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Sample records for albania

  1. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  2. Pension System in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Demi (Mosho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the pension system in Albania, the strengths and the weaknesses points provided by the last changes of the law. Research is used to collect data from the institute of social insurance in Albania, expectations for and assumption about the social insurance in Albania. The results of the research provide an overview of what types of reform should receive priority for the future elderly in Albania. Despite the youthfulness, Albania still faces pension problems arising from a number of historical events. In the communism time, all individuals of the working age, male and female, were required to work if able and most of elderly have the rights in the pension systems and received from the public pensions. Transition to the market economy has resulted in closing down state-owned enterprises, which workers have been compensated of early pensions. The program of the social insurance in Albania is partly inherited from the past. As a result of this, in Albania there is left a large number of beneficiaries in their pension systems and few contributors to finance those beneficiaries. By paying social security contributions and health insurance all citizens are sure to benefit during the third age. Keyword: Social insurance, unemployment, employment, self-employed, pension system, contribution, health insurance.

  3. Animal Health in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal health service policy in Albania represents an integral component of overall governmental, social and economic policy in the field of agricultural and rural development, public health, food processing and import/export of animal products. In order to obtain the necessary political, economic and public support, the animal health service attempts to contribute effectively to the overall development of the country which aims at improving the standards of living of its inhabitants. Practical means of contributing to national development include reducing food loses due to animal morbidity and mortality, increasing the productivity of the livestock population, protecting human health against zoonotic diseases and ensuring humane treatment of animals. An animal health strategy contributes to the creation of conditions necessary for uninterrupted animal disease surveillance and control in the country. The main animal health problem in Albania is brucellosis in ruminants, caused by B. melitensis. This infection currently affects the entire country, reaching a prevalence of 10% in several districts. The latest and most severe outbreaks of classical swine fever were identified on 1996 when 5 515 animals were infected and 3 683 animals died. The circulation of bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected for the first time in Albania in 2002 with a seroprevalence of 15%. The evidence of BTV circulation in Albania and the absence of the main vector C. imicola suggest that other Culicoides species could be implicated in virus transmission. H5N1 avian influenza in Albania was confirmed in March 2006 in backyard flocks in the villages of Cuke and Peze-Helmes. In both villages there were no human cases. Rabies was of concern in Albania from 1928 until 1976. The disease re-emerged in March 2001 in the village of Morine in Kukes district affecting a domestic dog and three persons were bitten. Other cases have been reported in northern Albania. (author)

  4. Public expenditure planning in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdani, Irena Dh.

    2002-01-01

    This paper looks at public expenditure planning in Albania, presenting and analysing the first two post-communist era Medium-Term Expenditure Plans (METPs) that have been introduced by the Albanian government for the periods 2000-2001 and 2002-2004, respectively. Albania's medium-term macroeconomic perspectives and elements of fiscal decentralisation, as incorporated by the Local Government Law of Albania, are presented, too. It is found that, taking into account the first years of post-commu...

  5. Prison Health in Transitional Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Jaka, Drita; Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The information about prisoners’ health in transitional countries including Albania is limited. The aim of our study was to assess the health status and its correlates among adult prisoners in Albania, a post-communist country in Southeast Europe. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013 including 401 prisoners in Albania [290 (72%) males and 111 (28%) females]. All participants were administered an anonymous and structured questionnaire including information on self-p...

  6. Distribution of mammals in Albania

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    Claudio Prigioni

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some 63 species have been recorded in Albania from 1950 to 1994, with the exclusion of Cetacea. Another 15 species, including 5 found on the eastern border between Albania and Greece, are considered probably present. Hence 78 species could occur in Albania. According to IUCN red list of threatened animals, 8 species are defined as vulnerable, 15 as lower risk and one (the Mediterranean monk seal as critically endangered. In Albania, the legal protection of mammals includes all bat species, carnivores (except the stone marten, the red fox and the wolf, the chamois, the roe deer and the Mediterranean monk seal. General information on the distributional pattern and the population size is reported for some species, mainly carnivores.

  7. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Albania

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2011-01-01

    From November 8 to 17, 2010, a World Bank team undertook a Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) mission to Tirana, Albania. The mission's objective was to prepare a comprehensive assessment of government debt management functions by applying the DeMPA methodology. This report presents the results of the assessment, based on the December 2009 version of the DeMPA tool. The assessm...

  8. Patriarchy and fertility in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Lerch

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related t...

  9. Albania – Europe’s reluctant gatekeeper

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    Ridvan Peshkopia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-communist Albania has become a transit point for refugees, asylum seekers and economic migrants. Asylum policies and procedures put in place under UNHCR and EU tutelage are fragile and serve the interests of Europe, not Albania.

  10. Albania: STDs and youth culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legins, K; Saraci, O

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of Albania to the popular culture of the modern world has paved the way for the emergence of STDs that were practically unknown some 20 years ago. Ever since the first cases of HIV and syphilis were diagnosed in 1994 and 1995, respectively, physicians have had difficulty in assessing patients due to their lack of knowledge of STDs. Together with emerging health concerns, traditional stereotypes of individuals with STDs have also surfaced in Albania; these usually associate STDs with prostitutes and refugees. Lack of STD knowledge, lack of anonymity in health care centers, current myths about STD transmission, and the return of Albanian refugees are among the challenges which Albanian youth have to overcome. In response to this, the UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund), WHO and the Academy for Educational Development are launching a project that will educate Albanians about the risks of STDs and HIV, in addition to its maternal health projects. A recent information, education, and communication (IEC) roundtable participated in by over a hundred Albanian professionals has discussed problems and priorities that will facilitate a national IEC strategy. STDs, HIV, AIDS, maternal mortality, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion are the problems of greatest concern. The roundtable identified young people, women and service providers in rural areas as target groups with the greatest need of IEC interventions. PMID:12222312

  11. ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL WEB REPORTING IN ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIRAJ Rezart; SHKURTI Rezarta

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological changes have had a great impact on the accounting and financial environment. As other countries Albania has also been affected by developments such as the evolution towards using accounting information packages, financial web reporting, XBRL and cloud computing. Throughout this paper we try to analyze the current situation of accounting and financial reporting in Albania and the impact that the web reporting has had on the simplification of the accounting procedures. We p...

  12. METHODOLOGY OF THE TAX CONTROL IN ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    ALLA, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the tax administration in Albania is to encourage and achieve the highest level of implementation and voluntary compliance of tax obligations. Also, the mission is to ensure the highest degree of public trust to the integrity and efficiency of the tax administration. Actually, the law "On Tax Procedures in RA" regulates the procedures for administering taxes and principles of organization and functioning of the tax administration in the Republic of Albania. The provisions of th...

  13. Albania; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the Progress Report for Albania’s National Strategy for Socio-Economic Development (NSSED). 2002 was the first year of implementing the NSSED. The implementation process has been oriented toward achieving the annual objectives and in accordance with the program of public priority measures for 2002–04. The experience gained in NSSED implementation, the definition and improvements to objectives and medium-term NSSED measures, the Millennium Development Goals, and Albania...

  14. Development of Nonprofit-Sector in Albania

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    Xhiliola Agaraj (Shehu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the development of non-profit organizations (NPOs in Albania. In Albania there were two political systems, communist system from 1945-1990 and democratic system after 1990. These systems have contributed to the development of non-profit sector in the country. Secondary sources are used to identify the development of non-profit sector in terms of number, field of activity, financial sources and primary sources are used to indicate which it is actually the situation of non-profit sector in Albania. Interviews and questionnaire distributed in the area of the north, south of Albania and Tirana (capital of Albania is used to provide information regarding the type of NPOs by location, field of ​​activity of NPOs in Albania by type and location, financial sources and sector development trends. Limitations of the paper are that in the study are taken non-profit organizations that are registered at Court of Tirana District as associations, foundations, and the center and not political parties or religious organizations. For data processing is used SPSS computer program.

  15. Foreing direct investments in Albania

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    Ermira Korra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investments are a very important segment in the economic activity of a country, due to the effects they bring with. This is mainly because of the trade liberalization, as well as other advantages such as higher returns on investments, potential resource seeking, new market seeking, or cheap labor force. The issue of Foreign Direct Investment is very broad, but in concrete terms, the main goal of this article is the theoretical analysis and its impact in related policies in Albania. Another objective is closely connected with the help of government authorities to better understand the potential and effective impact of FDI in the Albanian economy and use this information in their decision-making.

  16. Patriarchy and fertility in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lerch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related to the importance of patriarchy in kinship organisation and in the public sphere. To account for this spatial relationship we test the evidence for different pathways in patriarchal influence on reproductive decision-making including social effects, socialisation in patriarchal ideals, and the promotion of male fertility. METHODS We reconstruct reproductive histories from the 2001 Census and use data on attitudes and fertility intentions from the Reproductive and Health Survey 2002. Multilevel logistic regressions on marriage and (the intention of higher order births are used. RESULTS A majority of women endorsed patriarchal ideals and fertility transition was less advanced in more patriarchal municipalities. Patriarchal kinship organisation promoted early marriages and high fertility, which is shown to be achieved by social learning among peers and intergenerational social influences respectively, as well as by women's socialisation and a stopping behaviour in childbearing dominated by son-preference. Although gender inequality in the public sphere has also sustained the level of fertility and decreased the risk of marriage, it was not accounted for by these pathways of patriarchal influence. CONCLUSIONS Despite Albania's gradual opening to the world in a period of economic and political crisis, traditional social institutions remain important for family behaviours.

  17. Phylogeography of genus Squalius in Albania

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    Radek Šanda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the issue of the Squalius genus phylogeography in Albania in the Balkan region. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation at mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene were used to examine these issues for the freshwater fish of the genus Squalius from various river systems in the Adriatic Sea region. There were identified three genetic lineages of unclear taxonomic position, where the genetic variation between identified clades range from 1.6 to 2.1 %. The first lineage is distributed in the Neretva River drainage in Bosnia and Hercegovina, i.e. north of Albania and in the whole remaining Periadriatic regions, whereas the second lineage is especially spread in the northern part of Albania and the third lineage occurs especially in the zone of the European ancient lake systems on the Balkan Peninsula (lakes Ohrid and Prespa, from where expands to the southern part of Albania. Both lineages sympatrically coincide in the hydrological river-lake system of Ohrid-Drin-Skadar. The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of the Squalius genus in the region seems to be interesting topic for subsequent and more detailed study.

  18. REGULATIONS AND FINANCING OF SMEs IN ALBANIA

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    Oltiana Muharremi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An important factor that has contributed in the realization of a positive economic growth in Albania in the last 20 years is undoubtedly the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME sector. SME financing is a topic of significant research interest to academics, and an issue of great importance to the policy makers around the world. Economic, as well as technical and social arguments warrant the promotion of SMEs. They create large scale, low-cost employment opportunities, use locally available inputs and technologies, mobilize small and scattered private savings, develop entrepreneurship, and correct the regional imbalance in development that exists in industrialized countries. Several studies identify financing, infrastructure facilities, taxes, regulations and stability in policies as major obstacles for the growth of small and medium businesses. Improving the business environment for SME development is a key objective of the policy framework in Albania.

  19. Glacial lakes Buni and Jezerce: Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Milivojević Milovan; Kovačević-Majkić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents glacial lakes and glacial relief forms at the foothill of the peak Maja Jezerce in Mt. Prokletije in Albania, near the border with Montenegro. The group of lakes Buni and Jezerce, which consists of six lakes and which genetically belongs to glacial-erosional lakes, is analyzed. Lakes are situated at the cirque bottom, between the moraines and limestone ridges. Except presented morphometric characteristics of lake basins, data about cirque are given, as well as the reconstru...

  20. PLANT COMMUNITIES OF ALBANIA - A PRELIMINARY OVERVIEW

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    J, RODWELL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociological analysis of Albania was initiated by F. Markgraf in the 30ies, but still remains incomplete. This is a preliminary list of the plant communities resulting from the literature and from field research carried out during the last years and may represent a first contribution for further research. Many communities are described only by dominant species, other are quoted as nomina nuda. Some further syntaxa. probably present in the study area, are added.

  1. Phylogeography of genus Squalius in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Radek Šanda; Miroslav Švátora

    2015-01-01

    This study is focused on the issue of the Squalius genus phylogeography in Albania in the Balkan region. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation at mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) were used to examine these issues for the freshwater fish of the genus Squalius from various river systems in the Adriatic Sea region. There were identified three genetic lineages of unclear taxonomic position, where the genetic variation between identified clades range from 1.6 to 2.1 %. The first lineage...

  2. Need identification for educational services in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Bakrrugji, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This commissioned research-based thesis aimed at identifying the need for educational services in Albania. The results produced herein were accomplished through secondary and primary research. Secondary research was collected from a variety of sources published by international government agencies, and ministries and newspaper agencies in the country researched. These publications consisted of online reports, press releases, and news articles which described the need for educational services ...

  3. Duration of the pluviometric deficit in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    AZEM BARDHI1; BESNIK GJONGECAJ

    2014-01-01

    The pluviometric deficit is the part of water amount evapotranspirated from the field but not getting replaced by the rainfall in a given period of time. That is why the pluviometric deficit could get quantified only when both, the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall are determined quantitatively. However, the pluviometric deficit is made of two dimensions: duration and magnitude. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study done throughout Albania on the duration of pluvi...

  4. Tourism, the Future of Economy in Albania

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    Arjana Kadiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the main pillars of economy for many countries in the world. It influences the economy and offers more employment possibilities every year. Mediterranean countries have a favorable, geographical position and climate to develop tourism. Most of these countries, have obtained higher incomes from this industry, and as a result, more prosperity and economic development. Today, about 30 % of the world’s tourists spend their vacations in the Mediterranean Region. Albania is one of these countries and it has great possibilities for the future.The nature of Albania, it’s geographical position and its panorama, the climatic and physical diversity of its territory, represent some of its rich resources and strengthness. Previously, Albania’s economy depended in agriculture and small industries. After the 90-s, when many citizens left the country, the situation changed and even that source of income became inconsiderable. Heavy or textile industry, were hardly developed. Tourism was hardly developed too. Only few investments were made in this sector. In October 2012, EU Commission recommended Albania to be granted the EU candidate status. Therefore, Albania’s economy has to be developed according to EU standards. In this paper we would like to assess, which may be some important and effective innovative management strategies for Albania’s tourism. What are some of the steps to follow in this direction? The article aims to make a comparison with Greece and Montenegro, as reference points, in order to understand these countries’ touristic strategies and try to adapt some of them or think about new effective ones. It aims to provide a profile that shows; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The study will be based in official statistics and scientific literature. The study concludes that the economic benefits of tourism are considerable, immediate and there are many new ways to activate the natural sources of Albania.

  5. Death rituals in Albania: an anthropological review

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    VYSHKA GENTIAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of death rituals differs consistently amongregions of Albania. The death ritual contains very strongpatriarchal features in the Northern part of the country; insouthern regions (next to the seashore and in Albaniancommunities living elsewhere in the Mediterranean basin, thefeatures are more animistic; the females playing an importantrole in grief proclamation, suggesting a more matriarchalorientedritual organization. The wailing of men in the northernAlbania, the so-called gjama, is an organized ritual of cryingfor the dead person, and till recently it has been accompaniedwith self-punishing behaviors such as face scratching etc. Thewailing of women is acceptable and codified as well in thenorthern areas (the so-called wailing of milk. A differentsituation, probably related to the social organization and to thegender role of females, is apparent in southern Albania. Thedeath rituals hereby are mainly accompanied from the socalled“kuja”, (wailing through words more impressive andloquacious than the northern masculine “gjama”. Similaritieswith Greek and Hellenic rituals (“Thrênos” and “Goös” aresuggested; probably embedding multiple cross-acting andinter-related influences.

  6. Factors Determining Foreign Direct Investments in Albania

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    EVIS GJEBREA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The foreign direct investments (FDIs have taken a very great extent in the last decades in both developing and developed countries, having a positive impact on economic growth. This is mainly due to trade liberalization, as well as other advantages such as higher returns on investments, potential resource seeking, new market seeking, or cheap labor force. In developing countries investors face many risks that go beyond market risks such as corruption, unsustainable legal system, lack of proper definition of property rights, or high bureaucratic rules for businesses.The aim of this paper is to analyze the behavior of Foreign Direct Investments in Albania compared to other countries in the Western Balkans. The study focuses on the trend of Inward and Outward FDIs in Albania and the region for the period 1992-2011, as well as an analysis of the factors influencing FDI flows. The main result is that Albania stands on a very good position regarding FDI flows compared to other countries. This is mainly due to massive privatizations taken after the fall of communism and due to efforts by the Government for creating a business friendly environment.

  7. The Political Development of Women in Albania

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    Eglantina Farruku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of women’s representation and participation in politics and decision-making is not anymore an unknown or un-discussed issue in Albanian. This paper attempts to investigate the conceptual and material bases of women’s participation in the politics in Albania.  It will be bringing facts and arguments regarding the participation of women not only in political life and decision making but also is going to investigate in detail in membership of political parties. Further investigation will be on how much weight women have on media coverage of different aspects of their life.Politic cannot be done properly, if the vision and the concepts of the woman’s in general would not be brought up by their women representatives in the political arena.  Despite the increase number of women in parliament, many advocate that the women until now had been only a decoration on the back ground of the political life and these needed to be changed. It seems that this change now taking place in Albania that would take some time. The study tries to provide information and analyses on this regard. Then the paper reaches a conclusion that there is still a long way to go in Albania for convincing more women to participate in politics, because without of them the politic would not be addressing whole problems of the country. Key words Politic, Women, Participation, Parliament, Parties, Election

  8. Governance of Human Rights in Albania

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    Kasem CENAJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Restriction or control of democratic process itself for the executive power constitutes the essence of good governance and fair. As related to the quality of governance, are also issues of guarantees, respect and protection of fundamental freedoms and human rights. Significant role, in the process of governance, has the right to information, the right to dialogue, participation, those actions related to public activity. European Convention of Human Rights is the basic principles of all member states of the Council of Europe, to show and measured democracies values, peace and justice. All member countries, including Albania have included in the normative provisions, laws on human rights, based on the principles and decisions of the European Convention on Human Rights, which was developed in the 4 November 1950. The purpose of the article is to give an overview of governance of human rights in Albania. For the realization of the article are exploiting academic publications and official reports of important organizations and institutions. The article made analyze of important international Convents of Human Rights and the legal framework of human rights in Albania, to evaluate the governance of human rights.

  9. New chorological data and floristic notes for Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, L.; Malo, Sadik; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    Twelve taxa belonging to fi ve families are reported based on fi eldwork in Albania from 2007 to 2010. Eleven have not been recorded for the country in the relevant volumes of Flora Europaea, Flora of Albania or the Med-Checklist. Notes on ecology and distribution are provided and all the taxa ar...

  10. Coastal salt-marshes in Albania

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    JULIAN SHEHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds and often have a high nature conservation interest. They rarely exist in isolation and form an integral part of many estuaries, other tidal inlets and bays. The objectives of this study are flora and vegetation of salt marshes. In this study, on the basis of field surveys, is given a phytosociological classification of the Albanian salt marshes vegetation by the European standard methods of phytosociology (Zurich-Montpellier. The salt marsh communities of Albania are poor in endemism and generally similar to relevant vegetation types elsewhere in the Mediterranean. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. Coastal salt marshes of Albania are offered a number of 62 taxa, extended in 16 diverse families. The most presented families are Chenopodiaceae 24 %, followed by Poaceae and Asteraceae with 11%. Salt marshes are populated by halophytes, plants that can live under saline conditions. Plant species diversity is low, since the flora must be tolerant of salt and anoxic mud substrate [4]. The most common salt marsh plant communities in coastal area of Albania are salt meadows dominated by glasswort (Salicornia europaea, pioneer marsh communities, perennial vegetation of marine saline mud’s mainly composed of scrub such as

  11. Albania, financial management in the education system: Higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Malaj, Arben; Mema, Fatmir; Hida, Sybi

    2005-01-01

    Recently, in Albania, the debate on the autonomy of higher education is growing. The debate is twofold; one is related with the problems of financing the higher education and the other in the choice of financial management system. The main resource of financing education and also higher education in Albania is the government, which means taxpayers, and a small part of the financing is coming by the tuition fees. In the case of Albania, when the GDP per capita is still low, the level of povert...

  12. Regulation and supervision of microfinance in Albania

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    Rezart Hoxhaj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes important regulation issues that concern microfinance. It starts byconsidering literature on how and why to regulate and supervise microfinance. Considering thespecific case of microfinance in Albania, it analyzes the context of this industry and someparticular issues that might influence its growth. Related regulation in Albania seems to be notactivity-oriented since a real definition of microfinance is lacking in the Albanian law. Therefor,Albanian microfinance sector needs, first of all, a microcredit and microfinance definition toimplement the right development policies and avoid confusion and license misuse. Moreover, theregulatory framework seems to be too restrictive for institutions supposed to be engaged inmicrofinance example high capital requirement and provisioning. Possible interventions can be inlowering minimum capital requirements for NBFIs to improve entrance, simplifying procedures,documentation and harmonization of the taxation treatment of institutions to enhancedevelopment, encourage access and avoid market distortions. There is the need to implementregulation considering microfinance as an activity, and develop a regulatory framework to inducecommercial banks integrate downward into the microfinance market and help informal start-upsinstitutions develop and get formalized.

  13. Duration of the pluviometric deficit in Albania

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    AZEM BARDHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pluviometric deficit is the part of water amount evapotranspirated from the field but not getting replaced by the rainfall in a given period of time. That is why the pluviometric deficit could get quantified only when both, the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall are determined quantitatively. However, the pluviometric deficit is made of two dimensions: duration and magnitude. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study done throughout Albania on the duration of pluviometric deficit. For this, the dependencies of potential evapotranspiration and rainfall, respectively, over time are determined by applying the regression analysis, after the data on sun radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and precipitation are collected from 56 meteorological stations throughout Albania and over six years. All of these functions are plotted in individual graphs and the duration of pluviometric deficit is determined by equalizing the function of potential evapotranspiration over time with the respective function of rainfall over time. The results are going to be used to classify the Albanian climate on humidity and aridity scales.

  14. Development Of The Banking Market In Albania

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    Alqi NAQELLARI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the development in banking sector in Albania since its strands and up to the present day. To highlight its role and influence in the Albanian Economy. The materials that are used are mainly taken by the Bank andINSTAT, Annual Statistical Reports, Monthly, Annual Reports and other materials needed for research. Methods used are mainly looking for methods of description, comparison, analysis and synthesis, the Gini index, Pearson, HHI, CR etc. The achieved results. Albanian Banking System is originated in 1850. Is divided into several periods. We have taken in the analyze the occurrences after 2003. There are 3 coins circulating in Albania.The banking system is concentrated in two poles, six leader banks and 10 with satellite role. The effect of the monetary policy transmission is low BOA for inflation, the cost anddistribution of loans and the growth of economy. In conclusion, the banking system is deformed. Should be create a bank with state capital and gradually eliminate foreign currency deposits and loans.Keywords: banking market, credit, deposit, styptic and expansionary monetary policy, inflation, unemployment, transmission effect,

  15. Problems of Poverty Level in Albania

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    ALBAN JAUPI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hunger and starvation are the main challenge of the humanity and the main enemy of the progress, pace and human stability. This is why all the partners of United Nation are conscious about an urgent engagement as in political program and in the compilation of a concrete plan to grow-up effectively the war against this negative phenomenon, that is present in the time we are living. Based on the FAO and Feeding Word Program figures, Albania ranks among the states who do not suffer from hunger. However is the lowest income state in Europe. The transit process highlighted the negative potential effects on the inequality standard of living. Most part of the inequality standard of living in the transition economy touch the decrease of the guarantee employment, and inexpert employee. Although from our point of view, the disparity increase is being a social problem every day bigger for the region ECA society, and this is germane with the social cohesion and the mean government. There is little difference as far as the expenditure food structure among zone is concerned, this talks about a unique structure of the food tradition in Albania. Differences among zones exists on the income level for capital and on the exception of the social levels among zones.

  16. Seismic capacity evaluation of unreinforced masonry residential buildings in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgin, H; O. Korini

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates seismic capacity of the unreinforced masonry buildings with the selected template designs constructed per pre-modern code in Albania considering nonlinear behaviour of masonry. Three residential buildings with template designs were selected to represent an important percentage of residential buildings in medium-size cities located in seismic regions of Albania. Selection of template designed buildings and material properties were based on archive and sit...

  17. Free to Learn: The Rationale for Legalizing Homeschooling in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Paul Hagen

    2011-01-01

    In the years following the collapse of communism in 1991, Albania allowed greater freedom in educational choice by abolishing the government monopoly on education and allowing private schools to operate. However, it is only now, two decades after the fall of communism, that Albania is moving towards officially recognizing the most natural and fundamental option for educating its citizens – allowing parents to educate their children at home. By looking at homeschooling from the perspectives of...

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF BEST MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR SHRUB FORMATIONS IN ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Genti Kromidha; AbdullaDiku; Ylli Hoxha

    2012-01-01

    Mediterranean scrublands occur naturally in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biomes, located in the five Mediterranean climate regions of the world. The Albania National Forest Inventory has identified two distinctive categories of shrub forest in Albania, respectively Mediterranean macchia (220’000 ha) and Maquis and garigue (139’000 ha). Management of scrub needs careful planning, especially where it has to be integrated with other habitats and features of interest. Managemen...

  19. Supply Chain Management in Albania: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Spaho, Thoma Mitre

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management in Albania has received little attention in the recent literature. Many companies now realize that actions taken by one member of the chain can influence the profitability of all others in the chain. Companies are increasingly thinking in terms of competing as part of a supply chain against other supply chains, rather than as a single firm against other individual firms. The aim of the paper is to investigate the current situation of supply chain management in Albania ...

  20. Oral Health Status of Children with Disability Living in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Gaçe, Eno; Kelmendi, Manola; Fusha, Enika

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study was carried out at nine (9) special schools for disabled children in Albania. The aim of the study is to determine the caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of children with different disabilities attending different schools for disabled at Albania. Methods: Participants are grouped according disability Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Down syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retarded, Blind, Deaf-Mute and age group (0-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-18 years old children). Caries and...

  1. Glacial lakes Buni and Jezerce: Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Milovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents glacial lakes and glacial relief forms at the foothill of the peak Maja Jezerce in Mt. Prokletije in Albania, near the border with Montenegro. The group of lakes Buni and Jezerce, which consists of six lakes and which genetically belongs to glacial-erosional lakes, is analyzed. Lakes are situated at the cirque bottom, between the moraines and limestone ridges. Except presented morphometric characteristics of lake basins, data about cirque are given, as well as the reconstruction of the glacier which was formed here. Recent erosion processes are intensive in this area and have considerably changed post-Pleistocene morphology of the lake, as well as the cirque bottom.

  2. Poland, Albania place acreage on auction block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland and Albania, respectively the first and last European countries to emerge from Communist rule, have unveiled bidding rounds for oil and gas projects. This paper reports that the goal is to encourage foreign investment in exploration and development. Poland's ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry, Warsaw, announced the schedule for its first bidding round for coalbed methane exploration licenses. Site is the Upper Silesian coal basin. Oil and gas companies were invited to submit proposals by Oct. 1 to develop what the ministry says is one of the world's most commercially viable coalbed methane resource. Five data packages are available covering 11 blocks. Packages cost $20,000 each or in combinations as much as $70,000 for all five. They include geological data, maps, gas transmission infrastructure details, drilling data, and results of coalbed methane studies. A bid is eligible only if the bidder has bought the relevant data package

  3. Genetic detection of hantaviruses in rodents, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Rogozi, Elton; Velo, Enkelejda; Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Bino, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In order to have a first insight into the epidemiology of hantaviruses in Albania, 263 small mammals (248 rodents, 15 insectivores) were captured in 352 locations in 29 districts and tested for hantavirus infection. Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) was detected in 10 of 148 (6.7%) Apodemus flavicollis rodents. DOBV-positive A. flavicollis were detected in six districts (Diber, Korce, Kolonje, Librazhd, Pogradec, and Vlore). The obtained nucleotide sequences were highly similar to each other and to DOBV sequences from northwestern Greece. Understanding the epidemiology of hantaviruses and identifying the endemic foci enables the public health strategies to minimize the risk of human infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1309-1313, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27249068

  4. FORMAL DECENTRALIZATION OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Lami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an argument on the regional effects of migration on Albanian administrative-territorial reform and its consolidation. Many researchers of local politics support the thesis that an important demographic change is accompanied by a change related to the quality of service at local governance level.  Compare to the Western and Eastern European countries, only in the early 1960s, Albania witnessed the introduction of the first regional and urban strategies.  The strategy was used to limit the expansion of large towns and to encourage the development of small and medium-sized towns. Furthermore, there are a limited number of case studies based on migration data at regional level.  This is why territorial reforms should often reflect ongoing demographic changes to minimize the effects caused by overpopulation, or significant reduction of the number of population in a local unit, with respect to quality of service offered to the citizens.  We discuss the research question of “how will the demographic development, i.e. natural development of population as well as internal migration, affect different types of Albanian regions?” as well as “what is the impact of demographic movements on the quality of local governance?”Based on the interpretation of some regional units, i.e. Tirana, Durres, and Fier, it is confirmed that the demographic movements in the last twenty years in Albania have brought about some changes.  In some local units, the number of inhabitants is significantly reduced, while some other local units are overpopulated. This new reality leads to implications in economic, social and cultural aspects; and most importantly, we noticed an increasing dependency of local government on the central government.  We further claim that local and regional authorities must participate in accordance with the “partnership” principle. Under these conditions, it is necessary to plan a new territorial division.

  5. The Priorities of English for Business in Albania and the Intercultural Communicative Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyso, Kozeta; Alimema, Zamira

    2015-01-01

    New developments in the years of democracy in Albania enabled the English out of business in the first plan as the need for businessmen and students studying for business. Albania is rapidly changing with the aim of being part of the process of development and globalization. The higher education in Albania is facing challenges posed by…

  6. Sustaining Cultural and Natural Heritage in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Dollani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the ongoing project “School for Cultural Heritage through Map Exploitation” (SCHEME, an integrated set of activities designed to support social inclusion in heritage promotion processes in Albania. The main project goal is delivering ICT tools (map and crowdfunding platforms and procedures as well as improving the capacity of stakeholders to sustainably valorize hidden resources. The underlying approach has capitalized on existing technologies and experiences through the development of an advanced interactive multimedia map using data produced in the Ljubljana Process. Subsequently, the map will be extended by collecting more data on the Lake Ohrid Region, which has been selected as a pilot area to promote the neglected inland, relieving pressure on more famous coastal sites. A contest among schools will enrich the database, uploading multifaceted memories collected by students. The winning cultural asset will be the object of a small-scale rehabilitation project supported by a fundraising campaign through a crowdfunding platform. The centrality of people’s active participation will contribute to governance innovation by reverting to traditional top-down promotion processes and practices, in which heritage consumers represent passive recipients of ready-made offers and messages. The map platform also holds specific potential for cultural tourism purposes, avoiding mistakes in the geo-localization of sites.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF BEST MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR SHRUB FORMATIONS IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genti Kromidha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean scrublands occur naturally in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biomes, located in the five Mediterranean climate regions of the world. The Albania National Forest Inventory has identified two distinctive categories of shrub forest in Albania, respectively Mediterranean macchia (220’000 ha and Maquis and garigue (139’000 ha. Management of scrub needs careful planning, especially where it has to be integrated with other habitats and features of interest. Management planning ensures that decisions are based on a full audit and evaluation of all management issues, including the conservation interest, landscape, economic benefits and traditional uses.

  8. Strengthening innovation and Technology policies for SME Development in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovena Tahiti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the current economic policies in Albania, particularly in the development of innovative SMEs, identifying the key challenges to promoting innovation in the whole economy - and highlighting specific actions where the private sector has the opportunity and is called upon to take a more active role. The purpose of this paper is to serve as a basis for discussion, primarily with Albanian private sector organizations, in order to agree on the key priorities for action to support innovation in Albania and to identify initiatives where these organizations can help catalyze change going forward.

  9. Free to Learn: The Rationale for Legalizing Homeschooling in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Paul Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years following the collapse of communism in 1991, Albania allowed greater freedom in educational choice by abolishing the government monopoly on education and allowing private schools to operate. However, it is only now, two decades after the fall of communism, that Albania is moving towards officially recognizing the most natural and fundamental option for educating its citizens – allowing parents to educate their children at home. By looking at homeschooling from the perspectives of student achievement, individual freedom, and natural rights, this paper will show that it is good and proper for Albania – and all countries worldwide – to legally recognize the natural right of parents to homeschool their children. While homeschooling is the best option for some children, it may not be the best for all children. Homeschooling should be one option alongside public schools, private schools, private tutoring, and distance-learning programs. While this article focuses on homeschooling in Albania, relying on research from North America, it contributes to the wider discussion of homeschooling policy in Europe, where policies range from homeschooling being largely illegal in nations such as Bulgaria and Germany to being freely permitted with minimal regulation in a nation such as the United Kingdom.

  10. Multi-elements atmospheric deposition study in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qarri, Flora; Lazo, Pranvera; Stafilov, Trajce; Frontasyeva, Marina; Harmens, Harry; Bekteshi, Lirim; Baceva, Katerina; Goryainova, Zoya

    2014-02-01

    For the first time, the moss biomonitoring technique and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) analytical technique were applied to study multi-element atmospheric deposition in Albania. Moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) were collected during the summer of 2011 and September-October 2010 from 62 sites, evenly distributed over the country. Sampling was performed in accordance with the LRTAP Convention-ICP Vegetation protocol and sampling strategy of the European Programme on Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition. ICP-AES analysis made it possible to determine concentrations of 19 elements including key toxic metals such as Pb, Cd, As, and Cu. Cluster and factor analysis with varimax rotation was applied to distinguish elements mainly of anthropogenic origin from those predominantly originating from natural sources. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using GIS technology. The median values of the elements in moss samples of Albania were high for Al, Cr, Ni, Fe, and V and low for Cd, Cu, and Zn compared to other European countries, but generally were of a similar level as some of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania. This study was conducted in the framework of ICP Vegetation in order to provide a reliable assessment of air quality throughout Albania and to produce information needed for better identification of contamination sources and improving the potential for assessing environmental and health risks in Albania, associated with toxic metals. PMID:24081920

  11. Corporate enterprises in Albania and Macedonia in comparative law

    OpenAIRE

    Endri Papajorgji

    2014-01-01

    Transformation is a process closely connected with reforms in the property-rights regime, but retransfering the ownership has been the core of this process in all post communist countries. The objective of this article is to analyse the drafting of commercial legislation in Albania and Macedonia and in which way corporate enterprises were affected from the structure of economic organizations during socialism.

  12. Politico-economic institutions and the informal sector in Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Gërxhani

    2003-01-01

    When formal institutions are unfavorable for the development of a free market economy, one reaction in many countries is a spontaneous development of informal economies. This study analyzes the conditions for the informal sector to emerge in a transition country, to wit, Albania. The consequences of

  13. Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjermeni, Eglantina; Van Hook, Mary P.; Gjipali, Saemira; Xhillari, Lindita; Lungu, Fatjon; Hazizi, Anila

    2008-01-01

    Problem: Many children in Albania and other countries of Eastern Europe are being trafficked as part of the global business of human trafficking. Objectives: The study sought to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking…

  14. The Impact of Real Exchange Rate on Employment in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmira Cakrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a big economical and social issue for each country, in particular for Albania, which is a country that comes from a centralized system where the state ensured full employment. In the struggle of applying the transition to market economy, each government had to face the two-digit levels of unemployment. Because of this, the application of the right policies in order to decrease the level of unemployment has been in the centre of the program of each government in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show if the undervaluation or overvaluation of the real exchange rate can affect in a significant way the level of employment in Albania and that to answer the question, if the real exchange rate can be used as a political instrument for the reduction of the level of unemployment. There are relatively few works that study the impact of real exchange rate on the Albanian economy and in my knowledge there is not a previous work on employment and real exchange rate relationship in Albania, so this can be considered as the first study that attempt to assess this relationship. To evaluate the link between the real exchange rate and the level of employment the Johansen procedure and Vector Error Correction Term method is used. The result of the study demonstrates not statistically significant impact of real exchange rate on level of employment, suggesting that the increase of competition of the country through the real exchange rate doesn’t improve the condition of the employment in Albania, so the Albanian government should implement other strategies to increase the level of employment in the country.

  15. Assessment of Habitats Area Sand Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Alyssum Genus in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    ERIDANA ÇUNI; ERTA DODONA; PETRIT HARASANI; FATBARDH SALLAKU; SEIT SHALLARI

    2015-01-01

    Developed soils on serpentine rocks occupies a large area in Albania which contains huge reserves of, nickel, chromium and cobalt. The purpose of our study was to identify the species, the habitats of metal’s hyperaccumulator Alyssum genus in Albania and to analyze the metals content in soils and plants too. There are accomplished several field trips investigated the mine, ultramafic and mafic soil in different areas of Albania. The soil samples and plants are taken randomly in ea...

  16. I RAPPORTI TRA L'ALBANIA E LA GRAN BRETAGNA (1940-1950)

    OpenAIRE

    COTA, JULIAN

    2012-01-01

    La presente tesi ha avuto l’obiettivo di illustrare i rapporti tra l’Albania e la Gran Bretagna nel decennio tra il 1940 al 1950. Il lavoro viene svolto basandosi su tre momenti; a) l’ingresso dell’Albania nell’ottica della politica estera della Gran Bretagna e l’invio delle missioni militari britanniche in Albania. b) La fine della Guerra collocò l’Albania dall’altra parte della cortina di ferro rispetto ai britannici causando il peggioramento dei rapporti tra i due governi dopo gli...

  17. ”Fear of Floating” in Albania and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besart Kadia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study endeavours to understand the volatility of the exchange rate in Albania and to see if there are sign of “fear of floating” present. De jure Albania currently applies a flexible exchange rate regime. Traditionally the main argument in favour of this policy is that monetary policy is not constrained by the predetermined level of the exchange rate. Thus, monetary policy sets interest rates in order to achieve domestic equilibrium (ie. price stability while the nominal exchange rate adjusts to balance the external accounts. Theoretical evidence concerning the impact of exchange rate stability on growth is mixed. The theoretical arguments in favour of flexible exchange rates are mainly of macroeconomic nature, as flexible exchange rates allow for an easier adjustment in response to asymmetric country specific real shocks. From a microeconomic perspective low exchange rate volatility can be associated with lower transaction costs for international trade and capital flows thereby contributing to higher growth.

  18. Financing the small and medium enterprises in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerina Kurti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of small and medium enterprises in economy is indisputable. They are the main contributor in employment, innovation and economic growth of a country. European Commission is fully supporting the development and growth of small and medium enterprises through changes in legislation, creating a friendly business environment, facilitation in obtaining funds in the last two decades. The share of SME in total enterprises in Albania is 99.6% and their contribution in the GDP is 73%. Their growth is closely linked with their ability to finance their activity, which is one of the most important issues they are faced with due to their size and creditworthiness. This paper aims to analyze the difficulties and obstacles that SME in Albania encounter in obtaining financing due to lack of source of financing within country, limited opportunities of accessing international capital markets as well as high interest rate.

  19. Situation of animal health in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The animal healthy service policy in Albania represents an integral component of overall government, social and economic policy in the field of agricultural and rural development, public health, food processing and import/export of animal products. In order to obtain the necessary political, economical and public support, animal health service attempt to contribute effectively to the overall development of the country aiming at improving standards of living of its inhabitants. One of this approaches is through a practical way of reducing food loses due to animal morbidity and mortality, increasing productivity in animal population, protecting human health against zoonotic diseases and ensuring human treatment of animals. An animal health strategy contributes to the creation of conditions necessary for an uninterrupted animal disease surveillance and control of the country. The vision of National Animal Health Program (NAHP) is to improve the health and welfare of animals, which meets the needs of stakeholders, enables safe production of food, improves health of the public, sustains the rural society, and support the rural economy. The concept and requirements for this vision - The current veterinary services section in the country, including the veterinary diagnostic institution, is very weak. The few resources in place are fragmented and reflect a historic paradigm of previous regimen with incomplete transition to market economy. The veterinary services on the 12 districts/regions appear to have been connected from administrable aspect but their field operations are not connected with the national interest and the above mission. - There is a need to link food safety and zoonotic aspect to public health sectors so that public interest and funding resources can be increased. - The livestock sector is undeveloped and consumers do not have much influence or organization. The veterinary service should take this opportunity to present a comprehensive plan of

  20. Corporate enterprises in Albania and Macedonia in comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Papajorgji

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transformation is a process closely connected with reforms in the property-rights regime, but retransfering the ownership has been the core of this process in all post communist countries. The objective of this article is to analyse the drafting of commercial legislation in Albania and Macedonia and in which way corporate enterprises were affected from the structure of economic organizations during socialism.

  1. Small terrestrial mammals of Albania: annotated list and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Bego

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Abstract We report for Albania new records of small terrestrial mammals (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Rodentia and outline previously published data. Twenty-four species (one hedgehog, six soricomorhps and 17 rodents have been collected in 161 localities surveyed throughout the country. Nine species (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus thomasi are recorded for Albania for the first time. The present list is far from being complete and presence of a further 11 species has to be confirmed. Riassunto I Micromammiferi dell'Albania: status e distribuzione Viene presentato un quadro della distribuzione dei micromammiferi in Albania, evidenziando le specie di recente scoperta così come alcuni dati già pubblicati. L'esame di 161 località distribuite sull'intero territorio nazionale ha permesso di raccogliere informazioni sulla presenza di 24 specie di micromammiferi (1 Erinaceomorpha, 6 Soricomorpha e 17 Rodentia. Nove specie  (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, e Microtus thomasi vengono segnalate per la prima volta. L'elenco qui presentato non può essere considerato definitivo. Ulteriori ricerche potrebbero accertare la presenza di altre 11 specie.

  2. Measles Outbreak in a Roma Community in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    ALMA ROBO; AGIM VERCANI; ARTAN SIMAKU; ERIDA NELAJ; EUGENA TOMINI; SILVA BINO

    2014-01-01

    Background: Measles reporting is mandatory in Albania. Despite the very high immunization coverage for MMR a measles outbreak was reported by district epidemiologist to national public health institute in june 2006. All affected persons were from a Roma community living in the town of Elbasan. We report the epidemiological features of this epidemic. Method: Active surveillance was conducted and cases analyzed had to meet the national case definition “rash maculopapular with ...

  3. Microbial Water Pollution of Drin River in Scutary Area, Albania

    OpenAIRE

    LINDITA BUSHATI; MARGARITA HYSKO

    2014-01-01

    Black Drin River joining White Drin and some other small rivers form the longest river of Albania, Drin River, 335 Km long. Drin has two distributaries, one of which empties directly into Adriatic Sea and the other one into Buna river, in Scutary (Shkoder). The Drin area is beautiful and very important for the Albanian economy, for the electricity and has a large agriculture activity as well. Unfortunately mismanagement of agricultural practices and the discharge of industrial and urban waste...

  4. Education Factor and Human Resources Development - Albania Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sonila Berdo

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a general view of the actual situation and the potential importance that the education factor plays in the formation and development of human resources in Albania, based on the Albanian education system applied as well as the strategies undertaken regarding the development of human resources by transforming it in an important asset and an unstoppable source of values for all the society. In particular, the article is focused in analyzing and evaluating the link between the l...

  5. The relationship between financial and tax accounting in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Ilda Duhanxhiu; Valbona Kapllani

    2012-01-01

    Typically ‘income tax’ laws rely on financial accounting data to determine the taxable income of a business entity, although financial and tax accounting have different goals and requirements. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between financial and tax accounting rules in Albania. The study employs a mixed methodology, comprising a review of the legislation, institutional framework and context, and semi-structured interviews with accountants, academics and institutional...

  6. An Epidemiological Study on Ankylosing Spondylitis in Southern Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Koko, Vjollca; Ndrepepa, Ana; Skënderaj, Skënder; Ploumis, Avraam; Backa, Teuta; Tafaj, Argjend

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in southern Albania and to assess the association of various demographic risk factors with the severity of disease. Material and methods: This is an observational study with cross-sectional analyses, conducted in the region of Gjirokaster, between 1995 until 2011. The diagnosis of AS was based on the modified New York criteria. Data on population are obtained from the reports of the National Institute of Stati...

  7. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN ALBANIA: EFFECTS OF TERRITORIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola KAPIDANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of decentralization is a fundamental principle for the establishment and operation of local government. It refers to the process of redistributing the authority and responsibility for certain functions from central government to local government units. In many countries, particularly in developing countries, fiscal decentralization and local governance issues are addressed as highly important to the economic development. According to Stigler (1957, fiscal decentralization brings government closer to the people and a representative government works best when it is closer to the people. Albania is still undergoing the process of decentralization in all aspects: political, economic, fiscal and administrative. Decentralization process is essential to sustainable economic growth and efficient allocation of resources to meet the needs of citizens. Albania has a fragmented system of local government with a very large number of local government units that have neither sufficient fiscal or human capacity to provide public services at a reasonable level (World Bank. However, recent administrative and territorial reform is expected to have a significant impact in many issues related to local autonomy and revenue management. This paper is focused on the progress of fiscal decentralization process in Albania, stating key issues and ongoing challenges for an improved system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of recent territorial reform, identifying problems and opportunities to be addressed in the future.

  8. Seismic capacity evaluation of unreinforced masonry residential buildings in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bilgin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seismic capacity of the unreinforced masonry buildings with the selected template designs constructed per pre-modern code in Albania considering nonlinear behaviour of masonry. Three residential buildings with template designs were selected to represent an important percentage of residential buildings in medium-size cities located in seismic regions of Albania. Selection of template designed buildings and material properties were based on archive and site survey in several cities of Albania. Capacity curves of investigated buildings were determined by pushover analyses conducted in two principal directions. The seismic performances of these buildings have been determined for various earthquake levels. Seismic capacity evaluation was carried out in accordance with FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency 440 guidelines. Reasons for building damages in past earthquakes are examined using the results of capacity assessment of investigated buildings. It is concluded that of the residential buildings with the template design, with the exception of one, are far from satisfying required performance criteria. Furthermore, deficiencies and possible solutions to improve the capacity of investigated buildings are discussed.

  9. BIODIVERSITY AND THE PROTECTED AREAS SYSTEM IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Metaj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania possesses a wide range of ecological systems including coastal zones, estuaries and lagoons, lakes and wetlands, grasslands, middle-low altitude coppice forests, high altitude forests, alpine vegetation and glacial areas. The country possesses about 3,250 species of vascular plants, 165 families and more than 900 genera. Medicinal plants (botanicals and non-timber forest products have a long history of importance in the culture and traditional knowledge of Albania. Proper legislation and especially legal and regulatory framework enforcement for the regulation of this developing industry remains lacking. A Strategy of Biodiversity plan developed in 2000 calls for an increase in the Protected Areas system which currently covers some 6 % of Albania's area to a total area of 435,600 ha, approximately 15 % of the country's territory. Changes in the legal and policy framework as well as institutional structures is required to move forward and provide an environment for biodiversity conservation and a sustainable protected areas system. The various threats to biodiversity and constraints to improvement are outlined as well as recommendations for sustainable use, assessment and regulation.

  10. The defense of intellectual property in the Republic of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbër Bashkolli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In a society based on values and democratic principles, the defense of intellectual property constitutes one of the primary directions of its integrity and the permanence of cultural, scientific and technological heritage in generations. The integration of Albania in European Union requires the accomplishment of some accepted standards, in order to ensure the appropriate respect of intellectual property rights. The effective implementation of intellectual property rights is an essential element for continued social and economic progress and increasing the level of competitiveness of the Republic of Albania in the international market and ensuring a fair competition environment in the Albanian national market. Violation of law on copyright is not less problematic in Albania, despite the initiatives taken to protect intellectual property. Implementation of the European Union legislation is a complex process, which aims at integrating the Albanian economy to the EU internal market. It will take time to strengthen the institutions responsible for the implementation of legislation in the field of industrial property.

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šašić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in the publication of three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania, Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices and consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However, with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve traditional agricultural practices.

  12. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in Albania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bashkim Resuli; Skerdi Prifti; Bledar Kraja; Tatjana Nurka; Mimoza Basho; Edita Sadiku

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Albania. METHODS: Blood samples from 410 unselected schoolboys, 666 students, 500 military personnel, 1286 casual blood donors, 378 voluntary blood donors and 640 pregnant women (total 3880 non-vaccinated residents of rural and metropolitan areas from all over Albania; 2354 (60.7%) male and 1526 (39.3%) female; mean age of 26.3 years) were tested during 2004-2006 for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs) by ELISA. RESULTS: The HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence were 9.5% and 28.7%, respectively. The highest HBsAg prevalence was evident in the younger age group, such as in schoolchildren (11.8%) and the military (10.6%).Consequently, the anti-HBs prevalence increased with age, from 21.2% in schoolchildren (mean age: 15.7 years), to 36.3% in pregnant women (mean age: 26.3 years) and 29.7% in voluntary blood donors (mean age: 40.1 years). There were no significant differences between males and females. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated two-fold reduction of HBsAg prevalence in the general population from about 18%-19% to 9.5%, Albania remains a highly endemic country (I.e. Over 8% of HBsAg prevalence rate).

  13. The European Parliament and the European future of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdilajd Bajramaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.

  14. PERSONAL INCOME TAX POLICY ANALYSIS: ALBANIA VS. UNITED STATES

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    Agim Binaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal income tax has become an important part of the Albania’s revenue system. Revenue from personal income tax was more than 27.9 billion ALL for the year of 2011 which makes up a 3% increase when compared to the previous year. This paper compares and contrasts Albanian and American income tax systems by describing many similarities as well as distinctive characteristics that were found. Professor Agim Binaj of Agricultural University of Tirana highlights the need for a fair personal income tax reform in Albania. This paper concludes with recommendations and an agenda for future research on tax policy using lessons from the United States tax system.

  15. Sedimentary and tectonic evolution of ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia / Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhorst, Katja; Krastel, Sebastian; Wagner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia / Albania) is probably the oldest lake in Europe (2-5 Ma), and is considered an important sedimentary archive to study the evolution of a graben system over several million years. Multichannel seismic profiles were acquired in 2007 and 2008 showing that the lake can be divided into two main parts, the slope areas and a large, deep central basin. The basin is bordered by the major eastern and western graben fault, additional faults were identifi ed in the northern part...

  16. The relationship between financial and tax accounting in Albania

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    Ilda Duhanxhiu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically ‘income tax’ laws rely on financial accounting data to determine the taxable income of a business entity, although financial and tax accounting have different goals and requirements. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between financial and tax accounting rules in Albania. The study employs a mixed methodology, comprising a review of the legislation, institutional framework and context, and semi-structured interviews with accountants, academics and institutional players. By reviewing the development of this relationship during the past 20 years, we aim to identify and explain the major divergences at present between two sets of rules.

  17. Land market in Albania: Unresolved property ownership rights

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    Oltiana Muharremi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Independence of Albania in 1912, property ownership has gone through major reforms. During communism many agricultural lands were seized by the Agrarian Reform Law. In 1990, with the fall of communism there was a huge demographic movement of people from villages to urban areas, where they settled in lands that were used by the Cooperatives. This created a lot of problems with previous land owners whose land was seized and given to the Cooperativa. Today there is a problem with the rights to property ownership, and legal certificates of ownership.

  18. APPLYING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ELEMENTS IN BUSINESS: THE CASE OF ALBANIA

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    ERJON ZOTO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Albania has experienced a new development era in several sectors of the social and economic development in the last 20 years. Meanwhile, the latest trends made it a necessity for domestic businesses and institutions to adopt the new technologies and thus benefit from their vast advantages. This paper focuses on the application of ERP systems in the Albanian businesses, as it still remains an important challenge for the domestic entrepreneurs. The paper concludes that level of use for these systems is good, but problems arise when it comes to maintenance and knowledge.

  19. Active Tectonics in the Ohrid Basin (Macedonia/Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicherter, K.; Hoffmann, N.; Fernández-Steeger, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Ohrid Basin is a major N-S trending graben structure located on the border of Macedonia and Albania, associated with other basins (Korce basin) in the Dinaride mountain belt. Within the basin an "ancient lake" developed since the Late Miocene/Pliocene with almost 290 m water depth. Since the beginning of basin formation around 700 m of sediment accumulated in the lake, the initial stage of subsidence is triggered either by extension or strike-slip movements. The general geodynamic setting of the Lake Ohrid area can be described with a "basin and range" situation. The multidisciplinary ICDP-SCOPSCO initiative is currently investigating Lake Ohrid and its environs. The central mountain chain, especially the intramontane basins of Late Neogene age, form one of the most active seismic zones in Albania/Macedonia with several moderate earthquakes reported during the last few centuries (Muço 1998; NEIC database, USGS). Major earthquakes occurred during historical times. Lychnidos (the ancient city of Ohrid) was destroyed completely by an earthquake in 526 AD. It was rebuilt by Emperor Justinian (527-565), who was born in the vicinity, and was called by him Justiniana Prima, i.e. the most important of the several new cities that bore his name. The last prominent earthquake took place in on 18th February 1911 at 21.35 close to Lake Ohrid Basin, (M 6.7, corresponding to EMS X; 15 km depth, N 40.9°, E 20,8°). The last earthquake occurred on Jan 8th 2009 with a magnitude of 4.9 close to the lake. Hypocenter depths scatter between 10 and 25 km but some deeper earthquakes occur between 25 and 50 km depth. Very rarely intermediate earthquakes around 100 km depth are observed. Small and moderate earthquakes (Peci, V, Muco, B, 2004. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Albania. 13th World Conf. Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, paper no. 2469, 14 pp. Muço, B, 1998. Catalogue of ML 3,0 earthquakes in Albania from 1976 to 1995 and distribution of seismic

  20. Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention among University Students: Case of Albania

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    E. Garo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, during the last decades entrepreneurship has been in focus. It is commonly agreed that developing entrepreneurship in the long term would be translated into sustainable economic development. Albanian economy, being an economy in transition greatly and urgently needs to invest into increasing the number of entrepreneurs in the country. Entrepreneurial intention is considered to be really important. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to observe the determinants of entrepreneurial intention in Albania. The target is university students. Many programs that foster entrepreneurship such as incubator centers, business plan competitions along with new educational practices have been developed. In addition, even though studies conducting in this field are few, Albanian education institutions have shown a willing to study the factors influencing entrepreneurship development. The reason is the belief that developing and supporting entrepreneurial activities among youth will positively influence the economy of the country in terms of economic growth. This study widely represents the Albanian students and shows the deteminants of entrepreneurial intention they have. Hopefully the findings of this study would be useful to the policy makers and the Albanian government to undertake effective policies focused on entrepreneurial activity; targeting economic development of the country.

  1. Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas of Albania

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    M. Parise

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, about one quarter of the country is occupied by outcroppings of soluble rocks; thus, karst represents an important and typical natural environment. Today karst areas are seriously threatened by a number of hazards, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Many problems are related to agricultural practices: the use of heavy machinery, ever-increasing in recent years, results at many sites in destruction of the original karst landscapes. Use of pesticides and herbicides, in addition, causes the loss of karst ecosystems of great biological relevance, as has been observed in the Dumre district, where about 80 lakes of karst origin are present in the evaporites of Permian-Triassic age. Agricultural practice performed on slopes with medium to high gradient is a further factor which greatly predispose the slopes to erosion. The cave heritage of Albania (estimated so far in about 1000 caves is at risk because of the uncontrolled quarrying activities which determine the total or partial destruction of karst caves, including many of naturalistic, archaeological and speleological interest. Many caves have also become sites of illegal disposal of solid and liquid wastes, which causes pollution of the karst ecosystems and of the aquifer therein present, with heavy negative consequences on the quality of water. Even though most of the cases here mentioned are related to anthropogenic activities, the natural hazards, such as subsidence phenomena, floods, and the development of sinkholes, have not to be disregarded.

  2. Geoculture world system, access to Balkan and Albania

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    Ilirjan Çukaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If culture as a term covers a broad range of relations and social behavior, mutually implicated in influential and economic cycles of the global system, then it becomes wordy geoculture. Geoculture system is used as a term by Wallerstein (2004 who had treated it as a concept largely unused and under a theory of geoculture which plays an important role in the present world system. The theses that is presented in this article is that the global trajectory in the Balkan region is increasing from culture and that, it is imperative to establish a strategic culture direction and management, which, in turn, should be formed not only as a principal need, but also as an obligation of social state institutions to find the viable solutions of the global market policy, economy and culture. And in response to the challenging question the culture of integration becomes imperative now facing nationalism. Albania will have to manage perceptions, fears and realities arising from the above mentioned phenomenon, to establish a balance between the “inside” and “outside” views. In this sense main challenge of Albania is the management of cultural globalization to get the most of opportunities despite the risk of losing ground globally

  3. STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT AND RESTORATION OF THE LEADEN MOSQUE IN BERAT, ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    YARDIM, Yavuz; MUSTAFARAJ, Enea

    2013-01-01

    The city of Berat, one of the oldest in Albania, is located in central Albania. The earliest traces of settlement date from 2600-1800 BC. Even though there is an abundance of cultural heritage monuments, little effort has been made in maintaining and preserving these structures. Frequent seismic activity, regular natural processes as well as human activity are some of the main causes of deterioration of those monuments. This paper aims to introduce a case study in structural assessment based ...

  4. Vertical slip rates of active faults of southern Albania inferred from river terraces

    OpenAIRE

    Oswaldo Guzmán; Jean-Louis Mugnier; Riccardo Vassallo; Rexhep Koçi; François Jouanne

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial terraces of Shkumbin, Devoll, Osum and Vjosa rivers (southern Albania and northwestern Greece) are studied in order to quantify the vertical slip rates of the large active faults of the Dinaric-Albanic-Hellenic Alpine fold belt. The spatial and temporal variations of the incision rates along these rivers were estimated from the geomorphological mapping of the Quaternary sediments, the geometry and the dating of the terraces. Eleven terraces levels were identified in Albania from 68 ge...

  5. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga E.; Rexha T.; Çeliku S.; Mariani E.

    2013-01-01

    In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal group...

  6. How has internal migration in Albania affected the receipt of transfers from family and friends?

    OpenAIRE

    Tomini, Florian; Hagen-Zanker, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Social networks of family and friends are very important in providing economic and social support to households. The massive internal migration flows towards the big cities in the transition countries like Albania can seriously affect such networks, and influence the support received. Previous migration studies have analysed mostly the transfers between the migrant and the family left behind. This study analyses households that migrate together to the peripheries of Tirana (Albania) after the...

  7. Attractiveness of foreign investments in Albania: a focused analysis of factors, constrains and policy assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Blerta Dragusha (Spahija); Elez Osmani

    2013-01-01

    Foreign direct investments are very important for the implementation of strategic reforms, transfer of advanced technologies and managerial methods, thereby stimulating economic growth in developing countries and in particular, transition economies such as Albania is. During the last years, Albania experienced an increase in foreign investors’ interest in a wide range of sectors, with energy generation, telecommunication, cement production, mining, oil and industrial parks heading the list. H...

  8. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Congenital Malformations in Tirana, Albania, During 2011-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Çanaku, Dorina; Toçi, Ervin; Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Congenital Malformations (CMs) represent a challenge especially for developing countries. Data about CMs in Albania are rather scarce. In this context, our aim was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with CMs in Tirana, the capital of Albania. Methods: Information on all CMs at birth during 2011-2013 was retrieved from the National CM Surveillance System. For each CM case, three controls (babies born without CM) were retrieved as well. Overall, 831 cases and 2522 controls wer...

  9. EVALUATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS APPLICATION FOR NON FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: THE CASE OF ALBANIA.

    OpenAIRE

    AGIM BINAJ; ILIR BINAJ; IRINI LIMAJ

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on the application of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for non financial institutions using domestic and foreign companies’ observations from Albania, a developing country with an open economy but with limited enforcement capabilities. This paper intends to present benefits and challenges from the IFRS adoption and evaluate IFRS application for non financial institutions in Albania. The study was conducted as an exploratory research through 15 interview...

  10. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-01-01

    Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consist...

  11. A new expansion in the international public relations: Albania case study

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    Sema Yıldırım Becerikli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Country case studies enrich international public relations literature day by day. Analyzing different countries in the context of public relations facilitates our understanding of various social, cultural, historical, and governmental aspects in different regions of the world. For researchers, Albania is a riveting country with a turbulent history. Albania left one century behind deriving from Ottoman era, nation-state building era, socialism era, and multiparty democracy era. This paper is a modest attempt to explore the evolution and the texture of public relations in Albania. Literature review, in-depth interview, and observation have been used as basic data collection methods for this research. Albania case study states that during the last decade, as a potential candidate for membership and being in the process of integration to European Union Albania gives special attention to building a modern public relations field particularly through public administration reforms, universities, and civil society organizations. The analysis of Albania case and public relations practices will prove beneficial to public relations and communication professionals who need to operate in diffent regions of the world.

  12. Microbial Water Pollution of Drin River in Scutary Area, Albania

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    LINDITA BUSHATI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Drin River joining White Drin and some other small rivers form the longest river of Albania, Drin River, 335 Km long. Drin has two distributaries, one of which empties directly into Adriatic Sea and the other one into Buna river, in Scutary (Shkoder. The Drin area is beautiful and very important for the Albanian economy, for the electricity and has a large agriculture activity as well. Unfortunately mismanagement of agricultural practices and the discharge of industrial and urban wastes into the river are causing a high pollution. River conservation is threatened by pollution. Drin river water is used by people for fishing, swimming and irrigation of plants and the pollution of this river is a problematic issue in environment and human health. We monitored microbial and chemical water pollution of Scutary area of Drin, where Drin goes into Bojana, during 2012-2013 and a high water pollution level was recorded.

  13. Quaternary coastline evolution of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Reicherter, Klaus; Grützner, Christoph; Hürtgen, Jochen; Rudersdorf, Andreas; Viehberg, Finn; Wessels, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Lake Ohrid (between FYR of Macedonia and Albania), situated in an active tectonic region of the Balkanides, is characterized by N — S trending active faults. To reconstruct the Holocene shoreline evolution we investigated the coastline using sediment cores and geophysical methods to image sedimentary and tectonic structures. We revealed areas of differing sedimentation regimes. The plains north and south of the lake are dominated by clastic input related to climate variations and uplift/erosion, whereas the steep western and eastern margins are controlled by recent tectonics. Furthermore, no evidence for a much higher lake-level during the Holocene was found in the plains north and south of the lake, except rare temporary floodings. This is supported by mappings of the limestone cliffs around Lake Ohrid, which yielded no evidence for abrasional platforms or notches as indicators for past highstands.

  14. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The activities on Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Tirana, Albania started about 30 years ago from using simple systems consisting of single channel analysers, radioisotope sources and gas proportional or scintillation counters along with balanced filters for the separation of analytical lines. These systems were applied for the determination of single elements. A few portable prototypes were developed and successfully used for the determination of chromium and copper in ores, both in the lab and institute (ore processing plants) conditions. Later, through different TC projects with IAEA, the lab has been equipped with the following systems: X-ray tube excited EDXRF spectrometer with secondary target excitation; radioisotope excited EDXRF system; TXRF module; field portable XRF system based on a Cd-109 disc source; Si-PIN detector and pocket MCA. From the beginning our work has been focused on research, applications and training. Due to the fact that our EDXRF systems are made of different parts that are put together, our research activities are mainly related to optimization of excitation geometry and the development of optimized analytical procedures for the analysis of different group of elements in several kinds of samples. Some of these procedures include: determination of major and minor elements in soils, sediments, mineral ores and different type of rocks; determination of sulphur and some trace elements (V, Ni, etc.) in oil, bitumen and asphaltene; determination of some trace metals in sea and surface waters; determination of elemental composition of aerosols loaded on filters; determination of some trace elements in biological samples. An important point of our work is related with the quality of the analytical results. For this reason we have participated in some of the intercomparison runs organized by AQCS of the IAEA and in the GeoPT proficiency tests. In most cases our reported

  15. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

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    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  16. Demographic Profile and Pathological Patterns of Head Injury in Albania

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    Sabri Hoxha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head injury (HI is a serious morbid state caused by structural changes of the scalp, skull, and/or its contents, due to mechanical forces. Generally, the most frequent cause of HI is road traffic accident (RTA, followed by homicidal and falling injuries. The aim of present study is to assess epidemiology data, causes and patterns responsible for HI among Albanian subjects. Methodology: All HI cases (1000 are collected by the Forensic Institute of Albania, based on medical and forensic records of traumatized subjects between 2007- 2012. The prospectively-collected and descriptive information is focused on demographic data, responsible factors, type and level of cranial and brain injury, as well as their outcome. Results: The majority of HI victims were male (84% of age range of 15yrs -35yrs (70%. RTA was the HI cause in 88%, followed by homicides (3.8%, falling (3% etc. With respect to injury mechanisms, extra-dural hematoma was found in 93% of cases, followed by cerebral edema (61%, cerebral contusion (37%, skull bone fractures (35%, etc. Severe alteration of the consciousness was observed in 57% of the cases, while amnesia lasted longer than 4 weeks in 44% of the subjects included in our study. Discussion: This survey demonstrates that the majority of HI victims' is young and middle age males target group exposed to RTA. The increase of vehicles' use in placecountry-regionAlbania is more evident than RTA-related HI, indicating that driving newer vehicles with safer technology or helmets use while motorcycling can potentially decline the fatal outcome.

  17. Syndromic Surveillance for Detection of Influenza in Albania

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    ARTAN SIMAKU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the threat of infectious diseases and bioterrorism, syndromic surveillance systems are being developed and implemented around the world. The aim of the study was to describe the early warning surveillance system in Albania for detection of pandemic influenza 2009. Syndromic surveillance is a primary health care-facility-and emergency room-based syndromic surveillance system aiming at detecting outbreaks and undertaking public health actions. Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI consist of two syndromes: Upper and Lower respiratory infection. Weekly ARI consultation rates in 2009 were compared with the rates observed in the same period in the previous 10 years (1999-2008 of influenza season: weeks 40-20. Unlike previous years’ pattern, the rate of reported ARI increased sharply from 45th week, and peaked nationally at week 47, starting on 16 of November and representing 30% increase compared to previous week, 46. This rate was the highest observed compared to the same period of past 10 years of influenza surveillance and exceeded the 95th percentile of expected rates, thus, suggesting the circulation of a novel virus. Despite the end of the pandemic period, influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus continued to circulate and became the most commonly detected virus in Albania and many other countries in the winter season of 2010–2011. The system is useful for detecting and responding to natural disease outbreaks such as seasonal and pandemic flu, and thus it has the potential to significantly advance and modernize the practice of public health surveillance

  18. Outlook on principles for designing integrated and cascade use of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the countries of Western Europe, USA and Japan, the technologies of a new generation evolved to exploit high and low enthalpy geothermal sources and mineral waters. There are great experiences for modern complex exploitation of these resources, which increase natural wealth values, in European Community Countries. In Albania, rich in geothermal resources of low enthalpy and mineral waters, similar new technologies have been either partly developed or remain still untouched. Modern complex exploitation is very rare phenomena. Large numbers of geothermal energy of high and low enthalpy resources, a lot of mineral water sources and some CO2 gas reservoirs represent the base for successfully application of modern technologies in Albania, to achieve economic effectively and success of complex exploitation. Actuality, there are many geothermal, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, biological and medical investigations and studies of thermal and mineral water resources carried out in Albania. Generally, these investigations and studies are separated each from the other. Their information and data will serve for studies and evaluations in Albania regional scale. These studies and evaluations are necessary to well know in regional plane the thermal and mineral water resources potential and geothermal market of the Albania. According to results of these new studies, the evaluation for the perspective level of the best areas in country will be necessary. After the evaluation is possible to start investments in these areas. These investments will be profitable in a short period of time. Integrated and cascade use of geothermal energy of low enthalpy it is important condition for profitable investment. In Albania, there are several geothermal energy sources that can be used. Such geothermal energy sources are natural thermal water springs and deep wells with a temperature of up to 65,5oC. Deep abandoned oil wells can be used as 'Vertical Earth Heat Probe'. The integrated and

  19. Bulletin of Forest Fire risk in Albania- The experience of the Albania National Centre for forecast and Monitoring of Natural Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdufi, I.; Jaupaj, O.; Marku, M.; Deda, M.; Fiori, E.; D'Andrea, M.; Biondi, G.; Fioruci, P.; Massabò, M.; Zorba, P.; Gjonaj, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the territory of Albania usually every year around 1000 ha are affected by forest fires, from which about 500 ha are completely destroyed. The number of forest fires (nf), with the burning surface (bs) in years has been like this: during the years 1988-1998: nf / bs = 2.19, 1998-2001: nf / bs = 5.66, year 2002 -2005: nf / bs = 8.2, and during the years 2005-2006: nf / bs = 11.9, while economic losses in a year by forest fires is about 2 million of Euro. The increase in years of these figures and the last floods which happened in the last two years in Shkoder, led to an international cooperation, that between the Italian Civil Protection Department and the Albania General Directorate of Civil Emergency. The focus of this cooperation was the building capacity of the Albanian National System of Civil Protection in forecasting, monitoring and prevention forest fires and floods risks. As a result of this collaboration the "National Center for the Forecast and Monitoring of Natural Risks", was set up at the Institute of Geosciences, Energy, Water and Environment. The Center is the first of its kind in Albania. The mission of the Center is the prediction and monitoring of the forest fire and flood risk in the Albanian territory, as a tools for risk reduction and mitigation. The first step to achieve this strategy was the implementation of the forest fires risk forecast model "RISICO". RISICO was adapted for whole Albania territory by CIMA Research Foundation. The Center, in the summer season, issues a daily bulletin. The bulletin reports the potential risk scenarios related with the ignition and propagation of fires in Albania. The bulletin is broadcasted through email or fax within 12.00 AM of each working day. It highlights where and when severe risk conditions may occur within the next 48 hours

  20. The historical development of property-, and commercial Law in Albania until 1976

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    Endri Papajorgji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The legal system during communism is understandable in Albania only if we study its legal institutions and development. In this context, a chronological presentation is needed, based mainly on the work of Krisafi, Ballanca, Luarasi, Gjika, Elezi, Omari, Brozi, Gjilani (2009. In this framework, the analysis of this manuscript is closely related to the pre communism situation, not only in the frame of history of property law, but also institutions and content they had during the communism era. Main purpose of this article is the analysis of property- and commercial law in Albania, in the context of the consequences they brought in the transformation process of Albania with the fall of Communism and establishment of democracy.

  1. A FACTORIAL ANALYSIS OF INFORMACION SOURCES THAT INFLUENCE UNIVERSITY CHOICE IN ALBANIA

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    Elfrida Manoku

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available These days Higher Education Institutions (HEIs in Albania are operating in a highly dynamic environment. The aim of this study is to examine the sources of information that influence the student’s selection between public or private university in Albania by identifying the role of marketing communication in this selection. The data was gathered through self-administered questionnaires in 17 public and private universities throughout Albania. The factorial analysis conducted using the evaluations from 28 different sources of information, concluded that mainly four factors influenced university choice. These were, public relations, advertising, reference groups and internet marketing. Most of the Albanian Universities need a better understanding of the entire process the prospective students undergo during their university selection process. They also should try adopting a new orientation in their marketing communication strategies based on the students’ need for information.

  2. Assessment of Habitats Area Sand Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Alyssum Genus in Albania

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    ERIDANA ÇUNI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed soils on serpentine rocks occupies a large area in Albania which contains huge reserves of, nickel, chromium and cobalt. The purpose of our study was to identify the species, the habitats of metal’s hyperaccumulator Alyssum genus in Albania and to analyze the metals content in soils and plants too. There are accomplished several field trips investigated the mine, ultramafic and mafic soil in different areas of Albania. The soil samples and plants are taken randomly in each habitat for chemicals analyzes and species identifications. The sample of Alyssum sp. was identified according to the Flora Europea.Alyssum muralewasrepresented by three different varieties. Alyssum murale; var. chlorocarpumwas was represented in 11 habitats in south and southeast Albania. Alyssum muralevar. chalcidicum was identified in three habitats and Alyssum murale var. subvirescens also was identified in two habitats. Alyssum markgrafiiwas represented only in one habitat in North Albania. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for total Ca, Co, Cr, Mg and Ni. Based on results, each site exhibited a high concentration of one or more metals. The nickel content in soils varied between 1050 and 5650 mg kg-1dry matter. The soils pH values varied from 6.12 to 8.12. The nickel content in plant of Alyssum murale varies from 6900 to 18300 mgkg-1 dry matter. The nickel content in plants of Alyssum markgrafii is from 13770 to 22640 mg kg-1 dry matter. These results confirmed that hyperaccumulatorAlysum sp. is developed as one endemic plant on Albanian serpentine soils. Alyssum muraleis represented in four location and 16 habitats by three different varieties. Alyssum markgrafii is represented only in one isolated habitat in North Albania.

  3. Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethics. Case Study: Vodafone Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everest Haxhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many discussions about ethics beginning with a fair and fundamental question: “What is ethics all about?” It is the same as morality, or is kind of a soft law that imposes values but without enforcing them? What is the contribution of the society in imposing values and ethical standards, and how business is involved? Ethical standards are applied in business word, differing from social responsibilities that business has in the social environment where it operates. To better exemplify those concepts the researcher goes through one of the largest companies that offers wireless communications, Vodafone Albania; also one of the world’s largest mobile telecommunication operators. The bright side of social responsibilities is associated in some cases by regressive informal standards applied to all investors and new businesses in the country. The cost of informality is paid in full by the society diminishing the values of social responsibilities and ethical standards applied by business organizations. Even though, Vodafone has successfully implemented social responsiveness initiatives through cause promotions initiatives, corporate social marketing, cause related marketing, company philanthropy, community volunteering, and socially responsible business practices that support social causes to improve community well-being and protect the environment.

  4. Measles Outbreak in a Roma Community in Albania

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    ALMA ROBO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles reporting is mandatory in Albania. Despite the very high immunization coverage for MMR a measles outbreak was reported by district epidemiologist to national public health institute in june 2006. All affected persons were from a Roma community living in the town of Elbasan. We report the epidemiological features of this epidemic. Method: Active surveillance was conducted and cases analyzed had to meet the national case definition “rash maculopapular with fever”. The diagnosis was established by clinical signs, confirmed by serologic results. Sera samples from all the suspected cases were tested for Measles IgM by ELISA and molecular genotyping of virus by the regional reference laboratory. Results: According to the case definition 16 cases were actively found, 13 (77% were female and 3 (23% male. The mean age was 7.1 years (range: three months to 23 years. Most of the patients had Koplik spots, coryza and conjunctivitis. All cases were unvaccinated. All patients recovered and no fatal cases. Conclusion: Gaps of low vaccine coverage facilitated the measles infection to spread. The vaccination of this community it difficult despite the commitement of the health staff. Families with their children are in ongoing migration all over the country and abroad. As a response to stop the spread of the measles outbreak, the district epidemiological service in Elbasan with the support from the national institute of public health, organised a mass vaccination campaign.

  5. Legal Aspects of Corporate Governance in Albania: A critical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Fana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The academic debate on legal aspects of corporate governance, be it at national or international level, has strongly intensified especially during the last two decades. Such tendency has also influenced the relevant Albanian legal framework, as it is evidenced by the most recent amendments on the Law “On Entrepreneurs and Commercial Companies” of 2014. This article focuses exactly on an analyses of the legal and quasi-legal norms of corporate governance in Albania (IFC principles, providing a comparison between the latter and the European Union norms or other internationally recognized principles of good corporate governance, such as the OECD principles. Main objective of this article is to provide a critical analyses of legal rules on two main components of corporate governance, namely shareholder rights and stakeholder protection in a corporation, identifying in this way, when relevant, the necessity for reforming commercial norms. Lastly, from a methodological point of view, the article employs the functional interpretative method of legal norms, critical analyses of relevant case law and when it comes to the comparison between the national and supra-national approaches to corporate governance; it uses the functional comparative method.

  6. Data quality and accounting information systems: Actual performance in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjon Zoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Data quality is crucial in today’s business processes, as it is generally associated with the set of data fit for use by data consumers - the persons that access, interpret and use data during their work activity. On the other hand, data quality is very important for the Accounting Information Systems’ (AIS success, where AIS is a computer-based system that processes financial data and supports the decision making processes inside the organization. There are empirical evidences showing that data quality level in AIS has been and will always be problematic. Their interrelationship is dependant of several factors, including technical capacities or even the level of teamwork in an organization. This paper tries to analyze the actual performance of the factors influencing in the process of data quality in AIS used from organizations in Albania. The results will be compared with state-of-art literature review regarding the factors perceived as critical factors in ensuring data quality in AIS, giving way to some important concluding remarks.

  7. Education Factor and Human Resources Development - Albania Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonila Berdo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  8. Social housing and situation of Roma minority in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindita Xhillari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to social housing is sanctioned as a fundamental human right in a number of international instruments ratified by Albania, but currently this right does not find adequate protection in Albania’s legislation. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Affairs of the United Nations, has set standards concerning the right to adequate housing. The right to social housing should not be equated with having a roof over head, but should be seen as the right to live somewhere safely and with dignity. The right to social housing should be provided to all people regardless of their income and implemented in a manner consistent with their resources. Lack of an adequate legal framework of the right to housing, today has consequences on several issues as for examples the case of the eviction of Roma to the Lake area in Tirana, lack of adequate housing, families with low income, beneficiary families by the aid schemes, homeless women victims of domestic violence, or even the category of tenants housed in former state apartments. Through this paper we will seek to cover many issues and present some recommendations for the improvement and creation of facilities for vulnerable groups such as the Roma minority, in order to meet and set objective standards regarding social housing

  9. The Performance of Public Investments During Fiscal Consolidation in Albania

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    Blerta Zilja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Public Investments are generally accepted as one of the main factors which contribute in the economic growth of a country, despite that several studies bring evidences that these variables are not always strongly correlated to each other. However, the sensitivity of economic growth to Public Investments (PI and the high level of budget funds spent from governments for capital expenditures have made the issue on PI in general and moreover the factors that influence on PI very important to researchers and public as well.This paper gives a broad insight of public investments performance in developed or developing countries over time, underlining several factors that have assessed this performance, focusing especially on the impact of fiscal consolidation. It brings the views of many authors over the fact whether the governments during fiscal consolidation, in order to control debt stock and the budget balance prefer to cut current expenditures or capital expenditures. Furthermore, it analyses how Albania has reacted during its periods of fiscal consolidation and which has been the behavior of different governments toward PI.

  10. Social Media, Impact on News Sources for Television Journalism in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Cela, Erlis

    2015-01-01

    AbstractSocial media or media of the new generation is now a tangible reality in Albania as it is in the entire world. In the last years social networks, blogs, different informative sites on the internet have been turned in an important element affecting the political, economic and social different societies. The development of information technology, the increase of internet users have bring the spread of the social networks, known as social media in Albania,  setting it in the same line wi...

  11. Religion on the border: Sanctuaries and festivals in post-communist Albania

    OpenAIRE

    De Rapper, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to bring together observations conducted in three ‘sanctuaries' of south-east Albania and observations regarding the international border between Greece and Albania and its impact on local society. The aim of this paper is not to give a detailed account of religious life in those places, but rather to contextualise the three festivals in the border area; it suggests that ‘sacred places' are not insignificant places in the border area. In the first part of the paper, s...

  12. Neotectonic Studies of the Lake Ohrid Basin (FYROM/Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadine, H.; Liermann, A.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Reicherter, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Lake Ohrid Basin located on 693 m a.s.l. at the south-western border of Macedonia (FYROM) with Albania is a suitable location for neotectonic studies. The lake is set in an extensional basin-and-range-like situation, which is influenced by the roll-back and detachment of the subducted slab of the Northern Hellenic Trench. The seismicity record of the area lists frequent shallow earthquakes with magnitudes of up to 6.6, which classifies the region as one of the highest risk areas for Macedonia and Albania. A multidisciplinary approach was chosen to reveal the stress history of the region. Tectonic morphology, paleostress analysis, remote sensing and geophysical investigations have been taken out to trace the landscape evolution. Furthermore, apatite fission-track (A-FT) analysis and t-T-path modelling was performed to constrain the thermal history and the exhumation rates. The deformation history of the basin can be divided in three major phases. This idea is also supported by paleostress data collected around the lake: 1. NW-SE shortening from Late Cretaceous to Miocene with compression, thrusting and uplift; 2. Uplift and diminishing compression in Late Miocene causing strike-slip and normal faulting; 3. Vertical uplift and E-W extension from Pliocene to present associated with local subsidence and (half-) graben formation. The initiation of the Ohrid Basin can be dated to Late Miocene to Pliocene. The morphology of the basin itself shows features, which characterize the area as an active seismogenic landscape. The elongated NS-trending basin is limited by the steep flanks of Galicica and Mokra Mountains to the E and W, which are tectonically controlled by normal faulting. This is expressed in linear step-like fault scarps on land with heights between 2 and 35 m. The faults have lengths between 10 and 20 km and consist of several segments. Post-glacial bedrock fault scarps at Lake Ohrid are long-lived expressions of repeated surface faulting in tectonically

  13. Towards the Importance for Sustainable Development: Case Study: Albania

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    Klodiana Gorica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Information has become an important element without which society cannot achieve its objectives. The term “information society” is increasingly used nowadays, because of the importance and necessity of information in today's dynamic environment. Western countries are convinced that the information society will result in economic and social benefits (Audenhove 2000. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, notes that information infrastructures are expected to stimulate economic growth, increase productivity, create jobs, and improve on the quality of life (Gichoya 2005. It is for these reasons that many studies state that the role of ICTs as enablers of sustainable development is growing. The overall goal of this paper is to point out the importance of ICT market development for the sustainable development of all the economy and the final development of Information society, especially in developing countries, where Albania is the case study illustration. The first step of this research is to show the importance of studying ICTs in the light of building an information society. In fact, the efforts of a country to build an information society, in order to benefit in terms of sustainable development, are closely related to the efforts of building strong information infrastructures and a growing ICT sector. Many indicators related to Information society measurement deal in fact with the infrastructures needed and the products and services of ICT sector. But, failures to submit ICT in contexts which are contrary to techno-economic rationality are reflected in many cases in developing countries. Thus, a defining characteristic of this research is to understand the contexts that confront ICT and information systems development in developing countries in terms of their conditions. In fact the development of ICT sector, depend not only on the political, economic and social conditions of each country, but also on the phase of e

  14. Comparison of Two Approaches for Pasture Inventory in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZENI MYRTOLLARI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract section. This study presents the evaluation of two approaches (field and remote sensing - GIS applied for inventorying pasture condition in Albania. The field inventory was carried out by trained experts in the context of the latest Albanian National Forest Inventory (ANFI, based on 162 sample plots chosen randomly over the pasture areas. At each sample plotit was collected detailed data about pasture condition which were made available for this study. The second approachwe applied, consisted of a combination of Remote Sensing and GIS algorithms to derive several variable maps(classified into a number of classes: cover components of pastures,slope, aspect, elevation, erosion, distance from the hydrologic network, road network and the location of villages. The results indicated significant differences between both methodologies, especially for the cover components of pastures, where a difference of 14% was found regarding the evaluation of herbaceous species. Environmental and pasture use variables appeared to be evaluated differently too, especially the erosion level and distances of pastures from thevillages, networks of roads and water sources.We conclude that the main reason for such discrepancy should bethe low coverage of pasture area in terms of number of sample plots as well as their distribution.Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that in the future, inventory of pasture condition should be done as much as possible using Remote Sensing and GIS technology because it guarantees full coverage of the study area, reduces the field work which is expensive and time consuming, and provides more reliable evaluation of pasture condition.

  15. Aquaponic systems as excellent agricultural research instruments in Albania

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    RIGERS BAKIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponic systems are recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS that incorporate the production of plants without soil. Recirculating systems are designed to raise large quantities of fish in relatively small volumes of water by treating the water to remove toxic waste products and then reusing the water many times. The accumulated metabolic by-products, like non-toxic nutrients and organic matter, need not be wasted if they are channeled into secondary crops that have economic value or in some way benefit the primary fish production system. We plan to use as secondary crops, terrestrial plants grown in conjunction with fish. This integrated system is referred to as an aquaponic system. The goal is to culture a vegetable that will generate the highest level of income per unit area per unit time. Culinary herbs are the best choice. We think that there may be also good potential for growing traditional medicinal plants in aquaponic systems, especially in Albania, which is one of the leading exporters of medicinal herbs in Europe. The aims and objectives of building an aquaponic system in the Agricultural University of Tirana are 1. to create an excellent scientific research environment inside the greenhouses, where the aquaponic systems can be equipped with all necessary monitoring instruments in order to evaluate the performance of several experiments that can be performed by PhD students under the assistance of technical staff members and 2. to establish a perfect scientific environment where new ideas may come out from the collaborations between PhD students, researchers and professors.

  16. Tax evasion in transition: Outcome of an institutional clash? - Testing Feige's conjecture in Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Gërxhani

    2004-01-01

    A field survey of households was conducted in Tirana, Albania in 2000. A response rate of 89.3% yielded 1.340 valid questionnaires, allowing me to test Feige's (In: Nelson, J.M., Tilley, C., Walker, L. (Eds.), Transforming Post-communist Political Economics. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, p

  17. Pest control in Albania: an example of collaboration in technical and scientific development in public health

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    Enkelejda Velo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2007, a severe cockroach (Blattella germanica infestation was reported on the premises of the Scutari Regional Hospital. The hospital was infested by cockroaches despite regular insecticide treatment by local pest control officers. The failure of treatment required a careful evaluation of the problem. It also created the opportunity for a more complete analysis of pest control in Albania.

  18. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Extant Freshwater Ostracodes (Crustacea) in Ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Lorenschat; Liseth Pérez; Alexander Correa-Metrio; Mark Brenner; Ullrich von Bramann; Antje Schwalb

    2014-01-01

    We carried out an intensive sampling survey in ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania), covering all seasons, to determine total species number, relative species abundances and spatial distribution of Ostracoda. We identified 32 living species that belong to seven families (Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, Leptocytheridae, Limnocytheridae, Cytherideidae, and Darwinulidae) and 15 genera (Candona, Fabaeformiscandona, Candonopsis, Cypria, Cyclocypris, Ilyocypris, Eucypris, Prionocypris, Br...

  19. The Political Parties as Organisations of Representation of the Political Rights of Individuals in Albania

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    Klajdi Mone

    2014-01-01

    The development of political parties in Albania has passed in two stages in the communist system where only one party was known and in the democratic system where was recognized political pluralism. Highlighting the role of political parties, as an important promoter of the functioning of state and of the coverage of the political rights of individuals, makes this study important.

  20. Lone mothers and welfare policies in Albania : Conditions, experiences, expectations, 1944-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruda, A.

    2015-01-01

    This is an action research that endeavors to construct the category of ‘lone mothers’ in Albania, through their own voice, for the purpose of creating the socio-political discourse on their real needs they and their children have. It talks about lone mothers not as needy or vulnerable, but as women

  1. Surveillance of communicable diseases among the Kosovar refugees in Albania, April-June 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, M; Pinto, A; Coulombier, D; Hashorva, E; Murthi, M

    1999-09-01

    Albania, a country with 3.5 million inhabitants, is facing an economic and social crisis. The average per capita income is less than US$1000 per year. Since 1995 unemployment has increased by 2.7%. Poverty and migration are major constraints of the societ PMID:12631890

  2. MACROECONOMIC AND MARKET DETERMINANTS OF INTEREST RATE SPREAD: EVIDENCE FROM ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunilda NELI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The banking system, as the most important component of the financial system in Albania, plays a crucial role in economic development. Measuring the efficiency of the intermediation system requires special attention because of its implications on the level of investments, savings, resource allocation etc. The most common indicator for the efficiency of the banking system is the cost of intermediation, measured by the spread of interest rates (the difference between the average lending rate and the average deposit rate. The study aims to analyze the trend of interest rate spread (IRS in Albania for the period 2005-2014 based on a comparative analysis with other countries and to identify the factors with significant impact on the level of IRS in the local currency. It is based on the empirical analysis of several macroeconomic and market factors that determine IRS, used in previous studies in this field, but also incorporating other elements that are associated with the characteristics of the Albanian system. Albania has experienced high IRS during the last decade, with large fluctuations, especially in the local currency. The results of the study based on quarterly panel data for the period 2005-2014 show that IRS in Albania is negatively affected by the level of development of the banking sector and the discount rate, while inflation, deficit rate and monetary supply put positive pressure on this indicator.

  3. Enhancing the resilience of local communities threated by natural disaster: the experience of the Project "Shkoder", (Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Pazzi V.; Morelli S.; Fidolini F.; Fanti R.; Vannocci P.; Krymbi E.; Centoducati C.; Ghini A.

    2013-01-01

    The vulnerability of Albanian population to natural disasters is due to poverty, inadequate infrastructures (e.g. communication network, basic public facilities and works of soil protection), an uncontrollable building boom and a range of environmental factors, both geomorphological and geological. The greatest disaster threats in Albania are those related to severe earthquakes and large-scale riverine floods. Geohazards assessment is a crucial point for Albania, which has been su...

  4. Pattern of Engagement of People with Disabilities and Their Family Members in the Policy Making Process in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Blerta Cani Drenofci; Marita Flagler

    2010-01-01

    Foreign direct investments are very important for the implementation of strategic reforms, transfer of advanced technologies and managerial methods, thereby stimulating economic growth in developing countries and in particular, transition economies such as Albania is. During the last years, Albania experienced an increase in foreign investors’ interest in a wide range of sectors, with energy generation, telecommunication, cement production, mining, oil and industrial parks heading the list. H...

  5. Fishing activity of small pelagic in Albania: 1948-1990

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    ROLAND KRISTO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The small pelagic species are important commercial fishes of the Adriatic Sea. In Albania, the fishing activity of Sardines had a key importance still in 1990, as it represented about 70% of total catch. The main fishing method used was purse seine using light attraction that represented about 80% of total catches of sardines and the rest was mid-water pelagic trawl nets towed by two vessels. Albanian catches of sardines reached a maximum value, in 1982-1985 with value from 5,000 to 6,500 tons and maximum at 1984 with 6,596 tons. In 1990, the Sardine fleet consisted of 60 fishing vessels, from which 28 in Vlora, 12 in Durres, 12 in Shengjin and 8 in Saranda. The number of fishing vessels for bottom trawl fishing was as average 21 and 23 for 1985 and 1989 respectively, with a maximum of 28 fishing vessels. The average of fishing days was about 142 days/year. The production for 1985 was 1899.6 tons and for 1989 was 2324.2 tons. The number of fishing vessels for mid water pelagic pair trawls was as average 17 and 8 for 1985 and 1989 respectively, with a maximum of 27 and 16 fishing vessels. The production for 1985 was 2230.2 tons and for 1989 was 744.6 tons. The number of fishing vessels with purse seines with light attraction was as average 34 and 37 for 1985 and 1989 respectively, with a maximum of 38 and 45 fishing vessels. The average of fishing days was about 137 days/year. The production for 1985 and 1989 was 3319.2 and 2919.8 tons respectively. The number of coastal fishing vessels was as average 13 and 15 for 1985 and 1989 respectively, with a maximum of 14 and 19 fishing vessels. The average of fishing days was about 109 days/year. The production for 1985 and 1989 was 166.7 and 188.9 tons respectively

  6. DAM-LAKEFRONT PLAZA: Revitalization of an Agriculture Reservoir Dam in Kashar-Tirana/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Koçi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dam-Lakefront Plaza in Kashar-Tirana/Albania is a research project that proposes not only the re-consideration and reinforcement of the artificial Reservoirs Dams built during Socialism in Albania, but envisions the maintenance of dams and revitalization of the lakeside area promoting the public-private collaboration. In addition, it envisions the generation of qualitative and lively public spaces in sub-urban areas as well. Admitting the artificial lakes as specific nodes of man-made infrastructure in the landscape, and consequently the dams (together with the drainage channels as important hydrotechnic elements of the flood protection infrastructure, this research intends to elaborate on one type of landscape infrastructure - the vertical screens, offering a mediation between the natural and built landscape.

  7. Mortgage lending and house prices in Albania - a co-integrated analysis based on VECM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjona REBI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The general view that the banks’ lending plays a crucial role in the real estate market was again confirmed during the recent financial crisis. During the precrisis period, house prices in Albania increased rapidly, supported also by a fast expansion of mortgage lending. This study aims to empirically analyse the relation between housing prices and banks’ financing in the long run, referring to a VECM model. The estimated results confirm the important role of mortgage to house prices. Meanwhile, the relation between house prices and interest rates resulted statistically insignificant. Unlike the previous literature, exchange rate has been included as an endogenous variable. Results show positive correlation and statistical significance between house prices and exchange rate. Finally, this paper is expected to contribute to the literature as there are very few studies that elaborate on the macroeconomic factors’ influence on the housing prices in Albania.

  8. Key barriers to the use of modern contraceptives among women in Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Nielsen, Siff Malue; Butler, Robb;

    2012-01-01

    organisations involved in promoting modern contraception, and four focus group discussions with 40 women from Tirana and a rural village in the periphery of Tirana, divided according to age and residence, were also conducted. Content analysis was used to analyse both the interviews and focus group discussions...... attitudes towards contraceptives and a lack of knowledge about the use and benefits of modern contraception. To promote contraceptive use in the future, campaigns should address these barriers and expand from a focus on women of reproductive age only to target youth, men, health care providers, parents......In spite of a number of communication campaigns since 1999 promoting modern contraceptives in Albania, their use remains low. In this paper we identify and analyse key barriers to the use of modern contraception among women in Albania. Semi-structured interviews with 11 stakeholders from...

  9. The role of railway infrastructure on the tourism development (case Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bramo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is an important factor that affects the economic development of a country. Railway infrastructure is considered one of the most economic means of transport. On the other hand, tourism has begun to be recognized in recent years as one of the most profitable industries and with a secure future, especially for countries still underdeveloped. Albania has a strategic position in the Balkans and has great tourist resources as land, water, cultural and historical as well. Albanian Railways is underdeveloped and this transport is not frequented by people. Construction of Corridor VIII rail that is supposed to connect the Adriatic Sea with the Black Sea will serve as a key factor in the economic development of Albania.

  10. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  11. Economics of Tertiary Education - Challenges and dynamics of the public tertiary education in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledian Llatja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary education is a critic mechanism for the socio-economic progress, for individuals who aspire a brighter future and it is also considered an important catalyzer of the economic mobility (Department of Treasury and Department of Education, 2012, 2. Based on the positive role and impact that the tertiary education has on the sustainable development, President Obama once stated that it is of damage to treat education as a luxurious public service. In line with the general considerations about the tertiary education in the U.S. the parallel comparison with Albania comes as a direct interpretation of utopia in the education policy-making. As policies are usually drafted based on data and findings, in the case of Albania there is a lack of data on expenses on tertiary education as share of GDP. This stands also for the main limitation of the paper.

  12. Intelligence reform in Albania its relation to democratization and integration in EU and NATO

    OpenAIRE

    Bala, Eduart

    2008-01-01

    This thesis will focus on analyzing the challenges of the Albanian intelligence services during the implementation of the Security Sector Reform. What is the progress made in addressing these challenges and what are the problems still remaining? Which are the challenges that these services should face during the second phase, the consolidation of the SSR reform in the process of integration in EU and NATO? Albania as a new democratic society should not wait for better conditions to vigoro...

  13. The essential impact of eu and other international organizations on the democratization process for Albania

    OpenAIRE

    DOBI (PESHKEPIA) IRNA

    2015-01-01

    Number of international organizations (IO) like NATO, OSCE, COUNCIL OF EUROPE, and EU play directly an essential role on Western Balkans democratization process. However, the requirements in the Balkan are not in the same level and seem that the EU doesn’t require the same standards from Albania. On this point of view the question consist on the effects of conditionality on democratization. The objective is to analyze the main actors’ interests and the relationship between Europeanization and...

  14. Pest management in Albania: un esempio di coopartecipazione allo sviluppo tecnico-scientifico in Salute Pubblica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Pampiglione

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nel settembre 2007 veniva segnalata un’intensa infestazione di blatte (Blatella germanica nei locali dell’Ospedale Regionale di Scutari. Tali locali risultavano colonizzati dalle blatte nonostante i regolari trattamenti anti-infestanti eseguiti dal personale sanitario locale preposto. Questa situazione di forte insuccesso dei trattamenti richiedeva necessariamente una valutazione più attenta al problema. Si sono inoltre create le premesse per un’analisi più completa del comparto del Pest Management in Albania.

  15. A new view into political business cycles: Household behaviour in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Endrit Lami; Holger Kächelein; Drini Imami

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, there has been plenty of research and publications on Political Business Cycles (PBC), aimed at analysing and explaining the use of fiscal and monetary instruments to stimulate economic growth before elections, with the intention of impressing potential voters. Previous research on PBC in Albania reveals clear evidence of fiscal expansion before elections, but no significant changes in GDP and inflation as theory predicts. One possible explanation of this result could b...

  16. The money-happiness relationship in transition countries: evidence from Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Becchetti; Sara Savastano

    2009-01-01

    With an empirical analysis on a panel of individuals living in a transition country (Albania) we document that the impact of money on happiness does not depend only on the pecuniary outcome but also from aspirations and conditions leading to its determination. Additional factors which matter are the self perceived economic status and the share earned from remittances (and, more weakly, from social assistance). By looking at different sides of the phenomenon we find that these factors affect l...

  17. Mortgage lending and house prices in Albania - a co-integrated analysis based on VECM

    OpenAIRE

    Erjona REBI

    2014-01-01

    The general view that the banks’ lending plays a crucial role in the real estate market was again confirmed during the recent financial crisis. During the precrisis period, house prices in Albania increased rapidly, supported also by a fast expansion of mortgage lending. This study aims to empirically analyse the relation between housing prices and banks’ financing in the long run, referring to a VECM model. The estimated results confirm the important role of mortgage to house ...

  18. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 637 ka and the present

    OpenAIRE

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Just, Janna; Leicher, Niklas; Gromig, Raphael; Baumgarten, Henrike; Vogel, Hendrik; Lacey, Jack H.; Sadori, Laura; Wonik, Thomas; Leng, Melanie J.; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and host more than 300 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m compos...

  19. Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, B.; A. Francke; Sulpizio, R.; G. Zanchetta; Lindhorst, K.; S. Krastel; H. Vogel; J. Rethemeyer; Daut, G.; A. Grazhdani; Lushaj, B.; S. Trajanovski

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectoni...

  20. First tephrostratigraphic results of the DEEP site record from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Leicher, Niklas; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio; Wagner, Bernd; Nomade, Sebastien; Francke, Alexander; Carlo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A tephrostratigraphic record covering the Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1–15 was established for the DEEP site record of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania). Major element analyses (energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy (WDS)) were carried out on juvenile fragments extracted from 12 tephra layers (OH-DP-0115 to OH-DP-2060). The geochemical analyses of the glass shards of all of these layers suggest an origin in the Italian volcanic province...

  1. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 640 ka and present day

    OpenAIRE

    A. Francke; Wagner, B.; Just, J.; N. Leicher; Gromig, R.; H. Baumgarten; H. Vogel; J. H. Lacey; Sadori, L.; T. Wonik; Leng, M. J.; G. Zanchetta; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical ...

  2. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 637 ka and the present

    OpenAIRE

    A. Francke; Wagner, B.; Just, J.; N. Leicher; Gromig, R.; H. Baumgarten; Vogel, Hendrik; J. H. Lacey; Sadori, L.; T. Wonik; Leng, M. J.; G. Zanchetta; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and host more than 300 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m composite depth of the o...

  3. Genetic Diversity of Human Adenovirus in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis, Albania, 2013–2015

    OpenAIRE

    La Rosa, G.; Della Libera, S.; S. Petricca; M. Iaconelli; D. Donia; Saccucci, P.; Cenko, F.; Xhelilaj, G.; Divizia, M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in paediatric patients with gastroenteritis in Albania and to characterize HAdV strains. Faecal specimens from children admitted with acute gastroenteritis to the Paediatric Hospital in Tirana were screened for HAdV, using broad-range primers targeting the hexon gene, in combination with species-specific primers targeting the fiber gene. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the geneti...

  4. Albania, the human factor and sustainable development: a lesson from the present

    OpenAIRE

    Arta Musaraj

    2011-01-01

    Albania as all Balkan countries in general, in the past 20 years faced with deep and continuous socio-economic change which resulted not simply in a totally newly shaped economy, but also in new and unexperienced paths of human resources developments. This referring to the qualitative, quantitative and diversification terms, brings the age of new professions and connections between the academic development and advancement and the adaption with the real necessities of the labor market. Adding ...

  5. Determination of the pluviometric deficit as a base for the climate classification in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    AZEM BARDHI1; BESNIK GJONGECAJ; PASHK LEKAJ

    2014-01-01

    The sum of all climatic parameters known until now, in a strict understanding, cannot be the same as climate itself. The climate is the parameters we know plus potential evapotranspiration. The purpose of this paper is first, to quantify the potential evapotranspiration and then, combining it with the rainfall values, to quantify the pluviometric deficit all over Albania as a substantial precondition for climate classification. The functions of both, potential evapotranspiration and rainfall ...

  6. Access to Secondary Education in Albania: Incentives, Obstacles, and Policy Spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Mihails Hazans; Ija Trapeznikova

    2006-01-01

    When judged either by educational attainment of adult population or by secondary and tertiary enrollment rates, by 2002 Albania compared very unfavorably to most European countries, including its neighbors. This study examines the determinants of secondary enrollment applying unobserved family effect probit model to data from Living Standards Measurement Survey 2002- 2003. The focus of the paper is to investigate the importance of access to school and to further education for enrollment. We f...

  7. Moving towards Practice-Oriented and Research-Based Teacher Education: Challenges of Kosovo and Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Vula; Blerim Saqipi; Theodory Karaj; Nikoleta Mita

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the current status, development trends and challenges of teacher education in Kosovo and Albania in their efforts to be aligned with current trends of a more research-based, practice and skills oriented teacher education system. The article compares the provision of pre-service teacher education and draws conclusions related to future development trends of the two countries as they aim to meet the best international standards and practices in shaping pre-service teacher ...

  8. The role of railway infrastructure on the tourism development (case Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabjola Bramo

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure is an important factor that affects the economic development of a country. Railway infrastructure is considered one of the most economic means of transport. On the other hand, tourism has begun to be recognized in recent years as one of the most profitable industries and with a secure future, especially for countries still underdeveloped. Albania has a strategic position in the Balkans and has great tourist resources as land, water, cultural and historical as well. Albanian Rai...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION IN ALBANIA IN THE NEW ERA OF MARKET ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Rezarta Shkurti (Perri); Brikena Leka

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the most important developments that the accounting profession has experienced ever since Albania switched from a closed economy to an open market one. We put forth a discussion about the factors that recently seem to represent major challenges for the accountants. We identify as two of the most important and emergent challenges the technology innovations and the globalization trend in accounting and financial reporting. Since computers began to be widely ...

  10. Domestic Violence against Women in Albania: a Legal and Socioeconomic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Vokshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Domestic violence is one of those social phenomena that because it is linked with the notion of conflict, have always been part of the human existence. It is generated in human interaction, and its causes have been studied by many scientists and other researchers of the field. The ability or inability of a person to resolve conflicts in a peaceful way influences his or her inclination toward violence. The failure to compromise and peacefully resolve domestic related problems is a predominant factor that feeds domestic violence. The aim of this paper is to explore the legal and socio-economic perspectives on domestic violence against women in Albania.Domestic violence is an issue not only in developing countries, but also in consolidated and developed democracies. In Albania there have been made several efforts to create a legal framework in order to protect vulnerable groups targeted by domestic violence.Albania is one of the developing countries of this world, where the culture of being strong and tough is still a strong value. Unfortunately many people link this quality with being violent toward others, irrespective of who they are (even family members. The need to dominate or other psychological factors play an important role in this context, along with models that one perceives as good to follow. Therefore culture is crucial in analyzing the factors that feed domestic violence. In recent years there has been a series of legal initiatives that have been enacted into law, and that deal with the question of domestic violence in Albania. But, the comparison with the EU countries shows that much needs to be done, in order to ameliorate the general situation of domestic violence.

  11. Farming of rabbit local breed as an alternative activity on small scale farms in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Llambiri A.; Papa L.; Kume K.

    2010-01-01

    Rabbit breeding on small scale family farms is carried on as an alternative production activity, in Albania. Extensive production system and breeding of local rabbit breed are most frequent. Albanian local rabbit can be classified in middle size breed group. It is a population with high morphological and biological variability, with variation in coat colour. Rabbit farming is a useful production activity on small scale family farms. Breeding 2-3 couples of reproducing rabbits could increase t...

  12. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    OpenAIRE

    Xhixha, Gerti; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/k...

  13. A Comparative Assessment of Zootherapeutic Remedies From Selected Areas in Albania, Italy, Spain and Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Quave, Cassandra Leah; Lohani, Usha; Verde, Alonso; Fajardo, José; Rivera, Diego; Obón, Concepción; Valdes, Arturo; Pieroni, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Zootherapy is the treatment of human ailments with remedies derived from animals and their products. Despite its prevalence in traditional medical practices worldwide, research on this phenomenon has often been neglected in comparison to medicinal plant research. Interviews regarding zootherapeutic traditions were conducted with informants from Albania, Italy, Nepal and Spain. We identified 80 species used in zootherapeutic remedies, representing 4 phyla in the animal kingdom: Annelida, Arthr...

  14. Comparisons of stakeholders’ perception towards the sustainable tourism development and its impacts in Shkodra Region (Albania

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    Drita Kruja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the world’s fastest growing industries, and has been identified as a means of generating national income in less industrialized economies. Like other countries, Albania has promoted tourism as a major source of national income. The tourism industry in Albania currently focuses on coastal areas, rather than on the unique features that set this country apart from its neighbors. Albania’s natural features have the potential to attract tourists seeking ecological and cultural experiences. Thoughtful, sustainable development of these resources could enhance community livelihoods throughout Albania. The purpose of this study was to discover if differences in perceptions of sustainable tourism development and principles in Shkodra Region existed between four stakeholder groups: residents, entrepreneurs, government officials, and tourists. Data were collected from stakeholders using a self competed questionnaire, which included Likert-style questions inquiring about attitudes and perceptions of sustainable tourism development in the community. The data gathered illustrate that the perception of sustainable tourism principles varies considerably among stakeholder groups. As a distinct stakeholder group, the majority of local residents generally were welcoming of tourism.

  15. Moving towards Practice-Oriented and Research-Based Teacher Education: Challenges of Kosovo and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Vula

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current status, development trends and challenges of teacher education in Kosovo and Albania in their efforts to be aligned with current trends of a more research-based, practice and skills oriented teacher education system. The article compares the provision of pre-service teacher education and draws conclusions related to future development trends of the two countries as they aim to meet the best international standards and practices in shaping pre-service teacher education from a research-based and practice orientation. This article is based primarily on findings from desk research conducted at public universities in Kosovo and Albania, more specifically analyzing the university curricula and other documents related to the provision of teacher education courses. In addition, the research involves the analysis of work completed and documents produced as a result of the 2009-2011 Trans-European Mobility Program for University Studies (TEMPUS Project “Development of Master Study Programs in Education” (DEMED. The article outlines the similarities and differences of teacher education systems in Kosovo and Albania and emphasizes the need for small countries to co-operate on joint reform that leads to wider regional impact and facilitates mobility of staff and students. Identifying common goals is thus important. The two priority goals for these two countries are: development of practice and research-based teacher education. Conclusions are presented with the intent of findings being extrapolated to similar small, developing countries.

  16. Vertical slip rates of active faults of southern Albania inferred from river terraces

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    Oswaldo Guzmán

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial terraces of Shkumbin, Devoll, Osum and Vjosa rivers (southern Albania and northwestern Greece are studied in order to quantify the vertical slip rates of the large active faults of the Dinaric-Albanic-Hellenic Alpine fold belt. The spatial and temporal variations of the incision rates along these rivers were estimated from the geomorphological mapping of the Quaternary sediments, the geometry and the dating of the terraces. Eleven terraces levels were identified in Albania from 68 geochronological ages already published or acquired for this work. The five lower terraces of the four studied rivers are well dated (10 new and 23 already published ages. These terraces are younger than 30 ka and their remnants are numerous. Their restoration allows estimating the regional trend of incision rate and the identification of local shifts. We argue that these shifts are linked to the active tectonics when they coincide with the faults already mapped by previous authors. Vertical slip rates for eight active faults in southern Albania are thus estimated for the last 19 ka and vary from ~0.1 to ~2 mm/a. The Lushnje Tepelene Thrust, that extends more than 120 kilometers, has a throw rate that varies from 0.2 to 0.8 mm/a, whereas the active faults of the extensional domain are segmented but are very active, with throw rates reaching locally 2 mm/a.

  17. Genetic architecture of trout from Albania as revealed by mtDNA control region variation

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    Shumka Spase

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To determine the genetic architecture of trout in Albania, 87 individuals were collected from 19 riverine and lacustrine sites in Albania, FYROM and Greece. All individuals were analyzed for sequence variation in the mtDNA control region. Among fourteen haplotypes detected, four previously unpublished haplotypes, bearing a close relationship to haplotypes of the Adriatic and marmoratus lineages of Salmo trutta, were revealed. Ten previously described haplotypes, characteristic of S. ohridanus, S. letnica and the Adriatic and Mediterranean lineages of S. trutta, were also detected. Haplotypes detected in this study were placed in a well supported branch of S. ohridanus, and a cluster of Mediterranean – Adriatic – marmoratus haplotypes, which were further delimited into three subdivisions of Mediterranean, marmoratus, and a previously non-described formation of four Adriatic haplotypes (Balkan cluster. Haplotypes of the Balkan cluster and the other Adriatic haplotypes, do not represent a contiguous haplotype lineage and appear not to be closely related, indicating independent arrivals into the Adriatic drainage and suggesting successive colonization events. Despite the presence of marmoratus haplotypes in Albania, no marbled phenotype was found, confirming previously reported findings that there is no association between this phenotype and marmoratus haplotypes.

  18. [Arthropod-borne parasites of dogs, especially Leishmania, in the Kosovo and Albania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazri, Tune; Duscher, Georg; Edelhofer, Renate; Bytyci, Burim; Gjino, Paskal; Joachim, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Currently no information is available regarding canine arthropod-borne parasites in Albania and the Kosovo, especially the zoonotic protozoan Leishmania infantum. Presumably autochtonous cases of human leishmaniosis have been described for some areas (Kosovo: Ferizaj, Gjakovo, Pec, Malisevo; Albania: Tirana, Durres, Elbasan, Shkodra, Vlore). In order to investigate the infection status of dogs of different origin sera from 272 animals (151 from Albania - Tirana, Kamza and Durres; 121 from the Kosovo - Gjakovo, Ferizaj and Prishtina) were obtained. Corresponding blood samples were available from 36 Albanian stray dogs. Antibody titres were determined by Indirect Immunofluorescence Test against L. infantum and Babesia canis. Antigens of Dirofilaria immitis were determined using the DiroCheck-Test. Blood samples were tested for L. infantum, B. canis, Hepatozoon canis, D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific antibodies against Babesia were found in 7.3% of the animals, against Leishmania in 3.3% and 7.0% were positive for D. immitis antigen. DNA of Babesia, Leishmania or D. repens was detected in 11.1%, respectively. H. canis was found in 52.8% of the blood samples. D. immitis DNA was not detected. Since the Babesia- and Leishmania-PCR-positive animals were all serologically negative it can be assumed that infections were acquired only recently. All Leishmania-positive animals were stray dogs. These animals contribute to the maintenance of Leishmania transmission in endemic areas, and a control of the canine stray population should be considered. PMID:19066774

  19. The Contribution of SMEs to the Economic Growth (Case of Albania

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    Alba Kruja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Small & Medium Sized Enterprises have an important place in the economical development of Albania. They already consist of the majority of private business and they are the main source of employment generation, innovation and productivity growth. In this context an
    important determinant of the Albanian economy development lies in the development of small and medium enterprises, which is not based only on the number of start-ups but also on the positive change of business environment and entrepreneurial skills. The aim of the research is to examine the contribution of SMEs to the economic growth of the country through employment generation, building of added value, GDP, export activities etc., and the changes in entrepreneurial skills of Albanian SMEs to foresee the ways of improvement and enterprise development. The methods of research are: analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature discussing the problems SMEs are facing and the environmental changes; the systematic statistical data analysis of Albanian entrepreneurial skills of small and medium-sized enterprises. The analysis shows that from the weakest dimensions of SME sector in Albania are entrepreneurship education and training and the promotion of innovation and use of new technologies.

    Keywords: SMEs, economic growth, Albania

  20. Attractiveness of foreign investments in Albania: a focused analysis of factors, constrains and policy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerta Dragusha (Spahija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments are very important for the implementation of strategic reforms, transfer of advanced technologies and managerial methods, thereby stimulating economic growth in developing countries and in particular, transition economies such as Albania is. During the last years, Albania experienced an increase in foreign investors’ interest in a wide range of sectors, with energy generation, telecommunication, cement production, mining, oil and industrial parks heading the list. However, the major obstacle factors for FDI inflows seem to remain the same: pervasive corruption, weak law enforcement, poor rule of law, lack of developed infrastructure, lack of a reliable energy supply and insufficiently defined property rights. Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  1. Public Administration Professionalism and Political Changes in Albania under EU Consideration

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    Alba Robert DUMI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Albania is making big steps in the process of integration toward western institutions and organizations. The domestic political factor plays a leading role in Albanian society as an indicator of expressing the willingness to help the process of integration through well designed reforms. However, the resistance of political forces, especially those with direct or indirect heri tages from the old political class, is preventing the transition to newer western political concepts of doing politics. Reforms to improve democracy requires leadership from within the country as a prerequisite in building the political will for reform as very important for consolidating democracy and strengthen ties with European Union and distancing the society from its troubled past. In this paper I want to illustrate the model of development in politics of public administration in Albania, to be part of the political management in my country. Moreover, one of the biggest challenges in public reforming of Albanian economy and making Albania attractive to foreign investments is the implementation of the property rights. This still remains one of the biggest challenges due to the lack of transparency of the process of legalization and lack of state guidance in development of urban and rural areas. In this paper we analyze two topics directly related to change the public administration with Strategy of Decentralization and Local Autonomy.

  2. The influence of women's empowerment on maternal health care utilization: evidence from Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Lantona; Spaho, Alma; Hotchkiss, David R

    2014-08-01

    Women in Albania receive antenatal care and postnatal care at lower levels than in other countries in Europe. Moreover, there are large socio-economic and regional disparities in maternal health care use. Previous research in low- and middle-income countries has found that women's status within the household can be a powerful force for improving the health, longevity, and mental and physical capacity of mothers and the well-being of children, but there is very little research on this issue in the Balkans. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of women's empowerment within the household on antenatal and postnatal care utilization in Albania. The research questions are explored through the use of bivariate and multivariate analyses based on nationally representative data from the 2008-09 Albania Demographic and Health Survey. The linkages between women's empowerment and maternal health care utilization are analyzed using two types of indicators of women's empowerment: decision making power and attitudes toward domestic violence. The outcome variables are indicators of the utilization of antenatal care and postnatal care. The findings suggest that use of maternal health care services is influenced by women's roles in decision-making and the attitudes of women towards domestic violence, after controlling for a number of socio-economic and demographic factors which are organized at individual, household, and community level. The study results suggest that policy actions that increase women's empowerment at home could be effective in helping assure good maternal health.

  3. Estimating the association between economic performance and Okun misery index in Albania: January 2005- December 2014 F

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    Fejzi Kolaneci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study is to develop a statistical analysis of the GDP growth rate, Okun misery index and association between them for Albania during the period January 2005-December.Some results of the present study include: • The official data of the quarterly GDP growth rate for Albania during the period January 2005 – December 2014 contradict Kolmogorov’s Central Limit Theorem at the confidence level77.1%. • The GDP growth rate for Albania during the specified period is anunfair game at the confidence level78.2%. • The official data of the quarterly Okun misery index for Albania during January 2005-December 2014 contradict Central Limit Theorem at the confidence level 86.4%. • The miserably process in Albania during the specified period is an unfair game at the confidence level 98.3%. • Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient between quarterly GDP growth rate and quarterly Okun misery index is -0.0606, which indicates a quite weal negative association between these two random variables.

  4. The Determinants of Actual Migration and the Role of Wages and Unemployment in Albania: an Empirical Analysis

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    Cristina Cattaneo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the determinants of internal migration in Albania, adopting the Harris-Todaro approach to migration: an internal migration function is estimated using district wage and unemployment rate differentials. The aggregate level wages and unemployment, included in the migration equation, are retrieved from a first stage wage and unemployment equations, estimated controlling for personal characteristics. Moreover, in order to test the predictions of the human capital model of migration, the difference between migrants and non-migrants is emphasized in the estimation. The data source is the "Living Standard Measurement Survey for Albania" (2002, undertaken by the national Institute of Statistics and the World Bank jointly. The results reveal that both wage and unemployment differentials are important determinants of the propensity to migrate in Albania. This conclusion is further emphasized by noting that migrants gain substantially in terms of higher returns to individual characteristics after emigration.

  5. [Guidelines for a prevalence survey of nosocomial infections in the University Hospital "Madre Teresa" in Tirana, Albania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, L; Faria, S; Gjata, A; Kasneci, A; Byku, B; Schinaia, N

    2003-01-01

    The authors present guidelines for the first prevalence survey of nosocomial infections in the University Hospital "Madre Teresa" in Tirana (almost 1,600 beds), the only tertiary health-care centre in Albania. The survey is a joint project involving Italy and Albania, to be coordinated by the Italian National Health Institute. The paper describes goals, methodology and organization of the prevalence survey. The improvement of local expertise in epidemiology and microbiology is one of the most important goals. Therefore, Albanian personnel training and improvement of the infection microbiological diagnosis are fundamental aspects of the project.

  6. Cultural/Heritage Tourism Strategic Planning in Albania. Analysing Berat, as a World Heritage Patrimony, Protected by UNESCO

    OpenAIRE

    Frosina Londo; Fioralba Vela

    2014-01-01

    Cultural/Heritage tourism market has always been seen as very important in tourism development in Albania, even before 90‘s. It‘s important in nowadays to be focused in a very well planned development of this form of tourism, as cultural tourism is trying to be one of the key determinants of Albanian tourism development. In Albania it has been developed since before 90‘s, time when tourism itself did not have the proper attention by the government. It must be emphasized that cultural tourism ...

  7. Serological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in Berat and Kolonje, Albania

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    ARTA LUGAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus(CCHFV, which is a member of the Nairovirusgenus (family Bunyaviridae. The disease now occurs sporadically throughout much of Africa, Asia, andEurope and results in an approximately 30% fatality rate. Numerous genera of ixodid ticks serve both as vector and reservoir for CCHFV; however, ticks in the genus Hyalommaare particularlyimportant to the ecology of this virus.The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of CCHFV among the cattle in Berat and Kolonje regions in Albania. The data taken in this study indicates for the presence of CCHFV Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in these countries. The serum samples were conserved in -20°C and tested with immunological methods using indirect ELISA assay in Friedrich-Loeffler Institute (FLI, Greifswald Germany. Through this technique it was possible to identified IgG antibodies in infected serum samples. From these results in Berat-Terpanwe had an indication about the presence of IgG antibodies in 2 blood samples. 3 serum samples were equivocal and 45 serum samples were negative from the total of 50 serum samples in cattle. While in Kolonje-Erseke the results show the presence of IgG antibodies in 4 blood samples from 54 seum samples in cattle. Respectively the prevalence in these 2 countries in Albania is 4.4% and 8%. These results can clearly proved the presence of CCHFV in livestock in Albania.

  8. High-resolution molecular epidemiology and evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtypes in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salemi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 epidemic in Western Europe is largely due to subtype B. Little is known about the HIV-1 in Eastern Europe, but a few studies have shown that non-B subtypes are quite common. In Albania, where a recent study estimated a ten-fold increase of AIDS incidence during the last six years, subtype A and B account for 90% of the know infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the demographic history of HIV-1 subtype A and B in Albania by using a statistical framework based on coalescent theory and phylogeography. High-resolution phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis showed a limited introduction to the Balkan country of subtype A during the late 1980s followed by an epidemic outburst in the early 1990 s. In contrast, subtype B was apparently introduced multiple times between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s. Both subtypes are growing exponentially, although the HIV-1A epidemic displays a faster growth rate, and a significantly higher basic reproductive number R(0. HIV-1A gene flow occurs primarily from the capital Tirane, in the center of the country, to the periphery, while HIV-1B flow is characterized by a balanced exchange between center and periphery. Finally, we calculated that the actual number of infections in Albania is at least two orders of magnitude higher than previously thought. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis demonstrates the power of recently developed computational tools to investigate molecular epidemiology of pathogens, and emphasize the complex factors involved in the establishment of HIV-1 epidemics. We suggest that a significant correlation exists between HIV-1 exponential spread and the socio-political changes occurred during the Balkan wars. The fast growth of a relatively new non-B epidemic in the Balkans may have significant consequences for the evolution of HIV-1 epidemiology in neighboring countries in Eastern and Western Europe.

  9. Lifestyle Characteristics and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Population-Based Study in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Lulzim Çela; Bledar Kraja; Kliti Hoti; Ervin Toçi; Herion Muja; Enver Roshi; Genc Burazeri

    2013-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to assess the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the adult population of Albania, a Mediterranean country in Southeast Europe which has experienced major behavioral changes in the past two decades. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, included a population-representative sample of 845 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana (345 men, mean age: 51.3 ± 18.5; 500 women, mean age: 49.7 ± 18.8; response rate: 84.5%). As...

  10. PROPOSAL TO STUDY ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCING SOIL EROSION IN ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bockheim, James G.

    1997-01-01

    Soil erosion and associated nonpoint pollution are critical problems affecting the economic welfare, food security, and public health of Albania. Nearly 60 million tons of sediment are deposited by Albanian rivers into the Adriatic Sea each year. This translates into a national average soil erosion rate of 27.2 tons per hectare per year, which is more than twice the level of "tolerable" erosion established by many countries. This also means that an average of 2.3 mm of valuable topsoil are lo...

  11. Monitoring of Occupational Exposures in Albania Using TLD-100 cards (2003-2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qafmolla, Luan; Hoxhaj, Enver

    2010-01-01

    In our paper is described the monitoring of occupational staff that works in ionising radiation field of the diagnostic centres in Albania for 2003-2007, and is analysed and discussed the mean annual dose rate recorded for above-mentioned period. The monitoring was based in TLD-100 dosimetric cards and the control was performed all over the country on bimonthly basis covering main and important cities like: Tirana, Durresi, Shkodra, Fieri, Vlora, Korça etj. The Department of Human & Environment Protection, at the Centre of Applied Nuclear Physics, through the dosimetric service carried out the monitoring for around 350 radiation workers.

  12. 5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & Kosovo: Report di un viaggio

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo Carlucci; Emilio Misuriello

    2012-01-01

    Quando la redazione di GeoMedia ha ricevuto l’invito da parte della rete di Impresa GIS Italiana GeoNetCom di partecipare come “osservatore” ad un interessante mercato estero (l’Albania) e di verificare come 5 aziende italiane (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I&S Informatica e Servizi Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Sistemi Territoriali srl Pisa e Tecnopiani srl Roma-Chieti) e due new entry della rete (MARSec spa Benevento e ISE-Net Torino) stanno lavorando insieme per l’internazionalizzazione...

  13. Barriers of ICT implementation within SMEs in service sector in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Evelina Bazini; Djana Ilia; Albert Qarri

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the barriers faced by SMEs in service sector in Albania in implementing ICT. The study consisted on face-to-face interview with decision-makers in twenty SMEs in service sector. A number of external and internal barrier are listed and are discussed for the importance level for decision-maker of SMEs. Based on the research results are given some recommendations for managers in facing obstacles and problems that follow the decision process for ICT implementat...

  14. The active tectonic landscape of Lake Ohrid (FYR of Macedonia/Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Hoffmann

    2014-01-01

    The study area at the Lake Ohrid Basin is located on 693 m a.s.l. at the south-western border of the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia with Albania. It is a suitable location for neotectonic studies. It exhibits a large variety of morphological expressions associated with the seismic activity of the region. Linear bedrock fault scarps give the relief on both sides of the lake a staircase-like appearance; other features are wine-glass shaped valleys and triangular facets. These often sh...

  15. The culture of referendum in Albania: Technical and theoritecal reflections on the abrogative referendum

    OpenAIRE

    Valbona Pajo Bala

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the Albanian constitutional and legal framework on referenda, in general, focusing special attention to the abrogative referenda of a law or part thereof. Given the absence of any concrete case of an abrogative referenda held in Albania, which does not creates very much room for discussion in that regard, the paper, through a comparative approach on the referenda culture in other european states, aims at offering to the reader a more complete view on the me...

  16. Italy and Albania: The political and economic alliance and the Italian invasion of 1939

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tase

    2012-01-01

    As the successful coup d’etat of Rome in October 27 – 29, 1922, successfully unfolded and Benito Mussolini emerged into power, the threat of invasion and spread of fascism was looming over southeastern Europe and North African countries of Ethiopia, Libya and Somalia. Mussolini’s intentions would not be perceptible until October, 1935, the invasion of Ethiopia and consequently almost four years later with the invasion of Albania in April 7th, 1939, which is considered by many as the prelude t...

  17. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus in the Population of Albania for the Period 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Hysaj Vila Brunilda; Shundi Lila; Abazaj Erjona; Bino Silva; Rexha Tefta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a blood-borne, infectious, viral disease that is caused by a hepatotropic virus called Hepatitis C virus (HCV). AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of active HCV infection (HCV–RNA) in the cases that were anti-HCV positive. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plasma of 301 high-risk for HCV infection consecutive from University Hospital Centre “Mother Theresa” Tirana-Albania, during January 2007 to December 2010 was included in this study. To identif...

  18. Considerazioni sul Realismo socialista in Albania, fra rigide direttive ufficiali e aperture culturali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalda Cuka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Si propone una analisi del contesto culturale dell’Albania socialista e delle ricerche artistiche indirizzate verso uno stile nazionale: il realismo socialista. L’analisi non prescinde da una valutazione dei percorsi di alcuni artisti che hanno dato spazio ad una ricerca più ampia e variegata. A tal proposito si sottolineano le esperienze internazionali che alcuni hanno avuto modo di compiere negli altri paesi socialisti, oltre ai rapporti culturali con l’Italia, nel periodo tra le due guerre mondiali, in quanto hanno segnato profondamente il panorama artistico albanese degli decenni successivi.

  19. The karyotype of Festucopsis serpentini (Poaceae Triticeae) from Albania studied by banding techniques and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, I.; Seberg, O.; Frederiksen, S.;

    1996-01-01

    The karyotypes of two populations of Festucopsis serpentini (2n = 2x = 14) endemic to Albania were investigated in detail by Giemsa C- and N-banding, AgNO3 staining, and in situ hybridization with an rDNA probe. The complements consisted of 14 large chromosomes, 10 metacentric and 4 SAT-chromosom...

  20. OCCURRENCE OF AGONE ALOSA AGONE IN LAKE SHKODRA, ALBANIA IN SYMPATRY WITH TWAITE SHAD ALOSA FALLAX NILOTICA.

    OpenAIRE

    RAKAJ N.; Crivelli, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Twaite shad, Alosa fallax nilotica occurs in Lake Shkodra (Albania) in sympatry with Agone Alosa agone. Differences in morpho-meristic variables, in the biology and the ecology of the two species are presented and potential explanations for the occurrence of these shad populations in sympatry are discussed.

  1. Instruments for the regional sustainable development in Albania - Instruments for supporting the implementation of regional development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjola Duli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Regional development is a cross-cutting issue. The current approach to regional development in Europe is place-based, in which multidimensional analyses are carried out and strategies and policies developed in relation to territorially defined socio-economic and environmental factors. In our study we have largely followed this approach, looking at long-term changes in a wide set of development indicators across Albania. As a result several regional typologies are presented as well as broad recommendations for regional development policy formulation. Albania has two levels of governance: national, county (qarks and local (municipalities. Directly elected bodies exist at central and local levels. Qark councils consist of delegated representatives from local units. Albania’s territory is organized into 12 counties and 61 local government units. There are neither administrative nor self-governing regions in Albania corresponding to NUTS 21 level classification. Qarks are the equivalent of NUTS 3 level. Currently in Albania there is no clear definition of a development region. In general it is perceived that qarks can be considered an appropriate level at which regional development is analyzed, promoted and monitored. Although we have followed this concept, both due to data available and no better practical alternative, there are clearly other possibilities which could surface in the medium-term perspective, for example: NUTS 2 delineation for Albania could lead to a situation when development issues will become also relevant at the macro level – practically the number of NUTS 2 regions in Albania could vary between 2 and 3 unless the country is allowed to stay one region; Territorial and administrative reforms could lead to a much smaller number of LGUs both at the basic municipality level and the qark level, especially that from a general RD perspective some of the qarks represent very small units, both in terms of population and size of the

  2. Microbiological Quality of Raw Milk at Farm, Collection and Manufactory Level in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVIRA BELI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production has a long tradition in Albania due to favourable natural resources for large and small ruminants and still plays an important role in agriculture and rural development. The total domestic milk production in Albania is currently about one million tons from which cow milk production is about 86% whereas 14% come from small ruminants. Regular testing of the quality of raw milk is a very important instrument for the development of the Albanian dairy sector and to protect the consumer in buying a safe domestic milk product. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbial quality (using enumeration of total bacterial count of raw cow’s milk at different sampling points received from individual farmers, at milk collection centers points in the villages or in more professional milk collection centres (MCC, in three selected regions Fier, Korce, Shkoder. Average of TBC for samples collected on farms (903 samples resulted 3.890.000 cfu/ml, on milk collecting center (297 samples 5.170.000, cfu/ml, at manufactory (631 samples 3.800.000 cfu/ml. On average the level of Total Bacteria Count (TBC/ml is much higher than national threshold which is for TBC/ml < 1,000,000. Large number of farm holdings, about 85 %, show the TBC level higher than 1,000,000 /ml, only 15 % of samples on farm level fulfil the requirements of Albanian transitions criteria, but are far way with the EU standard.

  3. Lifestyle characteristics and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a population-based study in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Lulzim; Kraja, Bledar; Hoti, Kliti; Toçi, Ervin; Muja, Herion; Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc

    2013-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to assess the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the adult population of Albania, a Mediterranean country in Southeast Europe which has experienced major behavioral changes in the past two decades. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, included a population-representative sample of 845 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana (345 men, mean age: 51.3 ± 18.5; 500 women, mean age: 49.7 ± 18.8; response rate: 84.5%). Assessment of GERD was based on Montreal definition. Covariates included socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors with GERD. Results. The overall prevalence of GERD was 11.9%. There were no significant sex differences, but a higher prevalence among the older participants. In fully adjusted models, there was a positive relationship of GERD with smoking, physical inactivity, fried food consumption, and obesity, but not so for alcohol intake and meat consumption. Conclusion. We obtained important evidence on the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of GERD in a Western Balkans' country. Smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity were strong "predictors" of GERD in this population. Findings from this study should be replicated in prospective studies in Albania and other transitional settings. PMID:23509449

  4. Relational governance – an examination of the apple sector in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blendi GËRDOÇI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an in-depth analysis of the value chain governance in the fruit sector in Albania. Particular attention was paid to the nature of relations between agricultural producers and marketing channel chosen by them, distinguishing between big wholesalers, local collectors and exporters, longer-term relations, commitment and trust, and contracting along the value chain. Given the absence of, or weak, contract enforcement and the clear evidence of embeddedness in dyadic relationships in this chain, we focused our analysis on sustained relationships, contracting and personal bonds as a determinant factor to improve business relationship quality. This paper is based on a structured survey targeting 182 orchard farmers in two leading fruit production regions in Albania, namely Korca and Peshkopia. The survey showed a weak prevalence of verbal contracts in embedded relationships. The percentage of contracts between farmers and local collectors is slightly higher compared to wholesalers. This evidence is much stronger when we investigate the incidence of contracts in stable relationships (i.e. selling to the same buyer. We also find that mature relationships generate higher sustainability - a result which does not come as a surprise, although the coordination between farmers and other actors downstream is only at early stages. The main implications which arise from our analysis are relevant for agribusinesses, farmers and policy makers.

  5. The Management Accounting Practices in Albania in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjola Naco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to provide relevant findings on the status of management accounting in Albanian Accounting Practices, based on the direct survey with selected companies and individuals (experts on the field. In our analysis we have used as a benchmark the IFAC statement on Management Accounting Concepts and its description of the evolution of management accounting. To achieve our objectives we prepared and provided to a large group of professional accountants (that mainly are dealing with bookkeeping and financial statement preparations a structured questionnaire, containing several questions on the status of the practices applied in Albania on management accounting. This survey was carried out during the first half of 2009. Findings of this paper are based on the answers given by 300 respondents. These answers point out that management accounting practices in Albania tend not to be complex and sophisticated. Budgeting, product profitability and financial performance measurement remain the central pillars, while other, most contemporary, management accounting techniques are sporadically used. There is also little evidence of management accounting concerned directly with "value creation".  

  6. Trace element accumulation in the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum in south Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJLINDA TERPO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in south Albania. The most important environmental features of mosses as a suitable tool of biomonitoring are: rootless, large surface, wide - spread population, a habit to grow in groups, long life – cycle, survival in a high – polluted environment, an ability to obtain nutrients from wet and dry deposition. The moss Pseudoscleropodium purum was used as a bioindicator and biomonitor of metal pollution. In this work the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, Fe, Na, K and Zn in moss samples collected from 9 sites of the southern part of Albania is presented. Moss samples were collected during the period September – October 2010 according to the guidelines of the UNECE ICP Vegetation. The concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples were determined using AAS technique equipped with flame and/or electro-thermal systems. AES method was used for Na and K determination. The variations of heavy metals concentrations with sampling sites are shown in heavy metal contamination diagrams. PCA and cluster analysis was used to identify the most polluted areas and characterize different pollution sources.

  7. Molecular identification and artificial cultivation of a wild isolate of oyster mushroom in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Merkuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomata of a wild mushroom macroscopically recognised as Pleurotus ostreatus were observed on an oak trunk in a mixed wood of northern Albania. Pure cultures of the fungus were then obtained on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Molecular analyses of genomic DNA of the fungus confirmed its identification. The rDNA ITS region nucleotide sequence of the studied Pleurotacea matched at 99% those of two P. ostreatus strains already present in NCBI GenBank database. The rDNA ITS nucelotide sequences of two pure cultures of the Albanian P. ostreatus were deposited in EMBL database under the accession numbers LN849458 and LN849459. One of the fungus isolates was subsequently cultivated under protected and semi-natural conditions. Productivity and biological efficiency of the Albanian P. ostreatus ranged from about 10% to 16% and from 33 to 53.33%, respectively. This seems to be the first report on the artificial cultivation of P. ostreatus in Albania and could have, in the next future, a high economic impact on development and diffusion of this important edible mushroom over the country.

  8. Albania: Trends and patterns, proximate determinants and policies of fertility change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Mencarini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For a very long time, Albania has had one of the highest levels of fertility in Europe: in 2002 the total fertility rate of 2.2 children per woman was the highest in Europe. Although this current level is high, the country has experienced a rapid fertility reduction during the last 50 years: a TFR decline from 7 to 2.2. This reduction has occurred in the absence of modern contraception and abortion, which indicates the significance of investments in the social agenda during the communist regime that produced policies with indirect effects on fertility. Most significant of these were policies focused on education, in particular on female education. Social and demographic settings for a further fertility reduction in Albania have been present since 1990. Contraception and abortion have been legalized and available since the early 1990s, but knowledge of their use is still not widespread in the country, largely due to the interplay between traditional and modern norms of Albanian society. This chapter points out that future fertility levels will be determined not only by new policies that might be introduced, but predominantly by the balance of this interplay.

  9. Determine of Concentration of the Iodine in Household Salt in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkeleda KADIU, chemist MD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the iodine concentration in household salt, the coverage of adequately iodized salt, the use of none iodized salt and the useful of salt as a carrier of iodine. To relate this observation to socio-economic status in Albania. Methods: The iodometric titration method is used to analyze 1027 household salt samples collected using a national, stratified, cluster survey. To achieve this aim we are used 487 samples from urbane areas and 540 samples from rural areas. Results and conclusions: The national mean and median iodine concentration of household salt were 22.3 ppm (mg/kg in the urban areas and 17.4 ppm (mg/kg in the rural areas. There was considerable variation between the geographical areas. Evaluation of the levels of the salt iodine in Albania shows that 60.41% of the samples are ≥15 ppm and 39.58 % are < 15 ppm. A total of 31.2 % of population used non-iodization salt and they bought the salt directly from the producers. People at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum were more likely to suffer the consequences of using under-iodized salt because more of them used agricultural salt than did people in the higher socioeconomic categories. The iodine concentration in salt was lower in rural areas than in urban areas.

  10. Wage Tendency in Albania; The Reaction to the Global Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Sejdini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wage of both public and private sectors is a very important source of incomes for most of the population in Albania. The importance of public sector wage policy exceeds the sector's actual share of total employment, because the level of wages in this sector is, to a certain extent, a point of reference for wages in the private sector, too. During the first transition years the wages of a great number of the employees, whose enterprises had stopped being operational, were practically a form of social support. The data for this paper are gathered from all the surveys done on wages during transition from the public sources and the institute of statistics. From these data results that the wages have increased recurrently, first of all to counter the inflationary effects and to provide a better remuneration to the employees in both sector, despite the global financial crisis. This is due to the lack of full integration in the global markets. In this paper we discuss about the wage tendency in Albania as a country in further development, exposed to the risks of the global financial crisis, and the reaction to the difficulties encountered while the country is preparing for the EU integration.

  11. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  12. Lifestyle Characteristics and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Population-Based Study in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Çela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to assess the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the adult population of Albania, a Mediterranean country in Southeast Europe which has experienced major behavioral changes in the past two decades. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, included a population-representative sample of 845 individuals (≥18 years residing in Tirana (345 men, mean age: ; 500 women, mean age: ; response rate: 84.5%. Assessment of GERD was based on Montreal definition. Covariates included socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors with GERD. Results. The overall prevalence of GERD was 11.9%. There were no significant sex differences, but a higher prevalence among the older participants. In fully adjusted models, there was a positive relationship of GERD with smoking, physical inactivity, fried food consumption, and obesity, but not so for alcohol intake and meat consumption. Conclusion. We obtained important evidence on the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of GERD in a Western Balkans' country. Smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity were strong “predictors” of GERD in this population. Findings from this study should be replicated in prospective studies in Albania and other transitional settings.

  13. Management of refugee crisis in Albania during the 1999 Kosovo conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaj, Ruki

    2002-04-01

    The report presents key data on Kosovo refugees in Albania during the 1999 crisis in Kosovo. In a three-month period, from March through May 1999, Albania received, accommodated, and cared for 479,223 officially registered refugees from Kosovo (FR Yugoslavia). Many foreign governmental and non-governmental organizations helped the Albanian government during the crisis. The Government cooperated with the organizations through Government Commission, which appointed a Special Coordinator to the Emergency Management Group that coordinated factors and actions in the field. A Health Desk was established by the Emergency Management Group to provide an overview of the health impact of the crisis upon refugees and domestic Albanian population. There were no serious outbreaks of infectious diseases, but the Health Desk registered 2,165 cases of diarrhea without and 14 cases of diarrhea with blood in the stool. Scabies and lice affected around 4% of the refugees. After the refugees returned to Kosovo, Emergency Management Group continued to coordinate the work on the rehabilitation of the refugee-affected areas. In this phase, humanitarian emergency work served as a bridge between emergency activities and normal development. PMID:11885046

  14. CLUSTER PRACTICES IN HERITAGE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT – CASE STUDY IN SOUTHERN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirdaim AXHAM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As competitiveness is growing in the Balkans, a new approach in the development of heritage tourism, which can adapt to these circumstances, is required. Cluster practices can be the new approach that can improve competitiveness of Albanian tourism. Considering the nature of Albania and its rich heritage, it is a very attractive “magnet” for foreign tourists. The article starts with a presentation of tourism experience in Albania and discusses why heritage tourism is possibly the only way to develop tourism now and for the future, in the country. Some brief explanation concerning cluster practices follow: a presentation of the main issues about cluster practices, their benefits and drawbacks, their implementation and the ways they can be monitored and evaluated. It is important to direct attention to the fact that cluster practices are becoming an important means to development and to the enforcement of social capital in the geographical areas where they are implemented. In the end of the article is shown why cluster practices can be worth of being implemented in area of Butrint-Saranda-Gjirokastra-Korca. The paper concludes with the main findings and conclusions of the analysis.

  15. Exploring the effects of energy consumption on output per worker: A study of Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we explore the long-run cointegration between output, capital and energy consumption, in per worker terms, for Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. We use the augmented Solow (1956) model and the ARDL bounds procedure (Pesaran et al., 2001) to examine the short-run and long-run effects of energy and capital on output (in per worker terms). We also conduct causality test using the Toda and Yamamoto (1995) non-causality procedure. Our results show the existence of long-run cointegration between output per worker and energy per worker for all the four countries. We find that energy per worker have a dynamic short-run positive effect in Albania (0.37%), Bulgaria (0.25%), Hungary (0.36%) and Romania (0.68%), and a long-run positive effect in Bulgaria (0.32%) and Romania (0.63%) which duly indicate that energy consumption has a momentous long-run effect in these two countries. The causality results indicate a unidirectional causation from output per worker to energy per worker for all the four countries, and from capital per worker to energy per worker for Albania and Romania. Consequently, a balance between effective energy consumption and sound energy conservation policies are likely to support economic growth in the four countries. - Highlights: • Energy has a short-run positive effect in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. • A long-run positive elasticity is noted in Bulgaria and Romania. • Output per worker cause energy per worker in the four countries. • A unidirectional causality from capital to energy is noted for Albania and Romania

  16. Second world war, communism and post-communism in Albania, an equilateral triangle of a tragic trans-Adriatic story. The Eftimiadi’s Saga

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Muner

    2014-01-01

    The complicated, troubled and tragic events of a wealthy family from Vlorë, Albania, which a century ago expanded its business to Italy, in Brindisi and Trieste, and whose grand land tenures and financial properties in Albania were nationalized by Communism after the Second World War. Hence the life-long solitary and hopeless fight of the last heir of the family to reconquer his patrimony that had been nationalized by Communism. Such properties would have been endowed to a planned foundat...

  17. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FOR THE PRESENCE OF PARASITES IN SWINE IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Juka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we presented the results of 298 faecal samples and 42 post mortem pigs examination. In this study we included extensive, ½ intensive and intensive management farms in the different Albania districts such as: Gjirokastra, Tirana, Fier, Lac, Elbasan, Lushnjë, Lezhë etc. From 298 faeces samples, 198 belonged to piglets, and about 50% of animals were less and more than 6 months old, 38 sows before farrow, 30 uncastrated pigs and 32 samples were taken into slaughterhouses from imported pigs. The samples were collected randomly and were examined with the technique of simple and qualitative sedimentation for the evaluation of helminths and the technique of quantitative and qualitative fluctuation to evaluate the protozoans. In slaughterhouse we did post mortem examination on 42 piglets and we looked for the presence of parasites grown in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT. The results of this study showed that the most widespread helminth in pigs in Albania is Ascaris suum. It was present in more than 70 % of the examined samples, and in some cases was recorded as high as parasitic load up to 1200 e/g/f. In the economies of extensive menagement M. hirudinaceus was recorded in high level, particularly in farms located in north Albania. Both M. hirudinaceus and A.suum were most wudespread. In addition 28 % of the pig samples were positive for M. Apri. Copropositive results were found in 5,4 % of the faecal samples for Oesophagostomum spp, wheras 0,8 % of the faecal samples for were positive for Ancylostoma caninum, this was recorded mainly in extensive growth pig management. 21 % of the samples from piglets of extensive economies resulted positive for Strongyloides ransoni. For Physocephalus sexalatus 8,6 % of the samples resulted copropositive. Trikuris suis was founded in 5, 6 % of the samples. Protozoan forms were as cysts of Balantidium coli in 1.6 % from the total samples examined. In the post mortem examination frequency of A.suum was

  18. A highly accurate absolute gravimetric network for Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Christian; Ruess, Diethard; Butta, Hubert; Qirko, Kristaq; Pavicevic, Bozidar; Murat, Meha

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a basic gravity network in Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro to enable further investigations in geodetic and geophysical issues. Therefore the first time in history absolute gravity measurements were performed in these countries. The Norwegian mapping authority Kartverket is assisting the national mapping authorities in Kosovo (KCA) (Kosovo Cadastral Agency - Agjencia Kadastrale e Kosovës), Albania (ASIG) (Autoriteti Shtetëror i Informacionit Gjeohapësinor) and in Montenegro (REA) (Real Estate Administration of Montenegro - Uprava za nekretnine Crne Gore) in improving the geodetic frameworks. The gravity measurements are funded by Kartverket. The absolute gravimetric measurements were performed from BEV (Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying) with the absolute gravimeter FG5-242. As a national metrology institute (NMI) the Metrology Service of the BEV maintains the national standards for the realisation of the legal units of measurement and ensures their international equivalence and recognition. Laser and clock of the absolute gravimeter were calibrated before and after the measurements. The absolute gravimetric survey was carried out from September to October 2015. Finally all 8 scheduled stations were successfully measured: there are three stations located in Montenegro, two stations in Kosovo and three stations in Albania. The stations are distributed over the countries to establish a gravity network for each country. The vertical gradients were measured at all 8 stations with the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG5. The high class quality of some absolute gravity stations can be used for gravity monitoring activities in future. The measurement uncertainties of the absolute gravity measurements range around 2.5 micro Gal at all stations (1 microgal = 10-8 m/s2). In Montenegro the large gravity difference of 200 MilliGal between station Zabljak and Podgorica can be even used for calibration of relative gravimeters

  19. Terrorism as a notion and source of international law in the context of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asllan Dogjani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently the world has become more uncertain by the terrorist acts of the Islamic State of ISIS, who attacked the center of Europe (Brussels, Paris and attacks almost every day in Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Oman, North Africa, and the latest case in Orlando, Florida in the US, leaving behind many victims and bringing panic, fear, uncertainty and significant economical damages. The Islamic state with the theory "a state a flag" is attacking every day in every country where it is finding space, occupying certain territories, by trained terrorists, and threatening in all languages of the world that is recruiting in the name of Muslim religion. Seeing terrorism as a problem of great concern to citizens all over the world, we aim at analyzing this phenomenon and its risks in Albania.

  20. Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta foraging at Drini Bay in Northern Albania: Genetic characterisation reveals new haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Yilmaz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta was studied over 3 summers in a nearshore habitat, the Patoku area in the southern part of Driniki Bay, Albania. Tissue samples were collected from 40 loggerhead turtles incidentally captured in stavnike fish-traps (a type of pond-net. A fragment of 859 base-pair mt-DNA d-loop region was amplified from these turtles and compared with previously described haplotypes. Haplotype CC-A2.1 (93% was the dominant haplotype in the region. Two previously unknown haplotypes, CC-A6.1 and CC-A10.4, were decribed with this study. Furthermore, haplotype CC-A.2.8 was also observed which was previously recorded from Italy. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity were 0.14615 and 0.00017, respectively.

  1. The active tectonic landscape of Lake Ohrid (FYR of Macedonia/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Hoffmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study area at the Lake Ohrid Basin is located on 693 m a.s.l. at the south-western border of the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia with Albania. It is a suitable location for neotectonic studies. It exhibits a large variety of morphological expressions associated with the seismic activity of the region. Linear bedrock fault scarps give the relief on both sides of the lake a staircase-like appearance; other features are wine-glass shaped valleys and triangular facets. These often short living features are used to identify active faults and to parameterise palaeoearthquakes (slip rates, subsidence and erosion. According to the results of fault scarp profiling a halfgraben shape of the basin is proposed with the west coast being dominated by mass wasting processes most likely triggered by seismic events.

  2. An analysis of the sources of competition disipline in the European Union and in Albania

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    Eriona Katro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition discipline in the European Union is a substantial component of the EU’s institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty made the “internal market” a shared competence, while necessary competition rules for the internal market are an exclusive competence of the Union. This paper aims to analyse the sources of the competition discipline in the EU and in Albania focusing more on constitutional sources. From this analyses will emerge that sources of competition discipline are numerous and each of them plays an important role in the development of the competition policy. But arises the question if these sources are all equally important or not? This paper will focus also n the importance of each source in both levels: European Union and Albanian discipline of competition.

  3. Post flood damage data collection and assessment in Albania based on DesInventar methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toto, Emanuela; Massabo, Marco; Deda, Miranda; Rossello, Laura

    2015-04-01

    In 2013 in Albania was implemented a collection of disaster losses based on Desinventar. The DesInventar system consists in a methodology and software tool that lead to the systematic collection, documentation and analysis of loss data on disasters. The main sources of information about disasters used for the Albanian database were the Albanian Ministry of Internal Affairs, the National Library and the State archive. Specifically for floods the database created contains nearly 900 datasets, for a period of 148 years (from 1865 to 2013). The data are georeferenced on the administrative units of Albania: Region, Provinces and Municipalities. The datasets describe the events by reporting the date of occurrence, the duration, the localization in administrative units and the cause. Additional information regards the effects and damage that the event caused on people (deaths, injured, missing, affected, relocated, evacuated, victims) and on houses (houses damaged or destroyed). Other quantitative indicators are the losses in local currency or US dollars, the damage on roads, the crops affected , the lost cattle and the involvement of social elements over the territory such as education and health centers. Qualitative indicators simply register the sectors (e.g. transportations, communications, relief, agriculture, water supply, sewerage, power and energy, industries, education, health sector, other sectors) that were affected. Through the queries and analysis of the data collected it was possible to identify the most affected areas, the economic loss, the damage in agriculture, the houses and people affected and many other variables. The most vulnerable Regions for the past floods in Albania were studied and individuated, as well as the rivers that cause more damage in the country. Other analysis help to estimate the damage and losses during the main flood events of the recent years, occurred in 2010 and 2011, and to recognize the most affected sectors. The database was

  4. School and community in Albania - (Qualitative partnership school – family - community

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    Bukurie Kallanxhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, with the establishment of democracy in Albania, special attention was paid to school leading and management. Due to deep reforms in the Albanian education system, it was a good opportunity for the Albanian school to have a more modern managing aspect. On the other hand, the attention should be based even on the financial management aspect, new relationship with parents, community and local government. Based on this point of view, it should be accepted that good positive steps were undertaken, but there is much more to be done for a long term effective management and leading role of school as the basic point of education. This manuscript aims to explain step by step the role of the principle of a school as a manager and the contribution of supporting factors (parents and community in a good school management.

  5. IMPACT OF FISCAL POLICIES ON INPUTS AND PRODUCTION COSTS IN GREENHOUSE IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvin ZHLLIMA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis agriculture input related taxes and tariffs policies and their impact on input prices, production costs and profitability, focusing on the greenhouse sector in Albania. The study combines desk research and expert interviews to collect data and to analyse the main policy reforms and the tariff regime. A financial cost benefit analysis is implemented in order to observe the effect of the change of taxes in both sides: at farm gate profitability of Albanian farmers as well as in terms of revenues forgone in the state budget based on revenues collected.According to our research findings, tax exemption on inputs such as agrochemicals and fuel would significantly affect positively the profitability at the farm level and the overall agriculture sector competitiveness. Several political implications of the various scenarios of tax reduction are discussed and provided to policy-makers.

  6. CO-DETERMINATION POLITICS ON COMMERCIAL COMPANIES IN ALBANIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Blerta Aliu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on understanding the role that stakeholders, especially, employees have in a company and corporate governance implications. Currently, human capital, embodied to employees, has become very fast the most important source of corporate value. This study makes an overview of the current situation in Albania, analyzing legal provisions and relevant international literature on this issue. The trends of the result for decision-making in the Albanian companies show a low level of participation of stakeholders, particularly employees. This study is based on a comparison between American common law system, supporters of the shareholders and the German civil law system, supportive of stakeholders. Here, is apparently stated the need to embrace the second system. Recent developments of American companies and the financial crisis are reasons which brought us to this conclusion. The German practice also, shows clearly that corporate social responsibility is the key to success, if it adapts to different historical, legal and cultural contexts.

  7. Evaluation of hyperaccumulator plant species grown in metalliferous sites in Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babani, F.; Civici, N.; Mullaj, A.; Kongjika, E.; Ylli, A.

    2007-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils causes serious problems to our society. A small number of interesting plant species have been identified that can grow in soils containing high levels of heavy metals, and can also accumulate these metals to high concentrations in the shoot. The heavy metal contents in root, shoot, leaves and flowers of spontaneous plants grown in metalliferous sites in Albania together with the elemental composition of the native soils were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus of analyzed ecotypes was evaluated via chlorophyll fluorescence imaging during induction kinetics. Response of plant root system to the presence of metals, the available pools of metals to plants, effect of plant biomass to phytoextraction, photosynthetic pigment metabolism and chlorophyll fluorescence signature of leaves allowed to characterize hyperaccumulator properties and to detect the variation between selected ecotypes to heavy metal accumulation.

  8. Consumer perceptions of food safety risk:Evidence from a segmentation study in Albania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edvin Zhllima; Drini Imami; Maurizio Canavari

    2015-01-01

    Albania is facing serious problems with the national food safety control system in terms of legislation, control and enforce-ment. The objective of this paper is to analyse consumer perceptions about safety of smal ruminant meat in Tirana, in a context of weak enforcement of the food safety system. Applying two-step clustering analyses, consumers were classiifed in four socio-demographic clusters, and it was found that the cluster composed of female consumers with lower education and income levels, and the two clusters composed of male consumers perceive consumed meat as safe. Consumers in the cluster composed of females with university education and higher income are, on average, more concerned with current meat safety measures and tend to place more trust in the veterinarian stamp on meat carcasses rather than in local butchers.

  9. LEGAL INHERITANCE IN FRANCE AND IN ALBANIA: COMMON ELEMENTS AND COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF SUCCESSION TRADITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nertila Sulçe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance begins with the birth of ownership, and continues with property rights. Inheritance is an ancient tradition, which the Romans recognized in the Twelve Tables (303 BC, in their priority of testamentary rights. Such principles have their origin in a primitive community, although, at that time, there were no genuine inheritance rights. Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual, named the deceased (the person who dies, to the heir, who is the person entitled to receive a share of the deceased's property. This is an action of mortis causa, which happens due to the death of the deceased. The study of inheritance creates interest, because it relates to the law from the time of the deceased’s death, despite the advent of any disagreement. Inheritance by law is applied in cases when the person leaving the inheritance has not made a will, or has made a will only for a part of their property, or when the will is declared invalid. The inheritance initiates, when the deceased dies by natural death or civil death. It initiates in the place where the deceased had their last residence. The major economic and political change that occurred in Albania after the fall of the communist dictatorship, was on 1 November 1994, with the enactment of the Civil Code for the Republic of Albania. The third section and articles 316-418 of this code deal with inheritance. The French Civil Code was published on 21 March 1804. In this, the third book covers different modes of acquiring property, and under the title of “Successions” deals with inheritance, from article 718 onwards. The French and Albanian inheritance traditions share similarities and disparities. In this paper, we discuss and compare these two inheritance instruments.

  10. Religious education and the prevention of Islamic radicalization Albania, Britain, France and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kagioglidis, Ioannis.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines the potential contribution of religious education to preventing Islamic extremism in Albania, Britain, France, and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). The existence of large Muslim populations in each of these four countries, combined with the fact that a growing number of young Muslims have become members of terrorist networks, constitutes a security threat to the whole Western world. In recent ye...

  11. MARKETING CONCEPT APPLICATION WITHIN PROFITABLE TOURISM BUSINESESS OF COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES. THE CASE OF ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Liljana ELMAZI

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates marketing concept application in the most profitable of tourism businesses in Albania. The total population is defined according to the profitability criteria, whereby the stratified sample of 100 tourism businesses was applied. The research is aimed at gathering primary data by the questionnaire sent via mail.The goal of each economic activity is creating value for the end users. In this context, profit is both a measure of value which the firm has created for the cus...

  12. Northern Mediterranean climate since the Middle Pleistocene: a 637 ka stable isotope record from Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia)

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, Jack H.; Leng, Melanie J.; Francke, Alexander; Sloane, Hilary J.; Milodowski, Antoni; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is an ancient lake with unique biodiversity and a site of global significance for investigating the influence of climate, geological, and tectonic events on the generation of endemic populations. Here, we present oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope data from carbonate over the upper 243 m of a composite core profile recovered as part of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project. The investigate...

  13. Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, B.; A. Francke; Sulpizio, R.; G. Zanchetta; Lindhorst, K.; S. Krastel; H. Vogel; Daut, G.; A. Grazhdani; Lushaj, B.; S. Trajanovski

    2012-01-01

    Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, ...

  14. Mediterranean climate since the Middle Pleistocene: a 640 ka stable isotope record from Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia)

    OpenAIRE

    J. H. Lacey; Leng, M. J.; A. Francke; H. J. Sloane; A. Milodowski; H. Vogel; H. Baumgarten; Wagner, B.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is an ancient lake with a unique biodiversity and a site of global significance for investigating the influence of climate, geological and tectonic events on the generation of endemic populations. Here, we present oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope data on carbonate from the upper ca. 248 m of sediment cores recovered as part of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project, cov...

  15. Artificial neural networks in forecasting tourists’ flow, an intelligent technique to help the economic development of tourism in Albania.

    OpenAIRE

    Dezdemona Gjylapi; Veronika Durmishi

    2014-01-01

    Tourism plays an important role in many economies and contributes greatly to the Gross Domestic Product. In the past eight years, the number of tourist arrivals in Albania has increased rapidly, which resulted in increasing the number of tourist nights and revenue from tourism. Tourism also provides new sources of income for the country, without having that local citizen to pay more taxes. This can be achieved by income from parking, tourist taxes, leased apartments, sales information,...

  16. Social impact caused by european economical recession in food business operators of industrial zone Tirana-Durres in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Anila Sulaj; Henriete Themelko

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore situation of the Albania Food industry in relation to the European recession to clarify mainly negative effects to food business operators along the corridor Tirana-Durres and to identify social problems caused by this impact. Effect of economical European crisis in food operators of corridor Tirana-Durres causing slightly increase of unemployment and increase of food prices. Our study has evaluated the unemployment situation and food retail prices using data analyz...

  17. INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL ACTORS ROLE IN SKILLS DEVELOPMENT POLICY TRANSFER OR POLICY LEARNING - THE CASE OF ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyqyri Llaci

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Skills Development (SD has attracted the attention of many researchers and practitioners, driven by recent trends such as downsizing in organizations, enterprise information technology platforms, outsourcing and off-shoring initiatives, transformations from departmental structures to process-based structures, among others. Increased global competition incites countries to develop a skilled workforce as a competitive advantage, resulting in many national and international policies that invest in workforce training and development. This is quite a challenge especially for developing countries simultaneously facing the consequences of transition and aspiring to create an attractive human capital. Typical for these countries is the strong influence of international actors (foreign governments, international NGO, implementing agencies etc. not only in financing the implementation, but also in orienting the development policies (not always toward national needs. SD policy in Albania is an output of national and international actors’ policies interactions for the past twenty years. As a relatively small country in transition and aspiring to be part of the European Union, Albania struggles to identify and reach the objectives of human development. This article aims to analyze the actors involved in SD policies in Albania (with a concentration on TVET, focusing on the impact that each actor has generally in the system and specifically in regards to these policies. It also aims to analyze whether international cooperation in SD is adding value to the system or overlapping with national priorities and disorienting local initiatives, and how SD policies contribute to and influence various other sector objectives.

  18. Late Palaeozoic-Cenozoic assembly of the Tethyan orogen in the light of evidence from Greece and Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. H. F.

    2012-04-01

    The objective here is to use the geology and tectonics of a critical part of the Tethyan orogen, represented by Greece and Albania, to shed light on the tectonic development of Tethys on a regional, to global scale, particularly the history of convergence during Late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic time. For Carboniferous time much evidence suggests that the Korabi-Pelagonian crustal unit as exposed in Albania and Greece formed above a northward-dipping subduction zone along the Eurasia continental margin, with Palaeotethys to the south. However, there is also some evidence of southward subduction beneath Gondwana especially from southern Greece and central southern Turkey. Palaeotethys is inferred to have closed in Europe as far to the east as the longitude of Libya, while remaining open beyond this. There is still uncertainty about the Pangea A-type reconstruction that would restore all of the present units in the area to within the E Mediterranean region, versus the Pangea B-type reconstruction that would require right-lateral displacement of exotic terranes, by up to 3,500 km eastwards. In either reconstruction, fragments of the Variscan collisional orogen are likely to have been displaced eastwards (variable distances) in the Balkan region prior to Late Permian-Early Triassic time. From ~Late Permian, the Greece-Albania crustal units were located in their present relative position within Tethys as a whole. From the mid-Permian, onwards the northern margin of Gondwana was affected by crustal extension. A Mesozoic ocean (Pindos-Mirdita ocean) then rifted during Early-Middle Triassic time, culminating in final continental break-up and seafloor spreading during the Late Triassic (Carnian-Norian). Subduction-influenced volcanics of mainly Early-Middle Triassic age probably reflect the extraction of magma from sub-continental lithosphere that was enriched in subduction-related fluids and volatiles during an earlier, ?Variscan subduction event. The existence of Upper Triassic

  19. On official texts in Slavic dialects in the County of Korcha, South-Eastern Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим [Maxim] Макарцев [Makartsev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On official texts in Slavic dialects in the County of Korcha, South Eastern Albania In the article I consider official texts in Slavic dialects in Albania. Three texts are taken as examples: “An Internal Handbook for Organising the Work of a Regional Committee at a District/Prefecture Level of MAEI [Macedonian Alliance for European Integration]” (2009, a letter written by the villagers of Boboshtica to the Bulgarian Exarch (1873, and The “Charter of the Society of Kaynas” (2006. They make use of language in its symbolic function – the way these texts are written is almost as important as what exactly is written. These texts have been created to showcase the language and to underline its uniqueness against the background of another language or idiom, or, to put it another way, to underline through the language the special status of the people that use it.   Oficjalne teksty w słowiańskich dialektach okolic Korczy w południowo-wschodniej Albanii Artykuł omawia oficjalne teksty powstałe w słowiańskich dialektach Albanii. Wybrano przykładowo trzy teksty: Wewnętrzne wytyczne w sprawie organizacji pracy komitetu MAEI na poziomie okręgu/prefektury (2009, list mieszkańców Boboszticy do bułgarskiego egzarchy (1873 i Statut towarzystwa „Kajnas” (2006. Te trzy teksty posługują się językiem w sposób symboliczny. To, w jakiej odmianie języka są napisane, jest równie ważne, jak ich treść. Teksty te powstały bądź po to, aby pokazać język i podkreślić jego unikalność na tle innego języka, lub po to, aby poprzez język podkreślić szczególny status ludzi, którzy się nim posługują.

  20. Medieval Churches in Shushica Valley (South Albania and the Slavonic Bishopric of St. Clement of Ohrid

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    Skënder Muçaj

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There were numerous Slavic settlements in South Albania (including the valley of Shushica River at the end of the 1st millennium. In the second half of the 9th c. a significant part of this region was conquered by the 1st Bulgarian Kingdom, and after 870 there were established ecclesiastical dioceses which became part of the church organization of the Kingdom. Slavonic ecclesiastical schools were established in that region as well, after 886 in the context of the so-called “Slavonic project” of the Bulgarian prince, Boris. St. Clement took an active part in this project. It was South Albania where the first Slavonic bishopric in Southeast Europe was founded, in 893, when St. Clement was appointed bishop. His bishopric was organized according ethnic principle, so that St. Clement was called “the bishop of Slavonic people.”The center of Clement’s bishopric was in Velica, which is related to the modern settlement Velçë in the Shushica valley. There are ruins of a cross-in-square church with a narthex in the Asomat region, which is located near Velica. The church was built at the end of the 9th‒beginning of the 10th cc. and dedicated to the Archangel Michael. The plan of this church is identical with that of the so-called “pronaos” of the church built by St. Clement in his Ohrid monastery.In St. Clement’s bishopric Church Slavonic was used as a liturgical language. For that purpose, a set of Byzantine liturgical books was translated from Greek into Church Slavonic, and Clement took an active part in this process. Liturgical pecularities of these books partially observed in Greek manuscripts of South Italian provenance testify to the hypothesis that Greek sources of the earliest Church Slavonic translations belonged to liturgical tradition of Epirus, similar to those of South Italy. This also proves the location of St. Clement’s bishopric in the valley of the Shushica River.

  1. Review of the regulatory framework on genetically modified food and feed in Albania: a policy perspective

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    ALBAN JAUPI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in food production and processing technologies have considerably enhanced man's ability to provide larger quantities and a wider variety of products. However, the recent development biotechnologies has also significantly increased controversy and dispute over the use of food and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of from conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. The dispute involves consumers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists. The article reviews the regulatory measures and approaches taken by the government of Albania to assess and manage the risks associated with the development, release and use of genetically modified foods in the country. The review and analyzes is made in light of the processes for harmonization of Albanian’s food policies and its legal and regulatory framework with the EU legislation and Acquis Communautaires. It identifies several important legal and regulatory issues and proposes necessary measures and mechanisms to be put in place related to identification and protection of the public interest and increased ability of consumers to be informed about the foods they eat

  2. Genetic and Filogenetic Characterization of some Newcastle Strains Isolated from Poultry in Albania

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    MARSEL BORAKAJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract section. In this study, we present the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of three strains of NDV, isolated from the Tirana region in Albania during the 2011-2014 years. Three strains with number 28, 29 and 31, isolated from a different farm of poultry in Tirana Region (Rural flocks, which were diagnosed clinically with the ND. The Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index in SPF bird one day old was determined by doing the proteolytic sequencing at the cleavage, and specifying the aminoacid motif at proteolytic cleavage site. More over we performed BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis of obtained RNA sequences. All strains replicated well in the SPF –chicken emryo eggs. The isolates displayed an aminoacid motif at the proteolytic cleavage site at the Fusion (F protein with multiple basic amino acids as a well a Phenylalanine on position 117. For one isolate (28 numerous nucleotide positions had signals for at last two nucleotides, making it imposible to conclude on a specific sequence. The pathogenicity of all three isolates (28, 29 and 33, was assessed by the analysis of the F protein cleavage site and by standart ICPI. The ICPI (pathogenicity index of our strains varies from of 1.85, 2 and 1.75, respectively which according [19,7] are typical for velogenic strains of NDV. We found that two NDV strain has a most close genetic relationship with the Serbia 2007 NDV, having 98% similarity at nucleotide level.Velogenic viscerotropic strains are considered endemic in our country.

  3. Electrical energy supply in Albania; Elektrische Energieversorgung von Albanien. Rehabilitierungs- und Ausbaumassnahmen notwendig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlabbach, J. [Fachhochschule Bielefeld (Germany). Fachbereich Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik

    2001-06-05

    Electric power is produced almost exclusively in the hydroelectric power plants along the Drini river at the sites Fierze (4x125 MW), Koman (4x150 MW), and Vau Dejes (5x50 MW). The thermal power plants are fueled with heavy oils and contribute only a minor share to electricity supplies. The 1998 generation figures show: total national output 5 067.454 GWh; output of Drini river hydroelectric power plants 4 971.767 GWh (1350 MW); small-scale hydroelectric power plants 13.0 GWh (96 MW); thermal power plants 82.687 GWh (196 MW). Currently only less than 50/% of the hydropower potential is exploited. Considerable exploitable potentials are available at the rivers Devo and Vjosa, in the southern part of Albania. (orig./CB) [German] Elektrische Energie wird fast ausschliesslich in den Wasserkraftwerken Fierze (4x125 MW), Koman (4x150 MW) und Vau Dejes (5x50 MW) am Fluss Drini erzeugt. Die thermischen Kraftwerke werden mit Schweroel befeuert und sind nur zu einem geringen Mass an der Erzeugung elektrischer Energie beteiligt. Im Jahr 1998 wurden erzeugt: 5 067,454 GWh Gesamterzeugung; 4 971,767 GWh Drini-Wasserkraftwerke (1 350 MW); 13,0 GWh Kleinwasserkraftwerke (96 MW); 82,687 GWh thermische Anlagen (196 MW). Das Potential zur Wasserkraftnutzung in Albanien ist derzeit zu weniger als 50% erschlossen. Hohe Ausbaupotentiale sind an den Fluessen Devo und Vjosa im Sueden Albaniens vorhanden. (orig./CB)

  4. Determination of the pluviometric deficit as a base for the climate classification in Albania

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    AZEM BARDHI1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sum of all climatic parameters known until now, in a strict understanding, cannot be the same as climate itself. The climate is the parameters we know plus potential evapotranspiration. The purpose of this paper is first, to quantify the potential evapotranspiration and then, combining it with the rainfall values, to quantify the pluviometric deficit all over Albania as a substantial precondition for climate classification. The functions of both, potential evapotranspiration and rainfall over time, resulted to be polynomial ones, because the highest regression coefficients were found comparing with other types of functions. A correlation coefficient significant for high probability values was found between the magnitude and the duration of pluviometric deficits. The entire country, based on the findings showed, could be divided into three main areas extended from the aridity to the humidity scale. However, this preliminary basic conclusion is supposed to be verified when the pluviometric deficit quantified already, as it will be shown in this article, is going to be used for the moisture index determination, as it is indicated in the Thornthwaite’s research work.

  5. The Local Resources in Albania as Instruments to Increase the Autonomy of the Local Institutions

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    Oriona Mucollari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  6. Determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline in beef meat by HPLC-DAD detector in Albania

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    ALMA EMIRI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 to estimate the proportion of tetracycline residue levels in beef at main slaughterhouses in Tirana, capital of Albania. A total of 37 beef muscle samples were randomly collected from slaughtered beef in the slaughterhouses. The samples were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, with Photo Diode Array detector (DAD. The detection limit of the method was calculated to be 25 μg/kg and the limit of quantitation was found to be 50 μg/kg. The recoveries of oxytetracycline (OTC, tetracycline (TC and chlortetracycline (CTC from spiked samples at three fortification levels were higher than 78% for all drugs. From 37 beef meat samples collected from different slaughterhouses of Tirana, only 4 samples showed detectable concentration of OTC residues but were lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs according to Commission Regulation (EU No 37/2010. TC and CTC were absent in all samples. These levels were not able to induce risks to human health. However other studies are necessary to evaluate other drug residues in beef samples and to evaluate the hazards of these residues in relation with daily intakes and other related factors.

  7. Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Rethemeyer, J.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid) in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

  8. Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

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    B. Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

  9. Seismic and sedimentological evidence of the 518 AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid at 518 AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting event, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying AD 472 / AD 512 tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

  10. Fort, Tower, or House? Building a Landscape of Settlement in the Shala Valley of High Albania

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    Michael L. Galaty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of archaeological, (ethno-historic, and ethnographic research in the Shala River valley of northern Albania. We argue that through time and in different periods of occupation - Middle Palaeolithic, Iron Age, Late Medieval, and Modern - the valley's residents have met similar challenges of extreme geography and a harsh environment differently, in particular by interacting in different ways and at different levels of intensity with the outside world. These shifts caused changes in population, settlement, and socio-political organisation that are reflected strongly in the local landscape and built environment. Population, settlement, and socio-political organisation did not hold constant, but were influenced by external forces, despite the seeming isolation of the valley and its occupants. This article demonstrates how thin material and documentary records can be greatly enhanced through carefully integrated, interdisciplinary studies of settlement, home construction, and neighbourhood expansion and abandonment. We present select results drawn from an on-line database and GIS, along with photos, drawings, and audio recordings of transcribed interviews. An interactive system of blogs allows the authors to direct readers to additional sources of data, and readers to tell authors and other readers how they have accessed and displayed these data, and with what results.

  11. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

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    Makbule Çeço

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of constitutional revision in the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, as a complex process accompanied by limitations on constitutional revision. The historical evolution of constitutional drafting, modern constitutions, relevant issues, political and social circumstances as well as drafting and adoption procedures, dynamism of constitutions to cope with the course of time achieved by revisions for the purpose of their stability as well as consolidation of the role of constitutions as a factor that facilitates and precedes social development, comprise the pillar of this study addressed in a comparative point of view.

  12. USER ADOPTION OF MANDATORY E-GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS: NOTARIAL SYSTEM IN ALBANIA, AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSE

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    Agim Kasaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available E-Government has high priority for governments worldwide, with much effort and money being invested into government digital initiatives. For such efforts to be worthy, a high rate of adoption of e-government is needed. Technology adoption is one of the most mature areas in information technology (IT research and many adoption models have been developed for this purpose. Most studies in this field have been focused on voluntary use of systems and mainly from a business context, with minor emphasize on an e-government. A major distinction between technologies of e-government and other online technologies, is that the use of certain e-government technologies is mandatory, rather than voluntary. This paper provides a short introduction of e-government, followed by a review of the most well-known information technology (IT adoption models at the individual level. Using previous research results, the study will identify the determinant constructs and their relationship for adoption of the digital notarial system of Albania. Finally, the paper proposes a theoretical framework for private professional adoption of mandatory e-government information systems.

  13. Italy and Albania: The political and economic alliance and the Italian invasion of 1939

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    Peter Tase

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  14. Accounting Standardization and Financial Reporting in Public Sector in Albania- Future Challenges

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    Ariana Konomi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for improving and strengthening all the links of financial reporting chain not only in private sector but also in public sector, directly contributes to overcome the 2010-2012 global crisis and helps to transform the ongoing period into a global economic growth period. The governments should implement the necessary institutional measures for public sector growth, financial management transparency and accountability.An integral and fondamental element of these agreements is the usage of accruals (according accounting by approving and implementing International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS, which enable the full disclosure of all the assets, liabilities and conditional liabilities, as a basic issue for real assessment and financial management of public sector, extended monitoring of government debt and liabilities, for their real economic implications. The implementation of accounting standards in public sector of Albania, besides the unification of accounting and financial statements preparation, intends to influence right, qualitative and long term decision-making, at all government levels; to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of financial resources; formalize the economy and better fight the phenomena of corruption, fraud, money laundering or fundsabuse; improve the level of fiscal transparency to public and integrate or face the global economy.As the main challenge of this sector and also as a process that needs time, financial reporting, requires a continuous reformation of policies, institutions, structures and professionalsKey words: Accounting standartization, financial management/reporting, public sector.

  15. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    CERN Document Server

    Xhixha, Gerti; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 24 +/- 3 Bq/kg and 549 +/- 12 Bq/kg, respectively, come from oil-sand produced by hydrocarbon extraction from molasses formations. The mineralogical characterization together with the 228Ra/40K and 226Ra/40K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirm the geological and geodynamic model that predicts a dismantling of Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (+/- standard deviations) of the radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and of the 228Th and 40K radionuclides in soil samples are determined...

  16. Logistic Equation and its Application as Forecasting Model of Vegetables Production in Greenhouses in Albania

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    VALENTINA SHEHU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Correct forecasting is of a great importance for the business and economy of the country. To comprehend the market and the economic system, mathematical models are used to describe and predict the future of situation. Agriculture is the spinal column of Albania’s economic activity and the last 20 years free market experience has given a demonstration of the high correlation between agricultural progress and the economic development. Producing greenhouse-grown vegetables can result a beneficial activity, but it is a hard and complicated investment. The greenhouse technology is one of great innovation in agriculture. Agricultures methods must be combined with technical knowledge, marketing must be planned before harvest, and every phase of process should be well-managed. In this paper it is studied and applied the logistic growth model for forecasting the production of vegetables in greenhouse. The results of this paper show that the logistic S-shaped curve is a mathematical model to characterize the progress of innovation in agriculture. Also, the logistic equation can be used to describe and predict the production of vegetables in greenhouses in Albania.

  17. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus in the Population of Albania for the Period 2007-2010

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    Hysaj Vila Brunilda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a blood-borne, infectious, viral disease that is caused by a hepatotropic virus called Hepatitis C virus (HCV. AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of active HCV infection (HCV–RNA in the cases that were anti-HCV positive. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plasma of 301 high-risk for HCV infection consecutive from University Hospital Centre “Mother Theresa” Tirana-Albania, during January 2007 to December 2010 was included in this study. To identify the presence of HCV RNA, the samples were examined by Cobas Amplicor HCV test (qualitative method. RESULTS: From 301 samples analyzed in total, 214 of them resulted positive for the presence of HCV-RNA's, corresponding to a prevalence of 71.1%, with 95% CI interval [65.8 - 75.9] for value of χ2 = 52.7 p value 25 years with a significant difference with other age groups for p value 25 years.

  18. An Evaluation Of Advertising Models In Emergent Countries – The Case Of Albania

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    Elenica Pjero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The market today is confronted with cornucopia of challenges and opportunities. The unfolding scenario is being closely watched by marketers across the globe and they are competing with each other to grasp the market share. In order to win over the consumers, marketers are constantly evolving strategies.The western firms based and operating from market-based economies are progressively being confronted with the growing challenge of creating brand awareness amongst the perspective consumers. As a result, advertising has become an essential marketing tool for these foreign firms in establishing their relatively less or unknown brands and products. The study aims to report the results of a survey about changing attitudes towards advertising in Albania. It examines the questionnaire - based response of a sample population of consumers from the city of Vlora, in their general attitudes towards advertising. Findings will contribute to the understanding of theoretical explanations for advertising in emerging markets, and of western firms using advertising marketing tool to penetrate these markets.

  19. Potential of Wind Energy in Albania and Kosovo: Equity Payback and GHG Reduction of Wind Turbine Installation

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    Mevlan Qafleshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy generation in Albania is completely from the hydropower plants. In terms of GHG emissions this is 100% green. In Kosovo 97% of energy is generated from lignite fired power plants. Apart the energy generation, the combustion process emits around 8000 ktCO2/yr and 1.5 Mt of ash in the form of fly and bottom ash. In both countries there is no MWh power generated from wind energy, i.e. this energy source is not utilized. Here, a proposed project for five locations in Albania and Kosovo has been analyzed in detail with the aim of installing a 1kW wind turbine off-grid. The method of study is based on the application of RETScreen International program software. This proposed model is intended to replace a base case- a diesel generator with installed capacity 7kW.  The locations are selected three in Albania: Vlora, Korça and Elbasan, and two in Kosovo: Prishtina and Prizren. All are in different altitudes. By the calculation of RETScreen program, it has been analyzed the feasibility of the proposed projects by installing a wind turbine at hub’s height 20m. The climate data for each location were retrieved by the RETScreen program from NASA. Generally, the calculation of financial parameters for the investments came out to be positive, the impact of GHG reduction very significant. A 5500 USD investment for the implementation of proposed case showed an equity payback time of 2-3 yrs and GHG reduction of 2.2 tCO2/yr. The electricity delivery to load only from this 1 KW wind turbine resulted to be between 1.6-17 MWh/yr.

  20. Holocene evolution of Lake Shkodra: Multidisciplinary evidence for diachronic landscape change in northern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Galaty, Michael; Bejko, Lorenc; Sadori, Laura; Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg; Koçi, Rexhep; Van Welden, Aurelien; Bushati, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    A multidisciplinary micro-paleontological study of a sediment core (SK19) drilled in the coastal area of Lake Shkodra, northern Albania, integrated with archaeological data from the Projekti Arkeologjikë i Shkodrës (PASH), provides compelling evidence for a long-term relationship between Shkodra's natural environment and its inhabitants. Charophyte and ostracod data recovered from SK19 combined with those already studied from the distal core SK13 (Mazzini et al., 2015), reveal important information concerning the changing characteristics of the water body through time. In particular, the ostracod fauna display a truly Balkanic character with eight taxa endemic to the area. Palaeoenvironmental analysis of the two cores indicates that a wide marshland extended towards the present eastern coast of the lake, fed discontinuously both by surface- and ground-water, beginning sometime before 12,140 cal yrs BP. For about 7000 years ostracods do not record any significant changes, whereas the Characeae record in the proximal zone displays important variations. Those variations do not match any of the climatic oscillations revealed in previous studies by δ18O or pollen data, thereby implicating human activities. Ostracods and charophytes indicate that permanent shallow waters occurred in the Shkodra basin only around 5800 cal yrs BP. Historical sources of the Roman Empire indicate a swamp (the Palus labeatis), crossed by the River Morača, which flowed into the River Buna. Evidence for local fires, whether natural or anthropogenic, is recorded in SK13, scattered between 4400 and 1200 yrs BP. From 4400 to 2000 yrs BP, during the Bronze and Iron Age, hill forts ringed the marsh and burial mounds marked its edges. But around 2000 cal yrs BP, a dramatic change in the water body occurred: the disappearance of Characeae. Possibly fires were used for the elimination of natural vegetation and the subsequent cultivation of olive and walnut trees, causing an increase on organic

  1. The function and content of the enterprise during communism in Albania

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    Endri Papajorgji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marks, Engels and Lenin’s ideologies were the foundation of the theory of law, in the Albanian legal system. They were not contra positioned to the private law system, but were in contradiction with the bourgeois society and its private ownership (Reich, 1972, 27. Socialist law literature was based on the principle that state-owned enterprises had great advantages not only compared to enterprises but also compared to large capitalist corporates; not only because of their socialist nature which led to the disappearance of the exploitation of the masses, but also because of their economic nature, as part of a large and mechanized economy in which the successes of modern science and technology could be maximally implemented (Marjani, Malindi, Shtepani, 1982, 16. Either Article 8 of the Constitution of 1946, nor legal changes to 1950, or Article 26 of the Constitution of 1976 did contain a definition of the enterprise. The Constitution regulated only the basic principles of the planning economy, which was based on the planning economy and state-owned enterprises, cooperatives and other workers associations. Article 26 and 27 of the Constitution of 1976 define the following: “For the administration of the means, which are in ownership of the people, the state creates companies, which operate in the interest of the society, defined in the state plan”. “The prices of selling products of the companies and purchase prices of fruit products and animals are determined by the state”. These constitutional norms forced state-owned enterprises and agricultural cooperatives, to use the means of production in a centralized form, to meet the obligations of the plan and to ensure the interests of society (Çela, Çami, Hysi, Omari, 1978, 125. In this context, main aim of this article is the function and content of the enterprise during communism in Albania.

  2. Physico chemical characteristics and heavy metal contents of water from Butrinti lagoon, Albania

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    Teuta Topi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted between May 2010 and January 20011 in the Butrinti Lagoon, an important ecological and economical area in the south of Albania. The study aimed to determine (i the water quality in the lagoon of Butrint using physico-chemical parameters and level of heavy metals, (2 its status to support living life in the aquatic ecosystem. Data on temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, EC were obtained in - situ using multiparameter portable instrument. Surface and bottom water of the lagoon were analyzed for heavy metals: Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg. The results showed that water temperature varies depending on the seasons. The highest temperatures were in August from 26 to 27.3 0C depending on the sampling station. pH in the water of the lagoon is basic, its values ranged from 8.12 to 8.49, and were optimal for the production of mussels. The values of salinity in the lagoon of Butrint are smaller than those of the Ionian sea influenced by rivers Bistrica, Pavlo and groundwater resources. Lower values of DO in the depth of the lagoon were recorded in August at stations SS2 (1.4 mg L-1 and SS5 (1.9 mg L-1, and therefore a damage was noticed in the growth of mussels in the lagoon. The heavy metals Cr, Pb, in some stations are found in higher levels than the values allowed by the EU and pose a potential health risk to humans and the aquatic life of the lagoon’s ecosystem.

  3. MANGANESE CONTENT IN THE MUSCLE TISSUE OF THE TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA IN SOME RIVERS OF ALBANIA

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    F. Selami

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation and magnification is capable of leading to toxic level of these metals in fish even when exposure is low. The presence of metal pollutant in fresh water is known to disturb the delicate balance of the aquatic systems. Fishes are notorious for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their muscles and since they play an important role in human nutrition, they need to be carefully screened to ensure that unnecessary high levels of some toxic trace metals are not being transferred to man through fish consumption. This study evaluates the content of the manganese element (Mn in the muscle tissue of the trout (Rainbow trout, caught upstream and downstream in some rivers of Albania, such as: Vjosa, Buna, Drini. A total of 60 Salmo trutta samples were analyzed in the Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Food Safety at the Institute of Food and Veterinary Safety in Tirana. The average value of manganese concentration in the trout’s muscle tissue caught in the Vjosa river was 0.45 mg/kg of the upstream samples and 0.90 mg/kg of the downstream samples. In the muscle tissue of the trout caught in the Buna river, the average value of manganese concentration was 1.65 mg/kg in the upstream samples and 0.75 mg/kg in the downstream samples. In the muscle tissue of the trout caught in the Drini river the average value of manganese concentration was 0.55 mg/kg in the upstream samples and 0.80 mg/kg in the downstream samples.

  4. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 637 ka and the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Just, Janna; Leicher, Niklas; Gromig, Raphael; Baumgarten, Henrike; Vogel, Hendrik; Lacey, Jack H.; Sadori, Laura; Wonik, Thomas; Leng, Melanie J.; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and host more than 300 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m composite depth of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on 11 tephra layers (first-order tie points) and on tuning of bio-geochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (second-order tie points), the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 637 kyr. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilimnion during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparably cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that the most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6, whereas somewhat warmer temperatures can be inferred for

  5. Last Interglacial climate variability recorded in sediments of Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H.; Valsecchi, V.; Schouten, S.; Leng, M. J.; Wagner, B.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lotter, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    Lake Ohrid, a transboundary lake shared by the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and the Republic of Albania is with its likely Pliocene age considered to be the oldest existing lake in Europe. Since 2004 several sediment successions have been recovered from Lake Ohrid. The longest records cover the last glacial-interglacial cycle and reach back to MIS 6. Independent age control is given by radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology. These records allow insights on climatic and environmental evolution of the last interglacial in a region, which today is densely populated and highly vulnerable to climate change. We used a multiproxy approach to study climatic and environmental variability during the last interglacial. This approach combines novel molecular (TEX86, MBT/CBT) and established sedimentological, geochemical and paleoecological tools. These combined data imply that the last interglacial at Lake Ohrid was preceded by an interstadial period between c. 133 and 131 ka that was followed by a stadial centred at c. 130 ka and characterized by a marked vegetation shift to more steppic elements around the lake. Subsequently, temperatures rose steadily from c. 129 to 122 ka. From c. 122 ka temperatures declined gradually. A sudden drop in temperatures starting at about 116 ka probably marks the end of the last interglacial period at Lake Ohrid. A comparison of highest temperatures during the Holocene and the last interglacial points to 2-3 °C higher temperatures during the last interglacial. A temperature increase in the same order is predicted by climate models for this region implying that last interglacial climatic and environmental conditions as recorded in Lake Ohrids sediments could provide a relatively good analogue for the future. However, longer records from this area are needed to gain a better understanding of natural climate variability during interglacials with a different setting of orbital parameters. In order to recover longer records extending

  6. E-Banking and its features - Albania as a special case

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    Ermela Bashuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The e-banking system is a system which enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions such as: balance inquiries, account transfers, bill payments and some of them offer even the possibility to make loan or credit card applications on a website operated by the institution via internet at any place or time. The e-banking is referred to as online banking or internet banking. The banks have chosen to be part of the wide world of Web in order to stay competitive in the fast changing world of business and also to take further advantages. This innovation (accompanied by globalization and technology development has”obliged” the business entities to redefine and remodel their operations. Electronic banking is the wave of the future. It provides enormous benefits to consumers in terms of the ease and cost of transactions. But it also poses new challenges for country authorities in regulating and supervising the financial system and in designing and implementing macroeconomic policy. In the first section there is an overview of E-banking products and services offered world wide and in Albania as a special case. In the second section there is a general overview of the e-banking advantages and disadvantages. In the third part there is a discussion above the features, challenges, advantages and disadvantages of E-Banking vs traditional banking. In the last part there are given some general recommendations to be taken in consideration in order to maintain effective and to further develop the operating environment for the existing and potential e-banks.

  7. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation.

  8. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:26037957

  9. Labour market in Albania. Identifing the shortages of skills in the labor market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmonda Beluli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The labor market is a relationship between the demand (persons who seek work and supply (job vacancies. The labor market is very complex, to study it we have to know better the characteristics of its variables, ie demand and supply. The Good compatibility between demand and supply is the golden key to well-functioning of labor market. Using the data obtained from questionnaires issued to study the labor market, many shortages are revealed in some sectors, especially in some professions, in terms of labor power, Identification of the skills and training needs of companies is the essence of consultation, orientation to career and training services. The survey through questionnaires  is used as a means of research. The Information obtained from the research on needed skills ought to become an integral part of the Information System on Labor Market (ISLM. The Information on Labor Market that was usually collected through employment services, education and vocational training departments and national training agencies, facilitates the analysis on the efficiency and effectiveness of the training system and estimation of training demand, and enables the employment services and training providers to make possible the adjustment of both, demand and supply. as well. Concerning Albania, it is important to develop effective institutions and policies on labor market in order to reduce the inefficiencies and to create more job vacancies. In this aspect, we need to understand better what is happening with the economy. The results of the study suggest the existence of strong national divisions and regional labor market in terms of age and gender, which are so strong that even if you have in mind the caution that is dictated by the given samlpe it is felt that further investigation will be justified. Key Words: labor market, population, skills, vacancies, gender

  10. Empirical Evidence of Fiscal Policy Impact on Endogenous Models of Economic Growth - the Case of Albania

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    Olta Milova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to Mankiw (2000, fiscal policy in major macroeconomic models adversely affects the behavior of private agents as consumers and firms and they affect economic growth through investment and savings decisions. Increasing government spending will increase the aggregate demand for goods and services and money demand in the money market leading to an increase of interest rates while markets tend towards equilibrium. The increased interest rates affect negatively the level of private investment. To assess the effect of fiscal policy on economic growth generally are used the endogenous growth models, which include technological progress as an integrated part of this model. These models were called endogenous because they were taking into account long-term economic growth and were using endogenous mechanisms to explain its main source which is the technological progress. Endogenous growth models developed by Barro (1990, Mendosa, Milesi-Ferreti and Asea (1997 or even by other economists, predict that the fiscal policy can affect the level of product and the long run economic growth. This conclusion is analysed in the theory of Barro (1990, which extends the model by including the fiscal policy. The Barro’s model is the model used in this paper to analyse the effect of the fiscal policy on economic growth in the case of Albania. The empirical work shows that all the variables, except inflation which according to theoretical expectations should have a negative effect, affect positively the economic growth. This positive relation between these variables can be explained by investments in infrastructure and other priority sectors that the government has done during all this period.

  11. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT THEORIES AND MODELS, A COMPARATIVE ANALYSE.CHALLENGE OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA

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    Eva\tDHIMITRI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Local governance is a broad concept and is defined as the formulation and execution of collective action at the local level. The purpose of local government is to ensure effective and efficient use of public resources and service delivery at the level closest to citizens. Regional development is a new concept that aims to stimulate and diversify the economic activity of a country (region, to encourage investment in the private sector, to create a new jobs vacancy and improves living standards of the country. Regional development policies are a number of measures designed and promoted by the central and local administration, but the cooperation undertaken at the actors are in a different one, which included the private sector and civil society. At the center of these regional policies or practices is the use of efficient potential of each region, being particularly focused on business, means promoting the development of the new enterprises, promoting labor market and investment, improve the quality of environment, health , education and culture. Traditional objective of regional development policies is the reduction of territorial disparities for achieving a relative balance between economic and social levels of development in different areas in the national territory. Regional development is the actual task of local government units in Albania, and is one of the tasks and challenges of the future. Currently it takes a special importance in the context of European Union integration. Reforms have begun to change the system in 1990 in order to implement local democracy and decentralization principles that are present today. Inequalities that exist within the region and between them indicate that in some regions the economic potential is not being fully utilized, and that it reduces the overall performance in national level.

  12. Ethnic affiliation, common memory and traditional culture of Macedonian Muslims in Albania: adaptating and preserving the identity (fieldworks of 2008-2010

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    Alexander Novik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the question of ethnic affiliation of Macedonian Muslims in conditions of combined ethnical neighborhood. There are around ten settlements with Macedonian population in the Eastern part of the Republic of Albania (Mac. Golo Brdo, Alb. Golloborda. Five scientific researchers from St. Petersburg: Andrej Sobolev, Alexander Novik, Denis Ermolin, Maria Morozova and Alexandra Dugushina (Institute of Linguistic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography and St. Petersburg State University had organized fieldwork in the villages Trebisht, Klenje, Ostren etc. in 2008-2010. The author puts into academic context a new description of almost unexplored Macedonian community. The data have been obtained during the fieldworks in Eastern Albania. In conditions of long-term neighborhood with other languages and religious denominations, the adapting mechanisms have worked out specific approaches to preserving ethnical identity and traditional culture, perceiving their value and necessity of translating to descendants. Materials of fieldwork include data about identity, language, culture of Macedonian community in different periods of the state of Albania (Osmanli time, Royal Albania, Enver Hoxha monism period, post-communist transition, modern republic. These expedition materials are archived in the Kunstkamera (Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The founds of the Museum have traditional clothes of Macedonian Muslims from Golo Brdo which are collected during the fieldworks 2008-2010

  13. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

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    Shane D Morrison

    Full Text Available Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK, 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  14. Enhancing the resilience of local communities threated by natural disaster: the experience of the Project "Shkoder", (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Fidolini, Francesco; Fanti, Riccardo; Vannocci, Pietro; Krymbi, Ervis; Centoducati, Carlo; Ghini, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The vulnerability of Albanian population to natural disasters is due to poverty, inadequate infrastructures (e.g. communication network, basic public facilities and works of soil protection), an uncontrollable building boom and a range of environmental factors, both geomorphological and geological. The greatest disaster threats in Albania are those related to severe earthquakes and large-scale riverine floods. Geohazards assessment is a crucial point for Albania, which has been subject to a rapid development after the recent political changes, resulting in a general land degradation. Also the rate of migration from rural areas to the most urbanized areas currently represents a major problem for the National Civil Protection, since the urban sprawl in the suburbs are often located in high-risk areas, particularly vulnerable to natural hazards. The National Civil Protection system, in terms of subsidiary institutional and volunteer components, is relatively young in Albania. The progressive decentralization of the administrative competences triggered by the recent political changes is accompanied by the acquisition of new territorial information and the development of specific protocols for the emergency management, as well as the risk reduction. The management of natural disasters demands not only an early response to the criticalities, but also a correct mapping of the damage and the development of emergency plans for future events in order to protect lives, properties and the environment and moreover to spread the risk awareness in the population and to prepare it for such circumstances. The main purposes of the Pilot Project "Shkoder" is to enhance the resilience of a little community, located 9 kilometers south-west of Shkodra (Northern Albania), to flooding and earthquakes and to promote the subsidiarity principle by means of: a) demonstrating how basic information for the disaster planning (collected with a real demonstrative field survey) and the risk

  15. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION IN ALBANIA IN LIEU OF THE BOLOGNA PROCESS: THE CASE OF THE EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY OF TIRANA

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    Tomi Treska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore the scientific research model developed at the European University of Tirana (UET, a private higher education institution in Albania. This requires for a reconsideration of the position of private universities in the higher education system in Albania, not just as profitable entities, but as institutions that provide public services for citizens in the country. The paper adopts a qualitative methodology approach, i.e. it applies document analysis and literature review in order to explore the development of the scientific research model in UET. The materials consulted include documents related to the Bologna Process; legislation of higher education in Albania; policies, guidelines and procedures of UET regarding scientific research. The paper suggests that private universities in Albania, albeit being recently established, enjoy more opportunities and freedom to develop new models for conducting scientific research. The analysis of the UET scientific research model shows that UET has adopted the most advanced Western approaches and the best practices from the Anglo-Saxon universities, bringing innovation in vision, research policies, procedures, practices and forms. The paper identifies the main principles upon which the scientific research of UET is built: (i the connection and reflection of scientific research activities in the teaching process; (ii the students’ involvement in research activities; (iii further qualification of academic staff including doctoral candidates; (iv the connection between scientific research and the market. The paper argues that this model should be supported by new policies to better regulate the financing scheme of higher education in Albania, in order to provide private universities with more opportunities to further develop their scientific research. This will also lead to an increased confidence from the side of the business sector to trust private universities with their market

  16. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Contents of Water from Karavasta lagoon, Albania

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    ROMINA KOTO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal contents of water from the Karavasta Lagoon(40º56’ N and 19º29’ E. Karavasta Lagoon is one of the largest lagoons in the Mediterranean Seaand one of the most important economic and ecological areas in the southern part of Albania. The overall complex is composed of four lagoons, sand dunes, and a river mouth has a surface of 10000 ha. It is situated in the central part of western region, between Shkumbini River in the north and Semani River in the south, 40 km west of the city of Lushnja, by the Adriatic coast. The study aimed to determine (i the water quality in the lagoon of Karavasta using physico-chemical parameters and the level of heavy metals, (2 its status to support living life in the aquatic ecosystem. Data on temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen were obtained in-situ using Hanna multi-parameters instruments. Surface water of the lagoon was analyzed for heavy metals: Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, As.The results showed that water temperature varies depending on the seasons. The highest temperatures were in July from 26 to 28.6 ºC depending on the sampling station.The results showed that water temperature varies depending on the seasons. Highest values of pH in the water of the lagoon are verified in December from 10.72 to11.98. The values of salinity in the lagoon of Karavasta are higher in Dajlani station SS1 ranging 42.31% in July to 40.83 %in December, depending from the connection with Adriatic Sea. Also it varies considerably from one area to another, and between seasons, depending on the degree of isolationThe heavy metals Cr, Pb, Cu in some stations are found to be close or higher than the values allowed by the EU and pose a potential health risk to humans and the aquatic life of the lagoon’s ecosystem.

  17. Entomological and parasitological study on phlebotomine sandflies in central and northern Albania

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    Velo E.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An entomological survey was carried out in two districts of central (Kruje and northern (Lezhe Albania. Six collecting sites, showing a variety of diurnal resting sites, were monitored for adult sandflies from June through October 2002. Flies were collected with CDC miniature light traps, sticky traps and mechanical or hand aspirators in peridomestic sites, in bedrooms and inside cow barns, chicken coops and pigpens. All collecting sites monitored were found positive for sandflies. A total of 849 specimens were caught (29.2 % males belonging to five Phlebotomus species. Phlebotomus neglectus (75.6 % was the most abundant species followed by P. perfiliewi (14.4 %, P. papatasi (4.6 %, P. tobbi (3.6 % and P. similis (1.8 %. The first adult of P. neglectus appeared on June 11 and the last one was collected on October 16. The highest density for this species was observed at the end of July. A total of 111 blood-fed females were caught from the two areas studied. P. neglectus was the only species found blood fed in Lezhe and the same species was prevalent (56.1 % in Kruje followed by P. perfiliewi (30.3 %, P. tobbi (10.6 %; P. papatasi was represented by only two specimens. Blood meal origin was determined in 45/66 (68.2 % of the females tested from Kruje district. P. neglectus was found fed on four hosts, showing the following feeding patterns: cow (71.4 %, dog (17.1 %, chicken (5.7 % and human (5.7 % ; P. perfiliewi was found fed on cow (80.0 % and chicken (20.0 %, P. tobbi on cow (50.0 %, chicken (25.0 % and dog (25.0 %. One specimen of P. papatasi was found fed on cow. When such prevalences were analysed by the available biomass for each host present at the collecting site, P. neglectus resulted to be an opportunistic feeder rather than exhibiting preferences for any specific animal. PCR analysis of 39 P. neglectus from the Lezhe district gave negative results for the presence of Leishmania DNA.

  18. Results from Downhole Logging in the ICDP Project Scopsco at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, H.; Wonik, T.; Wagner, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Ohrid is located at the border between Macedonia and Albania (40°70' N, 20°42 E) and is assumed as the oldest lake in Europe. The lake with a surface area of 360 km² has trapped sediments and volcanic ashes and hence, contains essential information of major climatic and environmental change of the central northern Mediterranean region. In the frame of the ICDP project SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid), several scientific questions are adressed: age and origin of the lake, paleoclimatic change during the Quaternary, tephrostratigraphy, and driving forces for the outstanding biodiversity. Sediments of the lake have been targeted for a deep drilling campaign in spring 2013. Four sites (DEEP, CERAVA, GRADISTE, PESTANI) have been cored to a depth of 569 m below lake floor (blf). High-quality continuous downhole logging data have been achieved at all drill sites by the use of the following tools: spectral gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, resistivity, dipmeter, borehole televiewer and sonic. Additionally, vertical seismic profiling was conducted at the DEEP site. Seismic investigations indicate a sediment fill of the lake basin up to a thickness of 700 m. First results from cores revealed, that the bottom part, below 430 m blf is characterized by coarser grained deposits while the upper part yields fine grained pelagic sediments. The borehole logging data at the DEEP site shows strong contrasts in all physical properties, in particular in spectral gamma ray (GR), magnetic susceptibility, resistivity and seismic velocity (vp). Furthermore, the pelagic facies show a cyclic alternation in these parameters as well as in the structural features from borehole televiewer. By use of the current age estimate of the record of around 1.2 Ma, the GR data was tested for matching with the benthic δ18O record and shows high correlation (R² = 0.72), whereas high GR indicate glacial and low GR interglacial periods. Spectral

  19. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania between 640 ka and present day

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    A. Francke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP, a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on nine tephra layers (1st order tie points, and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (2nd order tie points and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (3rd order tie points, respectively, the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 640 ka. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilmnion in during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for MIS11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparable cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6

  20. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Extant Freshwater Ostracodes (Crustacea in Ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

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    Julia Lorenschat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an intensive sampling survey in ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania, covering all seasons, to determine total species number, relative species abundances and spatial distribution of Ostracoda. We identified 32 living species that belong to seven families (Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, Leptocytheridae, Limnocytheridae, Cytherideidae, and Darwinulidae and 15 genera (Candona, Fabaeformiscandona, Candonopsis, Cypria, Cyclocypris, Ilyocypris, Eucypris, Prionocypris, Bradleystrandesia, Herpetocypris, Dolerocypris, Amnicythere, Paralimnocythere, Cytherissa, and Darwinula. Six additional species were identified from empty carapaces and valves. Dominant families in Lake Ohrid were Candonidae and Limnocytheridae, representing 53% and 16% of all species, respectively. Prevalence of species flocks in these two families confirms the “young” ancient status of the lake. Amnicythere displays a preference for oligo-haline to meso-haline waters, but some species are found in saline environments, which suggests Lake Ohrid has a marine history. Recent studies, however, indicate fluvial/glaciofluvial deposition at the onset of Lake Ohrid sedimentation. Candona is the most diverse genus in Lake Ohrid, represented by 12 living species. Paralimnocythere is represented by five living species and all other genera are represented by one or two species. Reports of Candona bimucronata, Ilyocypris bradyi, Eucypris virens, Eucypris sp., Prionocypris zenkeri, Bradleystrandesia reticulate, Herpetocypris sp. 2, and Dolerocypris sinensis are firsts for this lake. Living ostracodes were collected at the maximum water depth (280 m in the lake (Candona hadzistei, C. marginatoides, C. media, C. ovalis, C. vidua, Fabaeformiscandona krstici, Cypria lacustris, C. obliqua and Amnicythere karamani. Cypria lacustris was overall the most abundant species and Cypria obliqua displayed the highest abundance at 280 m water depth. Principal environmental variables

  1. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 640 ka and present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Just, J.; Leicher, N.; Gromig, R.; Baumgarten, H.; Vogel, H.; Lacey, J. H.; Sadori, L.; Wonik, T.; Leng, M. J.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.

    2015-09-01

    Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on nine tephra layers (1st order tie points), and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (2nd order tie points) and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (3rd order tie points), respectively, the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 640 ka. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm) mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilmnion in during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for MIS11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparable cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6 whereas

  2. Growth-Climate Response of Young Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris L. Coppice Forest Stands along Longitudinal Gradient in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Stafasani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. is the most widespread species in Albania and less investigated from dendroclimatological point of view. Previous studies have reported that Q. cerris is sensitive to the environment when growing at different latitudes and ecological conditions. Based on this fact we have explored the response of different Q. cerris populations located along the longitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: The stem discs were sampled from six sites (Kukes, Diber, Rreshen, Ulez, Elbasan, Belsh along longitudinal gradient ranging from north-east to central Albania. All oak forests stands grow under the influence of specific local Mediterranean climate. Tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using a linear table, LINTAB and the TSAP-Win program. Following the standard dendrochronological procedures residual tree-ring width chronologies were built for each site. Statistical parameters commonly used in dendrochronology were calculated for each site chronology. Relations between the tree-ring chronologies were explored using Hierarchical Factor Classification (HFC and Principal Component Analysis (PCA, while the radial growth-climate relationship was analyzed through correlation analysis using a 19-month window from April in the year prior to tree-ring formation (year t - 1 until October in the year of growth (year t. Results and Conclusions: The length of the site chronologies ranged from 16 to 36 years, with the Elbasan site chronology being the longest and the Belsh site chronology the shortest one. Trees at lower elevation were younger than trees at higher elevation. Statistical parameters (mean sensitivity (MS and auto correlation (AC of site chronologies were different among them and lower values of AC1 showed a weaker dependence of radial growth from climatic conditions of the previous growing year. Principal component analysis showed that Belsh, Rreshen and Elbasan site chronologies were

  3. Entrepreneurship and Human Resources as Important Forces Affecting Electronic Readiness in Building the Information Society in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermelinda Kordha (Tolica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Today information has become an important element without which society actors cannotachieve their goals. The term “information society” is increasingly used nowadays instead of theterms “production” or “consumption society”, because of the importance and necessity of informationin today's dynamic environment. In these conditions, even Albania is trying to give the properimportance and emphasis to, not just the use of information, but to the use of tools and technologiesthat enable efficiency in the collection, storage, processing, and distribution of data and the useinformation. Thus, information and communication technologies (ICT, are finding today in theAlbanian society, a steadily increasing use. For the Albanian Government has established andimplements the strategy is the national information and communication technologies (ICT.

  4. The Impact of National Currency Instability and the World Financial Crisis in the Credit Risk. The Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Anila MANÇKA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available My research paper aims at analyzing the relationship which exists between macroeconomic situation and the indicators that measure the quality of the credits in the Albanian bank system for the period 2002-2010. The results of the research work have proved the raised hypothesis that the instability of the national currency, in relation to Euro and the American Dollar, and the world financial crisis have influenced upon the systematic credit risk in Albania. First, we would like to express our evaluation about the credit portfolio characteristics and the tendency of the credit risks in our bank system, evidencing some very important moments which have affected sensibly the tendency of problematic credits. Further, we have investigated the relationship between the credit risk, which is measured by the ratio non-performing loans to total loans and some of the main macroeconomic indicators.

  5. Social impact caused by european economical recession in food business operators of industrial zone Tirana-Durres in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Sulaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore situation of the Albania Food industry in relation to the European recession to clarify mainly negative effects to food business operators along the corridor Tirana-Durres and to identify social problems caused by this impact. Effect of economical European crisis in food operators of corridor Tirana-Durres causing slightly increase of unemployment and increase of food prices. Our study has evaluated the unemployment situation and food retail prices using data analyzing methodology for three big food processing companies located in this area. From study results was concluded that unemployment is slightly increased a respectively was evaluated as following. For first company unemployment has been increased with 2, 8%, however for second company it was increased with 2, 1% and for third company it was increased with 1, 8%. Food retail prices produced by these companies are increased referring to food prices evaluated on 2009. Retail food prices are increased respectively for three food kinds. Beer retail prices produced by first company are increased with 3, 8%, dried sausages retail prices produced by second Company are increased with 2.5%. According to study results is confirmed also slightly increase of UHT milk product produced by third company with average value 1, 9%. Even thought there is no big difference between previous values for unemployment and retail prices in 2009 and results found in 2010-2011 confirmed that social impact of crises is evident because of increase of unemployment and food prices cause decrease of incomes for families living in Tirana and in Albania.

  6. Evaluating Different Green School Building Designs for Albania: Indoor Thermal Comfort, Energy Use Analysis with Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra

    Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.

  7. AMPELOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AUTOCHTHONOUS GRAPE CULTIVAR “KALLMET” IN MAL��SIA E MADHE, ALBANIA

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    Bardhosh Ferraj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available “Kallmet” is one of the most sprout autochthonous wine grape cultivar in the North-western and Central part of Albania. Study was conducted in three consecutive years, 2009-2011, in Malësia e Madhe, 250 m above the sea level, in the North-western part of Albania, in a 10 years old vineyard. For evaluation of the main characteristics the IPGRI Descriptors of Grapevine was used. Form of the new shoot tip of “Kallmet” is half-open, with no anthocianic coloration, and densely prostrate hairs. The upper surface colour of new leaf is green with bronze spots. Flower type is functional female, and the first florescence appears at the 4-5th nodes. Mature leaf size is medium, leaf shape is pentangular, shape of the lateral teeth is convex in both sides, shape of the base sinus is half-open, shape of the upper lateral sinus is closed, and the depth of the upper lateral sinus is 63 mm. Bunch weight is small and bunch density is medium. “Kallmet” has medium-sized spherical deep red to violet berry with soft colourless pulp. Berries are not uniform and there occur a high rate of millerandage because of the lack of pollination during flowering time. Grape yield is 155 kv ha-1, grape must content is 67 ml/100 g fresh grape, sugar content is 21%, total acidity 5.7 g/l. The time of bud break is medium, while the number of inflorescences for fruit-bearing offshoot is 1.7. The annual vegetative growth is 180 cm. “Kallmet” leaves are susceptible to Plasmopara viticola, while the berries appear a relatively high resistance to Plasmopara viticola, and high resistance to Uncinula necator and Botrytis cynerea.

  8. Customs Risk Management in Albania. An important Step towards Integration in the European Union

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    Ejona Bardhi

    2015-06-01

    . Due the rules based at the trade policies of WTO, it was made possible that the fees were decreased and non-fee barriers are in cancelations. The customs administration is excepted to bring incomes, to stop the import of not safe or banned goods and to the fight the narcotics trade. It is excepted to fulfill these targets effectively without hamper the commercial facilitations. This paper has as the main objective to treat the management of risk at the customs. During this paper I will treat the main problematic of the customs administrations in Europe and Albania, including theory and practice aspects. This paper treats: controls after the passing permission at the Customs, levels of risk management, costs and benefits of the techniques of risk management, management of facilitation and customs activity, the importance of information of customs system, important problematic in customs activity, rule of origin and its importance and finally the transit as the main mean of trade facilitation. Keywords: Management, risk, customs, administration, trade

  9. First tephrostratigraphic results of the DEEP site record from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicher, Niklas; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio; Wagner, Bernd; Nomade, Sebastien; Francke, Alexander; Del Carlo, Paola

    2016-04-01

    A tephrostratigraphic record covering the Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1-15 was established for the DEEP site record of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania). Major element analyses (energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy (WDS)) were carried out on juvenile fragments extracted from 12 tephra layers (OH-DP-0115 to OH-DP-2060). The geochemical analyses of the glass shards of all of these layers suggest an origin in the Italian volcanic provinces. They include the Y-3 (OH-DP-0115, 26.68-29.42 ka cal BP), the Campanian Ignimbrite-Y-5 (OH-DP-0169, 39.6 ± 0.1 ka), and the X-6 (OH-DP-0404, 109 ± 2 ka) from the Campanian volcanoes, the P-11 of Pantelleria (OH-DP-0499, 133.5 ± 2 ka), the Vico B (OH-DP-0617, 162 ± 6 ka) from the Vico volcano, the Pozzolane Rosse (OH-DP-1817, 457 ± 2 ka) and the Tufo di Bagni Albule (OH-DP-2060, 527 ± 2 ka) from the Colli Albani volcanic district, and the Fall A (OH-DP-2010, 496 ± 3 ka) from the Sabatini volcanic field. Furthermore, a comparison of the Ohrid record with tephrostratigraphic records of mid-distal archives related to the Mediterranean area allowed the recognition of the equivalents of other less known tephra layers, such as the TM24a-POP2 (OH-DP-0404, 102 ± 2 ka) recognized in the Lago Grande di Monticchio and the Sulmona Basin, the CF-V5-PRAD3225 (OH-DP-0624, ca. 163 ± 22 ka) identified in the Campo Felice Basin and the Adriatic Sea, the SC5 (OH-DP-1955, 493.1 ± 10.9 ka) recognized in the Mercure Basin, and the A11/12 (OH-DP-2017, 511 ± 6 ka) sampled at the Acerno Basin, whose specific volcanic sources are still poorly constrained. Additionally, one cryptotephra (OH-DP-0027) was identified by correlation of the potassium X-ray flourescence (XRF) intensities from the DEEP site with those from a short core of a previous study from Lake Ohrid. In these cores, a maximum in potassium is caused by glass shards, which were correlated with the Mercato tephra (8.43-8.63 ka cal BP) from Somma

  10. Weathering and vegetation controls on nickel isotope fractionation in surface ultramafic environments (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrade, Nicolas; Cloquet, Christophe; Echevarria, Guillaume; Sterckeman, Thibault; Deng, Tenghaobo; Tang, YeTao; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2015-08-01

    The dissolved nickel (Ni) isotopic composition of rivers and oceans presents an apparent paradox. Even though rivers represent a major source of Ni in the oceans, seawater is more enriched in the heavier isotopes than river-water. Additional sources or processes must therefore be invoked to account for the isotopic budget of dissolved Ni in seawater. Weathering of continental rocks is thought to play a major role in determining the magnitude and sign of isotopic fractionation of metals between a rock and the dissolved product. We present a study of Ni isotopes in the rock-soil-plant systems of several ultramafic environments. The results reveal key insights into the magnitude and the control of isotopic fractionation during the weathering of continental ultramafic rocks. This study introduces new constraints on the influence of vegetation during the weathering process, which should be taken into account in interpretations of the variability of Ni isotopes in rivers. The study area is located in a temperate climate zone within the ophiolitic belt area of Albania. The serpentinized peridotites sampled present a narrow range of heavy Ni isotopic compositions (δ60Ni = 0.25 ± 0.16 ‰, 2SD n = 2). At two locations, horizons within two soil profiles affected by different degrees of weathering all presented light isotopic compositions compared to the parent rock (Δ60Nisoil-rock up to - 0.63 ‰). This suggests that the soil pool takes up the light isotopes, while the heavier isotopes remain in the dissolved phase. By combining elemental and mineralogical analyses with the isotope compositions determined for the soils, the extent of fractionation was found to be controlled by the secondary minerals formed in the soil. The types of vegetation growing on ultramafic-derived soils are highly adapted and include both Ni-hyperaccumulating species, which can accumulate several percent per weight of Ni, and non-accumulating species. Whole-plant isotopic compositions were found

  11. Initial results from the ICDP SCOPSCO drilling project, Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Krastel, S.; Lindhorst, K.; Wilke, T.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Grazhdani, A.; Reicherter, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) is about 30 km long and 15 km wide and up to 290 m deep. Formed within a tectonic graben, Lake Ohrid is considered to be the oldest lake in Europe, providing a high-resolution, continuous archive of environmental change and tectonic and tephrostratigraphic history in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The deep drilling campaign at Lake Ohrid in spring 2013 within the scope of the ICDP project SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration of Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) aimed (a) to obtain more precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (b) to unravel the seismotectonic history of the lake area including effects of major earthquakes and associated mass wasting events, (c) to obtain a continuous record containing information on volcanic activities and climate changes in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (d) to better understand the impact of major geological/environmental events on general evolutionary patterns and shaping an extraordinary degree of endemic biodiversity as a matter of global significance. Drilling was carried out by DOSECC (Salt Lake City, USA) using the DLDS (Deep Lake Drilling System) with a hydraulic piston corer for surface sediments and rotation drilling for harder, deeper sediments. Overall, about 2,100 m of sediment were recovered from 4 drill sites. At the 'DEEP' site in the center of the lake, seismic data implied a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m sediment were recovered. Coarse-grained gravel and pebbles underlying clay and shallow water facies sediments hampered deeper penetration. 6 boreholes at the 'DEEP' site resulted in a total of 1526 m of sediment cores and a composite field recovery of 544 m (95%). Initial geochemical and magnetic susceptibility data imply that the sediments from 'DEEP' site are highly sensitive to climate and environmental variations in the Balkan area probably over the last 1.5 Mio years. Long-term climate oscillations on

  12. Improved end-member characterisation of modern organic matter pools in the Ohrid Basin (Albania, Macedonia) and evaluation of new palaeoenvironmental proxies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Holtvoeth; Rushworth, D.; Copsey, H.; Imeri, A.; Cara, M.; H. Vogel; Wagner, T.; Wolff, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    We present elemental, lipid biomarker and, in the supplement, compound-specific isotope (δ13C, δ2H) data for soils and leaf litter collected in the catchment of Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia), as well as macrophytes, particulate organic matter and sediments from the lake itself. Lake Ohrid provides an outstanding archive of continental environmental change of at least 1.2 million years and the purpose of our study is to ground truth organic geochemical proxies that we develop...

  13. A high resolution Late Glacial to Holocene record of climatic and environmental change in the Mediterranean from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, Jack; Francke, Alexander; Leng, Melanie; Vane, Chris; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is one of the world’s oldest lakes and is renowned for its high degree of biological diversity. It is the target site for the ICDP SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) project, an international research initiative to study the links between geology, environment and the evolution of endemic taxa. In 2011 a 10-meter core was recovered from the western shore of Lake Ohrid adjacent to the Lini Peninsula.

  14. Complexity of diatom response to Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in ancient, deep and oligotrophic Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    X. S. Zhang; J. M. Reed; J. H. Lacey; A. Francke; Leng, M. J.; Z. Levkov; Wagner, B.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania) is a rare example of a deep, ancient Mediterranean lake and is a key site for palaeoclimate research in the northeastern Mediterranean region. This study conducts the analysis of diatoms as a proxy for Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in Lake Ohrid at a higher resolution than in previous studies. While Lake Ohrid has the potential to be sensitive to water temperature change, the data demonstrate a highly complex dia...

  15. Complexity of diatom response to Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in ancient, deep, and oligotrophic Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    X. S. Zhang; J. M. Reed; J. H. Lacey; A. Francke; Leng, M. J.; Z. Levkov; Wagner, B.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is a rare example of a deep, ancient Mediterranean lake and is a key site for palaeoclimate research in the northeastern Mediterranean region. This study conducts the first high-resolution diatom analysis during the Lateglacial and Holocene in Lake Ohrid. It demonstrates a complex diatom response to temperature change, with a direct response to temperature-induced productivity and an indirect response to temperature-related str...

  16. Climate implications and lithological characteristics of sediments from Lake Van (Turkey) and Lake Ohrid (Macedonia / Albania) obtained from downhole logging data

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgarten, Henrike

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, downhole logging data from Lake Van (Turkey) and Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) was analyzed to improve paleoenvironmental studies. The sediments of Lake Van (clayey silts and tephra) were differentiated by downhole logging and XRF scanning data. Spectral gamma ray (SGR), zirconium intensities and magnetic susceptibility are most useful to separate the lake facies from tephra. The U data from SGR was used for cyclostratigraphic studies to estimate the duration of deposition. T...

  17. Improved end-member characterization of modern organic matter pools in the Ohrid Basin (Albania, Macedonia) and evaluation of new palaeoenvironmental proxies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Holtvoeth; Rushworth, D.; Imeri, A.; Cara, M.; H. Vogel; Wagner, T.; Wolff, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present elemental, lipid biomarker and compound-specific isotope (δ13C, δ2H) data for soils and leaf litter collected in the catchment of Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia), as well as macrophytes, particulate organic matter and sediments from the lake itself. Lake Ohrid provides an outstanding archive of continental environmental change of at least 1.2 M years and the purpose of our study is to ground truth organic geochemical proxies that we developed in o...

  18. The sediment record of Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia) � new methodological approaches, tephrostratigraphy, chronology, and inferences of past climatic and environmental changes

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    This thesis had two primary objectives: One objective was to explore and develop applications of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) for the quantification of biogeochemical properties in lake sediment; the other objective was to assess the Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia) sediment record with an emphasis on tephrostratigraphy and inferences of climatic and environmental changes using a 15 m long sediment succession (core Co1202) from the north-eastern part of the lake. Studies pres...

  19. Euroregions and cross border areas in South East Europe : defining an effective model for the area : comparative analysis between Bulgaria, Albania and FYROM

    OpenAIRE

    Brusaporci, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    The research deals with the topic of cross-border cooperation and Euroregions in the Balkans. Using a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), the research examines nine different cases in Albania, Bulgaria, and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The research is framed within IR theories and aims to define a good model of transborder cooperation for this region by considering its specific ethnic and historical issues. In particular, implementing Perkmann’s theory (2007) of policy entre...

  20. Sex-differences in socioeconomic status and health-seeking behaviour among tuberculosis patients in transitional Albania in 2012-2013

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    Vera Kurti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There is little scientific evidence about the main determinants of sex discrepancies in tuberculosis rates in Albania. The aim of this study was to assess the sex-differences in socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes about tuberculosis and access to health care among tuberculosis patients in Albania, a transitional country in the Western Balkans. Methods: Our analysis involved all the new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in Albania during the period June 2012 – June 2013 (N=197; 69% males; overall mean age: 44±19 years. The recording and reporting system of tuberculosis cases was performed according to the WHO and EuroTB Surveillance guidelines. Information on socioeconomic characteristics of the patients, knowledge and attitudes about tuberculosis and access to health care was also collected. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlates of sex-differences among tuberculosis patients. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, female sex was positively related to unemployment (OR=3.7, 95%CI=1.8-7.7, bad living conditions (OR=3.0, 95%CI=1.4-6.5, a longer distance to health care facility (OR=3.0, 95%CI=1.4-6.3, a lower level of knowledge about tuberculosis (OR=3.1, 95%CI=1.3-7.1 and a higher level of stigma against tuberculosis (OR=3.6, 95%CI=1.6-7.9. Conclusion: Our study informs about selected correlates of sex-differences in tuberculosis rates in post-communist Albania. Future studies should more vigorously explore determinants of sex-differences in tuberculosis rates in countries of the Western Balkans.

  1. The evolution of administrative law in Albania and the impact of the decisions of the European Court of Justice in the Albanian legal reforms in administrative justice

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    Monika MEÇA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the thesis was generally motivated by the lack of legal treatise focused in the arguments of Administrative Court importance in Albanian Judicial system as a new judicial structure, whose role would be to check the legality of decisions of the state administration with the aim to guarantee effective protection of human rights and legitimate interests of private persons through a regular, conform, fast and reasonable judicial process. The aim of this study is to describe the institutional steps taken from Albanian Government in administrative justice evolution, enormous differences between the administrative law before and after 1990, and the impact of European Court of Justice case law and EU law in the Albanian legal reforms in administrative justice. By analyzing the development of the administrative law in Albania is highlighted that the factors which influenced the transformation processes of this branch of law are the level of political culture, the heritage of the paste and the European Union , which has long been engaged in direct support for the modernization of public administration in Albania . In conclusion studying and analyzing the recent reform undertaken in the establishment of administrative court in Albania is necessary to make an evaluation of the impact of this reform in amending the legal framework for administrative procedures and adoption of a new Code of Administrative Procedure.

  2. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs

  3. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs

  4. The Assessment of Pesticides Residues in Some Organic Cultivated and Wild-Collected Medicinal Plants in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERDI BRAHUSHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pesticides residues in medicinal plants was achieved by using extraction of plant material with organic solvent, clean up procedure and followed by detection with chromatography techniques. Among the detected pesticide residuesin the wild–collected plants as Malva sylvestris, Fragaria vesca, Bellis perennis were DDT, Dimethoat, Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyriphos-ethyl, Carbendazim/Benomyl, Acetamiprid and Diphenylamine. Whereas in the cultivated medicinal plants as Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyani, Salvia officinalis, Sideritis raeseri, the most common detected pesticide residues were Dimethoat, Chlorpyriphos, Pirimiphos-methyl, DDT and Carbendazim. The presence of pesticides in medicinal plant is related to the past use of pesticides as DDT and actual use of pesticides like Dimethoat, Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyriphos, Acetamiprid, etc. Therefore, the quality of medicinal plants can be evaluated through estimation of pesticides residues in medicinal plants and comparison of the obtained values with acceptable limit values.

  5. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation. PMID:27044293

  6. Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

    2012-09-01

    Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying 472 AD/512 AD tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

  7. Seismic and sedimentological evidence of an early 6th century AD earthquake at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wagner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the South Balkan and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking tephrostratigraphic information and environmental changes with tectonic activity and anthropogenic impact. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Ohrid in the early 6th century AD. This earthquake is documented in multichannel seismic profiles, in parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and in a ca. 10 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake. The sediment record exhibits a ca. 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is chronologically well constrained by the underlying 472 AD/512 AD tephra and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene.

  8. NGMSElect™ and Investigator(®) Argus X-12 analysis in population samples from Albania, Iraq, Lithuania, Slovenia, and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, L; Tomas, C; Drobnič, K; Ivanova, V; Mogensen, H S; Kondili, A; Miniati, P; Bunokiene, D; Jankauskiene, J; Pereira, V; Morling, N

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of STRs is the main tool when studying genetic diversity in populations or when addressing individual identification in forensic casework. Population data are needed to establish reference databases that can be used in the forensic context. To that end, this work investigated five population samples from Albania, Iraq, Lithuania, Slovenia, and Turkey. Individuals were typed for 16 autosomal STRs and 12 X-chromosomal STRs using the NGMSElect™ and Investigator(®) Argus X-12 kits, respectively. The aim of the study was to characterize the diversity of both STR kits in these population samples and to expand our forensic database. The results showed that all markers were polymorphic in the five populations studied. No haplotype was shared between the males analysed for X-STRs. No statistically significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed for any of the genetic markers included in both the kits. Pairwise LD was only detected in X-STRs between markers located in the same linkage group. Power of discrimination values for males and females and the probability of exclusion in duos and trios were high for the populations in this study. PMID:26894835

  9. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious means to combat these terrorist acts. One of these efficacious means has been the seizure and confiscation of licit and illicit assets possessed by terrorist groups. This is the focus of this short study, which will be inclusive by viewing this topic under the general framework of international acts, our domestic legislation, as well as the American one. This paper aims at presenting the legislative measures taken by the Albanian state to meet international requirements. It endeavors to provide arguments why all licit and illicit assets associated with terrorist acts are seized and confiscated. Special attention is paid to the way these assets are administered. Moreover, this study tries to analyze the achievements and problems in Albania, as well as provide conclusions and recommendations.

  10. Agro-Climatic Characterization and Determination of Thermal and Pluviometric Limits in the Area of Debar, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERT KOPALI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Different climatic regimes play a determining role not just on the geographical and agronomic distribution of plants, but on the intensity of agricultural plant growth also. Climate affects the mass of structural features and especially the pace of plants development. Regarding climate Albanian territory is part of the sub-band subtropical western coast and it is divided into two climatic zones: Atlantic Mediterranean area and Continental Mediterranean area. But the microclimatic effects arising in our territory make the climate quite diverse. In a relatively small area major changes of climate elements are created, thus a variety of areas with different climatic characteristics and determining impacts on agricultural plant breeding are present. Knowing of the thermal and rainfall limits is important in the cultivation of agricultural plants; the lack of knowledge poses a risk to agricultural cultivations. On the other hand these limits must be seen closely linked to their dynamism and should be studied in relation to possible climate changes. In accordance with the climatic characteristics of agro-ecological zones, should be developed plant cultivation technologies which should take into account the different agricultural systems that are applied in these areas. This study takes into consideration for agro-climatic characterization a developed agricultural area, that of Debar, in the northeast of Albania.

  11. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation.

  12. L’Islam plurale in Albania: modelli di relazione con lo Stato e pace religiosa. Il ruolo del diritto statale e di quello religioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cimbalo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, sottoposto a valutazione, riproduce il testo nella versione integrale, completa delle note e in lingua italiana, della Comunicazione presentata al Convegno su “Islam in Europe through the Balkan Prism" (24-26 October 2013, Sarajevo. Titolo della versione inglese, destinata alla pubblicazione negli Atti, "Plural Islam in Albania: patterns of relationship with the state and religious peace".SOMMARIO: 1. Dall’Impero ottomano all’Albania indipendente 2. Le caratteristiche endogene dell’ordinamento albanese e le sue specificità - 3. Il “colonialismo giuridico” dell’Occidente e il rispetto dell’autonomia degli ordinamenti - 4. La rivisitazione delle relazioni tra Stato e Comunità religiose - 5. Estendere l’esperienza albanese agli altri Stati balcanici o quella dei Balcani all’Albania? Abstract   The protection of individual and collective freedom of religion and freedom of conscience, the regulation of state relations with religious communities in Albania, have found a solution in peculiar legal rules and traditions that in the history of the Albanian people have guaranteed the religious peace. Of great significance was the Albanian legal system resistance to accept the advice of the Venice Commission, Council of Europe and the EU that would rather prefer and have sought to impose the adoption of a single political-legal model for the Balkans, focused on a general law for the protection of religious freedom.Albanian model dates back to 1923, recognizes the cultural and religious pluralism of society and the opportunity for all religious communities to obtain civil legal personality, now allows cooperation agreements with the various religious communities. The rules put as guarantees of religious freedom those of the general law without any recourse to special rules. What happened was possible because of the plural nature of Balkan Islam which has allowed mutual respect and tolerance, and thanks to the

  13. The last 40 ka tephrostratigraphic record of Lake Ohrid, Albania and Macedonia: a very distal archive for ash dispersal from Italian volcanoes

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, B.; Sulpizio, R.; G. Zanchetta; Sabine Wulf; Wessels, M.; Daut, G.; Norbert Nowaczyk

    2008-01-01

    A 1075 cm long core (Lz1120) was recovered in the south-eastern part of the Lake Ohrid (Republics of Macedonia and Albania) and sampled for identification of tephra layers. Magnetic susceptibility investigations show rather high magnetic values throughout the core, with peaks unrelated to the occurrence of tephra layers but instead to the relative abundance of detrital magnetic minerals in the sediment. Naked-eye inspection of the core allowed us to identify of two tephra layers, at 896–897 c...

  14. The right of social insurance as constitutional right and as an important right arising from labor relations - An overview of the framework of social insurance in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Selita

    2013-01-01

    Social insurance is part of social security which consists as well as of social assistance and services, health services and health care insurance. Everyone has the right for social insurance when retired or in case of incapacity of work under a certain system established by a law. The right of social insurance is part of labor rights. In Albania the mandatory social insurance scheme is based on the pay-as-you-earn principle, on the awareness of the individual about the risks in social field ...

  15. A high-resolution Late Glacial to Holocene record of environmental change in the Mediterranean from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, Jack H.; Francke, Alexander; Leng, Melanie J.; Vane, Christopher H.; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is the oldest extant lake in Europe and exhibits an outstanding degree of endemic biodiversity. Here, we provide new high-resolution stable isotope and geochemical data from a 10 m core (Co1262) through the Late Glacial to Holocene and discuss past climate and lake hydrology (TIC, δ13Ccalcite, δ18Ocalcite) as well as the terrestrial and aquatic vegetation response to climate (TOC, TOC/N, δ13Corganic, Rock Eval pyrolysis). The data identifies 3 main zones: (1) th...

  16. Mediterranean climate since the Middle Pleistocene: a 640 ka stable isotope record from Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lacey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania is an ancient lake with a unique biodiversity and a site of global significance for investigating the influence of climate, geological and tectonic events on the generation of endemic populations. Here, we present oxygen (δ18O and carbon (δ13C isotope data on carbonate from the upper ca. 248 m of sediment cores recovered as part of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO project, covering the past 640 ka. Previous studies on short cores from the lake (up to 15 m, 18Oc and δ13Cc reveal variations both between and within interglacials that suggest the lake has been subject to hydroclimate fluctuations on orbital and millennial timescales. We also measured isotopes on authigenic siderite (δ18Os and δ13Cs and, with the δ18OCc and δ18Os, reconstruct δ18O of lakewater (δ18Olw through the 640 ka. Overall, glacials have lower δ18Olw when compared to interglacials, most likely due to cooler summer temperatures, a higher proportion of winter precipitation (snowfall, and a reduced inflow from adjacent Lake Prespa. The isotope stratigraphy suggests Lake Ohrid experienced a period of general stability through Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 15 to MIS 13, highlighting MIS 14 as a particularly warm glacial, and was isotopically freshest during MIS 9. After MIS 9, the variability between glacial and interglacial δ18Olw is enhanced and the lake became increasingly evaporated through to present day with MIS 5 having the highest average δ18Olw. Our results provide new evidence for long-term climate change in the northern Mediterranean region, which will form the basis to better understand the influence of major environmental events on biological evolution within the lake.

  17. Mediterranean climate since the Middle Pleistocene: a 640 ka stable isotope record from Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. H.; Leng, M. J.; Francke, A.; Sloane, H. J.; Milodowski, A.; Vogel, H.; Baumgarten, H.; Wagner, B.

    2015-08-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is an ancient lake with a unique biodiversity and a site of global significance for investigating the influence of climate, geological and tectonic events on the generation of endemic populations. Here, we present oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope data on carbonate from the upper ca. 248 m of sediment cores recovered as part of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project, covering the past 640 ka. Previous studies on short cores from the lake (up to 15 m, lake has been subject to hydroclimate fluctuations on orbital and millennial timescales. We also measured isotopes on authigenic siderite (δ18Os and δ13Cs) and, with the δ18OCc and δ18Os, reconstruct δ18O of lakewater (δ18Olw) through the 640 ka. Overall, glacials have lower δ18Olw when compared to interglacials, most likely due to cooler summer temperatures, a higher proportion of winter precipitation (snowfall), and a reduced inflow from adjacent Lake Prespa. The isotope stratigraphy suggests Lake Ohrid experienced a period of general stability through Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 15 to MIS 13, highlighting MIS 14 as a particularly warm glacial, and was isotopically freshest during MIS 9. After MIS 9, the variability between glacial and interglacial δ18Olw is enhanced and the lake became increasingly evaporated through to present day with MIS 5 having the highest average δ18Olw. Our results provide new evidence for long-term climate change in the northern Mediterranean region, which will form the basis to better understand the influence of major environmental events on biological evolution within the lake.

  18. Northern Mediterranean climate since the Middle Pleistocene: a 637 ka stable isotope record from Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Jack H.; Leng, Melanie J.; Francke, Alexander; Sloane, Hilary J.; Milodowski, Antoni; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is an ancient lake with unique biodiversity and a site of global significance for investigating the influence of climate, geological, and tectonic events on the generation of endemic populations. Here, we present oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope data from carbonate over the upper 243 m of a composite core profile recovered as part of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project. The investigated sediment succession covers the past ca. 637 ka. Previous studies on short cores from the lake (up to 15 m, lake has been subject to palaeoenvironmental change on orbital and millennial timescales. We also measured isotope ratios from authigenic siderite (δ18Os and δ13Cs) and, with the oxygen isotope composition of calcite and siderite, reconstruct δ18O of lake water (δ18Olw) over the last 637 ka. Interglacials have higher δ18Olw values when compared to glacial periods most likely due to changes in evaporation, summer temperature, the proportion of winter precipitation (snowfall), and inflow from adjacent Lake Prespa. The isotope stratigraphy suggests Lake Ohrid experienced a period of general stability from marine isotope stage (MIS) 15 to MIS 13, highlighting MIS 14 as a particularly warm glacial. Climate conditions became progressively wetter during MIS 11 and MIS 9. Interglacial periods after MIS 9 are characterised by increasingly evaporated and drier conditions through MIS 7, MIS 5, and the Holocene. Our results provide new evidence for long-term climate change in the northern Mediterranean region, which will form the basis to better understand the influence of major environmental events on biological evolution within Lake Ohrid.

  19. PRIMARILY RESULTS OF PHYTOPLANKTON DNA AND VARIATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN DURRES`S BAY COASTAL WATERS (ALBANIA

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    Laura Gjyli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After isolation of phytoplankton DNA in coastal waters of Durres Bay, Albania, quantification and analysis of quality were investigated with spectrophotometric analysis. Analysis of UV absorption by the nucleotides provides a simple and accurate estimation of the concentration of nucleic acids in a sample. This method is however limited by the quantity of DNA and the purity of the preparation. Also biotic environment factors as Chlorophyll a and abiotic environment factors as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate were investigated to assess DNA quantities in different environment conditions. The Chlorophyll a was studied also to access the level of trophy. The sample stations were: Golem Beach (GB, Channel of Plepa (ChP, Hekurudha Beach (HB, Ex-Fuel Quay in Marine Durres Harbour (EFQ, Water Channel of Durres City (WChDC and Currila Beach (CB. Samples are taken in one meter depth from the water surface. Water samples were collected monthly from April to October 2011. The most abundant stations with phytoplankton DNA are Channel of Plepa and Water Channel of Durres City. This confirms that there are spills of fresh waters, sewage or agricultural water spills, often discharge in coastal waters. Referring Mutliple Regression Analysis and single regression analysis, the association between phytoplankton DNA and environment factors was strong (R2 = 0.75. Basing in single correlation and statistically significance (p-value ≤ 0.05, the enviroment factors that correlated to phytoplankton DNA were pH, salinity and phosphate; explaining thus the variation of total phytoplankton in Durres Bay coastal waters.

  20. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices about public health nutrition among students of the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania

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    Jolanda Hyska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of this survey was twofold: (i: to assess medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding nutrition in general, in order to identify their level of competences in the field of nutrition which will be useful in their future role of providers/health care professionals, and; (ii to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the discipline of public health nutrition in order to identify the needs for improving the curriculum of this subject in all the branches of the University of Medicine in Tirana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-July 2013 including a representative sample of 347 students at the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania (61% females and 39% males; overall mean age: 23±2 years; response rate: 87%. A nutritional questionnaire, adopted according to the models used in previous international studies, was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the university students. Results: Overall, about one third of the students was not satisfied with the quality and quantity of nutritional education and demanded a more scientifically rigorous curriculum. In general, students’ knowledge about infant feeding practices was adequate. However, there were gaps in the students’ knowledge regarding the commencement of breastfeeding, or the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Furthermore, there was evidence of an insufficient level of knowledge among students regarding diet and nutrition in general and their health impact, especially on development and prevention of chronic diseases. Conclusion: This survey identified significant gaps in the current curriculum of public health nutrition at the University of Medicine in Tirana. Our findings suggest the need for intervention programs to improve both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of nutrition curricula in all the branches of the University of Medicine Tirana, in accordance with the

  1. A 4500-year ostracod record from Lake Shkodra (Albania): palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstruction using a multi proxy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Koci, Rexhep; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Baneschi, Ilaria; Sadori, Laura; Giardini, Marco; Van Welden, Aurelien; Bushati, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    During September 2003 several cores were retrieved from the Albanian side of Lake Shkodra. Among them, a 7,8 m long composite core (SK13) has been selected for multidisciplinary analysis: ostracods, characeae, pollen, CaCO3 content and stable isotopes. The chronological framework of SK13 was established through the recognition of four well-dated tephra layers and four 14C accelerator mass spectrometry measurements; the sedimentation rate has been calculated as an average of 0.2 cm a -1(Sulpizio et al 2010, Van Welden et al. 2008). Ostracods have been recovered from 337 samples of 2cm3 in volume, collected almost continuously along the cores. Each sample corresponds to ca. 10 years. Ostracods are abundant and well preserved in all samples, represented by adults and juveniles. On the whole, 13 species have been recovered with different frequencies. Among them, some are endemic of the lake (Candona montenigrina, and Limnocythere scutariense), others are known from other Balcanic lakes and are recorded for the first time in Shkodra (Paralimnocythere georgevitschi in Lake Ohrid, Candona paionica and Candona "angulata" meridionalis in Lake Dorjan). The remaining taxa (Darwinula stevensoni, Pseudocandona marchica, Cypria ophtalmica, Ilyocypris gibba, Cypridopsis vidua, and Metacypris cordata, Cyclocypris sp. and Zonocypris sp.) are widely distributed in central and southern Europe, but signalled for the first time in Albania. The faunal composition is quite homogeneous, with the percentages of the different species varying along the sediment core. The main change occurs at about 1200 cal a BP, where 8 ostracod species disappear and the frequency of the remaining 5 species dramatically increases. This major change reflects the CaCO3 trend with its major peak around 1200 cal a BP. On the contrary, the Characeae display an opposite behaviour, occurring continuously from the base of the core until about 1200 cal a BP, when they as well disappear. The δ18Oc record shows

  2. How do patient characteristics influence informal payments for inpatient and outpatient health care in Albania: Results of logit and OLS models using Albanian LSMS 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomini Sonila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informal payments for health care are common in most former communist countries. This paper explores the demand side of these payments in Albania. By using data from the Living Standard Measurement Survey 2005 we control for individual determinants of informal payments in inpatient and outpatient health care. We use these results to explain the main factors contributing to the occurrence and extent of informal payments in Albania. Methods Using multivariate methods (logit and OLS we test three models to explain informal payments: the cultural, economic and governance model. The results of logit models are presented here as odds ratios (OR and results from OLS models as regression coefficients (RC. Results Our findings suggest differences in determinants of informal payments in inpatient and outpatient care. Generally our results show that informal payments are dependent on certain characteristics of patients, including age, area of residence, education, health status and health insurance. However, they are less dependent on income, suggesting homogeneity of payments across income categories. Conclusions We have found more evidence for the validity of governance and economic models than for the cultural model.

  3. Development of Higher Education in Albania: The Case of the Public University Libraries in Efforts to Build Digital and Electronic Services for the Academic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erena Haska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Between the obligation of carrying out their mission to ensure the quality development of higher education and the right to function as important centers where knowledge is taken, developed and transmitted, this paper will examine the technological developments of university libraries as an important part of higher education. Digital and electronic experiences applied in Albanian universities libraries will be brought to the attention of the public. This paper is based on the questionnaire survey conducted at public university libraries in Albania. Opinions of librarians regarding ICT application were elicited using a structured questionnaire, followed up with interviews. In the case of non-response by libraries is consulted their official web sites to have a more complete information. In addition, secondary sources were consulted as domestic and foreign literature in this field. Results show that: 1 the level of application information technology in public university libraries in Albania is acceptable. The most important and serious problem is the lack of the unique University Library ICT Policy; 2 serious handicap is the lack of educated librarians in using information technology; 3 the proportion of university library activity goes more digital, so the digital collection becomes reality in the public university libraries. This paper brings conclusions that contribute to: a national information communication technology policy for university libraries and b the creation of an integrated system for management and transmission of knowledge at the national level for all Albanian university libraries.

  4. Human-climate interactions in the central Mediterranean region during the last millennia: The laminated record of Lake Butrint (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellón, Mario; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Ariztegui, Daniel; Brushulli, Brunhilda; Sinopoli, Gaia; Wagner, Bernd; Sadori, Laura; Gilli, Adrian; Pambuku, Arben

    2016-03-01

    Lake Butrint (39°47 N, 20°1 E) is a ca. 21 m deep, coastal lagoon located in SW Albania where finely-laminated sediments have been continuously deposited during the last millennia. The multi-proxy analysis (sedimentology, high-resolution elemental geochemistry and pollen) of a 12 m long sediment core, supported by seven AMS radiocarbon dates and 137Cs dating, enable a precise reconstruction of the environmental change that occurred in the central Mediterranean region during the last ∼4.5 cal kyrs BP. Sediments consist of triplets of authigenic carbonates, organic matter and clayey laminae. Fluctuations in the thickness and/or presence of these different types of seasonal laminae indicate variations in water salinity, organic productivity and runoff in the lake's catchment, as a result of the complex interplay of tectonics, anthropogenic forcing and climate variability. The progradation of the Pavllo river delta, favoured by variable human activity from the nearby ancient city of Butrint, led to the progressive isolation of this hydrological system from the Ionian Sea. The system evolved from an open bay to a restricted lagoon, which is consistent with archaeological data. An abrupt increase in mass-wasting activity between 1515 and 1450 BC, likely caused by nearby seismic activity, led to the accumulation of 24 homogenites, up to 17 cm thick. They have been deposited during the onset of finely laminated sedimentation, which indicates restricted, anoxic bottom water conditions and higher salinity. Periods of maximum water salinity, biological productivity, and carbonate precipitation coincide with warmer intervals, such as the early Roman Warm Period (RWP) (500 BC-0 AD), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (800-1400 AD) and recent times (after 1800 AD). Conversely, lower salinity and more oxic conditions, with higher clastic input were recorded during 1400-500 BC, the Late Roman and the Early Medieval periods (0-800 AD) and during the Little Ice Age (1400-1800 AD

  5. The right of social insurance as constitutional right and as an important right arising from labor relations - An overview of the framework of social insurance in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Selita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Social insurance is part of social security which consists as well as of social assistance and services, health services and health care insurance. Everyone has the right for social insurance when retired or in case of incapacity of work under a certain system established by a law. The right of social insurance is part of labor rights. In Albania the mandatory social insurance scheme is based on the pay-as-you-earn principle, on the awareness of the individual about the risks in social field in its future and in the principle of agreement between generations. This is a scheme financed out of contributions from the employers, the employed persons and self-employed. The benefits are provided in case of sickness, maternity, old-age, disability, loss of breadwinner, employment accidents/occupational diseases and unemployment.

  6. Initial geochemistry data of the Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) "DEEP" site sediment record: The ICDP SCOPSCO drilling project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja; Mantke, Nicole; Klinghardt, Dorothea

    2014-05-01

    Lake Ohrid, located at the border of Macedonia and Albania is about 30 km long, 15 km wide and up to 290 m deep. Formed within a tectonic graben, Lake Ohrid is considered to be the oldest lake in Europe. The ICDP SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration of Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep drilling campaign at Lake Ohrid in spring 2013 aimed (a) to obtain more precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (b) to unravel the seismotectonic history of the lake area including effects of major earthquakes and associated mass wasting events, (c) to obtain a continuous record containing information on volcanic activities and climate changes in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (d) to better understand the impact of major geological/environmental events on general evolutionary patterns and shaping an extraordinary degree of endemic biodiversity as a matter of global significance. Drilling was carried out by DOSECC (Salt Lake City, USA) using the DLDS (Deep Lake Drilling System) with a hydraulic piston corer for surface sediments and rotation drilling for harder, deeper sediments. Overall, about 2,100 m of sediment were recovered from 4 drill sites. At the "DEEP" site in the center of the lake, seismic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m sediment were recovered. Initial data from core catcher samples and on-site susceptibility measurements indicate that the sediment sequence covers more than 1.2 million years and provides a continuous archive of environmental and climatological variability in the area. Currently, core opening, core description, XRF and MSCL -scanning, core correlation, and sub-sampling of the sediment cores from the "DEEP" site is conducted at the University of Cologne. High-resolution geochemical data obtained from XRF-scanning imply that the sediments from the "DEEP" site are highly sensitive to climate and environmental variations in the Balkan area over the last few glacial

  7. An interdisciplinary approach to reconstructing hydrologically controlled terrestrial habitat dynamics during MIS 5 from sediments of Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtvoeth, Jens; Vogel, Hendrik; Rushworth, Danielle; Copsey, Harriet; Imeri, Alma; Valsecchi, Verushka; Cara, Magdalena; Schouten, Stefan; Wagner, Bernd; Wolff, George A.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    We investigated sediments from a piston core (site Co1202) in the northeastern part of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) that cover the period from 136 to 97 ka, i.e. most of marine isotope stage (MIS) 5 including Termination II and the peak warm period of MIS 5e (Eemian). The aim of the study was to reconstruct climatically controlled changes in the terrestrial habitat by combining data from elemental, lipid biomarker (alkyl lipids, glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers/GDGTs) and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses with pollen data. Comparison of biomarker data from sediments and modern materials shows a close similarity between the average biomarker composition of sediments and soils. This is confirmed by statistical analyses, implying that a dominant proportion of the sedimentary alkyl lipids derives from soils while aquatic sources (macrophytes, phytoplankton) can be ruled out as a major source. The carbonate record of the Co1202 sediments and the GDGT-based proxy for lake surface water temperature (TEX86) closely follow climatic trends as they are known from the North Atlantic realm, including marine isotope sub-stage 5d and short-term climate events such as cold events C25, C24 and C23. By contrast, proxies based on alkyl lipid composition reveal an entirely different pattern. Episodes of slow, continuous change are disrupted by abrupt shifts. This suggests a threshold-controlled system, with supply of organic matter from specific sources being increased or suppressed by a sudden change of supply pathways. Such a mechanism is provided by lake level change that includes rapid flooding or exposure of extensive tectonic terraces in the vicinity of site Co1202 as documented by geophysical surveys. Both flooding and exposure change the areas that certain habitats occupy in the catchment of the site, e.g., the proportions of vegetation and soils on the surrounding mountain slopes relative to that on low-lying terrace surfaces. Several such abrupt changes can

  8. Lake level fluctuations and catchment dynamics at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) during MIS6 and MIS5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Just, Janna; Sadori, Laura; Masi, Alessia; Vogel, Hendrik; Lindhorst, Katja; Krastel, Sebastian; Dosseto, Anthony; Rothacker, Leo; Leicher, Niklas; Gromig, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Lake Ohrid, presumably the oldest lake of Europe located at the border of Macedonia and Albania, is about 30 km long, 15 km wide, and up to 290 m deep. In 2013, an ICDP deep drilling campaign was carried out under the umbrella of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project. At the main drill site (DEEP) in the central part of Lake Ohrid, the uppermost 568 m from a total sediment fill of ca. 700 m were recovered. Initial data from core catcher material indicate that the sediment sequence covers more than 1.2 million years. An age model, which is based on 11 tephrostratigragphic tie points and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data versus orbital parameters reveals that that the upper 247 m of the DEEP site sequence cover the time period between 637 ka (MIS16) and the present. Inhere, we present sedimentological, (bio-)geochemical, environmental magnetic, and pollen data for the time period between MIS6 (191 ka) and MIS5 (71 ka). The data imply that MIS6 was one of the most severe glacial periods, while MIS5 was likely one of the more pronounced interglacial during the past 637 kyrs. The repercussions of these high amplitude climatic and environmental variations during this period are recorded in the sedimentological archive of Lake Ohrid. Previous studies based on hydro-acoustic and sediment core data from the northeastern part of the lake basin have shown that the lake level of Lake Ohrid was likely 60 m lower during MIS6. The ˜60 m lower lake level at Lake Ohrid during MIS6 can at least partly be explained by the ongoing subsidence, which persists in the basin until today. However, in the DEEP site sediments, the MIS6/MIS5 transition occurs at ca. 50 m sediment depth. This implies that climate-induced lake level fluctuation at Lake Ohrid are less severe compared for example to Lake Van (Turkey), were a 260 m lower lake level has been reported for the Younger Dryas. The imprint of the environmental variations between

  9. What can be the Role of Public-Private Partnerships and the role of the Collective Action in Ensuring Sustainable Smallholder Participation in High Value Fruit and Vegetable Supply Chains in Albania?

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    Hergys SULI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Albania is a Mediterranean country where fruitsand vegetables occupy an important placein the cropping systems practiced by theAlbanian farms but also in the foodconsumption of the population. Today, the fruits and vegetables growers in Albania havelow production capacity and difficulties inselling their products on national and regionalmarket. These poor producers face problems ofhow to produce safe food (World Bank2007, be recognized as producing safe food, identify cost-effective technologies forreducing risk, and be competitive with larger producers with advantage of economies ofscale in compliance with food safety requirements. In enabling the smallholders to remaincompetitive in such a system, new institutional arrangements are required. The new andemerging food system (dominated by domestic urban market and export markets,regional competitiveness, globalization, etc. with high demands for compliance with foodsafety and traceability disfavor the smallholders due tohigh coordination costs. Theproblem is exacerbated by geographic dispersion, low education, and poor access tocapital and information (Poulton 2005; Humphrey 2005; Rich and Narrod 2005. Themain idea of this paper is that the public-private partnerships can play a key role increating farm to fork linkages that can satisfy the market demands for food safety whileretaining smallholders in the supply chain. Our big question is “how this can be possiblein Albania and which are the rightpolicies to forward this idea?

  10. The management of human resource in the local goverment through the presentation of the status of application of civil service in the Republic of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julejda Gerxhi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The social sciences have inherited a not so clear relationship with the social politics throughout the history. At the first moment the concept of social sciences came into use in the 19th century the first organizations that were promoting them were not located in the universities. They were located in the Public Sector. They brought into the scenery not only professional of the area, but also politicians, clerics and businessmen. The main objective was the promoting of the reforms that consider the social politics able to improve the so defined social problems. These associations thought that by collecting different kind of data regarding these problems they would reach a clear insight on the directions the state should follow in the framework of different politics and reforms. As a result, the national research capacity is of the highest importance to the ability of a state to invent and implement successfully its politics based on evidences that concern and come as a reaction to the concerns and issues of the social problems as a whole. In this article I will be presenting first of all an overview of the scientific research in Albania in the area of the social sciences by pointing out the main areas that deserve to be the prior ones in the contest of developing activities that aim the implementation of the research in Social Sciences. Also, a great number of Institutions has been contacted with the aim of receiving official information and data on the functioning and on the potential problems that can be faced during the research processes. These institutions have been selected based on their involvement at the area of the scientific research of the social sciences. At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able

  11. Prima indagine di prevalenza delle infezioni ospedaliere presso il Centro Ospedaliero Universitario 'Madre Teresa' (QSUT di Tirana, Albania: proposta di un protocollo operativo

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    A. Gjata

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: stimare la prevalenza delle infezioni ospedaliere (IO e la frequenza di esposizione a interventi chirurgici e procedure invasive, quantificare l’utilizzo di antibiotici e identificarne le motivazioni, dimensionare il ricorso ai servizi diagnostici, migliorare l’expertise locale nella diagnosi microbiologica delle infezioni e nella sorveglianza delle IO.

    Metodi: si tratta di un’indagine di prevalenza puntuale, preceduta da uno studio pilota, che coinvolge quasi tutti i reparti del QSUT; si adottano le definizioni di caso di IO dei Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA. Per la rilevazione è prevista una scheda ad hoc e come principali fonti informative si useranno la cartella clinica e il registro operatorio. Per l’input e l’analisi dei dati si utilizzerà il software EPI INFO 2002. La partnership italiana assicura la supervisione tecnica; a livello locale si sono identificati una figura di coordinamento/verifica e team di rilevazione, validazione delle IO e per l’input e l’analisi dei dati. Dato che la maggiore criticità è rappresentata dai laboratori, si sono previsti un protocollo per la raccolta dei campioni biologici, il rifornimento del laboratorio di microbiologia con il materiale necessario per l’identificazione dei ceppi e l’antibiogramma, l’acquisto di un cell counter per supportare il laboratorio di chimica clinica. Grande enfasi è data al training del personale locale.

    Risultati: l’indagine consentirà di avere in tempi brevi le prime stime di frequenza delle IO nell’unico grande ospedale specializzato presente in Albania e informazioni su altri aspetti rilevanti connessi alle IO, come la quota dei pazienti chirurgici e/o esposti a procedure invasive, l’uso degli antibiotici, il ricorso ai servizi diagnostici.

    Conclusioni: l’indagine è un primo passo verso l’implementazione di un programma di

  12. Demographic and Social Correlates of Tobacco, Alcohol and Cannabis Use Among 15-16-Year-Old Students in Albania: Results of the ESPAD Survey

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    Toçi Ervin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Our aim was to assess the demographic and social factors associated with lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among school students aged 15–16 in Albania in order to make information and knowledge available for health promotion specialists working on substance use prevention. DESIGN – This cross-sectional study was conducted in March–May 2011 in the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. In total, 3189 students born in 1995 participated in the survey. The standardised ESPAD questionnaire was used to collect data about substance use. RESULTS – Our multivariable adjustment analysis showed that being a male and having easy access to cigarettes were the only universal factors significantly increasing the likelihood of ever using tobacco, alcohol or cannabis. Own smoking was strongly and significantly associated with alcohol and cannabis use. The associations of own substance use with peer substance consumption were weak to moderate. CONCLUSIONS – Own smoking seems to be the most important single independent risk factor which strongly and significantly predicted alcohol and cannabis use among Albanian school students. Policy makers need to strengthen the rule of law whereas health promotion professionals should firmly address smoking in adolescence through target interventions.

  13. The status of the Civil Servant and Rules of Ethics in Public Administration efficacy in preserving the integrity of civil servants and preventing corruption: the case of Albania

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    Eralda Çani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  14. Corruption and legal certainty; the case of Albania and the Netherlands Implementation of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption in a transitional and consolidated democracy

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    Idlir Peçi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrepancy in corruption levels may be observed between Western European states and the post-communist states of Central and (South Eastern Europe. In order to find out whether this discrepancy corresponds with a discrepancy in legal provisions, we embarked upon a comparative exercise aimed at exploring the implementation of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption in a consolidated Western European democracy (the Netherlands and a young South Eastern European democracy (Albania. Obviously, compliance with international conventions is highly important for addressing the worldwide and cross-border nature of corruption. Our paper focuses on the clarity and accessibility of the substantive criminal legislation concerning corruption from the point of view of legal certainty. We successively discuss the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, the Albanian provisions on the passive bribery of public officials and the Dutch provisions on the passive bribery of public officials. It is concluded that a generally good legal framework seems to be in place in both countries and that the anti-corruption legislation is on the whole in line with the requirements of the Convention. Some problems may be observed in relation to legal certainty. However, it seems that the discrepancies in the legislation and the problems with legal certainty are relatively minor and therefore can hardly clarify the discrepancy in corruption levels.

  15. A new expansion in the international public relations: Albania case studyUluslararası halkla ilişkilerde yeni bir açılım: Arnavutluk örneği

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    Sema Yıldırım Becerikli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Country case studies enrich international public relations literature day by day. Analyzing different countries in the context of public relations facilitates our understanding of various social, cultural, historical, and governmental aspects in different regions of the world. For researchers, Albania is a riveting country with a turbulent history. Albania left one century behind deriving from Ottoman era, nation-state building era, socialism era, and multiparty democracy era. This paper is a modest attempt to explore the evolution and the texture of public relations in Albania. Literature review, in-depth interview, and observation have been used as basic data collection methods for this research. Albania case study states that during the last decade, as a potential candidate for membership and being in the process of integration to European Union Albania gives special attention to building a modern public relations field particularly through public administration reforms, universities, and civil society organizations. The analysis of Albania case and public relations practices will prove beneficial to public relations and communication professionals who need to operate in diffent regions of the world. ÖzetUluslararası halkla ilişkiler literatürü, ülke örnekleri çalışmalarıyla gün geçtikçe zenginleşmektedir. Ülke örnekleri analizleri yoluyla dünyanın farklı coğrafyalarında, farklı yönetim biçimleri, farklı tarihler, farklı kültürler ve farklı toplum yapılarına sahip yerlerde halkla ilişkilerin gelişim seyrini daha iyi kavramamız mümkün olmaktadır. Yüzyılı aşkın çalkantılı tarihiyle araştırmacılar için ilginç bir ülke olan Arnavutluk; Osmanlı dönemini, ulus-devlet inşa sürecini, sosyalizm dönemini ve çok partili demokrasi dönemini deneyimlemiştir. Bu çalışmada Arnavutluk örneği üzerinden, ülkedeki halkla ilişkilerin gelişim seyri ve dokusu analiz edilmeye

  16. Improved end-member characterisation of modern organic matter pools in the Ohrid Basin (Albania, Macedonia) and evaluation of new palaeoenvironmental proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtvoeth, J.; Rushworth, D.; Copsey, H.; Imeri, A.; Cara, M.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, T.; Wolff, G. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present elemental, lipid biomarker and, in the supplement, compound-specific isotope (δ13C, δ2H) data for soils and leaf litter collected in the catchment of Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia), as well as macrophytes, particulate organic matter and sediments from the lake itself. Lake Ohrid provides an outstanding archive of continental environmental change of at least 1.2 million years and the purpose of our study is to ground truth organic geochemical proxies that we developed in order to study past changes in the terrestrial biome. We show that soils dominate the lipid signal of the lake sediments rather than the vegetation or aquatic biomass. There is a strong imprint of suberin monomers on the composition of total lipid extracts and chain-length distributions of n-alkanoic acids, n-alcohols, ω-hydroxy acids and α, ω-dicarboxylic acids. Our end-member survey identifies that ratios of mid-chain length suberin-derived to long-chain length cuticular-derived alkyl compounds as well as their average chain length distributions can be used as new molecular proxies of organic matter sources to the lake. We tested these for the 8.2 ka event, a pronounced and widespread Holocene climate fluctuation. In SE Europe climate became drier and cooler in response to the event, as is clearly recognisable in the carbonate and organic carbon records of Lake Ohrid sediments. Our new proxies indicate biome modification in response to hydrological changes, identifying two phases of increased soil organic matter (OM) supply, first from soils with moderately degraded OM and then from more degraded soils. Our study demonstrates that geochemical fingerprinting of terrestrial OM should focus on the main lipid sources, rather than the living biomass. Both can exhibit climate-controlled variability, but are generally not identical.

  17. Improved end-member characterization of modern organic matter pools in the Ohrid Basin (Albania, Macedonia) and evaluation of new palaeoenvironmental proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtvoeth, J.; Rushworth, D.; Imeri, A.; Cara, M.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, T.; Wolff, G. A.

    2015-08-01

    We present elemental, lipid biomarker and compound-specific isotope (δ13C, δ2H) data for soils and leaf litter collected in the catchment of Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia), as well as macrophytes, particulate organic matter and sediments from the lake itself. Lake Ohrid provides an outstanding archive of continental environmental change of at least 1.2 M years and the purpose of our study is to ground truth organic geochemical proxies that we developed in order to study past changes in the terrestrial biome. We show that soils dominate the lipid signal of the lake sediments rather than the vegetation or aquatic biomass, while compound-specific isotopes (δ13C, δ2H) determined for n-alkanoic acids confirm a dominant terrestrial source of organic matter to the lake. There is a strong imprint of suberin monomers on the composition of total lipid extracts and chain-length distributions of n-alkanoic acids, n-alcohols, ω-hydroxy acids and α,ω-dicarboxylic acids. Our end-member survey identifies that ratios of mid-chain length suberin-derived to long-chain length cuticular-derived alkyl compounds as well as their average chain length distributions can be used as new molecular proxies of organic matter sources to the lake. We tested these for the 8.2 ka event, a pronounced and widespread Holocene climate fluctuation. In SE Europe climate became drier and cooler in response to the event, as is clearly recognizable in the carbonate and organic carbon records of Lake Ohrid sediments. Our new proxies indicate biome modification in response to hydrological changes, identifying two phases of increased soil OM supply, first from topsoils and then from mineral soils. Our study demonstrates that geochemical fingerprinting of terrestrial OM should focus on the main lipid sources, rather than the living biomass. Both can exhibit climate-controlled variability, but are generally not identical.

  18. Improved end-member characterization of modern organic matter pools in the Ohrid Basin (Albania, Macedonia and evaluation of new palaeoenvironmental proxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holtvoeth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present elemental, lipid biomarker and compound-specific isotope (δ13C, δ2H data for soils and leaf litter collected in the catchment of Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia, as well as macrophytes, particulate organic matter and sediments from the lake itself. Lake Ohrid provides an outstanding archive of continental environmental change of at least 1.2 M years and the purpose of our study is to ground truth organic geochemical proxies that we developed in order to study past changes in the terrestrial biome. We show that soils dominate the lipid signal of the lake sediments rather than the vegetation or aquatic biomass, while compound-specific isotopes (δ13C, δ2H determined for n-alkanoic acids confirm a dominant terrestrial source of organic matter to the lake. There is a strong imprint of suberin monomers on the composition of total lipid extracts and chain-length distributions of n-alkanoic acids, n-alcohols, ω-hydroxy acids and α,ω-dicarboxylic acids. Our end-member survey identifies that ratios of mid-chain length suberin-derived to long-chain length cuticular-derived alkyl compounds as well as their average chain length distributions can be used as new molecular proxies of organic matter sources to the lake. We tested these for the 8.2 ka event, a pronounced and widespread Holocene climate fluctuation. In SE Europe climate became drier and cooler in response to the event, as is clearly recognizable in the carbonate and organic carbon records of Lake Ohrid sediments. Our new proxies indicate biome modification in response to hydrological changes, identifying two phases of increased soil OM supply, first from topsoils and then from mineral soils. Our study demonstrates that geochemical fingerprinting of terrestrial OM should focus on the main lipid sources, rather than the living biomass. Both can exhibit climate-controlled variability, but are generally not identical.

  19. A high-resolution Late Glacial to Holocene record of environmental change in the Mediterranean from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Jack H.; Francke, Alexander; Leng, Melanie J.; Vane, Christopher H.; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is the oldest extant lake in Europe and exhibits an outstanding degree of endemic biodiversity. Here, we provide new high-resolution stable isotope and geochemical data from a 10 m core (Co1262) through the Late Glacial to Holocene and discuss past climate and lake hydrology (TIC, δ13Ccalcite, δ18Ocalcite) as well as the terrestrial and aquatic vegetation response to climate (TOC, TOC/N, δ13Corganic, Rock Eval pyrolysis). The data identifies 3 main zones: (1) the Late Glacial-Holocene transition represented by low TIC and TOC contents, (2) the early to mid-Holocene characterised by high TOC and increasing TOC/N and (3) the Late Holocene-Present which shows a marked decrease in TIC and TOC. In general, an overall trend of increasing δ18Ocalcite from 9 ka to present suggests progressive aridification through the Holocene, consistent with previous records from Lake Ohrid and the wider Mediterranean region. Several proxies show commensurate excursions that imply the impact of short-term climate oscillations, such as the 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age. This is the best-dated and highest resolution archive of past Late Glacial and Holocene climate from Lake Ohrid and confirms the overriding influence of the North Atlantic in the north-eastern Mediterranean. The data presented set the context for the International Continental scientific Drilling Program Scientific Collaboration On Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid project cores recovered in spring-summer 2013, potentially dating back into the Lower Pleistocene, and will act as a recent calibration to reconstruct climate and hydrology over the entire lake history.

  20. A high resolution Late Glacial to Holocene record of climatic and environmental change in the Mediterranean from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Jack; Francke, Alexander; Leng, Melanie; Vane, Chris; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is one of the world's oldest lakes and is renowned for its high degree of biological diversity. It is the target site for the ICDP SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) project, an international research initiative to study the links between geology, environment and the evolution of endemic taxa. In 2011 a 10-meter core was recovered from the western shore of Lake Ohrid adjacent to the Lini Peninsula. Here we present high-resolution stable isotope and geochemical data from this core through the Late Glacial to Holocene to reconstruct past climate and hydrology (TIC, δ18Ocalcite, δ13Ccalcite) as well as the terrestrial and aquatic vegetation response to climate (TOC, TOC/N, δ13Corganic, Rock-Eval pyrolysis). The data identify 3 main zones: (1) the Late Glacial-Holocene transition represented by low TIC, TOC and higher isotope values, (2) the early to mid-Holocene characterised by higher TOC, TOC/N and lower δ18Ocalcite, and (3) the late Holocene which shows a marked decrease in TIC and TOC. In general there is an overall trend of increasing δ18Ocalcite from 9 ka to present, suggesting progressive aridification through the Holocene, which is consistent with previous records from Lake Ohrid and the wider Mediterranean region. Several proxies show commensurate excursions that imply the impact of short-term climate oscillations, such as the 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age. This is the best-dated and highest resolution archive of Late Glacial and Holocene climate from Lake Ohrid and confirms the overriding influence of the North Atlantic in the north-eastern Mediterranean. The data presented set the context for the SCOPSCO project cores recovered in spring-summer 2013 dating back into the Lower Pleistocene, and will act as a recent calibration to reconstruct climate and hydrology over the entire lake history.

  1. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods—dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was €6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.

  2. Complexity of diatom response to Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in ancient, deep and oligotrophic Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. S.; Reed, J. M.; Lacey, J. H.; Francke, A.; Leng, M. J.; Levkov, Z.; Wagner, B.

    2016-03-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania) is a rare example of a deep, ancient Mediterranean lake and is a key site for palaeoclimate research in the northeastern Mediterranean region. This study conducts the analysis of diatoms as a proxy for Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in Lake Ohrid at a higher resolution than in previous studies. While Lake Ohrid has the potential to be sensitive to water temperature change, the data demonstrate a highly complex diatom response, probably comprising a direct response to temperature-induced lake productivity in some phases and an indirect response to temperature-related lake stratification or mixing and epilimnetic nutrient availability in others. The data also demonstrate the possible influence of physical limnological (e.g. the influence of wind stress on stratification or mixing) and chemical processes (e.g. the influence of catchment dynamics on nutrient input) in mediating the complex response of diatoms. During the Lateglacial (ca. 12 300-11 800 cal yr BP), the low-diversity dominance of hypolimnetic Cyclotella fottii indicates low lake productivity, linked to low water temperature. Although the subsequent slight increase in small, epilimnetic C. minuscula during the earliest Holocene (ca. 11 800-10 600 cal yr BP) suggests climate warming and enhanced stratification, diatom concentration remains as low as during the Lateglacial, suggesting that water temperature increase was muted across this major transition. The early Holocene (ca. 10 600-8200 cal yr BP) is characterised by a sustained increase in epilimnetic taxa, with mesotrophic C. ocellata indicating high water-temperature-induced productivity between ca. 10 600-10 200 cal yr BP and between ca. 9500-8200 cal yr BP and with C. minuscula in response to low nutrient availability in the epilimnion between ca. 10 200-9500 cal yr BP. During the middle Holocene (ca. 8200-2600 cal yr BP), when sedimentological and geochemical proxies provide evidence for

  3. Quaternary evolution of the delta systems and the coast line of Lake Ohrid (FYROM/Albania) revealed by shallow geophysical and drilling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Reicherter, Klaus; Gruetzner, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    The Lake Ohrid Basin (40°54´ - 41°10`N, 20°38`- 20°48`E) is a cross boundary lake (FYROM/Albania) stretching over a length of c. 30 km and a width of c. 15 km. It is situated in a karstic environment in the Balkanides, an active tectonic region. The general geodynamic setting of the Lake Ohrid area can be described as a "basin and range" situation which is influenced by the northern part of the Hellenic trench and is underlain by ongonig extension so that the Ohrid basin is still actively subsiding. Typical sedimentation patterns supported by the topography give evidence for a tectonically controlled regime. Inactive, Pleistocene lobe-shaped fans are cut off relatively linear by the lake. Drowned alluvial fans along the west coast give evidence for lake-level fluctuations or tectonic subsidence along the western basin margin. In contrast the Struga plain in the North is a vast dried up area, which acts either as a sedimentary catchment for a fan system or as a tectonic basement which is subject to subsidence. Thus, the investigation areas concentrated close to the shorelines including extensive parts at the west coast, in the Struga Plain to the North, the deltas of the inflowing rivers and mass movement bodies at the east coast. Ground Penetrating Radar and Electric Resistivity have been applied, as a non-invasive shallow subsurface mapping methods, to image the sedimentary and tectonic structures. Sediment cores were taken and grain size and sediment composition were analysed. In the aggradation and deltaic plains of the Dajan river in the north and of the Cerava river in the south sets of channels cutting into horizontal layers were identified close to the shoreline. Several S-ward dipping foreset-like structures were found in the north near Struga. The cores show sequences of grain sizes varying between clay and gravel intersected by intervals that are fining upward, and are interpreted as fluvial sediments. No evidences for a higher lake-level were found

  4. Complexity of diatom response to Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in ancient, deep, and oligotrophic Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. S.; Reed, J. M.; Lacey, J. H.; Francke, A.; Leng, M. J.; Levkov, Z.; Wagner, B.

    2015-09-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is a rare example of a deep, ancient Mediterranean lake and is a key site for palaeoclimate research in the northeastern Mediterranean region. This study conducts the first high-resolution diatom analysis during the Lateglacial and Holocene in Lake Ohrid. It demonstrates a complex diatom response to temperature change, with a direct response to temperature-induced productivity and an indirect response to temperature-related stratification/mixing regime and epilimnetic nutrient availability. During the Lateglacial (ca. 12 300-11 800 cal yr BP), the low-diversity dominance of hypolimnetic Cyclotella fottii indicates low temperature-dependent lake productivity. During the earliest Holocene (ca. 11 800-10 600 cal yr BP), although the slight increase in small, epilimnetic C. minuscula suggests climate warming and enhanced thermal stratification, diatom concentration remains very low as during the Lateglacial, indicating that temperature increase was muted. The early Holocene (ca. 10 600-8200 cal yr BP) marked a sustained increase in epilimnetic taxa, with mesotrophic C. ocellata indicating high temperature-induced lake productivity between ca. 10 600-10 200 cal yr BP and between ca. 9500-8200 cal yr BP, and with C. minuscula in response to low nutrient availability in the epilimnion between ca. 10 200-9500 cal yr BP. During the mid Holocene (ca. 8200-2600 cal yr BP), when sedimentological and geochemical proxies provide evidence for high temperature, anomalously low C. ocellata abundance is probably a response to epilimnetic nutrient limitation, almost mimicking the Lateglacial flora apart from mesotrophic Stephanodiscus transylvanicus indicative of high temperature-induced productivity in the hypolimnion. During the late Holocene (ca. 2600-0 cal yr BP), high abundance and fluctuating composition of epilimnetic taxa is largely a response to enhanced anthropogenic nutrient input. In this deep, oligotrophic lake, this study demonstrates the

  5. Age depth-model based on cyclostratigraphic analysis of gamma ray data for the past 675 ka in Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Henrike; Wonik, Thomas; Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Lake Ohrid is located at the border between Macedonia and Albania (40°70' N, 20°42 E) and is assumed as the oldest lake in Europe. The lake with a surface area of 360 km² has trapped sediments and volcanic ashes over more than 1.5 Ma and hence, contains essential information of major climatic and environmental change of the central northern Mediterranean region. Seismic investigations indicate a sediment fill of the lake basin up to a thickness of 700 m. In the frame of the ICDP project SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid), several scientific questions are addressed: age and origin of the lake, paleoclimatic change during the Quaternary, tephrostratigraphy, and driving forces for the outstanding biodiversity. The "Deep site" is located in the central deep basin of Lake Ohrid and was targeted for drilling operation to a depth of 569 m below lake floor (mblf) in spring 2013. First results revealed that the bottom part (below 430 mblf) is characterized by coarser grained deposits while the upper part yields fine grained pelagic sediments. High-quality continuous downhole logging data have been achieved by the use of the following tools: spectral gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, resistivity, dipmeter, borehole televiewer and sonic. The borehole logging data shows strong contrasts in all physical properties, in particular in spectral gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, resistivity and seismic velocity (vp). Strong cyclicity is evident in Lake Ohrid's pelagic sediment facies, whereas the signal is most pronounced in the total gamma ray and potassium content. The data shows high correlation (R² = 0.75) with the global climate reference curve from benthic foraminifera (LRO4 stack) and undisturbed and continuous sedimentation was preserved. Low potassium (and gamma ray) correlates with interglacial periods and therefore glacial-interglacial dynamics can be read from these data easily. To further investigate the cyclic

  6. Complexity of diatom response to Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in ancient, deep, and oligotrophic Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. S. Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania is a rare example of a deep, ancient Mediterranean lake and is a key site for palaeoclimate research in the northeastern Mediterranean region. This study conducts the first high-resolution diatom analysis during the Lateglacial and Holocene in Lake Ohrid. It demonstrates a complex diatom response to temperature change, with a direct response to temperature-induced productivity and an indirect response to temperature-related stratification/mixing regime and epilimnetic nutrient availability. During the Lateglacial (ca. 12 300–11 800 cal yr BP, the low-diversity dominance of hypolimnetic Cyclotella fottii indicates low temperature-dependent lake productivity. During the earliest Holocene (ca. 11 800–10 600 cal yr BP, although the slight increase in small, epilimnetic C. minuscula suggests climate warming and enhanced thermal stratification, diatom concentration remains very low as during the Lateglacial, indicating that temperature increase was muted. The early Holocene (ca. 10 600–8200 cal yr BP marked a sustained increase in epilimnetic taxa, with mesotrophic C. ocellata indicating high temperature-induced lake productivity between ca. 10 600–10 200 cal yr BP and between ca. 9500–8200 cal yr BP, and with C. minuscula in response to low nutrient availability in the epilimnion between ca. 10 200–9500 cal yr BP. During the mid Holocene (ca. 8200–2600 cal yr BP, when sedimentological and geochemical proxies provide evidence for high temperature, anomalously low C. ocellata abundance is probably a response to epilimnetic nutrient limitation, almost mimicking the Lateglacial flora apart from mesotrophic Stephanodiscus transylvanicus indicative of high temperature-induced productivity in the hypolimnion. During the late Holocene (ca. 2600–0 cal yr BP, high abundance and fluctuating composition of epilimnetic taxa is largely a response to enhanced anthropogenic nutrient input. In this deep, oligotrophic lake

  7. The Paramountcy of EU Law Over National Law The Extent to which Lyon’s Statements Reflect on the Relationship between EU and Domestic Law within the UK and Candidate States such as Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbi Ago

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As we live in a world that is becoming ever more globalized, it is unavoidable to consider the effect supranational entities and globalization itself have on the national sovereignty of the state. The EU is probably the most well-known example of a supranational entity and as such it cannot help but bring about a number of sides regarding its power over its members. There are many that would claim the EU has undermined national sovereignty, especially when it comes to the legal sphere. The issue at hand has been addressed by scholars such as Dr. Anne Lyon and this paper is a direct analysis of her statement regarding paramountcy. In summation, Lyon has stated that EU law has undermined national law. This has happened due to a number of reasons, one of which is the passing of a parliamentary Act intending to prioritize EU law. At this point, shall they need to provide otherwise, it is quite an argument to claim whether they could give effect to national law instead. Therefore, it has become necessary to consider the extent to which these statements reflect the relationship between EU law and ‘domestic’ laws within the UK and try and apply to the legal future of candidate states, such as Albania. This paper analyzes the two parts of Lyon’s argument, namely the paramountcy and parliamentary aspects of the issue, while also aiming to provide a framework on which future candidate states such as Albania can work on in order to achieve a more efficient assimilation into the EU legal system together with the forewarnings necessary shall they wish the opposite.

  8. Involutina farinacciae Bronnimann & Koehn-Zaninetti 1969, a marker for the Middle Liassic in basinal and some platform facies of Mediterranean and near east areas: The discussion concerning the paleogeography of Montenegro-Albania border region (the Scutari-Peć lineament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoičić Rajka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraminiferal species Involutina farinacciae BRONNIMANN & KOEHN-ZANINETTI, is a marker of Middle Liassic basinal and transitional platform bassin facies widely distributed in Mediterranean area (Umbria-Marche, Pindos, Budva, Sicilia and the Inner Dinarides basin, also in Iraqi Kurdistan (“Avroman” Basin. In the Dinaric Carbonate Platform (DCP it indicates intramarginal and intraplatform depressions. Paleogeography of the Montenegro-Albania border area formed by the inherited prealpine paleogeographic scenario that resulted in a different arrangement of the paleogeographic units westward and eastward of the paleostructure (Scutari-Peć Lineament which controlled the geological history of the region. This transverse paleostructure was a coincident with the paleogeographic front of the DCP, and b the westward limit of the overtrusted Mirdita Zone. The difference in the paleogeographic features in the prolongation from the DCP througout Albania, controlled by paleostructure, are the source of seizmicity, rotation and deviation (SE to NW, into NE of the Complex Mirdita Zone.

  9. Real Estate Taxes in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Koprencka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction sector is one of the mainsectors of the Albanian economy, which,during the last 20 years, has experiencedthe greatest economic growth. In 1991 thissector has contributed by 2.5% to the GDP,in 2006 by 4.9%, while in 2008, this sectorhas contributed by 14.9% to the national GDP. The relevant legislation has played animportant role in the development of this sector. The applied laws have tried to maintainat low levels the real estate prices and totransform such a problematic sector, withreference to fiscal evasion and informality,into an easily controllable sector. The taxesapplied in the construction sector are the sameas in other economic sectors, although thetaxation management in the construction sector, except forthose common principles thatregulate the tax management in general, isbased on some specificrules related to thecharacteristics of this sector. Increase the level of taxation on the transfer of ownership tothe extent of 10%, paralyzed the housing market by reducing the number of sales,especially of real estate old, previously this was 0.3-5%of sales value.JEL Classification: H21

  10. Real Estate Taxes in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Koprencka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction sector is one of the mainsectors of the Albanian economy, which,during the last 20 years, has experiencedthe greatest economic growth. In 1991 thissector has contributed by 2.5% to the GDP,in 2006 by 4.9%, while in 2008, this sectorhas contributed by 14.9% to the national GDP. The relevant legislation has played animportant role in the development of this sector. The applied laws have tried to maintainat low levels the real estate prices and totransform such a problematic sector, withreference to fiscal evasion and informality,into an easily controllable sector. The taxesapplied in the construction sector are the sameas in other economic sectors, although thetaxation management in the construction sector, except forthose common principles thatregulate the tax management in general, isbased on some specificrules related to thecharacteristics of this sector. Increase the level of taxation on the transfer of ownership tothe extent of 10%, paralyzed the housing market by reducing the number of sales,especially of real estate old, previously this was 0.3-5%of sales value.

  11. Seismic investigations of ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania): a pre-site survey for the SCOPSCO ICDP-drilling campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Schwenk, T.; Kurschat, S.; Daut, G.; Wessel, M.; Wagner, B.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is probably the oldest lake in Europe (2-5 Ma), and has been found as an important archive to study the sedimentary evolution of a graben system over several million years. Lake Ohrid has a length of 30 km (N-S) and a width of 15 km (W-E) and covers an area of 360 sqkm. Two major mountain chains surround the lake, on the west side the Mocra Mountains (app. 1500 m) and on the east side the Galicica Mountain (app. 2250 m). With more than 210 endemic species described, the lake is a unique aquatic ecosystem that is of worldwide importance. An international group of scientists has recently submitted a full drilling proposal entitled SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration On Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) to ICDP in order to (i) to obtain more precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (ii) to unravel the seismotectonic history of the lake area including effects of major earthquakes and associated mass wasting events, (iii) to obtain a continuous record containing information on volcanic activities and climate changes in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (iv) to better understand the impact of major geological/environmental events on general evolutionary patterns and shaping an extraordinary degree of endemic biodiversity as a matter of global significance. The lake was the target of several geophysical pre-site surveys starting with a first shallow seismic campaign in spring 2004 using a high resolution parametric sediment echosounder (INNOMAR SES-96 light). Airgun multichannel seismic data were collected during two surveys in 2007 and 2008, resulting in a dense grid of seismic lines over the entire lake. In total 650 km of shallow seismic lines 400 km of airgun multichannel seismics demonstrates the potential of Lake Ohrid as target for ICDP. Seismic profiles show that the lake can be divided into slope areas and a large central basin. The slope areas are characterized by a dense net of faults

  12. Albania by the end of the 17th century and relations with neighbouring nations according to archbishop Pjetër Bogdani´s work "The band of the prophets" (1685

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Arapi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Albania by the end of the 17th century and relations with neighbouring nations according to archbishop Pjetër Bogdani´s work "The band of the prophets" (1685The old Albanian literature (mid-16th – mid-17th century, which includes the philosophical–theological treaty Cuneus prophetarum by  Pjetër Bogdani (Padua, 1685, was born and developed as a literature mainly of religious content for the needs of the Catholic religion.  Regardless of the topic, this literature was created in a certain historical, cultural and social environment, namely that of northern Albania and the Albanian population that lived there. Hence, the data provided in this book constitutes an invaluable source through which we have the possibility of learning more about the way of life and the functioning of this part of Albanian society of that time.  Interesting data on the situation of the Albanian language of that time is to be found in the preface of this work. The author urges Albanians not to let their language and science degenerate, but just as other nations do, they should make efforts concerning its evolution and development. But the alarm for destructing the mother tongue is linked with author and his contemporaries’ high conscious more than with the reality. In fact, Bogdani´s work itself proves that Albanian at that time had expressive possibilities equal to those of the Italian language. Not only the expressive and lexical richness, but the syntactic structure of phrases shows a high degree of development and elaboration in the Albanian language of that time.Examining the foreword of the book, we can learn that efforts were being made to unify the language and to develop one literary variant based on the dialect of the town of Shkodra. Bogdani also tried to adjust the language of his work according to this town’s dialect.Relations with Italian and Croatian intellectuals are clearly demonstrated in dithyrambic poetry and in the dedications at the

  13. Arnavutluk’taki Osmanlı Dönemi Mimarisinde İstanbul Tasvirli Duvar Resimleri İstanbul Depiction Mural Paintings in Architecture of Ottoman Period in Albania

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    Metin UÇAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate the Istanbul depictionsmural paintings in Ottoman period within the borders of Albania, one ofBalkan countries. Within the scope of our research, the Istanbuldepictions found in research region were described according to theircontents by classifying them according to painting dates and locations.Also by analyzing style characteristics in paintings and the effects ofperiod, we tried to compare them with their likes in Anatolia in terms oftechnic and arrangement.The mural paintings which started to be used in religious and civilarchitecture of Ottoman Empire (in Istanbul the Capital City and inAnatolia since middle of 18th century has started to be seen in wallsurfaces in Albania. Those mural paintings, which have nowadayssamples on scarce number of structures, are located in medallions,boards, springer and frames on inner and outer wall surfaces ofbuildings. The themes of paintings are generally still-life, landscape andcity depictions. Among city depictions chosen as theme, Istanbul hasprimary place because it was capital city in that era. The Istanbulfigurations, which have generally been handled fictionally, are locatedon wall surfaces of Akçahisar (Kruje Toptaniler Mansion, BeratBekarlar Mosque, Berat Cako (Xhaxhi Qako House and Görice (KorçeMirahor İlyas Bey Mosque.Although the Istanbul-themed paintings, which are now locatedwithin the borders of other countries, have been made by local artists oftheir region, they show important similarities with their contemporariesin especially Aegean and Marmara regions from the aspects of technic,style and arrangement. Bu çalışmada, Balkan ülkelerinden Arnavutluk’ta Osmanlı döneminde yapılmış olan duvar resimlerindeki İstanbul tasvirlerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu kapsamda bölgede yaptığımız araştırmada tespit edilen İstanbul tasvirleri, yapıldıkları tarihlere ve bulundukları yere göre tasnif edilerek, içeriklerine g

  14. Radiopharmaceutical production in Albania and its future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Research and developing in the field of preparing and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals have been concentrated and continue to be at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. The Institute has a radiochemical laboratory, that possesses adequate infrastructure for research and developing including the scope of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The radiochemical laboratory and the group of radiopharmaceuticals have izeion with our Nuclear Medical Center, but also with many research institutes in the country and abroad. Studies on the field of preparing radiopharmaceuticals in the beginning were focused on developing the adequate methods for labelling and quality controls of radiopharmaceuticals more spread used in the 70s. During this time were developed methods for labelling and quality controls of hippurane, oleic acid and rosse-bengale labelled with 131J, dermatological sources with 32P and have done attempts for preparing 131J and 32P with and carrier free from imported targets. At the beginning of the 70s for diagnostic and therapeutic porpoises of thyroid gland was used 131J as 'nuclear cocktail'. Actually for diagnoses of thyroid used 99mTc, meanwhile for therapy 131J as gelatin capsules prepared in the radiochemical laboratory of Institute of Nuclear Physics. The demand for the technetium kits and the impossibility of importing them on the large quantities that covered needs of nuclear medicine for diagnoses and extents of scope of nuclear medicine were premises for developing the technique of production the cold technetium kits. In the frame of technical izeion with IAEA a laboratory was constructed for these purposes. The laboratory fulfills requirements of GMP and has enough capacity to cover demand of nuclear medicine actually and in the future. Now it is consolidated production of such kits as MDP, DMSA, DTPA, HDPA, Pyrophosphate, Phytate, Heptagluconate, etc and continuing before long with more sensitive and complicate kits such as HMPAO, ECD and MIBI, etc. Last years are undertaken also some studies for preparing 90Y by means of generator 90Sr-90Y with high chemical and radiochemical purity that to be able to use for labelling aminoacides and antibodies. By 90Y, home made, has been prepared 90Y-citrate, which was used successful for therapy of bone metastases. Also by 90Y in the chloride form, are done some studies for labelling antibody Mab B72.3, MDP, HEDPA, porphyries, etc. with the aim using in the therapy of cancer metastases. Preliminary results encouraged the research group for further studies. In 90Y production it is important content of impurities such as 90Sr. It is develop a fast chromatographic method for identification and determination content of 90Sr. In the field of preparing and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals is prized in some European research projects for preparing the new radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  15. Subsalt Depth Seismic Imaging and Structural Interpretation in Dumre Area, Albania Imagerie sismique profondeur sub-salifère et interprétation structurale dans la région de Dumre, Albanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardin A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of seismic exploration in fold and thrust belt settings is to optimize the depth seismic images of the deep structural objectives beneath a complex overburden that may show strong horizontal and vertical velocity variations. In such areas, the seismic image is frequently of poor quality and the depth models of deep layers is often false due to the perturbed propagation of seismic energy through the deforming lens of the overlying layers. A range of seismic processing tools, including post-stack and pre-stack depth migrations, are appropriate to predict the accurate geometry of deep target structures and to improve the building of a depth structural model. A strong combination of geological reasoning and depth seismic imaging processing can improve the understanding of the deep geological structures by reducing the uncertainties in depth geometrical and velocity model estimation. We propose an interpretative and iterative approach to the post stack depth migration method to guide the interpreter in the development of a reliable subsurface model. We have applied this approach during an exploration study in the Dumre area, located in the Ionian Basin (Albania which is a complex fold and thrust belt. The main objectives of this study were to understand the failure of a former exploration well and to propose a new location for the potential closure of the carbonate structure. This subsalt imaging study aims at illustrating the improvements obtained by application of this integrated seismic imaging method especially in the evaluation of a subthrust prospect in a tectonically complex belt setting. Le challenge de l’exploration pétrolière par la sismique réflexion dans les zones de montagne est d’obtenir des coupes capables de bien imager les structures géologiques profondes situées sous une couverture sédimentaire plissée. Cette série de sédiments peut être très complexe et engendrer ainsi de fortes variations latérales et

  16. Modeling migration attempts and the role of gender in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Litchfield Julie; Reilly Barry

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses the 2002 Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey to model whether an individual has attempted to migrate conditional on having previously considered migrating. The study addresses the methodological concerns that arise from potential selection bias and empirical issues associated with gender differences. We test for the presence of selection bias using a bivariate probit and apply an Oaxaca-style decomposition technique to analyze gender differentials in the conditional p...

  17. Modeling migration attempts and the role of gender in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litchfield Julie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the 2002 Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey to model whether an individual has attempted to migrate conditional on having previously considered migrating. The study addresses the methodological concerns that arise from potential selection bias and empirical issues associated with gender differences. We test for the presence of selection bias using a bivariate probit and apply an Oaxaca-style decomposition technique to analyze gender differentials in the conditional probability of attempted migration. We focus on the roles an individual's living standard, geographic location and local labour market conditions exert on the attempt to migrate. Our empirical findings suggest that there are significant differences in both the conditional probability of attempting to migrate and the relative importance of determining factors across gender.

  18. The New Legal Regime On Minority Shareholder Protection In Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Jonida Rustemaj

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at introducing the main changes brought by  the new Albanian Company Law on  minority shareholders’ protection. Due to the harmonization of our legislation with the acqui, new pieces of laws were introduced in commercial law. In 2008 the new law “On entrepreneurs and commercial companies” was enacted. The latter introduced new practices and concepts, some of them not  familiar  to  the Albanian  legal  system. I  was motivated  to   write  a  paper on   minority   shareholde...

  19. The New Legal Regime on Minority Shareholder Protection in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Jonida Rustemaj

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at introducing the main changes brought by the new Albanian Company Law on minority shareholders’ protection. Due to the harmonization of our legislation with the acqui, new pieces of laws were introduced in commercial law. In 2008 the new law “On entrepreneurs and commercial companies” was enacted. The latter introduced new practices and concepts, some of them not familiar to the Albanian legal system. I was motivated to write a paper on minority shareholders protection in ...

  20. The Development of Private International Law in Albania

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    Ilda Mucmataj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a world like today’s one, with communication, trade and the increasing cross-border travels, the issue of the conflict of laws appears in every aspect of the private law. It is important that every member of the legal community understands the conflict of laws. This is important especially for judges, because they are the ones who should solve cross-border disputes submitted to them, which affect the personal lives of individuals and their businesses. Judges are precisely those who, with their work, should increase the confidence of the parties and the public, both within the community of their country and in other countries. However, in a broader view, not only lawyers but all legal subjects must have general knowledge in this field in order to perform effective agreements. Thus, through this article we aim to shed light on the regulation of private legal relations that are characterized by a foreign element, presenting innovations brought by Law No. 10426 ‘On Private International Law’ which entered into force on 02.06.2011.

  1. Economic Relations between Italy and Albania 1993 – 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Marko

    2012-01-01

    Between the obligation of carrying out their mission to ensure the quality development of higher education and the right to function as important centers where knowledge is taken, developed and transmitted, this paper will examine the technological developments of university libraries as an important part of higher education. Digital and electronic experiences applied in Albanian universities libraries will be brought to the attention of the public. This paper is based on the questionnaire su...

  2. Economic crisis impact on Remittances and Migration level in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Shera; Ardita Shehaj

    2014-01-01

    Remittances of international migrants as the second largest flow of incomes contribute to the well-being of their households of origin and also have an impact at macro-economic level. Out-migration is an effective means for low-income households to quickly overcome shortages of income. The sustenance of poor households might have been more difficult without such remittances. From a macro perspective, remittances contribute to the equalization of the income distribution among households having...

  3. Aquaponic systems as excellent agricultural research instruments in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    RIGERS BAKIU; JULIAN SHEHU; Carbonara, P.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaponic systems are recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) that incorporate the production of plants without soil. Recirculating systems are designed to raise large quantities of fish in relatively small volumes of water by treating the water to remove toxic waste products and then reusing the water many times. The accumulated metabolic by-products, like non-toxic nutrients and organic matter, need not be wasted if they are channeled into secondary crops that have economic value or in some...

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethics. Case Study: Vodafone Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Everest Haxhi; Alba Robert Dumi

    2014-01-01

    There are many discussions about ethics beginning with a fair and fundamental question: “What is ethics all about?” It is the same as morality, or is kind of a soft law that imposes values but without enforcing them? What is the contribution of the society in imposing values and ethical standards, and how business is involved? Ethical standards are applied in business word, differing from social responsibilities that business has in the social environment where it operates. To bet...

  5. Post-socialist financial fragility: the case of Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Bezemer

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 collapse of the Albanian economy caused by the collapse of economy-widePonzi schemes contrasts sharply to itssuccess status as a post-socialist transition country in the years 1992-1996. Inthis paper, an attempt is made to explain this'Albanian Paradox'. The specific Albanian conditions for

  6. The Evolution of the Constitutional System in Albania

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    Evis Alimehmeti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the concept of bankruptcy as a legal judicial procedure to be followed in case that the legal or natural person becomes insolvent. The paper is focused on the meaning of bankruptcy, the subjects of bankruptcy proceedings, causes for the opening of this proceeding, the competent court and its decision according to the law no.8901, dated 23.05.2002 “On bankruptcy” published in official Journal nr.31/2002. These article deals also with the organs of bankruptcy proceedings, administrator, meeting of creditors and methods of the conclusion of bankruptcy proceedings. A brief description of debtor’s possibilities during bankruptcy proceedings is given also in article. It deals with debtor’s closeout, rehabilitation/reorganization of the company and debtor’s liquidation. However, it should be noted that the bankruptcy procedure is a procedure not very widespread in our country, that due to the small number of cases before our courts. It also has to do with the fact that subjects rarely addressed the court.

  7. Whistleblowing and corruption - Legislation on whistleblowing in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marbona Cuka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The same concept on whistleblowing is described differently in different countries, carrying negative, neutral or positive connotations. Main objective of this research paper is to offer a comprehensive view on international instruments on whistleblower protection and their influence on the drafting of the new Albanian Whistleblower Protection Law. A significant amount of knowledge about hidden forms of wrongdoing is based on the reports of whistleblowers, which means that whistleblowing plays a vital role in providing information that would otherwise have remained behind closed doors in a cloud of secrecy. People who reveal corruption from inside their organization are often faced with disbelief, anger and opposition; they are considered traitors who gave away internal secrets to the outside world. It is extremely difficult to break the walls of silence and to come forward with information knowing that such an action will seriously damage one’s reputation, collegiality, friendships and the trust of others. This is why whistleblowing is so remarkable: it discloses information not only about misconduct, but also about the strong ties and the solidarity between the parties that are directly or indirectly involved. Whistleblowers may have their personal motives, but they also have a lot to lose. They will need to overcome their fears, accept the consequences of their actions and be ready to face opposition, threats and exclusion. Their decisions are influenced by all sorts of situational factors as well as by emotions, daily experiences and personal contacts. Over the last twenty years, criminological research on whistleblowing has focused on the experiences, motivation and decision-making processes preceding the decision to reveal wrongdoings, as well as on the impact of the negative consequences and the ineffectiveness of the response to the allegations of whistleblowers. The whistleblowers criminological aspects and the relation between whistleblowing and his importance to prevent and fight the corruption is another issue elaborate in this paper. This research paper also aims to give some advice on how we can overcome challenges and obstacles during the Albanian whistleblower law implementation in practice. Research methodology used in this paper consists on a comparison of several international instruments and reports on whistleblower protection.

  8. The New Legal Regime on Minority Shareholder Protection in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Rustemaj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at introducing the main changes brought by the new Albanian Company Law on minority shareholders’ protection. Due to the harmonization of our legislation with the acqui, new pieces of laws were introduced in commercial law. In 2008 the new law “On entrepreneurs and commercial companies” was enacted. The latter introduced new practices and concepts, some of them not familiar to the Albanian legal system. I was motivated to write a paper on minority shareholders protection in order to emphasize the new regime and instruments of protection granted by the new laws. A matter which concerns investors and especially foreign ones is the protection of minority shareholders. This paper discusses the instruments of protection of minority shareholders bringing the novelties of the newly introduced laws because of the unclear regime under the repealed law using the analytical and comparative method. Few rights which were known by the former Albanian company law were usually compromised, but under the law in force, minorities are much more protected.Does the new law strengthen the position of such category of shareholders? What are the rights of minority shareholders conferred by the law? These and other questions will be addressed herein.

  9. The New Legal Regime On Minority Shareholder Protection In Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Rustemaj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at introducing the main changes brought by  the new Albanian Company Law on  minority shareholders’ protection. Due to the harmonization of our legislation with the acqui, new pieces of laws were introduced in commercial law. In 2008 the new law “On entrepreneurs and commercial companies” was enacted. The latter introduced new practices and concepts, some of them not  familiar  to  the Albanian  legal  system. I  was motivated  to   write  a  paper on   minority   shareholders protection  in  order to  emphasize  the new regime  and instruments of protection granted by the new laws. A matter which concerns investors and especially foreign ones is the protection of minority  shareholders. This paper discusses the instruments  of  protection  of  minority   shareholders bringing the novelties of the newly introduced laws because of  the unclear regime under the repealed law using the analytical and comparative method. Few rights which  were known by the former Albanian company law were usually compromised, but  under the law in  force, minorities are much more protected. Does the new law strengthen the position of such category of   shareholders?   What  are   the   rights   of   minority shareholders  conferred  by  the  law?  These  and other questions will be addressed herein.

  10. Failure to report a crime and its problems in Albania

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    Besiana Muka (Petanaja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime being a social and economic phenomenon constitutes a serious threat to democratic values, not just one country or region, but beyond. Its prevention and detection constitutes the most important challenge dealing with the criminal investigation organs, where the underlying investigative process at any time should remain the utmost respect for human rights, particularly care to crime victims. The process of crime prevention should be more efficient, first there must be a spirit of close cooperation between police officers, prosecution authorities and community in order to guarantee the rule of security for citizens. This is due to the fact that all citizens are concerned about the safety of their family and the environment where they live. Through their individual skills they react to the actions and behaviors that affect the interests, values and legal norms prescribed (Nasufi & Yzeiri, 2004, 162. Besides civic reaction, criminal legislation provides for the rights and duties to citizens to denounce criminal acts. Under the criminal code, every citizen is obliged to speak of a crime that is being committed or has been committed, the bodies of prosecution, court, law enforcement bodies, government or administration, otherwise the risk is connected with a sanction of a fine or imprisonment up to three years. 1 To better understand the problems of non testifying crime and discrepancy it is important to analyze the criminal Offense of non testifying crime and Characteristics of the Offense under the Albanian criminal code.

  11. Poverty and inequality issues in Albania: trends and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Myftaraj (Tomori) Elena

    2010-01-01

    Poverty and inequality are complex and widespread phenomena. Poverty is an indicator and the main factor of inequality, so reduction of poverty is one of the biggest challenges for economic and social consolidation of a country. There are different concepts of poverty, in this paper we are focused on the concept of absolute poverty. The main objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis on the trends of poverty and inequality indicators, as well as an analysis on the reduction of poverty ...

  12. Digital Mapping as a business opportunity: Exploring Albania

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    Medjon Hysenaj

    Full Text Available Albanian economy is strictly connected to the fluctuations economies of its neighbor countries. The conducted research aim at creating a web based GIS platform working as a communication and information source to the prospective of managing a future potential category of investitors. The paper outlines the importance of digital mapping technology as a powerful tool which can lead into interesting solutions. We are introducing a set of models regarding specific sector categories explaining how integration of GIS technology canresult a perfect liaison bridge between this group of businessman’s and their new terrain of investment, mitigating their hesitancy due to the lack of information and recognition. GIS technology serves as a mirror to evaluate options, opportunities and probabilities. Through GIS tools they can get involved into the economic situation in the country by tracking customers and competitive businesses. Geographic data must be considered as the basic framework of entire organizations.

  13. Killing out percentage for finishing pigs in Albania

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    LUAN HAJNO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in collaboration with the Regional Agriculture and Rural Development Directorate specialists of Elbasani within the 2012-2013 periods. The objective of the study was: the assessment of the radius meat of different pigs’ breeds and crossbreds: Great White (Yorkshire, Pietren and crossbreds of Pietren X Great White (Yorkshire (♂ X ♀. The experiment’s animals consisted at a total of 136 effective leaders respectively: 50 heads of Yorkshire, 27 heads of Pietren and 59 heads of crossbreds’ have been: live weight of pigs before slaughtering, hot slaughtering weight. Live ëeight of pigs was estimated as the difference12 hours weighing between meals which means when the body was empty ëith food. Cold Yield was estimated by the ratio: (cold carcasses weight/live weight x100. Cold weight was rated as a hot carcass weight discount 2.5-3% presenting the carcass with or without blood. The database was processed statistically using ANOVA. Results of the study are as follows: the genetic type of Great White (Yorkshire represented by 50 heads, has had an average of the cold yield 74.9% (STDEV., 3.086; the genetic type of Pietren represented by 45 heads of 74.2% (STDEV 1.932 and the genetic type of crossbreds Pietren Great white (Yorkshire (♂ x ♀ resulted 75.4% (STDEV., 3.043.

  14. Evaluation of Microbiological Criteria of Raw Milk in Albania

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    GENTIANA BARDHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the results of the Albanian monitoring plan for the raw milk in 121 domestic subjects: producing farms, collecting points and processing plants. The main objective for this monitoring was the evaluation of milk microbiological criteria. This monitoring was carried out during the year 2013 separated in two phases: 1-31 May and 1-31 October. Milk sampling was made by Regional Directorates Inspectors of National Food Authority in conformity to S SH ISO 707:1999 “Sampling method of milk and milk by-products. The microbial evaluation was carried out based on the norms laid down in Decision of Council of Ministers Nr.1132 date 05.08.2008: “Approving norms for collecting raw milk”. 415 samples were analyzed in total for the total content of micro flora as well as somatic cells. The TMC test was determined according to ISO 4833:2003 and SCC was determined according to White-Side-Test (WST, California Mastitis Test (CMT and ISO 13366-1:1997. The results taken for the two phases of the monitoring plan has shown unsatisfactory results. This indicates that is necessary to improve the existing situation in milk producing farms, collecting points and processing plants as well.

  15. Effectiveness of Counter-Trafficking Response in Albania

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    Meçe Merita H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a new phenomenon of Albanian post-socialist society which significantly increased during the difficult years of its transformation from centralized state-led economy to market economy. Both economic and political instability contributed to its size, nature and multiple dynamics. Drawing on a rights-based approach to human trafficking, this paper examines the effectiveness of the counter-trafficking response of the Albanian government with a special emphasis on prevention, protection and prosecution. Using secondary data and reviewing various country strategic documents, it highlights a range of weaknesses and challenges which have hindered its effectiveness over years. It concludes that successful and effective counter-trafficking response requires well rounded and coordinated gender sensitive, victim-centred, holistic and human rights-based efforts. Combined with adequate law enforcement, they will sustainably tackle the full spectrum of this problem.

  16. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF URBAN TOURISM IN ALBANIA - THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF URBAN TOURISM IN COMPETITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ALBANIA DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fioralba VELA; Alexandru NEDELEA

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the main objective is to introduce the role of urban tourism as a potential form of tourism in the competitive development of the Albanian destination and the role of urban tourism to the community of the Albanian urban areas and the problems related to this development. For the purpose of the study, it’s needed to define the criteria of the study and the organization of the Albanian cities that offers the greatest possibilities to develop the urban tourism as a competitive for...

  17. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF URBAN TOURISM IN ALBANIA - THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF URBAN TOURISM IN COMPETITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ALBANIA DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fioralba VELA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main objective is to introduce the role of urban tourism as a potential form of tourism in the competitive development of the Albanian destination and the role of urban tourism to the community of the Albanian urban areas and the problems related to this development. For the purpose of the study, it’s needed to define the criteria of the study and the organization of the Albanian cities that offers the greatest possibilities to develop the urban tourism as a competitive form of tourism development. These criteria are: the evidence of the heritage historical patrimony, the evidence of the culinary patrimony, the evidence of the technical patrimony, the evidence of the hospitality patrimony, the evidence of the transport’s situation, the evidence of the cultural patrimony, the evidence of leisure structures, various services. The analyses used enable the author to come on interesting conclusions.

  18. Environment protection in the legal system of Albania: The current situation in Albania on combating environmental crimes and the new reform directions

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    Shkëlzen Selimi

    2016-07-01

    The conclusions reached at the end shows the evolution of the concept of environment and its protection, welcomes the new reform by noting the need of the judicial authorities to be trained in order to be fully implemented.

  19. Turner syndrome in Albania and the efficacy of its treatment with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Petrit; Babameto-Laku, Anila; Vyshka, Gentian; Gjoka, Klodiana; Minxuri, Dorina; Myrtaj, Elira; Çakërri, Luljeta

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of Turner syndrome inside the Albanian population, its clinical, cytological and genetic characteristics, the accompanying pathologies, and the efficacy of the treatment with the growth hormone. We performed a retrospective analysis of 59 patients suffering from this syndrome (aging from 5 to 23 years old). The diagnosis of female patients suffering from Turner syndrome is delayed, with a mean age at the moment of diagnosis of 13.74 years (5-23 years). The main reason for seeking medical advice was the growth retardation or a delayed puberty. Available data for 52 patients showed that the most frequent accompanying pathologies were the following: thyroid autoimmune disorders (59%), cardiovascular anomalies (43%), renal pathologies (41%), hearing impairment (4.3%) and hypertension (3.3%). Follow-up for the growth rate was possible for 52 patients out of the total of 59 patients. Twenty-five of the female patients suffering Turner syndrome and forming part of our study sample were treated with growth hormone for a period averaging 3 years and 4 months. A variety of reasons was identified as responsible for the missed treatment in 27 patients. We saw an enhanced growth (in terms of body height) within the treated subgroup, when compared with the untreated subgroup (27 patients), especially during the first 3 years of the follow-up. No side effects of this treatment were reported. Both groups of patients initiated as well a sexual hormone therapy (estrogens and progesterone) for inducing puberty at the age of 12 years. Further work is needed for an early diagnosis of this syndrome, the prompt treatment with growth hormone and the monitoring of accompanying disorders. This will ensure a better quality of life and an improvement of the longevity of patients suffering from the Turner syndrome. PMID:26181044

  20. MANGANESE CONTENT IN THE MUSCLE TISSUE OF THE TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA) IN SOME RIVERS OF ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    F. Selami; E. Sotiri; D. Laci; B. Bizhga

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccumulation and magnification is capable of leading to toxic level of these metals in fish even when exposure is low. The presence of metal pollutant in fresh water is known to disturb the delicate balance of the aquatic systems. Fishes are notorious for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their muscles and since they play an important role in human nutrition, they need to be carefully screened to ensure that unnecessary high levels of some toxic trace metals are not being transf...

  1. Strategic Brand Analysis in Destination Identity Context : A Case Study of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Ertörün, Erkan; Suma, Saimir

    2011-01-01

    Tourism industry is one of the most prominent industries at the moment. Globalization has been playing a big role by mainly diminishing traveling barriers between countries. This trend had brought also an increase in competition between countries to identify themselves and to define how they want to be perceived by the tourists. In this case, developing a clear destination brand identity is crucial for success. Brand identity and brand image are two concepts that are related to each other but...

  2. Implementation of the administrative-territorial reform for a sustainable development of the economy in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Ndreu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main requirements of the European Union for countries that want to integrate this supra-national body, is the creation of large administrative units, in order to absorb easily and efficiently the funds obtained from pre-accession scheme. Through this reform it is meant to be achieved a good management of allocated funds regarding the socio-economic development of the countries.Given that the old territorial-administrative system that existed until 2014 when was adopted the new reform, had created imbalance between the development of regions and local units, unnecessary high costs merely used for operative expenses and staff salaries, not functioning properly of the local units and above all lack of public services delivery to citizens. As a result it was necessary to undertake a new reform where would be offered a new model of efficient organization.The goal of reform should be the creation of local communities with a strong autonomy, capable of having the necessary capabilities and tools to encourage local development in all its aspects. In connection with the need for undertaking such a reform and its impact on the economy was agreed between political parties and throughout civil society. Problems and disputes between the parties began regarding the modus operandi of the drafting and implementation of the reform. In this paper I will show how the new territorial-administrative reform was drafted and adapted. The problems behind the theoretical drafting and putting it in practice. The impact in the development of the economy.

  3. Trafficking of migrant workers from Albania : issues of labour and sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Sarah; Linden, Mariska van der

    2005-01-01

    Based on interviews of returned migrants and persons from Ministries, Embassies and NGOs, examines emigration flows, mainly to Greece and Italy. Distinguishes between trafficked and non-trafficked persons, the respective working conditions encountered, threats and violence experienced, whether they used help or not in order to get out of forced labour conditions. Makes recommendations regarding legislation and law enforcement, migration management, protection and assistance, and awareness rai...

  4. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lakes Ohrid and Prespa (Macedonia/Albania border using stable isotopes

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    M. J. Leng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we present stable isotope data from three sediment records from lakes that lie along the Macedonian-Albanian border (Lake Prespa: 1 core, and Lake Ohrid: 2 cores. The records only overlap for the last 40 kyr, although the longest record contains the MIS 5/6 transition (Lake Ohrid. The sedimentary characteristics of both lakes differ significantly between the glacial and interglacial phases. At the end of MIS 6 Lake Ohrid's water level was low (high δ18Ocalcite and, although productivity was increasing (high calcite content, the carbon supply was mainly from inorganic catchment rock sources (high δ13Ccarb. During the last interglacial, calcite and TOC production and preservation increased, progressively lower δ18Ocalcite suggest increase in humidity and lake levels until around 115 ka. During ca. 80 ka to 11 ka the lake records suggest cold conditions as indicated by negligible calcite precipitation and low organic matter content. In Lake Ohrid, δ13Corg are complacent; in contrast, Lake Prespa shows consistently higher δ13Corg suggesting a low oxidation of 13C-depleted organic matter in agreement with a general deterioration of climate conditions during the glacial. From 15 ka to the onset of the Holocene, calcite and TOC begin to increase, suggesting lake levels were probably low (high δ18Ocalcite. In the Holocene (11 ka to present enhanced productivity is manifested by high calcite and organic matter content. All three cores show an early Holocene characterised by low δ18Ocalcite, apart from the very early Holocene phase in Prespa where the lowest δ18Ocalcite occurs at ca. 7.5 ka, suggesting a phase of higher lake level only in (the more sensitive Lake Prespa. From 6 ka, δ18Ocalcite suggest progressive aridification, in agreement with many other records in the Mediterranean, although the uppermost sediments in one core records low δ18Ocalcite which we interpret as a result of human activity. Overall, the isotope data present here confirm that these two big lakes have captured the large scale, low frequency palaeoclimate variation that is seen in Mediterranean lakes, although in detail there is much palaeoclimate information that could be gained, especially small scale, high frequency differences between this region and the Mediterranean.

  5. Forestry seedlings production by biotechnological methods, the forestry of 21th century in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASAN CANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest biotechnology on the Faculty of Forestry Sciences is an interdisciplinary research dedicated to the development and application of advanced technology for the enhancement of forest regeneration and adaptation. Technical capabilities include Eco physiology, forest ecology, tissue culture and adaptation to climate change mitigation. These techniques are also being used to improve nursery culture regimes, pest’s management by biological fighting, planting regimes and new product development for a variety of broadleaf species (Oaks under ecological stress. Successful regeneration relies on the application of work from many forestry disciplines toward the common goal. At the center of any successful program is the production of high-quality seedlings that have god performance on reforestation site. Performance of an reforestation site depends on seedlings growth potential to be expressed. Seedlings growth potential is influenced by the inherent genetic make-up of source material and the culture used during nursery development. If these attributes can be directed toward improving seedling growth on a reforestation site, then the potential productivity of reforestation/afforestation will be increased. Disciplines that are oriented toward improving these faces of producing high-quality seedlings are the main focus of Forest biotechnology, the main objectives of which have been: (i defining forest species through ecophysiological parameters; (ii developing advanced propagation systems through somatic embryogenesis tissue culture technology; (iii applying ecophysiological assessment techniques in supporting seedling production, improved quality and reforestation site performance. The first results, presented in this paper, have been optimistic, but still the profound studies are needed. The main benefit impacts using biotechnology methods in forestry are: (i a model of sustainable development, (ii maintaining forest biodiversity, (iii extending to new areas. As the conclusion the Commercialization of biological technologies for forest tree species promise to dramatically lower raw material costs, maximize processing efficiencies, minimize environmental impacts, and improve product performances

  6. PEDIATRIC FORMULATION OF RANITIDINE USING FROM COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TABLETS IN ALBANIA

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    Briseida Dosti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ranitidine Hydrochloride is H2 – receptor antagonist indicated for duodenal ulcer. It is used for the treatment of gastric/duodenal ulcer and GERD for both neonates and children, in respective dosage 1.5- 2mg/kg/24h, q12h and 1-5mg/kg/24h, q6-8h. For use in children is needed cutting into smaller parts to obtain appropriate units, since are missing more appropriate pharmaceuticals forms, such as liquid formulations. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of splitting ranitidine hydrochloride 150 mg tablets, in dosage for children. Prepare extemporaneous Ranitidine syrup from commercially available tablets and determine it stability. Methods: This study was conducted with three different types of ranitidine tablets, chosen based on the presence or not of the score line. For the preparation of Ranitidine syrup were pulverized tablets of Ranitidine 150 mg and suspended in base solution distilled water and simple syrup. This mixture was diluted to a total volume of 120 ml; resulting in a final ranitidine concentration of 15 mg/ml. A UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Cary 100, Varian was used to determine ranitidine concentration at wavelength 315 nm. Results: Cutting Ranitidine TBL into halves and quarters lead to large deviations. These deviations were related to the presence or not of the score line. It was shown that prepared formulations retain minimum 98% of initial Ranitidine concentration after 7 days of storage at 25°C and 4°C.

  7. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA AND THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Brikend Aziri; Izet Zeqiri; Jeton Mazllami

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades corporations have grown to become the most important and widely spread form of business organization and therefore there has been an increased interest in their study all over the world. Parallel with this there has been an increased interest in the study of corporate governance. The main purpose of this paper is not to give an extensive review of the theoretical concepts regarding corporations and corporate governance, but rather to introduce a comparative analysis of...

  8. ASSESSMENTS OF HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE URBAN SOILS: A STUDY FROM ELBASANI, ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Fatbardh Sallaku; Odeta Tota

    2011-01-01

    Soil is a complex and heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic matter, as well as different components that determine the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. There are at least 68 trace elements in soil, representing only about 0.6% of their total composition, while 12 minor and major elements —Si, Al, O, Ca, Fe, K, Ti, Mg, Mn, Na, Cr, Ni— account for the rest. However, significant local or regional imbalances (relative to gross pedological averages) may occur in t...

  9. Turner syndrome in Albania and the efficacy of its treatment with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Petrit; Babameto-Laku, Anila; Vyshka, Gentian; Gjoka, Klodiana; Minxuri, Dorina; Myrtaj, Elira; Çakërri, Luljeta

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of Turner syndrome inside the Albanian population, its clinical, cytological and genetic characteristics, the accompanying pathologies, and the efficacy of the treatment with the growth hormone. We performed a retrospective analysis of 59 patients suffering from this syndrome (aging from 5 to 23 years old). The diagnosis of female patients suffering from Turner syndrome is delayed, with a mean age at the moment of diagnosis of 13.74 years (5-23 years). The main reason for seeking medical advice was the growth retardation or a delayed puberty. Available data for 52 patients showed that the most frequent accompanying pathologies were the following: thyroid autoimmune disorders (59%), cardiovascular anomalies (43%), renal pathologies (41%), hearing impairment (4.3%) and hypertension (3.3%). Follow-up for the growth rate was possible for 52 patients out of the total of 59 patients. Twenty-five of the female patients suffering Turner syndrome and forming part of our study sample were treated with growth hormone for a period averaging 3 years and 4 months. A variety of reasons was identified as responsible for the missed treatment in 27 patients. We saw an enhanced growth (in terms of body height) within the treated subgroup, when compared with the untreated subgroup (27 patients), especially during the first 3 years of the follow-up. No side effects of this treatment were reported. Both groups of patients initiated as well a sexual hormone therapy (estrogens and progesterone) for inducing puberty at the age of 12 years. Further work is needed for an early diagnosis of this syndrome, the prompt treatment with growth hormone and the monitoring of accompanying disorders. This will ensure a better quality of life and an improvement of the longevity of patients suffering from the Turner syndrome.

  10. Coordination in the midst of chaos: the refugee crisis in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Porter

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the coordination of the aid effort, the role of NATO and, finally, whether the response to the Kosovo crisis hasstrengthened or undermined the principles of universality that govern the global provision of humanitarian assistance.

  11. Plankton Resting Stages in the Marine Sediments of the Bay of Vlorë (Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Rubino; Salvatore Moscatello; Manuela Belmonte; Gianmarco Ingrosso; Genuario Belmonte

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of the INTERREG III CISM project, sediment cores were collected at 2 stations in the Gulf of Vlorë to study the plankton resting stage assemblages. A total of 87 morphotypes were identified and produced by Dinophyta, Ciliophora, Rotifera, and Crustacea. In 22 cases, the cyst belonged to a species absent from the plankton of the same period. The most abundant resting stages were those produced by Scrippsiella species (Dinophyta). Some calcareous cysts were identified as fossil spe...

  12. Plankton Resting Stages in the Marine Sediments of the Bay of Vlorë (Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rubino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the INTERREG III CISM project, sediment cores were collected at 2 stations in the Gulf of Vlorë to study the plankton resting stage assemblages. A total of 87 morphotypes were identified and produced by Dinophyta, Ciliophora, Rotifera, and Crustacea. In 22 cases, the cyst belonged to a species absent from the plankton of the same period. The most abundant resting stages were those produced by Scrippsiella species (Dinophyta. Some calcareous cysts were identified as fossil species associated with Pleistocene to Pliocene sediment, although they were also found in surface sediments and some of them successfully germinated, thus proving their modern status. Total abundance generally decreased with sediment depth at station 40, while station 45 showed distinct maxima at 3 and 8 cm below the sediment surface. The depth of peak abundance in the sediment varied with species. This paper presents the first study of the plankton resting stages in the Bay of Vlorë. The study confirmed the utility of this type of investigation for a more correct evaluation of species diversity. In addition, the varying distribution with sediment depth suggests that this field could be of some importance in determining the history of species assemblages.

  13. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lakes Ohrid and Prespa (Macedonia/Albania border) using stable isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, M. J.; Baneschi, I.; G. Zanchetta; Jex, C.N.; Wagner, B.; H. Vogel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. Here we present stable isotope data from three sediment records from lakes that lie along the Macedonian- Albanian border (Lake Prespa: 1 core, and Lake Ohrid: 2 cores). The records only overlap for the last 40 kyr, although the longest record contains the MIS 5/6 transition (Lake Ohrid). The sedimentary characteristics of both lakes differ significantly between the glacial and interglacial phases. At the end of MIS 6 Lake Ohrid’s water level was low (high �1...

  14. Lipid biomarkers in Holocene and glacial sediments from ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Holtvoeth; H. Vogel; Wagner, B.; Wolff, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic matter preserved in Lake Ohrid sediments originates from aquatic and terrestrial sources. Its variable composition reflects climate-controlled changes in the lake basin's hydrology and related organic matter export, i.e. changes in primary productivity, terrestrial plant matter input and soil erosion. Here, we present first results from lipid biomarker investigations of Lake Ohrid sediments from two near-shore settings: site Lz1120 near the southern shore, with low-lying lands ne...

  15. Spatial variability of recent sedimentation in Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vogel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid is likely of Pliocene age and thus commonly referred to as the oldest existing lake in Europe. In this study spatial variability of recent sediment composition is assessed using >50 basin wide distributed surface sediment samples. Analysis of biogeochemical bulk parameters, selected metals, pigment concentrations as well as grain size distributions revealed a significant spatial heterogeneity in surface sediment composition. It implies that sedimentation in Lake Ohrid is controlled by an interaction of multiple natural and anthropogenic factors and processes. Major factors controlling surface sediment composition are related to differences in geological catchment characteristics, anthropogenic land use, and a counterclockwise rotating surface water current. In some instances processes controlling sediment composition also seem to impact distribution patterns of biodiversity, which suggests a common interaction of processes responsible for both patterns.

  16. A 40,000-year record of environmental change from ancient Lake Ohrid (Albania and Macedonia)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, B.; Lotter, A.F.; Norbert Nowaczyk; J. M. Reed; Schwalb, A.; Sulpizio, R.; V. Valsecchi; Wessels, M.; G. Zanchetta

    2009-01-01

    Lake Ohrid is considered to be of Pliocene origin and is the oldest extant lake in Europe. A 1,075- cm-long sediment core was recovered from the southeastern part of the lake, from a water depth of 105 m. The core was investigated using geophysical, granulometric, biogeochemical, diatom, ostracod, and pollen analyses. Tephrochronology and AMS radiocarbon dating of plant macrofossils reveals that the sediment sequence spans the past ca. 39,500 years and features a hiatus between ca. 14,600 and...

  17. Lipid biomarkers in Holocene and glacial sediments from ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holtvoeth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter preserved in Lake Ohrid sediments originates from aquatic and terrestrial sources. Its variable composition reflects climate-controlled changes in the lake basin's hydrology and related organic matter export, i.e. changes in primary productivity, terrestrial plant matter input and soil erosion. Here, we present first results from lipid biomarker investigations of Lake Ohrid sediments from two near-shore settings: Site Lz1120 near the southern shore, with flat lands nearby and probably influenced by river discharge, and site Co1202 which is close to the steep eastern slopes. Variable proportions of terrestrial n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols as well as compositional changes of ω-hydroxy acids document differences in soil organic matter supply between the sites and during different climate stages (glacial, Holocene, 8.2 ka cooling event. Changes in the vegetation cover are suggested by changes in the dominant chain length of terrestrial n-alkanols. Effective microbial degradation of labile organic matter and in situ contribution of organic matter derived from the microbes themselves are both evident in the sediments. We found evidence for anoxic conditions within the photic zone by detecting epicholestanol from sulphur-oxidising phototrophic bacteria and for the influence of an early human community from the occurrence of coprostanol, a biomarker for human and cattle faeces, in an early Holocene sample. This study illustrates the potential of lipid biomarkers for future environmental reconstructions using one of Europe's oldest continental climate archives, Lake Ohrid.

  18. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lakes Ohrid and Prespa (Macedonia/Albania border) using stable isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, M. J.; Baneschi, I.; G. Zanchetta; Jex, C.N.; Wagner, B.; H. Vogel

    2010-01-01

    Here we present stable isotope data from three sediment records from lakes that lie along the Macedonian-Albanian border (Lake Prespa: 1 core, and Lake Ohrid: 2 cores). The records only overlap for the last 40 kyr, although the longest record contains the MIS 5/6 transition (Lake Ohrid). The sedimentary characteristics of both lakes differ significantly between the glacial and interglacial phases. At the end of MIS 6 Lake Ohrid's water level was low (high δ18O

  19. Lipid biomarkers in Holocene and glacial sediments from ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Holtvoeth; H. Vogel; Wagner, B.; Wolff, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. Organic matter preserved in Lake Ohrid sediments originates from aquatic and terrestrial sources. Its variable composition reflects climate-controlled changes in the lake basin’s hydrology and related organic matter export, i.e. changes in primary productivity, terrestrial plant matter input and soil erosion. Here, we present first results from lipid biomarker investigations of Lake Ohrid sediments from two near-shore settings: site Lz1120 near the southern shor...

  20. Lipid biomarkers in Holocene and glacial sediments from ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtvoeth, J.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.; Wolff, G. A.

    2010-11-01

    Organic matter preserved in Lake Ohrid sediments originates from aquatic and terrestrial sources. Its variable composition reflects climate-controlled changes in the lake basin's hydrology and related organic matter export, i.e. changes in primary productivity, terrestrial plant matter input and soil erosion. Here, we present first results from lipid biomarker investigations of Lake Ohrid sediments from two near-shore settings: site Lz1120 near the southern shore, with low-lying lands nearby and probably influenced by river discharge, and site Co1202 which is close to the steep eastern slopes. Variable proportions of terrestrial n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols as well as compositional changes of ω-hydroxy acids document differences in soil organic matter supply between the sites and during different climate stages (glacial, Holocene, 8.2 ka cooling event). Changes in the vegetation cover are suggested by changes in the dominant chain length of terrestrial n-alkanols. Effective microbial degradation of labile organic matter and in situ contribution of organic matter derived from the microbes themselves are both evident in the sediments. We found evidence for anoxic conditions within the photic zone by detecting epicholestanol and tetrahymanol from sulphur-oxidising phototrophic bacteria and bacterivorous ciliates and for the influence of a settled human community from the occurrence of coprostanol, a biomarker for human and animal faeces (pigs, sheep, goats), in an early Holocene sample. This study illustrates the potential of lipid biomarkers for future environmental reconstructions using one of Europe's oldest continental climate archives, Lake Ohrid.

  1. Spatial variability of recent sedimentation in Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Vogel; Wessels, M.; Albrecht, C.; Stich, H.-B.; Wagner, B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. Lake Ohrid is likely of Pliocene age and thus commonly referred to as the oldest existing lake in Europe. In this study spatial variability of recent sediment composition is assessed using >50 basin wide distributed surface sediment samples. Analysis of biogeochemical bulk parameters, selected metals, pigment concentrations as well as grain size distributions revealed a significant spatial heterogeneity in surface sediment composition. It implies that sedimentat...

  2. Lipid biomarkers in Holocene and glacial sediments from ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Holtvoeth; H. Vogel; Wagner, B.; Wolff, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic matter preserved in Lake Ohrid sediments originates from aquatic and terrestrial sources. Its variable composition reflects climate-controlled changes in the lake basin's hydrology and related organic matter export, i.e. changes in primary productivity, terrestrial plant matter input and soil erosion. Here, we present first results from lipid biomarker investigations of Lake Ohrid sediments from two near-shore settings: Site Lz1120 near the southern shore, with flat lands nearby and p...

  3. The Late Holocene to Pleistocene tephrostratigraphic record of Lake Ohrid (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Benoît; Sulpizio, Roberto; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Siani, Giuseppe; Santacroce, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    We present in this work a tephrostratigraphic record from a sediment piston core (JO 2004) from Lake Ohrid. Five tephra layers were recognised, all from explosive eruptions of southern Italy volcanoes. A multidisciplinary study was carried out, including stratigraphy, AMS 14C chronology and geochemistry. The five tephra layers were correlated with terrestrial proximal counterparts and with both marine and lacustrine tephra layers already known in the central Mediterranean area. The oldest is from Pantelleria Island (P11, 131 ka BP). Other three tephra layers are from Campanian volcanoes: X6, Campanian Ignimbrite-Y5 and SMP1-Y3 (107, 39 and 31 ka BP respectively). The youngest tephra layer corresponds to the FL eruption from Etna Volcano (3.4 ka BP). In three cases these recognitions confirm previous findings in the Balkans, while two of them were for the first time recognised in the area, with a significant enlargement of the previous assessed dispersal areas.

  4. Lipid biomarkers in Holocene and glacial sediments from ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holtvoeth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter preserved in Lake Ohrid sediments originates from aquatic and terrestrial sources. Its variable composition reflects climate-controlled changes in the lake basin's hydrology and related organic matter export, i.e. changes in primary productivity, terrestrial plant matter input and soil erosion. Here, we present first results from lipid biomarker investigations of Lake Ohrid sediments from two near-shore settings: site Lz1120 near the southern shore, with low-lying lands nearby and probably influenced by river discharge, and site Co1202 which is close to the steep eastern slopes. Variable proportions of terrestrial n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols as well as compositional changes of ω-hydroxy acids document differences in soil organic matter supply between the sites and during different climate stages (glacial, Holocene, 8.2 ka cooling event. Changes in the vegetation cover are suggested by changes in the dominant chain length of terrestrial n-alkanols. Effective microbial degradation of labile organic matter and in situ contribution of organic matter derived from the microbes themselves are both evident in the sediments. We found evidence for anoxic conditions within the photic zone by detecting epicholestanol and tetrahymanol from sulphur-oxidising phototrophic bacteria and bacterivorous ciliates and for the influence of a settled human community from the occurrence of coprostanol, a biomarker for human and animal faeces (pigs, sheep, goats, in an early Holocene sample. This study illustrates the potential of lipid biomarkers for future environmental reconstructions using one of Europe's oldest continental climate archives, Lake Ohrid.

  5. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lakes Ohrid and Prespa (Macedonia/Albania border) using stable isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, M. J.; Baneschi, I.; G. Zanchetta; Jex, C.N.; Wagner, B.; H. Vogel

    2010-01-01

    Here we present stable isotope data from three sediment records from lakes that lie along the Macedonian-Albanian border (Lake Prespa: 1 core, and Lake Ohrid: 2 cores). The records only overlap for the last 40 kyr, although the longest record contains the MIS 5/6 transition (Lake Ohrid). The sedimentary characteristics of both lakes differ significantly between the glacial and interglacial phases. At the end of MIS 6 Lake Ohrid's water level was low (high δ18O...

  6. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lakes Ohrid and Prespa (Macedonia/Albania border) using stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, M. J.; Baneschi, I.; Zanchetta, G.; Jex, C. N.; Wagner, B.; Vogel, H.

    2010-10-01

    Here we present stable isotope data from three sediment records from lakes that lie along the Macedonian-Albanian border (Lake Prespa: 1 core, and Lake Ohrid: 2 cores). The records only overlap for the last 40 kyr, although the longest record contains the MIS 5/6 transition (Lake Ohrid). The sedimentary characteristics of both lakes differ significantly between the glacial and interglacial phases. At the end of MIS 6 Lake Ohrid's water level was low (high δ18Ocalcite) and, although productivity was increasing (high calcite content), the carbon supply was mainly from inorganic catchment rock sources (high δ13Ccarb). During the last interglacial, calcite and TOC production and preservation increased, progressively lower δ18Ocalcite suggest increase in humidity and lake levels until around 115 ka. During ca. 80 ka to 11 ka the lake records suggest cold conditions as indicated by negligible calcite precipitation and low organic matter content. In Lake Ohrid, δ13Corg are complacent; in contrast, Lake Prespa shows consistently higher δ13Corg suggesting a low oxidation of 13C-depleted organic matter in agreement with a general deterioration of climate conditions during the glacial. From 15 ka to the onset of the Holocene, calcite and TOC begin to increase, suggesting lake levels were probably low (high δ18Ocalcite). In the Holocene (11 ka to present) enhanced productivity is manifested by high calcite and organic matter content. All three cores show an early Holocene characterised by low δ18Ocalcite, apart from the very early Holocene phase in Prespa where the lowest δ18Ocalcite occurs at ca. 7.5 ka, suggesting a phase of higher lake level only in (the more sensitive) Lake Prespa. From 6 ka, δ18Ocalcite suggest progressive aridification, in agreement with many other records in the Mediterranean, although the uppermost sediments in one core records low δ18Ocalcite which we interpret as a result of human activity. Overall, the isotope data present here confirm that these two big lakes have captured the large scale, low frequency palaeoclimate variation that is seen in Mediterranean lakes, although in detail there is much palaeoclimate information that could be gained, especially small scale, high frequency differences between this region and the Mediterranean.

  7. Spatial variability of recent sedimentation in Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H.; Wessels, M.; Albrecht, C.; Stich, H.-B.; Wagner, B.

    2010-10-01

    Lake Ohrid is likely of Pliocene age and thus commonly referred to as the oldest existing lake in Europe. In this study spatial variability of recent sediment composition is assessed using >50 basin wide distributed surface sediment samples. Analysis of biogeochemical bulk parameters, selected metals, pigment concentrations as well as grain size distributions revealed a significant spatial heterogeneity in surface sediment composition. It implies that sedimentation in Lake Ohrid is controlled by an interaction of multiple natural and anthropogenic factors and processes. Major factors controlling surface sediment composition are related to differences in geological catchment characteristics, anthropogenic land use, and a counterclockwise rotating surface water current. In some instances processes controlling sediment composition also seem to impact distribution patterns of biodiversity, which suggests a common interaction of processes responsible for both patterns.

  8. Changes while Implementing Law-reforms and Albania as a new EU candidate country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenc Danaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Every day, scientific knowledge is growing exponentially and either researcher, nor students have the ability to keep up with literature. On the other hand, new generations of students have different views of information access from that of their older professors and no longer need to depend on professors to obtain information. However, sometimes they are unable to relate this new information to existing knowledge or to transfer it to solve novel problems. It is a challenge for medical educators to search for new pedagogical models that promote in their students the development of strong cognitive processes that allow them to select, integrate, and transfer the new learning and, therefore, to reach meaningful learning. Meaningful learning occurs when the learner interprets, relates, and incorporates new information with existing knowledge and applies the new information to solve novel problems. Meaningful learning, then, involves building multiple representations (mental models of knowledge. In medicine, meaningful learning implies that knowledge acquired by the students makes sense in their future medical practice and allows them to solve different problems In biology, meaningful learning means that the students are able to apply what they know about biology to novel situations, they are able to predict and explain the responses of a biological system if it is disturbed and sometimes to solve quantitative problems (calculate something. This is easier in the clinical setting than during basic science instruction. During the latter, students receive a great amount of information, some of which does not have direct medical application. Thus, many students in the first semester use rote memorization to acquire a large amount of information that they will forget after the exams. In this study, we addressed the following research question: does the concept mapping methodology, articulated with the mediated learning experience, increase meaningful learning in students attending to the cardiovascular module of a biology course?

  9. The organization of Food Safety marketing of small ruminants in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoje Jakaj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the period 2009-2012. The main objectives of the study are as follows: market organization and set-up, place and the distance between market and producers, respecting animal welfare standards, animals' transportation, data collection on markets (development, trends and questions. Livestock markets of five regions including Tirana, Korça, Shkodra, Milot and Shijak were at the focus of the study. The zonal estimation method was utilized for the purposes of the study. The method was applied in five markets spreading across the afore-mentioned districts. For each district 100 farmers administering 20-50 heads (animals were randomly included in the study. On average 35 heads ( ± 18 lambs and young goats were marketed by any of the above representing farmers. The period spanning in-situ market surveillance lasted for 80 days (one day/week- market day. In addition, 3 slaughtering facilities and 20 meat dispensing shops for each district -Tirana, Korça and Shkodra as well as 30 and 10 improvised selling points at Milot and Shijak areas were respectively surveyed with regard to slaughtering techniques, hygienic sanitary conditions, livestock marketing conditions etc. Alongside direct zonal assessment and contacts established with farmers, secondary data received by thew Office of Statistics (DRBUMK and MAFPC were utilized. Data was statistically processed and analyzed by way of ANOVA.The study pointed to the following findings: Marketing infrastructure is almost lacking. Slaughtering capacities in facilities are not utilized properly. Only 15 % of meat shops have refrigerators in place.

  10. Application of Sedimentologic-Geophysical Analysis for Coastal Zone Management in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaja, V. S.; Durmishi, C.; Alikaj, P.; Jata, I.

    2004-12-01

    The areas under investigation encompassing a large expense of land of south- western part of Albanian coast zone. The paper examines the Quaternary history of dual (sedimentologic models and the evaluation impact of the geological environment in expansion of ancient civilization in this region). The work presented here is result of continued study about four last years and goes on in our days. The neotectonic structure of Butrint region is consisted off horst- graben structure, E-W trending. The Quaternary formations fill the lowest part of the region and have different origins and consisted of alluvial and lagoon deposits, about 80-m thickness. The lagoonal deposits are common around Butrint lake wile ancient town (Hellenistic- Roman- Byzantine) was extended mainly on the soft Holocene sediments. The soundings data, particularly resistivity variation are the base of sedimentologic and lithological studies due to the lack of boreholes. Two cycles of sedimentation can be observed within the thickness of 40- 50m: the first, gravel and sands and second mainly of clays in upper part of the cross section. In addition to, V.E.S. data and resistivity maps point out the features of sedimentologic environment distinguishing Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, delineated of water-bearing coarse-grained sands and gravels and land-sea interaction separating salty waters areas. Based on the sedimentologic and structural factors studied and geophysical maps and cross-sections, plenty of geomorphic problems are obvious now. This studies show the evidence to the advancement of the coastline is still occurring and the shoreline is still on the move.

  11. Logistic Equation and its Application as Forecasting Model of Vegetables Production in Greenhouses in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    VALENTINA SHEHU

    2015-01-01

    Correct forecasting is of a great importance for the business and economy of the country. To comprehend the market and the economic system, mathematical models are used to describe and predict the future of situation. Agriculture is the spinal column of Albania’s economic activity and the last 20 years free market experience has given a demonstration of the high correlation between agricultural progress and the economic development. Producing greenhouse-grown vegetables can result...

  12. Albania, the human factor and sustainable development: a lesson from the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Musaraj

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of legal systems in European is one of the most important issues. This process has started by the fact that there are significant differences between the civil law and common law system and between the legal families in it. A law (at domestic or international level should not be viewed against the backdrop of the historical, political, cultural, social and economic context in which they function. In order to shed further light for our readers, we analyze by emphasizing the significant differences between the civil law and common law system on one side and the legal families that are part of the same legal system, either “Civil” or “Common,” on the other side. The Europeanization of law refers to the communization of the law by EU institutions and to a process that aims at creating a common Europe legal system. In the end, either in medium or long term, the Europeanization is contributing to the so-called non-mandatory or soft harmonization of private law. It is in the best interest of the EU to seek adequate judicial instruments to accommodate the massive numbers of laws deriving from different Civil Law and the Common law systems.

  13. The Local Resources in Albania as Instruments to Increase the Autonomy of the Local Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Oriona Mucollari

    2012-01-01

    The current Albanian Constitution (1998) defines communes and municipalities (local governments) as the basic units of local governments. Local governments are legal entities and perform all the duties of self-government, with the exception of those that the law gives to other units. There are a total of 373 local governments units, consisting of 65 municipalities and 308 communes. While municipalities govern urban areas and the communes rural areas, there is no substantive legal distinction ...

  14. The Political Parties as Organisations of Representation of the Political Rights of Individuals in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Klajdi Mone

    2014-01-01

    According to the Constitution or laws, individuals today have extensive political rights closely associated with the right to vote. Here is meant the active and passive right of voting. Membership in a party is not only because of the desire, but also for the fact that the party gives individuals the possibility of career progress, further realization of their political rights. The purpose of this paper is to present the development of political parties and individual rights, not only in Alba...

  15. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

    OpenAIRE

    Makbule Çeço

    2014-01-01

    In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of cons...

  16. Waste Identification Lean Approach in effective education system - Case of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Nilüfer Çalişkan; Akida Mulgeci

    2015-01-01

    The continuing growth and expansions incorporated with technology, has generated variations in tastes, behavior and demand. Thus the changes need management restructures to reduce the costs of adaptation. Lean principles as cost reduction orientated possess the sufficient elements to fix problems in order to reduce wastes and increase the values. The theory application can be used also in education sector in order to increase the quality and reduce the costs. Thus, the aim is to identify ...

  17. Albania: a nation of unique inter-religious tolerance and steadfast aspirations for EU integration

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Patrick Melady

    2013-01-01

    Religious freedom has been always considered as a strong indicator democracy and institutional set up in a country. Ex- communist countries in their efforts to set up a state of law and foster democracy, particularly, are more sensible toward indicators such as religious freedom, tolerance and diversity considering them strong components of their social tissue necessary to set up a functional democracy. Their past legacy and history, are strong factors influencing their present and future. An...

  18. The International School Psychology Survey: Development and Data from Albania, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece and Northern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Graydon, Kelly; Farrell, Peter; Kikas, Eve; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Boce, Eljona; Bashi, Gladiola

    2004-01-01

    Although school psychological services around the world are currently undergoing a period of rapid development, little comparative information is available about the training, roles and responsibilities of school psychologists or the contrasting contexts in which they work. Further information in this area should help new and established school…

  19. Am I an Active Citizen? Women’s Narratives of Citizenship Practices in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çela Eriada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the topic of citizenship as related to the practices of twelve Albanian women. This research utilizes literature on gender and citizenship as a framework for comparing and analysing the narratives of women who exert their political citizenship through civil society and governmental political bodies. First, this study explores the ways the interviewees perceive citizenship while analysing women’s narratives to get at their spoken and unspoken specificities. Secondly, it discusses their conceptualisations of themselves as active citizens and analyses how their expressed perceptions relate to their identification as political actors with regards to their identities as women. Thirdly, it analyses issues of relevance to women’s engagement as active citizens as they appear from women’s individual experiences of citizenship in the narratives. This research focuses on the way interviewed Albanian women perceive themselves in relation to their citizenship and what their experiences as citizens say about their self-identification as agents with a say in the issues that affect their lives.

  20. Am I an Active Citizen? Women’s Narratives of Citizenship Practices in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Çela Eriada

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the topic of citizenship as related to the practices of twelve Albanian women. This research utilizes literature on gender and citizenship as a framework for comparing and analysing the narratives of women who exert their political citizenship through civil society and governmental political bodies. First, this study explores the ways the interviewees perceive citizenship while analysing women’s narratives to get at their spoken and unspoken specificities. Secondly, it dis...

  1. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lakes Ohrid and Prespa (Macedonia/Albania border using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Leng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we present stable isotope data from three sediment records from lakes that lie along the Macedonian-Albanian border (Lake Prespa: 1 core, and Lake Ohrid: 2 cores. The records only overlap for the last 40 kyr, although the longest record contains the MIS 5/6 transition (Lake Ohrid. The sedimentary characteristics of both lakes differ significantly between the glacial and interglacial phases. At the end of MIS 6 Lake Ohrid's water level was low (high δ18Ocalcite and, although productivity was increasing (high calcite content, the carbon supply was mainly from inorganic catchment rock sources (high δ13Ccarb. During the last interglacial, calcite and TOC production and preservation increased, progressively lower δ18Ocalcite suggest increase in humidity and lake levels till around 115 ka. During ca. 80 ka to 11 ka the lake records suggest cold conditions as indicated by negligible calcite precipitation and low organic matter content. In Lake Ohrid δ13Corg are complacent, in contrast Lake Prespa shows consistently higher δ13Corg suggesting a low oxidation of 13C-depleted organic matter in agreement with a general deterioration of climate conditions during the glacial. From 15 ka to the onset of the Holocene, calcite and TOC begin to increase, suggesting lake levels were probably low (high δ18Ocalcite. In the Holocene (11 ka to present enhanced productivity is manifested by high calcite and organic matter content. All three cores show an early Holocene characterised by low δ18Ocalcite, apart from the very early Holocene phase in Prespa where the lowest δ18Ocalcite occurs at ca. 7.5 ka, suggesting a phase of higher lake level only in (the more sensitive Lake Prespa. From 6 ka δ18Ocalcite suggest progressive aridification, in agreement with many other records in the Mediterranean, although the uppermost sediments in one core records low δ18Ocalcite which we interpret as a result of human activity. Overall, the isotope data present here confirm that these two big lakes have captured the large scale, low frequency palaeoclimate variation that is seen in Mediterranean lakes, although in detail there is much palaeoclimate information that could be gained, especially small scale, high frequency differences between this region and the Mediterranean.

  2. E-Banking and its features - Albania as a special case

    OpenAIRE

    Ermela Bashuri

    2016-01-01

    The e-banking system is a system which enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions such as: balance inquiries, account transfers, bill payments and some of them offer even the possibility to make loan or credit card applications on a website operated by the institution via internet at any place or time. The e-banking is referred to as online banking or internet banking. The banks have chosen to be part of the wide world of Web in order to stay competitive in ...

  3. Compositional study of IIIrd century BC silver coins from Kreshpan hoard (Albania) using EDXRF spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental composition of 122 silver coins from a hoard of the 3rd century BC, minted by the Illyrian king Monounios and the ancient cities of Dyrrachion and Korkyra was determined by EDXRF. The results showed that the different groups of coins were made of a similar Ag-Cu alloy with Ag concentration in the range 94-98%. The examination of the contents of minor elements Pb, Au and Bi showed that the coins minted by the Illyrian king Monounios have similar composition with the largest part of Dyrrachion coins and those from Korkyra. On the other side, two subgroups containing different amounts of Au and Bi can be observed within the general group of coins minted in Dyrrachion

  4. An Evaluation of Advertising Models in Emergent Countries – The Case of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Elenica Pjero; Dritan Pjero; Aurela Bifsha; Ylldeze Sokoli; Xhiliola Agaraj (Shehu)

    2012-01-01

    The market today is confronted with cornucopia of challenges and opportunities. The unfolding scenario is being closely watched by marketers across the globe and they are competing with each other to grasp the market share. In order to win over the consumers, marketers are constantly evolving strategies. The western firms based and operating from market-based economies are progressively being confronted with the growing challenge of creating brand awareness amongst the perspective consumers. ...

  5. Social Media: Opening New Doors for the Domestic Tourism Industry in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjollca Hysi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The online word is becoming every day more and more important for the tourism industry. Through different technologies, it has made the possibility to ease the way people search and decide for their own travel destination, the way they pick their accommodation and their traveling medium. In particular the online social media, as part of the online word, has created new opportunities for interaction and communication between people. Today individuals have the opportunity to share knowledge, opinions and experiences through online communication. Also their impact goes even further by influencing the behavior of other users in the process of buying. This article will be focused on the usage of Facebook social media platform, arranging a content analysis regarding the different social media tools to engage and interact. This will serve as small step in understanding how domestic business and tourism industry are using social platforms to engage more users and increase their business performance.

  6. The new system of education and training of medical staff in radiation protection in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation as regarding the education and training of medical staff in radiological protection is discussed. In particular the protection of patients, children and pregnant women were the most sensible topics in some courses held in recent years. Emphasis is given on a number of courses and course units dealing with radiation safety problems in the medical field and their content. (author)

  7. A comparative analysis of mathematics textbooks from Kosovo and Albania based on the topic of fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Vula, Eda; Kingji-Kastrati , Jeta; Podvorica, Fitore

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the presentation of fractions in Kosovar and Albanian mathematics textbooks designed for students of one to fifth-grade. Physical characteristics of the selected textbooks, the presentation of fractions and the nature of the problems were analysed as well. Findings showed that Albanian mathematics textbooks covered more lessons on fractions than Kosovar textbooks. Textbooks from both countries focus mostly on part whole and operator construction. Also, the majority of prob...

  8. Accounting Standardization and Financial Reporting in Public Sector in Albania- Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ariana Konomi; Alketa Bejko

    2014-01-01

    The need for improving and strengthening all the links of financial reporting chain not only in private sector but also in public sector, directly contributes to overcome the 2010-2012 global crisis and helps to transform the ongoing period into a global economic growth period. The governments should implement the necessary institutional measures for public sector growth, financial management transparency and accountability.An integral and fondamental element of these agreements is the usage ...

  9. RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY IN THE WESTERN BALKANS: ALBANIA, BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA, KOSOVO AND SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela PÃCE?ILÃ

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents reviews and an analysis of the policy and support mechanisms for the promotion of renewable in the Western Balkan countries, as well as an overview of the legislation and other official documents influencing the renewable energy sector. The importance of renewable energy sources, along with key information about the countries commitments to renewable energy are also summarized. The methodology used in this article consists in studying and analysing a range of published mat...

  10. ASSESSMENTS OF HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE URBAN SOILS: A STUDY FROM ELBASANI, ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatbardh Sallaku

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a complex and heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic matter, as well as different components that determine the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. There are at least 68 trace elements in soil, representing only about 0.6% of their total composition, while 12 minor and major elements —Si, Al, O, Ca, Fe, K, Ti, Mg, Mn, Na, Cr, Ni— account for the rest. However, significant local or regional imbalances (relative to gross pedological averages may occur in the soil composition. In contrast to soils in agricultural areas, soils in urban environments, particularly in parks and gardens, have a direct influence on public health that is unrelated to production of food because they easily come into contact with humans and are transferred to them, either as suspended dust or by direct contact. Furthermore, even though urban soils are rarely used for food production, they receive higher than normal loads of contaminants from traffic and industrial activities in heavily industrialized cities. Heavy metals in soils can also generate airborne particles and dusts, which may affect the environmental air quality. Heavy metal enrichment factors have been proposed as indicators for diffuse soil contamination.

  11. The study of infectious agents of the urinary tract infections in Durrës, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Bakaj (Çizmja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are characterized by the presence of infectious agents in the genital-urinary tract that cannot be explained by contamination. These agents have the potential to invade the tissues of the urinary tract and adjacent structures. Settings and Design: Prospective study was done in the Health Directory in Durrës. Methods and Material: The study included all the patients who were admitted or visited the outpatient departments in the Health Directory and had urinary tract infection confirmed by positive urine culture reports. Results: A total 3160 urine samples were analyzed for isolation and identification of bacterial isolates. Out of which 956 (30.25% samples were found to have significant bacteriuria and remaining 2204 samples were found to have either non significant bacteriuria or very low bacterial count or sterile urine. In the present study, out of 223 isolated pathogens the most common isolate was Escherichia coli (25.89%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (2.94%, Proteus vulgaris (1.04% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.38 %. Age group most affected by Escherichia coli is 61-75 years (38.8%. Conclusions: Women are more susceptible to urinary tract infections, especially against Escherichia coli, resulting positive in 52.4% of cases; while Proteus vulgaris have a female percentage of 57.7%. This percentage increased slightly among women infected with Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 58% and low in 61.5% infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  12. Cultural relations between Hungary and Albania during the period of Humanism and Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Mala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Hungarian-Albanian relations during the Middle Ages are characterized by a relatively poor intensity. Actually, relations between these two countries are more intense in the political field and especially through the partnership between Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg and John Hunyadi. Regarding the origin, the Hungarian culture identity is rather distinct from the Albanian one. Lack of cultural contacts, among others, was conditioned also by the fact that these relations were held under war circumstances and their primary aim was the common defense from Ottoman attacks. Actually, the Albanian medieval culture remained a Mediterranean culture with elements of Byzantine influence in the continental and southern areas. Meanwhile, Hungary belonged to Central Europe, which, even though far away from Mediterranean cultural mainstream, sought to be influenced by this culture, namely by the Renaissance that emanated exactly in the Mediterranean region. It was Matthias Corvinus effort, regarding the cultural influence of the Mediterranean and Renaissance in Hungary but also the fact that Hungary possessed some of the most important towns of the Adriatic coast and particularly Ragusa. This city was the center where cultural relations between Albanian and Hungary started and became intensified in the religious, intellectual and human field.

  13. Non-Ionizing Radiation: Evaluation of General Public's Exposures in Greece and Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylli, Fatos; Karabetsos, Efthymios; Dollani, Kostandin; Koutounidis, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    With the growth of electric power generation and transmission, the development of new telecommunication systems and advances in medical and industrial applications, humans are increasingly exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The need to understand the potentially harmful effects of EMF on human health has been met by several decades of research, but the development of exposure standards is more recent and a variety of national standards now exist. A number of organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential EMF exposure. The exposure limits for EMF developed by the ICNIRP were based in large reviews of scientific literature, including thermal and non-thermal effects.

  14. Lumi Vlore project (Valona, Albania): a territorial partnership "in progress", a community workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Del Bufalo, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of Territorial Partnerships as a method of international cooperation is an emergent phenomenon of the last decade. This process has been facilitated by the creation of forms of territorial governance that include all the local actors, in part due to the action of EU community programmes as well as to the spreading of a local development culture. Human Development Programmes implemented by UN ART Initiative have shown a great capacity in galvanizing these experiences in the A...

  15. Does the Bluetongue virus circulates in cattle population of Mat district, Albania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLODIAN DEDOLLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue is a viral, infectious, non-contiguous, vector transmitted disease of ruminants animals, caused by an Orbivurus. Despite the disease is not zoonoses, it is with high economic importance and as other OIE listed disease, significantly interfere with animal health and trade. Clinically, most affected species are sheep, however cattle serve as reservoir of infection and play major role on epidemiology of disease. Presence of Blue tongue disease proved only when it is based on laboratory tests.

  16. Energy-efficient protection of UNESCO natural world heritage. Lake Ohrid, Albania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neugebauer, Thomas [Dahlem Consulting Engineers, Essen (Germany); Vallerien, Dirk [KfW Bankengruppe, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Lake Ohrid, one of the deepest and oldest lakes in Europe, is preserving a unique aquatic ecosystem with more than 200 endemic species. In order to preserve the natural resources and to improve the sanitary situation for the population, the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development is financing a sewage disposal project in Pogradec District on the Albanian lake shore. (orig.)

  17. Coordination in the midst of chaos: the refugee crisis in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Toby Porter

    1999-01-01

    This article explores the coordination of the aid effort, the role of NATO and, finally, whether the response to the Kosovo crisis hasstrengthened or undermined the principles of universality that govern the global provision of humanitarian assistance.

  18. Analysis of Consumer Awareness and Perceptions about Food Safety in Tirana, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARBEN VERÇUNI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory study based on a structured survey aimed at assessing Albanian consumer awareness about food safety assurance, standards and institutions. This paper analyzes the Albanian consumer perceptions, awareness and information about safety of food products. According to the research findings, about 30 percent of respondents perceive meat as unsafe; meanwhile 20 percent of respondents perceive dairy products as unsafe. There is a much higher distrust in relation with salami products – about 80 percent of the respondents perceive salami as unsafe. Approximately 80 percent of consumers stated that they are not aware of HACCP, 56 percent are not aware of ISO, and 52 percent do not know the institution accountable for food safety (National Food Authority. Awareness, information and promotional programs can improve consumers’ behavior with regard to food safety and reduce the public health risk.

  19. Geographical patterning of sixteen goat breeds from Italy, Albania and Greece assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmone-Marsan Paolo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SNP data of goats of three Mediterranean countries were used for population studies and reconstruction of geographical patterning. 496 individuals belonging to Italian, Albanian and Greek breeds were genotyped to assess the basic population parameters. Results A total of 26 SNPs were used, for a total of 12,896 genotypes assayed. Statistical analysis revealed that breeds are not so similar in terms of genetic variability, as reported in studies performed using different markers. The Mantel test showed a strongly significant correlation between genetic and geographic distance. Also, PCA analysis revealed that breeds are grouped according to geographical origin, with the exception of the Greek Skopelos breed. Conclusion Our data point out that the use of SNP markers to analyze a wider breed sample could help in understanding the recent evolutionary history of domestic goats. We found correlation between genetic diversity and geographic distance. Also PCA analysis shows that the breeds are well differentiated, with good correspondence to geographical locations, thus confirming the correlation between geographical and genetic distances. This suggests that migration history of the species played a pivotal role in the present-day structure of the breeds and a scenario in which coastal routes were easier for migrating in comparison with inland routes. A westward coastal route to Italy through Greece could have led to gene flow along the Northern Mediterranean.

  20. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices about public health nutrition among students of the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanda Hyska; Ehadu Mersini; Iris Mone; Entela Bushi; Edite Sadiku; Kliti Hoti; Arjan Bregu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: the aim of this survey was twofold: (i): to assess medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding nutrition in general, in order to identify their level of competences in the field of nutrition which will be useful in their future role of providers/health care professionals, and; (ii) to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the discipline of public health nutrition in order to identify the needs for improving the curriculum of this subject in all the br...

  1. Impact of human-induced threats on the activity of the otter (Lutra lutra along the Drinos valley, Southern Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ETLEVA HYSAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of human threats on the activity of the otter along the Drinos valley has been studied during the period 2010-2012. The Drinos river and its tributaries, water reservoirs, and trout fish-farms situated in the Drinos valley were included in the study. The whole 60 km Drinos river was divided in three sections based on a set of environmental factors (vegetation cover, water regime, and human disturbance. Each of the three sections was divided in 200 m long stations. In each station the presence and/or absence of human disturbance or threats were assessed, such as destruction of food sources or feeding sites, habitat destruction, water pollution, animal persecution, roads and traffic, and human interference in hydrological regime of the river. Human disturbance was present in 19.33% of the stations in the river section Kakavie-Virua, 14.00% of the stations in the river section Virua-Andon Poçi and 25.00% of the stations in the river section Andon Poçi-Vjosë. In addition, human disturbance was higher along the western riverbank of Drinos, due to proximity of the national road passing by. Results of our study reveal significant influence of the human disturbance in the activity of the otter along the Drinos river. Thus, the values of the otter marking activity along the western (more disturbed and eastern (less disturbed river banks change significantly during both maximum and minimum river flow seasons, respectively (χ2=428.7*** during maximum river flow season, and (χ2=437.3***, during the minimum river flow.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Thrombolytic Therapy, Compared with Anticoagulants Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirvete Rama

    2015-05-01

    CONCLUSIONS: SK and r-Pa are successful thrombolytics with high effectiveness. It is gained a higher survival with the thrombolytic treatments. Reteplase is well tolerated in older patients than SK, is easier to apply than Streptokinase, but has higher cost.

  3. The last glacial-interglacial cycle in Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania: testing diatom response to climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Reed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid is a site of global importance for palaeoclimate research. This study presents results of diatom analysis of a ca. 136 ka sequence, Co1202, from the northeast of the lake basin. It offers the opportunity to test diatom response across two glacial-interglacial transitions and within the Last Glacial, while setting up taxonomic protocols for future research. The results are outstanding in demonstrating the sensitivity of diatoms to climate change, providing proxy evidence for temperature change marked by glacial-interglacial shifts between the dominant planktonic taxa, Cyclotella fottii and C. ocellata, and exact correlation with geochemical proxies to mark the start of the Last Interglacial at ca. 130 ka. Importantly, diatoms show much stronger evidence in this site for warming during MIS3 than recorded in other productivity-related proxies, peaking at ca. 39 ka, prior to the extreme conditions of the Last Glacial maximum. In the light of the observed patterns, and from the results of analysis of early Holocene sediments from a second core, Lz1120, the lack of a response to Late Glacial and early Holocene warming from ca. 15–7.4 ka suggests the Co1202 sequence may be compromised during this phase. After ca. 7.4 ka, there is evidence for enhanced nutrient enrichment compared to the Last Interglacial, following by a post-Medieval cooling trend. Taxonomically, morphological variability in C. fottii shows no clear trends linked to climate, but an intriguing change in central area morphology occurs after ca. 48.7 ka, coincident with a tephra layer. In contrast, C. ocellata shows morphological variation in the number of ocelli between interglacials, suggesting climatically-forced variation or evolutionary selection pressure. The application of a simple dissolution index does not track preservation quality very effectively, underlining the importance of diatom concentration data in future studies.

  4. A paleoclimate record with tephrochronological age control for the last glacial-interglacial cycle from Lake Ohrid, Albania and Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, H.; Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Köln, Germany; Wagner, B.; Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Köln, Germany; Zanchetta, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia

    2010-01-01

    Lake Ohrid is probably of Pliocene age, and the oldest extant lake in Europe. In this study climatic and environmental changes during the last glacial-interglacial cycle are reconstructed using lithological, sedimentological, geochemical and physical proxy analysis of a 15-m-long sediment succession from Lake Ohrid. A chronological framework is derived from tephrochronology and radiocarbon dating, which yields a basal age of ca. 136 ka. The succession is not continuous, however, with a hiatus...

  5. The last glacial-interglacial cycle in Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania): testing diatom response to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J. M.; Cvetkoska, A.; Levkov, Z.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.

    2010-10-01

    Lake Ohrid is a site of global importance for palaeoclimate research. This study presents results of diatom analysis of a ca. 136 ka sequence, Co1202, from the northeast of the lake basin. It offers the opportunity to test diatom response across two glacial-interglacial transitions and within the Last Glacial, while setting up taxonomic protocols for future research. The results are outstanding in demonstrating the sensitivity of diatoms to climate change, providing proxy evidence for temperature change marked by glacial-interglacial shifts between the dominant planktonic taxa, Cyclotella fottii and C. ocellata, and exact correlation with geochemical proxies to mark the start of the Last Interglacial at ca. 130 ka. Importantly, diatoms show much stronger evidence in this site for warming during MIS3 than recorded in other productivity-related proxies, peaking at ca. 39 ka, prior to the extreme conditions of the Last Glacial maximum. In the light of the observed patterns, and from the results of analysis of early Holocene sediments from a second core, Lz1120, the lack of a response to Late Glacial and early Holocene warming from ca. 14.7-6.9 ka suggests the Co1202 sequence may be compromised during this phase. After ca. 7.4 ka, there is evidence for enhanced nutrient enrichment compared to the Last Interglacial, followed by a post-Medieval loss of diversity which is consistent with cooling, but not definitive. Taxonomically, morphological variability in C. fottii shows no clear trends linked to climate, but an intriguing change in central area morphology occurs after ca. 48.7 ka, coincident with a tephra layer. In contrast, C. ocellata shows morphological variation in the number of ocelli between interglacials, suggesting climatically-forced variation or evolutionary selection pressure. The application of a simple dissolution index does not track preservation quality very effectively, underlining the importance of diatom accumulation data in future studies.

  6. The last glacial-interglacial cycle in Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania): testing diatom response to climate

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Reed; Cvetkoska, A.; Z. Levkov; H. Vogel; Wagner, B.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Ohrid is a site of global importance for palaeoclimate research. This study presents results of diatom analysis of a ca. 136 ka sequence, Co1202, from the northeast of the lake basin. It offers the opportunity to test diatom response across two glacial-interglacial transitions and within the Last Glacial, while setting up taxonomic protocols for future research. The results are outstanding in demonstrating the sensitivity of diatoms to climate change, providing proxy evidence for tempera...

  7. The last glacial-interglacial cycle in Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania: testing diatom response to climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Reed

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid is a site of global importance for palaeoclimate research. This study presents results of diatom analysis of a ca. 136 ka sequence, Co1202, from the northeast of the lake basin. It offers the opportunity to test diatom response across two glacial-interglacial transitions and within the Last Glacial, while setting up taxonomic protocols for future research. The results are outstanding in demonstrating the sensitivity of diatoms to climate change, providing proxy evidence for temperature change marked by glacial-interglacial shifts between the dominant planktonic taxa, Cyclotella fottii and C. ocellata, and exact correlation with geochemical proxies to mark the start of the Last Interglacial at ca. 130 ka. Importantly, diatoms show much stronger evidence in this site for warming during MIS3 than recorded in other productivity-related proxies, peaking at ca. 39 ka, prior to the extreme conditions of the Last Glacial maximum. In the light of the observed patterns, and from the results of analysis of early Holocene sediments from a second core, Lz1120, the lack of a response to Late Glacial and early Holocene warming from ca. 14.7–6.9 ka suggests the Co1202 sequence may be compromised during this phase. After ca. 7.4 ka, there is evidence for enhanced nutrient enrichment compared to the Last Interglacial, followed by a post-Medieval loss of diversity which is consistent with cooling, but not definitive. Taxonomically, morphological variability in C. fottii shows no clear trends linked to climate, but an intriguing change in central area morphology occurs after ca. 48.7 ka, coincident with a tephra layer. In contrast, C. ocellata shows morphological variation in the number of ocelli between interglacials, suggesting climatically-forced variation or evolutionary selection pressure. The application of a simple dissolution index does not track preservation quality very effectively, underlining the importance of diatom accumulation data in future studies.

  8. The impact of e-readiness in the development of knowledge society; a case study of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Dafina Nazaj; Klodiana Gorica; Ermelinda Kordha

    2014-01-01

    Information Society emphasizes amount of information available and accessible. It emphasizes technology (ICT). Knowledge Societies are identified as societies where information is used and applied in various fields for learning and development. Knowledge society deals with technology which now offers many more possibilities for sharing, archiving, retrieving, combining and generating new knowledge. In a society where information and knowledge are of vital importance for the purpose of develop...

  9. Communication Technologies and the public service: Is it the case of citizens inclusion in the public service standard in Albania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Musaraj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Somalia has been one of the UN member countries who lingers from the presence of terrorist groups in its territory, that exert tremendous influence in the daily life of its society and economy. Al Shabaab is well known in the horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, for its terrorist training and strong affiliation with other terrorist groups in Nigeria and Al-Qaeda. The Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, also known as Al-Shabaab. has completely controlled the central and southern part of Somalia including some of its important sea ports, which are vital for the country’s economy. Although Ethiopian and Somali military forces attempted to rout the group in a two week war between December 2006 and January 2007, Al Shabaab, with its 14,500 militants, still continues to maintain control over strategic locations, not only in Somalia, but also throughout the horn of Africa. The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

  10. Communication Technologies and the public service: Is it the case of citizens inclusion in the public service standard in Albania?

    OpenAIRE

    Arta Musaraj; Argita Malltezi

    2012-01-01

    The Albanian challenges have been insistent not just for domestic researchers, academics, or even Albanian citizens; they pique a lot of people in different geographic positions, first of all, the European ones, because by a strong European drive Albanian progresses have been oriented. This brings a great necessity to watch very close those evolutions, processes and the impacts they have in the Albanian social tissue. At the same time, it is very important to understand what streamline has be...

  11. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious mea...

  12. Length of proceedings as standard of due process of law in the practise of the Constitutional Court of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Toska Dobjani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ECHR, as an international treaty is part of the Albanian legal system. Among international law instruments, the ECHR enjoys a privileged status in the Albanian legal system by virtue of Article 17 paragraph 2 of the Constitution according to which restrictions to human rights and freedoms cannot infringe the substance of those rights and freedoms and in no case can exceed the restrictions provided for in the ECHR. Article 1 of the Convention requires States to secure the substance of the rights to those in their jurisdiction. The effect of Article 13 is thus to require the provision of a domestic remedy to deal with the substance of an arguable complaint under the Convention and to grant appropriate relief. The scope of this paper is to analyse the effectiveness of the complaint to the Constitutional Court with regard to length of proceedings as part of due process of law in terms of proceedings during the court trial and after the process has been finalized and the final decision should be executed.

  13. Land Information System (LIS) as a tool for the regional sustainable development in the southern part of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Shpetim Tafaj; Ylli Piro; Fatbardh Sallaku

    2013-01-01

    Creation of the Land Information System integrated in the Geographical Information System (GIS) is the main objective of this article in assisting local Government for the sustainable management of land resources. Through this study it was made possible to provide a spatial database at communal level, was also carried out the study of soil and land suitability, data on land use, analysis on land use changes and agricultural land urbanization. The geographical space, in which LIS is set, which...

  14. Initial Geochemistry Data of the Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) DEEP -Site Sediment Record: The ICDP Scopsco Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Leicher, N.; Gromig, R.; Krastel, S.; Lindhorst, K.; Wilke, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ancient lakes, with sediment records spanning >1 million years, are very rare. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid on the Balkans is thought to be the oldest lake in Europe. With 212 endemic species described to date, it is also a hotspot of evolution. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, an international group of scientists, conducted a deep drilling campaign in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid). Overall, about 2,100 m of sediments were recovered from four drill sites. At the main drill site (DEEP-site) in central parts of the lake where seismic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, a total of more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered until a penetration depth of 569 m. Currently, core opening, core description, XRF and MSCL scanning, sub-sampling (16 cm resolution), and inorganic and organic geochemical as well as sedimentological analyses of the sediment cores from the DEEP site are in progress at the University of Cologne. Previous studies at Lake Ohrid have shown that interglacial periods are characterized by high TIC and TOC contents, likely associated with high contents of calcite and organic matter in the sediments. In contrast, during glacial periods negligible TIC and low TOC contents correspond to high K counts indicating enhanced supply of clastic material. Similar patterns can be observed in the biogeochemical analyses of the subsamples and in the XRF data of the DEEP site record. Following these variations on a glacial-interglacial time scale, TIC and TOC data obtained from the subsamples and from core catcher samples indicate that the DEEP site sequence provides a 1.2 million year old continuous record of environmental and climatological variability in the Balkan Region. The age control can be further improved by first findings of macroscopic tephra horizons. Peaks in K, Sr, Zr, and magnetic susceptibility might indicate the occurrence of additional cryptotephra layers in the sediment sequence.

  15. Dynamics of picophytoplankton and presence of cyanobacteria Synechoccocus in coastal waters of Durrës Bay (Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gjyli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria belonging to species Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are important components of the picophytoplankton community and present in all oceanic systems. It is reported that coastal aquatic environments are typically more highly productive and dynamic than open oceans, and their dynamics reflects the level of trophy and pollution in the specific areas. Marine water samples were collected monthly from June to October 2012 in one meter depth at sample stations of the Bay of Durrës Golem Beach (GB, Channel of Plepa (ChP, Hekurudha Beach (HB, Ex-Fuel Quay in Marine Durres Harbour (EFQ, Water Channel of Durres City (WChDC and Currila Beach (CB. Environmental factors as total chlorophyll a, temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, percent oxygen saturation, turbidity, macronutrient (N and P were measured to conclude on the level of trophy of the sampled area, and to explain the dynamics of picophytoplankton populations. The existence of Synechococcus was proved via the amplification of 16S-23S specific ribosomal DNA. Total phytoplankton and picophytoplankton DNA content were measured via spectrophotometry in order to understand the growth rate of the populations in the sampled area. The cyanobacteria Synechococcus investigated in all stations of Durres Bay, including in water bodies of (EFQ and (CB, where a high level of heavy metals is present, was confirmed. This suggests that Synechococcus populations in these areas have developed mechanisms to combat heavy metal exposure. The correlation between phytoplankton DNA content and environmental factors was strong. Stations were categorized in hypertrophic level, which might be as a result of the excessive loads of nutrients in wastewaters discharged in Durrës’s Bay.

  16. Implementation by Albania of the Acquis Communautaire on Renewable Energy, and Environment with Focus to the Energy Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dervishi, Dael

    2010-09-15

    The Energy Community aims at establishing a common regulatory framework for energy markets in contracting parties by extending the acquis communautaire of the European Union to the territories of participating countries. The Albanian Government is drafting the Law on Renewable Energy Sources. The purpose of the law is to promote a greater contribution of renewable sources of energy to the production of electricity in the domestic energy market. In this paper, I describe the policy mechanisms and the market conditions mandated by the EU directive aimed at liberalizing the electric energy market.

  17. The effect of demographic variables on the user’s behavior in the Mobile Telecommunication Market of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikollaq Terezi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the mobile operator users living in Tirana, urban area and its outskirts. The level of confidence for sampling is 95%, (p <0.05. The used methodology is implemented through interviews with experts (the employee of mobile operators, as well as, observation of the service process in general and face to face interview according to a properly designed questionnaire. The evaluation methods for approving the hypothesis are based on linear regression and ÷2 tests. This paper aims to find a significant correlation between the duration of contractual agreement and the occupation of the mobile service users. There is significant dependence between groups of age and the variables like Web-page of the operator, signal coverage and the price of 3Gservice

  18. Artificial neural networks in forecasting tourists’ flow, an intelligent technique to help the economic development of tourism in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezdemona Gjylapi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the neural network usage in the tourists’ number forecasting and to determine the trends of the future tourist inflow, thus helping tourism management agencies in making scientific based financial decisions.

  19. Tourism Development Strategies, SWOT analysis and improvement of Albania’s image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriketa Vladi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Albania has a range of historical, natural and cultural potentials. The marketing strategiesprepared with the aim to create and develop Albania’s tourism and at what stage is theimage of Albania is the subject of this paper. I considered necessary also to conduct aSWOT analysis on tourism development strategies and communication of Albania as atourist destination.Keywords: Albania, Tourism Communication, Image Management, Destination Branding,Marketing Strategies.

  20. The evolution of administrative law in Albania and the impact of the decisions of the European Court of Justice in the Albanian legal reforms in administrative justice

    OpenAIRE

    Monika MEÇA

    2014-01-01

    The selection of the thesis was generally motivated by the lack of legal treatise focused in the arguments of Administrative Court importance in Albanian Judicial system as a new judicial structure, whose role would be to check the legality of decisions of the state administration with the aim to guarantee effective protection of human rights and legitimate interests of private persons through a regular, conform, fast and reasonable judicial process. The aim of this study is to describe th...

  1. Second world war, communism and post-communism in Albania, an equilateral triangle of a tragic trans-Adriatic story. The Eftimiadi’s Saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Muner

    2014-01-01

    The paper highlights the need to consider past models of social solidarity meanwhile renewing the actual one. This as a re-establishment of rule and understanding, a strategy to cope with pressures to renegotiate the social contract, as a universal need, by considering the past’s experiences as a firm base for successful social interaction. All this, inside a story which in the first look seems to be too personal and narrow, meanwhile it highlights the present and the past in a natural organic connection, dedicated to a nation in continuous struggle for its social reconstruction.

  2. Investigation of Sediment Transport Mechanisms in the Durres Gulf – Albania Using Radiotracers [Case Study: Radiotracer Applications for Investigation of Bedload Transport of Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiotracer study had the following objectives: • to clarify the mechanism and to obtain quantitative results regarding the sediment transport in the gulf of Durres; • to find the sediment transport direction and quantity in the vicinity of the access channel of Durres port; • to determine the sediment quantity deposed every year in the channel

  3. Spatial variability of recent sedimentation in Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia) - a complex interplay of natural and anthropogenic factors and their possible impact on biodiversity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H.; Wessels, M.; Albrecht, C.; Stich, H.-B.; Wagner, B.

    2010-05-01

    Lake Ohrid is likely of Pliocene age and thus commonly referred to as the oldest existing lake in Europe. In this study spatial variability of recent sediment composition is assessed using >50 basin wide distributed surface sediment samples. Analysis of biogeochemical bulk parameters, selected metals, pigment concentrations as well as grain size distributions revealed a significant spatial heterogeneity in surface sediment composition. It implies that sedimentation in Lake Ohrid is controlled by an interaction of multiple natural and anthropogenic factors and processes. Major factors controlling surface sediment composition are related to differences in geological catchment characteristics, anthropogenic land use, and a counter-clockwise rotating surface water current. In some instances processes controlling sediment composition also seem to impact distribution patterns of biodiversity, which suggests a common interaction of processes responsible for both patterns.

  4. Spatial variability of recent sedimentation in Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia) – a complex interplay of natural and anthropogenic factors and their possible impact on biodiversity patterns

    OpenAIRE

    H. Vogel; Wessels, M.; Albrecht, C.; H.-B. Stich; Wagner, B.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Ohrid is likely of Pliocene age and thus commonly referred to as the oldest existing lake in Europe. In this study spatial variability of recent sediment composition is assessed using >50 basin wide distributed surface sediment samples. Analysis of biogeochemical bulk parameters, selected metals, pigment concentrations as well as grain size distributions revealed a significant spatial heterogeneity in surface sediment composition. It implies that sedimentation in Lake Ohrid is control...

  5. Age depth-model for the past 630 ka in Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) based on cyclostratigraphic analysis of downhole gamma ray data

    OpenAIRE

    H. Baumgarten; T. Wonik; Tanner, D. C.; A. Francke; Wagner, B.; G. Zanchetta; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.; Nomade, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the gamma ray fluctuations from downhole logging data obtained in the sediments of Lake Ohrid from 0 to 240 m below lake floor. These variations in gamma ray and potassium values strongly correlate with fluctuations in global δ18O values and can be thus considered a reliable proxy to depict glacial–interglacial cycles, with high clastic input during cold and/or drier periods and high carbonate precipitation during the warm and/or humid periods in L...

  6. Sedimentary and Neotectonic History of Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia):Acquisition and Interpretation of New Hydro-Acoustic and Seismic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhorst, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Ancient Lake Ohrid an oligotrophic lake is probably the oldest existing lake in Europe. It is located on the Balkan Peninsula within the Dinaride-Albanide-Hellenide mountain belt, and is often referred to as a hotspot of endemic biodiversity. This study sheds light on the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Lake Ohrid based on newly-acquired hydro-acoustic and seismic data sets. It testifies the importance of Lake Ohrid as a valuable archive susceptible to provide a continuous sediment ...

  7. Age–depth model of the past 630 kyr for Lake Ohrid (FYROM/Albania) based on cyclostratigraphic analysis of downhole gamma ray data

    OpenAIRE

    H. Baumgarten; T. Wonik; Tanner, D. C.; A. Francke; Wagner, B.; G. Zanchetta; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.; Nomade, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma ray (GR) fluctuations and potassium (K) values from downhole logging data obtained in the sediments of Lake Ohrid from 0 to 240 m below lake floor (b.l.f). correlate with fluctuations in δ18O values from the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005). GR and K values are considered a reliable proxy to depict glacial–interglacial cycles, with high clastic input during cold and/or drier periods and high carbonate precipitation during warm and/or humid p...

  8. Spatial variability of recent sedimentation in Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia – a complex interplay of natural and anthropogenic factors and their possible impact on biodiversity patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vogel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid is likely of Pliocene age and thus commonly referred to as the oldest existing lake in Europe. In this study spatial variability of recent sediment composition is assessed using >50 basin wide distributed surface sediment samples. Analysis of biogeochemical bulk parameters, selected metals, pigment concentrations as well as grain size distributions revealed a significant spatial heterogeneity in surface sediment composition. It implies that sedimentation in Lake Ohrid is controlled by an interaction of multiple natural and anthropogenic factors and processes. Major factors controlling surface sediment composition are related to differences in geological catchment characteristics, anthropogenic land use, and a counter-clockwise rotating surface water current. In some instances processes controlling sediment composition also seem to impact distribution patterns of biodiversity, which suggests a common interaction of processes responsible for both patterns.

  9. The status of the Civil Servant and Rules of Ethics in Public Administration efficacy in preserving the integrity of civil servants and preventing corruption: the case of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Eralda Çani

    2011-01-01

    Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative wa...

  10. Development of Higher Education in Albania: The Case of the Public University Libraries in Efforts to Build Digital and Electronic Services for the Academic Community

    OpenAIRE

    Erena Haska

    2013-01-01

    Between the obligation of carrying out their mission to ensure the quality development of higher education and the right to function as important centers where knowledge is taken, developed and transmitted, this paper will examine the technological developments of university libraries as an important part of higher education. Digital and electronic experiences applied in Albanian universities libraries will be brought to the attention of the public. This paper is based on the questionnaire su...

  11. Age depth-model for the past 630 ka in Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania based on cyclostratigraphic analysis of downhole gamma ray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Baumgarten

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the gamma ray fluctuations from downhole logging data obtained in the sediments of Lake Ohrid from 0 to 240 m below lake floor. These variations in gamma ray and potassium values strongly correlate with fluctuations in global δ18O values and can be thus considered a reliable proxy to depict glacial–interglacial cycles, with high clastic input during cold and/or drier periods and high carbonate precipitation during the warm and/or humid periods in Lake Ohrid. Spectral analysis (sliding window was applied to investigate the climate signal and their evolution over the length of the borehole. Linking the downhole logging data with orbital cycles was used to estimate sedimentation rates, which shift from 45 cm ka−1 between 0 to 110 m to 30 cm ka−1 from 110 to 240 m below lake floor. The effect of compaction was compensated for. Sedimentation rates increase on average by 14% after decompaction of the sediment layers. Tuning of minima and maxima in gamma ray and potassium values vs. LR04 minima and maxima, in combination with eight independent tephrostratigraphical tie points, allows the establishment of a robust age model for the downhole logging data over the past 630 ka in Lake Ohrid.

  12. The Inhibitory Role Of Natural Conditions In The Use Of Space And Regulation Of Rural Territories In The Region Of Gjirokastra In The Southern Of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Sinani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In rural area the impact of natural conditions on the use of space, production activities and ways of life is permanent and more sensitive than in urban space. The degree of impact depends on the particulars of building land, relief, climate, hydrographs, land, flora, fauna and level of development of society, which says the size and way of human intervention in the environment. As part of the Mediterranean space, Gjirokastra, with mountainous relief and climate caprices, is very exposed to the influence of natural factors.

  13. Tectonic evolution and chrono-stratigraphy of sediments in Lake Ohrid Basin (Macedonia/Albania) revealed by multichannel seismic and bathymetric data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Reicherter, K. R.; Stipp, M.; Wagner, B.; Schwenk, T.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Ohrid located on the Balkan Peninsula is probably the oldest existing lake in Europe and is often referred to as a hotspot of endemic biodiversity. Here we present the analysis of multichannel seismic cross sections and bathymetric data demonstrating the importance of Lake Ohrid as a valuable sedimentary archive within the terrestrial Mediterranean region. According to our data Lake Ohrid formed in two main deformation phases such as a transtensional phase opening up a pull-apart basin in Late Miocene and an extensional phase since the Pliocene leading to the present geometry. The early stage geometry of the basin has a typical rhomboidal shape restricted by two sets of major normal faults. The location of the basin initiation coincides with the greatest depth of the acoustic basement that is now covered by more than 700 m of undisturbed sediments. Numerous faults are present in the northern area offsetting syn-tectonic sediments, thus confirming the hypothesis that Lake Ohrid Basin is still experiencing extension. Seismic stratigraphic interpretation revealed a succession of fluvial deposits overlying the pre-rift basement. The majority of the entire sedimentary infill is interpreted as deep lacustrine sediments. A chrono-stratigraphic scheme developed for undisturbed lacustrine sediments back to an age of 430 kyr indicate that the sediments document glacial and interglacial cycles back to Marine Isotope Stage 12. A refined calculation on the basis of our new data set revealed a limnological age of at least 2 Myr for Lake Ohrid. Mass wasting deposits are widespread in Lake Ohrid at different stratigraphic levels of the basin. Slide deposits, in general are present adjacent to major fault structures suggesting that they are seismically triggered. A mass wasting deposited along the Lini Fault in the NW-part can be linked to the 518 AD earthquake that destroyed the city of Ohrid. The Udenisht Slide Complex (USC) in the southwestern part of the lake is the largest slide identified in Lake Ohrid. First age estimations suggest that the USC is less than 1,500 years old. Although the volume of the USC (~0.11 cbkm) is well within the range of landslide volumes capable to trigger tsunamis, detailed analysis of our data suggests that no major tsunami was triggered by this slide.

  14. The integrity of elections in Albania as a duality between the law and their administration. Electoral management body in the circle of cause – effect for elections performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kryemadhi

    2014-07-01

    What is important to note, is that despite challenges, the body in charge of the administration of the voting process showed integrity and willingness to respect the law and universal suffrage rights, answering to the key question: Did these elections met the international standards of electoral integrity?

  15. The management of human resource in the local goverment through the presentation of the status of application of civil service in the Republic of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Julejda Gerxhi

    2010-01-01

    The social sciences have inherited a not so clear relationship with the social politics throughout the history. At the first moment the concept of social sciences came into use in the 19th century the first organizations that were promoting them were not located in the universities. They were located in the Public Sector. They brought into the scenery not only professional of the area, but also politicians, clerics and businessmen. The main objective was the promoting of the reforms that cons...

  16. Integration of historical aerial and satellite photos, recent satellite images and geophysical surveys for the knowledge of the ancient Dyrrachium (Durres, Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfitana, Daniele; Shehi, Eduard; Masini, Nicola; Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of an integrated multidiscipliary research project concerning the urban area of the modern Durres (ancient Dyrrachium). Here a joint Italian and Albanian researcher are starting preliminary investigations on the place of an ancient roman villa placed in the urban centre of the modern town. In a initial phase are offering interesting results the use of a rich multitemporal remote sensing data-set, historical aerial photos of 1920s and 1930s, photos of USA spy satellites of 1960s and 1970s (Corona KH-4A and KH-4B), and very high resolution satellite imagery. The historical aerial documentation is very rich and includes aerial photogrammetrich flights of two Italian Institutions: the private company SARA - Società Anonima Rilevamenti Aerofotogrammetrici in Rome (1928) and the IGM - Istituto Geografico Militare (1936, 1937 e 1941), which flew on Durres for purposes of cartographic production and military. These photos offer an image of the city before the urban expansion after the Second World War and in recent decades, progressively documented by satellite images of the 1960s-1970s and recent years. They enable a reconstruction of the ancient topography of the urban area, even with the possibility of detailed analysis, as in the case of the the Roman villa, nowadays buried under a modern garden, but also investigated with a GPR survey, in order to rebuild its plan and contextualize the villa in relation to the urban area of the ancient Dyrrachium.

  17. Legal issues on subsidies of endangered animal breeds in Albania and their need for improvement in light of international and EU legislations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Kume

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian legislation treats partially and as separate matters issues related to subsidies for endangered animal breeds. In order to approximate this legislation with the international and EU member states one, these issues are to be treated and developed as integral part of agriculture and sustainable rural development legislation. This legislation should clarify specifically the concept of animal breed that may be subject to subsidise. A legal framework should be developed in order to create and update the “Red Book” for endangered animal breeds. The legislation should define the criteria and the methodological principles, according to which the subsidy measures for animal breeds at risk are to be assessed. The subsidy should aim to reduce financial losses caused by raising these breeds.

  18. Corruption and legal certainty; the case of Albania and the Netherlands Implementation of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption in a transitional and consolidated democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peçi, Idlir; Sikkema, E.

    2010-01-01

    A discrepancy in corruption levels may be observed between Western European states and the post-communist states of Central and (South) Eastern Europe. In order to find out whether this discrepancy corresponds with a discrepancy in legal provisions, we embarked upon a comparative exercise aimed at e

  19. Analysis of the spatio-temporal and semantic aspects of land-cover/use change dynamics 1991-2001 in Albania at national and district levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Louisa J M; Carrai, Giancarlo; Morandini, Luca; Cerutti, Paolo O; Spisni, Andrea

    2006-08-01

    In the turmoil of a rapidly changing economy the Albanian government needs accurate and timely information for management of their natural resources and formulation of land-use policies. The transformation of the forestry sector has required major changes in the legal, regulatory and management framework. The World Bank financed Albanian National Forest Inventory project provides an analysis of spatially explicit land-cover/use change dynamics in the period 1991-2001 using the FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System for codification of classes, satellite remote sensing and field survey for data collection and elements of the object-oriented geo-database approach to handle changes as an evolution of land-cover/use objects, i.e. polygons, over time to facilitate change dynamics analysis. Analysis results at national level show the trend of natural resources depletion in the form of modifications and conversions that lead to a gradual shift from land-cover/use types with a tree cover to less dense tree covers or even a complete removal of trees. Policy failure (e.g., corruption, lack of law enforcement) is seen as the underlying cause. Another major trend is urbanisation of areas near large urban centres that change urban-rural linkages. Furthermore, after privatisation agricultural areas increased in the hills where environmental effects may be detrimental, while prime agricultural land in the plains is lost to urbanisation. At district level, the local variability of spatially explicit land-cover/use changes shows different types of natural resources depletion. The distribution of changes indicates a regional prevalence, thus a decentralised approach to the natural resources management could be advocated.

  20. Age-depth model of the past 630 kyr for Lake Ohrid (FYROM/Albania) based on cyclostratigraphic analysis of downhole gamma ray data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, H.; Wonik, T.; Tanner, D. C.; Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.; Nomade, S.

    2015-12-01

    Gamma ray (GR) fluctuations and potassium (K) values from downhole logging data obtained in the sediments of Lake Ohrid from 0 to 240 m below lake floor (b.l.f). correlate with fluctuations in δ18O values from the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005). GR and K values are considered a reliable proxy to depict glacial-interglacial cycles, with high clastic input during cold and/or drier periods and high carbonate precipitation during warm and/or humid periods at Lake Ohrid. Spectral analysis was applied to investigate the climate signal and evolution over the length of the borehole. Linking downhole logging data with orbital cycles was used to estimate sedimentation rates and the effect of compaction was compensated for. Sedimentation rates increase on average by 14 % after decompaction of the sediment layers and the mean sedimentation rates shift from 45 cm kyr-1 between 0 and 110 m to 30 cm kyr-1 from 110 to 240 m b.l.f. Tuning of minima and maxima of gamma ray and potassium values versus LR04 extrema, in combination with eight independent tephrostratigraphical tie points, allows establishing of a robust age model for the downhole logging data over the past 630 kyr.

  1. The reflective philosophy of European integration - European identity and the transition of post-communist societies. The case of Albania. Aspects of Political Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Leka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In my contribution I want to investigate, from a theoretical point of view but also with methodological and practical consequences, the qualitative role of metaphor in social research. As tool able to improve and facilitate the visualization of complex ideas and states of mind, this rhetorical figure permits to obtain more information from interviewed people about topics hard to access in common interviews. This goal can be achieved by the build of the so called “tomen”, an artifact/experience design created by the subject(s interviewed which represents a gate point from which explore hidden dimensions, individual as diffused. Furthermore, the metaphor offers a strong link to another concept that now in sociology needs an operative dimension, the game: a buzz word that I intend as social frame of experience positioned in an artificial setting, a “magic circle”, able to represent in its operations a collective metaphor which gives us enormous possibilities to configure and set the ground of analysis.

  2. Electromagnetic fields levels measurement in the vicinity of Vodafone's cellular base stations located in the cities of Tirana, Durres and Librazhd in Albania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, B.; Arapi, S. [Institute of Public Health, Tirana (Albania). Radiation Protection Office

    2004-07-01

    The instrument can record and store instantaneous, maximum and mean values of electric and magnetic field values. According to all European and international standards, the measured values in the frequency range 100 kHz - 10 GHz should be expressed in any 6 minute time period. In the measuring set up used, aquisition, storage and processing of the measurements data is controlled with portable pc via a double optical interface and a special software. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of the spatio-temporal and semantic aspects of land-cover/use change dynamics 1991-2001 in Albania at national and district levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Louisa J M; Carrai, Giancarlo; Morandini, Luca; Cerutti, Paolo O; Spisni, Andrea

    2006-08-01

    In the turmoil of a rapidly changing economy the Albanian government needs accurate and timely information for management of their natural resources and formulation of land-use policies. The transformation of the forestry sector has required major changes in the legal, regulatory and management framework. The World Bank financed Albanian National Forest Inventory project provides an analysis of spatially explicit land-cover/use change dynamics in the period 1991-2001 using the FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System for codification of classes, satellite remote sensing and field survey for data collection and elements of the object-oriented geo-database approach to handle changes as an evolution of land-cover/use objects, i.e. polygons, over time to facilitate change dynamics analysis. Analysis results at national level show the trend of natural resources depletion in the form of modifications and conversions that lead to a gradual shift from land-cover/use types with a tree cover to less dense tree covers or even a complete removal of trees. Policy failure (e.g., corruption, lack of law enforcement) is seen as the underlying cause. Another major trend is urbanisation of areas near large urban centres that change urban-rural linkages. Furthermore, after privatisation agricultural areas increased in the hills where environmental effects may be detrimental, while prime agricultural land in the plains is lost to urbanisation. At district level, the local variability of spatially explicit land-cover/use changes shows different types of natural resources depletion. The distribution of changes indicates a regional prevalence, thus a decentralised approach to the natural resources management could be advocated. PMID:16770509

  4. eGovernment for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tuka, Stela

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses in development of e-government in developing countries - case of Albania. It firstly includes an overview of concept of e-Government and its implementation in Europe, as well as, efficient examples in European countries. In the practical part, firstly, a research of recent e-government development in Albania has been conducted. It continues with first level comparison of e – government in a Southern Europe country – Albania and Central Europe Country – Czech Republic. Afte...

  5. Monthly Report No. 11/2012

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov; Peter Havlik; Mario Holzner; Olga Pindyuk; Hermine Vidovic

    2012-01-01

    Eurozone crisis and fiscal austerity push half of the CESEE region into recession (by Vasily Astrov; pp. 1-3) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP growth, inflation Countries covered Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine Topics Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy Albania EU, ho! (conditionally) (by Mario Holzner; pp. 4-6) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP growth, inflation Countries covered Albania Topics Macroeconomic Analysis and Polic...

  6. 15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... among: Albania, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia,...

  7. 75 FR 77561 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Herzegovina, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein,...

  8. Results of Measurement of Natural Radioactivity of Sediments – Gulfs of Vlora and Dures - Albania [Case Study: Natural Radioactivity of Coastal Sediments as “Tracer” in Dynamic Sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radiometric survey of the sediments of sea bottom provided some qualitative sediment transport features, characteristics and parameters similar with those obtained with radiotracers, in particular the resultant direction and mechanism of sediment transport were made evident. This simple and low cost technique can be used for sediment transport studies as complementary to other techniques. The radiometric survey of the sediments of sea bottom and beaches in the gulfs of Vlora and Durres has provided the following major conclusions: Vlora 1. Waves coming from the west move sends normal to the beach line. The influence of waves of this sector is up to depth 15 m, where is the boundary between sand and silt. Durres 1. There was not any visible granulometric selection of sea bottom sediments in the gulf of Durres. 2. There was an indication of sediment transport trend from south to the north of the gulf under the influence of waves coming from the south sector. 3. There was evidence of silting process, in particular in the first part of the navigation channel near the harbor

  9. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: the ICDP SCOPSCO project

    OpenAIRE

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike

    2015-01-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site “DEEP” in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be...

  10. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: The ICDP SCOPSCO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Thomas, Wonik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Roberto, Sulpizio; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site "DEEP" in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be more than 1.2 Ma old and likely covers the entire lacustrine deposits of the Lake Ohrid Basin. Currently, an age model for the upper 260m of the DEEP- site sequence is available. This age model is based on chronological tie points (tephrochronology), and wiggle matching of down hole logging data and (bio-)geochemistry data (XRF, TIC, TOC) from the core sequence to the global benthic stack LR04 and local insolation patterns. The data suggests that the upper 260 m of the DEEP-site sequence corresponds to the time period between the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) and present days. During this period, the sedimentological properties of the sediments show a strong dependency on environmental variability in the area. Interglacial deposits appear massive or marbled, contain up to 80 % of CaCO3 (high TIC), high amounts of organic matter (high TOC) and biogenic silica (high BSi), and low contents of clastic material. Glacial deposits are predominantly marbled and calcite is generally absent. Similarly, the amounts of organic matter and biogenic silica are low, and glacial sediments predominately consist of clastic matter. Distinct layers of siderite and uniformly distributed Fe- or Mn- oxides occur in the glacial deposits, vivianite concretions occur in both the glacial and interglacial periods. High CaCO3 contents in deposits formed during warm (interglacial) periods are also known from studies on short pilot cores from Lake Ohrid and are triggered by increased productivity in the lake, such as also indicated by enhanced contents of organic matter and biogenic silica. Thereby, CaCO3 precipitation is caused by photosynthesis induced calcite precipitation during algae blooms in spring and early summer. Negligible contents of TIC in deposits formed during glacial periods can be explained by an overall low productivity (low TOC and BSi) and, in addition, by dilution of CaCO3. Dilution of CaCO3 might be a result of more acid bottom water conditions, triggered by improved mixing conditions (less thermal stratification), oxidation of OM and CO2 release from the surface sediments. Oxygenated surface sediments and degradation of organic matter are indicated by the marbled structure of the glacial sediments implying intensive bioturbation, and by TOC/TN ratios around 4, respectively. The high amount of clastic material in deposits from cold (glacial) periods can be a result of mutual dilution with calcite, organic matter and biogenic silica, but might also indicate more intensive erosion in the catchment due to a less dense vegetation cover.

  11. A lexander, F rankenstein and regular days in the life of a B alkan archaeologist. T he experience of the G reek – A lbanian A rchaeological E xpedition at P respa (Albania , in the years 2009 – 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros OIKONOMIDIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a short account of how archaeology and archaeologists could become protagonists of a political psychodrama, very common in an ancient land like the Balkans. Old and rich heritages often are responsible for the bad relations occurred among people who in reality have nothing to divide except from the ghosts of presumed anci ent ancestors. Alexander described here is not the King of Macedonia and Asia but his Frankensteinish version, which was created, fed and grown like a Prague‟s Golem in order to be used as a puppet in the hands of able manipulators. The case of the Greek – Albanian Archaeological Expedition on the island of Maligrad, in the Tri – National zone of Prespa, is given as an example of how things work some times in our days, in places which have never been something else than “grey zones” on the map. The case of the “recent” discovery of the Macedonian tomb at Amphipolis, Greece, is given here as a counter balance to the case of Maligrad. The polemic of the article is not focusing on cultural or demographic minorities of any place in the Balkans but on the ill use of our common historical heritage by political authorities.

  12. Arnavutluk'ta Enver Hoca Dönemi İnsan Hakları ve Özgürlükler(1945-1985 Humanrights and Freedom in Albania Under Enver Hoxha Period(1945-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ÖZKAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human rights are the basic rights of people which have been born from the first days of humanity. According to Jean Jacques Rousseua, getting read of freedom means getting read of all values of humanbeings. It is almost imposible to think this kind of giving up of human rights and freedom. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the EuroeanConvention on Human Rights both generally comprises rights andfreedom, prohibition of torture, slavery, forced labor, freedom, the rightto a fair tail, legal penalties, private and family life, freedom of opinion,speech, religio and conscrence.In this essay, Enver Hoxha was subjected to value himself and hisperiod on ten different areas of human rights and freedom. Comperingthe human rights and freedom of Enver Hoxha’s to the other Balkanand Eastern European States, it is seen that there is a little e diferenceat that time.Enver Hoxha rescued his country from the invaderes country andruled it forty years without any gap. What makes different is that EnverHoca never accepts human rights and freedom although he was themost educated and enlightened man among the dictatorships in theworld at that time. The main reason of this is that Enver Hoca wants tolimit the human rights and freedom or to control all these rights.Additionally, it is well known that Markist Leninist İdeology andStalinist Opinion is a kind of structure in which you can not findfreedom and human rights. İnsan hakları insanlık tarihinin başlamasıyla birlikte doğan ve insanlığın gelişimiyle birlikte ilerleme gösteren en temel haklardır. Jean Jacques Rousseau’ya göre, insan için hürriyetinden vazgeçmek, insanlık sıfatından, insanlığın haklarından hatta görevlerinden vazgeçmek demektir. Böyle bir vazgeçmenin insan tabiatı ile bağdaşması mümkün değildir İnsan Hakları Evrensel Bildirisi ve Avrupa İnsan Hakları Sözleşmesi genel olarak haklar ve özgürlükler, işkence yasağı, kölelilik ve zorla çalıştırma, özgürlük ve güvenlik hakları, adil yargılanma hakkı, cezaların yasallığı, özel ve aile hayatının korunması, düşünce, ifade, din ve vicdan özgürlükleriyle vb. gibi ilgili hususları içermektedir. Çalışmada Enver Hoca dönemi insan hakları ile ilgili on konuda değerlendirilmiştir. Enver Hoca İkinci Dünya Savaşı’nda ülkesini işgalci güçlerden kurtarmış ve ülkesini 1945-1985 yılları arasında kesintisiz kırk yıl yönetmiştir. Enver Hoca döneminde insan hakları ve özgürlükler diğer Balkan ve Doğu Avrupa ülkeleri ile aynı dönem süresince kıyaslandığında aslında çok farklı olmadığı görülmüştür. Enver Hoca’yı bu konuda farklı kılan husus ise O’nun emsalleri arasında en okumuş lider olmasına rağmen söz konusu hak ve özgürlükleri hiçe sayması olmuştur. Bunun en temel nedeni ise Enver Hoca’nın iktidarının garantisi olarak bu hak ve özgürlüklerin kısıtlanması veya tamamen kendi kontrolü altında olmasını istemek gelmektedir. Ayrıca takip ettiği Marksist-Leninist İdeoloji ile Stalinist düşünce insan haklarına ve özgürlüklere yer vermeyen yapıya sahiptir.

  13. Climate Vulnerability Assessments : An Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability, Risk, and Adaptation in Albania’s Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Energy security is a key concern in Albania, which relies on hydropower for about 90 percent of its electricity production. While renewable energy resources like hydropower play a fundamental role in moving the world towards a low-carbon economy, they are also vulnerable to climatic conditions. Climate variability already affects Albania's energy production to a considerable extent, and cl...

  14. Why Foreign Direct Investment- Albanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Luçi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among other financial inflows, foreign direct investment makes a major stimulus to economic growth in many developing countries. The ability to deal with two major obstacles, namely, the shortages of financial resources and the lack of technology and skills, has put foreign direct investments in the centre of attention for policy-makers, particularly in developing countries. Albania is committed to maintaining an open environment for investments. This is vital for a long-term and sustainable economic growth. As a lowsavings developing economy, with high domestic investment requirements, Albania needs to attract foreign direct investment in order to support domestic investment financing requirements. However, Albania has not been successful in obtaining substantial and consistent FDI inflows. Furthermore, the meagre inflows that the country has received have not been utilized appropriately to enhance the economic performance. The type of FDI and its structural composition matter as much for economic growth. This paper reviews the recent evidence on the scale of FDI to Albania. The paper reviews also some of the main areas of the existing policy framework for inward FDI in Albania among the major factors determining foreign companies' decisions to invest in Albania. We discuss these issues and try to make the case for a more coherent, harmonized and transparent framework to cover all foreign direct investment into Albania. The regulation of inward investment is one of several policy and institutional variables likely to influence the volume of FDI.

  15. The juridical nature of the European Court of Justice and the principles of its activity

    OpenAIRE

    Vilma Hasneziri

    2015-01-01

    The European Union is a reality closer and closer for Albania as well. The status Albania obtained as a candidate country, not only means a step forward towards the European Union, but it also sets forth a number of challenges to be solved such as, freedom, property, democracy, human rights, the fight against organized crime and corruption etc. Under these circumstances, the analysis of the issues that have to do with the European Union is of a great importance, as in the near future, Albania...

  16. 15 CFR 742.6 - Regional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands... completed product that will be distributed only in Albania, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,...

  17. Geologic provinces of Europe including Turkey, 2000 (prv4_2l)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of Europe including Turkey. (Albania,...

  18. Faults of Europe including Turkey (flt4_2l)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs that describe faults found in the surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and...

  19. Hamsi scoring in the prediction of unfavorable outcomes from tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Ozturk-Engin, Derya; Tireli, Hulya;

    2015-01-01

    Predicting unfavorable outcome is of paramount importance in clinical decision making. Accordingly, we designed this multinational study, which provided the largest case series of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). 43 centers from 14 countries (Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, ...

  20. Reflections on e-Learning Readiness in Albanian Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezmolda Barolli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays e-Learning has been identified to be the future of learning worldwide since the very powerful platform of the Internet has accelerated the speed of communication. Adoption of e-learning has become the latest trend across universities all over the world. Albania is part of a global shift from material resources to knowledge and intellectual resources as the basis for economic growth. Educators across Albania are aware that students must have an education that enables the students to participate successfully in and contribute to the knowledge economy. E-Learning readiness is an initial part of e- Learning development. In order to benefit from e-learning, higher education institutions in Albania should conduct considerable up-front analysis to assess their readiness. In this paper we are trying to examine the status of e-Learning readiness in Albania, analyzing and discussing several components and criteria based on literature.

  1. The Influence of Motivational Factors on the Romanian Passenger Car Consumer Behavior after the Start of the Current Economic Crisis – an Explorative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina ARITON (BALAU)

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management in Albania has received little attention in the recent literature. Many companies now realize that actions taken by one member of the chain can influence the profitability of all others in the chain. Companies are increasingly thinking in terms of competing as part of a supply chain against other supply chains, rather than as a single firm against other individual firms. The aim of the paper is to investigate the current situation of supply chain management in Albania ...

  2. The approach towards gay marriage in the Albanian legislation and society

    OpenAIRE

    Xhensila Kadi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to address the phenomena of homosexuality in Albania and the situation of persons with homosexual tendencies encounter. Future spouses’ sexuality cannot be ignored when addressing the conditions for marriage. The issue of gay marriage has been at the center of political and social debate in the world for years now. Legal regulation concerning homosexual marriage is found in countries like Spain, Argentina, Mexico, and the Netherlands. As regards Albania, no law allow...

  3. The approach towards gay marriage in the Albanian legislation and society

    OpenAIRE

    Xhensila Kadi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to address the phenomena of homosexuality in Albania and the situation of persons with homosexual tendencies encounter. Future spouses’ sexuality cannot be ignored when addressing the conditions for marriage. The issue of gay marriage has been at the center of political and social debate in the world for years now. Legal regulation concerning homosexual marriage is found in countries like Spain, Argentina, Mexico, and the Netherlands. As regards Albania, no law a...

  4. The Process of Evidencing (Offer of Proof) at Administrative Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Vokopola; Julejda Gërxhi

    2012-01-01

    Foreign direct investments are very important for the implementation of strategic reforms, transfer of advanced technologies and managerial methods, thereby stimulating economic growth in developing countries and in particular, transition economies such as Albania is. During the last years, Albania experienced an increase in foreign investors’ interest in a wide range of sectors, with energy generation, telecommunication, cement production, mining, oil and industrial parks heading the list. H...

  5. An Intelligent Market: Possibilities of a Revolution in Supermarkets Organization Using Agent Based Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Cipi; Veronika Durmishi

    2010-01-01

    Foreign direct investments are very important for the implementation of strategic reforms, transfer of advanced technologies and managerial methods, thereby stimulating economic growth in developing countries and in particular, transition economies such as Albania is. During the last years, Albania experienced an increase in foreign investors’ interest in a wide range of sectors, with energy generation, telecommunication, cement production, mining, oil and industrial parks heading the list. H...

  6. Electoral Offenses in The Common Law System

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Mulaj

    2013-01-01

    Electoral behavior is a new element in the political analysis of democracy in Albania. Distinctive features of the Albanian transition distinguish other models of the former communist countries, as well as significantly differ with Western models and electoral behavior analysis of the relations between political actors and citizens voting. Penal Code of the Republic of Albania remains the basis of criminal law to sanction criminal acts in the election. The object of criminal misconduct are di...

  7. Rio de Janeiro, Winter 2011 - The cidade maravilhosa’s expectations and contradictions

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Foreign direct investments are very important for the implementation of strategic reforms, transfer of advanced technologies and managerial methods, thereby stimulating economic growth in developing countries and in particular, transition economies such as Albania is. During the last years, Albania experienced an increase in foreign investors’ interest in a wide range of sectors, with energy generation, telecommunication, cement production, mining, oil and industrial parks heading the list. H...

  8. Classification of The Climate Based on the Combination Between Potential Evapotranspiration and Rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Azem Bardhi; Besnik Gjongecaj

    2014-01-01

    The sum of all climatic parameters known until now, in a strict understanding, cannot be the same as climate itself. The climate is the parameters we know plus potential evapotranspiration. The objective of this paper is first, to quantify the evapotranspiration and then, combining it with the rainfall values, to classify the climate of Albania. For that, fifty six meteorological stations throughout Albania were taken into consideration. The potential evapotranspiration was qu...

  9. Gaps Analysis of Albanian and International Legislation on Easement: Legal Prospect

    OpenAIRE

    ALDA TAKA; FERDI BRAHUSHI; REDI BASHA; BESNIK LESKAJ; BAHRI MUSABELLIU; SULEJMAN SULÇE

    2015-01-01

    The private property in Albania was reduced for 50 years and became mainly public. The ownership rights were insignificant for individuals or private institutions that asked for land and other uses of space. Except excomunist states and England where the land belonged to the state (to the Crown in the case of England), the land was private since in the middle age, in all other countries. In this context, the ownership right on private property was not known in Albania until the 90...

  10. Monthly Report No. 11/2011

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov; Peter Havlik; Mario Holzner; Olga Pindyuk; Josef Pöschl

    2011-01-01

    Albania candidate? not yet (by Mario Holzner; pp. 1-3) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP growth, inflation Countries covered Albania Topics Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy Bosnia and Herzegovina slow motion mode perpetuating (by Josef Pöschl; pp. 4-6) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP growth, inflation Countries covered Bosnia and Herzegovina Topics Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy Croatia recovery delayed (by Hermine Vidovic; pp. 7-9) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP growth, inflation Count...

  11. Monthly Report No. 11/2010

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov; Peter Havlik; Mario Holzner; Olga Pindyuk; Josef Pöschl; Hermine Vidovic

    2010-01-01

    Albania agnostic growth forecast (by M. Holzner; pp. 1-2) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP growth, inflation Countries covered Albania Topics Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy Bosnia and Herzegovina economic recovery and new political constellation (by J. Pöschl; pp. 3-5) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP growth, inflation Countries covered Bosnia and Herzegovina Topics Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy Croatia recovery not yet in sight (by H. Vidovic; pp. 6-8) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP...

  12. Monthly Report No. 12/2009

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Gligorov; Mario Holzner; Olga Pindyuk; Josef Pöschl

    2009-01-01

    Albania good quarters, bad quarters (by M. Holzner; pp. 1-3) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP growth, inflation Countries covered Albania Topics Macroeconomic Analysis, Forecasts and Policy Bosnia and Herzegovina moderately depressed economy in a climate of political uptightness (by J. Pöschl; pp. 4-6) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP growth, inflation Countries covered Bosnia and Herzegovina Topics Macroeconomic Analysis, Forecasts and Policy Montenegro foreign investment continues (by V. Gl...

  13. Monthly Report No. 12/2008

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Gligorov; Mario Holzner; Olga Pindyuk; Josef Pöschl

    2008-01-01

    Albania the importance of being aside (by M. Holzner, pp. 1-3) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP growth, inflation Countries covered Albania Topics Macroeconomic Analysis, Forecasts and Policy Bosnia and Herzegovina suffering from unfavourable constellations (by J. Pöschl, pp. 4-7) Keywords economic forecasts, GDP growth, inflation Countries covered Bosnia and Herzegovina Topics Macroeconomic Analysis, Forecasts and Policy Kazakhstan commodity price decline aggravates crisis (by O. Pindyuk, pp...

  14. Albania’s challenge for access and competitiveness in EU Market: When good will requires more than legal regulation. An inside of Albania’s efforts to increase the presence of its domestic product in EU markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Edi Spaho

    2012-01-01

    Albania has experienced a difficult transition period, characterized by efforts to establish an economic system oriented towards the free market. Despite the difficulties encountered during the transition process, Albania has made progress in the macroeconomic stability and structural reforms. Nowadays, the economy of our country has become an integral part of initiatives for liberalizing and facilitating trade with countries of the European Union. Active participation in these initiatives in...

  15. The wild heart of a wild land. Tra le Alpi albanesi sulle orme di Mary Edith Durham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Genesin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ENIn 2007 we decided to follow the same route through northern Albania which was covered almost 100 years ago by the victorian traveller Mary Edith Durham, author of the books High Albania and Some Tribal Origins, Laws and Customs of the Balkans. The journey described in High Albania was the culmination of seven years of regular Balkan travels during which she was rewarded with insights into north Albanian life denied to all previous travellers. Unlike her other expeditions in the Balkans, her journey in northern Albania was an existential experience which deeply affected Durham’s perception of the tribespeople’s world and marked a turning point in her life. In the second part of the article some ethnographical aspects which were pointed out by Durham and are still alive in those regions are dealt with. Keywords: Balkan Studies; Cultural Studies; Ethnography; Mary Edith Durham; Albania  ITNel 2007 abbiamo deciso di organizzare una spedizione a carattere linguistico e etnogrfico nell’Albania settentrionale sulle orme dell’itinerario percorso quasi 100 anni prima dalla viaggiatrice vittoriana Mary Edith Durham, autrice dei volumi High Albania e Some Tribal Origins, Laws and Customs of the Balkans. L’itinerario descritto in High Albania coronò setti lunghi anni di esplorazioni balcaniche nel corso delle quali l’autrice riuscì a penetrare nella vita della popolazione locale, un importante esperienza che era invece mancata a tutti i precedenti viaggiatori. A differenza dagli altri viaggi precedenti nei balcani, quello nell’Albania settentrionale costituì un esperienza esistenziale che segnò profondamente la percezione della Durham del mondo delle alpi albanesi e rappresentò una svolta nella sua vita. Nella seconda parte dell’articolo sono illustrati alcuni fenomeni di carattere etnografico che furono rilevati dalla Durham e che, con nostra grande sorpresa, abbiamo potuto riscontrare sul campo nel corso della spedizione.

  16. Extractive industry a burden or an opportunity for sustainable development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of raw materials in global markets and the sky rocketing of commodityprices, have induced European authorities to take initiatives to improve innovation inEurope by creating the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials (2012 andmake inventory of the existing European raw materials. Albania is a rich country innatural raw materials, such as chromium, copper, ferronickel, coal, bitumen as well ascrude oil which might supply primary and secondary raw materials for some of theEuropean needs. This literature review discusses the role of the Albanian institutions, thenatural resources industry, potential investors and stakeholders in order to provide a setof indicators and platforms that can help to develop the extractive industry in Albania andmonitor amelioration within sustainable development principles. A map with the potentialprospects of the natural resources will be a first step in identifying the further potentialfor exploitation. Mineral resource policies and governance, sustainable processing andsupply chain as well as environmental management information system (EMIS are someof the crucial tools identified, which will help to set up the indicators and quantify theachievements in environmental management in Albania. Moreover, the integration ofpractices that will support institutional capacity building; follow-up practices; themainstreaming of global environment into planning; and the compliance monitoringprocess will additionally improve the environmental situation in Albania. Aligningbusiness strategy with environmental policy, socio-economic analysis, environmentalauditing are decisive tools in order to provide the Albanian authorities with a clearoverview of the economic costs and the social benefits for sustainable development ofthe extractive sector in Albania.

  17. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  18. Albanian economy, sustainable development and comparative analysis of SME growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hava Mucollari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial activity in Albania as well as in other countries of Eastern Europe during the past few years has seen significant important developments. One of the main features observed is that financial activity in Albania is dominated by banking activity, while non-banking activity remains extremely limited. The investment funds in Albania according to the Albanian legislation on “Investment Funds” could be any private entity that accumulates financial resources of natural or legal persons (Vouchers, cash etc. In this paper we will focus precisely on the definition of SME and their ability to build a business plan that will help them to be successful in terms of seeking funds. For this reason, SME and their financing opportunities in Albania is one of the issues that will be analyzed. Firstly we will treat the business plan in theory and its role in SME, and hot to draft a business plan for a Travel Agency. In this paper we study the literature on the concept of SME and the business plan. For this reason we have found valid date information on studies from various writers and publications. By giving a financial view on SME on Albania, we have analyzed information from bulletins of the Albanian Bank.

  19. Gaps Analysis of Albanian and International Legislation on Easement: Legal Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALDA TAKA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The private property in Albania was reduced for 50 years and became mainly public. The ownership rights were insignificant for individuals or private institutions that asked for land and other uses of space. Except excomunist states and England where the land belonged to the state (to the Crown in the case of England, the land was private since in the middle age, in all other countries. In this context, the ownership right on private property was not known in Albania until the 90’. This article aims to provide the legal framework of land use for private or public purposes in Albania and in the European Countries. The rules and the international financial corporation standards on the easement, included in the Performance Requirements, have been considered in preparing this article. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the existing differences between the Albanian and international legislation regarding the easement.

  20. Language as a Tool for Multinational companies, Insights on the Issue, including Albanian Market Proposal for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olda Çiço

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We communicate with words. Language as a tool of understanding, giving responses, making decisions, and having a better way to reach business goals is to be underconsideration. This paper aims to explain why globalization has a very important impact on management, particularly because of the language used during various work aspects of multinational companies. The focus is why experience in this kind of research suggests writing on this issue and trying to implement the past results in Albania. While Albania is facing the integration process and it is part of a globalized economy, it has to be considered the fact that we are expecting more foreign investments, even from multinational companies. Cross-cultural problems are to be taken under consideration, especially the language.Keywords: Language, knowledge, Diversity, Multinational Companies, Albania, Performance.