar to 500 mu m) is realized for the first time in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model with monoclonal antibody fun

  11. Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H-H.; Hüssy, K.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    explicit understanding of both the spawning stock size and the early life stage dynamics is required. The objectives of this study are to assess the transport of western Baltic cod early life stages as well as the variability in environmentally-mediated survival along drift routes in relation to both...

  12. The D-Optimality Item Selection Criterion in the Early Stage of CAT: A Study with the Graded Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E. S.

    2008-01-01

    During the early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), item selection criteria based on Fisher"s information often produce less stable latent trait estimates than the Kullback-Leibler global information criterion. Robustness against early stage instability has been reported for the D-optimality criterion in a polytomous CAT with the…

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Phosphoproteins in the Rice Nucleus During the Early Stage of Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Yang, Pingfang; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-01

    The early stage of seed germination is the first step in the plant life cycle without visible morphological change. To investigate the mechanism controlling the early stage of rice seed germination, we performed gel-and label-free nuclear phosphoproteomics. A total of 3467 phosphopeptides belonging to 102 nuclear phosphoproteins from rice embryos were identified. Protein-synthesis-related proteins were mainly phosphorylated. During the first 24 h following imbibition, 115 nuclear phosphoproteins were identified, and significant changes in the phosphorylation level over time were observed in 29 phosphoproteins. Cluster analysis indicated that nucleotide-binding proteins and zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins increased in abundance during the first 12 h of imbibition and then decreased. The in silico protein-protein interactions for 29 nuclear phosphoproteins indicated that the Sas10/Utp3 protein, which functions in snoRNA binding and gene silencing, was the center of the phosphoprotein network in nuclei. The germination rate of seeds was significantly slowed with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. The mRNA expression of the zinc finger CCCH-type protein did not change, and the zinc finger BED-type protein was upregulated in rice embryos during the early stage of germination with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. These results suggest that the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear proteins are involved in rice seed germination. Furthermore, transcription factors such as zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins might play a key role through nuclear phosphoproteins, and Sas10/Utp3 protein might interact with nuclear phosphoproteins in rice embryos to mediate the early stage of seed germination. PMID:26035336

  14. Cognitive rehabilitation for elderly people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive rehabilitation including tasks of cognitive training on performance of everyday activities in elderly people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three elderly people (15 men, 28 women) with a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease who had a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 18 or above were randomly assigned to two groups: the cognitive rehabilitation group (experimental) and co...

  15. ECT2 amplification and overexpression as a new prognostic biomarker for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Yoshihiko; Minami, Yuko; Iwakawa, Reika; Yokota, Jun; Usui, Shingo; Tsuta, Koji; Shiraishi, Kouya; Sakashita, Shingo; Satomi, Kaishi; IIJIMA, TATSUO; Noguchi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Genetic abnormality in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma was examined to search for new prognostic biomarkers. Six in situ lung adenocarcinomas and nine small but invasive adenocarcinomas were examined by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and candidate genes of interest were screened. To examine gene abnormalities, 83 cases of various types of lung carcinoma were examined by quantitative real-time genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results were then verified using another set of e...

  16. Comparing Stochastic Differential Equations and Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation for Early-Stage Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Figueredo, Grazziela P.; Peer-Olaf Siebers; Owen, Markus R.; Jenna Reps; Uwe Aickelin

    2014-01-01

    There is great potential to be explored regarding the use of agent-based modelling and simulation as an alternative paradigm to investigate early-stage cancer interactions with the immune system. It does not suffer from some limitations of ordinary differential equation models, such as the lack of stochasticity, representation of individual behaviours rather than aggregates and individual memory. In this paper we investigate the potential contribution of agent-based modelling and simulation w...

  17. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness

    OpenAIRE

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse...

  18. Is Ovarian Preservation Feasible in Early-Stage Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix?

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Huaiwu; Li, Jing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Dongyan; Lin, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    Background In cervical adenocarcinoma, surgical treatment involves bilateral oophorectomy, which affects the long-term quality of life. The aim of our study was to access the incidence of ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of these patients to preserve the ovaries. Material/Methods A total 101 patients with cervical adenocarcinoma who had undergone radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and bilateral oophorectomy were...

  19. Effect Coke and Metal Deposition on Catalyst Deactivation of Early Stages of Resid Hydrodesulfurization Operation

    OpenAIRE

    出井, 一夫; 高橋, 武重; 甲斐, 敬美; IDEI, Kazuo; TAKAHASHI, Takeshige; KAI, Takami

    2001-01-01

    The hydrodesulfurization reaction with two kinds of atmospheric residues was carried out over three kinds of catalysts with different mean pore diameters to obtain catalysts with different deposited amounts of coke and metal on their surfaces. Elemental analysis and physical properties were carried out to elucidate the effects of coke and metal depositions on catalyst deactivation at an early stage of the reaction. Coke density (pc) and metal density (pm) calculated from the mean pore diamete...

  20. A grounded theory exploration of the experiences of the early stages of anorexia in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Koruth, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Background: Anorexia Nervosa is mental health problem which crosses both psychological and physical realms. It is also known to be a difficulty that often arises in adolescence. Unfortunately its prognosis is not favourable with elevated rates of chronicity and a higher mortality rate than any other psychiatric disorder in adolescence. Objectives: This research set out to explore the experiences of young people about the early stages of Anorexia. It was anticipated that this wo...

  1. Ultrastructure of basement membranes in monkey and shark teeth at an early stage of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    The basement membrane, which separates the inner enamel epithelium from the dental papilla in the early stages of tooth development, is known to play a significant role in odontogenesis. In this review article, this basement membrane was described in detail based on our recent findings with the use of high-resolution electron microscopy. Tooth germs of a monkey (Macaca fuscata) and a shark (Cephaloscyllium umbratile) were processed for thin-section observations. During the early stage of development, the basement membrane of the inner enamel (dental) epithelium was composed of a lamina lucida, lamina densa, and much wider lamina fibroreticularis. At higher magnification, the lamina densa in both species was made up of a fine network of cords, which are generally the main constituents of the basement membranes. In the monkey tooth, the lamina fibroreticularis was rich in fibrils, which were now characterized as basotubules, 10-nm-wide microfibril-like structures. The space between the basotubules was filled with a cord network that extended from the lamina densa. Dental papilla cell processes were inserted into the lamina fibroreticularis, and their surface was closely associated with numerous parallel basotubules via 1.5- to 3-nm-wide filaments. In the shark tooth during its early stage of development, the basotubules were absent in the lamina fibroreticularis and only narrow extensions, 60-90 nm wide and 1-2 microm long, of the cord network of the lamina densa were present. The dental papilla cells were immobilized by means of the binding of their processes to the extensions. These results indicate that basement membranes in both monkey and shark teeth at early stage of development are specialized for functions as anchoring and firm binding, which are essential for the successful differentiation of the odontoblasts.

  2. Early-stage entrepreneurial activity in the European Union: some issues and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Bosma; Sander Wennekers; Jolanda Hessels; Stephen Hunt

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the authors present the levels of Total early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) across 16 Member States of the European Union participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM - 2004 research 2). They also compare the average TEA rate for these 16 EU-countries participating in GEM with the average for some other OECD-countries, further referred to as 'Anglo'-countries: the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Next, they relate the striking diff...

  3. Gadolinium metallo nanocongregates as potential magnetosensors for detecting early stage cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Ranu, E-mail: ranu.dutta16@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); NanoeRA Medicare Private Limited, Uttar Pradesh (India); Pandey, Avinash C. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (India)

    2015-04-27

    Gadolinium chelates and gadolinium based inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively studied, because of the high magnetic moment of gadolinium. Here, metallic gadolinium nanocongregates have been developed. Upon injecting these nanoparticles in the mice, they initially circulate in the blood stream and are localized at the cancer site, which could be visualized upon application of magnetic field hence acting as small magnetic nanosensors searching for even small cancers, detecting cancers at a very early stage.

  4. Susceptibility to myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury at early stage of type 1 diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haobo; Liu, Zipeng; Wang, Junwen; Wong, Gordon T; Cheung, Chi-Wai; Zhang, Liangqing; Chen, Can; Xia, Zhengyuan; Irwin, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Background Large body of evidences accumulated in clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that hearts of diabetic subjects are more sensitive to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), which results in a higher rate of mortality at post-operation than that of non-diabetes. However, experimental results are equivocal and point to either increased or decreased susceptibility of the diabetic hearts to IRI, especially at the early stage of the disease. The present study was designed to test the ...

  5. Self-appraisal and medial prefrontal activation in early stage Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Genon, Sarah; Collette, Fabienne; Angel, Lucie; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Salmon, Eric; Bastin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Self-referential processing in healthy subjects is related to activation within cortical midline structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC; Northoff et al., 2006). Little is know about the engagement of these structures during self-referential processing at different stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The PCC and the MPFC have been found to be activated during a self-appraisal task of adjectives in patients at very early...

  6. The Evolving Role of Radiotherapy in Early Stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardi, Umberto; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Piva, Cristina; Franco, Pierfrancesco

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy has a key role in the combined modality treatment of early-stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL). Nevertheless, late toxicity still remains an issue. A modern approach in HL radiotherapy includes lower doses and smaller fields, together with the implementation of sophisticated and dedicated delivery techniques. Aim of the present review is to discuss the current role of radiotherapy and its potential future developments, with a focus on major clinical trials, technological advances ...

  7. Role of modern radiation therapy in early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: A young radiation oncologists’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Ciammella, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    The role of radiotherapy is well established in combined modality programs for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma, but still debated with regards to late toxicity issues. Modern radiotherapy prescribing attitudes include lower doses and smaller fields, together with the implementation of sophisticated and dedicated delivery techniques. Aim of this review is to briefly discuss the current role of radiotherapy in this field and the potential future developments. Major trials conducted in recent yea...

  8. Comparison of Favorable Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatments: A Single-Institution Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Methods and Materials: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained. Results: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years). Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%. Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 8.3 years, the estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire cohort were 78% and 85%, respectively. The 10-year RFS and OS rates for the various groups were as follows: 69% and 81% for EFRT; 78% and 84% for CTA; and 87% and 89% for CMT. The 10-year RFS rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) among CMT patients. The use of EFRT has diminished from approximately 90% in the 1980s to virtually no use at present, whereas the use of CTA and CMT has increased significantly (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.

  9. Early life history stages of fishes of Orange Lake, Florida: an illustrated identification manual

    OpenAIRE

    Conrow, Roxanne; Zale, Alexander V.

    1985-01-01

    From June 1983 t o June 1984, the senior author examined the habitat associations and seasonal succession of early life history stages of fishes of Orange Lake, Alachua County, Florida (Conrow 1984). The study included an evaluation of three sampling gears -- a 0.5-m diameter tow net, a Breder trap (a plastic trap with leaders; Breder 1960), and a light trap (Floyd et al. 1984). A total of 23 fish species was captured during the study. Illustrations and identifying characteris...

  10. Treatment strategies in early-stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a French national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorphe, Philippe; Blanchard, Pierre; Morinière, Sylvain; Fakhry, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study is to perform a national survey of practices in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx (base of tongue and tonsils) targeting surgical and non-surgical procedures in France. A questionnaire concerning practices in surgery, radiotherapy, HPV screening, and two clinical cases were sent to all centers participating in the French Head and Neck Oncology Society, and to public hospitals listed as authorized to treat head and neck cancer according to the French National Cancer Institute (INCa). Sixty-four teams comprising almost all the University Hospitals and most of the Comprehensive Cancer Centers completed the survey questionnaire and responded to the clinical cases. Surgical and radiotherapy strategies were used in similar measure for early-stage SCC of the base of the tongue while tonsil lesions were mainly treated with surgery. The main arguments were disease control for the teams offering patients surgery, and functional results for those offering radiotherapy. However, concomitant chemoradiotherapy was chosen more frequently than radiotherapy alone in early-stage SCC of the base of tongue. Age and tobacco-alcohol addiction were decisive criteria in decision making for the majority of the teams. French oncology teams offered surgical and radiotherapy strategies in similar measure to treat early-stage SCC of the oropharynx (base of tongue and tonsils) as well as a high rate of multimodality therapy. Decision making was guided by the desire to achieve oncologic results adapted to the patient and his age, as well as functional preservation taking into account life expectancy. PMID:26253428

  11. Reversible Merger of Membranes at the Early Stage of Influenza Hemagglutinin-mediated Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Leikina, Eugenia; Chernomordik, Leonid V.

    2000-01-01

    Fusion mediated by influenza hemagglutinin (HA), a prototype fusion protein, is commonly detected as lipid and content mixing between fusing cells. Decreasing the surface density of fusion-competent HA inhibited these advanced fusion phenotypes and allowed us to identify an early stage of fusion at physiological temperature. Although lipid flow between membranes was restricted, the contacting membrane monolayers were apparently transiently connected, as detected by the transformation of this ...

  12. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation May Reduce Medication Costs in Early Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Mallory L.; Currie, Amanda D.; Molinari, Anna L.; Turchan, Maxim; Millan, Sarah M.; Heusinkveld, Lauren E.; Roach, Jonathon; Konrad, Peter E.; Davis, Thomas L.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Phibbs, Fenna T.; Hedera, Peter; Byrne, Daniel W.; Charles, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is well-known to reduce medication burden in advanced stage Parkinson’s disease (PD). Preliminary data from a prospective, single blind, controlled pilot trial demonstrated that early stage PD subjects treated with STN-DBS also required less medication than those treated with optimal drug therapy (ODT). Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze medication cost and utilization from the pilot trial of DBS in early stage PD and to project 10 year medication costs. Methods: Medication data collected at each visit were used to calculate medication costs. Medications were converted to levodopa equivalent daily dose, categorized by medication class, and compared. Medication costs were projected to advanced stage PD, the time when a typical patient may be offered DBS. Results: Medication costs increased 72% in the ODT group and decreased 16% in the DBS+ODT group from baseline to 24 months. This cost difference translates into a cumulative savings for the DBS+ODT group of $7,150 over the study period. Projected medication cost savings over 10 years reach $64,590. Additionally, DBS+ODT subjects were 80% less likely to require polypharmacy compared with ODT subjects at 24 months (p <  0.05; OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.04–0.97). Conclusions: STN-DBS in early PD reduced medication cost over the two-year study period. DBS may offer substantial long-term reduction in medication cost by maintaining a simplified, low dose medication regimen. Further study is needed to confirm these findings, and the FDA has approved a pivotal, multicenter clinical trial evaluating STN-DBS in early PD. PMID:26967937

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Phosphoproteins in the Rice Nucleus During the Early Stage of Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Yang, Pingfang; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-01

    The early stage of seed germination is the first step in the plant life cycle without visible morphological change. To investigate the mechanism controlling the early stage of rice seed germination, we performed gel-and label-free nuclear phosphoproteomics. A total of 3467 phosphopeptides belonging to 102 nuclear phosphoproteins from rice embryos were identified. Protein-synthesis-related proteins were mainly phosphorylated. During the first 24 h following imbibition, 115 nuclear phosphoproteins were identified, and significant changes in the phosphorylation level over time were observed in 29 phosphoproteins. Cluster analysis indicated that nucleotide-binding proteins and zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins increased in abundance during the first 12 h of imbibition and then decreased. The in silico protein-protein interactions for 29 nuclear phosphoproteins indicated that the Sas10/Utp3 protein, which functions in snoRNA binding and gene silencing, was the center of the phosphoprotein network in nuclei. The germination rate of seeds was significantly slowed with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. The mRNA expression of the zinc finger CCCH-type protein did not change, and the zinc finger BED-type protein was upregulated in rice embryos during the early stage of germination with phosphatase inhibitor treatment. These results suggest that the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nuclear proteins are involved in rice seed germination. Furthermore, transcription factors such as zinc finger CCCH- and BED-type proteins might play a key role through nuclear phosphoproteins, and Sas10/Utp3 protein might interact with nuclear phosphoproteins in rice embryos to mediate the early stage of seed germination.

  14. Atomic Aggregation Processes in the Early Stages of Pt/Pt(111) Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Guo-Ce; ZHU Xiao-Bin; WANG Wei

    2000-01-01

    The atomic aggregation processes in the early stages of Pt/Pt(111) growth are studied by using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that the average neighbor coordination number of the atoms in a cluster is a function of temperature, agreeing well with the experiment observations of scanning tunneling microscopy. The influence of diffusion barriers of various atomic processes on the morphology of islands is also studied. Different morphologies of the islands (dendritic, fractal, or compact islands) are found.

  15. Detection of early-stage research fronts——An example of complex networks research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua; ZHANG; Zhiqiang; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This study aims to detect research fronts of a scientific field in its early development stage using bibliometric indicators developed based on the features of research fronts.Design/methodology/approach:We first focused on conceptualization of"research fronts"and outlined 4 indicators to measure different aspects of the concept:Innovation,timeliness,stability and interdisciplinarity.Then research specialties obtained based on direct citation networks were evaluated with the 4 indicators and research fronts were identified.Finally,methodology was illustrated and verified in the research domain of complex networks.Findings:The results indicate that the proposed method is useful in detecting research fronts in a specific field which is at an early development stage.Research limitations:The quality of clustering results was not assessed.It needs to be further studied whether the method can be applicable to the fields that evolve slowly such as mathematics or are highly specialized like entomology and zoology.Practical implications:This study helps researchers keep abreast of emerging trends and policy-makers formulate science and technology policies and strategic plans.Originality/value:This research provides insights into a quantitative assessment method to detect research fronts of a scientific field in its early development stage.

  16. Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Hanna-Pladdy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to identify mild cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD prior to extensive neurodegeneration and to evaluate the extent to which dopamine depletion and other disease-related predictors can explain cognitive profiles. Methods: Neuropsychological performances of 40 nondemented early-stage PD patients and 42 healthy controls were compared across on or off dopaminergic medications. Stepwise regression evaluated cognitive predictors of early-stage PD and disease-related predictors of PD cognition (levodopa dose, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, sleep, quality of life, and mood across on and off states. Results: Neuropsychological performance was lower in PD patients across cognitive domains with significant memory, naming, visuomotor, and complex attention/executive deficits, but with intact visuospatial, simple attention, and phonemic fluency functions. However, medication effects were absent except for simple attention. Regression analyses revealed age, working memory, and memory recall to be the best cognitive predictors of PD, while age, quality of life, disease duration, and anxiety predicted PD cognition in the off state. Conclusion: Nondemented early-stage PD patients presented with extensive mild cognitive deficits including prominent memory impairment. The profile was inconsistent with expected isolated frontostriatal dysfunction previously attributed to dopamine depletion and this highlights the need to further characterize extranigral sources of mild cognitive impairment in PD.

  17. Ontogenetic development in the morphology and behavior of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Duan, Ming; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Songguang

    2014-09-01

    Loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are a commercially important fish in China and an ideal aquaculture species. However, culturists experience high larval and juvenile mortality during mass production. To provide insight into ways to improve larviculture techniques, we describe the morphological characteristics and behavior of loach during the larval and early juvenile stages. Yolksac larvae ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mm body length (BL) between days 0 to 4; preflexion larvae ranged from 3.6 to 5.5 mm BL between days 4 to 6; flexion larvae ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 mm BL between days 5 and 14; and postflexion larvae ranged from 7.1 to 15.7 mm BL between days 11 to 27; the minimum length and age of juveniles was 14.1 mm BL and 23 d, respectively. Loach are demersal from hatch through to the early juvenile stages. A suite of morphological characteristics (e.g., external gill filament and ventral mouth opening) and behavioral traits have developed to adapt to demersal living. We observed positive allometric growth in eye diameter, head length, head height, and pectoral fin length during the early larval stages, reflecting the priorities in the development of the organs essential for survival. Our results provide a basis for developing techniques to improve the survival of larval and juvenile loach during mass production.

  18. Effects of Losartan on expression of connexins at the early stage of atherosclerosis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ming Ruan, Wei Cai, Jun-zhu Chen, Jin-feng Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate effects of Losartan on expression of connexin 40 and 43 (Cx40 and Cx43, in arteries at the early stage of atherosclerosis in a rabbit model. Methods: A total of 28 male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into following groups: control group, high fat diet group, and Losartan group (10 mg/kg/day. Losartan was administrated in food for two weeks. Iliac arteries were obtained for immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: Transmission electron microscopy revealed abundant gap junctions between neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs, which were markedly reduced by treatment. RT-PCR and Western blot assay showed that the mRNA and protein expression of Cx40 and Cx43 were elevated in the neointimal area at the early stage of atherosclerosis. The mRNA and protein expression of Cx43 were significantly down-regulated by losartan treatment but those of Cx40 were not markedly changed. Conclusion: Cx40 and Cx43 in the neointimal SMCs were up-regulated at the early stage of atherosclerosis. Losartan (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor could reduce neointima proliferation and down-regulate the elevated protein expression of Cx43, suggesting the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS plays an important role in the remodeling of gap junction between ventricular myocytes under pathological conditions.

  19. Neurophysiological Evidence of Compensatory Brain Mechanisms in Early-Stage Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Góngora, Mariana; Escartín, Antonio; Martínez-Horta, Saul; Fernández-Bobadilla, Ramón; Querol, Luis; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Riba, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disorder characterized by white matter inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Although cognitive dysfunction is a common manifestation, it may go unnoticed in recently-diagnosed patients. Prior studies suggest MS patients develop compensatory mechanisms potentially involving enhanced performance monitoring. Here we assessed the performance monitoring system in early-stage MS patients using the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) observed following behavioral errors. Twenty-seven early-stage MS patients and 31 controls were neuropsychologically assessed. Electroencephalography recordings were obtained while participants performed: a) a stop task and b) an auditory oddball task. Behavior and ERP measures were assessed. No differences in performance were found between groups in most neuropsychological tests or in behavior or ERP components in the auditory oddball task. However, the amplitude of the ERN associated with stop errors in the stop task was significantly higher in patients. ERN amplitude correlated positively with scores on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score, and negatively with the time since last relapse. Patients showed higher neuronal recruitment in tasks involving performance monitoring. Results suggest the development of compensatory brain mechanisms in early-stage MS and reflect the sensitivity of the ERN to detect these changes. PMID:26322632

  20. The treatment effect of porous titanium alloy rod on the early stage talar osteonecrosis of sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Kang Li

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the talus (ONT may severely affect the function of the ankle joint. Most orthopedists believe that ONT should be treated at an early stage, but a concise and effective surgical treatment is lacking. In this study, porous titanium alloy rods were prepared and implanted into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT (IM group. The curative effect of the rods was compared to treatment by core decompression (DC group. No significant differences in bone reconstruction were observed between the two groups at 1 month after intervention. After 3 months, the macroscopic view of gross specimens of the IM group showed ordinary contours, but the specimens of the DC group showed obvious partial bone defects and cartilage degeneration. Quantitative analysis of the reconstructed trabeculae by micro-CT and histological study suggested that the curative effect of the IM group was superior to that of the DC group at 3 months after intervention. These favorable short-term results of the implantation of porous titanium alloy rods into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT may provide insight into an innovative surgical treatment for ONT.

  1. Cortical hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in Parkinson's disease is extensive: probably even at early disease stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, Mallar; Jonsdottir, Kristjana Yr;

    2010-01-01

    independent samples of PD patients. We compared SPECT CBF images of 32 early-stage and 33 late-stage PD patients with that of 60 matched controls. We also compared PET FDG images from 23 late-stage PD patients with that of 13 controls. Three different normalization methods were compared: (1) GM normalization......, (2) cerebellum normalization, (3) reference cluster normalization (Yakushev et al.). We employed standard voxel-based statistics (fMRIstat) and principal component analysis (SSM). Additionally, we performed a meta-analysis of all quantitative CBF and CMRglc studies in the literature to investigate...... cortical decreases but no subcortical increase. In all comparisons, the Yakushev method detected nearly identical patterns of very extensive cortical hypometabolism. Lastly, the meta-analyses demonstrated that global CBF and CMRglc values are decreased in PD. Based on the results, we conclude that PD most...

  2. The Assessment of Early Stage Computed Tomography Findings in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebahat Taşdemir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The imaging techniques have become important tools during diagnostic stage of acute ischemic stroke during the last 30 years. The improvement in these techniques further increased the clinical areas that these tools could be used. As computerized brain tomography (CT is a rapid, cheap, non-invasive and highly available imaging tool in most hospitals, it remains to be the primary scanning method for all acute patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate the early stage CT findings in the ischemic stroke patients which have been scanned in the first 8 to 12 hours after the incidence. Sixty four cases (26 male, 38 female who had clinical symptoms of ischemic stroke have been included in this study. CT scan was performed twice to these patients; first in the first 8 to 12 hours, and second in between 24 hours and 48 hours after the stroke. The middle cerebral artery perfused area was the most common arterial area affected among cases who had CT findings in early scans. Hypodense lesions were most common lesions encountered in CT findings. Hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign in early CT findings could be an indicator of ischemia due to arterial occlusion. We determined that the CT images obtained at the beginning of developing stroke appeared to show the lesions smaller than what they really were. There were significant differences between the emergency room evaluation and detailed clinical evaluation of CT scans. More findings have been observed in late CT scans performed between 24 hours and 48 hours than the ones performed in the first 8 hours and 12 hours. There was no correlation between the presence of CT findings in early scans and severity of clinical features of ischemia. CT appears to be an important tool in diagnosing ischemic strokes even at early stages. Developments in diagnostic precision of CT tools will further increase our understanding of ischemic strokes and their clinical progress.

  3. Treatment of early stage breast cancer by limited surgery and radical irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, A.M.; Cope, O.; Russo, R.; Wang, C.C.; Schulz, M.D.; Wang, C.; Rodkey, G.

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-five female patients with early stage breast cancer, i.e., Stage I and II were treated by limited surgery followed by radical radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between January, 1956 and December, 1974. Patients included those who were medically inoperable or who refused mastectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 83% and 76% for Stage I and II, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival (absolute) was 67% and 42%. Although the number of patients so treated is small, there was no significant difference in survival from the results of the radical mastectomy series at the same institution. No major complications were encountered. Seventeen of eighty-five patients developed minor problems; mostly fibrosis and minimal arm lymphedema stemmming from older orthovoltage equipment and treatment techniques. With the current availability of megavoltage equipment, improvements in techniques and dosimetry, complications should decrease. Combined limited surgery and radical radiation therapy should be considered in those patients where a radical mastectomy is not feasible because of psychological or medical problems. Since this procedure results in a cosmetically acceptable breast, radical radiation in early stage breast cancer seems a reasonable alternative to radical mastectomy.

  4. Oncologic outcomes of primary and post-irradiated early stage rectal cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang—ZhengDu; Yong—ChunChen; YongCai; Wei—ChengXue.; JinGU

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the oncologic outcomes of primary and post-irradiated early stage rectal cancer and the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients. METHODS: Eighty-four patients with stage Ⅰ rectal cancer after radical surgery were studied retrospectively and divided into ypstage Ⅰ group (n = 45) and pstage Ⅰ group (n = 39), according to their preoperative radiation, and compared by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The median follow-up time of patients was 70 mo. No significant difference was observed in diseaseprogression between the two groups. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 84.4% and 92.3%, respectively (P = 0.327) and the 5-year overall survival rate was 88.9% and 92.3%, respectively, for the two groups (P = 0.692). The disease progression was not significantly associated with the pretreatment clinical stage in ypstage Ⅰ group. The 5-year disease progression rate was 10.5% and 19.2%, respectively, for the patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy and for those who rejected chemotherapy in the ypstage Ⅰ group (P = 0.681). CONCLUSION: The oncologic outcomes of primary and post-irradiated early stage rectal cancer are similar. Patients with ypstage Ⅰ rectal cancer may slightly benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

  5. Is Ovarian Preservation Feasible in Early-Stage Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huaiwu; Li, Jing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Dongyan; Lin, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In cervical adenocarcinoma, surgical treatment involves bilateral oophorectomy, which affects the long-term quality of life. The aim of our study was to access the incidence of ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of these patients to preserve the ovaries. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total 101 patients with cervical adenocarcinoma who had undergone radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and bilateral oophorectomy were included in this study. Data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were collected and low risk factors for ovarian metastasis in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma were analyzed. RESULTS The ovary metastasis rate of cervical adenocarcinoma in this study was 4.95%, while it is only 2% in stage IB1. Pathological grade, LSVI, lymph node status, tumor size, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis, while LSVI, lymph node status, depth of stromal invasion, and involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus were associated with ovarian metastasis in stage IB. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI and lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for ovarian metastasis in all stages of cervical adenocarcinoma, but involvement of the junction of the cervix and the body of the uterus was an independent risk factor for ovarian metastasis in stage IB. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of ovarian metastasis in cervical adenocarcinoma is low. Our study suggests that ovarian preservation is safe and feasible in patients with no risk factors for ovarian metastasis. Further prospective studies are warranted. PMID:26852916

  6. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauna L Rankin

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  7. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Tauna L; Sponaugle, Su

    2011-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

  8. The early development of the nervous system in staged insectivore and primate embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R

    1980-10-01

    The early development of the nervous system was studied in stage embryos of hemicentetes semispinosus, Microcebus murinus, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus appella, Cebus albifrons, macaca mulatta, and Homo sapiens. The specimens were assigned to Carnegie stages 11-13. Serial transverse sections were examined and graphic reconstructions were prepared. The early development of the neural tube is basically similar in all the species investigated but differences in detail are noticeable. The mesencephalic flexure serves in all cases as a landmark for malpighi's tripartite subdivision of the brain. The nonhuman embryos seem to show a little more variation than the human in the closure of the neuropores in relation to somitic count. With the exception of the later-appearing terminal-vomeronasal component, all major portions of the neural crest as classified by O'Rahilly ('65) are represented in both the nonhuman and the human embryos studied. No crest is present at the level of rhombomere 1, nor at rhombomere 3 except in the platyrrhines and some human embryos, nor at rhombomere 5 except in certain human specimens. An indication of the division of the trigeminal ganglion into its primary divisions is rare at stage 11 (C. apella), may be visible at stage 12 (Alouatta, macaca, Homo), and is definite (in Homo) at stage 13. Ganglionic contributions from head ectoderm (epipharyngeal placodes), as previously described in the human and some other vertebrate embryos, were sought and found in Cebus apella. In both nonhuman and human, a tendency is noted whereby the rostral limit of the occipitospinal crest, high at stage 11, seems to descend relatively at stage 12, and ascend again at stage 13 (at least in the human) to become associated with the appearance of the accessory and hypoglossal nerves. In general, the motor components of the nerves are identifiable before the sensory elements, and, in the present study, nerve fibers were first observed in the human at stage 13 in some of

  9. Early-stage white matter lesions detected by multispectral MRI segmentation predict progressive cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eJokinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available White matter lesions (WML are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model-based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in normal-appearing brain tissue. This study investigated how the different stages of WML, from a pre-visible stage to fully developed lesions, predict future cognitive decline. MRI scans of 78 subjects, aged 65-84 years, from the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS study were analyzed using a self-supervised multispectral segmentation algorithm to identify tissue types and partial WML volumes. Each lesion voxel was classified as having a small (33%, intermediate (66%, or high (100% proportion of lesion tissue. The subjects were evaluated with detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and at three annual follow-up visits. We found that voxels with small partial WML predicted lower executive function compound scores at baseline, and steeper decline of executive scores in follow-up, independently of the demographics and the conventionally estimated hyperintensity volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. The intermediate and fully developed lesions were related to impairments in multiple cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, memory and global cognitive function. In conclusion, early-stage partial WML, still too faint to be clearly detectable on conventional MRI, already predict executive dysfunction and progressive cognitive decline regardless of the conventionally evaluated WML load. These findings advance early recognition of small vessel disease and incipient vascular cognitive impairment.

  10. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschow, Christine; Scheef, Lukas; Paus, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Nadine; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels. Methods 13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI) during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ) and higher (E = 640 mJ) target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale. Results No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson’s disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson’s disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson’s disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced

  11. Clinical heterogeneity in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease: a cluster analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LIU; Tao FENG; Yong-jun WANG; Xuan ZHANG; Biao CHEN

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease (PD) among a cohort of Chinese patients in early stages.Clinical data on demographics,motor variables,motor phenotypes,disease progression,global cognitive function,depression,apathy,sleep quality,constipation,fatigue,and L-dopa complications were collected from 138 Chinese PD subjects in early stages (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-3).The PD subject subtypes were classified using k-means cluster analysis according to the clinical data from five- to three-cluster consecutively.Kappa statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the consistency among different subtype solutions.The cluster analysis indicated four main subtypes:the non-tremor dominant subtype (NTD,n=28,20.3%),rapid disease progression subtype (RDP,n=7,5.1%),young-onset subtype (YO,n=50,36.2%),and tremor dominant subtype (TD,n=53,38.4%).Overall,78.3% (108/138) of subjects were always classified between the same three groups (52 always in TD,7 in RDP,and 49 in NTD),and 98.6% (136/138) between five- and four-cluster solutions.However,subjects classified as NTD in the four-cluster analysis were dispersed into different subtypes in the three-cluster analysis,with low concordance between four- and three-cluster solutions (kappa value=-0.139,P=0.001 ).This study defines clinical heterogeneity of PD patients in early stages using a data-driven approach.The subtypes generated by the four-cluster solution appear to exhibit ideal internal cohesion and external isolation.

  12. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  13. Hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for medically inoperable early stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Ho; Wu, Hong Gyun; KIm, Hak Jae; Park, Charn Il; Lee, Se Hoon; Kim, Dong Wan; Heo, Dae Seong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) with three-dimensional conformal technique for medically inoperable patients with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate prognostic factors. We performed a retrospective review of 26 patients who underwent HFRT for early stage NSCLC between September 2005 and August 2011. Only clinical stage T1-3N0 was included. The median RT dose was 70 Gy (range, 60 to 72 Gy) and the median biologically equivalent dose (BED) was 94.5 Gy (range, 78.0 to 100.8 Gy). In 84.6% of patients, 4 Gy per fraction was used. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin was given to 2 of 26 patients. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 21 months (range, 13 to 49 months). The overall response rate was 53.9%, and the initial local control rate was 100%. The median survival duration was 27.8 months. Rates of 2-year overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), local control (LC), and locoregional-free survival (LRFS) were 54.3%, 61.1%, 74.6%, and 61.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that BED (>90 vs. {<=}90 Gy) was an independent prognostic factor influencing PFS, LC, and LRFS. Severe toxicities over grade 3 were not observed. Radical HFRT can yield satisfactory disease control with acceptable rates of toxicities in medically inoperable patients with early stage NSCLC. HFRT is a viable alternative for clinics and patients ineligible for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy. BED over 90 Gy and 4 Gy per fraction might be appropriate for HFRT.

  14. Involvement of insulin in early development of mouse one-cell stage embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that growth factors and hormones play important roles in cell prolif-eration and differentiation during early embryonic development. In the present study, we examined the expression and localization of insulin in the mouse oocytes and one-cell stage embryos by quantitative ELISA, RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. In the mouse oocytes and one-cell stage em-bryos, expression of insulin was uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. We also examined the expres-sion, activity and localization of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and p70S6K. The expression of mTOR and p70S6K was not significantly different at the cell cycle of mouse one-cell stage embryos. mTOR and S6K were distributed evenly in the cytoplasm at G1, G2 and M phase phase, but at S phase, the distribution of mTOR and S6K was around the pronucleus. At different phases, the activity of mTOR fluctuated. We also used the PI3K specific inhibitor-Wortmannin to investigate the cleavage rate of eggs. The result showed that the rate obviously decreased. When the mTOR specific inhibitor Rapa-mycin was used, the first mitotic division of the mouse one-cell stage embryo was delayed. These re-sults suggested that insulin was expressed both in mouse oocytes and one-cell stage embryos, and may play functional roles in regulation of mouse early embryogenesis by activating the signal pathway of PI3K/PKB/mTOR/S6K.

  15. Sentinel lymph node mapping in early stage of endometrial and cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajossadat Allameh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sentinel lymph node (SLN is defined as the first chain node in the lymphatic basin that receives primary lymphatic flow. If the SLN is negative for metastatic disease, then other nodes are expected to be disease-free. SLN techniques have been extensively applied in the staging and treatment of many tumors, including melanoma, breast and vulvar cancers. This study aims to evaluate our technique in SLN mapping in early stage endometrial and cervical cancers. Materials and Methods: We scheduled a cross-sectional pilot study for patients undergoing staging surgery for endometrial and cervical cancer from November 2012 to February 2014 in Beheshti and Sadoughi Hospitals. Our SLN mapping technique included 1 h preoperative or intraoperative injection of 4 ml of 1% methylene blue dye in the tumor site. At the time of surgery, blue lymph nodes were removed and labeled as SLNs. Then systematic lymph node dissection was completed, and all of the nodes were sent for pathologic examination concerning metastatic involvement. All of the sentinel nodes were first stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined. Those negative in this study were then stained with immunohistochemistry using anti-keratin antibody. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, negative predictive values (NPV, false negative (FN and detection rates were calculated. Results: Twenty-three patients including 62% endometrial and 38% cervical cancers enrolled in the study. Median of SLN count in the endometrial and cervical cancers was 3 and 2, respectively. Among endometrial and cervical cancers, detection rate of metastatic disease was 80% and 87.5%, respectively. The FN rate for this technique was 0 and the sensitivity and NPV are 100% for both endometrial and cervical cancers. Conclusion: Considering the lower risk of metastases in early stage of both endometrial and cervical cancers, SLN technique allows for confident and accurate staging of cancer.

  16. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage.

  17. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  18. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  19. Involved Node Radiation Therapy: An Effective Alternative in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aznar, Marianne C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vogelius, Ivan R.; Petersen, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Specht, Lena [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy in a cohort of 97 clinical stage I-II HL patients. Methods and Materials: Patients were staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans, treated with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy, and given INRT (prechemotherapy involved nodes to 30 Gy, residual masses to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. Results: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7 malignancies were diagnosed, and 5 patients developed heart disease. Conclusions: INRT offers excellent tumor control and represents an effective alternative to more extended radiation therapy in the combined modality treatment for early-stage HL.

  20. Early-stage comparative sustainability assessment of new bio-based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

    2013-09-01

    Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. PMID:24078179

  1. Early life stages contribute strongly to local adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Froukje M; Ågren, Jon

    2016-07-01

    The magnitude and genetic basis of local adaptation is of fundamental interest in evolutionary biology. However, field experiments usually do not consider early life stages, and therefore may underestimate local adaptation and miss genetically based tradeoffs. We examined the contribution of differences in seedling establishment to adaptive differentiation and the genetic architecture of local adaptation using recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between two locally adapted populations (Italy and Sweden) of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana We planted freshly matured, dormant seeds (>180 000) representing >200 RILs at the native field sites of the parental genotypes, estimated the strength of selection during different life stages, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness and its components, and quantified selection on seed dormancy. We found that selection during the seedling establishment phase contributed strongly to the fitness advantage of the local genotype at both sites. With one exception, local alleles of the eight distinct establishment QTL were favored. The major QTL for establishment and total fitness showed evidence of a fitness tradeoff and was located in the same region as the major seed dormancy QTL and the dormancy gene DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1). RIL seed dormancy could explain variation in seedling establishment and fitness across the life cycle. Our results demonstrate that genetically based differences in traits affecting performance during early life stages can contribute strongly to adaptive differentiation and genetic tradeoffs, and should be considered for a full understanding of the ecology and genetics of local adaptation. PMID:27330113

  2. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  3. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author)

  4. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system

  5. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  6. Cosmetic results in early stage breast cancer patients with high-dose brachytherapy after conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to reveal cosmetic results in patients at early stages of low risk breast cancer treated with partial accelerated radiotherapy using high dose rate brachytherapy. Methods and materials: from March 2001 to July 2003,14 stages l and ll breast cancer patients were treated at the Colombian national cancer institute in Bogota with conservative surgery and radiotherapy upon the tumor bed (partial accelerated radiotherapy), using interstitial implants with iridium 192 (high dose rate brachytherapy) with a dose of 32 Gys, over 4 days, at 8 fractions twice a day. Results: with an average follow up of 17.7 months, good cosmetic results were found among 71.4 % of patients and excellent results among 14.3% of patients, furthermore none of the patients neither local nor regional or distant relapses. Conclusion: among patients who suffer from breast cancer at early stages, it showed is possible to apply partial accelerated radiotherapy upon the tumor bed with high doses over 4 days with good to excellent cosmetic results

  7. Drug Repositioning Discovery for Early- and Late-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning is a popular approach in the pharmaceutical industry for identifying potential new uses for existing drugs and accelerating the development time. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. To reduce the biological heterogeneity effects among different individuals, both normal and cancer tissues were taken from the same patient, hence allowing pairwise testing. By comparing early- and late-stage cancer patients, we can identify stage-specific NSCLC genes. Differentially expressed genes are clustered separately to form up- and downregulated communities that are used as queries to perform enrichment analysis. The results suggest that pathways for early- and late-stage cancers are different. Sets of up- and downregulated genes were submitted to the cMap web resource to identify potential drugs. To achieve high confidence drug prediction, multiple microarray experimental results were merged by performing meta-analysis. The results of a few drug findings are supported by MTT assay or clonogenic assay data. In conclusion, we have been able to assess the potential existing drugs to identify novel anticancer drugs, which may be helpful in drug repositioning discovery for NSCLC.

  8. Involved Node Radiation Therapy: An Effective Alternative in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy in a cohort of 97 clinical stage I-II HL patients. Methods and Materials: Patients were staged with positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans, treated with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy, and given INRT (prechemotherapy involved nodes to 30 Gy, residual masses to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. Results: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7 malignancies were diagnosed, and 5 patients developed heart disease. Conclusions: INRT offers excellent tumor control and represents an effective alternative to more extended radiation therapy in the combined modality treatment for early-stage HL

  9. Resistance to Streptomyces turgidiscabies in potato involves an early and sustained transcriptional reprogramming at initial stages of tuber formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Lysøe, Erik; Alsheikh, Muath; Davik, Jahn; Brurberg, May Bente

    2016-06-01

    Common scab, caused by species from the bacterial genus Streptomyces, is an important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) crops worldwide. Early tuberization is a critical period for pathogen infection; hence, studies of host gene expression responses during this developmental stage can be important to expand our understanding of the infection process and to identify putative resistance genes. In an infection experiment with the highly susceptible potato cultivar Saturna and the relatively resistant cultivar Beate, transcription profiles were obtained by RNA sequencing at two developmental stages: the early hook stage and the early tuber formation stage. Our results indicate that 'Beate' mounts an early and sustained response to infection by S. turgidiscabies, whereas the defence response by 'Saturna' ceases before the early tuber formation stage. Most pronounced were the putative candidate defence-associated genes uniquely expressed in 'Beate'. We observed an increase in alternative splicing on pathogen infection at the early hook stage for both cultivars. A significant down-regulation of genes involved in the highly energy-demanding process of ribosome biogenesis was observed for the infected 'Beate' plants at the early hook stage, which may indicate an allocation of resources that favours the expression of defence-related genes. PMID:26416294

  10. Muscle fiber conduction velocity in different gait phases of early and late-stage diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Eneida Yuri; Gomes, Aline A; Butugan, Marco Kenji; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) during gait phases of the lower limb muscles in individuals with various degrees of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Forty-five patients were classified into severity degrees of DPN by a fuzzy model. The stages were absent (n=11), mild (n=14), moderate (n=11) and severe (n=9), with 10 matched healthy controls. While walking, all subjects had their sEMG (4 linear electrode arrays) recorded for tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF). MFCV was calculated using a maximum likelihood algorithm with 30ms standard deviation Gaussian windows. In general, individuals in the earlier stages of DPN showed lower MFCV of TA, GM and BF, whilst individuals with severe DPN presented higher MFCV of the same muscles. We observed that mild patients already showed lower MFCV of TA at early stance and swing, and lower MFCV of BF at swing. All diabetic groups showed a markedly reduction in MFCV of VL, irrespective of DPN. Severe patients presented higher MFCV mainly in distal muscles, TA at early and swing phases and GM at propulsion and midstance. The absent group already showed MFCV of VL and GM reductions at the propulsion phase and of VL at early stance. Although MFCV changes were not as progressive as the DPN was, we clearly distinguished diabetic patients from controls, and severe patients from all others.

  11. An Ordered Bipolar Outflow from a Massive Early-stage Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jonathan C.; Kong, Shuo; Zhang, Yichen; Fontani, Francesco; Caselli, Paola; Butler, Michael J.

    2016-04-01

    We present ALMA follow-up observations of two massive, early-stage core candidates, C1-N and C1-S, in IRDC G028.37+00.07, that were previously identified by their {{{N}}}2{{{D}}}+(3-2) emission, and show high levels of deuteration of this species. The cores are also dark at far-infrared wavelengths up to ∼ 100 μ {{m}}. We detect 12CO(2-1) from a narrow, highly collimated bipolar outflow that is being launched from near the center of the C1-S core, which is also the location of the peak 1.3 mm dust continuum emission. This protostar, C1-Sa, has associated dense gas traced by {{{C}}}18{{O}}(2-1) and DCN(3-2), from which we estimate that it has a radial velocity that is near the center of the range exhibited by the C1-S massive core. A second outflow-driving source is also detected within the projected boundary of C1-S, but it appears to be at a different radial velocity. After considering the properties of the outflows, we conclude that C1-Sa is a promising candidate for an early-stage massive protostar and as such it shows that these early phases of massive star formation can involve highly ordered outflow, and thus accretion, processes, similar to models developed to explain low-mass protostars.

  12. Experimental early-stage coalification of a peat sample and a peatified wood sample from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W.H.; Neuzil, S.G.; Lerch, H.E.; Cecil, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental coalification of a peat sample and a buried wood sample from domed peat deposits in Indonesia was carried out to examine chemical structural changes in organic matter during early-stage coalification. The experiment (125 C, 408 atm lithostatic pressure, and 177 atm fluid pressure for 75 days) was designed to maintain both lithostatic and fluid pressure on the sample, but allow by-products that may retard coalification to escape. We refer to this design as a geologically open system. Changes in the elemental composition, and 13C NMR and FTIR spectra of the peat and wood after experimental coalification suggest preferential thermal decomposition of O-containing aliphatic organic compounds (probably cellulose) during early-stage coalification. The elemental compositions and 13C NMR spectra of the experimentally coalified peat and wood were generally similar to those of Miocene coal and coalified wood samples from Indonesia. Yields of lignin phenols in the peat and wood samples decreased following experimental coalification; the wood sample exhibited a larger change. Lignin phenol yields from the experimentally coalified peat and wood were comparable to yields of lignin phenols from Miocene Indonesian lignite and coalified wood. Changes in syringyl/vanillyl and p-hydroxy/vanillyl ratios suggest direct demethoxylation as a secondary process to demethylation of methoxyl groups during early coalification, and changes in lignin phenol yields and acid/aldehyde ratios point to a coupling between demethoxylation processes and reactions in the alkyl side chain bonds of the ??-carbon in lignin phenols.

  13. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Divisova, Lenka; Stancova, Vlasta; Dobsikova, Radka; Tichy, Frantisek; Siroka, Zuzana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-07-01

    Environmental concentrations of pharmaceutical residues are often low; nevertheless, they are designed to have biological effects at low doses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid on the growth and development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) early life stages with respect to antioxidant defence enzymes. An embryo-larval toxicity test lasting 34 days was performed according to OECD guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). The tested concentrations were 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 20mg/l of salicylic acid. Hatching, early ontogeny, and both morphometric and condition characteristics were significantly influenced by subchronic exposure to salicylic acid. Also, changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. The LOEC value was found to be 0.004 mg/l salicylic acid. The results of our study confirm the suggestion that subchronic exposure to salicylic acid at environmental concentrations can have significant effects on aquatic vertebrates.

  14. Efficacy of transvaginal contrast-enhanced MRI in the early staging of cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, Deniz; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Oezmen, Mustafa N.; Akhan, Okan [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Koese, Faruk [Social Security Hospital, Department of Gynecology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transvaginal contrast for local staging of cervical carcinoma. Fifty patients diagnosed with cervical carcinoma prospectively underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before and after vaginal opacification (VO) with a mixture of 25 ml saline and 25 ml barium. T2-weighted (T2W) TSE images in axial and sagittal planes were compared before and after vaginal opacification. Dynamic T1W images in sagittal and fat-suppressed T1W images in transverse planes were also evaluated after intravenous contrast administration. Involvement of vaginal wall, lumen, and fornices; parametrium; rectum; and bladder were noted. Changes in local tumor staging and in treatment planning were also assessed after vaginal opacification. MR results were later compared with surgical pathological findings. Twenty-eight patients who went through surgical staging were included in the study. VO did not change any of the MR interpretations in 14 patients (50%). Correct staging was achieved with T2W TSE images with and without VO (in sagittal and transverse planes) in 78.5% and 50% of the patients, respectively. VO correctly lowered staging in seven and increased it in three patients compared with sagittal standard T2W images. Treatment planning was also changed in four (14%) of these patients. When overall accuracy of MR staging to indicate the appropriate treatment was evaluated, patients would have received the proper treatment in 90% and 79% of the cases when only T2W sagittal images with and without VO were evaluated, respectively. Dynamic gradient-echo images in sagittal planes and postcontrast T1W images in transverse planes evaluated with T2W series after VO, accomplished correct staging in 23 (82%) of the patients. MRI staging in early cervical cancer may be difficult and overestimated, especially if the tumor is slightly extended into the proximal vagina. Use of vaginal contrast medium is an easy, well-tolerated, and effective

  15. [Early Stages of Skull Embryogenesis in the Grass Snake, Natrix natrix (Serpentes, Colubridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, M F; Sheverdyukova, H V

    2015-01-01

    Studies of previous authors on snake skull embryogenesis have been performed on embryos obtained from eggs after oviposition. The aim of this study was to investigate the initial stages of chondrocranium development in Grass-snake Natrixnatrix Linnaeus, 1758, embryos before oviposition. Natrix natrix embryos at early developmental stages (24-27 according to the table of normal development by D. Zehr (1962)) were obtained by means of caesarean section. At developmental stages 25-27, previously undescribed structures were found in the region of future skull formation. These structures exist during one or two stages and then disappear. Therefore, we call them "temporary structures." The assumption about the nature of these structures is based on their topography and comparison with the structures of developing or fully formed chondrocranium in other vertebrates. It is hypothesized that the temporary structures in Natrix natrix chondrocranium are vestiges ofprimary chondrocranium of ancestral vertebrate forms, and they indicate the existence of several variants in the formation of chondrocranium in the historical vertebrates.' development.

  16. CT and MRI findings of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the early stage. The usefulness of diffusion-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukisu, Ryutaro; Kushihashi, Tamio; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    2001-02-01

    To detect subtle CT and MRI features of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in the early stage is important to prevent a human-to-human transmission. This study included 10 patients of CJD who underwent CT and/or MRI in its early stage. CT, T1- and T2-weighted MRI, DWI, and FLAIR images were obtained in 10, 6, 4, and 2 patients respectively. On DWI, abnormal hyperintensities were observed in both cerebral cortex, and in basal ganglia in all patients. On FLAIR images, abnormal hyperintensies were observed in one patient. Detection of abnormal intensities may be possible in the early stage of CJD using MRI, particularly with DWI. (author)

  17. A study of the early stages of fatigue damage in power plant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two research projects performed at MPA University of Stuttgart, the early stages of damage under low cycle fatigue of two power plant steels, 15NiCuMoNb5 and X20CrMoV12-1, was studied. Micro-structural characterization and non-destructive testing methods were applied to specimens at various stages of the fatigue life in order to find a relation between fatigue damage and NDE data. The study on 15NiCuMoNb5 was performed in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing, Dresden. The methods were applied to sets of specimens with varying degree of fatigue damage. There is evidence for a correlation between NDE data and fatigue. However, more data will be needed to understand the mechanisms which are responsible for the behavior of the NDE signals with increasing degree of damage

  18. The deficit of executive functions in early stages of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Căpuşan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our study evaluates the presence of cognitive impairments in early stages ofParkinson’s disease, focusing in the first place on executive function and attention deficits, which,according to current studies, might be affected. Material and Methods: The study included 30 patientspreviously diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease stage I and II. Every participant was evaluated with thefollowing tests: GoNoGo, Word List Memory, Spatial Target Detection Test and PEAT, all from COGTESTprogram. The results showed the presence of executive function deficit, impairment of working memoryand social cognition in patients group, as compared with the control group. One of the significant resultsin the case group was prolongation of reaction time at test completion.

  19. Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B.; Specht, L.; Henrichsen, J.;

    1989-01-01

    Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was studied in 76 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) before, during and at different time intervals after cessation of therapy. All patients were in pathological stage I and II following explorative laparatomy with splenectomy. The increase in...... antibody response was compared to the findings in 12 healthy volunteers with the aim of establishing the optimal time for vaccination. Serum antibodies against 6 of the pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (types 1, 4, 7F, 14, 18C and 23F) contained in the vaccine were determined by an ELISA. Antibody...... response to pneumococcal type antigens was similar in healthy adults and in patients with early stage HD before therapy. After treatment, postvaccination antibody response became negligible. Even up to 7 years after cessation of therapy patients were not able to raise a significant antibody response...

  20. Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B; Specht, L; Henrichsen, J;

    1989-01-01

    Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was studied in 76 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) before, during and at different time intervals after cessation of therapy. All patients were in pathological stage I and II following explorative laparatomy with splenectomy. The increase in...... antibody response was compared to the findings in 12 healthy volunteers with the aim of establishing the optimal time for vaccination. Serum antibodies against 6 of the pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (types 1, 4, 7F, 14, 18C and 23F) contained in the vaccine were determined by an ELISA. Antibody...... response to pneumococcal type antigens was similar in healthy adults and in patients with early stage HD before therapy. After treatment, postvaccination antibody response became negligible. Even up to 7 years after cessation of therapy patients were not able to raise a significant antibody response....

  1. Early oligomerization stages for the non-amyloid component of α-synuclein amyloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Cindie; Laghaei, Rozita; Mousseau, Normand

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, much effort has focused on the early stages of aggregation and the formation of amyloid oligomers. Aggregation processes for these proteins are complex and their non-equilibrium nature makes any experimental study very difficult. Under these conditions, simulations provide a useful alternative for understanding the dynamics of the early stages of oligomerization. Here, we focus on the non-Aβ amyloid component (NAC) of the monomer, dimer, and trimer of α-synuclein, an important 35-residue sequence involved in the aggregation and fibrillation of this protein associated with Parkinson's disease. Using Hamiltonian and temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations combined with the coarse grained Optimized Potential for Efficient peptide structure Prediction potential, we identify the role of the various regions and the secondary structures for the onset of oligomerization. For this sequence, we clearly observe the passage from α-helix to β-sheet, a characteristic transition of amyloid proteins. More precisely, we find that the NAC monomer is highly structured with two α-helical regions, between residues 2-13 and 19-25. As the dimer and trimer form, β-sheet structures between residues 2-14 and 26-34 appear and rapidly structure the system. The resulting conformations are much more structured than similar dimers and trimers of β-amyloid and amylin proteins and yet display a strong polymorphism at these early stages of aggregation. In addition to its inherent experimental interest, comparison with other sequences shows that NAC could be a very useful numerical model for understanding the onset of aggregation.

  2. Fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in the early stage of endometrial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xiao-mei; LIN Xiao-na; JIANG Hong-fei; JIANG Ling-ying; ZHANG Song-ying; LIANG Feng-bing

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to review the available literature on fertility-preserving treatment and pregnancy outcomes in patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma who desired to preserve their fertility.Data sources The PubMed database (1992-2012) was searched for the words "conservative "OR" fertility sparing "OR"fertility preserving" AND "endometrial neoplasms" (MeSH).All relevant articles in English and the relevant references were collected.Study selection Data from published articles about fertility-preserving treatment of endometrial cancer,including the response and recurrence rate of conservative treatment,strategies of infertility treatment,pregnancy,and obstetric outcomes,were selected.Data were mainly extracted from 41 studies,which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results Hormone therapy was the most common method used for early-stage endometrial carcinoma in patients who wished to preserve fertility.Sixty percent of the patients became pregnant after remission of the carcinoma.The percentage of patients who conceived in the assisted reproductive technology group was higher than that of the natural pregnancy group (80.0% vs.43.2%,P<0.01).A higher rate of preterm labor and multiple pregnancies was observed in the assisted reproductive technology group than that in the natural pregnancy group.The majority of pregnancies (71.4%) in the assisted reproductive technology group were achieved by in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.The clinical pregnancy rate of transfer cycles in patients with endometrial carcinoma was 34.1%.Conclusions Assisted reproductive technology is a good option in well-selected patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma who have completed conservative treatment.In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer offers an opportunity to achieve an immediate pregnancy.

  3. Jasmonate signaling is activated in the very early stages of iron deficiency responses in rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Senoura, Takeshi; Oikawa, Takaya; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Minoru; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2016-07-01

    Under low iron availability, plants induce the expression of various genes involved in iron uptake and translocation at the transcriptional level. This iron deficiency response is affected by various plant hormones, but the roles of jasmonates in this response are not well-known. We investigated the involvement of jasmonates in rice iron deficiency responses. High rates of jasmonate-inducible genes were induced during the very early stages of iron deficiency treatment in rice roots. Many jasmonate-inducible genes were also negatively regulated by the ubiquitin ligases OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and positively regulated by the transcription factor IDEF1. Ten out of 35 genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were rapidly induced at 3 h of iron deficiency treatment, and this induction preceded that of known iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation. Twelve genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were also upregulated in HRZ-knockdown roots. Endogenous concentrations of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl isoleucine tended to be rapidly increased in roots in response to iron deficiency treatment, whereas these concentrations were higher in HRZ-knockdown roots under iron-sufficient conditions. Analysis of the jasmonate-deficient cpm2 mutant revealed that jasmonates repress the expression of many iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation under iron sufficiency, but this repression is partly canceled under an early stage of iron deficiency. These results indicate that jasmonate signaling is activated during the very early stages of iron deficiency, which is partly regulated by IDEF1 and OsHRZs.

  4. Analysis of factors responsible for the image in early stage emphysema and research concerning the diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Hirotaka [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    To clarify the utility of the CT image to a clinical diagnosis of the early stage emphysema, the relation of CT value to the level of the lung destruction, the change in the lung density and pulmonary function was examined. Experimental pulmonary emphysema model in canine was produced by inhalation of aerosolized papain solution. In this model, the relationship between the destruction in lung tissues and the analysis of CT images was investigated. Changes in the alveolar surface area per unit lung volume well reflected those in mean CT value in the lung parenchyma. Also, it was clarified that the degree of the lung destruction in this model corresponded to that in patients with the early stage emphysema. Mean CT value in the area that formed lowest 5th percentile of the CT value histogram (mCT (5%ile)) was developed to analyze CT images in emphysema. To develop this study, changes of the mCT (5%ile) at the respiratory level from 5% to 95% inspiratory vital capacity (mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC))) was examined. In experimental studies, there was statistical significance between control and emphysema model. In clinical study using 14 patients with emphysema, the mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC)) reflected well the values of pulmonary function tests which indicated air flow limitation such as %pred. FEV 1.0 and MMF. The present studies demonstrated that it might be useful to detect the pathological and functional impairment in the early stage emphysema by using mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC)). (author)

  5. Iodine-125 seed brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancer: a single-institution review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are reporting the five-year biochemical control, toxicity profile and dosimetric parameters using iodine-125 low dose rate brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer at a single institution. Between April 2006 and December 2010, 169 men with early stage prostate cancer were treated with BT. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL). Treatment-related morbidities, including urinary, rectal and sexual function, were measured, applying the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the 7-grade Quality of Life Scale (QoL) and medical status, the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.03). Seed migration and loss, dosimetric parameters and learning effects were also analyzed. Medium follow-up time was 50 months (range, 1–85 months). The five-year biochemical failure rate was 7%. Acute proctitis rates were 19% (grade 1) and 1% (grade 2), respectively. The overall incidence of incontinence was 19% (mild), 16% (moderate) and < 1% (severe). An increase in IPSS ≥ 5 points was detected in 59% of patients, with 38% regaining their baseline. Seed dislocation was found in 24% of patients and correlated with D90 and V100. A learning curve was found for seed migration, D90 and V100. QoL correlated with the general health condition of patient, incontinence symptoms and IPSS. BT for early stage prostate cancer offers excellent five-year biochemical control with low toxicities. QoL aspects are favorable. A learning curve was detected for procedural aspects but its impact on patient relevant endpoints remains inconclusive

  6. [Retrospective analysis for 104 cases of early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma treated with different modality therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Xiu-Bin; Su, Hang; Da, Yong; Chen, Xin-Lin; Zhong, Kai-Li; Zhao, Shi-Hua; Lu, Yun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Wei-Jing

    2012-04-01

    This paper explored the curative effect of combined modality therapy and extended field radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma. 104 cases of early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma from Jan 1987 to Dec 2010 in PLA Hospital 307 were retrospectively analyzed, including 76 cases in combined modality therapy group and 28 cases in extended field radiotherapy group, and the long-term efficacy and toxicity of two therapy modalities were evaluated. The results showed that the median survival time of 104 cases was 85.42 months, the complete remission rates of combined modality therapy and extended field radiotherapy groups were 72.4 and 71.4 respectively (P = 0.924); the overall response rates of combined modality therapy and extended field radiotherapy groups were 97.4 and 96.4 respectively (P = 0.779); the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates in the 2 groups were 89.5 and 89.1 respectively, and the 8-year OS rates of the 2 groups were 81.3 and 70.6. No statistical difference was found in above-mentioned 2 groups. Moreover, the 5-year progression free survival (PFS) rates of these 2 groups were 84.2 and 69.0 (P = 0.04), and 8-year PFS rates of these 2 groups were 80.0 and 55.5 (P = 0.04) respectively, the 5-year relapse rates of these 2 groups were 28.1 and 45.6 (P = 0.023) respectively. It is concluded that the combined modality therapy can raise the PFS rate and reduce the relapse rate as compared with extended field radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma, but there is no difference in the overall survival rate between the 2 groups.

  7. Low-Dose Consolidation Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Unfavorable Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Jordan A., E-mail: jordan.torok@dm.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wu, Yuan [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Prosnitz, Leonard R.; Kim, Grace J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Beaven, Anne W.; Diehl, Louis F. [Division of Hematologic Malignancy and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trial HD11 established 4 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and 30 Gy of radiation therapy (RT) as a standard for early stage (I, II), unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Additional cycles of ABVD may allow for a reduction in RT dose and improved toxicity profile. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with combined modality therapy at the Duke Cancer Institute for early stage, unfavorable HL by GHSG criteria from 1994 to 2012 were included. Patients who did not undergo post-chemotherapy functional imaging (positron emission tomography or gallium imaging) or who failed to achieve a complete response were excluded. Clinical outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Late effects were also evaluated. Results: A total of 90 patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. Median follow-up was 5 years. Chemotherapy consisted primarily of ABVD (88%) with a median number of 6 cycles. The median dose of consolidation RT was 23.4 Gy. Four patients had relapses, 2 of which were in-field. Ten-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82-0.97) and 98% (95% CI: 0.92-0.99), respectively. For the subset of patients (n=46) who received 5 to 6 cycles of chemotherapy and ≤24 Gy, the 10-year PFS and OS values were 88% (95% CI: 70%-96%) and 98% (95% CI: 85% - 99%), respectively. The most common late effect was hypothyroidism (20%) with no cardiac complications. Seven secondary malignancies were diagnosed, with only 1 arising within the RT field. Conclusions: Lower doses of RT may be sufficient when combined with more than 4 cycles of ABVD for early stage, unfavorable HL and may result in a more favorable toxicity profile than 4 cycles of ABVD and 30 Gy of RT.

  8. Clinical Significance of IGFBP-3 Methylation in Patients with Early Stage Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Tae Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IGFBP-3 is a multifunctional protein that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Hypermethylation of the promoter represses expression of the IGFBP-3 gene. We undertook this study to assess the impact of IGFBP-3 methylation on survival of early stage gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Of the 482 tissue samples from gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery, IGFBP-3 methylation was tested in 138 patients with stage IB/II gastric cancer. We also analyzed IGFBP-3 methylation in 26 gastric cancer cell lines. IGFBP-3 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight. Statistical analyses, all two-sided, were performed to investigate the prognostic effects of methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter on various clinical parameters. RESULTS: Hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 was observed in 26 (19% of the 138 stage IB/II gastric cancer patients. Clinicopathological factors such as age, Lauren classification, sex, tumor infiltration, lymph node metastasis, and histologic grade did not show a statistically significant association with the methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter. Patients with a hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter had similar 8-year disease-free survival compared with those without a hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter (73% vs 75%, P = .78. In subgroup analyses, females, but not males, seemed to have poorer prognosis for DFS and OS in the subset of patients with IGFBP-3 methylation as compared with those without IGFBP-3 methylation (8-year DFS: 55.6% vs 71.6%, P = .3694 and 8-year overall survival: 55.6% vs 68.4%, P = .491, respectively even with no statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The status of IGFBP-3 methylation as measured by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction proposed the modest role for predicting survival in specific subgroups of patients with early-stage gastric cancer who undergo curative surgery. However, this needs further investigation.

  9. Early-Stage Breast Cancer in the Octogenarian: Tumor Characteristics, Treatment Choices, and Clinical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Anita; Gonzalez, Julie J.; Neo, Dayna; Slanetz, Priscilla J.; Houlihan, Mary Jane; Herold, Christina I.; Recht, Abram; Hacker, Michele R.; Sharma, Ranjna

    2016-01-01

    Background Nodal staging with sentinel node biopsy (SLNB), post-lumpectomy radiotherapy (RT), and endocrine therapy (ET) for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors is valuable in the treatment of early-stage (stages 1 or 2) breast cancer but used less often for elderly women. Methods This retrospective study investigated women referred for surgical evaluation of biopsy-proven primary early-stage invasive breast cancer from January 2001 to December 2010. Clinicopathologic features, treatment course, and outcomes for women ages 80–89 years and 50–59 years were compared. Results The study identified 178 eligible women ages 80–89 years and 169 women ages 50–59 years. The elderly women more often had grade 1 or 2 disease (p = 0.003) and ER+ tumors (p = 0.007) and less frequently had undergone adjuvant therapies (all p ≤ 0.001). Lumpectomy was performed more commonly for the elderly (92 vs. 83 %, p = 0.02), and axillary surgery was less commonly performed (46 vs. 96 %; p < 0.001). Fewer elderly women had undergone post-lumpectomy RT (42 vs. 89 %; p < 0.001) and ET for ER+ tumors (72 vs. 95 %; p < 0.001). During the median follow-up period of 56 months for the 80- to 89-year old group and 98 months for the 50- to 59-year-old group, death from breast cancer was similar (4 vs. 5 %; p = 0.5). The two groups respectively experienced 7 versus 6 locoregional recurrences and 11 versus 13 distant recurrences. Conclusions The octogenarians had disease survivorship similar to that of the younger women despite less frequent use of adjuvant therapies, likely reflecting lower-risk disease features. Whether increased use of axillary surgery, post-lumpectomy RT, and/or ET for ER+ tumors would further improve outcomes is an important area for further study, but treatment should not be deferred solely on the basis of age. PMID:27364507

  10. Clean Energy Finance: Challenges and Opportunities of Early-Stage Energy Investing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heap, D.; Pless, J.; Aieta, N.

    2013-12-01

    Characterized by a changing landscape and new opportunities, today's increasingly complex energy decision space will need innovative financing and investment models to appropriately assess risk and profitability. This report provides an overview of the current state of clean energy finance across the entire spectrum but with a focus on early stage investing, and it includes insights from investors across all investment classes. Further, this report aims to provide a roadmap with the mechanisms, limitations, and considerations involved in making successful investments by identifying risks, challenges, and opportunities in the clean energy sector.

  11. Analysis of early-stage sintering mechanisms of mechanically activated BaTiO3

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić M.V.; Pavlović V.P.; Pavlović V.B.; Ristić M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Barium-titanate powder was mechanically activated in a planetary-ball mill for 60 and 120 minutes. Non-isothermal sintering of non-activated and activated powder samples was investigated using a dilatometer in the temperature interval from room to 1380oC with three different heating rates (10, 20 and 30oC/min). Early-stage sintering mechanisms for all three types of samples were analyzed, showing significant differences between the non-activated and mechanically activated samples.

  12. Analysis of early-stage sintering mechanisms of mechanically activated BaTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium-titanate powder was mechanically activated in a planetary-ball mill for 60 and 120 minutes. Non-isothermal sintering of non-activated and activated powder samples was investigated using a dilatometer in the temperature interval from room to 1380oC with three different heating rates (10, 20 and 30oC/min. Early-stage sintering mechanisms for all three types of samples were analyzed, showing significant differences between the non-activated and mechanically activated samples.

  13. Serum metabolomic signatures discriminate early liver inflammation and fibrosis stages in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haijun; Sun, Zeyu; Pan, Hongying; Chen, Meijuan; Tong, Yongxi; Zhang, Jiajie; Chen, Deying; Su, Xiaoling; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic HBV (CHB) infected patients with intermediate necroinflammation and fibrosis are recommended to receive antiviral treatment. However, other than liver biopsy, there is a lack of sensitive and specific objective method to determine the necroinflammation and fibrosis stages in CHB patients. This study aims to identify unique serum metabolomic profile associated with histological progression in CHB patients and to develop novel metabolite biomarker panels for early CHB detection and stratification. A comprehensive metabolomic profiling method was established to compare serum samples collected from health donor (n = 67), patients with mild (G indicator for antiviral treatment for CHB management. PMID:27498553

  14. [Current situation and confusion of sublobar resection for early stage lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Lobectomy with lymph node dissection has long been the standard surgical procedure for non-small cell lung cancer. However, the increased identification of smaller and smaller and even more indolent tumors by advanced imaging screening rekindled the interest of sublobar resection. Still, existing evidence only supports sublobar resection for radiologically or pathologically "very-early" stage tumors or high-risk patients. Ongoing randomized controlled trials in America, Japan and Europe will address the issue of "radical" application of sublobar resection, as well as an elderly patient trial for "compromized" application initiated by us. These efforts will delineate the utility of sublobar resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

  15. Citrate-selective electrochemical μ-sensor for early stage detection of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Azzouzi, Sawsen; Patra, Hirak K.; Ben Ali, Mounir; Abbas, Mohammed Nooredeen; Dridi, Cherif; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Turner, Anthony P. F.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely specialised anatomical function of citrate inside the prostate, make it one of the preferred biomarkers for early stage detection of prostate cancer. However, current detection methods are seriously limited due to the very low citrate concentrations that need to be measured in order to follow disease progression. In the present work, we report a novel citrate-selective μ-sensor based on iron (III) phthalocyanine chloride-C-monoamido-Poly-n-Butyl Acrylate (Fe(III)MAPcCl-P-n-BA) m...

  16. Non-linear Langevin model for the early-stage dynamics of electrospinning jets

    CERN Document Server

    Lauricella, Marco; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    We present a non-linear Langevin model to investigate the early-stage dynamics of electrified polymer jets in electrospinning experiments. In particular, we study the effects of air drag force on the uniaxial elongation of the charged jet, right after ejection from the nozzle. Numerical simulations show that the elongation of the jet filament close to the injection point is significantly affected by the non-linear drag exerted by the surrounding air. These result provide useful insights for the optimal design of current and future electrospinning experiments.

  17. Origin of the Directed Movement of Protocells in the Early Stages of the Evolution of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Chesnokova, Oksana I.

    2012-08-01

    The origin of the directed motion of protocells during the early stages of evolution was discussed. The expenditures for movement, space orientation, and reception of information about the environment were taken into consideration, and it was shown that directed movement is evolutionarily advantageous in the following cases: when opposite gradients of different resources (for example, matter and energy) are great enough and when there is a rapid change in environmental parameters. It was also shown that the advantage of directed movement strategies depends greatly on how information about the environment is obtained by a protocell.

  18. 'Making the best you can of it': living with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, Hazel

    2008-04-01

    Drawing upon data from a qualitative study of persons who are in the early stage of the condition, this paper examines the meaning of Alzheimer's disease. It contrasts the meaning of the disease as portrayed in popular culture with its meaning as interpreted by persons living with it. Findings show that persons with the illness do not necessarily accept the negative cultural meaning of the disease, nor the helpless 'victim' role in which they are generally cast. With a determination to 'make the best of it', strategies such as humour, normalisation, present-time orientation, and life review are employed to create a meaningful life. PMID:18298633

  19. Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; De Coensel, Bert; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Botteldooren, Dick; Hostens, Kris; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically generated underwater noise in the marine environment is ubiquitous, comprising both intense impulse and continuous noise. The installation of offshore wind farms across the North Sea has triggered a range of ecological questions regarding the impact of anthropogenically produced underwater noise on marine wildlife. Our interest is on the impact on the "passive drifters," i.e., the early life stages of fish that form the basis of fish populations and are an important prey for pelagic predators. This study deals with the impact of pile driving and operational noise generated at offshore wind farms on Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass) larvae. PMID:26610960

  20. Early life stages of cephalopods in the Sargasso Sea: distribution and diversity relative to hydrographic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Diekmann, Rabea; Piatkowski, Uwe

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of early life stages of cephalopods was studied during a cruise of the German R.V. "Poseidon" to the Sargasso Sea in March 1993, covering an area south-east of Bermuda from 24°N to 31°N and 61°W to 65°W. Hydrographic measurements were carried out by conductivity, temperature and depth casts and/or expendable bathythermographs. The subtropical convergence zone was detected at a latitude of approximately 27°20′N and divided the Sargasso Sea into a northern and a southern area. ...

  1. THE EVOLVING ROLE OF RADIOTHERAPY IN EARLY STAGE HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Umberto Ricardi; Andrea Riccardo Filippi; Cristina Piva; Pierfrancesco Franco

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy has a key role in the combined modality treatment of early-stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL). Nevertheless, late toxicity still remains an issue. A modern approach in HL radiotherapy includes lower doses and smaller fields, together with the implementation of sophisticated and dedicated delivery techniques. Aim of the present review is to discuss the current role of radiotherapy and its potential future developments, with a focus on major clinical trials, technological advances ...

  2. Is ADHD an early stage in the development of borderline personality disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Simonsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    : Most of the 15 articles showed a statistical association between ADHD and BPD. The data, most strongly provided a basis for the hypotheses that ADHD is either an early developmental stage of BPD, or that the two disorders share an environmental and genetic aetiology. Furthermore, one of the disorders......Background: Several studies report associations between adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. Aims: To explore the association between BPD and a history of ADHD in childhood. Method: A comprehensive search...

  3. Composition effects on the early-stage oxidation kinetics of (001) Cu-Au alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.-W.; Eastman, J. A.; Birtcher, R. C.; Baldo, P. M.; Pearson, J. E.; Thompson, L. J.; Wang, L.; Yang, J. C.

    2007-02-01

    An in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy study of the nucleation and growth of oxide islands during the early-stage oxidation of (001) Cu1-xAux alloys (x⩽38at.%) was undertaken in order to investigate the effects of alloying on oxide island nucleation behavior and growth kinetics. The kinetic data reveal that Au enhances the nucleation density of oxide islands and suppresses their growth rate. Our results provide insight into reasons for the decreased passivation properties of Cu when alloyed with Au.

  4. Study on the Early Detection and Clinico—pathologic Staging of Colorectal Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGShu; CAIShanrong; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To confim an effective and practicable screening model for early detection of colorectal cancer(CRC),and to modify an ac-ceptable and reasonable staging of CRC for predicting prognosis and to define the therapeutic strategy. Methods Data from 3 case-control studies have been used for selecting the high risk factors of CRC to optimize Sequencing Screening Model (SSM).The fieldwork recalls have been utilized to compare the sensitivity,specificity and Youden Index between the SSMand the optimized one.The 1722 individuals have been used to evaluate the Optimized Sequencing Screening Model(OPSM).From 1980 to 1995, 1334 cases of CRC pathologically confimed have been analyzed for 3-,5-and 10-year survival rates.All tests were performed at the 0.05 level of significances.Statistical analysis was conducted by using the SPSS 10.0 statistic software. Results A simple questionnaire and RPHA-FOB test as the screening model for early detecting CRC had been proved as an optimized screening model.The sensitivity,specificity and Youden Index of the optimized model were higher than those of SSM.From the 1722 indi-viduals 4Dukes' Aand 5 Dukes' B CRC were screened out.Analysis of the 3-,5- and 10-year survival rated revealed that there were statistically significant differences between serosa and extraserosa.The 3-,5- and 10-year survival rates were 0.91±0.06,0.84±0.07,0.81±0.07 respectively in cancer involved to the serosa group,but in extraserosa group the survival rates were 0.82±0.03,0.74±0.03,0.63±0.04 respectively.The survival rate of serosa level involved was higher than that of extraserosa and/or rectrm wall fat .There-fore ,these two levels should be separated in the clinico-pathologic staging of CRC. Conclusion The optimized screening model is suitable to early detection of the CRC. Due to different survival rates of different layers in-volved ,the Dukes B (or stage Ⅱ) should be divided into Dukes B1 or stage Ⅱa (serosa )and Dukes B2 or stage

  5. Comparing Soft Computing Techniques For Early Stage Software Development Effort Estimations

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatnagar, Roheet

    2012-01-01

    Accurately estimating the software size, cost, effort and schedule is probably the biggest challenge facing software developers today. It has major implications for the management of software development because both the overestimates and underestimates have direct impact for causing damage to software companies. Lot of models have been proposed over the years by various researchers for carrying out effort estimations. Also some of the studies for early stage effort estimations suggest the importance of early estimations. New paradigms offer alternatives to estimate the software development effort, in particular the Computational Intelligence (CI) that exploits mechanisms of interaction between humans and processes domain knowledge with the intention of building intelligent systems (IS). Among IS, Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic are the two most popular soft computing techniques for software development effort estimation. In this paper neural network models and Mamdani FIS model have been used to pr...

  6. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride.

  7. Investigating the early stages of person perception: the asymmetry of social categorization by sex vs. age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Cloutier

    Full Text Available Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimensions, the relative influence that sex and age have on each other during categorization of infant, younger adult, and older adult faces was investigated. Results of these experiments demonstrate that when sex and age dimensions are simultaneously categorized, only for infant faces does age influence sex categorization. In contrast, the sex of both young and older adults was shown to influence age categorization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed in light of previous person perception research.

  8. Skin Immunity to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashem, Sakeen W; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that colonizes healthy human skin, mucosa, and the reproductive tract. C. albicans is also a predominantly opportunistic fungal pathogen, leading to disease manifestations such as disseminated candidiasis and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). The differing host susceptibilities for the sites of C. albicans infection have revealed tissue compartmentalization with tailoring of immune responses based on the site of infection. Furthermore, extensive studies of host genetics in rare cases of CMC have identified conserved genetic pathways involved in immune recognition and the response to the extracellular pathogen. We focus here on human and mouse skin as a site of C. albicans infection, and we review established and newly discovered insights into the cellular pathways that promote cutaneous antifungal immunity. PMID:27178391

  9. Parallel processing of general and specific threat during early stages of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuqi; Li, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Differential processing of threat can consummate as early as 100 ms post-stimulus. Moreover, early perception not only differentiates threat from non-threat stimuli but also distinguishes among discrete threat subtypes (e.g. fear, disgust and anger). Combining spatial-frequency-filtered images of fear, disgust and neutral scenes with high-density event-related potentials and intracranial source estimation, we investigated the neural underpinnings of general and specific threat processing in early stages of perception. Conveyed in low spatial frequencies, fear and disgust images evoked convergent visual responses with similarly enhanced N1 potentials and dorsal visual (middle temporal gyrus) cortical activity (relative to neutral cues; peaking at 156 ms). Nevertheless, conveyed in high spatial frequencies, fear and disgust elicited divergent visual responses, with fear enhancing and disgust suppressing P1 potentials and ventral visual (occipital fusiform) cortical activity (peaking at 121 ms). Therefore, general and specific threat processing operates in parallel in early perception, with the ventral visual pathway engaged in specific processing of discrete threats and the dorsal visual pathway in general threat processing. Furthermore, selectively tuned to distinctive spatial-frequency channels and visual pathways, these parallel processes underpin dimensional and categorical threat characterization, promoting efficient threat response. These findings thus lend support to hybrid models of emotion.

  10. Combined modality treatment improves tumor control and overall survival in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed A; Brillant, Corinne;

    2010-01-01

    Combined modality treatment (CMT) of chemotherapy followed by localized radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, the role of radiotherapy has been questioned recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication...

  11. Early-Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Biorefinery Processes: A Comparative Study of Heuristic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkari, Mirela; Couturier, Jean-Luc; Kokossis, Antonis; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-01

    Biorefineries offer a promising alternative to fossil-based processing industries and have undergone rapid development in recent years. Limited financial resources and stringent company budgets necessitate quick capital estimation of pioneering biorefinery projects at the early stages of their conception to screen process alternatives, decide on project viability, and allocate resources to the most promising cases. Biorefineries are capital-intensive projects that involve state-of-the-art technologies for which there is no prior experience or sufficient historical data. This work reviews existing rapid cost estimation practices, which can be used by researchers with no previous cost estimating experience. It also comprises a comparative study of six cost methods on three well-documented biorefinery processes to evaluate their accuracy and precision. The results illustrate discrepancies among the methods because their extrapolation on biorefinery data often violates inherent assumptions. This study recommends the most appropriate rapid cost methods and urges the development of an improved early-stage capital cost estimation tool suitable for biorefinery processes. PMID:27484398

  12. Carbon Ion Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Demizu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon ion therapy is a type of radiotherapies that can deliver high-dose radiation to a tumor while minimizing the dose delivered to the organs at risk; this profile differs from that of photon radiotherapy. Moreover, carbon ions are classified as high-linear energy transfer radiation and are expected to be effective for even photon-resistant tumors. Recently, high-precision radiotherapy modalities such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT, proton therapy, and carbon ion therapy have been used for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, and the results are promising, as, for carbon ion therapy, local control and overall survival rates at 5 years are 80–90% and 40–50%, respectively. Carbon ion therapy may be theoretically superior to SBRT and proton therapy, but the literature that is currently available does not show a statistically significant difference among these treatments. Carbon ion therapy demonstrates a better dose distribution than both SBRT and proton therapy in most cases of early-stage lung cancer. Therefore, carbon ion therapy may be safer for treating patients with adverse conditions such as large tumors, central tumors, and poor pulmonary function. Furthermore, carbon ion therapy may also be suitable for dose escalation and hypofractionation.

  13. Protection induced by early stage vaccination with pandemic influenza virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2016-07-19

    The 2009 worldwide influenza pandemic emphasized the need for new approaches to develop emergency vaccines. In this study, a virus-like particle vaccine comprised of hemagglutinin (HA) and M1 from the pandemic influenza virus A/California/04/09 were used and its ability to induce protective immunity during the early stage of vaccination was assessed in a mouse model. A single intramuscular vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) provided protection on days 4 and 7 post-vaccination against lethal virus challenge with only moderate body weight loss. VLP vaccination induced significantly higher IgG antibody responses and high hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) titers on day 4 post-vaccination. A predominant IgG2a antibody response and viral neutralizing antibodies were induced on day 7. These immune responses were closely correlated with protection. Lung virus titers decreased significantly on day 7 compared to those on day 4 post-vaccination. The lung virus titer on day 4 post-vaccination also decreased significantly compared to that of the naïve control. These results demonstrate that VLP vaccination confers effective protection during the early stage after vaccination in a mouse model. PMID:27317263

  14. The Role of Lipid Rafts in the Early Stage of Enterovirus 71 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhe Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although it has been widely accepted that Enterovirus 71 (EV71 enters permissive cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, the details of entry mechanism for EV71 still need more exploration. This study aimed to investigate the role of lipid rafts in the early stage of EV71 Infection. Methods: The effect of cholesterol depletion or addition of exogenous cholesterol was detected by immunofluorescence assays and quantitative real-time PCR. Effects of cholesterol depletion on the association of EV71 with lipid rafts were determined by flow cytometry and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Localization and internalization of EV71 and its receptor were assayed by confocal microscpoy and sucrose gradient analysis. The impact of cholesterol on the activation of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway during initial virus infection was analyzed by Western-blotting. Results: Disruption of membrane cholesterol by a pharmacological agent resulted in a significant reduction in the infectivity of EV71. The inhibitory effect could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Cholesterol depletion post-infection did not affect EV71 infection. While virus bound equally to cholesterol-depleted cells, EV71 particles failed to be internalized by cholesterol-depleted cells. EV71 capsid protein co-localized with cholera toxin B, a lipid-raft-dependent internalization marker. Conclusion: Lipid rafts play a critical role in virus endocytosis and in the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the early stage of EV71 infection.

  15. Ultrastructural observations of the early and late stages of gorgonian coral (Junceella juncea) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sujune; Jhuang, Yating; Spikings, Emma; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lin, Chiahsin

    2014-08-01

    The developmental oogenesis of gorgonian coral was investigated at the histological level. The objective of this study was to examine and improve the understanding of Junceella juncea oogenesis using ultrastructural methods, such as histological sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. At least three types of yolk materials were observed in this study: yolk body, lipid granules and cortical alveoli. Some of the complex yolk materials were encompassed by concentric or arched layers of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex in early stage oocytes. Different types of vesicles were found in both early and late stage oocytes and some granules could be seen inside the empty vesicles. This may be a possible method for elaborating complex yolk materials. Homogeneous yolks from different types of inclusions were abundant and the autosynthesis of yolk may be a major mechanism in J. juncea oocytes. This is the first report of the ultrastructural observation of oogenesis in gorgonian coral species using transmission electron microscopy. Our study obtained relatively detailed information at the ultrastructural level, and it provides an overview of the oocyte ultrastucture of the gorgonian coral J. juncea.

  16. An Ordered Bipolar Outflow from a Massive Early-Stage Core

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Jonathan C; Zhang, Yichen; Fontani, Francesco; Caselli, Paola; Butler, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA follow-up observations of two massive, early-stage core candidates, C1-N & C1-S, in Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, which were previously identified by their N2D+(3-2) emission and show high levels of deuteration of this species. The cores are also dark at far infrared wavelengths up to ~100 microns. We detect 12CO(2-1) from a narrow, highly-collimated bipolar outflow that is being launched from near the center of the C1-S core, which is also the location of the peak 1.3mm dust continuum emission. This protostar, C1-Sa, has associated dense gas traced by C18O(2-1) and DCN(3-2), from which we estimate it has a radial velocity that is near the center of the range exhibited by the C1-S massive core. A second outflow-driving source is also detected within the projected boundary of C1-S, but is likely to be at a different radial velocity. After considering properties of the outflows, we conclude C1-Sa is a promising candidate for an early-stage massive protostar and as such it shows t...

  17. Diagnosis of early-stage esophageal cancer by Raman spectroscopy and chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Mika; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B; Ishihara, Ryu; Wongravee, Kanet; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2016-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is a disease with high mortality. In order to improve the 5 year survival rate after cancer treatment, it is important to develop a method for early detection of the cancer and for therapy support. There is increasing evidence that Raman spectroscopy, in combination with chemometric analysis, is a powerful technique for discriminating pre-cancerous and cancerous biochemical changes. In the present study, we used Raman spectroscopy to examine early-stage (stages 0 and I) esophageal cancer samples ex vivo. Comparison between the Raman spectra of cancerous and normal samples using a t-test showed decreased concentrations of glycogen, collagen, and tryptophan in cancerous tissue. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis and self-organization maps (SOMs) discriminated the datasets of cancerous and normal samples into two groups, but there was a relatively large overlap between them. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on Raman bands found in the t-test was able to predict the tissue types with 81.0% sensitivity and 94.0% specificity. PMID:26694647

  18. Thermodynamics, morphology, and kinetics of early- stage self-assembly of pi-conjugated oligopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Bryce; Tovar, John; Ferguson, Andrew

    Synthetic oligopeptides containing π-conjugated cores self-assemble novel materials with attractive electronic and photophysical properties. All-atom, explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of Asp-Phe-Ala-Gly-OPV3-Gly-Ala-Phe-Asp peptides were used to parameterize an implicit solvent model to simulate self-assembly. At low-pH conditions, peptides assemble into β-sheet-like stacks with strongly favorable monomer association free energies of ΔF ~ - 25kB T . Aggregation at high-pH produces disordered aggregates destabilized by Coulombic repulsion between negatively charged Asp termini. We model simulations of hundereds of monomers as a continuous-time Markov process. We infer transition rates between different aggregate sizes and microsecond relaxation times for early-stage assembly. Our data suggests a hierarchical model of assembly in which peptides coalesce into small clusters over tens of nanoseconds followed by structural ripening and diffusion limited aggregation on longer time scales. This work provides new molecular-level understanding of early-stage assembly, and a means to study the impact of peptide chemistry upon the thermodynamics, assembly kinetics, and morphology of the supramolecular aggregates. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Award DE-SC0004857. Molecular simulations partially conducted on University of Illinois Computational Science and Engineering Program parallel computing resources.

  19. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  20. Asymmetry and polymorphism of hybrid male sterility during the early stages of speciation in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jeffrey M; Handel, Mary Ann; Nachman, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    House mice offer a powerful system for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypes that isolate species in the early stages of speciation. We used a series of reciprocal crosses between wild-derived strains of Mus musculus and M. domesticus to examine F(1) hybrid male sterility, one of the primary phenotypes thought to isolate these species. We report four main results. First, we found significantly smaller testes and fewer sperm in hybrid male progeny of most crosses. Second, in some crosses hybrid male sterility was asymmetric and depended on the species origin of the X chromosome. These observations confirm and extend previous findings, underscoring the central role that the M. musculus X chromosome plays in reproductive isolation. Third, comparisons among reciprocal crosses revealed polymorphism at one or more hybrid incompatibilities within M. musculus. Fourth, the spermatogenic phenotype of this polymorphic interaction appears distinct from previously described hybrid incompatibilities between these species. These data build on previous studies of speciation in house mice and show that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility is fairly complex, even at this early stage of divergence.

  1. Toxicity assessment of iron oxide nanoparticles in zebrafish (Danio rerio early life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Zhu

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles have been explored recently for their beneficial applications in many biomedical areas, in environmental remediation, and in various industrial applications. However, potential risks have also been identified with the release of nanoparticles into the environment. To study the ecological effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, we used early life stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio to examine such effects on embryonic development in this species. The results showed that ≥10 mg/L of iron oxide nanoparticles instigated developmental toxicity in these embryos, causing mortality, hatching delay, and malformation. Moreover, an early life stage test using zebrafish embryos/larvae is also discussed and recommended in this study as an effective protocol for assessing the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. This study is one of the first on developmental toxicity in fish caused by iron oxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments. The results will contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology.

  2. Gastrointestinal migrating motor complex during early stage of cholesterol gallstone formation in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ling; Bai Wenyuan; Ma Yongzhi; Gu Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the changes of gastrointestinal migrating motor complex (MMC) during the early stage of cholesterol gallstone formation. Methods: Totally 45 healthy adult guinea pigs were randomly and equally divided into 3 groups, that is, normal control, group B (1% cholesterol diet for 2 weeks) and group C (1% cholesterol diet for 4 weeks). Three pairs of silver electrodes were inserted into the gastric antrum, duodenum and jejunum of every animal respectively. Record of gastrointestinal MMC of these guinea pigs were recorded and analyzed.Gallbladder bile was taken to detect the formation of cholesterol gallstone. Results: There were only 29 guineapigs living. The MMC cycle time and the duration of phase Ⅱ were prolonged significantly and gradually compared with the control group (P<0.01), but the duration of phase Ⅲ became significantly and gradually shorter. Conclusion:During the early stage of cholesterol gallstone formation, the MMC cycle time and the duration of phase Ⅱ are prolonged and the duration of phase Ⅲ is shortened

  3. Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms.

  4. Magnetic fields during the early stages of massive star formation I: Accretion and disk evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Seifried, D; Klessen, R S; Duffin, D; Pudritz, R E

    2011-01-01

    We present simulations of collapsing 100 M_\\sun mass cores in the context of massive star formation. The effect of variable initial rotational and magnetic energies on the formation of massive stars is studied in detail. We focus on accretion rates and on the question under which conditions massive Keplerian disks can form in the very early evolutionary stage of massive protostars. For this purpose, we perform 12 simulations with different initial conditions extending over a wide range in parameter space. The equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are solved under the assumption of ideal MHD. We find that the formation of Keplerian disks in the very early stages is suppressed for a mass-to-flux ratio normalised to the critical value \\mu below 10, in agreement with a series of low-mass star formation simulations. This is caused by very efficient magnetic braking resulting in a nearly instantaneous removal of angular momentum from the disk. For weak magnetic fields, corresponding to \\mu > 10, large-scale, cent...

  5. AN INTEGRATED MODEL FOR MANAGING INNOVATION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN SMES(RIKON Group)

    OpenAIRE

    Flinders, Clare; Lynch, Patrick; Holden, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper centralises the management of innovation in the early stages of the new product development (NPD) process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the critical episodes that enabled an SME to successfully manage the development of new product concepts from inception and, in so doing, presents implementable guidelines that can be used by SMEs to manage the delivery of creative and attractive new product concepts in the early stages of NPD. Action research was used to conduct a thre...

  6. A spectrum of genes expressed during early stages of rice panicle and flower development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kumuda M. Kushalappa; Autar K. Mattoo; Usha Vijayraghavan

    2000-08-01

    To unravel gene expression patterns during rice inflorescence development, particularly at early stages of panicle and floral organ specification, we have characterized random cloned cDNAs from developmental-stage-specific libraries. cDNA libraries were constructed from rice panicles at the stage of branching and flower primordia specification or from panicles undergoing floral organogenesis. Partial sequence analysis and expression patterns of some of these random cDNA clones from these two rice panicle libraries are presented. Sequence comparisons with known DNA sequences in databases reveal that approximately sixtyeight per cent of these expressed rice genes show varying degrees of similarity to genes in other species with assigned functions. In contrast, thirtytwo per cent represent uncharacterized genes. cDNAs reported here code for potential rice homologues of housekeeping molecules, regulators of gene expression, and signal transduction molecules. They comprise both single-copy and multicopy genes, and genes expressed differentially, both spatially and temporally, during rice plant development. New rice cDNAs requiring specific mention are those with similarity to COP1, a regulator of photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis; sequence-specific DNA binding plant proteins like AP2-domain-containing factors; genes that specify positional information in shoot meristems like leucine-rich-repeat-containing receptor kinases; regulators of chromatin structure like Polycomb domain protein; and also proteins induced by abiotic stresses.

  7. Genotypic Variation for Salinity Tolerance in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Genotypes at Early Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigabu, Endalew

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench is the fifth most economically important crop among cereals in the world. Salinity is an abiotic factor which reduces productivity of sorghum. Exploiting genetic variability to identify salt tolerant genotype is one of the strategies used to overcome salinity. Pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the genetic variation of eleven sorghum genotypes for NaCl salinity response at germination and early seedling stages. The experimental treatments were five NaCl salinity levels (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 dS m-1 and eleven sorghum genotypes (Gambella1107, Melkam, S-35, ESH-2, Gobye, 97MW6130, Meko, 76T1#23, ICSV-111, Abshir and Teshale. The experimental design was completely randomized design with three replicates.Data was analyzed using SAS (version 9.0 statistical software and means were separated by LSD. Germination rate, final germination percentage, seedling shoot length and seedling root length were measured. The ANOVA for treatments, genotypes and their interaction was found to be highly significant (p<0.001 with regard to all parameters. Genotypes Meko, Gambella1107, ICSV-111 and Melkam were found salt tolerant during germination and seedling growth stages. However, genotypes ESH-2 and Gobye were salt sensitive during both stages. The rest sorghum genotypes were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of wide genotypic variation among the sorghum genotypes for NaCl salt tolerance.

  8. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Promoter Genotype as a Marker of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Early Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vasku

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the DNA polymorphic genotype in MMP-2 promoter gene as a potential candidate region for the development of the cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL and/or its progression. A total of 89 Czech patients with CTCL (including 23 patients with large plaque parapsoriasis were compared to 198 controls of similar age and sex distribution, without personal or family history of chronic skin diseases and without personal history of malignancy. The three selected polymorphisms in the promoter of MMP-2 gene (−1575G/A, −1306C/T, and −790T/G were determined using the PCR-based methodology with RFLP. In our cohort, the associated GGCCTT MMP-2 promoter genotype was highly significantly more frequent in CTCL-Ia stage patients compared to patients with parapsoriasis, the tests having high sensitivity and specificity (78%, 83%, resp.. To conclude, use of associated MMP-2 promoter genotype as a DNA marker might make it possible to distinguish between the patients with parapsoriasis and those with CTCL stage Ia, which could substantially improve possibilities of clinical diagnostics, therapy design, and prognosis of this serious condition in the early stages.

  9. Changes in corneal sensitivity following cross-linking for progressive early-stage keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise de Medeiros Lago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate changes in corneal sensitivity following corneal cross-linking (CXL in patients with progressive earlier stage keratoconus. Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 19 patients (11 women, 8 men were included in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical study. The mean patient age was 22 years (range, 18-26 years. Inclusion criteria were early stage bilateral progressive keratoconus, a transparent cornea, and a thickness of ≥440 µm in the thinnest area of the cornea. Using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, central corneal sensitivity was measured before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and once a month thereafter until recovery of baseline preoperative levels. Central corneal sensitivity >40 mm was considered normal. Results: Corneal sensitivity gradually returned to preoperative levels in all treated eyes. The mean central corneal sensitivity was 52.2, 24.0, 38.2, 42.5, 50.0, and 52.5 mm before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months after surgery, respectively. Normal levels of corneal sensation, but not baseline (preoperative levels, were observed 2 months after surgery. The preoperative levels were observed 3 months after surgery. Conclusions: Our results suggest that central corneal sensitivity can be decreased for as long as 3 months after CXL for progressive earlier stage keratoconus.

  10. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.

  11. Investigating the early stages of mineral precipitation by potentiometric titration and analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermeier, Matthias; Cölfen, Helmut; Gebauer, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of crystallization for various areas of research, our understanding of the early stages of the mineral precipitation from solution and of the actual mechanism of nucleation is still rather limited. Indeed, detailed insights into the processes underlying nucleation may enable a systematic development of novel strategies for controlling mineralization, which is highly relevant for fields ranging from materials chemistry to medicine. In this work, we describe experimental aspects of a quantitative assay, which relies on pH titrations combined with in situ metal ion potentiometry and conductivity measurements. The assay has originally been designed to study the crystallization of calcium carbonate, one of the most abundant biominerals. However, the developed procedures can also be readily applied to any compound containing cations for which ion-selective electrodes are available. Besides the possibility to quantitatively assess ion association prior to nucleation and to directly determine thermodynamic solubility products of precipitated phases, the main advantage of the crystallization assay is the unambiguous identification of the different stages of precipitation (i.e., prenucleation, nucleation, and early postnucleation) and the characterization of the multiple effects of additives. Furthermore, the experiments permit targeted access to distinct precursor species and intermediate stages, which thus can be analyzed by additional methods such as cryo-electron microscopy or analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). Regarding ion association in solution, AUC detects entities significantly larger than simple ion pairs, so-called prenucleation clusters. Sedimentation coefficient values and distributions obtained for the calcium carbonate system are discussed in light of recent insights into the structural nature of prenucleation clusters.

  12. Lack of miRNA misregulation at early pathological stages in Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eReinhardt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Late onset neurodegenerative diseases represent a major public health concern as the population in many countries ages. Both frequent diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD, 14% incidence for 80-84 year old Europeans or Parkinson disease (PD, 1.4% prevalence for > 55 years old share, with other low-incidence neurodegenerative pathologies such as spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs, 0.01% prevalence and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, 0.02% prevalence, a lack of efficient treatment in spite of important research efforts. Besides significant progress, studies with animal models have revealed unexpected complexities in the degenerative process, emphasizing a need to better understand the underlying pathological mechanisms. Recently, microRNAs, a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases. The current data supporting a role of miRNAs in PD, tauopathies, dominant ataxias and FTLD will first be discussed to emphasize the different levels of the pathological processes which may be affected by miRNAs. To investigate a potential involvement of miRNA dysregulation in the early stages of these neurodegenerative diseases we have used Drosophila models for 7 diseases (PD, 3 FTLD, 3 dominant ataxias that recapitulate many features of the human diseases. We performed deep sequencing of head small RNAs after 3 days of pathological protein expression in the fly head neurons. We found no evidence for a statistically significant difference in miRNA expression in this early stage of the pathological process. In addition, we could not identify small non coding CAG repeat RNAs (sCAG in polyQ disease models. Thus our data suggest that transcriptional deregulation of miRNAs or sCAG is unlikely to play a significant role in the initial stages of neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. RESPONSE OF EARLY STAGE BULKY CERVICAL SQUAMOUS CARCINOMA TO PREOPERATIVE ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Linghu; Xiao-rong Xu; Yao-yu Mei; Jun-ying Tang; Liang-dan Tang; Tong Sun

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential role of preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy on early stage cervical squamouscarcinoma with bulky tumor.Methods One hundred and forty-five patients with cervical squamous cancer stages Ⅰb-Ⅱa were investigated, among which 17 patients with bulky tumors (≥4 cm) were managed by cisplatin-based chemotherapy for 1-2 courses followed by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (BC group). The change of tumor size, pelvic lymph nodes metastasis, cervical wall invasion, the involvement of surgical specimen margin, and the blood loss during operation were assessed after operation and compared with those in 51 patients with bulky tumors (BN group) and 77 patients with small local tumors (S group)who underwent surgery directly.Results (1) The tumor size of 17 patients in BC group were decreased in various degrees after chemotherapy, with 13 patients of clinical effectiveness (76.47%). And the responsiveness pertained to neither histological differentiation nor size of local tumors. (2) Post-operative histology has showed that patients in BC and BN group have higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and deep cervical infiltration (5/68 and 3/68, respectively) than in S group (1/77 and 1/77, respectively) while with no statistical significance. (3) Blood loss during operation in BC group was less than BN and S group. (4) Seventeen patients, including those underwent surgeries of vaginal prolongation and/or ovarian transposition, appeared disease-free survival within the follow-up time.Conclusions Most of patients with bulky early stage cervical squamous carcinoma are sensitive to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, which could greatly reduce local tumor size and in turn facilitate the following operation by well controlling blood loss.

  14. Analysis of cerebro-spinal fluid protein composition in early developmental stages in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, A; Martín, P; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Pulgar, M A; Moro, J A

    2004-04-01

    Foetal cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) has a very high protein concentration when compared to adult CSF, and in many species five major protein fractions have been described. However, the protein concentration and composition in CSF during early developmental stages remains largely unknown. Our results show that in the earliest stages (18 to 30 H.H.) of chick development there is a progressive increase in CSF protein concentration until foetal values are attained. In addition, by performing electrophoretic separation and high-sensitivity silver staining, we were able to identify a total of 21 different protein fractions in the chick embryo CSF. In accordance with the developmental pattern of their concentration, these can be classified as follows: A: high-concentration fractions which corresponded with the ones described in foetal CSF by other authors; B: low-concentration fractions which remained stable throughout the period studied; C: low-concentration fractions which show changes during this period. The evolution and molecular weight of the latter group suggest the possibility of an important biological role. Our data demonstrate that all the CSF protein fractions are present in embryonic serum; this could mean that the specific transport mechanisms in neuroepithelial cells described in the foetal period evolve in very early stages of development. In conclusion, this paper offers an accurate study of the protein composition of chick embryonic CSF, which will help the understanding of the influences on neuroepithelial stem cells during development and, as a result, the appropriate conditions for the in vitro study of embryonic/foetal nervous tissue cells. PMID:15039986

  15. Features of fatigue in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianping Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the fatigue status and related factors in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC 1-5 years after surgery. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 254 patients with stage IA or IB NSCLC, who had undergone surgery. They completed several surveys, including the Brief Fatigue Inventory, Karnofsky Performance Scale, Physical Activity Questionnaire, Baseline Dyspnea Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The association between fatigue and functional status was assessed using Chi-square analysis. Spearman rank correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to assess the correlation between fatigue and various other factors. Results: The overall incidence of postoperative fatigue was 59.8%. Among patients with moderate to severe fatigue, 21.1% had obvious dysfunction, whereas only 9.6% of patients with mild or no fatigue (χ2 = 5.369; P = 0.02 showed obvious dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that functional status (odds ratio [OR]: 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-6.19, concurrent lung disease (OR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.08-4.99, depression (OR: 6.39; 95% CI: 2.42-17.35, and anxiety (OR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.13-4.87 were independent risk factors for fatigue, whereas physical activity (OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11-0.73 could prevent fatigue. Conclusion: More than half of the patients with early-stage NSCLC experienced fatigue 1-5 years after surgery, and moderate to severe fatigue was often associated with obvious dysfunction. The strong association of fatigue with anxiety, depression, and lung complications suggests that fatigue and other symptoms constitute a symptom cluster. Therefore, comprehensive treatment methods may achieve better therapeutic results.

  16. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status

  17. Computer simulation on the cooperation of functional molecules during the early stages of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Ma

    Full Text Available It is very likely that life began with some RNA (or RNA-like molecules, self-replicating by base-pairing and exhibiting enzyme-like functions that favored the self-replication. Different functional molecules may have emerged by favoring their own self-replication at different aspects. Then, a direct route towards complexity/efficiency may have been through the coexistence/cooperation of these molecules. However, the likelihood of this route remains quite unclear, especially because the molecules would be competing for limited common resources. By computer simulation using a Monte-Carlo model (with "micro-resolution" at the level of nucleotides and membrane components, we show that the coexistence/cooperation of these molecules can occur naturally, both in a naked form and in a protocell form. The results of the computer simulation also lead to quite a few deductions concerning the environment and history in the scenario. First, a naked stage (with functional molecules catalyzing template-replication and metabolism may have occurred early in evolution but required high concentration and limited dispersal of the system (e.g., on some mineral surface; the emergence of protocells enabled a "habitat-shift" into bulk water. Second, the protocell stage started with a substage of "pseudo-protocells", with functional molecules catalyzing template-replication and metabolism, but still missing the function involved in the synthesis of membrane components, the emergence of which would lead to a subsequent "true-protocell" substage. Third, the initial unstable membrane, composed of prebiotically available fatty acids, should have been superseded quite early by a more stable membrane (e.g., composed of phospholipids, like modern cells. Additionally, the membrane-takeover probably occurred at the transition of the two substages of the protocells. The scenario described in the present study should correspond to an episode in early evolution, after the emergence

  18. Oxidative reactions during early stages of beer brewing studied by electron spin resonance and spin trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Anne M; Festersen, Rikke M; Andersen, Mogens L

    2008-09-24

    An electron spin resonance (ESR)-based method was used for evaluating the levels of radical formation during mashing and in sweet wort. The method included the addition of 5% (v/v) ethanol together with the spin trap alpha-4-pyridyl(1-oxide)- N- tert-butylnitrone (POBN) to wort, followed by monitoring the rate of formation of POBN spin adducts during aerobic heating of the wort. The presence of ethanol makes the spin trapping method more selective and sensitive for the detection of highly reactive radicals such as hydroxyl and alkoxyl radicals. Samples of wort that were collected during the early stages of the mashing process gave higher rates of spin adduct formation than wort samples collected during the later stages. The lower oxidative stability of the early wort samples was confirmed by measuring the rate of oxygen consumption during heating of the wort. The addition of Fe(II) to the wort samples increased the rate of spin adduct formation, whereas the addition of Fe(II) during the mashing had no effect on the oxidative stability of the wort samples. Analysis of the iron content in the sweet wort samples demonstrated that iron added during the mashing had no effect on the iron level in the wort. The moderate temperatures during the early steps of mashing allow the endogenous malt enzymes to be active. The potential antioxidative effects of different redox-active enzymes during mashing were tested by measuring the rate of spin adduct formation in samples of wort. Surprisingly, a high catalase dosage caused a significant, 20% reduction of the initial rate of radical formation, whereas superoxide dismutase had no effect on the oxidation rates. This suggests that hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are not the only intermediates that play a role in the oxidative reactions occurring during aerobic oxidation of sweet wort.

  19. Genetic mutation analysis at early stages of cell line development using next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Chapman; Groot, Joost; Swahn, Samantha; McLaughlin, Helen; Liu, Mei; Xu, Chongfeng; Sun, Chao; Zheng, Eric; Estes, Scott

    2016-05-01

    A central goal for most biopharmaceutical companies is to reduce the development timeline to reach clinical proof of concept. This objective requires the development of tools that ensure the quality of biotherapeutic material destined for the clinic. Recent advances in high throughput protein analytics provide confidence in our ability to assess productivity and product quality attributes at early stages of cell line development. However, one quality attribute has, until recently, been absent from the standard battery of analytical tests facilitating informed choices early in cell line selection: genetic sequence confirmation. Techniques historically used for mutation analysis, such as detailed mass spectrometry, have limitations on the sample number and turnaround times making it less attractive at early stages. Thus, we explored the utility of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) as a solution to address these limitations. Amplicon sequencing is one such NGS technique that is robust, rapid, sensitive, and amenable to multiplexing, all of which are essential attributes for our purposes. Here we report a NGS method based upon amplicon sequencing that has been successfully incorporated into our cell line development workflow alongside other high-throughput protein analytical assays. The NGS method has demonstrated its value by identifying at least one Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) clone expressing a variant form of the biotherapeutic in each of the four clinical programs in which it has been utilized. We believe this sequence confirmation method is essential to safely accelerating the time to clinical proof of concept of biotherapeutics, and guard against delays related to sequence mutations. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:813-817, 2016. PMID:27004436

  20. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivak, Stefan [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Jessenius Medical Faculty, Clinic of Neurology, Martin (Slovakia); Bittsansky, Michal; Dobrota, Dusan [Comenius University, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Kurca, Egon; Turcanova-Koprusakova, Monika; Grofik, Milan; Nosal, Vladimir [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Polacek, Hubert [Comenius University, Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia)

    2010-12-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Due to relative fast progression of the disease, early diagnosis is essential. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) is used for objectivization of upper motor neuron (UMN) lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the use of {sup 1}H-MRS in the early stages of ALS. Eleven patients with clinically definite (n = 2), probable (n = 7), and probable laboratory-supported (n = 2) diagnosis of ALS with disease duration of less than 14 months were studied. Control group consists of 11 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. All subjects underwent assessment of functional disability using revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS examination of both precentral gyri, pons, medulla oblongata, and occipital lobe. Spectra were evaluated with LCModel software. The mean disease duration was 6.5 {+-} 3.5 months. The median ALSFRS-R was 42. Significant decrease between patient and control groups was found in the NAA/Cre ratio in the left and right precentral gyri (p = 0.008, p = 0.040). Other metabolite ratios in other areas did not show significant differences. Total ALSFRS-R score weakly positively correlated with NAA/Cre ratio in the left precentral gyrus (p = 0.047). {sup 1}H-MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes caused by neurodegeneration processes during ALS and can be used for detection of UMN dysfunction. These MRS changes in the early stages of ALS are most prominent in motor cortex. (orig.)

  1. Adoption of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy For Early-Stage Breast Cancer From 2004 Through 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Elyn H. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Mougalian, Sarah S. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a newer method of radiation therapy (RT) that has been increasingly adopted as an adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). IMRT may result in improved cosmesis compared to standard RT, although at greater expense. To investigate the adoption of IMRT, we examined trends and factors associated with IMRT in women under the age of 65 with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study of early stage breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) who were ≤65 years old in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2011. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with receipt of IMRT (vs standard RT). Results: We identified 11,089 women with early breast cancer (9.6%) who were treated with IMRT and 104,448 (90.4%) who were treated with standard RT, after BCS. The proportion of WBI patients receiving IMRT increased yearly from 2004 to 2009, with 5.3% of WBI patients receiving IMRT in 2004 and 11.6% receiving IMRT in 2009. Further use of IMRT declined afterward, with the proportion remaining steady at 11.0% and 10.7% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Patients treated in nonacademic community centers were more likely to receive IMRT (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.43 for nonacademic vs academic center). Compared to privately insured patients, the uninsured patients (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) and those with Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) were less likely to receive IMRT. Conclusions: The use of IMRT rose from 2004 to 2009 and then stabilized. Important nonclinical factors associated with IMRT use included facility type and insurance status.

  2. The value of 3.0Tesla diffusion-weighted MRI for pelvic nodal staging in patients with early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, W.M.; Veldhuis, W.B.; Spijkerboer, A.M.; Bosch, M.A. van den; Mali, W.P.Th.; Heintz, A.P.; Bipat, S.; Sie-Go, D.M.; Velden, J.; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Stoker, J.; Peeters, P.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of 3.0Tesla (3T) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in addition to conventional MRI for the detection of lymphadenopathy in patients with early stage cervical cancer compared to histopathological evaluati

  3. Altered Gray Matter Structural Covariance Networks in Early Stages of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montembeault, Maxime; Rouleau, Isabelle; Provost, Jean-Sébastien; Brambati, Simona Maria

    2016-06-01

    Clinical symptoms observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may reflect variations within specific large-scale brain networks, modeling AD as a disconnection syndrome. The present magnetic resonance imaging study aims to compare the organization of gray matter structural covariance networks between 109 cognitively unimpaired controls (CTRL) and 109 AD patients positive to beta-amyloid at the early stages of the disease, using voxel-based morphometry. The default-mode network (DMN; medial temporal lobe subsystem) was less extended in AD patients in comparison with CTRL, with a significant decrease in the structural association between the entorhinal cortex and the medial prefrontal and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. The DMN (midline core subsystem) was also less extended in AD patients. Trends toward increased structural association were observed in the salience and executive control networks. The observed changes suggest that early disruptions in structural association between heteromodal association cortices and the entorhinal cortex could contribute to an isolation of the hippocampal formation, potentially giving rise to the clinical hallmark of AD, progressive memory impairment. It also provides critical support to the hypothesis that the reduced connectivity within the DMN in early AD is accompanied by an enhancement of connectivity in the salience and executive control networks. PMID:25994962

  4. Altered Gray Matter Structural Covariance Networks in Early Stages of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montembeault, Maxime; Rouleau, Isabelle; Provost, Jean-Sébastien; Brambati, Simona Maria

    2016-06-01

    Clinical symptoms observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may reflect variations within specific large-scale brain networks, modeling AD as a disconnection syndrome. The present magnetic resonance imaging study aims to compare the organization of gray matter structural covariance networks between 109 cognitively unimpaired controls (CTRL) and 109 AD patients positive to beta-amyloid at the early stages of the disease, using voxel-based morphometry. The default-mode network (DMN; medial temporal lobe subsystem) was less extended in AD patients in comparison with CTRL, with a significant decrease in the structural association between the entorhinal cortex and the medial prefrontal and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. The DMN (midline core subsystem) was also less extended in AD patients. Trends toward increased structural association were observed in the salience and executive control networks. The observed changes suggest that early disruptions in structural association between heteromodal association cortices and the entorhinal cortex could contribute to an isolation of the hippocampal formation, potentially giving rise to the clinical hallmark of AD, progressive memory impairment. It also provides critical support to the hypothesis that the reduced connectivity within the DMN in early AD is accompanied by an enhancement of connectivity in the salience and executive control networks.

  5. Applying NGS Data to Find Evolutionary Network Biomarkers from the Early and Late Stages of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Hao Wong; Chia-Chou Wu; Chih-Lung Lin; Ting-Shou Chen; Tzu-Hao Chang; Bor-Sen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major liver tumor (~80%), besides hepatoblastomas, angiosarcomas, and cholangiocarcinomas. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to construct protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) for early-stage and late-stage liver cancer. By comparing the networks of these two stages, we found that the two networks showed some common mechanisms and some significantly different mechanisms. To obtain differential network structures between cancer and non...

  6. Differential oxidative status and immune characterization of the early and advanced stages of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Freitas, L F; De Rossi, T; Campos, F C; Simão, A N Colado; Barbosa, D S; Pinge-Filho, P; Cecchini, R; Cecchini, A L

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is the malignant neoplasia with the highest incidence in women worldwide. Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation have been indicated as major mediators during carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Human studies have not considered the complexity of tumor biology during the stages of cancer advance, limiting their clinical application. The purpose of this study was to characterize systemic oxidative stress and immune response parameters in early (ED; TNM I and II) and advanced disease (AD; TNM III and IV) of patients diagnosed with infiltrative ductal carcinoma breast cancer. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated by plasmatic lipoperoxidation, carbonyl content, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide levels (NO), total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP), superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities and GSH levels. Immune evaluation was determined by TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-10 levels and leukocytes oxidative burst evaluation by chemiluminescence. Tissue damage analysis included heart (total CK and CKMB), liver (AST, ALT, GGT), and renal (creatinine, urea, and uric acid) plasmatic markers. C-reactive protein (CRP) and iron metabolism were also evaluated. Analysis of the results verified different oxidative stress statuses occur at distinct cancer stages. ED was characterized by reduction in catalase, 8-isoprostanes, and GSH levels, with enhanced lipid peroxidation and TBARS levels. AD exhibited more pronounced oxidative status, with reduction in catalase activity and TRAP, intense lipid peroxidation and high levels of NO, TBARs, and carbonyl content. ED patients presented a Th2 immune pattern, while AD exhibited Th1 status. CRP levels and ferritin were increased in both stages of disease. Leukocytes burst impairment was observed in both the groups. Plasma iron levels were significantly elevated in AD. The data obtained indicated that oxidative stress enhancement and immune response impairment may be necessary to ensure

  7. Consensus conference: multimodality management of early- and intermediate-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Rodolfo

    2008-09-01

    Surgery is the mainstay of treatment in early- and intermediate-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), yet recurrences are frequent. Studies have documented the benefits of chemotherapy administered after resection, but a number of questions remain regarding how overall outcomes can be further improved. To provide the oncology community with direction on these issues, a consensus conference of leading experts in the NSCLC field was held at the Fifth Annual Atlanta Lung Cancer Symposium on October 25-27, 2007. The available scientific literature is presented and when such literature is lacking, clinical experience is provided to support the following conclusions. Preoperative staging should be done in accordance with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, but endoscopic fine needle aspiration of enlarged mediastinal nodes can be used, and if histology is positive for malignancy, mediastinoscopy can be avoided. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy is not generally recommended but can be considered to downstage an unresectable patient. There is currently no role for preoperative radiation or chemoradiation. Adjuvant systemic therapy is not recommended for stage IA and IB patients; however, adverse prognostic factors are acceptable reasons to consider adjuvant systemic therapy in the latter. Adjuvant systemic therapy is recommended for stage IIA, IIB, and IIIA patients, consistent with recent American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines. A cisplatin-based regimen should be started within 60 days after surgery, but if relatively contraindicated, carboplatin is an acceptable alternative. Adjuvant radiation therapy is not recommended for N0 and N1 patients, but is used in N2 patients to decrease local recurrence. PMID:18779538

  8. Treatment of Early-stage Adhesive Shoulder Periarthritis with Transcutaneous Electric Stimulation on Acupoints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓; 方剑乔; 张奕; 刘侃卓; 韩丑萍

    2006-01-01

    目的:观察经皮穴位电刺激对粘连前期肩关节周围炎的治疗作用.方法:采用大样本、多中心、随机化等循证医学研究方法,对163例粘连前期肩关节周围炎患者分别进行经皮穴位电刺激治疗和电针治疗,观察经皮穴位电刺激对粘连前期肩周炎的治疗作用及与电针治疗的效应比较.结果与结论:经皮穴位电刺激对粘连前期肩周炎的总有效率达到96.59%,与电针比较无明显差异;该疗法不仅具有明显的止痛效应,对肩关节活动障碍也有明显的改善作用.经皮穴位电刺激为治疗肩周炎有效、简便的疗法.%To observe the therapeutic effects of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation on early-stage adhesive shoulder periarthritis. Methods:by using the research approach of evidence-based medicine such as multi-center,large sample and randomization,the 163 cases of early-stage adhesive shoulder periarthritis were treated with transcutaneous electric point stimulation and electric acupuncture respectively to observe the therapeutic effect of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation and compare its effect with electric acupuncture.Results and Conclusion:The total effective rate of transcutaneous electric point stimulation on early-stage adhesive shoulder periarthritis reached 96.5%,showing no significant difference with the electric acupuncture group;the transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation could not only relieve pain,but also improve the shoulder joint movement. As a result,the transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation is an easy and more effective therapy for shoulder periarthritis.

  9. The effect on esophagus after different radiotherapy techniques for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Anni Y. S. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)], e-mail: an9dk@hotmail.com; Maraldo, Maja V.; Vogelius, Ivan R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Brodin, Nils Patrik; Aznar, Marianne C; Af Rosenschoeld, Per Munck [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Niels Bohr Inst., Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Petersen, Peter M.; Specht, Lena [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: The cure rate of early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is excellent; investigating the late effects of treatment is thus important. Esophageal toxicity is a known side effect in patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the mediastinum, although little is known of this in HL survivors. This study investigates the dose to the esophagus in the treatment of early stage HL using different RT techniques. Estimated risks of early esophagitis, esophageal stricture and cancer are compared between treatments. Material and methods: We included 46 patients {>=}15 years with supra diaphragmatic, clinical stage I-II HL, who received chemotherapy followed by involved node RT (INRT) to 30.6 Gy at our institution. INRT was planned with three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT). For each patient a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), proton therapy (PT) and mantle field (MF) treatment plan was simulated. Mean, maximum and minimum dose to the esophagus were extracted from the treatment plans. Risk estimates were based on dose-response models from clinical series with long-term follow-up. Statistical analyses were performed with repeated measures ANOVA using Bonferroni corrections. Results: Mean dose to the esophagus was 16.4, 16.4, 14.7 and 34.2 Gy (p < 0.001) with 3DCRT, VMAT, PT and MF treatment, respectively. No differences were seen in the estimated risk of developing esophagitis, stricture or cancer with 3DCRT compared to VMAT (p = 1.000, p = 1.000, p = 0.356). PT performed significantly better with the lowest risk estimates on all parameters compared to the photon treatments, except compared to 3DCRT for stricture (p = 0.066). On all parameters the modern techniques were superior to MF treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The estimated dose to the esophagus and the corresponding estimated risks of esophageal complications are decreased significantly with highly conformal RT compared to MF treatment. The number of patients presenting with late esophageal side

  10. Dosimetric comparison of 3DCRT versus IMRT in whole breast irradiation of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ashraf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The counseling regarding the treatment option is an important objective in the management of early stages breast cancer. In this study, we attempt to compare and analyze the dosimetric aspects of 3DRT over IMRT in the whole breast radiotherapy.Methods and Materials:  Both right and left sided computed tomography simulations of 14 women with early stage breast cancer were used for our retrospective study to compare the 3DCRT and IMRT. The dose prescribed was 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the whole breast PTV. The PTV was defined by adding unequal margins to the directional safety margin status of each lumpectomy cavity (i.e., medial, lateral, superior, inferior and deep margins measured from the tumor front after the examination of the surgical specimen: 2, 1.5, and 1 cm for resection margins < 1 cm, 1-2 cm, and > 2cm, respectively. And than modified so that it was no longer closer than 3mm to the skin surface and was no deep than the lung –chest interface. The prescribed dose delivered in 5 fractions per week schedule. Treatment plans were compared for target minimum dose, maximum dose, mean dose, conformity index, heterogeneity index and doses to organs at risk were compared and analysed.Results: The target coverage was achieved with 90% prescription to the 95% of the PTV. Conformity to the PTV was significantly higher with 3DCRT technique than IMRT. 3DCRT technique seems better in sparing critical organs parameters like lung V20 and Mean, heart, V25, Maximum, both lungs V20, Mean and Dose to the Normal Healthy tissue.Conclusion: We conclude from our study that treatment technique selection for whole Breast irradiation is an important factor in sparing the adjacent normal structures and in determining the associated risk. 3DCRT produces better conformity and heterogeneity indices of the target volume, also reduces dose to OARs the 3DCRT reduces the risk of radiation induced heart diseases

  11. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  12. The effect on esophagus after different radiotherapy techniques for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The cure rate of early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is excellent; investigating the late effects of treatment is thus important. Esophageal toxicity is a known side effect in patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the mediastinum, although little is known of this in HL survivors. This study investigates the dose to the esophagus in the treatment of early stage HL using different RT techniques. Estimated risks of early esophagitis, esophageal stricture and cancer are compared between treatments. Material and methods: We included 46 patients ≥15 years with supra diaphragmatic, clinical stage I-II HL, who received chemotherapy followed by involved node RT (INRT) to 30.6 Gy at our institution. INRT was planned with three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT). For each patient a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), proton therapy (PT) and mantle field (MF) treatment plan was simulated. Mean, maximum and minimum dose to the esophagus were extracted from the treatment plans. Risk estimates were based on dose-response models from clinical series with long-term follow-up. Statistical analyses were performed with repeated measures ANOVA using Bonferroni corrections. Results: Mean dose to the esophagus was 16.4, 16.4, 14.7 and 34.2 Gy (p < 0.001) with 3DCRT, VMAT, PT and MF treatment, respectively. No differences were seen in the estimated risk of developing esophagitis, stricture or cancer with 3DCRT compared to VMAT (p = 1.000, p = 1.000, p = 0.356). PT performed significantly better with the lowest risk estimates on all parameters compared to the photon treatments, except compared to 3DCRT for stricture (p = 0.066). On all parameters the modern techniques were superior to MF treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The estimated dose to the esophagus and the corresponding estimated risks of esophageal complications are decreased significantly with highly conformal RT compared to MF treatment. The number of patients presenting with late esophageal side effects

  13. Plasma Uromodulin Correlates With Kidney Function and Identifies Early Stages in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steubl, Dominik; Block, Matthias; Herbst, Victor; Nockher, Wolfgang Andreas; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Satanovskij, Robin; Angermann, Susanne; Hasenau, Anna-Lena; Stecher, Lynne; Heemann, Uwe; Renders, Lutz; Scherberich, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Uromodulin, released from tubular cells of the ascending limb into the blood, may be associated with kidney function. This work studies the relevance of plasma uromodulin as a biomarker for kidney function in an observational cohort of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and subjects without CKD (CKD stage 0). It should be further evaluated if uromodulin allows the identification of early CKD stages.Plasma uromodulin, serum creatinine, cystatin C, blood-urea-nitrogen (BUN) concentrations, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR CKD-EPIcrea-cystatin) were assessed in 426 individuals of whom 71 were CKD stage 0 and 355 had CKD. Besides descriptive statistics, univariate correlations between uromodulin and biomarkers/eGFR were calculated using Pearson-correlation coefficient. Multiple linear regression modeling was applied to establish the association between uromodulin and eGFR adjusted for demographic parameters and pharmacologic treatment. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis adjusted for demographic parameters was performed to test if uromodulin allows differentiation of subjects with CKD stage 0 and CKD stage I.Mean uromodulin plasma levels were 85.7 ± 60.5 ng/mL for all CKD stages combined. Uromodulin was correlated with all biomarkers/eGFR in univariate analysis (eGFR: r = 0.80, creatinine: r = -0.76, BUN: r = -0.72, and cystatin C: r = -0.79). Multiple linear regression modeling showed significant association between uromodulin and eGFR (coefficient estimate β = 0.696, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.603-0.719, P < 0.001). In ROC analysis uromodulin was the only parameter that significantly improved a model containing demographic parameters to differentiate between CKD 0° and I° (area under the curve [AUC] 0.831, 95% CI 0.746-0.915, P = 0.008) compared to creatinine, cystatin C, BUN, and eGFR (AUC for creatinine: 0.722, P = 0.056, cystatin C: 0.668, P = 0.418, BUN: 0.653, P = 0.811, and e

  14. Gram negative bacteria are associated with the early stages of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Carlisle

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC affects 5-10% of infants born weighing less than 1500 g. Most models of NEC recapitulate late-stage disease with gut necrosis and elevated inflammatory mediators. Evaluation of NEC at earlier, less lethal stages of disease will allow investigation of initial disease triggers and may advance our understanding of temporal relationships between factors implicated in NEC pathogenesis. In this manuscript, we describe our investigation of early NEC and test the hypothesis that bacteria and inflammatory mediators differ between animals with early NEC and disease free animals. METHODS: On DOL7 C3HeB/FeJ pups were fed liquid formula with 1×10(4 Streptococcus thoraltensis, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa every 3 h. To initiate NEC, pups underwent asphyxia (100% N(2 for 90 s and hypothermia (4°C for 10 min after feeding. Pups were euthanized at 72 h. Intestines were collected for histologic NEC scoring and DNA/RNA extraction. Bacterial populations were identified by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and principal component analysis (PCA. RNA isolates underwent QRT-PCR for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. RESULTS: Despite histologic, intestinal damage in mice with NEC, no gross necrosis was observed suggesting early disease. QRT-PCR yielded no difference between groups in TLR4 or iNOS mRNA levels. PCA demonstrated relative clustering of microbial communities based on presence or absence of NEC. 16S pyrosequencing demonstrated similar phyla between groups (Firmicutes and Proteobacteria predominated in all animals. However, the colonic microbiota of animals with NEC had more Citrobacter (p<0.01, Klebsiella (p<0.05, and Tatumella (p<0.05, while that of animals without NEC had more Streptococcus (p<0.01 and Enterococcus (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Citrobacter, Klebsiella, and Tatumella are associated with NEC. Differential colonic bacteria were identified despite the lack of

  15. Expression of the embryonic stem cell marker SOX2 in early-stage breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallwiener Diethelm

    2011-01-01

    cell factor SOX2 is expressed in a variety of early stage postmenopausal breast carcinomas and metastatic lymph nodes. Our data suggest that SOX2 plays an early role in breast carcinogenesis and high expression may promote metastatic potential. Further studies are needed to explore whether SOX2 can predict metastatic potential at an early tumor stage.

  16. Impact of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide on severe acute pancreatitis in early stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Xue; Li-Hui Deng; Qing Xia; Zhao-Da Zhang; Wei-Ming Hu; Xiao-Nan Yang; Bing Song; Zong-Wen Huang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of alanyl- glutamine dipeptide (AGD) in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in early and advanced stage. METHODS: Eighty patients with SAP were randomized and received 100 mL/d of 20% AGD intravenously for 10 d starting either on the day of (early treatment group) or 5 d after (late treatment group) admission. Groups had similar demographics, underlying diseases, Ranson score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Ⅱ(APACHE Ⅱ) score, and Balthazar's computed tomography (CT) score at the beginning of the study and underwent similar other medical and nutritional management. RESULTS: The duration of acute respiratory distress syndrome (2.7 ± 3.3 d vs 12.7 ± 21.0 d, P < 0.01), renal failure (1.3 ± 0.5 d vs 5.3 ± 7.3 d, P < 0.01), acute hepatitis (3.2 ± 2.3 d vs 7.0 ± 7.1 d, P < 0.01), shock (1.7 ± 0.4 d vs 4.8 ± 3.1 d, P < 0.05), encephalopathy (2.3 ±1.9 d vs 9.5 ± 11.0 d, P < 0.01) and enteroparalysis (2.2 ± 1.4 d vs 3.5 ± 2.2 d, P < 0.01) and hospital stay (28.8±9.4 d vs 45.2 ± 27.1 d, P < 0.01) were shorter in the early treatment group than in the late treatment group. The 15-d APACHE Ⅱ score was lower in the early treatment group than in the late treatment group (5.0 ±2.4 vs 8.6 ± 3.6, P < 0.01). The infection rate (7.9% vs 26.3%, P < 0.05), operation rate (13.2% vs 34.2%, P < 0.05) and mortality (5.3% vs 21.1%, P < 0.05) in the early treatment group were lower than in the late treatment group. CONCLUSION: Early treatment with AGD achieved a better clinical outcome in SAP patients.

  17. Economic Risk Assessment of Early Stage Designs for Glycerol2Valorization in Biorefinery Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.;

    2016-01-01

    A systematic methodology to critically assess and screen among early stage design alternatives was developed for the use of glycerol. Through deterministic sensitivity analysis it was found that variations in the product and feedstock prices, total production cost, fixed capital investment...... (failure to achieve a positive NPV times the consequential profit loss). It was found that the best potential options for glycerol valorization is through the production of either (i) lactic acid (9 MM$ with 63% probability of failure to achieve a positive NPV); (ii) succinic acid (14 MM$ with 76......%); or finally, (iii) 1,2-propanediol (16 MM$ with 68%). As a risk reduction strategy, a multiproduct biorefinery is suggested which is capable of switching between the production of lactic acid and succinic acid. This solution comes with increased capital investment; however, it leads to more robust NPV...

  18. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy seems safe in women with early-stage endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Havemann, Maria Cecilie; Palle, Connie;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Robotic surgery is increasingly used in the management of endometrial cancer; and although it is known that minimally invasive surgery reduces post-operative morbidity, the outcomes of this novel treatment should be monitored carefully. The aim of this study was to examine...... the incidence of complications according to the Clavien-Dindo scale after robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH) for early-stage endometrial cancer and atypical complex hyperplasia. The Clavien-Dindo scale grades the severity of complications. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive cohort...... study of 235 women with endometrial cancer or atypical complex hyperplasia who had RALH. Surgeries were stratified into two groups: with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy. RESULTS: A total of 6% developed a grade 3 or higher complication with no significant difference (p = 0.24) between the groups...

  19. Cell Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Cells on Commercially Pure Titanium at the Early Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周彬; 曹颖光; 吴丽娟; 袁艳祥; 曾引萍

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In order to study the character of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) attaching on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) by morphology and metrology on the early stage (24 h), 1×105/ml PDLCs in 2 ml culture medium were seeded on cpTi discs fixed in 24-well culture plates. Morphology of cell attachment was observed by contrast phase microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluroscence microscopy. Cell adhesion was analyzed by MTT at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 h respectively. PDLCs could attach and spread on cpTi discs. SEM showed that PDLCs had pseudopod-like protuberance. PDLCs showed different attaching phases and reached saturation in cell number at 2 h. It was concluded that PDLCs had good biocompatibility with cpTi, and showed a regular and dynamic pattern in the process of attaching to cpTi.

  20. An Analysis of Risk and Function Information in Early Stage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Tumer, Irem; Grantham, Katie; VanWie, Michael; Stone, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The concept of function offers a high potential for thinking and reasoning about designs as well as providing a common thread for relating together other design information. This paper focuses specifically on the relation between function and risk by examining how this information is addressed for a design team conducting early stage design for space missions. Risk information is decomposed into a set of key attributes which are then used to scrutinize the risk information using three approaches from the pragmatics sub-field of linguistics: i) Gricean, ii) Relevance Theory, and Functional Analysis. Results of this linguistics-based approach descriptively account for the context of designer communication with respect to function and risk, and offer prescriptive guidelines for improving designer communication.

  1. EARLY-STAGE DESIGN AND EVALUATION FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger T. Lew

    2015-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate operator performance with these systems as part of a verification and validation process. While there is regulatory and industry guidance for some modernization activities, there are no well defined standard processes or predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages. This paper proposes a framework defining the design process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The process and metrics are generalizable to other applications and serve as a guiding template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  2. Sustainability Evaluation of Retrofitting and Renovation of Buildings in Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir; Gohardani, Navid;

    2013-01-01

    Research on the barriers for building renovation in Denmark has revealed that an important obstacle is a lack of simple and holistic tools that can assist stakeholders in decision-making during the early stages of projects (pre-project phases). The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary......, Sweden and Cyprus. This paper is mainly based on a work package concerning benefits of restoration. The approach has been - after a literature review - to start by conducting a needs and stakeholder analysis with 10 interviews. Based on this initial analysis a requirement specification for the decision...... support tool has been formulated and an outline of a preliminary evaluation tool has been developed. The results of the needs and stakeholder analysis, the requirements specification and the outline of the evaluation tool have been presented and discussed with a group of main stakeholders at a workshop...

  3. Effect of obesity on prognosis after early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Gunnarsdóttir, Katrín Á;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was performed to characterize the impact of obesity on the risk of breast cancer recurrence and death as a result of breast cancer or other causes in relation to adjuvant treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS Information on body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis was available for 18......,967 (35%) of 53,816 women treated for early-stage breast cancer in Denmark between 1977 and 2006 with complete follow-up for first events (locoregional recurrences and distant metastases) up to 10 years and for death up to 30 years. Information was available on prognostic factors and adjuvant treatment...... for all patients. Univariate analyses were used to compare the associations of known prognostic factors and risks of recurrence or death according to BMI categories. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the influence of BMI after adjusting for other factors. Results Patients...

  4. Phytoplankton dynamics in contrasting early stage North Atlantic spring blooms: composition, succession, and potential drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniels, C.J.; Poulton, A. J.; Esposito, M.;

    2015-01-01

    The spring bloom is a key annual event in the phenology of pelagic ecosystems, making a major contribution to the oceanic biological carbon pump through the production and export of organic carbon. However, there is little consensus as to the main drivers of spring bloom formation, exacerbated...... by a lack of in situ observations of the phytoplankton community composition and its evolution during this critical period. We investigated the dynamics of the phytoplankton community structure at two contrasting sites in the Iceland and Norwegian Basins during the early stage (25 March–25 April...... a biomass. The ICB phytoplankton composition appeared primarily driven by the physicochemical environment, with periodic events of increased mixing restricting further increases in biomass. In contrast, the NWB phytoplankton community was potentially limited by physicochemical and/or biological factors...

  5. Early Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease with Renal Injury Caused by Hypertension in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yabuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old spayed female Papillon weighing 4.0 kg presented with a history of persistent hematuria and pollakiuria. Concurrent bladder calculi, a mammary gland tumor, and nonazotemic early stage of chronic kidney disease with contracted kidneys were noted in this dog. The dog underwent cystectomy, unilateral mastectomy, and intraoperative renal biopsy. On the basis of histopathological analysis of renal biopsy results, it was suspected that renal injury of the dog was caused by persistent hypertension, and a follow-up examination revealed severe hypertension. The dog was treated with a combination of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and calcium channel blocker. The treatment produced a good outcome in the dog, and there has been no progression of the chronic kidney disease for over 2 years.

  6. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning.

  7. Promising clinical practices of metformin in women with PCOS and early-stage endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Shao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS have a high risk of developing endometrial cancer (EC. There is an urgent need for non-surgical prevention and treatment strategies for these patients who fail to respond to progesterone treatment and wish to preserve their fertility. Recently, we have reported that the combined treatment with metformin and progesterone-based oral contraceptives has successfully reversed the early-stage EC into normal endometria in addition to improvement of insulin resistance in women with PCOS. More importantly, one of these treated women has successfully delivered a healthy newborn baby. However, before such treatment can be recommended to the clinical practice, the molecular basis of metformin in the endometrium under physiological and pathological conditions must be elucidated.

  8. The Evolution of Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity Influencing Factors in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Petra PETRU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the main influencing factors of the probability of becoming an early-stage entrepreneur in Romania. The analyzed factors are: gender, age, education, household income, work status, network, opportunity perception, perception regarding the trust in own entrepreneurial skills, perception on the society’s appreciation regarding the principle of equality in life standard, perception on the society’s appreciation regarding the entrepreneurial career, perception on the proper promotion of entrepreneurial successes by mass media. We estimate a logit model for each year of the 2007-2009 period and we study the main influencing perceptional and sociodemographic factors, based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM Adult Population Survey database for Romania.

  9. Effects of a uranium mine effluent in the early-life stages of Rana perezi Seoane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphibians have been reported as sensitive organisms whose survival has been impaired by several environmental factors. Nevertheless, sometimes amphibians are found inhabiting extreme environments. Thus, in order to perceive how Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi Seoane) are able to survive in the ponds of a uranium mine (Central Portugal) this study aimed to assess the ecotoxicological effects promoted by the mine effluent in the early-life stages of this species. To attain this objective, eggs (collected in a nearby reference river) and laboratory hatching larvae were exposed during 96 h to different dilutions of the effluent. All the effects on the hatch success were recorded. The highest concentration of the effluent produced a significant decrease in body length of larvae, as well as a decrease in stimulus reactions and an increase in pigmentation along with tail deformities. A recovery assay showed an increased bioaccumulation of metals, uranium included, resulting from increased effluent exposure

  10. A Corrosion Sensor for Monitoring the Early-Stage Environmental Corrosion of A36 Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An innovative prototype sensor containing A36 carbon steel as a capacitor was explored to monitor early-stage corrosion. The sensor detected the changes of the surface- rather than the bulk- property and morphology of A36 during corrosion. Thus it was more sensitive than the conventional electrical resistance corrosion sensors. After being soaked in an aerated 0.2 M NaCl solution, the sensor’s normalized electrical resistance (R/R0 decreased continuously from 1.0 to 0.74 with the extent of corrosion. Meanwhile, the sensor’s normalized capacitance (C/C0 increased continuously from 1.0 to 1.46. X-ray diffraction result indicates that the iron rust on A36 had crystals of lepidocrocite and magnetite.

  11. Early life stage (ELS) toxicity of sucralose to fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, K I; Huggett, D B

    2014-10-01

    Sucralose, an intense artificial sweetener, has been detected in wastewater and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng/L to low µg/L. Although over a hundred studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of sucralose for human consumption, few studies have focused on the chronic ecotoxicological effects of this compound in fish. As a remedy to this data gap, an early-life stage toxicity test was conducted to assess the effects of sucralose on hatching, survival, and growth of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Hatching, survival, and growth were unaffected by 98 mg/L of sucralose. The Lowest-Observed-Effect Concentration (LOEC) and the No-Observed-Effect Concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows determined by this study are >98 and 98 mg/L, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the concentrations of sucralose detected in the environment are well below those required to cause adverse effects to developing aquatic organisms. PMID:25120258

  12. Climate extremes can drive biological assemblages to early successional stages compared to several mild disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Extreme climatic events have a major role in the structuring of biological communities, and their occurrence is expected to increase due to climate change. Here I use a manipulative approach to test the effects of extreme storm events on rocky mid-shore assemblages. This study shows that an extreme storm can cause more negative effects than several mild storms, primarily by bringing the biological assemblages towards early stages of succession. This finding contrasts with the effects of clustering of climatic events due to climate change, which are expected to mitigate its ecological impacts. Thus, the ecological consequences of climatic events that are influenced by climate change may have contrasting effects depending on the features that are considered. These results have relevant implications in the forecasting of the ecological consequences of climate change and should be considered when designing measures to mitigate its effects. PMID:27527612

  13. Climate extremes can drive biological assemblages to early successional stages compared to several mild disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Extreme climatic events have a major role in the structuring of biological communities, and their occurrence is expected to increase due to climate change. Here I use a manipulative approach to test the effects of extreme storm events on rocky mid-shore assemblages. This study shows that an extreme storm can cause more negative effects than several mild storms, primarily by bringing the biological assemblages towards early stages of succession. This finding contrasts with the effects of clustering of climatic events due to climate change, which are expected to mitigate its ecological impacts. Thus, the ecological consequences of climatic events that are influenced by climate change may have contrasting effects depending on the features that are considered. These results have relevant implications in the forecasting of the ecological consequences of climate change and should be considered when designing measures to mitigate its effects. PMID:27527612

  14. Influence of gas compression on flame acceleration in the early stage of burning in tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Valiev, Damir; Kuznetsov, Mikhail; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Law, Chung K; Bychkov, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of finger flame acceleration at the early stage of burning in tubes has been observed experimentally by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105: 225 (1996)] for slow propane-air flames, and elucidated analytically and computationally by Bychkov et al. [Combust. Flame 150: 263 (2007)] in the limit of an incompressible flow. We analytically, experimentally and computationally study herein the finger flame acceleration for fast burning flames, when the gas compressibility assumes an important role. Specifically, we have developed a theory through small Mach number expansion up to the first-order terms, demonstrating that gas compression reduces the acceleration rate and thereby moderates the finger flame acceleration noticeably. We have also conducted experiments for hydrogen-oxygen mixtures with considerable initial values of the Mach number, showing finger flame acceleration with the acceleration rate much smaller than those obtained previously for hydrocarbon flames. Furthermore, we have performed...

  15. Natural perceptual wayfinding for urban accessibility of the elderly with early-stage AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Frau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing and the increase in neurodegenerative diseases that lead to dementia, together with growing urbanisation, cause us to reflect on an important aspect of life in the city for elderly people: the ability to move around independently without getting lost and to find their way back home. By reviewing the existing literature on the theme of wayfinding and analysing some data on residual capacities in the early stages of Alzheimer’s Disease, the concept of ‘natural perceptual wayfinding’ is introduced, aimed, on the one hand, at improving urban accessibility of people with dementia and, on the other, at reconsidering a topic of vital importance, even if normally neglected in the dwelling design.

  16. Diversity of metabolic profiles of cystic fibrosis Pseudomonas aeruginosa during the early stages of lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karin Meinike; Wassermann, Tina; Johansen, Helle Krogh;

    2015-01-01

    and mutations in the global regulator genes mucA, lasR and rpoN. Our aim was to understand the metabolic changes occurring over time and between niches of the CF airways. By applying Phenotype MicroArrays, we investigated changes in the carbon and nitrogen catabolism of subsequently clonally related mucoid...... and non-mucoid (NM) lung and sinus P. aeruginosa isolates from 10 CF patients (five intermittently colonized/five chronically infected). We found the most pronounced catabolic changes for the early/late NM isolate comparisons, with respiratory reduction seen for all chronically infecting isolates and two...... of metabolic pathways via the KEGG database showed a prevalence of substrates involved in the metabolism of Ala, Asp and Glu, d-Ala, and Arg and Pro. In conclusion, extensive heterogeneity in the metabolic profiles of the P. aeruginosa isolates was observed from the initial stages of the infection, showing...

  17. Numerical Simulations of Early-Stage Dynamics of Electron Bunches Emitted from Plasmonic Photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Lueangaramwong, Anusorn; Andonian, Gerard; Piot, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    High-brightness electron sources are a key ingredient to the development of compact accelerator-based light sources. The electron sources are commonly based on (linear) a photoemission process where a laser pulse with proper wavelength impinges on the surface of a metallic or semiconductor cathode. Very recently the use of plasmonic cathodes--cathodes with a nano-patterned surface--have demonstrated great enhancement in quantum efficiencies [1]. Alternatively, this cathode type could support the formation of structured beams composed of transversely separated beamlets. In this paper we discuss numerical simulations of the early-stage beam dynamics of the emission process from plasmonic cathodes using the Warp [2] framework. The model is used to investigate the properties of beams emitted from this type of cathode and combined with PIC simulation to explore the imaging of cathode pattern after acceleration in a radiofrequency gun.

  18. Hydrogen bonding tunes the early stage of hydrogen-atom abstracting reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Lei; Chen, Junsheng; Han, Keli

    2014-09-01

    The spontaneous and collision-assisted hydrogen-atom abstracting reaction (HA) dynamics of triplet benzil are investigated through the combination of transient absorption spectroscopy with TD-DFT calculations. HA dynamics exhibit a remarkable dependence on the hydrogen donor properties. The effects of the triplet-state hydrogen bonding on the reaction dynamics are illustrated. In particular, it is experimentally observed that strengthened triplet-state hydrogen bonding could accelerate the HA, whereas weakened triplet-state hydrogen bonding would postpone the HA. The triplet-state hydrogen bonding has great influences on the early stage of the HA reaction, while the bond dissociation energy of the hydrogen donors determines the subsequent reaction pathways. Protic solvents could sustain longer lifetimes of the excited-state intermediate formed after HA than non-protic solvents by 10 μs. This investigation provides insights into the HA dynamics and guidance to improve the product efficiency of photochemical reactions. PMID:25036436

  19. Investigating genetic discrimination in Australia: opportunities and challenges in the early stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandra D; Otlowski, Margaret F; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine K; Treloar, Susan A; Stranger, Mark; Chenoweth, Kellie

    2004-08-01

    Genetic discrimination, defined as the differential treatment of individuals or their relatives on the basis of actual or presumed genetic differences, is an emerging issue of interest in academic, clinical, social and legal contexts. While its potential significance has been discussed widely, verified empirical data are scarce. Genetic discrimination is a complex phenomenon to describe and investigate, as evidenced by the recent Australian Law Reform Commission inquiry in Australia. The authors research project, which commenced in 2002, aims to document the multiple perspectives and experiences regarding genetic discrimination in Australia and inform future policy development and law reform. Data are being collected from consumers, employers, insurers and the legal system. Attempted verification of alleged accounts of genetic discrimination will be a novel feature of the research. This paper overviews the early stages of the research, including conceptual challenges and their methodological implications. PMID:15460616

  20. Ocean warming alters cellular metabolism and induces mortality in fish early life stages: A proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, D; Araújo, J E; Vitorino, R; Capelo, J L; Vinagre, C; Diniz, M S

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has pervasive effects on marine ecosystems, altering biodiversity patterns, abundance and distribution of species, biological interactions, phenology, and organisms' physiology, performance and fitness. Fish early life stages have narrow thermal windows and are thus more vulnerable to further changes in water temperature. The aim of this study was to address the sensitivity and underlying molecular changes of larvae of a key fisheries species, the sea bream Sparus aurata, towards ocean warming. Larvae were exposed to three temperatures: 18°C (control), 24°C (warm) and 30°C (heat wave) for seven days. At the end of the assay, i) survival curves were plotted for each temperature treatment and ii) entire larvae were collected for proteomic analysis via 2D gel electrophoresis, image analysis and mass spectrometry. Survival decreased with increasing temperature, with no larvae surviving at 30°C. Therefore, proteomic analysis was only carried out for 18°C and 24°C. Larvae up-regulated protein folding and degradation, cytoskeletal re-organization, transcriptional regulation and the growth hormone while mostly down-regulating cargo transporting and porphyrin metabolism upon exposure to heat stress. No changes were detected in proteins related to energetic metabolism suggesting that larval fish may not have the energetic plasticity needed to sustain cellular protection in the long-term. These results indicate that despite proteome modulation, S. aurata larvae do not seem able to fully acclimate to higher temperatures as shown by the low survival rates. Consequently, elevated temperatures seem to have bottleneck effects during fish early life stages, and future ocean warming can potentially compromise recruitment's success of key fisheries species. PMID:27062348

  1. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A, takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  2. Molecular Dynamics of Channelrhodopsin at the Early Stages of Channel Opening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuki Takemoto

    Full Text Available Channelrhodopsin (ChR is a light-gated cation channel that responds to blue light. Since ChR can be readily expressed in specific neurons to precisely control their activities by light, it has become a powerful tool in neuroscience. Although the recently solved crystal structure of a chimeric ChR, C1C2, provided the structural basis for ChR, our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ChR still remains limited. Here we performed electrophysiological analyses and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD simulations, to investigate the importance of the intracellular and central constrictions of the ion conducting pore observed in the crystal structure of C1C2. Our electrophysiological analysis revealed that two glutamate residues, Glu122 and Glu129, in the intracellular and central constrictions, respectively, should be deprotonated in the photocycle. The simulation results suggested that the deprotonation of Glu129 in the central constriction leads to ion leakage in the ground state, and implied that the protonation of Glu129 is important for preventing ion leakage in the ground state. Moreover, we modeled the 13-cis retinal bound; i.e., activated C1C2, and performed MD simulations to investigate the conformational changes in the early stage of the photocycle. Our simulations suggested that retinal photoisomerization induces the conformational change toward channel opening, including the movements of TM6, TM7 and TM2. These insights into the dynamics of the ground states and the early photocycle stages enhance our understanding of the channel function of ChR.

  3. Early stage biomineralization in the periostracum of the 'living fossil' bivalve Neotrigonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G Checa

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the shell formation of the palaeoheterodont 'living fossil' Neotrigonia concentrated on the timing and manufacture of the calcified 'bosses' which stud the outside of all trigonioid bivalves (extant and fossil has been conducted. Electron microscopy and optical microscopy revealed that Neotrigonia spp. have a spiral-shaped periostracal groove. The periostracum itself is secreted by the basal cell, as a thin dark pellicle, becoming progressively transformed into a thin dark layer by additions of secretions from the internal outer mantle fold. Later, intense secretion of the internal surface of the outer mantle fold forms a translucent layer, which becomes transformed by tanning into a dark layer. The initiation of calcified bosses occurred at a very early stage of periostracum formation, deep within the periostracal groove immediately below the initialmost dark layer. At this stage, they consist of a series of polycyclically twinned crystals. The bosses grow as the periostracum traverse through the periostracal groove, in coordination with the thickening of the dark periostracal layer and until, upon reaching the mantle edge, they impinge upon each other and become transformed into large prisms separated by dark periostracal walls. In conclusion, the initial bosses and the external part of the prismatic layer are fully intraperiostracal. With later growth, the prisms transform into fibrous aggregates, although the details of the process are unknown. This reinforces the relationships with other groups that have the ability to form intraperiostracal calcifications, for example the unionoids with which the trigonioids form the clade Paleoheterodonta. The presence of similar structures in anomalodesmatans and other euheterodonts raises the question of whether this indicates a relationship or represents a convergence. The identification of very early calcification within an organic sheet has interesting implications for our

  4. Early stage biomineralization in the periostracum of the 'living fossil' bivalve Neotrigonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Antonio G; Salas, Carmen; Harper, Elizabeth M; Bueno-Pérez, Juan de Dios

    2014-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the shell formation of the palaeoheterodont 'living fossil' Neotrigonia concentrated on the timing and manufacture of the calcified 'bosses' which stud the outside of all trigonioid bivalves (extant and fossil) has been conducted. Electron microscopy and optical microscopy revealed that Neotrigonia spp. have a spiral-shaped periostracal groove. The periostracum itself is secreted by the basal cell, as a thin dark pellicle, becoming progressively transformed into a thin dark layer by additions of secretions from the internal outer mantle fold. Later, intense secretion of the internal surface of the outer mantle fold forms a translucent layer, which becomes transformed by tanning into a dark layer. The initiation of calcified bosses occurred at a very early stage of periostracum formation, deep within the periostracal groove immediately below the initialmost dark layer. At this stage, they consist of a series of polycyclically twinned crystals. The bosses grow as the periostracum traverse through the periostracal groove, in coordination with the thickening of the dark periostracal layer and until, upon reaching the mantle edge, they impinge upon each other and become transformed into large prisms separated by dark periostracal walls. In conclusion, the initial bosses and the external part of the prismatic layer are fully intraperiostracal. With later growth, the prisms transform into fibrous aggregates, although the details of the process are unknown. This reinforces the relationships with other groups that have the ability to form intraperiostracal calcifications, for example the unionoids with which the trigonioids form the clade Paleoheterodonta. The presence of similar structures in anomalodesmatans and other euheterodonts raises the question of whether this indicates a relationship or represents a convergence. The identification of very early calcification within an organic sheet has interesting implications for our understanding of

  5. Hypothesis: primary antiangiogenic method proposed to treat early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women with Down syndrome very rarely develop breast cancer even though they now live to an age when it normally occurs. This may be related to the fact that Down syndrome persons have an additional copy of chromosome 21 where the gene that codes for the antiangiogenic protein Endostatin is located. Can this information lead to a primary antiangiogenic therapy for early stage breast cancer that indefinitely prolongs remission? A key question that arises is when is the initial angiogenic switch thrown in micrometastases? We have conjectured that avascular micrometastases are dormant and relatively stable if undisturbed but that for some patients angiogenesis is precipitated by surgery. We also proposed that angiogenesis of micrometastases very rarely occurs before surgical removal of the primary tumor. If that is so, it seems possible that we could suggest a primary antiangiogenic therapy but the problem then arises that starting a therapy before surgery would interfere with wound healing. The therapy must be initiated at least one day prior to surgical removal of the primary tumor and kept at a Down syndrome level perhaps indefinitely. That means the drug must have virtually no toxicity and not interfere meaningfully with wound healing. This specifically excludes drugs that significantly inhibit the VEGF pathway since that is important for wound healing and because these agents have some toxicity. Endostatin is apparently non-toxic and does not significantly interfere with wound healing since Down syndrome patients have no abnormal wound healing problems. We propose a therapy for early stage breast cancer consisting of Endostatin at or above Down syndrome levels starting at least one day before surgery and continuing at that level. This should prevent micrometastatic angiogenesis resulting from surgery or at any time later. Adjuvant chemotherapy or hormone therapy should not be necessary. This can be continued indefinitely since there is no acquired resistance that

  6. Exploring spatiotemporal patterns in early stages of primary succession on former lignite mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felinks, B.; Wiegand, T. [UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Helmholtz Center of Environmental Research

    2008-04-15

    Does random colonization predominate in early stages of primary succession? Do pioneer species facilitate the establishment of later arriving species? Does an initially random distribution change to an aggregated pattern with ongoing succession? To answer these question individual plants were mapped along a 2 m x 28 m transect in a lignite mining region of Lower Lusatia, eastern Germany during three successive years and classified into two groups (1) the pioneer Corynephorus canescens and (2) 'all other species'. In the first year Corynephorus and 'all other species' showed an aggregated pattern on a spatial scale {gt} 40 cm and in the second and third years a significant attraction for distances between 4 and 12 cm, with an increasing radius in the third year. The analyses of interspecific spatiotemporal dynamics revealed a change from independence to attraction between distances of 4 cm and 16 cm when using Corynephorus as focal species. However, applying 'all other species' as focal points results in a significant attraction at distances up to 60 cm in the first year and a diminishing attraction in the second and third years with distances {le} 6 cm. Thus facilitative species-species interactions are present in early stages of primary succession, resulting mainly from pioneer species acting as physical barriers and their ability to capture diaspores being drifted by secondary dispersal along the substrate surface. However, due to gradual establishment of perennial species and their ability of lateral extension by vegetative dispersal, facilitation may influence spatial pattern formation predominantly on short temporal and fine spatial scales.

  7. Modeling screening, prevention, and delaying of Alzheimer's disease: an early-stage decision analytic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siemers Eric R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's Disease (AD affects a growing proportion of the population each year. Novel therapies on the horizon may slow the progress of AD symptoms and avoid cases altogether. Initiating treatment for the underlying pathology of AD would ideally be based on biomarker screening tools identifying pre-symptomatic individuals. Early-stage modeling provides estimates of potential outcomes and informs policy development. Methods A time-to-event (TTE simulation provided estimates of screening asymptomatic patients in the general population age ≥55 and treatment impact on the number of patients reaching AD. Patients were followed from AD screen until all-cause death. Baseline sensitivity and specificity were 0.87 and 0.78, with treatment on positive screen. Treatment slowed progression by 50%. Events were scheduled using literature-based age-dependent incidences of AD and death. Results The base case results indicated increased AD free years (AD-FYs through delays in onset and a reduction of 20 AD cases per 1000 screened individuals. Patients completely avoiding AD accounted for 61% of the incremental AD-FYs gained. Total years of treatment per 1000 screened patients was 2,611. The number-needed-to-screen was 51 and the number-needed-to-treat was 12 to avoid one case of AD. One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that duration of screening sensitivity and rescreen interval impact AD-FYs the most. A two-way sensitivity analysis found that for a test with an extended duration of sensitivity (15 years the number of AD cases avoided was 6,000-7,000 cases for a test with higher sensitivity and specificity (0.90,0.90. Conclusions This study yielded valuable parameter range estimates at an early stage in the study of screening for AD. Analysis identified duration of screening sensitivity as a key variable that may be unavailable from clinical trials.

  8. Molecular profiling of early stage liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular mechanisms of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, end-stage hepatitis (cirrhosis), and hepatocellular carcinoma have been extensively studied, but little is known of the changes in liver gene expression during the early stages of liver fibrosis associated with chronic HCV infection, that is, the transition from normal liver (NL) of uninfected patients to the first stage of liver fibrosis (F1-CH-C). To obtain insight into the molecular pathogenesis of F1-CH-C, we used real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to study the mRNA expression of 240 selected genes in liver tissue with F1-CH-C, in comparison with NL. The expression of 54 (22.5%) of the 240 genes was significantly different between F1-CH-C and NL; 46 genes were upregulated and 8 were downregulated in F1-CH-C. The most noteworthy changes in gene expression mainly affected the transcriptional network regulated by interferons (IFNs), including both IFN-α/β-inducible genes (STAT1, STAT2, ISGF3G/IRF9, IFI27, G1P3, G1P2, OAS2, MX1) and IFN-γ-inducible genes (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11). Interesting, upregulation of IFN-α/β-inducible genes (but not IFN-γ-inducible genes) was independent of histological scores (grade and stage of fibrosis) and HCV characteristics (hepatic HCV mRNA levels and the HCV genotype), and was specific to HCV (as compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV)). Other genes dysregulated in F1-CH-C, albeit less markedly than IFN-α/β- and IFN-γ-inducible genes, were mainly involved in the activation of lymphocytes infiltrating the liver (IFNG, TNF, CXCL6, IL6, CCL8, CXCR3, CXCR4, CCR2), cell proliferation (p16/CDKN2A, MKI67, p14/ARF), extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP9, ITGA2), lymphangiogenesis (XLKD1/LYVE), oxidative stress (CYP2E1), and cytoskeleton microtubule organization (STMN2/SCG10). Thus, a limited number of signaling pathways, and particularly the transcriptional network regulated by interferons, are dysregulated in the first

  9. Part 2: Potencies and interactions of polybrominated aromatic hydrocarbons in rainbow trout early life stage mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, M.W.; Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Safe, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and diphenylethers (PBDPES) in aquatic environments may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival. Following rainbow trout egg microinjection, the potencies of these polybrominated aromatic hydrocarbons were determined using fish specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). TEFs are defined as the ratio of TCDD LD{sub 50} to brominated congener LD{sub 50}. Sac fry stage specific TCDD like toxicity included yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, multifocal hemorrhages and craniofacial malformations. TEFs of active congeners were: 2,3,7,8-TBDF = 0.23; 2,3,4,7,8-PBDF = 0.069; 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDD = 0.009. No signs of toxicity with 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-TBDPE, 2,2{prime},3,4,4{prime}-PBDPE, or 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5-PBDPE occurred at egg concentrations up to 126,37 {mu}g/g. Since these congeners occur as complex mixtures, the potential for additive, antagonistic, or synergistic interactions must also be determined for accurate risk assessment. Graded doses of 2,3,7,8-TBDD or 1,2,3,7,8-PBDD alone, or graded doses of fixed ratios of the two congeners were injected into newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs. Separate dose response curves were determined for each ratio and each individual congener. Isobolographic analysis supports the hypothesis that these congeners act additively.

  10. Ontogeny of immune organs during early development stage of P. crocea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A histological and ultrastructural study was performed on the development of the head kidney, thymus, and spleen in Pseudosciaena crocea aging in range from just hatching to the 60th day after hatching (DAH). Head kidney was first present on the 3rd DAH. Primordial haemopoietic stem cells were first observed in the head kidney which rapidly differentiate into different cellular types. Progenitor spleen was present on the 4th DAH, located close to the gut, which soon became rich in blood capillaries, red blood cells and thrombocytes. The thymus was obvious on the 4th DAH, and was located on either side of the upper corner of the opercular cavity, closely under the membrance of the opercuhr cavity. The thymus was the last lymphoid organ to appear but showed a quick development. This organ seemed to originate from haemopoietic stem cells migrating from the head region of the kidney. The thymus consisted of outer thymocytic and inner epithelioid zones. There was no obvious demarcation between them, but both zones were visible. Small lymphocytes appeared, or lymphoid organs become lymphoid, in the sequence thymus, head kidney and spleen. Only a small number of lymphocytes appeared in the later stages. Non-specific systems may play an important role in the immunocompetence mechanisms of P. crocea during its early development stage.

  11. Total abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy in the management of early stage ovarian carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macbeth, F.R.; Macdonald, H.; Williams, C.J.

    1988-08-01

    In a prospective study, 57 women with early stage ovarian carcinoma received total abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy (TAPR) following radical surgery. The whole abdomen received 22.5 Gy m.p.d. by large opposed fields in 18 fractions over 4 1/2 weeks, with 8 MeV X rays, followed by a further 22.5 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks to the pelvis alone, using a dosage and technique similar to that described from the Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto. The actuarial 5-year relapse-free and overall survival figures were 49 and 57% respectively, which appear to be significantly worse than those reported from Toronto (73% and 75%). The incidence of severe bowel toxicity (7%) was higher. There was no correlation between survival and FIGO stage at laparotomy, but a significant correlation with histological grade. These data do not seem to support the idea of a curative role for post-operative irradiation at this dosage in these patients.

  12. Stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardi, Umberto; Badellino, Serena; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo [Dept. of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) represents a consolidated treatment option for patients with medically inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical evidence accumulated in the past decade supports its use as an alternative to surgery with comparable survival outcomes. Due to its limited toxicity, SBRT is also applicable to elderly patients with very poor baseline pulmonary function or other severe comorbidities. Recent comparative studies in operable patients raised the issue of the possible use of SBRT also for this subgroup, with quite promising results that still should be fully confirmed by prospective trials with long-term follow-up. Aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the major studies conducted over the years on SBRT and to provide data on the efficacy and toxicity of this radiotherapy technique for stage I NSCLC. Technical aspects and quality of life related issues are also discussed, with the goal to provide information on the current role and limitations of SBRT in clinical practice.

  13. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Modeling bacterial attachment to surfaces as an early stage of biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moustaid, Fadoua; Eladdadi, Amina; Uys, Lafras

    2013-06-01

    Biofilms are present in all natural, medical and industrial surroundings where bacteria live. Biofilm formation is a key factor in the growth and transport of both beneficial and harmful bacteria. While much is known about the later stages of biofilm formation, less is known about its initiation which is an important first step in the biofilm formation. In this paper, we develop a non-linear system of partial differential equations of Keller-Segel type model in one-dimensional space, which couples the dynamics of bacterial movement to that of the sensing molecules. In this case, bacteria perform a biased random walk towards the sensing molecules. We derive the boundary conditions of the adhesion of bacteria to a surface using zero-Dirichlet boundary conditions, while the equation describing sensing molecules at the interface needed particular conditions to be set. The numerical results show the profile of bacteria within the space and the time evolution of the density within the free-space and on the surface. Testing different parameter values indicate that significant amount of sensing molecules present on the surface leads to a faster bacterial movement toward the surface which is the first step of biofilm initiation. Our work gives rise to results that agree with the biological description of the early stages of biofilm formation. PMID:23906151

  15. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 expression in zebrafish during the early stages of neuronal development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aihong Li; Yong Sun; Changming Dou; Jixian Chen; Jie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) is associated with transcriptional coregulation via the modulation of histone methylation. The expression pattern and function of zebrafish Lsd1 has not, however, been studied. Here, we describe the pattern of zebrafish Lsd1 expression during different development stages. In the zebrafish embryo, lsd1 mRNA was present during the early cleavage stage, indicating that maternally derived Lsd1 protein is involved in embryonic patterning. During embryogenesis from 0 to 48 hours post-fertilization (hpf), the expression of lsd1 mRNA in the embryo was ubiquitous before 12 hpf and then became restricted to the anterior of the embryo (particularly in the brain) from 24 hpf to 72 hpf. Inhibition of Lsd1 activity (by exposure to tranylcypromine) or knockdown of lsd1 expression (by morpholino antisense oligonucleotide injection) led to the loss of cells in the brain and to a dramatic downregulation of neural genes, including gad65, gad75, and reelin, but not hey1. These findings indicate an important role of Lsd1 during nervous system development in zebrafish.

  16. Histological and biochemical alterations in early-stage lobar ischemia-reperfusion in rat liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Ali Arab; Farhang Sasani; Mohammad Hossein Rafiee; Ahmad Fatemi; Abbas Javaheri

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the structural and biochemical changes in the early stage of reperfusion in the rat livers exposed to lobar ischemia-reperfusion (IR).METHODS: The median and left lobes of the liver were subjected to 60 min ischemia followed by 5, 10,30, 45, 60 and 120 min reperfusion. Blood samples were taken at different time intervals to test enzyme activities and biochemical alterations induced by reperfusion. At the end of each reperfusion period, the animals were killed by euthanasia and tissue samples were taken for histological examination and immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Cell vacuolation, bleb formation and focal hepatitis were the most important changes occur during ischemia. While some changes including bleb formation were removed during reperfusion, other alterations including portal hepatitis, inflammation and the induction of apoptosis were seen during this stage. The occurrence of apoptosis, as demonstrated by apoptot i c cel l s and bodies , was the mos t important histological change during reperfusion. The severity of apoptosis was dependent on the time of reperfusion, and by increasing the time of reperfusion,the numbers of apoptotic bodies was significantly enhanced. The amounts of lactate dehydrogenase,alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase,creatinine and urea were significantly increased in serum obtained from animals exposed to hepatic IR.

  17. Ectomycorrhizin Synthesis and Polypeptide Changes during the Early Stage of Eucalypt Mycorrhiza Development 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Costa, Guy; Martin, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In functioning eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, biochemical alterations are accompanied by a differential accumulation of polypeptides including the synthesis of symbiosis-related proteins (JL Hilbert, Martin FM [1988] New Phytol 110: 339-346). In the present study, protein biosynthesis in the early stages of ectomycorrhiza formation on Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata Kirkp. was examined using compatible and incompatible isolates of the basidiomycete Pisolithus tinctorius (Coker & Couch). Changes in polypeptide composition were observed within hours following contact of the compatible mycelium with the roots, well before the differentiation of typical symbiotic tissues. At this stage, at least seven symbiosis-related proteins (ectomycorrhizins) accumulated in root tissues. In vivo incorporation of [35S]methionine by ectomycorrhizas followed by electrophoresis of the labeled proteins revealed that most of these differences in polypeptide concentrations, including the ectomycorrhizin accumulation, are the result of differential protein biosynthesis rather than posttranslational modifications of the polypeptides. The initial development of eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, therefore, coincides with the synthesis of symbiosis-related proteins and the data presented here provide essential evidence to ascribe a functional developmental role to these proteins. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668539

  18. Accuracy of episodic autobiographical memory in children with early thyroid hormone deficiency using a staged event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Willoughby

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is a highly constructive cognitive process that often contains memory errors. No study has specifically examined AM accuracy in children with abnormal development of the hippocampus, a crucial brain region for AM retrieval. Thus, the present study investigated AM accuracy in 68 typically and atypically developing children using a staged autobiographical event, the Children's Autobiographical Interview, and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The atypically developing group consisted of 17 children (HYPO exposed during gestation to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone (TH, a critical substrate for hippocampal development, and 25 children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH, who were compared to 26 controls. Groups differed significantly in the number of accurate episodic details recalled and proportion accuracy scores, with controls having more accurate recollections of the staged event than both TH-deficient groups. Total hippocampal volumes and anterior hippocampal volumes were positively correlated with proportion accuracy scores, but not total accurate episodic details, in HYPO and CH. In addition, greater severity of TH deficiency predicted lower proportion accuracy scores in both HYPO and CH. Overall, these results indicate that children with early TH deficiency have deficits in AM accuracy and that the anterior hippocampus may play a particularly important role in accurate AM retrieval.

  19. Phenolic compounds of 'Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa' olive oils along early ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Fátima; Martins, Luisa L; Mourato, Miguel; Vitorino, Conceição; Antunes, Paulo; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the lipophilic and hydrophilic phenol composition of virgin olive oils (VOO) obtained from olives from two of the most important Portuguese cultivars ('Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa'), harvested at different ripening stages and under two irrigation schemes (rain fed and irrigated), was evaluated. Phenolic alcohols (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol), phenolic acids and derivatives and flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), as well as tocopherols were quantified. Lipophilic (>300mgkg(-1)) and hydrophilic phenols (>600mgkg(-1)) were present in high contents in both VOO, for early ripening stages. Gamma-tocopherol content is higher in 'Galega Vulgar' VOO. Total phenols showed a decrease between ripening index 2.5 and 3.5. The dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), also known as oleacein, was the major phenolic compound identified in both oils. The concentration of free hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in both VOO is very low while their esterified derivatives, like 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, are much more abundant. PMID:27283606

  20. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event ''sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the ''immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at penvironment. PMID:18262353

  2. Early-Stage Primary Bone Lymphoma: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network (RCN) Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Ling [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, VD (Switzerland); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Stauder, Michael C. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Zhang Yujing [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Poortmans, Philip [Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Li Yexiong [Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Constantinou, Nicolaos [Theagenio Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Macedonia (Greece); Thariat, Juliette [Centre Anti-Cancereux Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, Cote d' Azur (France); Kadish, Sidney P. [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (United States); Nguyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean-Godinot, Reims, Champagne-Ardenne (France); Kirova, Youlia M. [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Ghadjar, Pirus [Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Weber, Damien C. [Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve (Switzerland); Bertran, Victoria Tuset [Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Barcelona (Spain); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, VD (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier, E-mail: Rene-Olivier.Mirimanoff@chuv.ch [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, VD (Switzerland)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) represents less than 1% of all malignant lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the disease profile, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients with Stages I and II PBL. Patients and Methods: Thirteen Rare Cancer Network (RCN) institutions enrolled 116 consecutive patients with PBL treated between 1987 and 2008 in this study. Eighty-seven patients underwent chemoradiotherapy (CXRT) without (78) or with (9) surgery, 15 radiotherapy (RT) without (13) or with (2) surgery, and 14 chemotherapy (CXT) without (9) or with (5) surgery. Median RT dose was 40 Gy (range, 4-60). The median number of CXT cycles was six (range, 2-8). Median follow-up was 41 months (range, 6-242). Results: The overall response rate at the end of treatment was 91% (complete response [CR] 74%, partial response [PR] 17%). Local recurrence or progression was observed in 12 (10%) patients and systemic recurrence in 17 (15%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), lymphoma-specific survival (LSS), and local control (LC) were 76%, 78%, and 92%, respectively. In univariate analyses (log-rank test), favorable prognostic factors for OS and LSS were International Prognostic Index (IPI) score {<=}1 (p = 0.009), high-grade histology (p = 0.04), CXRT (p = 0.05), CXT (p = 0.0004), CR (p < 0.0001), and RT dose >40 Gy (p = 0.005). For LC, only CR and Stage I were favorable factors. In multivariate analysis, IPI score, RT dose, CR, and CXT were independently influencing the outcome (OS and LSS). CR was the only predicting factor for LC. Conclusion: This large multicenter retrospective study confirms the good prognosis of early-stage PBL treated with combined CXRT. An adequate dose of RT and complete CXT regime were associated with better outcome.

  3. Early-Stage Primary Bone Lymphoma: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network (RCN) Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) represents less than 1% of all malignant lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the disease profile, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients with Stages I and II PBL. Patients and Methods: Thirteen Rare Cancer Network (RCN) institutions enrolled 116 consecutive patients with PBL treated between 1987 and 2008 in this study. Eighty-seven patients underwent chemoradiotherapy (CXRT) without (78) or with (9) surgery, 15 radiotherapy (RT) without (13) or with (2) surgery, and 14 chemotherapy (CXT) without (9) or with (5) surgery. Median RT dose was 40 Gy (range, 4–60). The median number of CXT cycles was six (range, 2–8). Median follow-up was 41 months (range, 6–242). Results: The overall response rate at the end of treatment was 91% (complete response [CR] 74%, partial response [PR] 17%). Local recurrence or progression was observed in 12 (10%) patients and systemic recurrence in 17 (15%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), lymphoma-specific survival (LSS), and local control (LC) were 76%, 78%, and 92%, respectively. In univariate analyses (log–rank test), favorable prognostic factors for OS and LSS were International Prognostic Index (IPI) score ≤1 (p = 0.009), high-grade histology (p = 0.04), CXRT (p = 0.05), CXT (p = 0.0004), CR (p 40 Gy (p = 0.005). For LC, only CR and Stage I were favorable factors. In multivariate analysis, IPI score, RT dose, CR, and CXT were independently influencing the outcome (OS and LSS). CR was the only predicting factor for LC. Conclusion: This large multicenter retrospective study confirms the good prognosis of early-stage PBL treated with combined CXRT. An adequate dose of RT and complete CXT regime were associated with better outcome.

  4. A pilot study on factors involved with work participation in the early stages of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Van der Hiele

    Full Text Available Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation.To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job.Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years.Patients with a paid job (57% reported better physical functioning (p<0.001, better memory functioning (p = 0.01 and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p = 0.018 than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r = 0.54, p = 0.005 and a lower social impact of fatigue (r =  -0.46, p = 0.029 correlated with an increased number of working hours.Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS.

  5. Probing Very Early Stage of Radio Source Evolution in NGC 1275 with VERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chida, H; Akiyama, K; Kino, M; Honma, M; Nishijima, K

    2015-01-01

    We report on VLBI observations of NGC 1275 with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) during 2008 and 2013 at 15, 22 and 43 GHz. Our observations provide long-term variations in the radio flux and structure of the inner jet in NGC 1275 on sub-parsec scales, particularly at C3 which is a new radio component accountable for the recent active state in radio regime since early-2000s. We found the apparent velocity of C3 was $\\beta_{\\rm{app}} = 0.267 \\pm 0.007 $, which was consistent with typical velocities of the hot spot and/or radio lobes in the young radio sources. Furthermore, the radio flux and size of C3 had simultaneously increased during September 2007 and May 2012 with keeping optically-thin spectra, suggesting that the particle acceleration occurred inside C3 as generally seen in the hot spots of the radio lobes. Our new observations suggest that C3 is a new-born hot spot and/or radio lobe at a very early stage of its evolution. Our results imply the radio lobes...

  6. Timing and extent of early marine oxygen isotope stage 2 alpine glaciation in Skagit Valley, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Jon L.; Clague, John J.; Ward, Brent C.

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-two new radiocarbon ages from Skagit valley provide a detailed chronology of alpine glaciation during the Evans Creek stade of the Fraser Glaciation (early marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2) in the Cascade Range, Washington State. Sediments at sites near Concrete, Washington, record two advances of the Baker valley glacier between ca. 30.3 and 19.5 cal ka BP, with an intervening period of glacier recession about 24.9 cal ka BP. The Baker valley glacier dammed lower Skagit valley, creating glacial Lake Concrete, which discharged around the ice dam along Finney Creek, or south into the Sauk valley. Sediments along the shores of Ross Lake in upper Skagit valley accumulated in glacial Lake Skymo after ca. 28.7 cal ka BP behind a glacier flowing out of Big Beaver valley. Horizontally laminated silt and bedded sand and gravel up to 20 m thick record as much as 8000 yr of deposition in these glacially dammed lakes. The data indicate that alpine glaciers in Skagit valley were far less extensive than previously thought. Alpine glaciers remained in advanced positions for much of the Evans Creek stade, which may have ended as early as 20.8 cal ka BP.

  7. Biogeochemical Changes at Early Stage After the Closure of Radioactive Waste Geological Repository in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the subterranean environment has been the preferred method of many countries, including Korea. A safety issue after the closure of a geological repository is that biodegradation of organic materials due to microbial activities generates gases that lead to overpressure of the waste containers in the repository and its disintegration with the release of radionuclides. As part of an ongoing large-scale in situ experiment using organic wastes and groundwater to simulate geological radioactive waste repository conditions, we investigated the geochemical alteration and microbial activities at an early stage (~63 days) intended to be representative of the initial period after repository closure. The increased numbers of both aerobes and facultative anaerobes in waste effluents indicate that oxygen content could be the most significant parameter to control biogeochemical conditions at very early periods of reaction (<35 days). Accordingly, the values of dissolved oxygen and redox potential were decreased. The activation of anaerobes after 35 days was supported by the increased concentration to ~50 mg L-1 of ethanol. These results suggest that the biogeochemical conditions were rapidly altered to more reducing and anaerobic conditions within the initial 2 months after repository closure. Although no gases were detected during the study, activated anaerobic microbes will play more important role in gas generation over the long term

  8. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Lauterstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq. Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  9. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  10. Affective systems induce formal thought disorder in early-stage psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Breier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Although formal thought disorder (FTD) has been described since early conceptualizations of psychosis, its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests FTD may be influenced by affective and cognitive systems; however, few have examined these relationships-with none focusing on early-stage psychosis (EP). In this study, positive FTD and speech production were measured in sex- and race-matched EP (n = 19) and healthy control (n = 19) groups by assessing "reactivity"-a change in experimental compared with baseline conditions-across baseline, affective, and cognitive conditions. Relationships with functioning were also examined within each group. Three key findings emerged: (a) the EP group displayed large differences in positive FTD and speech production, (b) those with EP exhibited affective reactivity for positive FTD, and (c) positive FTD and affective reactivity were linked with poor real-world functioning in EP and these relationships did not considerably change when controlling for positive symptom (e.g., delusions, hallucinations) severity. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that affective, but not cognitive, systems play a critical role in positive FTD. Affective reactivity, in particular, may aid in predicting those with EP who go on to develop serious social impairments. Future work should focus on whether affective systems differentially influence those at separate points on the psychosis-spectrum in an effort to establish evidence-based treatments for FTD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26999283

  11. Effects of Mixture of Pharmaceuticals on Early Life Stages of Tench (Tinca tinca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Stancova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca. Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 μg·L−1 for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 μg·L−1. Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 μg·L−1 used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench.

  12. Proton therapy for early stage prostate cancer: is there a case?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan TY

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tabitha Y Chan, Poh Wee Tan, Johann I Tang Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, Singapore Abstract: Proton-beam therapy (PBT for prostate cancer has been in used for several decades, with its technique evolving significantly over this period. A growing number of centers now routinely utilize pencil-beam scanning as an advanced technique of PBT. Interest and controversy concerning its use have recently come under scrutiny. While the past decade has produced an assemblage of evidence suggesting that PBT is safe and effective for early stage prostate cancer, it is still unknown whether the theoretical dosimetric advantages of PBT translate into meaningful clinical improvements over routine intensity-modulated radiation therapy, which is commonly used for these patients. Outcomes from early trials using whole courses of PBT have shown mixed results when compared with routine intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Therefore, randomized trials comparing these two techniques should be undertaken, as this would help in defining the role of PBT for this patient group. This article aims to describe the basics of PBT, review the reasons for the growing interest in PBT, review the evidence for PBT, review the controversy surrounding PBT, and inquire about PBT’s future in the treatment of prostate cancer, with attention to its physical properties, comparative clinical and cost-effectiveness, and advances in its delivery. Keywords: proton beam, radiation, prostate cancer, clinical outcomes, controversies, future direction

  13. Proton therapy for early stage prostate cancer: is there a case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tabitha Y; Tan, Poh Wee; Tang, Johann I

    2016-01-01

    Proton-beam therapy (PBT) for prostate cancer has been in used for several decades, with its technique evolving significantly over this period. A growing number of centers now routinely utilize pencil-beam scanning as an advanced technique of PBT. Interest and controversy concerning its use have recently come under scrutiny. While the past decade has produced an assemblage of evidence suggesting that PBT is safe and effective for early stage prostate cancer, it is still unknown whether the theoretical dosimetric advantages of PBT translate into meaningful clinical improvements over routine intensity-modulated radiation therapy, which is commonly used for these patients. Outcomes from early trials using whole courses of PBT have shown mixed results when compared with routine intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Therefore, randomized trials comparing these two techniques should be undertaken, as this would help in defining the role of PBT for this patient group. This article aims to describe the basics of PBT, review the reasons for the growing interest in PBT, review the evidence for PBT, review the controversy surrounding PBT, and inquire about PBT's future in the treatment of prostate cancer, with attention to its physical properties, comparative clinical and cost-effectiveness, and advances in its delivery. PMID:27672328

  14. Phytoplankton dynamics in contrasting early stage North Atlantic spring blooms: composition, succession, and potential drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Daniels

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The spring bloom is a key annual event in the phenology of pelagic ecosystems, making a major contribution to the oceanic biological carbon pump through the production and export of organic carbon. However, there is little consensus as to the main drivers of spring bloom formation, exacerbated by a lack of in situ observations of the phytoplankton community composition and its evolution during this critical period. We investigated the dynamics of the phytoplankton community structure at two contrasting sites in the Iceland and Norwegian Basins during the early stage (25 March–25 April of the 2012 North Atlantic spring bloom. The plankton composition and characteristics of the initial stages of the bloom were markedly different between the two basins. The Iceland Basin (ICB appeared well mixed to > 400 m, yet surface chlorophyll a (0.27–2.2 mg m–3 and primary production (0.06–0.66 mmol C m–3 d–1 were elevated in the upper 100 m. Although the Norwegian Basin (NWB had a persistently shallower mixed layer (< 100 m, chlorophyll a (0.58–0.93 mg m–3 and primary production (0.08–0.15 mmol C m–3 d–1 remained lower than in the ICB, with picoplankton (> 2 μm dominating chlorophyll a biomass. The ICB phytoplankton composition appeared primarily driven by the physicochemical environment, with periodic events of increased mixing restricting further increases in biomass. In contrast, the NWB phytoplankton community was potentially limited by physicochemical and/or biological factors such as grazing. Diatoms dominated the ICB, with the genus Chaetoceros (1–166 cells mL–1 being succeeded by Pseudo-nitzschia (0.2–210 cells mL–1. However, large diatoms (> 10 μm were virtually absent (< 0.5 cells mL–1 from the NWB, with only small nanno-sized (< 5 μm diatoms present (101–600 cells mL–1. We suggest micro-zooplankton grazing, potentially coupled with the lack of a seed population of bloom forming diatoms, was restricting diatom

  15. Regulation of cap-dependent translation initiation in the early stage porcine parthenotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susor, Andrej; Jelínková, Lucie; Karabínová, Pavla; Torner, Helmut; Tomek, Wolfgang; Kovárová, Hana; Kubelka, Michal

    2008-12-01

    The binding of mRNAs to ribosomes is mediated by the protein complex eIF4F in conjunction with eIF4B (eukaryotic initiation factor 4F and 4B). EIF4F is a three subunit complex consisting of eIF4A (RNA helicase), eIF4E (mRNA cap binding protein), and eIF4G (bridging protein). The crucial role is played by eIF4E, which directly binds the 5'-cap structure of the mRNA and facilitates the recruitment to the mRNA of other translation factors and the 40S ribosomal subunit. EIF4E binding to mRNA and to other initiation factors is regulated on several levels, including its phosphorylation on Ser-209, and association with its regulatory protein 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1). In this study we document that both the translation initiation factor eIF4E and its regulator 4E-BP1 become dephosphorylated in the early stage porcine zygotes already 8 hr post-activation. Similarly, the activities of ERK1/2 MAP and Mnk1 kinases, which are both involved in eIF4E phosphorylation, gradually decrease during this period with the timing similar to that of eIF4E dephosphorylation. The formation of an active eIF4F complex is also diminished after 9-15 hr post-activation, although substantial amounts of this complex have been detected also 24 hr post-activation (2-cell stage). The overall protein synthesis in the parthenotes decreases gradually from 12 hr post-activation reaching a minimum after 48 hr (4-cell stage). Although the translation is gradually decreasing during early preimplantation development, the eIF4F complex, which is temporarily formed, might be a premise for the translation of a small subset of mRNAs at this period of development.

  16. Oxidative stress involving changes in Nrf2 and ER stress in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Sandra I; Costa, Rui O; Ferreira, Ildete L; Santana, Isabel; Caldeira, Gladys L; Padovano, Carmela; Fonseca, Ana C; Baldeiras, Inês; Cunha, Catarina; Letra, Liliana; Oliveira, Catarina R; Pereira, Cláudia M F; Rego, Ana Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. In this study we analyzed whether oxidative stress involving changes in Nrf2 and ER stress may constitute early events in AD pathogenesis by using human peripheral blood cells and an AD transgenic mouse model at different disease stages. Increased oxidative stress and increased phosphorylated Nrf2 (p(Ser40)Nrf2) were observed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Moreover, we observed impaired ER Ca2+ homeostasis and increased ER stress markers in PBMCs from MCI individuals and mild AD patients. Evidence of early oxidative stress defense mechanisms in AD was substantiated by increased p(Ser40)Nrf2 in 3month-old 3xTg-AD male mice PBMCs, and also with increased nuclear Nrf2 levels in brain cortex. However, SOD1 protein levels were decreased in human MCI PBMCs and in 3xTg-AD mice brain cortex; the latter further correlated with reduced SOD1 mRNA levels. Increased ER stress was also detected in the brain cortex of young female and old male 3xTg-AD mice. We demonstrate oxidative stress and early Nrf2 activation in AD human and mouse models, which fails to regulate some of its targets, leading to repressed expression of antioxidant defenses (e.g., SOD-1), and extending to ER stress. Results suggest markers of prodromal AD linked to oxidative stress associated with Nrf2 activation and ER stress that may be followed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  17. Upgrading the definition of early gastric cancer: better staging means more appropriate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoni, Luca

    2015-12-01

    Since Murakami defined early gastric cancer (EGC) as a "carcinoma limited to the gastric mucosa and/or submucosa regardless of the lymph node status", several authors have focused on the most influential histopathological parameters for predicting the development of lymph node metastases by considering the lymph node status as an important prognostic factor. A few authors have also considered the depth of invasion as one of the keys to explaining the existence of subgroups of patients affected by EGC with poor prognoses. In any case, EGC is still considered an initial phase of tumor progression with good prognosis. The introduction of modern endoscopic devices has allowed a precise diagnosis of early lesions, which can lead to improved definitions of tumors that can be radically treated with endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Given the widespread use of these techniques, the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) identified in 2011 the standard criteria that should exclude the presence of lymph node metastases. At that time, EGCs with nodal involvement should have been asserted as no longer fitting the definition of an early tumor. Some authors have also demonstrated that the morphological growth pattern of a tumor, according to Kodama's classification, is one of the most important prognostic factors, thereby suggesting the need to report it in histopathological drafts. Notwithstanding the acquired knowledge regarding the clinical behavior of EGC, Murakami's definition is still being used. This definition needs to be upgraded according to the modern staging of the disease so that the appropriate treatment would be selected. PMID:26779372

  18. Upgrading the deifnition of early gastric cancer:better staging means more appropriate treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca Saragoni

    2015-01-01

    Since Murakami defined early gastric cancer (EGC) as a“carcinoma limited to the gastric mucosa and/or submucosa regardless of the lymph node status”, several authors have focused on the most inlfuential histopathological parameters for predicting the development of lymph node metastases by considering the lymph node status as an important prognostic factor. A few authors have also considered the depth of invasion as one of the keys to explaining the existence of subgroups of patients affected by EGC with poor prognoses. In any case, EGC is still considered an initial phase of tumor progression with good prognosis. hTe introduction of modern endoscopic devices has allowed a precise diagnosis of early lesions, which can lead to improved deifnitions of tumors that can be radically treated with endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Given the widespread use of these techniques, the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association ( JGCA) identiifed in 2011 the standard criteria that should exclude the presence of lymph node metastases. At that time, EGCs with nodal involvement should have been asserted as no longer iftting the deifnition of an early tumor. Some authors have also demonstrated that the morphological growth pattern of a tumor, according to Kodama’s classiifcation, is one of the most important prognostic factors, thereby suggesting the need to report it in histopathological dratfs. Notwithstanding the acquired knowledge regarding the clinical behavior of EGC, Murakami’s deifnition is still being used. hTis deifnition needs to be upgraded according to the modern staging of the disease so that the appropriate treatment would be selected.

  19. Methylation changes associated with early maturation stages in the Atlantic salmon

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    Pérez-Figueroa Andrés

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early maturation in the Atlantic salmon is an interesting subject for numerous research lines. Prior to sea migration, parr can reach sexual maturation and successfully fertilize adult female eggs during the reproductive season. These individuals are known as precocious parr, mature parr or "sneakers". Reasons for early maturation are unknown and this transitory stage is usually considered to be a threshold trait. Here, we compare methylation patterns between mature and immature salmon parr from two different rivers in order to infer if such methylation differences may be related to their maturation condition. First we analyzed genetic differences between rivers by means of AFLPs. Then, we compared the DNA methylation differences between mature and immature parrs, using a Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP, which is a modification of the AFLPs method by making use of the differential sensitivity of a pair of restriction enzymes isoschizomeres to cytosine methylation. The tissues essayed included brain, liver and gonads. Results AFLPs statistical analysis showed that there was no significant differentiation between rivers or a significant differentiation between maturation states in each river. MSAP statistical analysis showed that among the three tissues sampled, the gonads had the highest number of significant single-locus variation among populations with 74 loci followed by brain with 70 and finally liver with only 12. Principal components analysis (PCA of the MSAP profiles revealed different profiles among different tissues (liver, brain and testis clearly separating maturation states in the testis tissue when compared to the liver. Conclusions Our results reveal that genetically-similar mature and immature salmon parr present high levels of DNA methylation variation in two of the three analyzed tissues. We hypothesize that early maturation may be mostly mediated by epigenetic processes rather than by

  20. Identification and validation of novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for staging early Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Perrin

    Full Text Available Ideally, disease modifying therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD will be applied during the 'preclinical' stage (pathology present with cognition intact before severe neuronal damage occurs, or upon recognizing very mild cognitive impairment. Developing and judiciously administering such therapies will require biomarker panels to identify early AD pathology, classify disease stage, monitor pathological progression, and predict cognitive decline. To discover such biomarkers, we measured AD-associated changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF proteome.CSF samples from individuals with mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 1 (n = 24 and cognitively normal controls (CDR 0 (n = 24 were subjected to two-dimensional difference-in-gel electrophoresis. Within 119 differentially-abundant gel features, mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS identified 47 proteins. For validation, eleven proteins were re-evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Six of these assays (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I, transthyretin, cystatin C distinguished CDR 1 and CDR 0 groups and were subsequently applied (with tau, p-tau181 and Aβ42 ELISAs to a larger independent cohort (n = 292 that included individuals with very mild dementia (CDR 0.5. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses using stepwise logistic regression yielded optimal biomarker combinations to distinguish CDR 0 from CDR>0 (tau, YKL-40, NrCAM and CDR 1 from CDR<1 (tau, chromogranin A, carnosinase I with areas under the curve of 0.90 (0.85-0.94 95% confidence interval [CI] and 0.88 (0.81-0.94 CI, respectively.Four novel CSF biomarkers for AD (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I can improve the diagnostic accuracy of Aβ42 and tau. Together, these six markers describe six clinicopathological stages from cognitive normalcy to mild dementia, including stages defined by increased risk of cognitive decline. Such a panel might improve clinical trial efficiency by guiding

  1. Different effects of ERβ and TROP2 expression in Chinese patients with early-stage colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ji-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Pei-Rong; Ou, Qing-Jian; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Jiang, Wu; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and TROP2 expressed in colon carcinoma and might play an important role there. We explored the relationship of ERβ and TROP2 expression with the prognosis of early-stage colon cancer. ERβ and TROP2 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa and tumoral tissues from 220 Chinese patients with T(3)N(0)M(0) (stage IIa) and T(4)N(0)M(0) (stage IIb) colon cancer in the Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, who underwent curative surgical resection between 1995 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) data, and the ROC curve, Kaplan-Meier estimate, log rank test, and Jackknife method were used to show the effect of ERβ and TROP2 expression at different stages of cancer. The 5-year survival rates were not significantly different between the patients with stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer (83 vs. 80 %, respectively). The high expression of ERβ was related to decreasing OS in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, while the high expression of TROP2 was related to decreasing OS in stage IIb colon cancer. The expression of ERβ and TROP2 has tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effect in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, respectively.

  2. Streptococcus gordonii glucosyltransferase promotes biofilm interactions with Candida albicans

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    Austin Ricker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans co-aggregates with Streptococcus gordonii to form biofilms and their interactions in mucosal biofilms may lead to pathogenic synergy. Although the functions of glucosyltransferases (Gtf of Mutans streptococci have been well characterized, the biological roles of these enzymes in commensal oral streptococci, such as S. gordonii, in oral biofilm communities are less clear. Objective: The objective of this work was to explore the role of GtfG, the single Gtf enzyme of S. gordonii, in biofilm interactions with C. albicans. Design: Biofilms were grown under salivary flow in flow cells in vitro, or under static conditions in 96 well plates. A panel of isogenic S. gordonii CH1 gtfG mutants and complemented strains were co-inoculated with C. albicans strain SC5314 to form mixed biofilms. Biofilm accretion and binding interactions between the two organisms were tested. Biofilms were quantified using confocal microscopy or the crystal violet assay. Results: The presence of GtfG enhanced dual biofilm accretion, and sucrose supplementation further augmented dual biofilm formation, pointing to a role of newly synthesized glucans. GtfG also promoted binding to C. albicans preformed biofilms. Soluble α-1,6-glucans played a role in these interactions since: 1 a strain producing only soluble glucans (CH107 formed robust dual biofilms under conditions of salivary flow; and 2 the dual biofilm was susceptible to enzymatic breakdown by dextranase which specifically degrades soluble α-1,6-glucans. Conclusion: Our work identified a novel molecular mechanism for C. albicans and S. gordonii biofilm interactions, mediated by GtfG. This protein promotes early biofilm binding of S. gordonii to C. albicans which leads to increased accretion of streptococcal cells in mixed biofilms. We also showed that soluble glucans, with α-1,6-linkages, promoted inter-generic adhesive interactions.

  3. Study on brain dopamine D2R 131I-epidepride SPECT imaging in patients with early stage Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) 131I-epidepride SPECT imaging in early stage Parkinson' disease (PD). Methods: Ten healthy controls and forty-six untreated patients with early stage PD [Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) stage I 22 cases, H-Y stage II 24 cases] were observed with dopamine D2R 131I-epidepride SPECT imaging. Striatal specific uptake of 131I-epidepride was calculated with region of interest analysis according to the ratios of striatum to occipital cortex [(ST-OC)/OC] and of striatum to frontal cortex [(ST-FC)/FC]. Results: No obvious side-to-side differences were observed in controls. (ST-OC)/OC and (ST-FC)/FC in the striatum contralateral to the clinical symptom were significantly upgraded compared to ipsilateral side in PD of H-Y stage I and H-Y stage II. (ST-OC)/OC and (ST-FC)/FC in the striatum significantly rose as the severity increasing and all the increments were significantly higher compared with that in the controls. Conclusion: Dopamine D2R 131I-epidepride SPECT imaging in human brain will conduce to the diagnosing of early stage PD

  4. Omitting radiotherapy in early positron emission tomography-negative stage I/II Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with an increased risk of early relapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raemaekers, John M M; André, Marc P E; Federico, Massimo;

    2014-01-01

    AND METHODS: Patients age 15 to 70 years with untreated clinical stage I/II HL were eligible. Here we report the clinical outcome of the preplanned interim futility analysis scheduled to occur after documentation of 34 events in the early PET-negative group. Because testing for futility in this...... noninferiority trial corresponds to testing the hypothesis of no difference, a one-sided superiority test was conducted. RESULTS: The analysis included 1,137 patients. In the favorable subgroup, 85.8% had a negative early PET scan (standard arm, one event v experimental arm, nine events). In the unfavorable......-negative patients. CONCLUSION: On the basis of this analysis, combined-modality treatment resulted in fewer early progressions in clinical stage I/II HL, although early outcome was excellent in both arms. The final analysis will reveal whether this finding is maintained over time....

  5. A novel immune evasion strategy of candida albicans: proteolytic cleavage of a salivary antimicrobial peptide.

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    Timothy F Meiller

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic infection considered to be a harbinger of AIDS. The etiologic agent Candida albicans is a fungal species commonly colonizing human mucosal surfaces. However, under conditions of immune dysfunction, colonizing C. albicans can become an opportunistic pathogen causing superficial or even life-threatening infections. The reasons behind this transition, however, are not clear. In the oral cavity, salivary antimicrobial peptides are considered to be an important part of the host innate defense system in the prevention of microbial colonization. Histatin-5 specifically has exhibited potent activity against C. albicans. Our previous studies have shown histatin-5 levels to be significantly reduced in the saliva of HIV+ individuals, indicating an important role for histatin-5 in keeping C. albicans in its commensal stage. The versatility in the pathogenic potential of C. albicans is the result of its ability to adapt through the regulation of virulence determinants, most notably of which are proteolytic enzymes (Saps, involved in tissue degradation. In this study, we show that C. albicans cells efficiently and rapidly degrade histatin-5, resulting in loss of its anti-candidal potency. In addition, we demonstrate that this cellular activity is due to proteolysis by a member of the secreted aspartic proteases (Sap family involved in C. albicans pathogenesis. Specifically, the proteolysis was attributed to Sap9, in turn identifying histatin-5 as the first host-specific substrate for that isoenzyme. These findings demonstrate for the first time the ability of a specific C. albicans enzyme to degrade and deactivate a host antimicrobial peptide involved in the protection of the oral mucosa against C. albicans, thereby providing new insights into the factors directing the transition of C. albicans from commensal to pathogen, with important clinical implications for alternative therapy. This report characterizes the

  6. Uncertainties in early-stage capital cost estimation of process design – a case study on biorefinery design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is indeed found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable......Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales, and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early-stage design is a challenging task, which......) the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data are not available. Four well-known models for early-stage cost estimation are reviewed and analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early-stage process design...

  7. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humanes, Adriana; Noonan, Sam H C; Willis, Bette L; Fabricius, Katharina E; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  8. Nephelinite lavas at early stage of rift initiation (Hanang volcano, North Tanzanian Divergence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Céline; Parat, Fleurice; Denis, Carole M. M.; Mangasini, Fredrik

    2016-07-01

    North Tanzanian Divergence is the first stage of continental break-up of East African Rift (alkaline lavas with zoned clinopyroxene, nepheline, andradite-schorlomite, titanite, apatite, and pyrrhotite. Lavas are low MgO-nephelinite with low Mg# and high silica content (Mg# = 22.4-35.2, SiO2 = 44.2-46.7 wt%, respectively), high incompatible element concentrations (e.g. REE, Ba, Sr) and display Nb-Ta fractionation (Nb/Ta = 36-61). Major elements of whole rock are consistent with magmatic differentiation by fractional crystallization from a parental melt with melilititic composition. Although fractional crystallization occurred at 9-12 km and can be considered as an important process leading to nephelinite magma, the complex zonation of cpx (e.g. abrupt change of Mg#, Nb/Ta, and H2O) and trace element patterns of nephelinites recorded magmatic differentiation involving open system with carbonate-silicate immiscibility and primary melilititic melt replenishment. The low water content of clinopyroxene (3-25 ppm wt. H2O) indicates that at least 0.3 wt% H2O was present at depth during carbonate-rich nephelinite crystallization at 340-640 MPa and 1050-1100 °C. Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang represent an early stage of the evolution path towards carbonatitic magmatism as observed in Oldoinyo Lengai. Paragenesis and geochemistry of Hanang nephelinites require the presence of CO2-rich melilititic liquid in the southern part of North Tanzanian Divergence and carbonate-rich melt percolations after deep partial melting of CO2-rich oxidized mantle source.

  9. Evidence from neglect dyslexia for morphological decomposition at the early stages of orthographic-visual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, Julia; Friedmann, Naama

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether and how the morphological structure of written words affects reading in word-based neglect dyslexia (neglexia), and what can be learned about morphological decomposition in reading from the effect of morphology on neglexia. The oral reading of 7 Hebrew-speaking participants with acquired neglexia at the word level-6 with left neglexia and 1 with right neglexia-was evaluated. The main finding was that the morphological role of the letters on the neglected side of the word affected neglect errors: When an affix appeared on the neglected side, it was neglected significantly more often than when the neglected side was part of the root; root letters on the neglected side were never omitted, whereas affixes were. Perceptual effects of length and final letter form were found for words with an affix on the neglected side, but not for words in which a root letter appeared in the neglected side. Semantic and lexical factors did not affect the participants' reading and error pattern, and neglect errors did not preserve the morpho-lexical characteristics of the target words. These findings indicate that an early morphological decomposition of words to their root and affixes occurs before access to the lexicon and to semantics, at the orthographic-visual analysis stage, and that the effects did not result from lexical feedback. The same effects of morphological structure on reading were manifested by the participants with left- and right-sided neglexia. Since neglexia is a deficit at the orthographic-visual analysis level, the effect of morphology on reading patterns in neglexia further supports that morphological decomposition occurs in the orthographic-visual analysis stage, prelexically, and that the search for the three letters of the root in Hebrew is a trigger for attention shift in neglexia. PMID:26528159

  10. Surgical management for early-stage bilateral breast cancer patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-jian Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the current surgical management strategy for bilateral breast cancer (BBC patients and to assess the changes in this strategy in China.This is a retrospective review of all patients with early-stage BBC who underwent surgical treatment at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between June 2007 and June 2014.A total of 15,337 patients with primary breast cancer were identified. Of these patients, 218 (1.5% suffered from synchronous bilateral breast cancer (sBBC, and 296 (2.0% suffered from metachronous bilateral breast cancer (mBBC. Patients with a lobular carcinoma component, those with estrogen receptor-positive cancer, and those with an accompanying sclerosing adenosis in the affected breast tended to develop BBC. The rates of bilateral mastectomy, breast conserving therapy, reconstruction, and combined surgeries were 86.2%, 6.4%, 3.7%, and 3.7%, respectively, for patients with sBBC and 81.1%, 4.4%, 3.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, for patients with mBBC. The interval between bilateral cancers, age at first diagnosis of breast cancer, histopathological type, and stage have significant impacts on the choice of surgery for patients with BBC.Bilateral mastectomy was the dominant surgical management for patients with BBC in China, despite the increased application of breast reconstruction surgery observed in recent years. Bilateral prosthetic breast reconstruction was the ideal choice for patients with sBBC. Chinese surgeons should take responsibility for patient education and inform their patients about their surgical options.

  11. Evidence from neglect dyslexia for morphological decomposition at the early stages of orthographic-visual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eReznick

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether and how the morphological structure of written words affects reading in word-based neglect dyslexia (neglexia, and what can be learned about morphological decomposition in reading from the effect of morphology on neglexia. The oral reading of 7 Hebrew-speaking participants with acquired neglexia at the word level – 6 with left neglexia and 1 with right neglexia - was evaluated. The main finding was that the morphological role of the letters on the neglected side of the word affected neglect errors: When an affix appeared on the neglected side, it was neglected significantly more often than when the neglected side was part of the root; root letters on the neglected side were never omitted, whereas affixes were. Perceptual effects of length and final letter form were found for words with an affix on the neglected side, but not for words in which a root letter appeared in the neglected side. Semantic and lexical factors did not affect the participants' reading and error pattern, and neglect errors did not preserve the morpho-lexical characteristics of the target words. These findings indicate that an early morphological decomposition of words to their root and affixes occurs before access to the lexicon and to semantics, at the orthographic-visual analysis stage, and that the effects did not result from lexical feedback. The same effects of morphological structure on reading were manifested by the participants with left- and right-sided neglexia. Since neglexia is a deficit at the orthographic-visual analysis level, the effect of morphology on reading patterns in neglexia further supports that morphological decomposition occurs in the orthographic-visual analysis stage, prelexically, and that the search for the three letters of the root in Hebrew is a trigger for attention shift in neglexia.

  12. Molecular Simulation Study of the Early Stages of Formation of Bioinspired Mesoporous Silica Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centi, Alessia; Jorge, Miguel

    2016-07-19

    The use of bioinspired templates, such as polyamines and polypeptides, could lead to significant improvements in the synthesis conditions under which mesoporous materials are traditionally produced, removing the need for strong pH as well as high temperature or pressure. In this work, we perform atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of 1,12-diaminododecane surfactants, in water and in the presence of silica monomers, to investigate the early stages of synthesis of one of the first examples of bioinspired silica materials. Different surfactant concentrations and pH were considered, clarifying the influence of the charge state of the molecules on the self-assembly process. We show that the amphiphilic amines form stable lamellar structures at equilibrium in the range from intermediate to high pH values. In a later stage, when silica species are added to the system, our results reveal that, in the same range of pH, silicates strongly adsorb around these aggregates at the interface with water. This causes a considerable modification of the curvature of the layer, which suggests a tendency for the system to evolve from a lamellar phase to the formation of vesicle structures. Furthermore, we show that silica monomers are able to penetrate the layer spontaneously when defects are created as a result of surfactants' head-to-head repulsion. These findings are in agreement with experimental observations and support the pillaring mechanism postulated for this class of materials. However, our simulations indicate that the aggregation process is driven by charge matching between surfactant heads and silica monomers rather than by hydrogen bond interactions between neutral species, as had been previously hypothesized. PMID:27340948

  13. Prognosis for Mammographically Occult, Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conservation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare mammographically occult (MamOcc) and mammographically positive (MamPos) early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT), to analyze differences between the two cohorts. Methods and Materials: Our two cohorts consisted of 214 MamOcc and 2168 MamPos patients treated with BCT. Chart reviews were conducted to assess mammogram reports and method of detection. All clinical-pathologic and outcome parameters were analyzed to detect differences between the two cohorts. Results: Median follow-up was 7 years. There were no differences in final margins, T stage, nodal status, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, or 'triple-negative' status. Significant differences included younger age at diagnosis (p o histology (p < 0.0001). At 10 years, the differences in overall survival, cause-specific survival, and distant relapse between the two groups did not differ significantly. The MamOcc cohort had more breast relapses (15% vs. 8%; p = 0.0357), but on multivariate analysis this difference was not significant (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.993-1.007, p = 0.9296). Breast relapses were mammographically occult in 32% of the MamOcc and 12% of the MamPos cohorts (p = 0.0136). Conclusions: Although our study suggests that there are clinical-pathologic variations for the MamOcc cohort vs. MamPos patients that may ultimately affect management, breast relapse after BCT was not significantly different. Breast recurrences were more often mammographically occult in the MamOcc cohort; consideration should be given to closer follow-up and alternative imaging strategies (ultrasound, breast MRI) for routine posttreatment examination. To our knowledge, this represents the largest series addressing the prognostic significance of MamOcc cancers treated with BCT.

  14. Early clinical characteristics according to developmental stage in children with definite moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ok; Joo, Sung-Pil; Seo, Bo-Ra; Rho, Young Il; Yoon, Woong; Woo, Young Jong

    2013-06-01

    The objective is to clarify the early clinical characteristics in childhood moyamoya disease (MD). Epidemiologic characteristics, symptoms and diagnostic rates were assessed in 64 children (0-18 years) with definite MD according to developmental stage: infancy (5; 0-1 years); toddlerhood/preschool age (22; 2-5 years); school age (29; 6-10 years); and adolescence (8; 11-18 years). The median ages at onset was 6.25 years and the female to male ratio was 1.9 (~2.5 in toddlerhood/preschool age and in adolescence, P=0.71). Previous headache was observed in 23% (14/64): frequently in school age (38%, P=0.02) and within 6 months before main symptoms (6/11). As an initial symptom, weakness was observed in 78% (50/64) mainly as transient ischemic attack (TIA, 61%) in limbs (90%) and unilaterally (82%). TIA was less frequent in infancy (40%, P=0.04). Seizure was observed in 27% (17/64): frequently in infancy (100%, Pchildren ~5 years (P<0.01). Severe headache associated with MD was observed in 14% (9/64). Provoking events were positive in 42% (27/64): in school age, frequently during eating (28%); and in toddlerhood/preschool age, during crying (27%). The diagnostic rates at 3 and 12 months from symptom-onset were 39% (80% during infancy vs. 28% in school age, P=0.14) and 67%, respectively. Symptomatic progression at diagnosis was observed in 38% (24/64). Initial clinical characteristics in childhood definite MD differed according to developmental stage and from at diagnosis.

  15. Blue-Black or White-Gold? Early Stage Processing and the Color of 'The Dress'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In Feb 2015 an image of a dress posted on Tumblr triggered an internet phenomenon: Is the Dress blue and black (BB) or white and gold (WG)? Many claim BB and others insist WG while the true colors are BB. The prevailing theory is that assumptions about the illuminant govern perception of the Dress with WG due to bluish lighting and BB due to yellowish. Our purpose was to determine if early stage optical, retinal and/or neural factors also impact perception of the Dress. Methods Thirty-nine subjects were categorized as BB or WG based on their initial perception of the Dress and their perception reported when viewing the Dress on iPhone 5, iPad, and 22” LCD displays. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measured with the QuantifEye™ MPS II and visual brainwaves (VEPs) in response to brief presentations of a transparency of the Dress illuminated by a flashing light were measured on each subject and compared between BB and WG groups. Additionally, CIE chromaticity (color) and luminance (brightness) were measured from multiple areas of the Dress image to determine cone stimulation and contrast. Results Mean MPOD was higher in the WG group (0.49) vs. the BB (0.41, p = 0.04) and median values were higher as well (WG = 0.46, BB = 0.36, p = 0.03). There was no difference in VEP amplitude between groups (p > 0.85) but mean VEP latency was longer in WG (130 msec.) vs. the BB group (107 msec., p = 0.0005). Colorimetry of the Dress showed significantly greater stimulation of blue cones (contrast = 73%) vs. red and green sensitive cones (contrast = 13%). Conclusions Our findings indicate that observers with denser MPOD may be predisposed to perceive the Dress as WG due to great absorption of blue light by the macular pigment. Moreover, the novel, substantial stimulation of blue cones by the Dress may contribute to ambiguity and dichotomous perception since the blue cones are so sparse in the retina. Finally, the delayed WG VEPs indicate distinct neural processing

  16. Spatial distribution of sardine and anchovy early life stages along the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zorica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite long-term investigations of the Adriatic Sea in general and extensive research on sardine and anchovy as ecologically and economically important fish species, knowledge concerning their spawning ecology, precisely their possible spawning grounds, is still incomplete. Therefore, two scientific surveys (January, July 2012 were performed, as target species spawn during different periods of the year (sardine - October to April (Sinovčić et al., 2007 and anchovy - April to September (Zorica et al., 2013. Throughout these surveys, standard vertical plankton tows were made during the daylight at 72 stations in January and 60 stations in July using a WP2 sampler (mouth opening, 0.255 m2; mesh size, 0.200 mm. WP2 net was put vertically down during the calm sea to a depth of 100 m or to 5 m above the seabed in relatively shallow marine area (less than 100 m. Plankton samples were preserved in 4% buffered formalin and transported to the laboratory where they were analysed. Throughout ichtyoplankton analysis of samples collected during the winter survey a total of 506 sardine eggs and 348 larvae were sorted out. The mean sardine egg and larval abundance in the analysed period at positive stations was 57.8 +/- 77.4 eggs/m2 and 29 +/- 25.85 larvae/m2, with peaks of 396 eggs/m2 and 108 larvae/m2 at positive sampling stations. Concerning the summer survey and anchovy early life stages from obtained samples 1489 anchovy eggs and 1036 larvae were isolated. Average abundance of anchovy eggs and larvae was 145.26 +/- 201.27eggs/m2 and 115.11+/- 162.32 larvae/m2, respectively. The highest values of mentioned parameters at positive stations were 800 eggs/m2 and 952 larvae/m2. According to obtained results and their processing within Ocean Data View (odv.awi.de, revile that both species during 2012 spawn above the whole continental shelf and the areas of higher early life stages abundance overlap.

  17. Microsatellite instability, KRAS mutations and cellular distribution of TRAIL-receptors in early stage colorectal cancer.

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    Lydia Kriegl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fact that the receptors for the TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL are almost invariably expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC represents the rationale for the employment of TRAIL-receptors targeting compounds for the therapy of patients affected by this tumor. Yet, first reports on the use of these bioactive agents provided disappointing results. We therefore hypothesized that loss of membrane-bound TRAIL-R might be a feature of some CRC and that the evaluation of membrane staining rather than that of the overall expression of TRAIL-R might predict the response to TRAIL-R targeting compounds in this tumor. AIM AND METHODS: Thus, we evaluated the immunofluorescence pattern of TRAIL-receptors and E-cadherin to assess the fraction of membrane-bound TRAIL-receptors in 231 selected patients with early-stage CRC undergoing surgical treatment only. Moreover, we investigated whether membrane staining for TRAIL-receptors as well as the presence of KRAS mutations or of microsatellite instability (MSI had an effect on survival and thus a prognostic effect. RESULTS: As expected, almost all CRC samples stained positive for TRAIL-R1 and 2. Instead, membrane staining for these receptors was positive in only 71% and 16% of samples respectively. No correlation between KRAS mutation status or MSI-phenotype and prognosis could be detected. TRAIL-R1 staining intensity correlated with survival in univariate analysis, but only membranous staining of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 on cell membranes was an independent predictor of survival (cox multivariate analysis: TRAIL-R1: p = 0.019, RR 2.06[1.12-3.77]; TRAIL-R2: p = 0.033, RR 3.63[1.11-11.84]. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the current assumptions, loss of membrane staining for TRAIL-receptors is a common feature of early stage CRC which supersedes the prognostic significance of their staining intensity. Failure to achieve therapeutic effects in recent clinical trials using TRAIL-receptors targeting

  18. Early life-stage mortalities of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to polychlorinated diphenyl ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, C.D.; Metcalfe, T.L. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies Program; Cormier, J.A. [St. Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, Nova Scotia (Canada). Chemistry Dept.; Huestis, S.Y.; Niimi, A.J. [Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Fisheries and Oceans

    1997-08-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are a group of compounds that resemble polychlorinated dibenzofurans in structure that have been detected at ppb concentrations in fish from the Great Lakes. The objective of this project was to determine the toxicological significance of PCDE residues in fish. PCDE congener 77 (3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorodiphenyl ether), congener 71 (2,3{prime},4{prime},6-tetrachlorodiphenyl ether), congener 118 (2,3{prime}4,4{prime},5-pentachlorodiphenyl ether), and congener 105 (2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentachlorodiphenyl) were tested for toxicity with early life stages (ELS) of Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes. These embryotoxicity data showed that the mono-ortho congeners 105 and 118 and the non-ortho congener 77 were embryotoxic to medaka. However, the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) estimated for congeners 105, 77, and 118 relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD were relatively low at 0.00056, 0.00003, and 0.00001, respectively. PCDE compounds were isolated in a fraction prepared from a bulk extract of Lake Ontario lake trout. In this fraction, congeners 99 (2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCDE), 153 (2,2{prime},4,m4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexaCDE), 154 (2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,6{prime}-hexaCDE), and 163 (2,3,3{prime},4{prime},5,6-hexaCDE) comprised 81.3% of total PCDEs, while congeners 77, 71, 118, and 105 comprised only 1.1% of total PCDEs. The LC50 for embryotoxicity of this fraction was equivalent to 15.5 ng/ml of total PCDEs. Toxicopathic lesions noted in medaka embryos exposed to either individual PCDEs or the lake trout extract included vascular hemorrhage but no edematous lesions. Medaka fry did not exhibit symptoms of hyperexcitability prior to death, as has been noted for ELS of lake trout exhibiting swim-up syndrome. These data indicate that PCDEs in Lake Ontario lake trout have the potential to induce toxic effects in early life stages of fish.

  19. Early stages of pediatric bipolar disorder: retrospective analysis of a Czech inpatient sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Michal Goetz,1 Tomas Novak,2 Marie Vesela,1 Zdenek Hlavka,3 Martin Brunovsky,2 Michal Povazan,4 Radek Ptacek,5 Antonin Sebela21Department of Child Psychiatry, Second Faculty of Medicine, Motol University Hospital, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 2National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany and Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Department of Probability and Mathematical Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 4Children’s Department, Bohnice Psychiatric Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, General Teaching Hospital, Charles University in Prague, Czech RepublicBackground: Approximately 30%–60% of adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD report onset between the ages 15 and 19 years; however, a correct diagnosis is often delayed by several years. Therefore, investigations of the early features of BD are important for adequately understanding the prodromal stages of the illness.Methods: A complete review of the medical records of 46 children and adolescents who were hospitalized for BD at two psychiatric teaching centers in Prague, Czech Republic was performed. Frequency of BD in all inpatients, age of symptom onset, phenomenology of mood episodes, lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, differences between very-early-onset (<13 years of age and early-onset patients (13–18 years, and differences between the offspring of parents with and without BD were analyzed.Results: The sample represents 0.83% of the total number of inpatients (n=5,483 admitted during the study period at both centers. BD often started with depression (56%, followed by hypomania (24% and mixed episodes (20%. The average age during the first mood episode was 14.9 years (14.6 years for depression and 15.6 years for hypomania. Seven children (15% experienced their first mood episode before age 13

  20. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghamarian Abdolreza; Abdollahi Mohammad; Su Xiaogang; Amiri Azita; Ahadi Ali; Nowrouzi Azin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ), respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i...

  1. Reviewing the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Sexual Reproduction and Early Life History Stages of Reef-Building Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is a relatively young yet rapidly developing scientific field. Assessing the potential response(s of marine organisms to projected near-future OA scenarios has been at the forefront of scientific research, with a focus on ecosystems (e.g., coral reefs and processes (e.g., calcification that are deemed particularly vulnerable. Recently, a heightened emphasis has been placed on evaluating early life history stages as these stages are generally perceived to be more sensitive to environmental change. The number of acidification-related studies focused on early life stages has risen dramatically over the last several years. While early life history stages of corals have been understudied compared to other marine invertebrate taxa (e.g., echinoderms, mollusks, numerous studies exist to contribute to our status of knowledge regarding the potential impacts of OA on coral recruitment dynamics. To synthesize this information, the present paper reviews the primary literature on the effects of acidification on sexual reproduction and early stages of corals, incorporating lessons learned from more thoroughly studied taxa to both assess our current understanding of the potential impacts of OA on coral recruitment and to inform and guide future research in this area.

  2. A hand-held mosaicked multispectral imaging device for early stage pressure ulcer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hairong; Kong, Linghua; Wang, Chao; Miao, Lidan

    2011-10-01

    The use of a custom filter mosaic overlaying a CMOS/CCD sensor represents a novel idea to multispectral imaging. The innovation provides simple, miniaturized, low cost instrumentation that has many potential biological applications which require a hand-held detector. This makes it extremely adaptable and can serve as an integrated component to distributed diagnosis and home healthcare (D2H2). A mosaicked sensor is a monolithic array of many sensors, arranged in a geometric pattern with each sensor covered by an optical filter sensitive to a specified wavelength. In this way, only one spectral component is sensed at each pixel and the other spectral components must be estimated from neighbors. Although with great potential, one challenge faced by this device, however, is the reconstruction of the high-resolution full-spectral image from the low-resolution input. Due to the physical limitations in fabrication and the usage of the multispectral filter mosaic, two types of degradations exist, including filter misalignment and the missing spectral components, that must be corrected using intelligent algorithms to take full advantage of the hardware capability of the device. In this paper, we first describe a custom geometric correction method to restore the image from the misalignment distortion. We then present a binary tree-based generic demosaicking algorithm to efficiently estimate the missing special components and reconstruct a high-resolution full-spectral image. We choose early detection of pressure ulcer as a targeting area as early stage pressure ulcers and other subcutaneous lesions are nearly invisible in clinical settings, particularly so for dark pigmented skin. We show how the geometric correction and demosaicking algorithms successfully reconstruct a full-spectral image from which apparent contrast enhancement between damaged skin and the normal skin is observed. PMID:20703688

  3. Effect of early chemoradiotherapy in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, In Bong; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Jeong, Ho Jin; Choi, Hoon Sik; Chai, Gyu Young; Kang, Myoung Hee; Kim, Hoon Gu; Lee, Gyeong Won; Na, Jae Beom; Kang, Ki Mun [Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We evaluated the effect of early chemoradiotherapy on the treatment of patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). Between January 2006 and December 2011, thirty-one patients with histologically proven LS-SCLC who were treated with two cycles of chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy and consolidation chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The chemotherapy regimen was composed of etoposide and cisplatin. Thoracic radiotherapy consisted of 50 to 60 Gy (median, 54 Gy) given in 5 to 6.5 weeks. The follow-up period ranged from 5 to 53 months (median, 22 months). After chemoradiotherapy, 35.5% of the patients (11 patients) showed complete response, 61.3% (19 patients) showed partial response, 3.2% (one patient) showed progressive disease, resulting in an overall response rate of 96.8% (30 patients). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 66.5%, 41.0%, and 28.1%, respectively, with a median OS of 21.3 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression free survival (PFS) rates were 49.8%, 22.8%, and 13.7%, respectively, with median PFS of 12 months. The patterns of failure were: locoregional recurrences in 29.0% (nine patients), distant metastasis in 9.7% (three patients), and both locoregional and distant metastasis in 9.7% (three patients). Grade 3 or 4 toxicities of leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia were observed in 32.2%, 29.0%, and 25.8%, respectively. Grade 3 radiation esophagitis and radiation pneumonitis were shown in 12.9% and 6.4%, respectively. We conclude that early chemoradiotherapy for LS-SCLC provides feasible and acceptable local control and safety.

  4. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered—that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioral study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral) and sociality (social, non-social), to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias) than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and these context

  5. Comparative observation with MRI and pathology of brain edema at the early stage of severe burn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between MRI features and pathology in brain edema at the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA Ⅲ degree) in dogs.Methods: Fifty-two dogs were randomized into control, simple burn (SB), burn plus sodium lactate (BSL), and burn plus glucose solution groups (BGS). The manifestation of the brain of control group was compared with that of burn groups at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours postburn with MRI and pathological examination (gross appearance, electron microscopy and light microscopy).Results: The earliest findings of brain edema were seen at 12 hours after burn in BGS group, in which brain swelling was the main feature of MRI. The decrease of SIR on T1WI was not observed until it was exceeded 10%.Signal of T2WI increased by 8.29% at 24 hours after burn.It was difficult to distinguish the gray matter from the white matter at the boundary line, which became blurred later. Histological changes of brain edema were observed as early as 6 hours after burn, being accompanied by swelling of endothelial cells and peri-vescular astrocytes, and vacuolation took place in neurons at 12 hours after burn, with different degrees of necrosis of capillary endothelimn,neurons, and axons. These changes became more marked with elapse of time. The BGS group showed the most obvious changes mentioned above at 24 hours after burn.Conclusions: The model of the brain edema after severe burn has the feature of both vasogenic edema and cytotoxic edema on the MRI and pathology. Positive MRI findings lagged behind that of the pathomorphological changes.ed

  6. Contextual Valence and Sociality Jointly Influence the Early and Later Stages of Neutral Face Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that face perception is influenced by emotional contextual information. However, because facial expressions are routinely decoded and understood during social communication, sociality should also be considered-that is, it seems necessary to explore whether emotional contextual effects are influenced by the sociality of contextual information. Furthermore, although one behavioral study has explored the effects of context on selective attention to faces, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated how valence and sociality of contextual information influenced the early and later stages of neutral face processing. We first employed an established affective learning procedure, wherein neutral faces were paired with verbal information that differed in valence (negative, neutral) and sociality (social, non-social), to manipulate contextual information. Then, to explore the effects of context on face perception, participants performed a face perception task, while the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) components were measured. Finally, to explore the effects of context on selective attention, participants performed a dot probe task while the N2pc was recorded. The results showed that, in the face perception task, faces paired with negative social information elicited greater EPN and LPP than did faces paired with neutral social information; no differences existed between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. In the dot probe task, faces paired with negative social information elicited a more negative N2pc amplitude (indicating attentional bias) than did faces paired with neutral social information; the N2pc did not differ between faces paired with negative and neutral non-social information. Together, these results suggest that contextual information influenced both face perception and selective attention, and these context

  7. S-nitrosation of proteins relevant to Alzheimer's disease during early stages of neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Uthpala; Nott, Alexi; Bhat, Vadiraja B; Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Wishnok, John S; Tsai, Li-Huei; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2016-04-12

    Protein S-nitrosation (SNO-protein), the nitric oxide-mediated posttranslational modification of cysteine thiols, is an important regulatory mechanism of protein function in both physiological and pathological pathways. A key first step toward elucidating the mechanism by which S-nitrosation modulates a protein's function is identification of the targeted cysteine residues. Here, we present a strategy for the simultaneous identification of SNO-cysteine sites and their cognate proteins to profile the brain of the CK-p25-inducible mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like neurodegeneration. The approach-SNOTRAP (SNO trapping by triaryl phosphine)-is a direct tagging strategy that uses phosphine-based chemical probes, allowing enrichment of SNO-peptides and their identification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. SNOTRAP identified 313 endogenous SNO-sites in 251 proteins in the mouse brain, of which 135 SNO-proteins were detected only during neurodegeneration. S-nitrosation in the brain shows regional differences and becomes elevated during early stages of neurodegeneration in the CK-p25 mouse. The SNO-proteome during early neurodegeneration identified increased S-nitrosation of proteins important for synapse function, metabolism, and Alzheimer's disease pathology. In the latter case, proteins related to amyloid precursor protein processing and secretion are S-nitrosated, correlating with increased amyloid formation. Sequence analysis of SNO-cysteine sites identified potential linear motifs that are altered under pathological conditions. Collectively, SNOTRAP is a direct tagging tool for global elucidation of the SNO-proteome, providing functional insights of endogenous SNO proteins in the brain and its dysregulation during neurodegeneration.

  8. Species composition and distribution patterns of early life stages of cephalopods at Great Meteor Seamount (subtropical NE Atlantic)

    OpenAIRE

    Diekmann, Rabea; Piatkowski, Uwe

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of early life stages of cephalopods was studied during a cruise of RV Meteor in September 1998 at Great Meteor Seamount, an isolated flat-topped seamount in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic. Zooplankton sampling was conducted with a multi-opening-closing net (modified MOCNESS, 1 m² net opening, 335 µm mesh size) in seven depth strata between 290 m depth and the surface. 1180 early life stages of cephalopods were collected, representing at least 18 families and 31 mainly...

  9. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2001-07-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs.

  10. Dynamics of early stage nano-oxidation by in situ UHV-TEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Judith

    2011-03-01

    Environmental stability is one of the most important properties for materials exposed to air. As dimensions of engineered systems approach nanoscale, fundamental understanding of reactions with oxygen at this length scale is critical for environmental stability as well as for processing oxide nanostructures, where surface reactions are commonly utilized. The nanoscale stages of oxidation from the nucleation of the metal oxide to the formation of the thermodynamically stable oxide represent a scientifically challenging and technologically important terra incognito. The kinetics of early stage oxidation of Cu, Cu-Au and Cu-Ni alloys were visualized using in situ ultra-high vacuum transmission electron microscopy (UHV-TEM), where the initial oxidation stages can be observed in real-time under well-controlled surface conditions. We examined the dynamic responses of thin films to variations in thermodynamic variables such as temperature, oxygen pressure, strain, and crystallographic orientation. The kinetics of the nucleation and growth of three-dimensional oxide islands demonstrate that oxygen surface diffusion is the primary mechanism for oxide growth during initial oxidation in dry oxygen, and thus bears a striking resemblance to heteroepitaxy. Compared with the behavior of Cu films, the oxidation of Cu-Au alloys revealed more complexity. For example, the oxidation of (100)-oriented Cu-Au alloys with low Au content at ~ 600 C results in the formation of Cu2O oxide islands with a dendritic morphology and a non-uniform lateral distribution of Au around the islands. For Cu-Ni oxidation, the addition of Ni causes the formation Cu2O and/or NiO where the oxide type(s) and the relative orientation with the film depend on the Ni concentration, oxygen partial pressure and temperature. Evolution of the shape and size of the oxide islands can be quantitatively analyzed and provide fundamental insights into the complex kinetics and energetics of oxidation. Models based on

  11. Rethinking the Food and Drug Administration's 2013 guidance on developing drugs for early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lon S

    2014-03-01

    The February 2013 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance for developing drugs for early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) creates certain challenges as they guide toward the use of one cognitive outcome to gain accelerated marketing approval for preclinical AD drugs, and a composite clinical scale - the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale in particular - for the primary outcome for prodromal AD clinical trials. In light of the developing knowledge regarding early stage diagnoses and clinical trials outcomes, we recommend that FDA describe its requirements for validating preclinical AD diagnoses for drug development purposes, maintain the principle for requiring coprimary outcomes, and encourage the advancement of outcomes for early stage AD trials. The principles for drug development for early stage AD should not differ from those for clinical AD, especially as the diagnoses of prodromal and early AD impinge on each other. The FDA should not recommend that a composite scale be used as a sole primary efficacy outcome to support a marketing claim unless it requires that the cognitive and functional components of such a scale are demonstrated to be individually meaningful. The current draft guidelines may inadvertently constrain efforts to better assess the clinical effects of new drugs and inhibit innovation in an area where evidence-based clinical research practices are still evolving. PMID:24698029

  12. The decline of venture capital investment in early-stage life sciences poses a challenge to continued innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jonathan J

    2015-02-01

    A key element required for translating new knowledge into effective therapies is early-stage venture capital that finances the work needed to identify a lead molecule or medical device prototype and to develop it to the proof-of-concept stage. This early investment is distinguished by great uncertainty over whether the molecule or prototype is safe and effective, the stability of the regulatory standards to which clinical trials are designed, and the likelihood that large follow-on investments for commercial development can be secured. Regulatory and reimbursement policies have a profound impact on the amount of capital and the types of life science projects that investors pursue. In this article I analyze several recent trends in early-stage venture capital funding, describe how these trends are influenced by regulatory and reimbursement policies, and discuss the role of policy makers in bringing new treatments to market. Policy makers can foster renewed private investment into critically needed early-stage products by increasing Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding and public support for clinical trials in targeted areas of interest; creating regulatory pathways to enable early testing of experimental compounds in limited populations; and offering economic incentives for investors and developers in designated therapeutic areas.

  13. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Pineda

    Full Text Available All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C, low salinities (26 and 22‰ and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L. Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis, fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success

  14. Public–private partnerships improve health outcomes in individuals with early stage Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvin JE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available James E Galvin,1 Magdalena I Tolea,1 Nika George,2 Cheryl Wingbermuehle31Alzheimer Disease Center, Departments of Neurology, Psychiatry and Population Health, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Clinical Psychology Program, University of Missouri – St Louis, 3Alzheimer’s Association, St Louis Chapter, St Louis, MO, USAPurpose: In a collaborative effort between the Missouri Department of Health, Area Agencies on Aging (AAA, Alzheimer Association, and academic researchers, we tested whether early dementia detection and comprehensive care consultations would improve health outcomes in care receivers (CRs and their family caregivers (FCGs, therefore addressing an important public health concern.Participants and methods: A total of 244 community-dwelling older adults screened for early-stage dementia by the AAA field staff were referred to the Alzheimer Association and participated in Project Learn MORE (Missouri Outreach and Referral Expanded (PLM – a 2-year, nonrandomized multisite intervention consisting of comprehensive care consultations to improve coping skills. PLM participants were compared against 96 controls receiving the Alzheimer Association’s “usual services” between January 2011 and December 2012. We examined CR and FCG outcomes, including burden, care confidence, and mood, as effects of PLM, on delaying transitions in level of care.Results: CRs showed improved knowledge (P=0.002 and reduced depression (P=0.007, while FCGs demonstrated improved knowledge (P=0.003 and ability to identify sources of support for the CR (P=0.032 and for themselves (P=0.043. However, FCGs were more burdened after PLM (P=0.02, due to increased awareness of Alzheimer’s disease. PLM delayed transitions in care (odds ratio [OR] 3.32, 95% confidence level [CI]: 1.25–8.83 with the number needed to treat =6.82.Conclusion: PLM was successful in improving detection of incident cases of dementia in the community

  15. Amino and fatty acid dynamics of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Paula, José R; Couto, Ana; Bandarra, Narcisa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The oceans are becoming warmer, and the higher temperatures are expected to have a major impact on marine life at different levels of biological organization, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Thus, we hypothesize that the future warmer scenarios (here +3 °C) will affect the biochemical composition (amino acid - AA, and fatty acid-FA) of octopod (Octopus vulgaris) embryos and recently-hatched pelagic paralarvae. The main essential amino acids found in octopus embryos were arginine, leucine and lysine; while aspartic and glutamic acids, and taurine were the main non-essential amino acids. Palmitic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the main FAs found in octopus tissues. Relevant ontogenetic changes were observed, namely a steep decrease in the content of many AAs, and a selective retention of FAs, thus evidencing the protein-based metabolism of these cephalopods. Temperature per si did not elicit significant changes in the overall FA composition, but was responsible for a significant decrease in the content of several AAs, indicating increased embryonic consumption.

  16. Biochemical response to exposure to six textile dyes in early developmental stages of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngördü, Abbas; Birhanli, Ayse; Ozmen, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the toxic effect of a lethal concentration of six different commercially used textile dyes on the 46th stage of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The tadpoles were exposed to Astrazon Red FBL, Astrazon Blue FGRL, Remazol Red RR, Remazol Turquoise Blue G-A, Cibacron Red FN-3G, and Cibacron Blue FN-R for 168 h in static test conditions, and thus, 168-h median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) of each dye were determined to be 0.35, 0.13, 112, 7, 359, and 15.8 mg/L, respectively. Also, to evaluate the sublethal effects of each dye, tadpoles were exposed to different concentrations of dyes (with respect to 168-h LC(50)s) for 24 h. The alteration of selected enzyme activities was tested. For this aim, glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assayed. After dye exposure, the GST induction or inhibition and LDH induction indicated some possible mechanisms of oxidative stress and deterioration in aerobic respiration processes induced by the tested dyes. Findings of the study suggest that selected biomarker enzymes are useful in understanding the toxic mechanisms of these dyes in X. laevis tadpoles as early warning indicators. Therefore, these selected biomarkers may evaluate the effect of environmental factors, such as textile dye effluents and other industrial pollutants, on amphibians in biomonitoring studies.

  17. Induction of cell-mediated immunity during early stages of infection with intracellular protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzinelli R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi are intracellular parasites which, as part of their life cycle, induce a potent cell-mediated immunity (CMI maintained by Th1 lymphocytes and IFN-g. In both cases, induction of a strong CMI is thought to protect the host against rapid parasite multiplication and consequent pathology and lethality during the acute phase of infection. However, the parasitic infection is not eliminated by the immune system and the vertebrate host serves as a parasite reservoir. In contrast, Leishmania sp, which is a slow growing parasite, appears to evade induction of CMI during early stages of infection as a strategy for surviving in a hostile environment (i.e., inside the macrophages which are their obligatory niche in the vertebrate host. Recent reports show that the initiation of IL-12 synthesis by macrophages during these parasitic infections is a key event in regulating CMI and disease outcome. The studies reviewed here indicate that activation/inhibition of distinct signaling pathways and certain macrophage functions by intracellular protozoa are important events in inducing/modulating the immune response of their vertebrate hosts, allowing parasite and host survival and therefore maintaining parasite life cycles.

  18. Bringing Clouds into Our Lab! - The Influence of Turbulence on the Early Stage Rain Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mehmet Altug; Kunnen, Rudie; Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman

    2015-11-01

    We are investigating a droplet-laden flow in an air-filled turbulence chamber, forced by speaker-driven air jets. The speakers are running in a random manner; yet they allow us to control and define the statistics of the turbulence. We study the motion of droplets with tunable size (Stokes numbers ~ 0.13 - 9) in a turbulent flow, mimicking the early stages of raindrop formation. 3D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) together with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) methods are chosen as the experimental method to track the droplets and collect data for statistical analysis. Thereby it is possible to study the spatial distribution of the droplets in turbulence using the so-called Radial Distribution Function (RDF), a statistical measure to quantify the clustering of particles. Additionally, 3D-PTV technique allows us to measure velocity statistics of the droplets and the influence of the turbulence on droplet trajectories, both individually and collectively. In this contribution, we will present the clustering probability quantified by the RDF for different Stokes numbers. We will explain the physics underlying the influence of turbulence on droplet cluster behavior. This study supported by FOM/NWO Netherlands.

  19. Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula A P; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Melo, Daniela C de; Luz, Ronald K

    2015-03-01

    In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively).

  20. Phase-field simulations of nuclei and early stage solidification microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestler, B; Selzer, M; Danilov, D [Institute of Materials and Processes (IMP), Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestrasse 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-11-18

    To investigate the local properties of heterogeneous nuclei on substrates, a phase-field model is extended to incorporate volume constraints and a third order line tension in the gradient free energy density formulation. The new model is applied to sessile drop simulations of Cu nuclei on Ni substrates to precisely analyse 3D equilibrium shapes and diffusion processes across the phase boundaries. In particular, the formalism with higher order potentials is used to investigate the length-scale dependent effect of the line tension on Young's force balance at triple lines in 3D. The employment of parallel and adaptive simulation techniques is essential for three-dimensional numerical computations. Early stage solidification microstructures of cubic Ni crystals are simulated by scale-bridging molecular dynamics (MD) and phase-field (PF) simulations. The domain of the PF computations is initialized by transferring MD data of the atomic positions and of the shape of the nuclei. The combined approach can be used to study the responses of microstructures upon nucleation.

  1. Weight gain during adjuvant endocrine treatment for early-stage breast cancer: What is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, K A; Williams, G R; Muss, H B; Shachar, S S

    2016-07-01

    Most breast cancer (BC) tumors are early stage and hormone receptor positive, where treatment generally includes adjuvant endocrine treatment (ET). Oncology providers and women about to start ET want to know about side effects, including potential weight gain. The aim of this study was a literature review to identify the independent effect of ET on post-diagnosis weight gain. Weight gain is of concern with regard to potential associations with BC recurrence, mortality, and quality of life in survivorship. We conducted a targeted review of the literature. Thirty-eight studies met our inclusion criteria. Patient-reported weight gain ranged widely from 18 to 52 % of patients in Year 1 and from 7 to 55 % in Year 5. Some studies reported categories of weight change: lost weight (9-17 %), stable weight (47-64 %), and gained weight (27-36 %). Most studies comparing ET with placebo or tamoxifen with AI reported no significant difference between the two groups. Wide-ranging and inconsistent results point to the need for further research to clarify annual weight change (loss, gain, stability) from BC diagnosis through 5 years of ET and beyond. There is also a need to explore weight change by type of ET and to explore risk factors for weight gain in women on ET, including tumor type, sociodemographic characteristics, and health behaviors. More specific information is needed to identify high-risk BC patients who could be targeted for weight management interventions. PMID:27342454

  2. Male Men1 heterozygous mice exhibit fasting hyperglycemia in the early stage of MEN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongxiuzi; Zhang, Li; Xie, Wenting; Wang, Siqi; Bao, Xiaorui; Guo, Yuli; Zhang, Houjian; Hu, Qingzhong; Chen, Yi; Wang, Zeen; Xue, Maoqiang; Jin, Guanghui

    2016-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome characterized by multiple tumors in the parathyroid glands, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary. Recent clinical studies have revealed a strong association between MEN1 syndrome and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, heterozygous Men1 knockout (Men1(+/-)) mice were used as MEN1 models to investigate MEN1-associated glucose metabolic phenotypes and mechanisms. Heterozygous deficiency of Men1 in 12-month-old male mice induced fasting hyperglycemia, along with increased serum insulin levels. However, male Men1(+/-) mice did not show insulin resistance, as evidenced by Akt activation in hepatic tissues and an insulin tolerance test. Increased glucose levels following pyruvate challenge and expression of key gluconeogenic genes suggested increased hepatic glucose output in the male Men1(+/-) mice. This effect could be partly due to higher basal serum glucagon levels, which resulted from pancreatic islet cell proliferation induced by heterozygous loss of Men1 Taken together, our results indicate that fasted male Men1(+/-) mice, in the early stage of development of MEN1, display glucose metabolic disorders. These disorders are caused not by direct induction of insulin resistance, but via increased glucagon secretion and the consequent stimulation of hepatic glucose production. PMID:27432891

  3. Localization and the possible role of plasminogen activators and inhibitors in early stages of placentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of mRNAs of tissue type (t) and urokinase type (u) plasminogen activator (PA) plus their corresponding inhibitors, type-1 (PAI-1) and type-2 (PAI-2) have been studied in the tissues of human first and second trimester placentae by in situ hybridization. The results show that: (ⅰ) All the molecules, tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2, were identified in the blood vessels, the majority of extravillous trophoblastic cells of the decidual layer between Rohr's and Nitabuch's stria and in the trophoblast cells lining the chorionic plate, basal plate, intercotyledonary septae and cytotrophoblast cells of the chorionic villous tree. (ⅱ) No expression of such probes was observed in the basal and chorionic plate, glandular cells of the decidua, the septal tissues or the villous core mesenchyme. The co-distribution of the molecules observed suggests that the co-ordinated expression of the activators and inhibitors in various cells of the placental tissue may play a role in angiogenesis related to conversion of spiral arteries into utero-placental arteries and establishment of a chorio-decidual blood flow during early stages of placentation.

  4. Proteomic analysis of early-stage embryos: implications for egg quality in hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Yair Y; Symonds, Jane E; Kleffmann, Torsten; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Lokman, P Mark

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop biomarkers that may help predict the egg quality of captive hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios) and provide potential avenues for its manipulation, the present study (1) sequenced the proteome of early-stage embryos using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification analysis, and (2) aimed to establish the predictive value of the abundance of identified proteins with regard to egg quality through regression analysis. Egg quality was determined for eight different egg batches by blastomere symmetry scores. In total, 121 proteins were identified and assigned to one of nine major groups according to their function/pathway. A mixed-effects model analysis revealed a decrease in relative protein abundance that correlated with (decreasing) egg quality in one major group (heat-shock proteins). No differences were found in the other protein groups. Linear regression analysis, performed for each identified protein separately, revealed seven proteins that showed a significant decrease in relative abundance with reduced blastomere symmetry: two correlates that have been named in other studies (vitellogenin, heat-shock protein-70) and a further five new candidate proteins (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, elongation factor-2, GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran, iduronate 2-sulfatase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase). Notwithstanding issues associated with multiple statistical testing, we conclude that these proteins, and especially iduronate 2-sulfatase and the generic heat-shock protein group, could serve as biomarkers of egg quality in hapuku.

  5. Comorbidity-Adjusted Survival in Early Stage Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Hypofractionated Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Y. Do

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the influence of comorbidity on survival in early-stage lung cancer patients treated with proton radiotherapy, using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Study Design and Setting. Fifty-four non-small-cell lung cancer patients, treated prospectively in a phase II clinical trial with hypofractionated proton therapy, were analyzed retrospectively to assess their burden of comorbid disease as expressed by Charlson Comorbidity Index. Using the Charlson Comorbidity Index method, a predicted survival curve based on comorbidity was formulated and compared to the observed mortality from causes other than lung cancer in the study population. Results. The study population had an average age score of 2.8 and an average Charlson Comorbidity Index of 4.7. Predicted survival was calculated to be 67% and 50% at 2 and 4 years, respectively. Actual comorbidity-specific survival at 2 and 4 years was 64% and 45%, respectively. The observed survival fell within the 95% confidence intervals of the predicted survival at all time points up to 5 years. Conclusion. Predicted mortality from concurrent disease, based on Charlson Comorbidity Index, correlated well with observed comorbidity-specific mortality. This helps substantiate the accuracy of the data coding in cause of death and strengthens previously reported disease-specific survival rates.

  6. Early-stage psychotherapy produces elevated frontal white matter integrity in adult major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychotherapy has demonstrated comparable efficacy to antidepressant medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Metabolic alterations in the MDD state and in response to treatment have been detected by functional imaging methods, but the underlying white matter microstructural changes remain unknown. The goal of this study is to apply diffusion tensor imaging techniques to investigate psychotherapy-specific responses in the white matter. METHODS: Twenty-one of forty-five outpatients diagnosed with major depression underwent diffusion tensor imaging before and after a four-week course of guided imagery psychotherapy. We compared fractional anisotropy in depressed patients (n = 21 with healthy controls (n = 22, and before-after treatment, using whole brain voxel-wise analysis. RESULTS: Post-treatment, depressed subjects showed a significant reduction in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. As compared to healthy controls, depressed subjects demonstrated significantly increased fractional anisotropy in the right thalamus. Psychopathological changes did not recover post-treatment, but a novel region of increased fractional anisotropy was discovered in the frontal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: At an early stage of psychotherapy, higher fractional anisotropy was detected in the frontal emotional regulation-associated region. This finding reveals that psychotherapy may induce white matter changes in the frontal lobe. This remodeling of frontal connections within mood regulation networks positively contributes to the "top-down" mechanism of psychotherapy.

  7. Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer:Examining the Influence of Personality Traits and Interpersonal Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eSaita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of seventy-two Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire, interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit. Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed.

  8. Cross-modal re-organization in adults with early stage hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2') following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation.

  9. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000μgl-1. Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300μgl-1 diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates, were able to undergo metamorphosis after 24h exposure to diuron at 1000μgl-1. Two-week old P. damicornis recruits on the other hand were as susceptible to diuron as adult colonies, with expulsion of symbiotic dinoflagellates (bleaching) evident at 10μgl-1 diuron after 96h exposure. Reversible metamorphosis was observed at high diuron concentrations, with fully bleached polyps escaping from their skeletons. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques demonstrated a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency (ΔF/Fm') in illuminated P. damicornis recruits after a 2h exposure to 1μgl-1 diuron. The dark-adapted quantum yields (Fv/Fm) also declined, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to photosystem II

  10. Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy for treatment of early stage laryngeal malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gayl Schweitzer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of PHOTOFRINmediated photodynamic therapy (PDT for the treatment of Tis-T1N0M0 squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCa of the larynx in patients not amenable to or who failed conventional head and neck treatment. This is a retrospective study of 26 patients with early stage Tis-T1 SqCCa of the larynx treated with PHOTOFRIN-mediated PDT. Intravenous PHOTOFRIN (porfimer-sodium (dose 2.0 mg/kg was administered outpatient, followed by intraoperative photoactivation at 630 nm via fiberoptic microlens surface delivery (surgical light dose 50–100 J/cm2 48–60 h later. As much as 16 out of 26 patients (62% have demonstrated complete remission (average follow-up 40 months. There were 10 patients who were noted to have partial remission with recurrence observed 2–33 months subsequently retreated with either repeated PDT therapy or conventional therapy. PHOTOFRIN-mediated photodynamic therapy can be used as a primary modality to treat Tis-T1N0M0 tumors of the larynx or for treatment for those who have failed prior surgery and/or radiation therapy. PDT allows for preservation of function and structure to maintain or improve voice with absence of systemic toxicity. Patients may have multiple drug administrations and laser light retreatment for local disease control.

  11. Do Diacritical Marks Play a Role at the Early Stages of Word Recognition in Arabic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Abu Mallouh, Reem; Mohammed, Ahmed; Khalifa, Batoul; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question in the domain of visual word recognition is whether letter similarity plays a role in the early stages of visual word processing. Here we focused on Arabic because in this language there are various groups of letters that share the same basic shape and only differ in the number/location of diacritical points. We conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment in which a target word was preceded by: (i) an identity prime; (ii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with the same shape that differed in the number of diacritics (e.g., ); or (iii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with different shape (e.g., ). Results showed a sizable advantage of the identity condition over the two substituted-letter priming conditions (i.e., diacritical information is rapidly processed). Thus, diacritical marks play an essential role in the "feature letter" level of models of visual word recognition in Arabic. PMID:27597838

  12. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahon, Sarah [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Castro Porras, Viviana A. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Pruski, Audrey M. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Charles, Francois [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France)], E-mail: charles@obs-banyuls.fr

    2009-03-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m{sup -2}, fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m{sup -2} and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m{sup -2} UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment.

  13. Early stages of interface reactions between AlN and Ti thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Pinkas, M; Froumin, N; Pelleg, J; Dariel, M P

    2002-01-01

    The early stages of interface reactions between AlN and Ti thin films were investigated using x-ray diffractions, Auger electron spectroscopy, cross section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), and high resolution XTEM. The AlN/Ti bilayers were deposited on a molybdenum substrate using reactive and nonreactive magnetron sputtering techniques. After deposition, the bilayers were heat treated for 1-10 h at 600 deg. C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Decomposition of the AlN layer took place at the AlN/Ti interface and its products, Al and N, reacted with Ti to produce a AlN/Al sub 3 Ti/Ti sub 2 N/Ti sub 3 Al/alpha-(Ti, Al)ss phase sequence. This phase sequence is not consistent with the Ti-Al-N phase diagram and is believed to be the outcome of the particular conditions that prevail in the thin film and correspond to a particular set of kinetic parameters. A model that explains the development of the phase sequence and predicts its evolution after prolonged heat treatments is put forward. The applicability of such...

  14. Early stage breast cancer detection by means of time-domain ultra-wide band sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) impulses for medical imaging, particularly early stage breast cancer detection, is driven by safety advantage, super resolution capability, significant dielectric contrast between tumours and their surrounding tissues, patient convenience and low operating costs. However, inversion algorithms leading to recovery of the dielectric profile are complex in their nature, and vulnerable to noisy experimental conditions and environment. In this paper, we present a simplified yet robust gradient-based iterative image reconstruction technique to solve the nonlinear inverse scattering problem. The calculation is based on the Polak–Ribière's approach while the Broyden's formula is used to update the gradient in an iterative scheme. To validate this approach, both numerical and experimental results are presented. Animal derived biological targets in the form of chicken skin, beef and salted butter are used to construct an experimental breast phantom, while vegetable oil is used as a background media. UWB transceivers in the form of biconical antennas contour the breast forming a full view scanning geometry at a frequency range of 0–5 GHz. Results indicate the feasibility of experimental detection of millimetre scaled targets

  15. Defense Response Characteristics of Suburban Pine Stands of Krasnoyarsk City at Early Stage of Anthropogenous Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Polyakova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2002–2013, on permanent sample plots (PPs, the condition of suburban middle-aged pine stands of Krasnoyarsk was investigated. Annual assessments of parameters of defense response of stem phloem of the sample trees on the action of extractives from mycelium Ceratocystis laricicola (Redfern & Minter were carried out. The size of a phloem necrosis and its shift along a stem relative to inoculation hole were measured. The pine stands (polluted and conditionally background are convenient for determining condition changes at early stages of damage. These stands are affected by different anthropogenic factors, but don't differ in vigor state as visually estimated on a 6-point scale of Forest Regulation of Russian Federation. PPs have similar forest inventory characteristics, except for PPs on an edge of polluted pine forest where the site class is reduced. Significant shift of necrosis in phloem up on a stem within two years following a year when there was a spring creeping fire is registered. It proves the reversal of normal basipetal transport of assimilates toward crown and feasibility of using necrosis asymmetry for assessment of fire influence on physiological condition of pine stands. The increase of necroses size (decrease of resistance after a fire was noted during later period in comparison with reversal of transport of assimilates in the stem. Influence of a chemical burn of needles on acropetal shift of necrosis was expressed to a lesser extent in comparison with a fire.

  16. Inactivation of Tor proteins affects the dynamics of endocytic proteins in early stage of endocytosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brandon Tenay; Evin Kimberlin; Michelle Williams; Juliette Denise; Joshua Fakilahyel; Kyoungtae Kim

    2013-06-01

    Tor2 is an activator of the Rom2/Rho1 pathway that regulates -factor internalization. Since the recruitment of endocytic proteins such as actin-binding proteins and the amphiphysins precedes the internalization of -factor, we hypothesized that loss of Tor function leads to an alteration in the dynamics of the endocytic proteins. We report here that endocytic proteins, Abp1 and Rvs167, are less recruited to endocytic sites not only in tor2 but also tor1 mutants. Furthermore, we found that the endocytic proteins Rvs167 and Sjl2 are completely mistargeted to the cytoplasm in tor1tor2ts double mutant cells. We also demonstrate here that the efficiency of endocytic internalization or scission in all tor mutants was drastically decreased. In agreement with the Sjl2 mislocalization, we found that in tor1tor2ts double mutant cells, as well as other tor mutant cells, the overall PIP2 level was dramatically increased. Finally, the cell wall chitin content in tor2ts and tor1tor2ts mutant cells was also significantly increased. Taken together, both functional Tor proteins, Tor1 and Tor2, are essentially required for proper endocytic protein dynamics at the early stage of endocytosis.

  17. EARLY-STAGE MASSIVE STAR FORMATION NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: Sgr C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrew, S.; Johnston, K.; Beuther, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ginsburg, A.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C. [CASA, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cyganowski, C. J., E-mail: kendrew@mpia.de [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and 1 mm line and continuum observations of a recently identified site of high mass star formation likely to be located in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) near Sgr C. Located on the outskirts of the massive evolved H II region associated with Sgr C, the area is characterized by an Extended Green Object (EGO) measuring ∼10'' in size (0.4 pc), whose observational characteristics suggest the presence of an embedded massive protostar driving an outflow. Our data confirm that early-stage star formation is taking place on the periphery of the Sgr C H II region, with detections of two protostellar cores and several knots of H{sub 2} and Brackett γ emission alongside a previously detected compact radio source. We calculate the cores' joint mass to be ∼10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}, with column densities of 1-2 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. We show the host molecular cloud to hold ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} of gas and dust with temperatures and column densities favorable for massive star formation to occur, however, there is no evidence of star formation outside of the EGO, indicating that the cloud is predominantly quiescent. Given its mass, density, and temperature, the cloud is comparable to other remarkable non-star-forming clouds such as G0.253 in the eastern CMZ.

  18. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  19. Reward, motivation, and emotion systems associated with early-stage intense romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen; Mashek, Debra J; Strong, Greg; Li, Haifang; Brown, Lucy L

    2005-07-01

    Early-stage romantic love can induce euphoria, is a cross-cultural phenomenon, and is possibly a developed form of a mammalian drive to pursue preferred mates. It has an important influence on social behaviors that have reproductive and genetic consequences. To determine which reward and motivation systems may be involved, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and studied 10 women and 7 men who were intensely "in love" from 1 to 17 mo. Participants alternately viewed a photograph of their beloved and a photograph of a familiar individual, interspersed with a distraction-attention task. Group activation specific to the beloved under the two control conditions occurred in dopamine-rich areas associated with mammalian reward and motivation, namely the right ventral tegmental area and the right postero-dorsal body and medial caudate nucleus. Activation in the left ventral tegmental area was correlated with facial attractiveness scores. Activation in the right anteromedial caudate was correlated with questionnaire scores that quantified intensity of romantic passion. In the left insula-putamen-globus pallidus, activation correlated with trait affect intensity. The results suggest that romantic love uses subcortical reward and motivation systems to focus on a specific individual, that limbic cortical regions process individual emotion factors, and that there is localization heterogeneity for reward functions in the human brain. PMID:15928068

  20. Statistical Model of the Early Stage of nucleus-nucleus collisions with exact strangeness conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Poberezhnyuk, R V; Gorenstein, M I

    2015-01-01

    The Statistical Model of the Early Stage, SMES, describes a transition between confined and deconfined phases of strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The model was formulated in the late 1990s for central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS energies. It predicted several signals of the transition (onset of deconfinement) which were later observed by the NA49 experiment. The grand canonical ensemble was used to calculate entropy and strangeness production. This approximation is valid for reactions with mean multiplicities of particles carrying conserved charges being significantly larger than one. Recent results of NA61/SHINE on hadron production in inelastic p+p interactions suggest that the deconfinement may also take place in these reactions. However, in this case mean multiplicity of particles with non-zero strange charge is smaller than one. Thus for the modeling of p+p interactions the exact strangeness conservation has to be implemented in the SMES. This extension of the SMES ...

  1. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in early stages of forest litter decomposition as affected by nitrogen addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiao-wen; LIU Ying; HAN Shi-jie

    2009-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) availability and tree species on the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen at early stage of decomposition of forest litter were studied in a 13-week laboratory incubation experiment. Fresh litter samples including needle litter (Pinus koraiensis) and two types of broadleaf litters (Quercus mongolica and Tilia amurensis) were collected from a broadleaf-korean pine mixed forest in the northern slope of Changbai Mountain (China). Different doses of N (equal to 0, 30 and 50 kg·ha-1yr-1, respectively, as NH4NO3) were added to litter during the experiment period. The litter decomposition rate expressed as mass loss and respiration rate increased significantly with increasing N availability. The mass loss and cumulative CO2-C emission were higher in leaf litter compared to that in needle litter. The dissolved organic Carbon (DOC) concentrations in litter leachate varied widely between the species, but were not greatly affected by N treatments. Regardless of the N addition rate, both N treatments and species had no significant effect on dissolved organic N (DON) concentrations in litter leachate. About 52·78% of added N was retained in the litter. The percentage of N retention was positively correlated (R2=0.91, p<0.05) with the litter mass loss. This suggested that a forest floor with easily decomposed litter might have higher potential N sink strength than that with more slowly decomposed litter.

  2. Change in bone mineral density during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carina Ørts; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Frøslev, Trine;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy has been associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) either as a direct effect or due to glucocorticoids used as supportive care medication. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate changes in BMD from baseline to right after completion of chemoth......PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy has been associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) either as a direct effect or due to glucocorticoids used as supportive care medication. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate changes in BMD from baseline to right after completion...... of chemotherapy, i.e., 4 months. METHODS: Dual-imaging X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline and after completing anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy to measure BMD in the spine, hip, and forearm in early-stage breast cancer patients. High-dose prednisolone was used at three weekly...... were excluded: seven because of initiation of bisphosphonate treatment due to osteoporosis at baseline, and one had non-interpretable DXA. The final cohort included 97 patients with a mean age of 53 years (range 34-72). Mean cumulative prednisolone dose was 1308 mg (95 % CI 1255; 1362). BMD increased 1...

  3. Early stage massive star formation near the Galactic Center: Sgr C

    CERN Document Server

    Kendrew, Sarah; Johnston, Katharine; Beuther, Henrik; Bally, John; Cyagnowski, Claudia J; Battersby, Cara

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and 1 mm line and continuum observations of a recently identified site of high mass star formation likely to be located in the Central Molecular Zone near Sgr C. Located on the outskirts of the massive evolved HII region associated with Sgr C, the area is characterized by an Extended Green Object measuring ~10" in size (0.4 pc), whose observational characteristics suggest the presence of an embedded massive protostar driving an outflow. Our data confirm that early-stage star formation is taking place on the periphery of the Sgr C HII region, with detections of two protostellar cores and several knots of H2 and Brackett gamma emission alongside a previously detected compact radio source. We calculate the cores' joint mass to be ~10^3 Msun, with column densities of 1-2 x 10^24 cm-2. We show the host molecular cloud to hold ~10^5 Msun of gas and dust with temperatures and column densities favourable for massive star formation to occur, however, there is no evidence of star f...

  4. Citrullination as early-stage indicator of cell response to single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Bashir Mustafa; Movia, Dania; Knyazev, Anton; Langevin, Dominique; Davies, Anthony Mitchell; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Volkov, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been widely explored as potential technologies for information systems and medical applications. The impact of SWCNTs on human health is of prime concern, if SWCNTs have a future in the manufacturing industry. This study proposes a novel, inflammation-independent paradigm of toxicity for SWCNTs, identifying the protein citrullination process as early-stage indicator of inflammatory responses of macrophages (THP-1) and of subtle phenotypic damages of lung epithelial (A549) cells following exposure to chemically-treated SWCNTs. Our results showed that, while most of the cellular responses of A549 cells exposed to SWCNTs are different to those of similarly treated THP-1 cells, the protein citrullination process is triggered in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both cell lines, with thresholds comparable between inflammatory (THP-1) and non-inflammatory (A549) cell types. The cellular mechanism proposed herein could have a high impact in predicting the current risk associated with environmental exposure to SWCNTs. PMID:23350031

  5. Discovery of gramine derivatives that inhibit the early stage of EV71 replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanhong; Shi, Liqiao; Wang, Kaimei; Liu, Manli; Yang, Qingyu; Yang, Ziwen; Ke, Shaoyong

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a notable causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, which is associated with an increased incidence of severe neurological disease and death, yet there is no specific treatment or vaccine for EV71 infections. In this study, the antiviral activity of gramine and 21 gramine derivatives against EV71 was investigated in cell-based assays. Eighteen derivatives displayed some degree of inhibitory effects against EV71, in that they could effectively inhibit virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs), but the anti-EV71 activity of the lead compound gramine was not observed. Studies on the preliminary modes of action showed that these compounds functioned by targeting the early stage of the EV71 lifecycle after viral entry, rather than inactivating the virus directly, inhibiting virus adsorption or affecting viral release from the cells. Among these derivatives, one (compound 4s) containing pyridine and benzothiazole units showed the most potency against EV71. Further studies demonstrated that derivative 4s could profoundly inhibit viral RNA replication, protein synthesis, and virus-induced apoptosis in RD cells. These results indicate that derivative 4s might be a feasible therapeutic agent against EV71 infection and that these gramine derivatives may provide promising lead scaffolds for the further design and synthesis of potential antiviral agents.

  6. Radiation therapy for early stage low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of nodal presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for early stage low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ESLGNHL) of nodal presentation. However, the optimal radiation field is still controversial. We used various radiation fields for this low grade malignancy, and evaluated the results. Between 1983 and 1993, 14 patients with ESLGNHL were treated with radiation therapy. Five of them received involved field (IF) radiation, 4 regional irradiation (RF), and 5 total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). With a median follow up period of 10 years, 8 of the 14 patients were alive and disease free. Relapse occured in 2 of 5 patients treated with IF, 2 of 4 with RF, and 2 of 5 with TLI. Two patients relapsed following IF had marginal failure, and were salvaged by additional radiation therapy. One patient relapsed following RF had transdiaphragmatic nodal failure, one patient followed TLI relapsed in a non-irradiated area caused by field-matching error. Only one patient with histological transformation into aggressive lymphoma died of disease, and the remaining 5 relapsed patients were alive with or without ESLGNHL. Larger field radiation therapy may reduce nodal and/or marginal failure in patients with ESLGNHL. However without histologic transformation, relapse of ESLGNHL could be salvaged by additional treatment. (author)

  7. Cross-modal re-organization in adults with early stage hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Campbell

    Full Text Available Cortical cross-modal re-organization, or recruitment of auditory cortical areas for visual processing, has been well-documented in deafness. However, the degree of sensory deprivation necessary to induce such cortical plasticity remains unclear. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP using high-density electroencephalography in nine persons with adult-onset mild-moderate hearing loss and eight normal hearing control subjects. Behavioral auditory performance was quantified using a clinical measure of speech perception-in-noise. Relative to normal hearing controls, adults with hearing loss showed significantly larger P1, N1, and P2 VEP amplitudes, decreased N1 latency, and a novel positive component (P2' following the P2 VEP. Current source density reconstruction of VEPs revealed a shift toward ventral stream processing including activation of auditory temporal cortex in hearing-impaired adults. The hearing loss group showed worse than normal speech perception performance in noise, which was strongly correlated with a decrease in the N1 VEP latency. Overall, our findings provide the first evidence that visual cross-modal re-organization not only begins in the early stages of hearing impairment, but may also be an important factor in determining behavioral outcomes for listeners with hearing loss, a finding which demands further investigation.

  8. Cytokines, Fatigue, and Cutaneous Erythema in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliana De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the hypothesis that patients developing high-grade erythema of the breast skin during radiation treatment could be more likely to present increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines which may lead, in turn, to associated fatigue. Forty women with early stage breast cancer who received adjuvant radiotherapy were enrolled from 2007 to 2010. Fatigue symptoms, erythema, and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-2, IL6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were registered at baseline, during treatment, and after radiotherapy completion. Seven (17.5% patients presented fatigue without associated depression/anxiety. Grade ≥2 erythema was observed in 5 of these 7 patients. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α were statistically increased 4 weeks after radiotherapy (P<0.05. After the Heckman two-step analysis, a statistically significant influence of skin erythema on proinflammatory markers increase (P = 0.00001 was recorded; in the second step, these blood markers showed a significant impact on fatigue (P = 0.026. A seeming increase of fatigue, erythema, and proinflammatory markers was observed between the fourth and the fifth week of treatment followed by a decrease after RT. There were no significant effects of hormone therapy, breast volume, and anemia on fatigue. Our study seems to suggest that fatigue is related to high-grade breast skin erythema during radiotherapy through the increase of cytokines levels.

  9. Susceptibility of L-FABP-/- mice to oxidative stress in early-stage alcoholic liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, Rebecca L; Galligan, James J; Shearn, Colin T; Fritz, Kristofer S; Mercer, Kelly; Ronis, Martin; Orlicky, David J; Davidson, Nicholas O; Petersen, Dennis R

    2013-05-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a prominent cause of liver disease worldwide. Dysregulation of an important lipid uptake and trafficking gene, liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), may contribute to alterations in lipid homeostasis during early-stage alcoholic liver. We have reported the detrimental effects of ethanol on the expression of L-FABP and hypothesize this may deleteriously impact metabolic networks regulating fatty acids. Male wild-type (WT) and L-FABP(-/-) mice were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for six weeks. To assess the response to chronic ethanol ingestion, standard biochemical indicators for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and oxidative stress were measured. Ethanol ingestion resulted in attenuation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation and elevation of cholesterol in L-FABP(-/-) mice. Lipidomics analysis validated multiple alterations in hepatic lipids resulting from ethanol treatment. Increased immunohistochemical staining for the reactive aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde were observed in WT mice ingesting ethanol; however, L-FABP(-/-) mice displayed prominent protein adducts in liver sections evaluated from pair-fed and ethanol-fed mice. Likewise, alterations in glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 8-isoprostanes, and protein carbonyl content all indicated L-FABP(-/-) mice exhibit high sustained oxidative stress in the liver. These data establish that L-FABP is an indirect antioxidant protein essential for sequestering FFA and that its impairment could contribute to in the pathogenesis of ALD.

  10. Satellite radar interferometry for monitoring and early-stage warning of structural instability in archaeological sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) monitoring campaigns were performed on the archaeological heritage of the Roman Forum, Palatino and Oppio Hills in the centre of Rome, Italy, to test the capabilities of persistent scatterer interferometry techniques for the preventive diagnosis of deformation threatening the structural stability of archaeological monuments and buried structures. ERS-1/2 and RADARSAT-1/2 SAR images were processed with the permanent scatterers InSAR (PSInSAR) and SqueeSAR approaches, and the identified measurement points (MP) were radar-interpreted to map the conservation criticalities in relation to the local geohazard factors and active deterioration processes. The multi-temporal reconstruction of past/recent instability events based on the MP deformation time series provided evidences of stabilization for the Domus Tiberiana as a consequence of recent restoration works, as well as of persistent deformation for the Temple of Magna Mater on the Palatino Hill and the structures of the Baths of Trajan on the Oppio Hill. Detailed time series analysis was also exploited to back monitor and understand the nature of the 2010 collapse that occurred close to Nero's Golden House, and to establish an early-stage warning procedure useful to preventively detect potential instability. (paper)

  11. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)]. E-mail: a.negri@aims.gov.au; Vollhardt, Claudia [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Humphrey, Craig [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Heyward, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Jones, Ross [Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Queensland Health Scientific Services, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains 4108 (Australia); Eaglesham, Geoff [Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc, Ferry Reach, St George' s GE 01 (Bermuda); Fabricius, Katharina [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates, were able to undergo metamorphosis after 24h exposure to diuron at 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Two-week old P. damicornis recruits on the other hand were as susceptible to diuron as adult colonies, with expulsion of symbiotic dinoflagellates (bleaching) evident at 10{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron after 96h exposure. Reversible metamorphosis was observed at high diuron concentrations, with fully bleached polyps escaping from their skeletons. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques demonstrated a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency ({delta}F/F{sub m}{sup '}) in illuminated P. damicornis recruits after a 2h exposure to 1{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. The dark-adapted quantum yields (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) also declined, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to photosystem II.

  12. Role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation-induced pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the role of MMP-12 on tissue remodeling at early stage of radiation- induced pulmonary injury. Methods: Wistar rats irradiated by 60Co γ-rays to the whole lungs were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 weeks. MMP-12 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12 activities were determined by zymography. The degradation and collapse of elastin were determined by tissue elastin particular staining; the 'cross talking' phenomenon between alveolar type II cells and mesenchymal cells was observed under electron microscope; the expression of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in BALF was detected by ELISA. The expression of α-SMA was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: The mRNA expression of MMP-12 displayed a significant elevation at 1, 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. MMP-12 activity increased at 2, 4 weeks after irradiation. Elastin began to degrade and collapse at 1 week, which became worst 4 weeks after irradiation. The cross talking phenomenon was found under electron microscope. The expression of TGF-β1, TNF-α and α-SMA was increased gradually as time elapse after irradiation. Conclusions: 60Co γ-ray irradiation can promote pulmonary MMP-12 expression, initiate pulmonary tissue remodeling by degradation of elastin, and make the pulmonary injury develop towards pulmonary fibrosis eventually. (authors)

  13. Norvaline and norleucine may have been more abundant protein components during early stages of cell evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Carreño, Claudia; Becerra, Arturo; Lazcano, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    The absence of the hydrophobic norvaline and norleucine in the inventory of protein amino acids is readdressed. The well-documented intracellular accumulation of these two amino acids results from the low-substrate specificity of the branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic enzymes that act over a number of related α-ketoacids. The lack of absolute substrate specificity of leucyl-tRNA synthase leads to a mischarged norvalyl-tRNA(Leu) that evades the translational proofreading activities and produces norvaline-containing proteins, (cf. Apostol et al. J Biol Chem 272:28980-28988, 1997). A similar situation explains the presence of minute but detectable amounts of norleucine in place of methionine. Since with few exceptions both leucine and methionine are rarely found in the catalytic sites of most enzymes, their substitution by norvaline and norleucine, respectively, would have not been strongly hindered in small structurally simple catalytic polypeptides during the early stages of biological evolution. The report that down-shifts of free oxygen lead to high levels of intracellular accumulation of pyruvate and the subsequent biosynthesis of norvaline (Soini et al. Microb Cell Factories 7:30, 2008) demonstrates the biochemical and metabolic consequences of the development of a highly oxidizing environment. The results discussed here also suggest that a broader definition of biomarkers in the search for extraterrestrial life may be required. PMID:24013929

  14. Development of Diagnostic Biomarkers for Detecting Diabetic Retinopathy at Early Stages Using Quantitative Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghwa Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a common microvascular complication caused by diabetes mellitus (DM and is a leading cause of vision impairment and loss among adults. Here, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis to discover biomarkers for DR. First, to identify biomarker candidates that are specifically expressed in human vitreous, we performed data-mining on both previously published DR-related studies and our experimental data; 96 proteins were then selected. To confirm and validate the selected biomarker candidates, candidates were selected, confirmed, and validated using plasma from diabetic patients without DR (No DR and diabetics with mild or moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (Mi or Mo NPDR using semiquantitative multiple reaction monitoring (SQ-MRM and stable-isotope dilution multiple reaction monitoring (SID-MRM. Additionally, we performed a multiplex assay using 15 biomarker candidates identified in the SID-MRM analysis, which resulted in merged AUC values of 0.99 (No DR versus Mo NPDR and 0.93 (No DR versus Mi and Mo NPDR. Although further validation with a larger sample size is needed, the 4-protein marker panel (APO4, C7, CLU, and ITIH2 could represent a useful multibiomarker model for detecting the early stages of DR.

  15. Re-examining the effects of verbal instructional type on early stage motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrownicki, Ray; MacPherson, Alan C; Coleman, Simon G S; Collins, Dave; Sproule, John

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated the differential effects of analogy and explicit instructions on early stage motor learning and movement in a modified high jump task. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: analogy, explicit light (reduced informational load), or traditional explicit (large informational load). During the two-day learning phase, participants learned a novel high jump technique based on the 'scissors' style using the instructions for their respective conditions. For the single-day testing phase, participants completed both a retention test and task-relevant pressure test, the latter of which featured a rising high-jump-bar pressure manipulation. Although analogy learners demonstrated slightly more efficient technique and reported fewer technical rules on average, the differences between the conditions were not statistically significant. There were, however, significant differences in joint variability with respect to instructional type, as variability was lowest for the analogy condition during both the learning and testing phases, and as a function of block, as joint variability decreased for all conditions during the learning phase. Findings suggest that reducing the informational volume of explicit instructions may mitigate the deleterious effects on performance previously associated with explicit learning in the literature.

  16. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  17. Early stage breast cancer detection by means of time-domain ultra-wide band sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoon, T. F.; Abdullah, M. Z.

    2011-11-01

    The interest in the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) impulses for medical imaging, particularly early stage breast cancer detection, is driven by safety advantage, super resolution capability, significant dielectric contrast between tumours and their surrounding tissues, patient convenience and low operating costs. However, inversion algorithms leading to recovery of the dielectric profile are complex in their nature, and vulnerable to noisy experimental conditions and environment. In this paper, we present a simplified yet robust gradient-based iterative image reconstruction technique to solve the nonlinear inverse scattering problem. The calculation is based on the Polak-Ribière's approach while the Broyden's formula is used to update the gradient in an iterative scheme. To validate this approach, both numerical and experimental results are presented. Animal derived biological targets in the form of chicken skin, beef and salted butter are used to construct an experimental breast phantom, while vegetable oil is used as a background media. UWB transceivers in the form of biconical antennas contour the breast forming a full view scanning geometry at a frequency range of 0-5 GHz. Results indicate the feasibility of experimental detection of millimetre scaled targets.

  18. [Symbiogenesis as a Model for Reconstructing the Early Stages of Genome Evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provorov, N A; Tikhonovich, I A; Vorobyov, N I

    2016-02-01

    Symbiogenic evolution, which involves transformations of bacteria into the cellular organelles, is represented as a model for reconstructing the early stages of genome evolution, including the origin of DNA genomes from RNA genomes and the emergence of template processes on the basis of self-replicating molecular complexes in the ancestral metabolic systems. The antiquity of RNA genomes is supported by an increased evolutionary stability of ribosomal protein synthesis (translation) with respect to the DNA-dependent template processes (replication, transcription, recombination, and reparation). This stability is demonstrated by analysis of the deeply reduced genomes of symbiotic bacteria and cellular organelles as well as the "minimal" genomes which are common to phylogenetically diverse organisms. Higher evolutionary conservation of template biosynthetic processes with respect to step processes determining the metabolism and development in cells does not support the hypothesis about emergence ofgenomes within the ancestral cellular metabolic systems which are thought to be of abiogenic origin, instead suggesting dualistic origin of life on Earth. We suppose that the genome-free organelles of some eukaryotes (mitosomes, many hydrogenosomes, and some plastids) represent the products of reversion of symbiotic bacteria into ancestral forms which implemented their basic cellular functions using the informational macromolecules of exogenic origin. In the framework of this hypothesis the eukaryotic cells functioning based on the massive transfer of gene products (RNAs, proteins) from cytosol to organelles may represent the analogs of ancestral biocenoses that possessed integral hereditary systems (metagenomes). PMID:27215028

  19. Influence of the surface morphology on the early stages of Cu oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Langli; Kang, Yihong; Yang, Judith C.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2012-10-01

    The growth and morphological features of Cu films deposited on NaCl(1 0 0) by e-beam evaporation have been examined to evaluate the effect of various surface morphologies on the initial oxidation of Cu. It is shown that epitaxial Cu films with significantly reduced surface roughness can be achieved by first nucleating Cu seeds at 450 °C that favors epitaxial Cu grains which is followed by subsequent seed growth at 150 °C that favors smooth Cu film. The effect of the variations of the surface morphology of the resulting Cu films by the different growth conditions on the early stages oxidation of Cu films is examined by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is shown that the changes in the surface morphologies of the Cu film result in distinct variations in the nucleation density and growth rates of oxide islands. Such correlation between the surface morphology and the initial oxidation behavior of the Cu films provides insights into understanding the microscopic processes of the transient oxidation of metals and for manipulating the initial oxide formation through surface treatments.

  20. Early stages of insulin fibrillogenesis examined with ion mobility mass spectrometry and molecular modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Harriet; Porrini, Massimiliano; Morris, Ryan; Smith, Tom; Kalapothakis, Jason; Weidt, Stefan; Mackay, C Logan; MacPhee, Cait E; Barran, Perdita E

    2015-10-21

    A prevalent type of protein misfolding causes the formation of β-sheet-rich structures known as amyloid fibrils. Research into the mechanisms of fibril formation has implications for both disease prevention and nanoscale templating technologies. This investigation into the aggregation of insulin utilises ion mobility mass spectrometry coupled with molecular modelling to identify and characterise oligomers formed during the 'lag' phase that precedes fibril growth. High resolution mass spectrometry and collision induced dissociation is used to unequivocally assign species as m/z coincident multimers or confomers, providing a robust analytical approach that supports the use of molecular dynamics to atomistically resolve the observed oligomers. We show that insulin oligomerises to form species In where 2 ≤ n ≤ 12 and within this set of oligomers we delineate over 60 distinct conformations, the most dominant of which are compact species. Modelling trained with experimental data suggests that the dominant compact dimers are enriched in β-sheet secondary structure and dominated by hydrophobic interactions, and provides a linear relationship between Rg and collision cross section. This approach provides detailed insight to the early stages of assembly of this much studied amyloidogenic protein, and can be used to inform models of nucleation and growth.