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Sample records for albania

  1. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  2. Albania Residential Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Koprencka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The real estate market is complex and influenced by too many factors. Real Estate market in Albania has experienced a boom after the 1990. We have inherited from the communist system a very poor market of housing. The number of dwellings in 1990 in Albania was 219 dwellings per 1000 inhabitants and the useful floor space was 5 m² per person, but in Bulgaria number of dwellings per 1,000 people varies 465 and in Romania average useful floor space per person was 37 sq. The data used in this study are derived from the database of the World Bank, the Institute of Statistics, reports of Bank of Albania also from information provided individually on the ground and different sources. In this study is analyzed the relationship that exists between economic growth, remittances and the price of dwellings in Albania. The dependent variable is the average price of housing in major cities of Albania. Independent variables in the model are GDP per capita and the remittances. The Econometric model is a Linear Regress equation and the period are the years from 1998 to 2013. The model used is the statistical program EViews 6.0. Unfortunately the information let the desired, so we do not have an official detailed information on prices of Albanian real estate market. In Albania few researchers have been studying real estate market in Albania.

  3. Information literacy in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Basha, Athina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about the Albanian public's understanding and awareness of Information Literacy (IL) and the role of libraries in implementing policies, fostering Life Long Learning (LLL), and IL. Our research, carried out through a questionnaire, targets the national level, but for the purpose of this research , was distributed only in Central Albania. The survey has shown, that the government and its ministries, libraries and universities, lack an understanding of the concept and use of IL. ...

  4. Distribution of mammals in Albania

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    Claudio Prigioni

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some 63 species have been recorded in Albania from 1950 to 1994, with the exclusion of Cetacea. Another 15 species, including 5 found on the eastern border between Albania and Greece, are considered probably present. Hence 78 species could occur in Albania. According to IUCN red list of threatened animals, 8 species are defined as vulnerable, 15 as lower risk and one (the Mediterranean monk seal as critically endangered. In Albania, the legal protection of mammals includes all bat species, carnivores (except the stone marten, the red fox and the wolf, the chamois, the roe deer and the Mediterranean monk seal. General information on the distributional pattern and the population size is reported for some species, mainly carnivores.

  5. Facing a dark winter. Albania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truijen, A.

    2007-11-15

    Albania is once again facing a dark winter. The country has already been suffering power cuts lasting a couple of hours a day for the past seventeen years, Drought, increased power consumption and political maladministration are the factors underlying the electricity problems that have now mushroomed into a national crisis.

  6. Gender and Migration from Albania

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women's access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where outmigration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when mig...

  7. Privatization in Albania in numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Papajorgji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The privatization process after the 90’s has laid the foundation stone for Albania’s EU integration, not only in the economic, but also in its legal field. In the late 80’s an ideological, political, economic system disintegrated and in Albania as in all countries of Eastern Europe, democracy, free market economy and the rule of law, based on private property and free market economy were the foundation of the transformation. But the way this transformation had to be mastered was not clearly defined. For more than 40 years, Albanian citizens were faced with the communist ideology as the basis of state government regulation. This ideology stated that, all citizens had contributed the same way and in the same extent during socialism for the construction of state and social property. In Albania, as in all other countries of Eastern Europe, the so-called “Rent seekers” were transformed into Oligarchs and Owners of the privatized state-property for little money. In this context, this process was accompanied by the deficiency of accurate economic statistics, privatization strategies, foreign investors, a bad policy implementation as well as delays in the framework of immediately needed reforms (Åslund 2013. Main objective of this article is the Analysis of the privatization process in Albania through statistics.

  8. Albania – Europe’s reluctant gatekeeper

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    Ridvan Peshkopia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-communist Albania has become a transit point for refugees, asylum seekers and economic migrants. Asylum policies and procedures put in place under UNHCR and EU tutelage are fragile and serve the interests of Europe, not Albania.

  9. Gender and Migration from Albania

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women’s access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where out-migration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when mi...

  10. EMERGY SYNTHESIS OF ALBANIA FOR 2007

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    Pellumb Harizaj

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This first attempt of emergy synthesis in Albania aims at demonstrating the potentiality of this methodology in analyzing and integrating different systems on a common basis. Some emergy indices are calculated by identifying most of the emergy flows from within and outside the system. Renewable carrying capacity at present living standard (R/U ∙ (Population with a value 4.52x 105 means that some 14.3 % of the actual population of 3.16x106 might be an optimum level for sustainable economic development of Albania. Sustainability index SI = 0.25 suggests an increase of attention to improve the ratio between Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR and Environmental Load Ratio (ELR. In 2007 Albania`s Emergy/GDP ($ ratio was 5.39 x1012 while the Emergy/GWP ($ was 5.59x1011. This means that in the international trade Albania gives 9.6 times more emergy than it receives for each dollar of exports. The aforementioned fact is combined with a four fold negative trade balance (Net Exports = -3.09x109. These two indicators give a somehow pessimistic view of Albania`s economic development for the time being. Calculation of emergy synthesis for several years might offer a better understanding of development tendencies, and consequently better recommendations for people involved in policy making and environment management. Emergy synthesis might orient them towards more rational approaches to find out the best alternatives in harmonizing economic profits with the environment health.

  11. The biological invasion in Albania

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    JULIAN SHEHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania, whose territory comprises many types of habitats and is characterized by a rich biological diversity, is particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by alien invasive species. The spread of invasive alien species is creating complex and far-reaching challenges that threaten both the natural biological riches of the earth and the well-being of our people. While the problem is global, the nature and severity of the impacts on society, economic life, health, and natural heritage are distributed unevenly across nations and regions. Some aspects of the global invasive alien species (IAS problem require solutions tailored to the specific values, needs, and priorities of nations while others call for consolidated action by the larger world community. Preventing the international movement of invasive alien species and coordinating a timely and effective response to invasions requires cooperation and collaboration among governments, economic sectors, non-governmental organizations, and international treaty organizations. Many features have been attributed to invasive species and invaded ecosystems, but none are universal and invasive species tend to have a suite of traits rather than all of themThe large numbers of alien organisms introduced into Albania do not generally endanger the biodiversity on a large scale.

  12. Area Handbook Series. Albania: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    movements among the em- pire’s farrago of peoples threatened to shatter the empire itself. The Otoman ruler of the nineteenth century struggled in...addi,-On to Albanian, and reached Africa, the Mid- dle East , North America, South America, and Europe . Albania’s external broadcast service was one of...paying more attention to Albania’s close neigh- bors and Western Europe , Alia advocated a reassessment of rela- tions with other East European countries

  13. Development of Nonprofit-Sector in Albania

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    Xhiliola Agaraj (Shehu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the development of non-profit organizations (NPOs in Albania. In Albania there were two political systems, communist system from 1945-1990 and democratic system after 1990. These systems have contributed to the development of non-profit sector in the country. Secondary sources are used to identify the development of non-profit sector in terms of number, field of activity, financial sources and primary sources are used to indicate which it is actually the situation of non-profit sector in Albania. Interviews and questionnaire distributed in the area of the north, south of Albania and Tirana (capital of Albania is used to provide information regarding the type of NPOs by location, field of ​​activity of NPOs in Albania by type and location, financial sources and sector development trends. Limitations of the paper are that in the study are taken non-profit organizations that are registered at Court of Tirana District as associations, foundations, and the center and not political parties or religious organizations. For data processing is used SPSS computer program.

  14. Gender and migration from Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklov, Guy; Carletto, Calogero; Azzarri, Carlo; Davis, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women's access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where out-migration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when migration began: relatively low levels of inequality within the labor market and educational system-a product of the Communist era-while household relations remained heavily steeped in tradition and patriarchy. We use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study, including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows a dramatic increase in male migration and a gradual and uneven expansion of the female proportion of this international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Using information on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, we show how household-level constraints and incentives affect male and female migration differently. Throughout this period, however, women's migration behavior appears more directly aligned with household-level factors, and there is little evidence to suggest that increased female migration signals rising behavioral independence among Albanian women.

  15. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  16. Democratization in Albania: The OSCE, NATO and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    17 February 2010). 242 John O’Brennan and Esmeralda Gassie, “From Stabilization to Consolidation: Albania State Capacity and Adaptation to European...accessed 5 April 2010). 249 John O’Brennan and Esmeralda Gassie, “From Stabilization to Consolidation: Albania State Capacity and Adaptation to European...John and Esmeralda Gassie. “From stabilization to consolidation: Albania state capacity and adaptation to European Union rules,” Journal of Balkan

  17. REGULATIONS AND FINANCING OF SMEs IN ALBANIA

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    Oltiana Muharremi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An important factor that has contributed in the realization of a positive economic growth in Albania in the last 20 years is undoubtedly the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME sector. SME financing is a topic of significant research interest to academics, and an issue of great importance to the policy makers around the world. Economic, as well as technical and social arguments warrant the promotion of SMEs. They create large scale, low-cost employment opportunities, use locally available inputs and technologies, mobilize small and scattered private savings, develop entrepreneurship, and correct the regional imbalance in development that exists in industrialized countries. Several studies identify financing, infrastructure facilities, taxes, regulations and stability in policies as major obstacles for the growth of small and medium businesses. Improving the business environment for SME development is a key objective of the policy framework in Albania.

  18. PLANT COMMUNITIES OF ALBANIA - A PRELIMINARY OVERVIEW

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    J. DRING

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociological analysis of Albania was initiated by F. Markgraf in the 30ies, but still remains incomplete. This is a preliminary list of the plant communities resulting from the literature and from field research carried out during the last years and may represent a first contribution for further research. Many communities are described only by dominant species, other are quoted as nomina nuda. Some further syntaxa. probably present in the study area, are added.

  19. PLANT COMMUNITIES OF ALBANIA - A PRELIMINARY OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J, RODWELL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociological analysis of Albania was initiated by F. Markgraf in the 30ies, but still remains incomplete. This is a preliminary list of the plant communities resulting from the literature and from field research carried out during the last years and may represent a first contribution for further research. Many communities are described only by dominant species, other are quoted as nomina nuda. Some further syntaxa. probably present in the study area, are added.

  20. Glacial lakes Buni and Jezerce: Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Milivojević Milovan; Kovačević-Majkić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents glacial lakes and glacial relief forms at the foothill of the peak Maja Jezerce in Mt. Prokletije in Albania, near the border with Montenegro. The group of lakes Buni and Jezerce, which consists of six lakes and which genetically belongs to glacial-erosional lakes, is analyzed. Lakes are situated at the cirque bottom, between the moraines and limestone ridges. Except presented morphometric characteristics of lake basins, data about cirque are given, as well as the reconstru...

  1. Tourism, the Future of Economy in Albania

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    Arjana Kadiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the main pillars of economy for many countries in the world. It influences the economy and offers more employment possibilities every year. Mediterranean countries have a favorable, geographical position and climate to develop tourism. Most of these countries, have obtained higher incomes from this industry, and as a result, more prosperity and economic development. Today, about 30 % of the world’s tourists spend their vacations in the Mediterranean Region. Albania is one of these countries and it has great possibilities for the future.The nature of Albania, it’s geographical position and its panorama, the climatic and physical diversity of its territory, represent some of its rich resources and strengthness. Previously, Albania’s economy depended in agriculture and small industries. After the 90-s, when many citizens left the country, the situation changed and even that source of income became inconsiderable. Heavy or textile industry, were hardly developed. Tourism was hardly developed too. Only few investments were made in this sector. In October 2012, EU Commission recommended Albania to be granted the EU candidate status. Therefore, Albania’s economy has to be developed according to EU standards. In this paper we would like to assess, which may be some important and effective innovative management strategies for Albania’s tourism. What are some of the steps to follow in this direction? The article aims to make a comparison with Greece and Montenegro, as reference points, in order to understand these countries’ touristic strategies and try to adapt some of them or think about new effective ones. It aims to provide a profile that shows; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The study will be based in official statistics and scientific literature. The study concludes that the economic benefits of tourism are considerable, immediate and there are many new ways to activate the natural sources of Albania.

  2. The Political Development of Women in Albania

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    Eglantina Farruku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of women’s representation and participation in politics and decision-making is not anymore an unknown or un-discussed issue in Albanian. This paper attempts to investigate the conceptual and material bases of women’s participation in the politics in Albania.  It will be bringing facts and arguments regarding the participation of women not only in political life and decision making but also is going to investigate in detail in membership of political parties. Further investigation will be on how much weight women have on media coverage of different aspects of their life.Politic cannot be done properly, if the vision and the concepts of the woman’s in general would not be brought up by their women representatives in the political arena.  Despite the increase number of women in parliament, many advocate that the women until now had been only a decoration on the back ground of the political life and these needed to be changed. It seems that this change now taking place in Albania that would take some time. The study tries to provide information and analyses on this regard. Then the paper reaches a conclusion that there is still a long way to go in Albania for convincing more women to participate in politics, because without of them the politic would not be addressing whole problems of the country. Key words Politic, Women, Participation, Parliament, Parties, Election

  3. Death rituals in Albania: an anthropological review

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    VYSHKA GENTIAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of death rituals differs consistently amongregions of Albania. The death ritual contains very strongpatriarchal features in the Northern part of the country; insouthern regions (next to the seashore and in Albaniancommunities living elsewhere in the Mediterranean basin, thefeatures are more animistic; the females playing an importantrole in grief proclamation, suggesting a more matriarchalorientedritual organization. The wailing of men in the northernAlbania, the so-called gjama, is an organized ritual of cryingfor the dead person, and till recently it has been accompaniedwith self-punishing behaviors such as face scratching etc. Thewailing of women is acceptable and codified as well in thenorthern areas (the so-called wailing of milk. A differentsituation, probably related to the social organization and to thegender role of females, is apparent in southern Albania. Thedeath rituals hereby are mainly accompanied from the socalled“kuja”, (wailing through words more impressive andloquacious than the northern masculine “gjama”. Similaritieswith Greek and Hellenic rituals (“Thrênos” and “Goös” aresuggested; probably embedding multiple cross-acting andinter-related influences.

  4. New chorological data and floristic notes for Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, L.; Malo, Sadik; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    Twelve taxa belonging to fi ve families are reported based on fi eldwork in Albania from 2007 to 2010. Eleven have not been recorded for the country in the relevant volumes of Flora Europaea, Flora of Albania or the Med-Checklist. Notes on ecology and distribution are provided and all the taxa ar...

  5. On terrorism and legal response in Albania

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    Engjëll Likmeta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal Albanian doctrine encompasses different meanings in relation to terrorism. This paper aims to give a general overview on various definitions of terrorism, as one of the main threatening phenomenon of our society. The paper also treats the origin of the word ‘terrorism’, back to the French Revolution of 1789 as the label used by the establishment to describe the conduct of revolutionaries. In this paper will be treated the main factors that have affected over the creation and development of terrorism, the content, format and main characteristics of terrorism, the main forms of occurrence of terrorist acts and Albanian legal mechanisms in the fight against terrorism, including the International agreements of which Albania is part of. Special attention will be paid to the moment when terrorist activities started in Albania and which are the most common forms of terror in Albania. The study of terrorism is multi-disciplinary, spanning a number of fields including political science, psychology, criminology, sociologist, history and many others. There are not few criminal norms provided in the Albanian Criminal Code that condemn terrorism. The Albanian Criminal Code expresses in separated articles the punishment of everyone who finances terrorism, hides funds and other assets that finance terrorism, even collects funds for terrorism financing, recruits persons for committing acts of terrorism or for terrorist financing, trains for committing terrorism acts, or makes public calls with terrorist purposes. A key challenge of understanding terrorism is both acknowledging the moral outrage at terrorist acts, while at the same time trying to understand the rationale behind terrorism.

  6. Problems of Poverty Level in Albania

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    ALBAN JAUPI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hunger and starvation are the main challenge of the humanity and the main enemy of the progress, pace and human stability. This is why all the partners of United Nation are conscious about an urgent engagement as in political program and in the compilation of a concrete plan to grow-up effectively the war against this negative phenomenon, that is present in the time we are living. Based on the FAO and Feeding Word Program figures, Albania ranks among the states who do not suffer from hunger. However is the lowest income state in Europe. The transit process highlighted the negative potential effects on the inequality standard of living. Most part of the inequality standard of living in the transition economy touch the decrease of the guarantee employment, and inexpert employee. Although from our point of view, the disparity increase is being a social problem every day bigger for the region ECA society, and this is germane with the social cohesion and the mean government. There is little difference as far as the expenditure food structure among zone is concerned, this talks about a unique structure of the food tradition in Albania. Differences among zones exists on the income level for capital and on the exception of the social levels among zones.

  7. Regulation and supervision of microfinance in Albania

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    Rezart Hoxhaj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes important regulation issues that concern microfinance. It starts byconsidering literature on how and why to regulate and supervise microfinance. Considering thespecific case of microfinance in Albania, it analyzes the context of this industry and someparticular issues that might influence its growth. Related regulation in Albania seems to be notactivity-oriented since a real definition of microfinance is lacking in the Albanian law. Therefor,Albanian microfinance sector needs, first of all, a microcredit and microfinance definition toimplement the right development policies and avoid confusion and license misuse. Moreover, theregulatory framework seems to be too restrictive for institutions supposed to be engaged inmicrofinance example high capital requirement and provisioning. Possible interventions can be inlowering minimum capital requirements for NBFIs to improve entrance, simplifying procedures,documentation and harmonization of the taxation treatment of institutions to enhancedevelopment, encourage access and avoid market distortions. There is the need to implementregulation considering microfinance as an activity, and develop a regulatory framework to inducecommercial banks integrate downward into the microfinance market and help informal start-upsinstitutions develop and get formalized.

  8. Development Of The Banking Market In Albania

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    Alqi NAQELLARI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the development in banking sector in Albania since its strands and up to the present day. To highlight its role and influence in the Albanian Economy. The materials that are used are mainly taken by the Bank andINSTAT, Annual Statistical Reports, Monthly, Annual Reports and other materials needed for research. Methods used are mainly looking for methods of description, comparison, analysis and synthesis, the Gini index, Pearson, HHI, CR etc. The achieved results. Albanian Banking System is originated in 1850. Is divided into several periods. We have taken in the analyze the occurrences after 2003. There are 3 coins circulating in Albania.The banking system is concentrated in two poles, six leader banks and 10 with satellite role. The effect of the monetary policy transmission is low BOA for inflation, the cost anddistribution of loans and the growth of economy. In conclusion, the banking system is deformed. Should be create a bank with state capital and gradually eliminate foreign currency deposits and loans.Keywords: banking market, credit, deposit, styptic and expansionary monetary policy, inflation, unemployment, transmission effect,

  9. Tra Albania e Italia: storie solide e confini liquidi

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    Lorenzo Mari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recensione di: Emma Bond e Daniele Comberiati (a cura di, Il confine liquido. Rapporti interculturali fra Italia e Albania, Nardò, Besa, 2013, 229 p., ISBN: 9788849708950, € 18,00.

  10. Free to Learn: The Rationale for Legalizing Homeschooling in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Paul Hagen

    2011-01-01

    In the years following the collapse of communism in 1991, Albania allowed greater freedom in educational choice by abolishing the government monopoly on education and allowing private schools to operate. However, it is only now, two decades after the fall of communism, that Albania is moving towards officially recognizing the most natural and fundamental option for educating its citizens – allowing parents to educate their children at home. By looking at homeschooling from the perspectives of...

  11. The Migration’s Consequences in Albania after 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Mone

    2015-01-01

    Migration is one of the most prominent phenomena in these ultimate years. It has brought some consequences, such as the concentration of population in major cities and the economic development, but also a number of social problems too. The change of political and economic system in Albania after 1990, put Albanian society in front of a series of phenomena. Democracy in Albania gave way to the free movement of people. This paper is focused on issues such as: economic-financial difficulties, un...

  12. Glacial lakes Buni and Jezerce: Albania

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    Milivojević Milovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents glacial lakes and glacial relief forms at the foothill of the peak Maja Jezerce in Mt. Prokletije in Albania, near the border with Montenegro. The group of lakes Buni and Jezerce, which consists of six lakes and which genetically belongs to glacial-erosional lakes, is analyzed. Lakes are situated at the cirque bottom, between the moraines and limestone ridges. Except presented morphometric characteristics of lake basins, data about cirque are given, as well as the reconstruction of the glacier which was formed here. Recent erosion processes are intensive in this area and have considerably changed post-Pleistocene morphology of the lake, as well as the cirque bottom.

  13. FORMAL DECENTRALIZATION OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN ALBANIA

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    Roland Lami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an argument on the regional effects of migration on Albanian administrative-territorial reform and its consolidation. Many researchers of local politics support the thesis that an important demographic change is accompanied by a change related to the quality of service at local governance level.  Compare to the Western and Eastern European countries, only in the early 1960s, Albania witnessed the introduction of the first regional and urban strategies.  The strategy was used to limit the expansion of large towns and to encourage the development of small and medium-sized towns. Furthermore, there are a limited number of case studies based on migration data at regional level.  This is why territorial reforms should often reflect ongoing demographic changes to minimize the effects caused by overpopulation, or significant reduction of the number of population in a local unit, with respect to quality of service offered to the citizens.  We discuss the research question of “how will the demographic development, i.e. natural development of population as well as internal migration, affect different types of Albanian regions?” as well as “what is the impact of demographic movements on the quality of local governance?”Based on the interpretation of some regional units, i.e. Tirana, Durres, and Fier, it is confirmed that the demographic movements in the last twenty years in Albania have brought about some changes.  In some local units, the number of inhabitants is significantly reduced, while some other local units are overpopulated. This new reality leads to implications in economic, social and cultural aspects; and most importantly, we noticed an increasing dependency of local government on the central government.  We further claim that local and regional authorities must participate in accordance with the “partnership” principle. Under these conditions, it is necessary to plan a new territorial division.

  14. The Priorities of English for Business in Albania and the Intercultural Communicative Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyso, Kozeta; Alimema, Zamira

    2015-01-01

    New developments in the years of democracy in Albania enabled the English out of business in the first plan as the need for businessmen and students studying for business. Albania is rapidly changing with the aim of being part of the process of development and globalization. The higher education in Albania is facing challenges posed by…

  15. The palynomorphological characteristics of Anthemis in Albania

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    ANXHELA DAUTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Anthemis L. is the second largest genus of the tribe Anthemideae of Asteraceae family. It comprises about 210 species, distributed widely in Europe, south-west Asia, north and north-east Africa and extending into extreme southern Arabia and tropical east Africa. The plants of genus Anthemis are annual and perennial herbs with beautiful and attractive flowers. The article includes the palynomorphological study of the main members of genus Anthemis in Albania. In this article submitted comparative features of the species: Anthemis altissima , Anthemis carpatica, Anthemis chia, Anthemis orientalis, Anthemis tomentosa, Anthemis triumfetti, Anthemis arvensis and Anthemis tinctoria. The material for the study was obtained in National Herbarium in Tirana. For the study of palynomorphological features are analyzed 31 pollen grains from each species. The treatment of material is made with acetolysis method and basic fuchsine. The fixing of pollen grains is made with glycerin gelatin. The study and photos of pollen grains are realized with light microscope with 1000x power. The pollen grains of plants above are spheroidal or oblate spheroidal, three furrows three pores. The exine appears thick and has two-layers. The sculpture of exine is echinate. The work is part of the palynological study of general members in Asteraceae family in our country.

  16. Risk assessment of poultry sloughterhouses in Albania

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    ROVENA JAHELEZI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the risk of poultry slaughterhouses in order to achieve a better official inspection. Study is taking place in 5 poultry slaughterhouses in Albania. The study was conducted through two tasks: poultry slaughterhouses classification related to the risk assessment based on the characteristics of the plant, product characteristics, production, hygiene processes, HACCP, and on the identification of presence of Salmonella spp in the slaughterhouse environment and in the final product. In every slaughterhouse, inspections are performed every 3 months, by completing the appropriate checklist using point’s evaluation. The results show that 5 slaughterhouses resulted in high risk (over 42 points. The detection of Salmonella spp in poultry carcasses is based on ISO 6579: 2002 method. 25 meat samples were analyzed in total where, out of which only one sample resulted with the presence of Salmonella spp in 25 gr. These results are due to an inappropriate Hygienic Practice, Manufacturing Practice and show that HACCP isnotimplementedrigorously.

  17. Sustaining Cultural and Natural Heritage in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Dollani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the ongoing project “School for Cultural Heritage through Map Exploitation” (SCHEME, an integrated set of activities designed to support social inclusion in heritage promotion processes in Albania. The main project goal is delivering ICT tools (map and crowdfunding platforms and procedures as well as improving the capacity of stakeholders to sustainably valorize hidden resources. The underlying approach has capitalized on existing technologies and experiences through the development of an advanced interactive multimedia map using data produced in the Ljubljana Process. Subsequently, the map will be extended by collecting more data on the Lake Ohrid Region, which has been selected as a pilot area to promote the neglected inland, relieving pressure on more famous coastal sites. A contest among schools will enrich the database, uploading multifaceted memories collected by students. The winning cultural asset will be the object of a small-scale rehabilitation project supported by a fundraising campaign through a crowdfunding platform. The centrality of people’s active participation will contribute to governance innovation by reverting to traditional top-down promotion processes and practices, in which heritage consumers represent passive recipients of ready-made offers and messages. The map platform also holds specific potential for cultural tourism purposes, avoiding mistakes in the geo-localization of sites.

  18. The Migration’s Consequences in Albania after 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the most prominent phenomena in these ultimate years. It has brought some consequences, such as the concentration of population in major cities and the economic development, but also a number of social problems too. The change of political and economic system in Albania after 1990, put Albanian society in front of a series of phenomena. Democracy in Albania gave way to the free movement of people. This paper is focused on issues such as: economic-financial difficulties, unemployment, forced child labor, spread of deviant behavior, lack of shelter, dropout, perturbation of the nature element.

  19. Strengthening innovation and Technology policies for SME Development in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovena Tahiti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the current economic policies in Albania, particularly in the development of innovative SMEs, identifying the key challenges to promoting innovation in the whole economy - and highlighting specific actions where the private sector has the opportunity and is called upon to take a more active role. The purpose of this paper is to serve as a basis for discussion, primarily with Albanian private sector organizations, in order to agree on the key priorities for action to support innovation in Albania and to identify initiatives where these organizations can help catalyze change going forward.

  20. Free to Learn: The Rationale for Legalizing Homeschooling in Albania

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    Timothy Paul Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years following the collapse of communism in 1991, Albania allowed greater freedom in educational choice by abolishing the government monopoly on education and allowing private schools to operate. However, it is only now, two decades after the fall of communism, that Albania is moving towards officially recognizing the most natural and fundamental option for educating its citizens – allowing parents to educate their children at home. By looking at homeschooling from the perspectives of student achievement, individual freedom, and natural rights, this paper will show that it is good and proper for Albania – and all countries worldwide – to legally recognize the natural right of parents to homeschool their children. While homeschooling is the best option for some children, it may not be the best for all children. Homeschooling should be one option alongside public schools, private schools, private tutoring, and distance-learning programs. While this article focuses on homeschooling in Albania, relying on research from North America, it contributes to the wider discussion of homeschooling policy in Europe, where policies range from homeschooling being largely illegal in nations such as Bulgaria and Germany to being freely permitted with minimal regulation in a nation such as the United Kingdom.

  1. Government Spending and Real Exchange Rate Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmira Cakrani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have found that governmentspending can lead to overestimation orunderestimation of the real exchange rate, depending on the composition of theseexpenditures. The purpose of this paper is toassess the impact of government spendingon real exchange rate in Albania. In this paper is used a log liner model with quarterlydata. Other explanatory variables in this model are: foreign direct investment, remittances,real GDP per capita, openness. Variables are tested for unit root and cointegration. Theresults indicate that government spendingis associated with overvaluation of realexchange rate in Albania.JEL Classification: E62; F31Various studies have found that governmentspending can lead to overestimation orunderestimation of the real exchange rate, depending on the composition of theseexpenditures. The purpose of this paper is toassess the impact of government spendingon real exchange rate in Albania. In this paper is used a log liner model with quarterlydata. Other explanatory variables in this model are: foreign direct investment, remittances,real GDP per capita, openness. Variables are tested for unit root and cointegration. Theresults indicate that government spendingis associated with overvaluation of realexchange rate in Albania.

  2. Politico-economic institutions and the informal sector in Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.

    2003-01-01

    When formal institutions are unfavorable for the development of a free market economy, one reaction in many countries is a spontaneous development of informal economies. This study analyzes the conditions for the informal sector to emerge in a transition country, to wit, Albania. The consequences of

  3. Proselytization in Albania by Middle Eastern Islamic Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Department of State, http://www.state.gov/outofdate/bgn/a/33653.htm, ( accesed September 2008). 192 Ibid. 193 “Shkaterrohen mbetjet e armeve kimike ne...depth. 57 LIST OF REFERENCES Albania (10/03). U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/outofdate/bgn/a/33653.htm ( accesed September 2008

  4. Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjermeni, Eglantina; Van Hook, Mary P.; Gjipali, Saemira; Xhillari, Lindita; Lungu, Fatjon; Hazizi, Anila

    2008-01-01

    Problem: Many children in Albania and other countries of Eastern Europe are being trafficked as part of the global business of human trafficking. Objectives: The study sought to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking…

  5. Corporate enterprises in Albania and Macedonia in comparative law

    OpenAIRE

    Endri Papajorgji

    2014-01-01

    Transformation is a process closely connected with reforms in the property-rights regime, but retransfering the ownership has been the core of this process in all post communist countries. The objective of this article is to analyse the drafting of commercial legislation in Albania and Macedonia and in which way corporate enterprises were affected from the structure of economic organizations during socialism.

  6. Government Spending and Real Exchange Rate Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmira Cakrani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have found that governmentspending can lead to overestimation orunderestimation of the real exchange rate, depending on the composition of theseexpenditures. The purpose of this paper is toassess the impact of government spendingon real exchange rate in Albania. In this paper is used a log liner model with quarterlydata. Other explanatory variables in this model are: foreign direct investment, remittances,real GDP per capita, openness. Variables are tested for unit root and cointegration. Theresults indicate that government spendingis associated with overvaluation of realexchange rate in Albania.JEL Classification: E62; F31Various studies have found that governmentspending can lead to overestimation orunderestimation of the real exchange rate, depending on the composition of theseexpenditures. The purpose of this paper is toassess the impact of government spendingon real exchange rate in Albania. In this paper is used a log liner model with quarterlydata. Other explanatory variables in this model are: foreign direct investment, remittances,real GDP per capita, openness. Variables are tested for unit root and cointegration. Theresults indicate that government spendingis associated with overvaluation of realexchange rate in Albania.JEL Classification: E62; F31

  7. The Impact of Real Exchange Rate on Employment in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmira Cakrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a big economical and social issue for each country, in particular for Albania, which is a country that comes from a centralized system where the state ensured full employment. In the struggle of applying the transition to market economy, each government had to face the two-digit levels of unemployment. Because of this, the application of the right policies in order to decrease the level of unemployment has been in the centre of the program of each government in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show if the undervaluation or overvaluation of the real exchange rate can affect in a significant way the level of employment in Albania and that to answer the question, if the real exchange rate can be used as a political instrument for the reduction of the level of unemployment. There are relatively few works that study the impact of real exchange rate on the Albanian economy and in my knowledge there is not a previous work on employment and real exchange rate relationship in Albania, so this can be considered as the first study that attempt to assess this relationship. To evaluate the link between the real exchange rate and the level of employment the Johansen procedure and Vector Error Correction Term method is used. The result of the study demonstrates not statistically significant impact of real exchange rate on level of employment, suggesting that the increase of competition of the country through the real exchange rate doesn’t improve the condition of the employment in Albania, so the Albanian government should implement other strategies to increase the level of employment in the country.

  8. Financing the small and medium enterprises in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerina Kurti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of small and medium enterprises in economy is indisputable. They are the main contributor in employment, innovation and economic growth of a country. European Commission is fully supporting the development and growth of small and medium enterprises through changes in legislation, creating a friendly business environment, facilitation in obtaining funds in the last two decades. The share of SME in total enterprises in Albania is 99.6% and their contribution in the GDP is 73%. Their growth is closely linked with their ability to finance their activity, which is one of the most important issues they are faced with due to their size and creditworthiness. This paper aims to analyze the difficulties and obstacles that SME in Albania encounter in obtaining financing due to lack of source of financing within country, limited opportunities of accessing international capital markets as well as high interest rate.

  9. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  10. Citizen, sustainable development and education model in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Keta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 2015 is the last year of the Decade for Education and Sustainable Development worldwide. The conclusions of this great project initiated by UNESCO are expected to give their feedback in the following years. Albania with a new democracy but with great ambitions to catch up the sustainable development, has tried to take part in this project without a concrete strategy. The decade coincided with two reforms in the pre university education (2012 and 2015 and one in higher education. They do not only spotlight the philosophical education but also leave it as a secondary option without objectives. In this sense main purpose of this article is the analysis of the education model in Albania based on these points of view stated above.

  11. ”Fear of Floating” in Albania and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besart Kadia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study endeavours to understand the volatility of the exchange rate in Albania and to see if there are sign of “fear of floating” present. De jure Albania currently applies a flexible exchange rate regime. Traditionally the main argument in favour of this policy is that monetary policy is not constrained by the predetermined level of the exchange rate. Thus, monetary policy sets interest rates in order to achieve domestic equilibrium (ie. price stability while the nominal exchange rate adjusts to balance the external accounts. Theoretical evidence concerning the impact of exchange rate stability on growth is mixed. The theoretical arguments in favour of flexible exchange rates are mainly of macroeconomic nature, as flexible exchange rates allow for an easier adjustment in response to asymmetric country specific real shocks. From a microeconomic perspective low exchange rate volatility can be associated with lower transaction costs for international trade and capital flows thereby contributing to higher growth.

  12. Albania and the teaching of religion in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2017-01-01

    The paper makes an analysis of the potential effects this might have considering its application related to the initial purposes of the project, by introducing the case of Italy and its strategy of religious education over the years as a comparative tool in order to analyze and predict the potential outcomes of this intent, by considering the national background of Albania and some specific learning traits and outcomes on such topics related to age and cultural set up.

  13. Small terrestrial mammals of Albania: annotated list and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Bego

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Abstract We report for Albania new records of small terrestrial mammals (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Rodentia and outline previously published data. Twenty-four species (one hedgehog, six soricomorhps and 17 rodents have been collected in 161 localities surveyed throughout the country. Nine species (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus thomasi are recorded for Albania for the first time. The present list is far from being complete and presence of a further 11 species has to be confirmed. Riassunto I Micromammiferi dell'Albania: status e distribuzione Viene presentato un quadro della distribuzione dei micromammiferi in Albania, evidenziando le specie di recente scoperta così come alcuni dati già pubblicati. L'esame di 161 località distribuite sull'intero territorio nazionale ha permesso di raccogliere informazioni sulla presenza di 24 specie di micromammiferi (1 Erinaceomorpha, 6 Soricomorpha e 17 Rodentia. Nove specie  (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, e Microtus thomasi vengono segnalate per la prima volta. L'elenco qui presentato non può essere considerato definitivo. Ulteriori ricerche potrebbero accertare la presenza di altre 11 specie.

  14. Corporate enterprises in Albania and Macedonia in comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Papajorgji

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transformation is a process closely connected with reforms in the property-rights regime, but retransfering the ownership has been the core of this process in all post communist countries. The objective of this article is to analyse the drafting of commercial legislation in Albania and Macedonia and in which way corporate enterprises were affected from the structure of economic organizations during socialism.

  15. Citizen, sustainable development and education model in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Majlinda Keta

    2015-01-01

    2015 is the last year of the Decade for Education and Sustainable Development worldwide. The conclusions of this great project initiated by UNESCO are expected to give their feedback in the following years. Albania with a new democracy but with great ambitions to catch up the sustainable development, has tried to take part in this project without a concrete strategy. The decade coincided with two reforms in the pre university education (2012 and 2015) and one in higher education. They do not ...

  16. NATO Enlargement: Albania, Croatia, and Possible Future Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-14

    several months in 1997 after the failure of financial pyramid schemes. Since 1991, both the DPA and the other chief Albanian party, the Socialist...forces participated in SFOR, the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia , and are part of the current EU force there. Albania has deployed a company...role in Bosnia and Herzegovina, encouraging ethnic Croats there to work within the Bosnian political system rather than seek intervention by Croatia

  17. The impact of tobacco control policies in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Ross, Hana; Levy, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a tobacco control law adopted in Albania in 2007 and to estimate the share of illicit cigarettes on the market. Design Comparative analysis of two waves of a nationally representative household survey, one conducted before the new law went into effect and the other after 2 years. Official sales data were contrasted with the consumption estimate based on the survey. Main outcome measures Smoking prevalence, quit attempts, exposure to cigarette advertising, exp...

  18. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šašić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in the publication of three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania, Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices and consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However, with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve traditional agricultural practices.

  19. BIODIVERSITY AND THE PROTECTED AREAS SYSTEM IN ALBANIA

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    Mehmet Metaj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania possesses a wide range of ecological systems including coastal zones, estuaries and lagoons, lakes and wetlands, grasslands, middle-low altitude coppice forests, high altitude forests, alpine vegetation and glacial areas. The country possesses about 3,250 species of vascular plants, 165 families and more than 900 genera. Medicinal plants (botanicals and non-timber forest products have a long history of importance in the culture and traditional knowledge of Albania. Proper legislation and especially legal and regulatory framework enforcement for the regulation of this developing industry remains lacking. A Strategy of Biodiversity plan developed in 2000 calls for an increase in the Protected Areas system which currently covers some 6 % of Albania's area to a total area of 435,600 ha, approximately 15 % of the country's territory. Changes in the legal and policy framework as well as institutional structures is required to move forward and provide an environment for biodiversity conservation and a sustainable protected areas system. The various threats to biodiversity and constraints to improvement are outlined as well as recommendations for sustainable use, assessment and regulation.

  20. Seismic capacity evaluation of unreinforced masonry residential buildings in Albania

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    H. Bilgin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seismic capacity of the unreinforced masonry buildings with the selected template designs constructed per pre-modern code in Albania considering nonlinear behaviour of masonry. Three residential buildings with template designs were selected to represent an important percentage of residential buildings in medium-size cities located in seismic regions of Albania. Selection of template designed buildings and material properties were based on archive and site survey in several cities of Albania. Capacity curves of investigated buildings were determined by pushover analyses conducted in two principal directions. The seismic performances of these buildings have been determined for various earthquake levels. Seismic capacity evaluation was carried out in accordance with FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency 440 guidelines. Reasons for building damages in past earthquakes are examined using the results of capacity assessment of investigated buildings. It is concluded that of the residential buildings with the template design, with the exception of one, are far from satisfying required performance criteria. Furthermore, deficiencies and possible solutions to improve the capacity of investigated buildings are discussed.

  1. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in Albania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bashkim Resuli; Skerdi Prifti; Bledar Kraja; Tatjana Nurka; Mimoza Basho; Edita Sadiku

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Albania. METHODS: Blood samples from 410 unselected schoolboys, 666 students, 500 military personnel, 1286 casual blood donors, 378 voluntary blood donors and 640 pregnant women (total 3880 non-vaccinated residents of rural and metropolitan areas from all over Albania; 2354 (60.7%) male and 1526 (39.3%) female; mean age of 26.3 years) were tested during 2004-2006 for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs) by ELISA. RESULTS: The HBsAg and anti-HBs prevalence were 9.5% and 28.7%, respectively. The highest HBsAg prevalence was evident in the younger age group, such as in schoolchildren (11.8%) and the military (10.6%).Consequently, the anti-HBs prevalence increased with age, from 21.2% in schoolchildren (mean age: 15.7 years), to 36.3% in pregnant women (mean age: 26.3 years) and 29.7% in voluntary blood donors (mean age: 40.1 years). There were no significant differences between males and females. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated two-fold reduction of HBsAg prevalence in the general population from about 18%-19% to 9.5%, Albania remains a highly endemic country (I.e. Over 8% of HBsAg prevalence rate).

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with congenital malformations in Tirana, Albania, during 2011-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çanaku, D.; Toçi, E.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Congenital Malformations (CMs) represent a challenge especially for developing countries. Data about CMs in Albania are rather scarce. In this context, our aim was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with CMs in Tirana, the capital of Albania. METHODS: Information on all CMs at birt

  3. The European Parliament and the European future of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdilajd Bajramaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.

  4. SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES’ IMPACT ON HOSPITALIZED PATIENT SATISFACTION IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezarta Kalaja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient satisfaction is one of the several ways to evaluate quality of health service, composing an effective indicator to measure the success of hospitals. In this context determining main factors that contributes in patient satisfaction is crucial to improve quality in healthcare delivery. Respective literature suggest that socio-demographic factors serve as main drivers for patient satisfaction, therefore through this article based on the ground survey methodology it is measure the existing linkages between gender, age, level of education and incomes and patient satisfaction in Albania.

  5. Land market in Albania: Unresolved property ownership rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oltiana Muharremi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Independence of Albania in 1912, property ownership has gone through major reforms. During communism many agricultural lands were seized by the Agrarian Reform Law. In 1990, with the fall of communism there was a huge demographic movement of people from villages to urban areas, where they settled in lands that were used by the Cooperatives. This created a lot of problems with previous land owners whose land was seized and given to the Cooperativa. Today there is a problem with the rights to property ownership, and legal certificates of ownership.

  6. The relationship between financial and tax accounting in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Duhanxhiu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically ‘income tax’ laws rely on financial accounting data to determine the taxable income of a business entity, although financial and tax accounting have different goals and requirements. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between financial and tax accounting rules in Albania. The study employs a mixed methodology, comprising a review of the legislation, institutional framework and context, and semi-structured interviews with accountants, academics and institutional players. By reviewing the development of this relationship during the past 20 years, we aim to identify and explain the major divergences at present between two sets of rules.

  7. PERSONAL INCOME TAX POLICY ANALYSIS: ALBANIA VS. UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Binaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal income tax has become an important part of the Albania’s revenue system. Revenue from personal income tax was more than 27.9 billion ALL for the year of 2011 which makes up a 3% increase when compared to the previous year. This paper compares and contrasts Albanian and American income tax systems by describing many similarities as well as distinctive characteristics that were found. Professor Agim Binaj of Agricultural University of Tirana highlights the need for a fair personal income tax reform in Albania. This paper concludes with recommendations and an agenda for future research on tax policy using lessons from the United States tax system.

  8. Customs as Facilitation of Trade. Case of Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etleva Bajrami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic cooperation and trade between countries of region is very important as a opening step for entering in big markets like EU-s. All agreements have a huge impact in customs administration for elimination of customs taxes and for facilitation of trade during customs crossing. Trade integration is seen as faster way for countries to complete all necessary condition for European Integration. This process requires fulfillment of all reforms, needed for approaches the development and integration between countries. This process is spread in time because of the feature and difference between society and their economies. Regional economic integration is considered an import component for longterm integration of South Eastern European countries in EU. Membership of Albania in WTO brings a number of free trade agreements, with the main purpose trade liberalization. The essences of these agreements have been liberalization of customs tariffs for increasing foreign trade and attract foreign investors. The loss of customs income will be compensating from imports increasing and economic development in general. The role of Customs has changed from one of a complete focus on revenue collection to a broad role encompassing components of revenue collection, trade facilitation and border security. Simplified customs procedures and documents are very important for improving relation of business and government and also improving business performance. The aim of this paper is to point out the roles, responsibilities and challenges of customs, for concluding this we have conducted a survey for analyzing the performance of customs in Albania.

  9. Geoculture world system, access to Balkan and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilirjan Çukaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If culture as a term covers a broad range of relations and social behavior, mutually implicated in influential and economic cycles of the global system, then it becomes wordy geoculture. Geoculture system is used as a term by Wallerstein (2004 who had treated it as a concept largely unused and under a theory of geoculture which plays an important role in the present world system. The theses that is presented in this article is that the global trajectory in the Balkan region is increasing from culture and that, it is imperative to establish a strategic culture direction and management, which, in turn, should be formed not only as a principal need, but also as an obligation of social state institutions to find the viable solutions of the global market policy, economy and culture. And in response to the challenging question the culture of integration becomes imperative now facing nationalism. Albania will have to manage perceptions, fears and realities arising from the above mentioned phenomenon, to establish a balance between the “inside” and “outside” views. In this sense main challenge of Albania is the management of cultural globalization to get the most of opportunities despite the risk of losing ground globally

  10. Economic Relations between Italy and Albania 1993 – 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Between the obligation of carrying out their mission to ensure the quality development of higher education and the right to function as important centers where knowledge is taken, developed and transmitted, this paper will examine the technological developments of university libraries as an important part of higher education. Digital and electronic experiences applied in Albanian universities libraries will be brought to the attention of the public. This paper is based on the questionnaire survey conducted at public university libraries in Albania. Opinions of librarians regarding ICT application were elicited using a structured questionnaire, followed up with interviews. In the case of non-response by libraries is consulted their official web sites to have a more complete information. In addition, secondary sources were consulted as domestic and foreign literature in this field. Results show that: 1 the level of application information technology in public university libraries in Albania is acceptable. The most important and serious problem is the lack of the unique University Library ICT Policy; 2 serious handicap is the lack of educated librarians in using information technology; 3 the proportion of university library activity goes more digital, so the digital collection becomes reality in the public university libraries. This paper brings conclusions that contribute to: a national information communication technology policy for university libraries and b the creation of an integrated system for management and transmission of knowledge at the national level for all Albanian university libraries.

  11. Multiple antimicrobial resistance among Avian Escherichia coli strains in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 101 Escherichia (E. coli isolates from broilers, laying hens and turkeys which had died from colibacillosis, collected from 37 intensive and rural farms in Albania, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility toward 12 different molecules. The highest levels of resistance were observed for Erythromycin (E (100% Amoxicillin (AMX (99.1%, Tetracycline (TE 30 (96.07%, Streptomycin (STR (93.07% and Neomycin (N30 (85.15%. Considerable resistance was also detected for fluoroquinolones. Moreover, 73.33% of E. coli resistant to at least one fluoroquinolone were also resistant to the two other fluoroquinolones checked. No evident differences were found between the E. coli from intensive and from rural farms. Multiple antibiotic resistance was expressed by all the E. coli tested. 23.63% and 17.39% of E. coli isolated from intensive and rural farms, respectively, were resistant towards all the drugs tested. These data would seem to indicate incorrect use of antibiotics on poultry farms in Albania.

  12. Abuse of dominant position in Albania based in jurisprudence

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    Endri Papajorgji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Competition law and cartel is the basis of a modern economy. While in the US, competition law exists and is terminologically known and is part of legislation since 1890 (Sherman Law, in Europe, it has become part of the founding treaties of the EU since 1957 by the Treaty of Rome. However, at that time, “culture of competition” would be born in the member states of the EU, which traditionally favour cartel agreements, state aid and the promotion of national products. Some EU member states have included competition law in their national legislation in the early 90-s. Rules were set for the first time on competition in the coal and steel market under Articles 65 and 66 of the Treaty of Rome, constituted a new terminology for member states. Albania has worked during these 24 years of democracy, to apply the basic principles of market economy and along with it the Lisbon Treaty, Regulations and EU Directives in the frame of competition. Main purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the abuse of dominant position in the frame of the most important court decision of this legal institution in Albania.

  13. Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention among University Students: Case of Albania

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    E. Garo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, during the last decades entrepreneurship has been in focus. It is commonly agreed that developing entrepreneurship in the long term would be translated into sustainable economic development. Albanian economy, being an economy in transition greatly and urgently needs to invest into increasing the number of entrepreneurs in the country. Entrepreneurial intention is considered to be really important. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to observe the determinants of entrepreneurial intention in Albania. The target is university students. Many programs that foster entrepreneurship such as incubator centers, business plan competitions along with new educational practices have been developed. In addition, even though studies conducting in this field are few, Albanian education institutions have shown a willing to study the factors influencing entrepreneurship development. The reason is the belief that developing and supporting entrepreneurial activities among youth will positively influence the economy of the country in terms of economic growth. This study widely represents the Albanian students and shows the deteminants of entrepreneurial intention they have. Hopefully the findings of this study would be useful to the policy makers and the Albanian government to undertake effective policies focused on entrepreneurial activity; targeting economic development of the country.

  14. EVALUATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS APPLICATION FOR NON FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: THE CASE OF ALBANIA.

    OpenAIRE

    AGIM BINAJ; ILIR BINAJ; IRINI LIMAJ

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on the application of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for non financial institutions using domestic and foreign companies’ observations from Albania, a developing country with an open economy but with limited enforcement capabilities. This paper intends to present benefits and challenges from the IFRS adoption and evaluate IFRS application for non financial institutions in Albania. The study was conducted as an exploratory research through 15 interview...

  15. Tulipa albanica (Liliaceae), a new species from northeastern Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulëzim; Tan, Kit; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Tulipa albanica (Liliaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species from a serpentine area in Kukësi district, northeastern Albania. It is compared with T. scardica from the western Balkans (Macedonia and Kosovo) and with T. schrenkii from the Ukraine, Caucasus, Central and Southwest Asia. ...... size 54.15 (± 0.23) pg. Two different morphotypes of T. australis were noted as occurring on limestone or serpentine in Albania....

  16. Albania’s Road Toward Integrated and Accession into the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    External Action Service EP European Parliament EU European Union FYROM the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia HLSG Albania High Level Steering Group...Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia , Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. With the exception of Albania, they were all a part of...comparable to those of third world countries.24 According to the American scholar Edwin E. Jacques, in the book the Albanians: an ethnic history from

  17. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

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    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  18. Climate change impacts: Public policies and perception in Albania

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    Elona Pojani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the main impacts of climate change in Albania. More specifically the paper will try to analyze the public response toward these new challenges. This analysis will be preceded by a brief review of the international literature regarding climate change consequences. In addition, the paper will discuss public perception and awareness toward climate change. This discussion will be based on a survey which has involved a wide range of population. The main results of the survey show that the level of awareness of the study group (which consisted mainly on high educated participants about climate change and its relationship with the development is very low. Therefore more emphasis should be put to information regarding environmental issues, through education system and awareness campaigns.

  19. Microbial Water Pollution of Drin River in Scutary Area, Albania

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    LINDITA BUSHATI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Drin River joining White Drin and some other small rivers form the longest river of Albania, Drin River, 335 Km long. Drin has two distributaries, one of which empties directly into Adriatic Sea and the other one into Buna river, in Scutary (Shkoder. The Drin area is beautiful and very important for the Albanian economy, for the electricity and has a large agriculture activity as well. Unfortunately mismanagement of agricultural practices and the discharge of industrial and urban wastes into the river are causing a high pollution. River conservation is threatened by pollution. Drin river water is used by people for fishing, swimming and irrigation of plants and the pollution of this river is a problematic issue in environment and human health. We monitored microbial and chemical water pollution of Scutary area of Drin, where Drin goes into Bojana, during 2012-2013 and a high water pollution level was recorded.

  20. Demographic Profile and Pathological Patterns of Head Injury in Albania

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    Sabri Hoxha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head injury (HI is a serious morbid state caused by structural changes of the scalp, skull, and/or its contents, due to mechanical forces. Generally, the most frequent cause of HI is road traffic accident (RTA, followed by homicidal and falling injuries. The aim of present study is to assess epidemiology data, causes and patterns responsible for HI among Albanian subjects. Methodology: All HI cases (1000 are collected by the Forensic Institute of Albania, based on medical and forensic records of traumatized subjects between 2007- 2012. The prospectively-collected and descriptive information is focused on demographic data, responsible factors, type and level of cranial and brain injury, as well as their outcome. Results: The majority of HI victims were male (84% of age range of 15yrs -35yrs (70%. RTA was the HI cause in 88%, followed by homicides (3.8%, falling (3% etc. With respect to injury mechanisms, extra-dural hematoma was found in 93% of cases, followed by cerebral edema (61%, cerebral contusion (37%, skull bone fractures (35%, etc. Severe alteration of the consciousness was observed in 57% of the cases, while amnesia lasted longer than 4 weeks in 44% of the subjects included in our study. Discussion: This survey demonstrates that the majority of HI victims' is young and middle age males target group exposed to RTA. The increase of vehicles' use in placecountry-regionAlbania is more evident than RTA-related HI, indicating that driving newer vehicles with safer technology or helmets use while motorcycling can potentially decline the fatal outcome.

  1. The epidemiology of A.suum at swines in Albania

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    Edith Juka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available About 300 000 swines are bred in Albania, out of which 120 000 under intensive growth conditions and 180 000 under ½ intensive and extensive growth conditions. In the study we included 738 swines out of which 372 in extensive growth and 356 samples from intensive growth spread all over the territory of the Republic. 10 samples were collected from imported pigs. 120 samples from these belonged to piglets 0-3 months old, 224 to piglets 3-7 months old, 163 samples to sow about to be substituted, 78 sows a week before farrowing, 126 samples of sows within 2 weeks of lactation, and 27 samples were taken from uncastrated pigs. The quantitative and qualitative sedimentation was the coproscopic method used in the study. To evaluate the parasitic load we applied the Mc Master technique. The post Mortum diagnose was proved in 37 heads. For the first time in Albania we define accurately the presence of A. sum among all age groups of swines. The average parasite load resulted 83 v/g/f in piglets 0-3 months old, 180 v/g/f in piglets 3-7 months old, 210 v/g/f in sows about to be substituted, 190 v/g/f in sows before farrowing, 284 v/g/f during lactation 90 v/g/f in uncastrated pigs. By evaluating the efficiency and parasitic load for other parasites, we conclude that A. suum is the main cause of hypoefficiency in swines of extensive and intensive growth. Considering the conditions of extensive and ½ intensive growth we notice a higher parasitic load. The periodic controls of the feces and at least 3 dehelmentisations per year would keep under control infestations and the damages in the conditions of extensive economies of swine growth. The observed parasitic load requires necessarily a dehelmentisation of the show's 2 weeks before farrow

  2. Syndromic Surveillance for Detection of Influenza in Albania

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    ARTAN SIMAKU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the threat of infectious diseases and bioterrorism, syndromic surveillance systems are being developed and implemented around the world. The aim of the study was to describe the early warning surveillance system in Albania for detection of pandemic influenza 2009. Syndromic surveillance is a primary health care-facility-and emergency room-based syndromic surveillance system aiming at detecting outbreaks and undertaking public health actions. Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI consist of two syndromes: Upper and Lower respiratory infection. Weekly ARI consultation rates in 2009 were compared with the rates observed in the same period in the previous 10 years (1999-2008 of influenza season: weeks 40-20. Unlike previous years’ pattern, the rate of reported ARI increased sharply from 45th week, and peaked nationally at week 47, starting on 16 of November and representing 30% increase compared to previous week, 46. This rate was the highest observed compared to the same period of past 10 years of influenza surveillance and exceeded the 95th percentile of expected rates, thus, suggesting the circulation of a novel virus. Despite the end of the pandemic period, influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus continued to circulate and became the most commonly detected virus in Albania and many other countries in the winter season of 2010–2011. The system is useful for detecting and responding to natural disease outbreaks such as seasonal and pandemic flu, and thus it has the potential to significantly advance and modernize the practice of public health surveillance

  3. A phytosociological analysis of the Quercus coccifera L. stands in south Albania (NE Mediterranean

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    Jasprica Nenad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a phytosociological investigation of the Quercus coccifera L. stands occurring along the Adriatic and Ionian coasts in south Albania are given. The surveyed stands are localized in the Thermo-Mediterranean and Meso-Mediterranean belts. On the basis of literature and unpublished data, Q. coccifera stands extend from the shoreline up to 680 m of altitude, within the Quercetea ilicis vegetation zone. According to numerical analysis, Q. coccifera stands in south Albania can be divided into two broad groups forming macchia of 3–4 m height and low shrublands [0.5–1.5(-2 m] defined primarily by degree of human pressure and altitudes. In addition, relevés from Q. coccifera stands in Albania were differentiated from Croatian and Montenegrin the Fraxino orni-Quercetum cocciferae associations. Conversely, Q. coccifera stands in south Albania share several biological and ecological similarities with those of the eastern Adriatic coast: hemicryptophytes prevailed and the chorological spectrum highlights a clear dominance of the steno-Mediterraneans. With respect to indicator values, an important differentiation from the eastern Adriatic associations was shown only in higher light intensity of the stands in Albania.

  4. Measles Outbreak in a Roma Community in Albania

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    ALMA ROBO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles reporting is mandatory in Albania. Despite the very high immunization coverage for MMR a measles outbreak was reported by district epidemiologist to national public health institute in june 2006. All affected persons were from a Roma community living in the town of Elbasan. We report the epidemiological features of this epidemic. Method: Active surveillance was conducted and cases analyzed had to meet the national case definition “rash maculopapular with fever”. The diagnosis was established by clinical signs, confirmed by serologic results. Sera samples from all the suspected cases were tested for Measles IgM by ELISA and molecular genotyping of virus by the regional reference laboratory. Results: According to the case definition 16 cases were actively found, 13 (77% were female and 3 (23% male. The mean age was 7.1 years (range: three months to 23 years. Most of the patients had Koplik spots, coryza and conjunctivitis. All cases were unvaccinated. All patients recovered and no fatal cases. Conclusion: Gaps of low vaccine coverage facilitated the measles infection to spread. The vaccination of this community it difficult despite the commitement of the health staff. Families with their children are in ongoing migration all over the country and abroad. As a response to stop the spread of the measles outbreak, the district epidemiological service in Elbasan with the support from the national institute of public health, organised a mass vaccination campaign.

  5. Education Factor and Human Resources Development - Albania Case

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    Sonila Berdo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  6. Data quality and accounting information systems: Actual performance in Albania

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    Erjon Zoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Data quality is crucial in today’s business processes, as it is generally associated with the set of data fit for use by data consumers - the persons that access, interpret and use data during their work activity. On the other hand, data quality is very important for the Accounting Information Systems’ (AIS success, where AIS is a computer-based system that processes financial data and supports the decision making processes inside the organization. There are empirical evidences showing that data quality level in AIS has been and will always be problematic. Their interrelationship is dependant of several factors, including technical capacities or even the level of teamwork in an organization. This paper tries to analyze the actual performance of the factors influencing in the process of data quality in AIS used from organizations in Albania. The results will be compared with state-of-art literature review regarding the factors perceived as critical factors in ensuring data quality in AIS, giving way to some important concluding remarks.

  7. Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethics. Case Study: Vodafone Albania

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    Everest Haxhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many discussions about ethics beginning with a fair and fundamental question: “What is ethics all about?” It is the same as morality, or is kind of a soft law that imposes values but without enforcing them? What is the contribution of the society in imposing values and ethical standards, and how business is involved? Ethical standards are applied in business word, differing from social responsibilities that business has in the social environment where it operates. To better exemplify those concepts the researcher goes through one of the largest companies that offers wireless communications, Vodafone Albania; also one of the world’s largest mobile telecommunication operators. The bright side of social responsibilities is associated in some cases by regressive informal standards applied to all investors and new businesses in the country. The cost of informality is paid in full by the society diminishing the values of social responsibilities and ethical standards applied by business organizations. Even though, Vodafone has successfully implemented social responsiveness initiatives through cause promotions initiatives, corporate social marketing, cause related marketing, company philanthropy, community volunteering, and socially responsible business practices that support social causes to improve community well-being and protect the environment.

  8. Social housing and situation of Roma minority in Albania

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    Lindita Xhillari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to social housing is sanctioned as a fundamental human right in a number of international instruments ratified by Albania, but currently this right does not find adequate protection in Albania’s legislation. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Affairs of the United Nations, has set standards concerning the right to adequate housing. The right to social housing should not be equated with having a roof over head, but should be seen as the right to live somewhere safely and with dignity. The right to social housing should be provided to all people regardless of their income and implemented in a manner consistent with their resources. Lack of an adequate legal framework of the right to housing, today has consequences on several issues as for examples the case of the eviction of Roma to the Lake area in Tirana, lack of adequate housing, families with low income, beneficiary families by the aid schemes, homeless women victims of domestic violence, or even the category of tenants housed in former state apartments. Through this paper we will seek to cover many issues and present some recommendations for the improvement and creation of facilities for vulnerable groups such as the Roma minority, in order to meet and set objective standards regarding social housing

  9. The historical development of property-, and commercial Law in Albania until 1976

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    Endri Papajorgji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The legal system during communism is understandable in Albania only if we study its legal institutions and development. In this context, a chronological presentation is needed, based mainly on the work of Krisafi, Ballanca, Luarasi, Gjika, Elezi, Omari, Brozi, Gjilani (2009. In this framework, the analysis of this manuscript is closely related to the pre communism situation, not only in the frame of history of property law, but also institutions and content they had during the communism era. Main purpose of this article is the analysis of property- and commercial law in Albania, in the context of the consequences they brought in the transformation process of Albania with the fall of Communism and establishment of democracy.

  10. A FACTORIAL ANALYSIS OF INFORMACION SOURCES THAT INFLUENCE UNIVERSITY CHOICE IN ALBANIA

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    Elfrida Manoku

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available These days Higher Education Institutions (HEIs in Albania are operating in a highly dynamic environment. The aim of this study is to examine the sources of information that influence the student’s selection between public or private university in Albania by identifying the role of marketing communication in this selection. The data was gathered through self-administered questionnaires in 17 public and private universities throughout Albania. The factorial analysis conducted using the evaluations from 28 different sources of information, concluded that mainly four factors influenced university choice. These were, public relations, advertising, reference groups and internet marketing. Most of the Albanian Universities need a better understanding of the entire process the prospective students undergo during their university selection process. They also should try adopting a new orientation in their marketing communication strategies based on the students’ need for information.

  11. Assessment of Habitats Area Sand Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Alyssum Genus in Albania

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    ERIDANA ÇUNI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed soils on serpentine rocks occupies a large area in Albania which contains huge reserves of, nickel, chromium and cobalt. The purpose of our study was to identify the species, the habitats of metal’s hyperaccumulator Alyssum genus in Albania and to analyze the metals content in soils and plants too. There are accomplished several field trips investigated the mine, ultramafic and mafic soil in different areas of Albania. The soil samples and plants are taken randomly in each habitat for chemicals analyzes and species identifications. The sample of Alyssum sp. was identified according to the Flora Europea.Alyssum muralewasrepresented by three different varieties. Alyssum murale; var. chlorocarpumwas was represented in 11 habitats in south and southeast Albania. Alyssum muralevar. chalcidicum was identified in three habitats and Alyssum murale var. subvirescens also was identified in two habitats. Alyssum markgrafiiwas represented only in one habitat in North Albania. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for total Ca, Co, Cr, Mg and Ni. Based on results, each site exhibited a high concentration of one or more metals. The nickel content in soils varied between 1050 and 5650 mg kg-1dry matter. The soils pH values varied from 6.12 to 8.12. The nickel content in plant of Alyssum murale varies from 6900 to 18300 mgkg-1 dry matter. The nickel content in plants of Alyssum markgrafii is from 13770 to 22640 mg kg-1 dry matter. These results confirmed that hyperaccumulatorAlysum sp. is developed as one endemic plant on Albanian serpentine soils. Alyssum muraleis represented in four location and 16 habitats by three different varieties. Alyssum markgrafii is represented only in one isolated habitat in North Albania.

  12. Towards the Importance for Sustainable Development: Case Study: Albania

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    Klodiana Gorica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Information has become an important element without which society cannot achieve its objectives. The term “information society” is increasingly used nowadays, because of the importance and necessity of information in today's dynamic environment. Western countries are convinced that the information society will result in economic and social benefits (Audenhove 2000. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, notes that information infrastructures are expected to stimulate economic growth, increase productivity, create jobs, and improve on the quality of life (Gichoya 2005. It is for these reasons that many studies state that the role of ICTs as enablers of sustainable development is growing. The overall goal of this paper is to point out the importance of ICT market development for the sustainable development of all the economy and the final development of Information society, especially in developing countries, where Albania is the case study illustration. The first step of this research is to show the importance of studying ICTs in the light of building an information society. In fact, the efforts of a country to build an information society, in order to benefit in terms of sustainable development, are closely related to the efforts of building strong information infrastructures and a growing ICT sector. Many indicators related to Information society measurement deal in fact with the infrastructures needed and the products and services of ICT sector. But, failures to submit ICT in contexts which are contrary to techno-economic rationality are reflected in many cases in developing countries. Thus, a defining characteristic of this research is to understand the contexts that confront ICT and information systems development in developing countries in terms of their conditions. In fact the development of ICT sector, depend not only on the political, economic and social conditions of each country, but also on the phase of e

  13. Constructivist Methods in Teaching: The Case for Albania

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    MSc. Alfred Nela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous century many theories were created for the teaching.  One of them is the constructivist method widely used. The focus of constructivist theory is oriented towards the pupil. It presupposes that the environment of learning should provide view points or different interpretations of reality, building knowledge, wealth content, and activities that are based on experience. Constructivism is focused on lore and knowledge and not in mechanic imitation of subject content. It is based on a persuasion that the person builds his lore based on his experience, mental structure and faiths used for interpretation of objects and phenomena. The mind is used like an instrument in the interpretation of the event, goals and prospects because they are personal and individual. The main goal of the survey is the coverage and elaboration of some theoretical and practical views, reported from a considered number of research examples about constructivist methods and an actual analysis of Albanian educational system. As a research methodology we have exploited quantitative data. National and international surveys are used, dedicated, to the evaluation of Albanian Pre-university educational system. In the last decadeAlbania, started adopting some reforms in the teaching methodology. Some experts in educational field published some textbooks and manuals about constructivist methods. Prior to these reforms in the field of teaching, policy making bodies approved ordinance and legal drafts in adjustment of this methodology. But even after these reforms, the Albanian educational system is behind the regional education system in regards to the achievements of pupils. The lack of specific training of educational staff, non-adaptation of educational software, inappropriate physical infrastructure of schools, the lack of technical equipments hamper the practicability of this method. Another aspect is insufficient financial budget dedicated to education. Albanian

  14. Lone mothers and welfare policies in Albania : Conditions, experiences, expectations, 1944-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruda, A.

    2015-01-01

    This is an action research that endeavors to construct the category of ‘lone mothers’ in Albania, through their own voice, for the purpose of creating the socio-political discourse on their real needs they and their children have. It talks about lone mothers not as needy or vulnerable, but as women

  15. The Political Parties as Organisations of Representation of the Political Rights of Individuals in Albania

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    Klajdi Mone

    2014-01-01

    The development of political parties in Albania has passed in two stages in the communist system where only one party was known and in the democratic system where was recognized political pluralism. Highlighting the role of political parties, as an important promoter of the functioning of state and of the coverage of the political rights of individuals, makes this study important.

  16. Pest control in Albania: an example of collaboration in technical and scientific development in public health

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    Enkelejda Velo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2007, a severe cockroach (Blattella germanica infestation was reported on the premises of the Scutari Regional Hospital. The hospital was infested by cockroaches despite regular insecticide treatment by local pest control officers. The failure of treatment required a careful evaluation of the problem. It also created the opportunity for a more complete analysis of pest control in Albania.

  17. Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Primary Health Care Users Diagnosed with Osteoarthritis in Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoxha, F.; Tafaj, A.; Roshi, E.; Burazeri, G.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Primary Health Care Users Diagnosed with Osteoarthritis in Albania. Hoxha F, Tafaj A, Roshi E, Burazeri G. Mater Sociomed. 2015 Jun;27(3):163-6. doi: 10.5455/msm.2015.27.163-166. Epub 2015 Jun 8. PMID: 26236161 [PubMed] Free PMC Article

  18. Attractiveness of foreign investments in Albania: a focused analysis of factors, constrains and policy assessment

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    Blerta Dragusha (Spahija

    2013-01-01

    Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  19. Tax evasion in transition: Outcome of an institutional clash? - Testing Feige's conjecture in Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Gërxhani

    2004-01-01

    A field survey of households was conducted in Tirana, Albania in 2000. A response rate of 89.3% yielded 1.340 valid questionnaires, allowing me to test Feige's (In: Nelson, J.M., Tilley, C., Walker, L. (Eds.), Transforming Post-communist Political Economics. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, p

  20. MACROECONOMIC AND MARKET DETERMINANTS OF INTEREST RATE SPREAD: EVIDENCE FROM ALBANIA

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    Brunilda NELI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The banking system, as the most important component of the financial system in Albania, plays a crucial role in economic development. Measuring the efficiency of the intermediation system requires special attention because of its implications on the level of investments, savings, resource allocation etc. The most common indicator for the efficiency of the banking system is the cost of intermediation, measured by the spread of interest rates (the difference between the average lending rate and the average deposit rate. The study aims to analyze the trend of interest rate spread (IRS in Albania for the period 2005-2014 based on a comparative analysis with other countries and to identify the factors with significant impact on the level of IRS in the local currency. It is based on the empirical analysis of several macroeconomic and market factors that determine IRS, used in previous studies in this field, but also incorporating other elements that are associated with the characteristics of the Albanian system. Albania has experienced high IRS during the last decade, with large fluctuations, especially in the local currency. The results of the study based on quarterly panel data for the period 2005-2014 show that IRS in Albania is negatively affected by the level of development of the banking sector and the discount rate, while inflation, deficit rate and monetary supply put positive pressure on this indicator.

  1. Fishing activity of small pelagic in Albania: 1948-1990

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    ROLAND KRISTO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The small pelagic species are important commercial fishes of the Adriatic Sea. In Albania, the fishing activity of Sardines had a key importance still in 1990, as it represented about 70% of total catch. The main fishing method used was purse seine using light attraction that represented about 80% of total catches of sardines and the rest was mid-water pelagic trawl nets towed by two vessels. Albanian catches of sardines reached a maximum value, in 1982-1985 with value from 5,000 to 6,500 tons and maximum at 1984 with 6,596 tons. In 1990, the Sardine fleet consisted of 60 fishing vessels, from which 28 in Vlora, 12 in Durres, 12 in Shengjin and 8 in Saranda. The number of fishing vessels for bottom trawl fishing was as average 21 and 23 for 1985 and 1989 respectively, with a maximum of 28 fishing vessels. The average of fishing days was about 142 days/year. The production for 1985 was 1899.6 tons and for 1989 was 2324.2 tons. The number of fishing vessels for mid water pelagic pair trawls was as average 17 and 8 for 1985 and 1989 respectively, with a maximum of 27 and 16 fishing vessels. The production for 1985 was 2230.2 tons and for 1989 was 744.6 tons. The number of fishing vessels with purse seines with light attraction was as average 34 and 37 for 1985 and 1989 respectively, with a maximum of 38 and 45 fishing vessels. The average of fishing days was about 137 days/year. The production for 1985 and 1989 was 3319.2 and 2919.8 tons respectively. The number of coastal fishing vessels was as average 13 and 15 for 1985 and 1989 respectively, with a maximum of 14 and 19 fishing vessels. The average of fishing days was about 109 days/year. The production for 1985 and 1989 was 166.7 and 188.9 tons respectively

  2. Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is

  3. Legal issues in E-commerce and E-contract in Albania

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    Uarda Roshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce has become a key aspect for many businesses all around the world. This new form of commerce has reshaped the ways of trading, revolutionizing the way of doing business and has brought competitive advantages for both consumer and business. Over the last few years Albania is witnessing a digital revolution too, however although internet access has grown significantly only a few enterprises and a small number of companies have engaged in e-commerce activities. The development of e-commerce is an important element of national economy. Being a new important sector, e-commerce can only flourish where there is a good infrastructure, both legal and technological, which is attractive to consumers and business. So the need for rules and principles facilitating e-commerce has become increasingly evident, too. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the regulatory framework, legal issues and the challenges in the development of electronic commerce in Albania.

  4. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

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    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  5. A Neglected Zoonosis in Albania: why Echinococcosis is Becoming a Surgeon's Exclusivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaca, Arben; Vyshka, Gentian; Pepa, Arben; Shytaj, Kastriot; Shtjefni, Valentin; Boçari, Arben; Beqiri, Arben; Kraja, Dhimitër

    2014-01-01

    Echinococcosis is an endemic zoonosis in the Mediterranean area, with Albania interested actually to a level that is becoming a public health concern. Authors describe preliminary data from the only tertiary (university) medical facility of Albania, positioned in the capital of the country (Tirana), with 333 new cases diagnosed and treated during the period 2005 - 2011. Out of all these 333 new cases an impressive majority of 91% had a surgical treatment right from the first admission, rendering the disease almost a surgical exclusivity. Even more, 80% of all patients from the study group were hospitalized straightforwardly in surgical wards, with options of surgical intervention's percentages outrunning figures from other sources and authors of the same geographical area. Such a situation, together with a very important level of patients' origin from highly urbanized areas such as those of the capital, suggest the necessity of well-organized interventions, among which might be the mandatory notification of all human cases with Echinococcus infection.

  6. DAM-LAKEFRONT PLAZA: Revitalization of an Agriculture Reservoir Dam in Kashar-Tirana/Albania

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    Valbona Koçi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dam-Lakefront Plaza in Kashar-Tirana/Albania is a research project that proposes not only the re-consideration and reinforcement of the artificial Reservoirs Dams built during Socialism in Albania, but envisions the maintenance of dams and revitalization of the lakeside area promoting the public-private collaboration. In addition, it envisions the generation of qualitative and lively public spaces in sub-urban areas as well. Admitting the artificial lakes as specific nodes of man-made infrastructure in the landscape, and consequently the dams (together with the drainage channels as important hydrotechnic elements of the flood protection infrastructure, this research intends to elaborate on one type of landscape infrastructure - the vertical screens, offering a mediation between the natural and built landscape.

  7. The role of railway infrastructure on the tourism development (case Albania

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    Fabjola Bramo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is an important factor that affects the economic development of a country. Railway infrastructure is considered one of the most economic means of transport. On the other hand, tourism has begun to be recognized in recent years as one of the most profitable industries and with a secure future, especially for countries still underdeveloped. Albania has a strategic position in the Balkans and has great tourist resources as land, water, cultural and historical as well. Albanian Railways is underdeveloped and this transport is not frequented by people. Construction of Corridor VIII rail that is supposed to connect the Adriatic Sea with the Black Sea will serve as a key factor in the economic development of Albania.

  8. Economics of Tertiary Education - Challenges and dynamics of the public tertiary education in Albania

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    Gledian Llatja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary education is a critic mechanism for the socio-economic progress, for individuals who aspire a brighter future and it is also considered an important catalyzer of the economic mobility (Department of Treasury and Department of Education, 2012, 2. Based on the positive role and impact that the tertiary education has on the sustainable development, President Obama once stated that it is of damage to treat education as a luxurious public service. In line with the general considerations about the tertiary education in the U.S. the parallel comparison with Albania comes as a direct interpretation of utopia in the education policy-making. As policies are usually drafted based on data and findings, in the case of Albania there is a lack of data on expenses on tertiary education as share of GDP. This stands also for the main limitation of the paper.

  9. Mortgage lending and house prices in Albania - a co-integrated analysis based on VECM

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    Erjona REBI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The general view that the banks’ lending plays a crucial role in the real estate market was again confirmed during the recent financial crisis. During the precrisis period, house prices in Albania increased rapidly, supported also by a fast expansion of mortgage lending. This study aims to empirically analyse the relation between housing prices and banks’ financing in the long run, referring to a VECM model. The estimated results confirm the important role of mortgage to house prices. Meanwhile, the relation between house prices and interest rates resulted statistically insignificant. Unlike the previous literature, exchange rate has been included as an endogenous variable. Results show positive correlation and statistical significance between house prices and exchange rate. Finally, this paper is expected to contribute to the literature as there are very few studies that elaborate on the macroeconomic factors’ influence on the housing prices in Albania.

  10. Moving towards Practice-Oriented and Research-Based Teacher Education: Challenges of Kosovo and Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Vula; Blerim Saqipi; Theodory Karaj; Nikoleta Mita

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the current status, development trends and challenges of teacher education in Kosovo and Albania in their efforts to be aligned with current trends of a more research-based, practice and skills oriented teacher education system. The article compares the provision of pre-service teacher education and draws conclusions related to future development trends of the two countries as they aim to meet the best international standards and practices in shaping pre-service teacher ...

  11. Transnational Policies of Emancipation or Colonization? Civil society promotion in post-communist Albania

    OpenAIRE

    CHIODI, Luisa

    2007-01-01

    Defence date: 3 April 2007 Examining board: Prof. Donatella della Porta, EUI/Supervisor ; Prof. Philippe Schmitter, EUI ; Prof. Stefano Bianchini, Università di Bologna ; Prof. Helena Flam, Universität Leipzig The thesis discusses whether the western aid policy of Civil Society Promotion (CSP) in postcommunist Albania constituted a policy of colonization with its direct penetration of the local public sphere or one of emancipation that pluralized the local and the international public s...

  12. First tephrostratigraphic results of the DEEP site record from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Leicher, Niklas; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio; Wagner, Bernd; Nomade, Sebastien; Francke, Alexander; Carlo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A tephrostratigraphic record covering the Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1–15 was established for the DEEP site record of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania). Major element analyses (energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy (WDS)) were carried out on juvenile fragments extracted from 12 tephra layers (OH-DP-0115 to OH-DP-2060). The geochemical analyses of the glass shards of all of these layers suggest an origin in the Italian volcanic province...

  13. The right to appeal under the constitution of Albania and court jurisdiction

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    Donika Plakolli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to appeal is both a fundamental human right and a procedural tool, whereby parties exercise examination of the lawfulness of court rulings, etc. The constitution of the Republic of Albania, 1 approved in 1998, expressly provides for and guarantees the right to file an appeal. Unlike other rights, this fundamental right was not restricted, being in accordance with Article 17 of the Constitution, except for cases otherwise provided in the Constitution. In accordance with this constitutional right and guarantee, all codes of administrative procedures, civil and criminal procedure, provided for and widely guaranteed the exercise of the right to file an appeal. This absence of restriction of the right to fi le an appeal brought about an overload of court cases and trial delays, thus making the completion of the adjudication within a reasonable deadline uncertain. As a result, there rose the necessity to limit this right in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania. The amendments to the Constitution by Law no. 76/2016 also limited the right to fi le an appeal under Article 17 of the Constitution. However, these amendments were not complete, as they did not entail the exercise of the right to file an appeal against decisions of administrative authorities. The jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court of Albania is a guarantee of the right to appeal/effective access in the civil and administrative process, although slightly controversial in the criminal process. However, positive developments regarding the guarantee of effective access to the court have recently occurred. Even in the broad jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights, when cases from Albania have been adjudicated, violations of the right to effective appeal have been observed in the criminal process.

  14. Comparisons of stakeholders’ perception towards the sustainable tourism development and its impacts in Shkodra Region (Albania

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    Drita Kruja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the world’s fastest growing industries, and has been identified as a means of generating national income in less industrialized economies. Like other countries, Albania has promoted tourism as a major source of national income. The tourism industry in Albania currently focuses on coastal areas, rather than on the unique features that set this country apart from its neighbors. Albania’s natural features have the potential to attract tourists seeking ecological and cultural experiences. Thoughtful, sustainable development of these resources could enhance community livelihoods throughout Albania. The purpose of this study was to discover if differences in perceptions of sustainable tourism development and principles in Shkodra Region existed between four stakeholder groups: residents, entrepreneurs, government officials, and tourists. Data were collected from stakeholders using a self competed questionnaire, which included Likert-style questions inquiring about attitudes and perceptions of sustainable tourism development in the community. The data gathered illustrate that the perception of sustainable tourism principles varies considerably among stakeholder groups. As a distinct stakeholder group, the majority of local residents generally were welcoming of tourism.

  15. The Contribution of SMEs to the Economic Growth (Case of Albania

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    Alba Kruja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Small & Medium Sized Enterprises have an important place in the economical development of Albania. They already consist of the majority of private business and they are the main source of employment generation, innovation and productivity growth. In this context an
    important determinant of the Albanian economy development lies in the development of small and medium enterprises, which is not based only on the number of start-ups but also on the positive change of business environment and entrepreneurial skills. The aim of the research is to examine the contribution of SMEs to the economic growth of the country through employment generation, building of added value, GDP, export activities etc., and the changes in entrepreneurial skills of Albanian SMEs to foresee the ways of improvement and enterprise development. The methods of research are: analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature discussing the problems SMEs are facing and the environmental changes; the systematic statistical data analysis of Albanian entrepreneurial skills of small and medium-sized enterprises. The analysis shows that from the weakest dimensions of SME sector in Albania are entrepreneurship education and training and the promotion of innovation and use of new technologies.

    Keywords: SMEs, economic growth, Albania

  16. The influence of women's empowerment on maternal health care utilization: evidence from Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Lantona; Spaho, Alma; Hotchkiss, David R

    2014-08-01

    Women in Albania receive antenatal care and postnatal care at lower levels than in other countries in Europe. Moreover, there are large socio-economic and regional disparities in maternal health care use. Previous research in low- and middle-income countries has found that women's status within the household can be a powerful force for improving the health, longevity, and mental and physical capacity of mothers and the well-being of children, but there is very little research on this issue in the Balkans. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of women's empowerment within the household on antenatal and postnatal care utilization in Albania. The research questions are explored through the use of bivariate and multivariate analyses based on nationally representative data from the 2008-09 Albania Demographic and Health Survey. The linkages between women's empowerment and maternal health care utilization are analyzed using two types of indicators of women's empowerment: decision making power and attitudes toward domestic violence. The outcome variables are indicators of the utilization of antenatal care and postnatal care. The findings suggest that use of maternal health care services is influenced by women's roles in decision-making and the attitudes of women towards domestic violence, after controlling for a number of socio-economic and demographic factors which are organized at individual, household, and community level. The study results suggest that policy actions that increase women's empowerment at home could be effective in helping assure good maternal health.

  17. Vertical slip rates of active faults of southern Albania inferred from river terraces

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    Oswaldo Guzmán

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial terraces of Shkumbin, Devoll, Osum and Vjosa rivers (southern Albania and northwestern Greece are studied in order to quantify the vertical slip rates of the large active faults of the Dinaric-Albanic-Hellenic Alpine fold belt. The spatial and temporal variations of the incision rates along these rivers were estimated from the geomorphological mapping of the Quaternary sediments, the geometry and the dating of the terraces. Eleven terraces levels were identified in Albania from 68 geochronological ages already published or acquired for this work. The five lower terraces of the four studied rivers are well dated (10 new and 23 already published ages. These terraces are younger than 30 ka and their remnants are numerous. Their restoration allows estimating the regional trend of incision rate and the identification of local shifts. We argue that these shifts are linked to the active tectonics when they coincide with the faults already mapped by previous authors. Vertical slip rates for eight active faults in southern Albania are thus estimated for the last 19 ka and vary from ~0.1 to ~2 mm/a. The Lushnje Tepelene Thrust, that extends more than 120 kilometers, has a throw rate that varies from 0.2 to 0.8 mm/a, whereas the active faults of the extensional domain are segmented but are very active, with throw rates reaching locally 2 mm/a.

  18. Moving towards Practice-Oriented and Research-Based Teacher Education: Challenges of Kosovo and Albania

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    Eda Vula

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current status, development trends and challenges of teacher education in Kosovo and Albania in their efforts to be aligned with current trends of a more research-based, practice and skills oriented teacher education system. The article compares the provision of pre-service teacher education and draws conclusions related to future development trends of the two countries as they aim to meet the best international standards and practices in shaping pre-service teacher education from a research-based and practice orientation. This article is based primarily on findings from desk research conducted at public universities in Kosovo and Albania, more specifically analyzing the university curricula and other documents related to the provision of teacher education courses. In addition, the research involves the analysis of work completed and documents produced as a result of the 2009-2011 Trans-European Mobility Program for University Studies (TEMPUS Project “Development of Master Study Programs in Education” (DEMED. The article outlines the similarities and differences of teacher education systems in Kosovo and Albania and emphasizes the need for small countries to co-operate on joint reform that leads to wider regional impact and facilitates mobility of staff and students. Identifying common goals is thus important. The two priority goals for these two countries are: development of practice and research-based teacher education. Conclusions are presented with the intent of findings being extrapolated to similar small, developing countries.

  19. First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruci, Zana; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pazari, Ermira; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Vyshka, Gentian

    2012-10-10

    Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes.

  20. Attractiveness of foreign investments in Albania: a focused analysis of factors, constrains and policy assessment

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    Blerta Dragusha (Spahija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments are very important for the implementation of strategic reforms, transfer of advanced technologies and managerial methods, thereby stimulating economic growth in developing countries and in particular, transition economies such as Albania is. During the last years, Albania experienced an increase in foreign investors’ interest in a wide range of sectors, with energy generation, telecommunication, cement production, mining, oil and industrial parks heading the list. However, the major obstacle factors for FDI inflows seem to remain the same: pervasive corruption, weak law enforcement, poor rule of law, lack of developed infrastructure, lack of a reliable energy supply and insufficiently defined property rights. Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  1. Emplacement of the Jurassic Mirdita ophiolites (southern Albania): evidence from associated clastic and carbonate sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Ionescu, Corina; Hoeck, Volker; Koller, Friedrich; Onuzi, Kujtim; Bucur, Ioan I.; Ghega, Dashamir

    2012-09-01

    Sedimentology can shed light on the emplacement of oceanic lithosphere (i.e. ophiolites) onto continental crust and post-emplacement settings. An example chosen here is the well-exposed Jurassic Mirdita ophiolite in southern Albania. Successions studied in five different ophiolitic massifs (Voskopoja, Luniku, Shpati, Rehove and Morava) document variable depositional processes and palaeoenvironments in the light of evidence from comparable settings elsewhere (e.g. N Albania; N Greece). Ophiolitic extrusive rocks (pillow basalts and lava breccias) locally retain an intact cover of oceanic radiolarian chert (in the Shpati massif). Elsewhere, ophiolite-derived clastics typically overlie basaltic extrusives or ultramafic rocks directly. The oldest dated sediments are calpionellid- and ammonite-bearing pelagic carbonates of latest (?) Jurassic-Berrasian age. Similar calpionellid limestones elsewhere (N Albania; N Greece) post-date the regional ophiolite emplacement. At one locality in S Albania (Voskopoja), calpionellid limestones are gradationally underlain by thick ophiolite-derived breccias (containing both ultramafic and mafic clasts) that were derived by mass wasting of subaqueous fault scarps during or soon after the latest stages of ophiolite emplacement. An intercalation of serpentinite-rich debris flows at this locality is indicative of mobilisation of hydrated oceanic ultramafic rocks. Some of the ophiolite-derived conglomerates (e.g. Shpati massif) include well-rounded serpentinite and basalt clasts suggestive of a high-energy, shallow-water origin. The Berriasian pelagic limestones (at Voskopoja) experienced reworking and slumping probably related to shallowing and a switch to neritic deposition. Mixed ophiolite-derived clastic and neritic carbonate sediments accumulated later, during the Early Cretaceous (mainly Barremian-Aptian) in variable deltaic, lagoonal and shallow-marine settings. These sediments were influenced by local tectonics or eustatic sea

  2. THE ISSUE OF BORDERS OF ALBANIA AT THE CONFERENCE OF THE AMBASSADORS IN LONDON 1912-1913

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    İhsan Burak BİRECİKLİ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available After the First Balkan War, the Conference of Ambassadors held in London and representing the six Great European Powers. (England, Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Russia. It began its work on 17 December in 1912 under the direction of the British secretary Edward Grey. European powers had politico-strategic interests on Albania, which cross the boundaries of Balkan States. They could not allow the establishment of bigger Albania and being a threat to the safety of the members of the Balkan Alliance (Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece. It has been foreseen the fragmentation of Albania between them. Thus, the Great Powers didn’t respect the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of Albania aimed at meeting its neighbors’ intentions. For example Serbia that is landlocked, with no access to an ocean and sea, has a disadvantage because it cannot easily transport and import products and guns to other parts of the world. They discussed the borders of Albania in the conference. The issue of borders connected to solving the Adriatic question and Aegean Islands problems. They established International Boundary Comissions to study the exact border. This paper aims to analyze the attitude of Great Powers on Albanian’s borders in the Conference of Ambassadors in London.

  3. Estimating the association between economic performance and Okun misery index in Albania: January 2005- December 2014 F

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    Fejzi Kolaneci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study is to develop a statistical analysis of the GDP growth rate, Okun misery index and association between them for Albania during the period January 2005-December.Some results of the present study include: • The official data of the quarterly GDP growth rate for Albania during the period January 2005 – December 2014 contradict Kolmogorov’s Central Limit Theorem at the confidence level77.1%. • The GDP growth rate for Albania during the specified period is anunfair game at the confidence level78.2%. • The official data of the quarterly Okun misery index for Albania during January 2005-December 2014 contradict Central Limit Theorem at the confidence level 86.4%. • The miserably process in Albania during the specified period is an unfair game at the confidence level 98.3%. • Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient between quarterly GDP growth rate and quarterly Okun misery index is -0.0606, which indicates a quite weal negative association between these two random variables.

  4. The Determinants of Actual Migration and the Role of Wages and Unemployment in Albania: an Empirical Analysis

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    Cristina Cattaneo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the determinants of internal migration in Albania, adopting the Harris-Todaro approach to migration: an internal migration function is estimated using district wage and unemployment rate differentials. The aggregate level wages and unemployment, included in the migration equation, are retrieved from a first stage wage and unemployment equations, estimated controlling for personal characteristics. Moreover, in order to test the predictions of the human capital model of migration, the difference between migrants and non-migrants is emphasized in the estimation. The data source is the "Living Standard Measurement Survey for Albania" (2002, undertaken by the national Institute of Statistics and the World Bank jointly. The results reveal that both wage and unemployment differentials are important determinants of the propensity to migrate in Albania. This conclusion is further emphasized by noting that migrants gain substantially in terms of higher returns to individual characteristics after emigration.

  5. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

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    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consisting of: Pan - European Corridor IV, V, VII, VIII, IX and X. Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the development of transport routes and corridors in the Balkans in the context of Pan-European corridors; evaluation of national policy, priorities of Transport, directions of Albania’s main road and their compatibility with the needs of Pan - European connectivity.

  6. [Guidelines for a prevalence survey of nosocomial infections in the University Hospital "Madre Teresa" in Tirana, Albania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, L; Faria, S; Gjata, A; Kasneci, A; Byku, B; Schinaia, N

    2003-01-01

    The authors present guidelines for the first prevalence survey of nosocomial infections in the University Hospital "Madre Teresa" in Tirana (almost 1,600 beds), the only tertiary health-care centre in Albania. The survey is a joint project involving Italy and Albania, to be coordinated by the Italian National Health Institute. The paper describes goals, methodology and organization of the prevalence survey. The improvement of local expertise in epidemiology and microbiology is one of the most important goals. Therefore, Albanian personnel training and improvement of the infection microbiological diagnosis are fundamental aspects of the project.

  7. Evaluation of Determinative Precautions of Unemployment, Undertaken Decisions and Policies to its Decrease in Albania

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    Arben Terpollari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This material is an introduction of the main indicators having affected unemployment and job market, it is a theoretical and empirical analysis of different active policies of employment. The data used in this empirical analysis are observed during the last 15 years. Unemployment, is known as a macroeconomic “chronic disease” to which adding inflation, make up the two most determinative problems in economy. Often; the decreaseof unemployment data is considered as the first symptom of the first phase of recession, making it a big financial burden to the government. Unemployment causes discredit of the human capital simultaneously it credits unemployed. Due to this fact, these categories except of being a financial burden to thegovernment, they become a target of risk. (Increase of criminal cases in state level. Albania is the 5th ranked in the region, after Macedonia (33%, Bosnia Herzegovina (24%,Serbia (17.4% and Turkey (14%, Albania (13%, Montenegro (11%, Greece (9.4%, and Croatia (9.2%. Based on a time limit analysis, we can see that Montenegro has an extremedecrease of unemployment during last 10 years.Unemployment increase is the crucial factor which highly indicates in the average salaries, however, there’s chance of being optimistic to the consumers because of the highly evaluated expectancies. “Expectancies for the 6 upcoming months are foreseen optimistic compared to the last of 2014, the actual balance has decreased in 5.4 points (the balance decrease shows the tendency in lower level of unemployment”, this is highly emphasized in the report of the Bank of Albania “ Observation of business and consumer’s faith”.Key words: unemployment level, employment policies, unemployment cost, measuringunemployment.

  8. Serological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in Berat and Kolonje, Albania

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    ARTA LUGAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus(CCHFV, which is a member of the Nairovirusgenus (family Bunyaviridae. The disease now occurs sporadically throughout much of Africa, Asia, andEurope and results in an approximately 30% fatality rate. Numerous genera of ixodid ticks serve both as vector and reservoir for CCHFV; however, ticks in the genus Hyalommaare particularlyimportant to the ecology of this virus.The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of CCHFV among the cattle in Berat and Kolonje regions in Albania. The data taken in this study indicates for the presence of CCHFV Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in these countries. The serum samples were conserved in -20°C and tested with immunological methods using indirect ELISA assay in Friedrich-Loeffler Institute (FLI, Greifswald Germany. Through this technique it was possible to identified IgG antibodies in infected serum samples. From these results in Berat-Terpanwe had an indication about the presence of IgG antibodies in 2 blood samples. 3 serum samples were equivocal and 45 serum samples were negative from the total of 50 serum samples in cattle. While in Kolonje-Erseke the results show the presence of IgG antibodies in 4 blood samples from 54 seum samples in cattle. Respectively the prevalence in these 2 countries in Albania is 4.4% and 8%. These results can clearly proved the presence of CCHFV in livestock in Albania.

  9. High-resolution molecular epidemiology and evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtypes in Albania.

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    Marco Salemi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 epidemic in Western Europe is largely due to subtype B. Little is known about the HIV-1 in Eastern Europe, but a few studies have shown that non-B subtypes are quite common. In Albania, where a recent study estimated a ten-fold increase of AIDS incidence during the last six years, subtype A and B account for 90% of the know infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the demographic history of HIV-1 subtype A and B in Albania by using a statistical framework based on coalescent theory and phylogeography. High-resolution phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis showed a limited introduction to the Balkan country of subtype A during the late 1980s followed by an epidemic outburst in the early 1990 s. In contrast, subtype B was apparently introduced multiple times between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s. Both subtypes are growing exponentially, although the HIV-1A epidemic displays a faster growth rate, and a significantly higher basic reproductive number R(0. HIV-1A gene flow occurs primarily from the capital Tirane, in the center of the country, to the periphery, while HIV-1B flow is characterized by a balanced exchange between center and periphery. Finally, we calculated that the actual number of infections in Albania is at least two orders of magnitude higher than previously thought. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis demonstrates the power of recently developed computational tools to investigate molecular epidemiology of pathogens, and emphasize the complex factors involved in the establishment of HIV-1 epidemics. We suggest that a significant correlation exists between HIV-1 exponential spread and the socio-political changes occurred during the Balkan wars. The fast growth of a relatively new non-B epidemic in the Balkans may have significant consequences for the evolution of HIV-1 epidemiology in neighboring countries in Eastern and Western Europe.

  10. Considerazioni sul Realismo socialista in Albania, fra rigide direttive ufficiali e aperture culturali

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    Amalda Cuka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Si propone una analisi del contesto culturale dell’Albania socialista e delle ricerche artistiche indirizzate verso uno stile nazionale: il realismo socialista. L’analisi non prescinde da una valutazione dei percorsi di alcuni artisti che hanno dato spazio ad una ricerca più ampia e variegata. A tal proposito si sottolineano le esperienze internazionali che alcuni hanno avuto modo di compiere negli altri paesi socialisti, oltre ai rapporti culturali con l’Italia, nel periodo tra le due guerre mondiali, in quanto hanno segnato profondamente il panorama artistico albanese degli decenni successivi.

  11. L’Albania apre agli accordi di collaborazione con i “nuovi culti”

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    Giovanni Cimbalo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. Gli evangelici albanesi a favore della lingua, della cultura, dell’identità e dell’indipendenza - 2. La nuova Costituzione albanese e il ripristino della libertà religiosa - 3. Le trattative per la stipula dell’accordo di cooperazione - 4. I contenuti dell’accordo e i suoi effetti nel rapporto con la legislazione ordinaria a tutela della libertà religiosa - 5. La proiezione dell’efficacia degli accordi nell’area dell’Albania etnica – 6. Gli accordi di cooperazione: un modello esportabile?

  12. The karyotype of Festucopsis serpentini (Poaceae Triticeae) from Albania studied by banding techniques and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, I.; Seberg, O.; Frederiksen, S.;

    1996-01-01

    The karyotypes of two populations of Festucopsis serpentini (2n = 2x = 14) endemic to Albania were investigated in detail by Giemsa C- and N-banding, AgNO3 staining, and in situ hybridization with an rDNA probe. The complements consisted of 14 large chromosomes, 10 metacentric and 4 SAT-chromosom...

  13. OCCURRENCE OF AGONE ALOSA AGONE IN LAKE SHKODRA, ALBANIA IN SYMPATRY WITH TWAITE SHAD ALOSA FALLAX NILOTICA.

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    RAKAJ N.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Twaite shad, Alosa fallax nilotica occurs in Lake Shkodra (Albania in sympatry with Agone Alosa agone. Differences in morpho-meristic variables, in the biology and the ecology of the two species are presented and potential explanations for the occurrence of these shad populations in sympatry are discussed.

  14. IMPACT OF THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON POVERTY REDUCTION IN ALBANIA AS A COUNTRY IN TRANSITION

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    Evelina BAZINI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fighting poverty is a major challenge for Albania, in which tourism can make a significant contribution. However, it is important to analyze the basic concepts behind specific policies and actions that would allow tourism to be effective, like the possibilities offered by micro-credit. In fact, tourism development must be properly managed, avoiding anarchic, speculative development, so that it can be transformed into benefits for the local people and their environment. This paper will list seven areas of action through which tourism development in Albania as a Mediterranean country could fight poverty, with several of them relating to the possibilities created by micro-credit. After analyzing each of these approaches, a methodology must be drawn up for selecting the most effective projects from two points of view – interest for tourism and impact on poverty reduction.

  15. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

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    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  16. Albania: Trends and patterns, proximate determinants and policies of fertility change

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    Letizia Mencarini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For a very long time, Albania has had one of the highest levels of fertility in Europe: in 2002 the total fertility rate of 2.2 children per woman was the highest in Europe. Although this current level is high, the country has experienced a rapid fertility reduction during the last 50 years: a TFR decline from 7 to 2.2. This reduction has occurred in the absence of modern contraception and abortion, which indicates the significance of investments in the social agenda during the communist regime that produced policies with indirect effects on fertility. Most significant of these were policies focused on education, in particular on female education. Social and demographic settings for a further fertility reduction in Albania have been present since 1990. Contraception and abortion have been legalized and available since the early 1990s, but knowledge of their use is still not widespread in the country, largely due to the interplay between traditional and modern norms of Albanian society. This chapter points out that future fertility levels will be determined not only by new policies that might be introduced, but predominantly by the balance of this interplay.

  17. Microbiological Quality of Raw Milk at Farm, Collection and Manufactory Level in Albania

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    ELVIRA BELI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production has a long tradition in Albania due to favourable natural resources for large and small ruminants and still plays an important role in agriculture and rural development. The total domestic milk production in Albania is currently about one million tons from which cow milk production is about 86% whereas 14% come from small ruminants. Regular testing of the quality of raw milk is a very important instrument for the development of the Albanian dairy sector and to protect the consumer in buying a safe domestic milk product. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbial quality (using enumeration of total bacterial count of raw cow’s milk at different sampling points received from individual farmers, at milk collection centers points in the villages or in more professional milk collection centres (MCC, in three selected regions Fier, Korce, Shkoder. Average of TBC for samples collected on farms (903 samples resulted 3.890.000 cfu/ml, on milk collecting center (297 samples 5.170.000, cfu/ml, at manufactory (631 samples 3.800.000 cfu/ml. On average the level of Total Bacteria Count (TBC/ml is much higher than national threshold which is for TBC/ml < 1,000,000. Large number of farm holdings, about 85 %, show the TBC level higher than 1,000,000 /ml, only 15 % of samples on farm level fulfil the requirements of Albanian transitions criteria, but are far way with the EU standard.

  18. Molecular identification and artificial cultivation of a wild isolate of oyster mushroom in Albania

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    Jordan Merkuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomata of a wild mushroom macroscopically recognised as Pleurotus ostreatus were observed on an oak trunk in a mixed wood of northern Albania. Pure cultures of the fungus were then obtained on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Molecular analyses of genomic DNA of the fungus confirmed its identification. The rDNA ITS region nucleotide sequence of the studied Pleurotacea matched at 99% those of two P. ostreatus strains already present in NCBI GenBank database. The rDNA ITS nucelotide sequences of two pure cultures of the Albanian P. ostreatus were deposited in EMBL database under the accession numbers LN849458 and LN849459. One of the fungus isolates was subsequently cultivated under protected and semi-natural conditions. Productivity and biological efficiency of the Albanian P. ostreatus ranged from about 10% to 16% and from 33 to 53.33%, respectively. This seems to be the first report on the artificial cultivation of P. ostreatus in Albania and could have, in the next future, a high economic impact on development and diffusion of this important edible mushroom over the country.

  19. A Neglected Zoonosis in Albania: why Echinococcosis is Becoming a Surgeon’s Exclusivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaca, Arben; Vyshka, Gentian; Pepa, Arben; Shytaj, Kastriot; Shtjefni, Valentin; Boçari, Arben; Beqiri, Arben; Kraja, Dhimitër

    2014-01-01

    Echinococcosis is an endemic zoonosis in the Mediterranean area, with Albania interested actually to a level that is becoming a public health concern. Authors describe preliminary data from the only tertiary (university) medical facility of Albania, positioned in the capital of the country (Tirana), with 333 new cases diagnosed and treated during the period 2005 – 2011. Out of all these 333 new cases an impressive majority of 91% had a surgical treatment right from the first admission, rendering the disease almost a surgical exclusivity. Even more, 80% of all patients from the study group were hospitalized straightforwardly in surgical wards, with options of surgical intervention’s percentages outrunning figures from other sources and authors of the same geographical area. Such a situation, together with a very important level of patients’ origin from highly urbanized areas such as those of the capital, suggest the necessity of well-organized interventions, among which might be the mandatory notification of all human cases with Echinococcus infection. PMID:24678390

  20. The Management Accounting Practices in Albania in the Context of Globalization

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    Manjola Naco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to provide relevant findings on the status of management accounting in Albanian Accounting Practices, based on the direct survey with selected companies and individuals (experts on the field. In our analysis we have used as a benchmark the IFAC statement on Management Accounting Concepts and its description of the evolution of management accounting. To achieve our objectives we prepared and provided to a large group of professional accountants (that mainly are dealing with bookkeeping and financial statement preparations a structured questionnaire, containing several questions on the status of the practices applied in Albania on management accounting. This survey was carried out during the first half of 2009. Findings of this paper are based on the answers given by 300 respondents. These answers point out that management accounting practices in Albania tend not to be complex and sophisticated. Budgeting, product profitability and financial performance measurement remain the central pillars, while other, most contemporary, management accounting techniques are sporadically used. There is also little evidence of management accounting concerned directly with "value creation".  

  1. A NEGLECTED ZOONOSIS IN ALBANIA: WHY ECHINOCOCCOSIS IS BECOMING A SURGEON’S EXCLUSIVITY?

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    Arben Pilaca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is an endemic zoonosis in the Mediterranean area, with Albania interested actually to a level that is becoming a public health concern. Authors describe preliminary data from the only tertiary (university medical facility of Albania, positioned in the capital of the country (Tirana, with 333 new cases diagnosed and treated during the period 2005 – 2011. Out of all these 333 new cases an impressive majority of 91% had a surgical treatment right from the first admission, rendering the disease almost a surgical exclusivity. Even more, 80% of all patients from the study group were hospitalized straightforwardly in surgical wards, with options of surgical intervention’s percentages outrunning figures from other sources and authors of the same geographical area. Such a situation, together with a very important level of patients’ origin from highly urbanized areas such as those of the capital, suggest the necessity of well-organized interventions, among which might be the mandatory notification of all human cases with Echinococcus infection.

  2. Wage Tendency in Albania; The Reaction to the Global Economic and Financial Crisis

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    Imelda Sejdini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wage of both public and private sectors is a very important source of incomes for most of the population in Albania. The importance of public sector wage policy exceeds the sector's actual share of total employment, because the level of wages in this sector is, to a certain extent, a point of reference for wages in the private sector, too. During the first transition years the wages of a great number of the employees, whose enterprises had stopped being operational, were practically a form of social support. The data for this paper are gathered from all the surveys done on wages during transition from the public sources and the institute of statistics. From these data results that the wages have increased recurrently, first of all to counter the inflationary effects and to provide a better remuneration to the employees in both sector, despite the global financial crisis. This is due to the lack of full integration in the global markets. In this paper we discuss about the wage tendency in Albania as a country in further development, exposed to the risks of the global financial crisis, and the reaction to the difficulties encountered while the country is preparing for the EU integration.

  3. CLUSTER PRACTICES IN HERITAGE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT – CASE STUDY IN SOUTHERN ALBANIA

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    Mirdaim AXHAM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As competitiveness is growing in the Balkans, a new approach in the development of heritage tourism, which can adapt to these circumstances, is required. Cluster practices can be the new approach that can improve competitiveness of Albanian tourism. Considering the nature of Albania and its rich heritage, it is a very attractive “magnet” for foreign tourists. The article starts with a presentation of tourism experience in Albania and discusses why heritage tourism is possibly the only way to develop tourism now and for the future, in the country. Some brief explanation concerning cluster practices follow: a presentation of the main issues about cluster practices, their benefits and drawbacks, their implementation and the ways they can be monitored and evaluated. It is important to direct attention to the fact that cluster practices are becoming an important means to development and to the enforcement of social capital in the geographical areas where they are implemented. In the end of the article is shown why cluster practices can be worth of being implemented in area of Butrint-Saranda-Gjirokastra-Korca. The paper concludes with the main findings and conclusions of the analysis.

  4. Extradition institution and international standards for its implementation in the Republic of Albania

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    Enkelejda Metaliaj (Softa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The states between them create a kind of cooperation, which appears in the creation of political alliances, increase in the level of cooperation, greater use of more efficient and streamlined means for unifying ways of acting. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters comes as an old tradition, with different stages of development and dictated by political and historical conditions in which every country has passed. In the case of Albania, seen in a historical context, since the birth of the Albanian state and during the existence of the communist regime (1944-1990, judicial cooperation in criminal matters in general, and the implementation of extradition, in particular refers to only bilateral treaties between different countries, which were a clear expression of political alliances of the time. With the democratic changes occurring in the early 90s, along with the establishment of relations with many countries of Europe and the world, judicial cooperation in criminal matters was given an important role in setting the bases in the legislative framework and this led to the signing of the European Convention “On Extradition” (and its Protocols which its ratification by the Republic of Albania, which has become part of the domestic Albanian legislation, establishing a set of binding standards, which have already been applicable to the Albanian legislation.

  5. Government Participation in Bad Debts Resolution; Case of Kosovo and Albania

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    MSc. Valdrin Dervishaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks need to make thorough analysis and take into consideration all the potential risks that arise related to their lending, preventing bad loans mostly during economic slowdown. The Non-Performing Loans (now on referred as NPL in Kosovo continued falling from 8.7% as it was in 2013 to 8.3% in 2014. While in 2014 NPL level decreased, the provisioning for loans continued to increase from 110.5% to 114.4%. This is a positive toward any unexpected situation. Lost loans have continued to increase in moderated way for the last four years.  Banking Sector in Albania since the last economic recession entered into third period of development which shows huge problems with high NPL ratio, credit shrink, lower banks’ profitability and intensive attempts to introduce stabilizing mechanisms. NPL ratio was the highest in South East Europe Countries (now on referred as SEEC region, number of outstanding loans tended to decrease such as profit in banking sectors. As a response to highest NPL ratio compared to world level, Kosovo authority has set only guidelines for restructuring and monitoring the process of regularity.  This provides banks with a wide range of autonomy in the procedures of restructuring. Authority in Albania has been active in the process of normalizing the system. In 2013 has introduced the guideline on corporate loan restructuring. The guideline promotes 12 principles.

  6. Rare and Endemic Plants in the Southern Mountain Ecosystems of Albania, their Threats and Diversity

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    ERMELINDA MAHMUTAJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study highlights flora and vegetation richness in the mountain ecosystems in Southern Albania, focusing mainly on Çika, Këndërvica, and Tomorri Mts. The data are collected in more than 100 relevés during field trips, carried out in periods of intensive vegetation. It shows the presence of 11 endemic taxa, 23 nearendemics and more than 60 Balkan endemics. Two new species for science are described recently (Gymnospermium maloi Kit Tan & Shuka and Campanula aureliana Bogdanović, Rešetnik, Brullo & Shuka and some others are confirmed about 100 years after (Sesleria albanica Ujhelyi and Stachys sericophylla Halacsy. Main threats, especially for the endemics and rare taxa of the southern region of Albania, are presented in this study, with recommendations for future steps. Some Natura2000 habitats are identified and a relevance of different habitat types like EUNIS, and Syntaxonomic classifications are linked together. The main aim of this study was the identification and presentation of floristic and vegetation values of this wide natural ecosystem and putting them into the function of science. The results indicate the area as the richest in the country, due to the insignificant influence of human factor and diversity of climate and terrestrial elements.

  7. The Impact of Real Exchange Rate on Economic Growth in Albania

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    Edmira Cakrani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Real exchange rate is one of the most important economic variables, especially in today's conditions of integration processes, the removal of trade barriers and increasing direct competition between countries. Real exchange rate affects economy, through its impact on key economic variables, such as employment, inflation and especially economic growth. Changes in the real exchange rate affect the competitiveness of domestic products, resulting in increased exports or imports, affecting trade balance e growth. Also changes in the real exchange rate affect investment and capital accumulation, which are directly linked with economic growth. The aim of this paper is to study the possible impact of the real exchange rate on economic growth in Albania, to answer the question whether the real exchange rate can be used as an instrument of policy. Johansen cointegration method and Vector Error Correction Model is used in this paper to identify the longterm and short-term impact of real exchange rate on economic growth in Albania. Results of the study indicate that the real exchange rate has no significant impact on the Albanian economy, suggesting that policies to promote economic growth, both in the short and long term should not rely on this variable.

  8. Instruments for the regional sustainable development in Albania - Instruments for supporting the implementation of regional development policy

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    Manjola Duli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Regional development is a cross-cutting issue. The current approach to regional development in Europe is place-based, in which multidimensional analyses are carried out and strategies and policies developed in relation to territorially defined socio-economic and environmental factors. In our study we have largely followed this approach, looking at long-term changes in a wide set of development indicators across Albania. As a result several regional typologies are presented as well as broad recommendations for regional development policy formulation. Albania has two levels of governance: national, county (qarks and local (municipalities. Directly elected bodies exist at central and local levels. Qark councils consist of delegated representatives from local units. Albania’s territory is organized into 12 counties and 61 local government units. There are neither administrative nor self-governing regions in Albania corresponding to NUTS 21 level classification. Qarks are the equivalent of NUTS 3 level. Currently in Albania there is no clear definition of a development region. In general it is perceived that qarks can be considered an appropriate level at which regional development is analyzed, promoted and monitored. Although we have followed this concept, both due to data available and no better practical alternative, there are clearly other possibilities which could surface in the medium-term perspective, for example: NUTS 2 delineation for Albania could lead to a situation when development issues will become also relevant at the macro level – practically the number of NUTS 2 regions in Albania could vary between 2 and 3 unless the country is allowed to stay one region; Territorial and administrative reforms could lead to a much smaller number of LGUs both at the basic municipality level and the qark level, especially that from a general RD perspective some of the qarks represent very small units, both in terms of population and size of the

  9. A highly accurate absolute gravimetric network for Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Christian; Ruess, Diethard; Butta, Hubert; Qirko, Kristaq; Pavicevic, Bozidar; Murat, Meha

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a basic gravity network in Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro to enable further investigations in geodetic and geophysical issues. Therefore the first time in history absolute gravity measurements were performed in these countries. The Norwegian mapping authority Kartverket is assisting the national mapping authorities in Kosovo (KCA) (Kosovo Cadastral Agency - Agjencia Kadastrale e Kosovës), Albania (ASIG) (Autoriteti Shtetëror i Informacionit Gjeohapësinor) and in Montenegro (REA) (Real Estate Administration of Montenegro - Uprava za nekretnine Crne Gore) in improving the geodetic frameworks. The gravity measurements are funded by Kartverket. The absolute gravimetric measurements were performed from BEV (Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying) with the absolute gravimeter FG5-242. As a national metrology institute (NMI) the Metrology Service of the BEV maintains the national standards for the realisation of the legal units of measurement and ensures their international equivalence and recognition. Laser and clock of the absolute gravimeter were calibrated before and after the measurements. The absolute gravimetric survey was carried out from September to October 2015. Finally all 8 scheduled stations were successfully measured: there are three stations located in Montenegro, two stations in Kosovo and three stations in Albania. The stations are distributed over the countries to establish a gravity network for each country. The vertical gradients were measured at all 8 stations with the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG5. The high class quality of some absolute gravity stations can be used for gravity monitoring activities in future. The measurement uncertainties of the absolute gravity measurements range around 2.5 micro Gal at all stations (1 microgal = 10-8 m/s2). In Montenegro the large gravity difference of 200 MilliGal between station Zabljak and Podgorica can be even used for calibration of relative gravimeters

  10. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FOR THE PRESENCE OF PARASITES IN SWINE IN ALBANIA

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    Edit Juka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we presented the results of 298 faecal samples and 42 post mortem pigs examination. In this study we included extensive, ½ intensive and intensive management farms in the different Albania districts such as: Gjirokastra, Tirana, Fier, Lac, Elbasan, Lushnjë, Lezhë etc. From 298 faeces samples, 198 belonged to piglets, and about 50% of animals were less and more than 6 months old, 38 sows before farrow, 30 uncastrated pigs and 32 samples were taken into slaughterhouses from imported pigs. The samples were collected randomly and were examined with the technique of simple and qualitative sedimentation for the evaluation of helminths and the technique of quantitative and qualitative fluctuation to evaluate the protozoans. In slaughterhouse we did post mortem examination on 42 piglets and we looked for the presence of parasites grown in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT. The results of this study showed that the most widespread helminth in pigs in Albania is Ascaris suum. It was present in more than 70 % of the examined samples, and in some cases was recorded as high as parasitic load up to 1200 e/g/f. In the economies of extensive menagement M. hirudinaceus was recorded in high level, particularly in farms located in north Albania. Both M. hirudinaceus and A.suum were most wudespread. In addition 28 % of the pig samples were positive for M. Apri. Copropositive results were found in 5,4 % of the faecal samples for Oesophagostomum spp, wheras 0,8 % of the faecal samples for were positive for Ancylostoma caninum, this was recorded mainly in extensive growth pig management. 21 % of the samples from piglets of extensive economies resulted positive for Strongyloides ransoni. For Physocephalus sexalatus 8,6 % of the samples resulted copropositive. Trikuris suis was founded in 5, 6 % of the samples. Protozoan forms were as cysts of Balantidium coli in 1.6 % from the total samples examined. In the post mortem examination frequency of A.suum was

  11. THE REPRESENTATION OF THE WOMAN IN THE MEDIA DISCOURSE IN ALBANIA

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    Isida Hoxha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Albanian society, gender differences remain even though several initiatives of national and international authorities aim to eliminate stereotyping related to gender differences. In this context, media can and must be , the most essential contributor towards improving women’s status. Media, through its power, can greatly influence public opinion by orienting the information the public receives and how the public should thinks. This approach in communication science is part of the “framing” theory, which is related to agenda setting. The research question raised in this paper is about how the woman is represented in the written media in Albania. Are the stereotypes created by society reinforced by the printed media? The methodology used in this study involves discourse analyses of the printed media, specifically the independent newspapers during October 2012. The findings of this study explain that, while the press brands  the woman, representation enforces her stereotype.

  12. Analysis of Roman glass from Albania by PIXE-PIGE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmit, Ž.; Tartari, F.; Stamati, F.; Vevecka Priftaj, A.; Istenič, J.

    2013-02-01

    A series of 31 Roman glasses dated to the 1st-4th c. AD from the present Albania was analyzed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method. The analysis shows typical natron-based glass of the Roman period, though statistical treatment using principal component analysis and bivariate plots reveals four distinct groups, which are qualified by increased levels of potassium, magnesium and titanium-manganese-iron oxides, respectively. MgO content may exceed 2% and reach the level commonly accepted for halophytic plant-ash glass. The groups are formed on account of mineral impurities in the sand, which gives support to the thesis of multiple production centers of raw glass in the imperial age.

  13. Post flood damage data collection and assessment in Albania based on DesInventar methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toto, Emanuela; Massabo, Marco; Deda, Miranda; Rossello, Laura

    2015-04-01

    In 2013 in Albania was implemented a collection of disaster losses based on Desinventar. The DesInventar system consists in a methodology and software tool that lead to the systematic collection, documentation and analysis of loss data on disasters. The main sources of information about disasters used for the Albanian database were the Albanian Ministry of Internal Affairs, the National Library and the State archive. Specifically for floods the database created contains nearly 900 datasets, for a period of 148 years (from 1865 to 2013). The data are georeferenced on the administrative units of Albania: Region, Provinces and Municipalities. The datasets describe the events by reporting the date of occurrence, the duration, the localization in administrative units and the cause. Additional information regards the effects and damage that the event caused on people (deaths, injured, missing, affected, relocated, evacuated, victims) and on houses (houses damaged or destroyed). Other quantitative indicators are the losses in local currency or US dollars, the damage on roads, the crops affected , the lost cattle and the involvement of social elements over the territory such as education and health centers. Qualitative indicators simply register the sectors (e.g. transportations, communications, relief, agriculture, water supply, sewerage, power and energy, industries, education, health sector, other sectors) that were affected. Through the queries and analysis of the data collected it was possible to identify the most affected areas, the economic loss, the damage in agriculture, the houses and people affected and many other variables. The most vulnerable Regions for the past floods in Albania were studied and individuated, as well as the rivers that cause more damage in the country. Other analysis help to estimate the damage and losses during the main flood events of the recent years, occurred in 2010 and 2011, and to recognize the most affected sectors. The database was

  14. Baseline Survey for an Assessment of the Nitrate Problematic in Divjaka Region of Albania

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    LIVIA PLOECHL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available the whole EU legislation has to be implemented into Albanian law. Thus, the limit value of the nitrate concentration in groundwater is defined with 50 mg/l according to the EU Groundwater Directive. However, in a definite region in Albania that is called Divjaka area it is assumed that this limit value is exceeded due to intensive agricultural land use, whereas no measurements are currently available. Therefore, simulation results of the nitrogen discharge model EPIC are presented, including the annual nitrogen leaching and the nitrate concentration in percolation water. As the latter exceeded the limit value, the findings at least indicate the necessity to monitor groundwater quality as basis for further studies and potential measures to avoid pollution.

  15. Consumer perceptions of food safety risk:Evidence from a segmentation study in Albania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edvin Zhllima; Drini Imami; Maurizio Canavari

    2015-01-01

    Albania is facing serious problems with the national food safety control system in terms of legislation, control and enforce-ment. The objective of this paper is to analyse consumer perceptions about safety of smal ruminant meat in Tirana, in a context of weak enforcement of the food safety system. Applying two-step clustering analyses, consumers were classiifed in four socio-demographic clusters, and it was found that the cluster composed of female consumers with lower education and income levels, and the two clusters composed of male consumers perceive consumed meat as safe. Consumers in the cluster composed of females with university education and higher income are, on average, more concerned with current meat safety measures and tend to place more trust in the veterinarian stamp on meat carcasses rather than in local butchers.

  16. Analysis of Roman glass from Albania by PIXE–PIGE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž., E-mail: ziga.smit@fmf.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tartari, F. [Institute of Archaeology, Tirana (Albania); Stamati, F. [Institute of Folk Culture, Laboratories of Conservation, Kont Urani 3, Tirana (Albania); Vevecka Priftaj, A. [Polytechnic University of Tirana, Sheshi Nene Tereza 4, Tirana (Albania); Istenič, J. [National Museum of Slovenia, Prešernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-02-01

    A series of 31 Roman glasses dated to the 1st–4th c. AD from the present Albania was analyzed by the combined PIXE–PIGE method. The analysis shows typical natron-based glass of the Roman period, though statistical treatment using principal component analysis and bivariate plots reveals four distinct groups, which are qualified by increased levels of potassium, magnesium and titanium–manganese–iron oxides, respectively. MgO content may exceed 2% and reach the level commonly accepted for halophytic plant-ash glass. The groups are formed on account of mineral impurities in the sand, which gives support to the thesis of multiple production centers of raw glass in the imperial age.

  17. CONCESSIONS AS NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR PUBLIC SERVICE MANAGEMENT - CASE OF ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURIM KRAJA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the development, market economies have known a new source of funding and efficiency of public projects and those of strategic importance. This new source is found on the partnership between the public and private sectors. The study of relationships and issues associated with this public-private partnership (PPP was a necessity identified several years ago in Albania, and at the moment this topic was the most discussed in Albanian politics. At that time, the government undertook a series of legislative initiatives to design a contemporary legislation in line with international standards.A large number of concession contracts for the construction of hydropower plants nationwide turned the term "concession" in one of the most used words, not only by the Albanian policy makers and decision makers, but also by business people or those of civil society, who started debating about concessions giving it the importance of a theme of the day.

  18. An analysis of the sources of competition disipline in the European Union and in Albania

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    Eriona Katro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition discipline in the European Union is a substantial component of the EU’s institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty made the “internal market” a shared competence, while necessary competition rules for the internal market are an exclusive competence of the Union. This paper aims to analyse the sources of the competition discipline in the EU and in Albania focusing more on constitutional sources. From this analyses will emerge that sources of competition discipline are numerous and each of them plays an important role in the development of the competition policy. But arises the question if these sources are all equally important or not? This paper will focus also n the importance of each source in both levels: European Union and Albanian discipline of competition.

  19. Terrorism as a notion and source of international law in the context of Albania

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    Asllan Dogjani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently the world has become more uncertain by the terrorist acts of the Islamic State of ISIS, who attacked the center of Europe (Brussels, Paris and attacks almost every day in Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Oman, North Africa, and the latest case in Orlando, Florida in the US, leaving behind many victims and bringing panic, fear, uncertainty and significant economical damages. The Islamic state with the theory "a state a flag" is attacking every day in every country where it is finding space, occupying certain territories, by trained terrorists, and threatening in all languages of the world that is recruiting in the name of Muslim religion. Seeing terrorism as a problem of great concern to citizens all over the world, we aim at analyzing this phenomenon and its risks in Albania.

  20. Legal time limits vs. discretional limits of administrative judicial review in Albania

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    Gerti Shella

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Administrative courts in Albania were established in 2012, as a separate branch of the court system, following enactment of the Law No. 49/2012 “On the Organization and Functioning of the Administrative Courts and Adjudication of Administrative Disputes”. One of the main features of the administrative adjudication is the swiftness at which it should be carried out. The law provides carefully for many time limits and procedural deadlines, to achieve such intended effect. This article focuses specifically on the time limits of concluding (1 the judicial review in administrative courts and 2 on due delivery of the final decision in court secretariat. These two distinct procedural phases constitute 98% of the length of a court case in time terms. The main thesis of this paper is that time limits which are explicitly written and required by the law produce better results in terms of compliance of judges with law and higher efficiency compared to discretional time limits.

  1. The justice system for the juveniles Juveniles adjudicated for the criminal act of “theft” in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Etilda Gjonaj Saliu

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile justice system in Albania has improved from year to year but slow movements are done in improving the whole system for the implementation of the guarantees prescribed in international acts and Albanian legislation. This article, is aiming to offer some opinions related to the justice system for the juveniles based on the statistical and qualitative data regarding the criminal policy that is used and the precautionary measures given through court decisions. This article, aims in i...

  2. What about monetary transmission in Albania? Is the exchange rate pass-through (still) the main channel?

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    There seems to be a general perception that the exchange rate pass-through is the most important channel in the transmission process of monetary policy in Albania. This perception is questioned here in light of the altering relationships in this developing economy. A discussion on the transmission channels in the Albanian economy is followed by a study of the macro-economic relationships and pragmatic econometrics quantifying the monetary effectiveness. The results indicate that the dollar...

  3. On official texts in Slavic dialects in the County of Korcha, South-Eastern Albania

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    Максим [Maxim] Макарцев [Makartsev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On official texts in Slavic dialects in the County of Korcha, South Eastern Albania In the article I consider official texts in Slavic dialects in Albania. Three texts are taken as examples: “An Internal Handbook for Organising the Work of a Regional Committee at a District/Prefecture Level of MAEI [Macedonian Alliance for European Integration]” (2009, a letter written by the villagers of Boboshtica to the Bulgarian Exarch (1873, and The “Charter of the Society of Kaynas” (2006. They make use of language in its symbolic function – the way these texts are written is almost as important as what exactly is written. These texts have been created to showcase the language and to underline its uniqueness against the background of another language or idiom, or, to put it another way, to underline through the language the special status of the people that use it.   Oficjalne teksty w słowiańskich dialektach okolic Korczy w południowo-wschodniej Albanii Artykuł omawia oficjalne teksty powstałe w słowiańskich dialektach Albanii. Wybrano przykładowo trzy teksty: Wewnętrzne wytyczne w sprawie organizacji pracy komitetu MAEI na poziomie okręgu/prefektury (2009, list mieszkańców Boboszticy do bułgarskiego egzarchy (1873 i Statut towarzystwa „Kajnas” (2006. Te trzy teksty posługują się językiem w sposób symboliczny. To, w jakiej odmianie języka są napisane, jest równie ważne, jak ich treść. Teksty te powstały bądź po to, aby pokazać język i podkreślić jego unikalność na tle innego języka, lub po to, aby poprzez język podkreślić szczególny status ludzi, którzy się nim posługują.

  4. Medieval Churches in Shushica Valley (South Albania and the Slavonic Bishopric of St. Clement of Ohrid

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    Skënder Muçaj

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There were numerous Slavic settlements in South Albania (including the valley of Shushica River at the end of the 1st millennium. In the second half of the 9th c. a significant part of this region was conquered by the 1st Bulgarian Kingdom, and after 870 there were established ecclesiastical dioceses which became part of the church organization of the Kingdom. Slavonic ecclesiastical schools were established in that region as well, after 886 in the context of the so-called “Slavonic project” of the Bulgarian prince, Boris. St. Clement took an active part in this project. It was South Albania where the first Slavonic bishopric in Southeast Europe was founded, in 893, when St. Clement was appointed bishop. His bishopric was organized according ethnic principle, so that St. Clement was called “the bishop of Slavonic people.”The center of Clement’s bishopric was in Velica, which is related to the modern settlement Velçë in the Shushica valley. There are ruins of a cross-in-square church with a narthex in the Asomat region, which is located near Velica. The church was built at the end of the 9th‒beginning of the 10th cc. and dedicated to the Archangel Michael. The plan of this church is identical with that of the so-called “pronaos” of the church built by St. Clement in his Ohrid monastery.In St. Clement’s bishopric Church Slavonic was used as a liturgical language. For that purpose, a set of Byzantine liturgical books was translated from Greek into Church Slavonic, and Clement took an active part in this process. Liturgical pecularities of these books partially observed in Greek manuscripts of South Italian provenance testify to the hypothesis that Greek sources of the earliest Church Slavonic translations belonged to liturgical tradition of Epirus, similar to those of South Italy. This also proves the location of St. Clement’s bishopric in the valley of the Shushica River.

  5. The cultivation of hazelnuts, variety “visoka” in Fier district in Albania

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    NAZMI AJAZI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hazelnuts in ecosystem and their importance related to other nut trees. These trees can be grown in hard terrenes with little qualities, so this fact has made hazelnut favorable to cultivate in Mallakastra district. Botanic characteristics and the history of its development in the district. The arrival of variety “visoka” in Albania, the spread and priorities that it took, the adaption with phytoclimatic and terrene’s factors. It is treated the problem of cultivation, the schemes of planting, the recommendation from current experience and the priorities. The agro technique that is used for cultivation and all relevant services, which are connected with development of this cultivar. Priorities’ classification between planting in separated blocks and in plantation. The graphic of costs and the performance for each case.The cultivation’s way in Balkan region and the comparisons with our country. The tables that present land qualities, which are recommended according to the study about Mallakastra district.The graphic of land plots that are speeded in the area. Also the chemical analyses of earth. The techniques of saplings production and given results.Marketing condition and the production priorities of this variety.

  6. An Evaluation Of Advertising Models In Emergent Countries – The Case Of Albania

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    Elenica Pjero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The market today is confronted with cornucopia of challenges and opportunities. The unfolding scenario is being closely watched by marketers across the globe and they are competing with each other to grasp the market share. In order to win over the consumers, marketers are constantly evolving strategies.The western firms based and operating from market-based economies are progressively being confronted with the growing challenge of creating brand awareness amongst the perspective consumers. As a result, advertising has become an essential marketing tool for these foreign firms in establishing their relatively less or unknown brands and products. The study aims to report the results of a survey about changing attitudes towards advertising in Albania. It examines the questionnaire - based response of a sample population of consumers from the city of Vlora, in their general attitudes towards advertising. Findings will contribute to the understanding of theoretical explanations for advertising in emerging markets, and of western firms using advertising marketing tool to penetrate these markets.

  7. Determination of the pluviometric deficit as a base for the climate classification in Albania

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    AZEM BARDHI1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sum of all climatic parameters known until now, in a strict understanding, cannot be the same as climate itself. The climate is the parameters we know plus potential evapotranspiration. The purpose of this paper is first, to quantify the potential evapotranspiration and then, combining it with the rainfall values, to quantify the pluviometric deficit all over Albania as a substantial precondition for climate classification. The functions of both, potential evapotranspiration and rainfall over time, resulted to be polynomial ones, because the highest regression coefficients were found comparing with other types of functions. A correlation coefficient significant for high probability values was found between the magnitude and the duration of pluviometric deficits. The entire country, based on the findings showed, could be divided into three main areas extended from the aridity to the humidity scale. However, this preliminary basic conclusion is supposed to be verified when the pluviometric deficit quantified already, as it will be shown in this article, is going to be used for the moisture index determination, as it is indicated in the Thornthwaite’s research work.

  8. First characterisation of natural radioactivity in building materials manufactured in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Ahmeti, A; Bezzon, G P; Bitri, M; Broggini, C; Buso, G P; Caciolli, A; Callegari, I; Cfarku, F; Colonna, T; Fiorentini, G; Guastaldi, E; Mantovani, F; Massa, G; Menegazzo, R; Mou, L; Prifti, D; Rossi Alvarez, C; Sadiraj Kuqi, Dh; Shyti, M; Tushe, L; Xhixha Kaçeli, M; Zyfi, A

    2013-07-01

    This study focuses on the radiological characterisation of building materials manufactured in Albania by using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were, respectively, 644.1±64.2, 33.4 ± 6.4 and 42.2 ± 7.6 Bq kg(-1) in the clay brick samples and 179.7 ± 48.9, 55.0 ± 5.8 and 17.0 ± 3.3 Bq kg(-1) in the cement samples. The calculated activity concentration index (ACI), varied from 0.48±0.02 to 0.63±0.04 in the clay brick samples and from 0.29±0.03 to 0.37±0.02 in the cement samples. Based on the ACI, all of the clay brick and cement samples were categorised as A1 materials. The authors can exclude (at 3σ level) any restriction of their use as bulk materials.

  9. Logistic Equation and its Application as Forecasting Model of Vegetables Production in Greenhouses in Albania

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    VALENTINA SHEHU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Correct forecasting is of a great importance for the business and economy of the country. To comprehend the market and the economic system, mathematical models are used to describe and predict the future of situation. Agriculture is the spinal column of Albania’s economic activity and the last 20 years free market experience has given a demonstration of the high correlation between agricultural progress and the economic development. Producing greenhouse-grown vegetables can result a beneficial activity, but it is a hard and complicated investment. The greenhouse technology is one of great innovation in agriculture. Agricultures methods must be combined with technical knowledge, marketing must be planned before harvest, and every phase of process should be well-managed. In this paper it is studied and applied the logistic growth model for forecasting the production of vegetables in greenhouse. The results of this paper show that the logistic S-shaped curve is a mathematical model to characterize the progress of innovation in agriculture. Also, the logistic equation can be used to describe and predict the production of vegetables in greenhouses in Albania.

  10. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    CERN Document Server

    Xhixha, Gerti; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 24 +/- 3 Bq/kg and 549 +/- 12 Bq/kg, respectively, come from oil-sand produced by hydrocarbon extraction from molasses formations. The mineralogical characterization together with the 228Ra/40K and 226Ra/40K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirm the geological and geodynamic model that predicts a dismantling of Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (+/- standard deviations) of the radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and of the 228Th and 40K radionuclides in soil samples are determined...

  11. Review of the regulatory framework on genetically modified food and feed in Albania: a policy perspective

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    ALBAN JAUPI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in food production and processing technologies have considerably enhanced man's ability to provide larger quantities and a wider variety of products. However, the recent development biotechnologies has also significantly increased controversy and dispute over the use of food and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of from conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. The dispute involves consumers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists. The article reviews the regulatory measures and approaches taken by the government of Albania to assess and manage the risks associated with the development, release and use of genetically modified foods in the country. The review and analyzes is made in light of the processes for harmonization of Albanian’s food policies and its legal and regulatory framework with the EU legislation and Acquis Communautaires. It identifies several important legal and regulatory issues and proposes necessary measures and mechanisms to be put in place related to identification and protection of the public interest and increased ability of consumers to be informed about the foods they eat

  12. Genetic and Filogenetic Characterization of some Newcastle Strains Isolated from Poultry in Albania

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    MARSEL BORAKAJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract section. In this study, we present the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of three strains of NDV, isolated from the Tirana region in Albania during the 2011-2014 years. Three strains with number 28, 29 and 31, isolated from a different farm of poultry in Tirana Region (Rural flocks, which were diagnosed clinically with the ND. The Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index in SPF bird one day old was determined by doing the proteolytic sequencing at the cleavage, and specifying the aminoacid motif at proteolytic cleavage site. More over we performed BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis of obtained RNA sequences. All strains replicated well in the SPF –chicken emryo eggs. The isolates displayed an aminoacid motif at the proteolytic cleavage site at the Fusion (F protein with multiple basic amino acids as a well a Phenylalanine on position 117. For one isolate (28 numerous nucleotide positions had signals for at last two nucleotides, making it imposible to conclude on a specific sequence. The pathogenicity of all three isolates (28, 29 and 33, was assessed by the analysis of the F protein cleavage site and by standart ICPI. The ICPI (pathogenicity index of our strains varies from of 1.85, 2 and 1.75, respectively which according [19,7] are typical for velogenic strains of NDV. We found that two NDV strain has a most close genetic relationship with the Serbia 2007 NDV, having 98% similarity at nucleotide level.Velogenic viscerotropic strains are considered endemic in our country.

  13. The culture of referendum in Albania: Technical and theoritecal reflections on the abrogative referendum

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    Valbona Pajo Bala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the Albanian constitutional and legal framework on referenda, in general, focusing special attention to the abrogative referenda of a law or part thereof. Given the absence of any concrete case of an abrogative referenda held in Albania, which does not creates very much room for discussion in that regard, the paper, through a comparative approach on the referenda culture in other european states, aims at offering to the reader a more complete view on the mechanisms and guarantees enjoyed by voters and the effective way of their use, in order to give life to the direct democracy, but without replacing the representative one. In addition, part of the analyses will be the powers of the Constitutional Court for the ex ante constitutional review of the issue subject to a referendum, the review of constitutionality of the referndum and of its results. In this context, the paper will focus on the constitutional case-law as a tool for increasing the referenda culture and shaping the constitional order, as well as a source of standards and values. Another objective of the paper is to open a discussion on the need for the reception of referenda-related standards elaborated in those European countries, where the culture of helding a referenda and the case-law on the regard is enriched and may serve as a qualitative basis for further reference.

  14. USER ADOPTION OF MANDATORY E-GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS: NOTARIAL SYSTEM IN ALBANIA, AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSE

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    Agim Kasaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available E-Government has high priority for governments worldwide, with much effort and money being invested into government digital initiatives. For such efforts to be worthy, a high rate of adoption of e-government is needed. Technology adoption is one of the most mature areas in information technology (IT research and many adoption models have been developed for this purpose. Most studies in this field have been focused on voluntary use of systems and mainly from a business context, with minor emphasize on an e-government. A major distinction between technologies of e-government and other online technologies, is that the use of certain e-government technologies is mandatory, rather than voluntary. This paper provides a short introduction of e-government, followed by a review of the most well-known information technology (IT adoption models at the individual level. Using previous research results, the study will identify the determinant constructs and their relationship for adoption of the digital notarial system of Albania. Finally, the paper proposes a theoretical framework for private professional adoption of mandatory e-government information systems.

  15. Riscrivere la storia. Modalità di rappresentazione del colonialismo italiano in Albania

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    Daniele Comberiati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Departing from the contemporary work of migrant authors of Albanian origin − OrnelaVorpsi, Anilda Ibrahimi and Elvira Dones − as well as from the theatrical monologueItalianesi by Saverio La Ruina, this article delves into the question of identity within postcolonial discourse. What role, in fact, do the Italian colonizers that remainedbehind in the liberated colonies play? How does their ‘hybrid’ identity help us toreflect upon colonial violence and upon the difficulties the colonizers themselves would have experienced internally when faced with accepting this violence? Additionally, the specific discussion of Albania, vis-à-vis narratives of contemporary migrants, allows us to reflect upon the Italian situation in particular, which, from unification to the present day offers specific material for the discussion of the relationship to, and the confronting of, the theme of ‘otherness’. A broad definition of ‘European’ colonialism − that goes beyond the alleged African otherness and runs along the same lines as a redefinition vehemently proposed by new groups of migrants in Italy (in particular by those from the Albanian immigration wave of 1991− allows one to question the Italian ambitions in regards to the Balkans and the Eastern expansion across national borders.

  16. The Local Resources in Albania as Instruments to Increase the Autonomy of the Local Institutions

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    Oriona Mucollari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  17. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

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    Makbule Çeço

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of constitutional revision in the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, as a complex process accompanied by limitations on constitutional revision. The historical evolution of constitutional drafting, modern constitutions, relevant issues, political and social circumstances as well as drafting and adoption procedures, dynamism of constitutions to cope with the course of time achieved by revisions for the purpose of their stability as well as consolidation of the role of constitutions as a factor that facilitates and precedes social development, comprise the pillar of this study addressed in a comparative point of view.

  18. Accounting Standardization and Financial Reporting in Public Sector in Albania- Future Challenges

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    Ariana Konomi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for improving and strengthening all the links of financial reporting chain not only in private sector but also in public sector, directly contributes to overcome the 2010-2012 global crisis and helps to transform the ongoing period into a global economic growth period. The governments should implement the necessary institutional measures for public sector growth, financial management transparency and accountability.An integral and fondamental element of these agreements is the usage of accruals (according accounting by approving and implementing International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS, which enable the full disclosure of all the assets, liabilities and conditional liabilities, as a basic issue for real assessment and financial management of public sector, extended monitoring of government debt and liabilities, for their real economic implications. The implementation of accounting standards in public sector of Albania, besides the unification of accounting and financial statements preparation, intends to influence right, qualitative and long term decision-making, at all government levels; to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of financial resources; formalize the economy and better fight the phenomena of corruption, fraud, money laundering or fundsabuse; improve the level of fiscal transparency to public and integrate or face the global economy.As the main challenge of this sector and also as a process that needs time, financial reporting, requires a continuous reformation of policies, institutions, structures and professionalsKey words: Accounting standartization, financial management/reporting, public sector.

  19. Italy and Albania: The political and economic alliance and the Italian invasion of 1939

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    Peter Tase

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  20. Fort, Tower, or House? Building a Landscape of Settlement in the Shala Valley of High Albania

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    Michael L. Galaty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of archaeological, (ethno-historic, and ethnographic research in the Shala River valley of northern Albania. We argue that through time and in different periods of occupation - Middle Palaeolithic, Iron Age, Late Medieval, and Modern - the valley's residents have met similar challenges of extreme geography and a harsh environment differently, in particular by interacting in different ways and at different levels of intensity with the outside world. These shifts caused changes in population, settlement, and socio-political organisation that are reflected strongly in the local landscape and built environment. Population, settlement, and socio-political organisation did not hold constant, but were influenced by external forces, despite the seeming isolation of the valley and its occupants. This article demonstrates how thin material and documentary records can be greatly enhanced through carefully integrated, interdisciplinary studies of settlement, home construction, and neighbourhood expansion and abandonment. We present select results drawn from an on-line database and GIS, along with photos, drawings, and audio recordings of transcribed interviews. An interactive system of blogs allows the authors to direct readers to additional sources of data, and readers to tell authors and other readers how they have accessed and displayed these data, and with what results.

  1. Potential of Wind Energy in Albania and Kosovo: Equity Payback and GHG Reduction of Wind Turbine Installation

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    Mevlan Qafleshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy generation in Albania is completely from the hydropower plants. In terms of GHG emissions this is 100% green. In Kosovo 97% of energy is generated from lignite fired power plants. Apart the energy generation, the combustion process emits around 8000 ktCO2/yr and 1.5 Mt of ash in the form of fly and bottom ash. In both countries there is no MWh power generated from wind energy, i.e. this energy source is not utilized. Here, a proposed project for five locations in Albania and Kosovo has been analyzed in detail with the aim of installing a 1kW wind turbine off-grid. The method of study is based on the application of RETScreen International program software. This proposed model is intended to replace a base case- a diesel generator with installed capacity 7kW.  The locations are selected three in Albania: Vlora, Korça and Elbasan, and two in Kosovo: Prishtina and Prizren. All are in different altitudes. By the calculation of RETScreen program, it has been analyzed the feasibility of the proposed projects by installing a wind turbine at hub’s height 20m. The climate data for each location were retrieved by the RETScreen program from NASA. Generally, the calculation of financial parameters for the investments came out to be positive, the impact of GHG reduction very significant. A 5500 USD investment for the implementation of proposed case showed an equity payback time of 2-3 yrs and GHG reduction of 2.2 tCO2/yr. The electricity delivery to load only from this 1 KW wind turbine resulted to be between 1.6-17 MWh/yr.

  2. Internationalization of higher education in Albania - Dilemmas and challenges: Albanian public and private universities in the new globalization era

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    Dr.Sc. Teuta Dobi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education in Albania although an emerging necessity is still in very low figures not only as a connection between institutions but even as mobility between students. This paper sheds lights on internationalization at the regional and at the global level. It analyzes how the globalization and European integration processes are affecting public and private higher education institutions in Albania, their study programs and universities internal management structures. Firstly, it examines the overall changes in the Albanian HE sector since the beginning of 1990s. Then it explores the differences in internationalization between public and private universities and the ultimate changes on the Albanian labor market. My main thesis is that Albanian HE institutions increasingly need to put more efforts to internationalize their internal management structures and to put in practice international study programs. The paper analyzes more the advantages of the international study programs and the difficulties in a development country like Albania to implement them. The paper is based on the case study of the European University of Tirana and explores the difficulties of the faculties of this university to find financial support for international programs, research and travelling abroad, to develop courses with one international perspective, support for its students to study abroad, support to students from other countries and on other indicators such as grants, contracts and linkages in international areas. However the paper deals also with the academic requirements the issue of quality of universities in general. At the end the paper makes a prognosis of some strategies and gives some recommendations how to integrate the Albanian higher education institutions at a regional or global level.

  3. An Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium

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    Johan Leman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the logistic ecology of 30 large-scale networks that were active in human smuggling and trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium (1995–2003. Ten networks were studied in greater detail in order to determine three final profiles of networks, based on their use of structural and operational intermediary structures. They are called the “individual infiltration” and the “structural infiltration” human smuggling patterns, and the “violent-control prostitution” trafficking pattern. It should be noted that the business is organized in such a way that the organizers of the logistical support are never inculpated.

  4. Holocene evolution of Lake Shkodra: Multidisciplinary evidence for diachronic landscape change in northern Albania

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    Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Galaty, Michael; Bejko, Lorenc; Sadori, Laura; Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg; Koçi, Rexhep; Van Welden, Aurelien; Bushati, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    A multidisciplinary micro-paleontological study of a sediment core (SK19) drilled in the coastal area of Lake Shkodra, northern Albania, integrated with archaeological data from the Projekti Arkeologjikë i Shkodrës (PASH), provides compelling evidence for a long-term relationship between Shkodra's natural environment and its inhabitants. Charophyte and ostracod data recovered from SK19 combined with those already studied from the distal core SK13 (Mazzini et al., 2015), reveal important information concerning the changing characteristics of the water body through time. In particular, the ostracod fauna display a truly Balkanic character with eight taxa endemic to the area. Palaeoenvironmental analysis of the two cores indicates that a wide marshland extended towards the present eastern coast of the lake, fed discontinuously both by surface- and ground-water, beginning sometime before 12,140 cal yrs BP. For about 7000 years ostracods do not record any significant changes, whereas the Characeae record in the proximal zone displays important variations. Those variations do not match any of the climatic oscillations revealed in previous studies by δ18O or pollen data, thereby implicating human activities. Ostracods and charophytes indicate that permanent shallow waters occurred in the Shkodra basin only around 5800 cal yrs BP. Historical sources of the Roman Empire indicate a swamp (the Palus labeatis), crossed by the River Morača, which flowed into the River Buna. Evidence for local fires, whether natural or anthropogenic, is recorded in SK13, scattered between 4400 and 1200 yrs BP. From 4400 to 2000 yrs BP, during the Bronze and Iron Age, hill forts ringed the marsh and burial mounds marked its edges. But around 2000 cal yrs BP, a dramatic change in the water body occurred: the disappearance of Characeae. Possibly fires were used for the elimination of natural vegetation and the subsequent cultivation of olive and walnut trees, causing an increase on organic

  5. E-Banking and its features - Albania as a special case

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    Ermela Bashuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The e-banking system is a system which enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions such as: balance inquiries, account transfers, bill payments and some of them offer even the possibility to make loan or credit card applications on a website operated by the institution via internet at any place or time. The e-banking is referred to as online banking or internet banking. The banks have chosen to be part of the wide world of Web in order to stay competitive in the fast changing world of business and also to take further advantages. This innovation (accompanied by globalization and technology development has”obliged” the business entities to redefine and remodel their operations. Electronic banking is the wave of the future. It provides enormous benefits to consumers in terms of the ease and cost of transactions. But it also poses new challenges for country authorities in regulating and supervising the financial system and in designing and implementing macroeconomic policy. In the first section there is an overview of E-banking products and services offered world wide and in Albania as a special case. In the second section there is a general overview of the e-banking advantages and disadvantages. In the third part there is a discussion above the features, challenges, advantages and disadvantages of E-Banking vs traditional banking. In the last part there are given some general recommendations to be taken in consideration in order to maintain effective and to further develop the operating environment for the existing and potential e-banks.

  6. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation.

  7. Hyperaccumulators of mercury in the industrial area of a PVC factory in Vlora (Albania

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    Shehu Julian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by heavy metals is one of the major threats to soil and water as well as human health. Much attention is being paid to metal-accumulating plants that may be used for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Some plants can accumulate remarkable levels of metals, 100-1000-fold the levels normally accumulated in most species. This study evaluated the potential of mercury accumulation of 17 plant species growing on contaminated sites in the ex-industrial area of the PVC Factory, Vlora, Albania. Plant roots, shoots and soil samples were collected and analyzed for the selected metal concentration values. The biological accumulation coefficient (BAC was calculated to evaluate the potential use of plant species for phytoremediation purposes. The concentration of Hg in soils inside the contaminated area varied from 45-301 mg/kg-1. The concentration of Hg in plant shoots and roots varied from 0.1 to 12.9 mg/kg-1 and 0.1 to 4.2 mg/kg-1, respectively. Species Medicago sativa L. and Dittrichia viscosa (L. W. Greuter were found to be the most suitable plants for phytoremediation of the site contaminated with mercury (BAC values varied from 30-10 percent, respectively. Considering the BAC values, none of the plant species was found to be a hyperaccumulator; however, plants with high BCF (metal concentration ratio of plant root to soil and low BTC (metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to roots have the potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction. The results of this study can be used for the management and decontamination of soils with mercury using plant species having phytoremediation potential/characteristics.

  8. Application Of Geographic Information Systems Towards Flood Management In Shkodër, Albania

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    Medjon HYSENAJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the advantages of GIS in monitoring and improving flood response management in Albania. A full statistic overview of the last flooding occured in the region of Shkodra will be presented. The delicate area balances as far as water management is concerned, have turned into repetitive problematic that have become endemic to the region. The flooding in 2010 and 2011 due to heavy rain, snow melting and hydropower management caused a strong impact in the socio-economic life of the population. According to the last statistics, numbers referring to population displacement, house inundation, property damages seems to be a growing concern for the State Emergency Service. This scenario involves the role of the government institutions in both planning and the operational contexts. Uncoordinated measures between emergency groups, delayed actions from the hydropower specialists, the lack of updated geoinformation followed by a limited remote control occur due to a continuous distant approach created toward GIS technology in our country. As a solution to this scenario it will be presented a concrete platform based on calculations and statistics of dam capacity, allowed water levels, maximum rainfall levels, climate factors, population density and movements. GIS carriesthe potential for flood plain management, flood mapping and forecasting, also population education and awareness. Geospatial information and remote sensing utilization serves as bridge between flooding security measures and damage evaluation. Integration of the population distribution model toward flooding classification which aims the developing of an index mapping is the first step to be initiated. In our case it is important to denote that the usage ofGIS utilities is more effective in the pre-flood than the post-flood phase.

  9. MONITORING THE PRESENCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA SPP. IN INDUSTRIAL GROWING POULTRY IN ALBANIA

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    J. Boci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 – 2010, out of many poultry farms located in different geographic areas within the country (Fier, Kavaje, Durres, Elbasan, Shkoder, Korce, Lezhe and Lushnje were championed/selected visceral organs and intestinal materials. In this study, were isolated a total of 1.496 strains of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The findings obtained from this study, provide a clear picture on the presence, distribution and the behavioral of poultry pathogenosity of E.coli and Salmonella spp., based on the usage of innovative diagnostic methods. Even though, attenuated and live vaccines are continuously produced for immunization of poultry against enterobacterias, salmonellosis and colibacillosis, these diseases remain among the most encountered bacterial infections in poultry industry. Nowadays, poultry breeding in Albania has a very heterogeneous characteristic. The development of poultry industry and breeding of many avian species is mainly based on the existence of intensive modern farms with huge capacities, which often are mixed in another form- widely distributed in country, such as rural breeding, extensive and family ones. Many in vivo and in vitro studies have not yet clarified the mechanisms with which pathogen enterobacters in poultry are able to cause the infection. The routine diagnose in the field, followed by isolation of E. coli and species of Salmonella genres in reference laboratories cannot lead in classification or full recognition of circulative strains in a territory, if it is not performed a differentiation among the present microorganisms in intensive farms and those in rural areas. Foremost, it cannot be concluded the fact whether these strains are acting as prime pathogens or are part of secondary infections, which occur very often in intensive poultry breeding industry.

  10. Empirical Evidence of Fiscal Policy Impact on Endogenous Models of Economic Growth - the Case of Albania

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    Olta Milova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to Mankiw (2000, fiscal policy in major macroeconomic models adversely affects the behavior of private agents as consumers and firms and they affect economic growth through investment and savings decisions. Increasing government spending will increase the aggregate demand for goods and services and money demand in the money market leading to an increase of interest rates while markets tend towards equilibrium. The increased interest rates affect negatively the level of private investment. To assess the effect of fiscal policy on economic growth generally are used the endogenous growth models, which include technological progress as an integrated part of this model. These models were called endogenous because they were taking into account long-term economic growth and were using endogenous mechanisms to explain its main source which is the technological progress. Endogenous growth models developed by Barro (1990, Mendosa, Milesi-Ferreti and Asea (1997 or even by other economists, predict that the fiscal policy can affect the level of product and the long run economic growth. This conclusion is analysed in the theory of Barro (1990, which extends the model by including the fiscal policy. The Barro’s model is the model used in this paper to analyse the effect of the fiscal policy on economic growth in the case of Albania. The empirical work shows that all the variables, except inflation which according to theoretical expectations should have a negative effect, affect positively the economic growth. This positive relation between these variables can be explained by investments in infrastructure and other priority sectors that the government has done during all this period.

  11. The function and content of the enterprise during communism in Albania

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    Endri Papajorgji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marks, Engels and Lenin’s ideologies were the foundation of the theory of law, in the Albanian legal system. They were not contra positioned to the private law system, but were in contradiction with the bourgeois society and its private ownership (Reich, 1972, 27. Socialist law literature was based on the principle that state-owned enterprises had great advantages not only compared to enterprises but also compared to large capitalist corporates; not only because of their socialist nature which led to the disappearance of the exploitation of the masses, but also because of their economic nature, as part of a large and mechanized economy in which the successes of modern science and technology could be maximally implemented (Marjani, Malindi, Shtepani, 1982, 16. Either Article 8 of the Constitution of 1946, nor legal changes to 1950, or Article 26 of the Constitution of 1976 did contain a definition of the enterprise. The Constitution regulated only the basic principles of the planning economy, which was based on the planning economy and state-owned enterprises, cooperatives and other workers associations. Article 26 and 27 of the Constitution of 1976 define the following: “For the administration of the means, which are in ownership of the people, the state creates companies, which operate in the interest of the society, defined in the state plan”. “The prices of selling products of the companies and purchase prices of fruit products and animals are determined by the state”. These constitutional norms forced state-owned enterprises and agricultural cooperatives, to use the means of production in a centralized form, to meet the obligations of the plan and to ensure the interests of society (Çela, Çami, Hysi, Omari, 1978, 125. In this context, main aim of this article is the function and content of the enterprise during communism in Albania.

  12. Help Seeking Process among Children Attending Psychiatry Clinic in Tirana, Albania

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    Anastas Suli MD, Prof

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate all the potential routes to Child/Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic-University Hospital Center (CAPC-UHC in Tirana. The article provides demographic data, as well as further information on the types and amounts of services children/adolescents received during the process of seeking help related to different diagnoses .Method: The study was conducted in CAPC-UHC in Tirana, during September 2006-September 2007. Data were collected from 162 children and their parents using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and Pathways Encounter Form. The sample consisted of 53.1% (86 males and 46.9% (76 females. The mean age was 9.5 + 4.4 years .Results: Out of the total number of cases that sought care to CAPC; 55, 6% were referred by parents themselves, while the rest were referred by others. There was a significant effect of gender to intervals from the onset of problem to the first career (F = 10.803, p=0.001, as well as a significant effect of gender to total time intervals from the onset till the specialist of child mental health problem (F = 6.742, p=0.01.Conclusions: This is the first study investigating the help seeking process to psychiatric care in CAPC Tirana-Albania and may serve as a good start in generating evidence based on child/adolescent mental health service. Further multicentre studies will enhance the values of the findings, since the present study was performed in a single service, and in a setting lacking previous works with similar scope that could have served as references.

  13. Labour market in Albania. Identifing the shortages of skills in the labor market.

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    Rajmonda Beluli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The labor market is a relationship between the demand (persons who seek work and supply (job vacancies. The labor market is very complex, to study it we have to know better the characteristics of its variables, ie demand and supply. The Good compatibility between demand and supply is the golden key to well-functioning of labor market. Using the data obtained from questionnaires issued to study the labor market, many shortages are revealed in some sectors, especially in some professions, in terms of labor power, Identification of the skills and training needs of companies is the essence of consultation, orientation to career and training services. The survey through questionnaires  is used as a means of research. The Information obtained from the research on needed skills ought to become an integral part of the Information System on Labor Market (ISLM. The Information on Labor Market that was usually collected through employment services, education and vocational training departments and national training agencies, facilitates the analysis on the efficiency and effectiveness of the training system and estimation of training demand, and enables the employment services and training providers to make possible the adjustment of both, demand and supply. as well. Concerning Albania, it is important to develop effective institutions and policies on labor market in order to reduce the inefficiencies and to create more job vacancies. In this aspect, we need to understand better what is happening with the economy. The results of the study suggest the existence of strong national divisions and regional labor market in terms of age and gender, which are so strong that even if you have in mind the caution that is dictated by the given samlpe it is felt that further investigation will be justified. Key Words: labor market, population, skills, vacancies, gender

  14. Individual Assessment of Judges in Albania - A General Overview and Comparative Analysis of Career Advancement and Reward Systems Based on Performance Evaluation

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    Alaudin Malaj

    2015-07-01

    In the following the article is focused on a comparative view of the assessment criteria, according to the Italian model. Analysis of the Italian system of individual assessment of judges may highlight on some the practical aspects of the most suitable model of assessment to be implemented in Albania.

  15. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

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    Shane D Morrison

    Full Text Available Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK, 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  16. Enhancing the resilience of local communities threated by natural disaster: the experience of the Project "Shkoder", (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Fidolini, Francesco; Fanti, Riccardo; Vannocci, Pietro; Krymbi, Ervis; Centoducati, Carlo; Ghini, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The vulnerability of Albanian population to natural disasters is due to poverty, inadequate infrastructures (e.g. communication network, basic public facilities and works of soil protection), an uncontrollable building boom and a range of environmental factors, both geomorphological and geological. The greatest disaster threats in Albania are those related to severe earthquakes and large-scale riverine floods. Geohazards assessment is a crucial point for Albania, which has been subject to a rapid development after the recent political changes, resulting in a general land degradation. Also the rate of migration from rural areas to the most urbanized areas currently represents a major problem for the National Civil Protection, since the urban sprawl in the suburbs are often located in high-risk areas, particularly vulnerable to natural hazards. The National Civil Protection system, in terms of subsidiary institutional and volunteer components, is relatively young in Albania. The progressive decentralization of the administrative competences triggered by the recent political changes is accompanied by the acquisition of new territorial information and the development of specific protocols for the emergency management, as well as the risk reduction. The management of natural disasters demands not only an early response to the criticalities, but also a correct mapping of the damage and the development of emergency plans for future events in order to protect lives, properties and the environment and moreover to spread the risk awareness in the population and to prepare it for such circumstances. The main purposes of the Pilot Project "Shkoder" is to enhance the resilience of a little community, located 9 kilometers south-west of Shkodra (Northern Albania), to flooding and earthquakes and to promote the subsidiarity principle by means of: a) demonstrating how basic information for the disaster planning (collected with a real demonstrative field survey) and the risk

  17. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION IN ALBANIA IN LIEU OF THE BOLOGNA PROCESS: THE CASE OF THE EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY OF TIRANA

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    Tomi Treska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore the scientific research model developed at the European University of Tirana (UET, a private higher education institution in Albania. This requires for a reconsideration of the position of private universities in the higher education system in Albania, not just as profitable entities, but as institutions that provide public services for citizens in the country. The paper adopts a qualitative methodology approach, i.e. it applies document analysis and literature review in order to explore the development of the scientific research model in UET. The materials consulted include documents related to the Bologna Process; legislation of higher education in Albania; policies, guidelines and procedures of UET regarding scientific research. The paper suggests that private universities in Albania, albeit being recently established, enjoy more opportunities and freedom to develop new models for conducting scientific research. The analysis of the UET scientific research model shows that UET has adopted the most advanced Western approaches and the best practices from the Anglo-Saxon universities, bringing innovation in vision, research policies, procedures, practices and forms. The paper identifies the main principles upon which the scientific research of UET is built: (i the connection and reflection of scientific research activities in the teaching process; (ii the students’ involvement in research activities; (iii further qualification of academic staff including doctoral candidates; (iv the connection between scientific research and the market. The paper argues that this model should be supported by new policies to better regulate the financing scheme of higher education in Albania, in order to provide private universities with more opportunities to further develop their scientific research. This will also lead to an increased confidence from the side of the business sector to trust private universities with their market

  18. First insight into genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Albania obtained by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and spoligotyping reveals the presence of beijing multidrug-resistant isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafaj, Silva; Zhang, Jian; Hauck, Yolande; Pourcel, Christine; Hafizi, Hasan; Zoraqi, Grigor; Sola, Christophe

    2009-05-01

    We characterized a set of 100 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB) patients in Albania, typing them with a 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat-spoligotyping scheme. Depending on the cluster definition, 43 to 49 patients were distributed into 15 to 16 clusters which were likely to be epidemiologically linked, indicative of a recent transmission rate of 28 to 34%. This result suggests that TB is under control in Albania. However, two multidrug-resistant (MDR) Beijing genotypes harboring the same S531A mutation on the rpoB gene were also found, suggesting a potential recent transmission of MDR TB. Three brand new genotypes, Albania-1 to Albania-3, are also described.

  19. I Micromammiferi della foresta di Divijaka (Albania da borre di Barbagianni

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    Michele Bux

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La foresta di Divijaka è sita nel Distretto di Lusnja, a circa 50 Km a sud di Durazzo e si estende per 780 ha. Consiste per lo più di boschi maturi di pini (Pinus pinea e P. halepensis con folto sottobosco a macchia mediterranea e rappresenta una delle aree boschive costiere più interessanti dell'Albania centrale, tanto da essere stata proclamata Parco Nazionale dal 1966. L?area boschiva si presenta molto strutturata e con una notevole varietà floristica e si caratterizza per la presenza di numerose pozze temporanee, salmastre e di acqua dolce, e di piccoli corsi d?acqua che giungono dalle colline circostanti. Scopo del presente lavoro è quello di illustrare i primi dati sulla comunità di micromammiferi presenti nella foresta di Divijaka rilevati attraverso l'analisi delle borre di Barbagianni (Tyto alba. Nel mese di aprile del 2001 sono state raccolte 18 borre integre più 2 frammenti in un posatoio di Barbagianni presente in un casolare abbandonato all'interno della foresta. L'analisi delle borre ha consentito di determinare 68 prede di cui circa l'84% rappresentato da mammiferi. Sono state identificate 6 specie di micromammiferi, 2 insettivori Crocidura suaveolens (17,6% e Suncus etruscus (4,4%, 3 roditori Mus spicilegus (29,4%, Micromys minutus (13,2% e Apodemus cfr. sylvaticus (5,9% e un gliride Muscardinus avellanarius (13,2%. Le restanti prede erano rappresentate da uccelli (14,7% e insetti (1,5%. I nostri dati confermano che Mus spicilegus è diffuso più di quanto non si pensasse lungo la costa adriatica ed evidenziano l'importanza di tale taxon nel sistema trofico del Barbagianni.

  20. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania between 640 ka and present day

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    A. Francke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP, a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on nine tephra layers (1st order tie points, and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (2nd order tie points and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (3rd order tie points, respectively, the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 640 ka. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilmnion in during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for MIS11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparable cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6

  1. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Extant Freshwater Ostracodes (Crustacea in Ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

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    Julia Lorenschat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an intensive sampling survey in ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania, covering all seasons, to determine total species number, relative species abundances and spatial distribution of Ostracoda. We identified 32 living species that belong to seven families (Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, Leptocytheridae, Limnocytheridae, Cytherideidae, and Darwinulidae and 15 genera (Candona, Fabaeformiscandona, Candonopsis, Cypria, Cyclocypris, Ilyocypris, Eucypris, Prionocypris, Bradleystrandesia, Herpetocypris, Dolerocypris, Amnicythere, Paralimnocythere, Cytherissa, and Darwinula. Six additional species were identified from empty carapaces and valves. Dominant families in Lake Ohrid were Candonidae and Limnocytheridae, representing 53% and 16% of all species, respectively. Prevalence of species flocks in these two families confirms the “young” ancient status of the lake. Amnicythere displays a preference for oligo-haline to meso-haline waters, but some species are found in saline environments, which suggests Lake Ohrid has a marine history. Recent studies, however, indicate fluvial/glaciofluvial deposition at the onset of Lake Ohrid sedimentation. Candona is the most diverse genus in Lake Ohrid, represented by 12 living species. Paralimnocythere is represented by five living species and all other genera are represented by one or two species. Reports of Candona bimucronata, Ilyocypris bradyi, Eucypris virens, Eucypris sp., Prionocypris zenkeri, Bradleystrandesia reticulate, Herpetocypris sp. 2, and Dolerocypris sinensis are firsts for this lake. Living ostracodes were collected at the maximum water depth (280 m in the lake (Candona hadzistei, C. marginatoides, C. media, C. ovalis, C. vidua, Fabaeformiscandona krstici, Cypria lacustris, C. obliqua and Amnicythere karamani. Cypria lacustris was overall the most abundant species and Cypria obliqua displayed the highest abundance at 280 m water depth. Principal environmental variables

  2. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 637 ka and the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Just, Janna; Leicher, Niklas; Gromig, Raphael; Baumgarten, Henrike; Vogel, Hendrik; Lacey, Jack H.; Sadori, Laura; Wonik, Thomas; Leng, Melanie J.; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and host more than 300 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m composite depth of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on 11 tephra layers (first-order tie points) and on tuning of bio-geochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (second-order tie points), the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 637 kyr. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm) mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilimnion during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparably cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that the most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6, whereas somewhat warmer temperatures can be

  3. Sedimentological processes and environmental variability at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between 640 ka and present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Just, J.; Leicher, N.; Gromig, R.; Baumgarten, H.; Vogel, H.; Lacey, J. H.; Sadori, L.; Wonik, T.; Leng, M. J.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Giaccio, B.

    2015-09-01

    Lake Ohrid (FYROM, Albania) is thought to be more than 1.2 million years old and hosts more than 200 endemic species. As a target of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present lithological, sedimentological, and (bio-)geochemical data from the upper 247.8 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. According to an age model, which is based on nine tephra layers (1st order tie points), and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters (2nd order tie points) and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04 (3rd order tie points), respectively, the analyzed sediment sequence covers the last 640 ka. The DEEP site sediment succession consists of hemipelagic sediments, which are interspersed by several tephra layers and infrequent, thin (< 5 cm) mass wasting deposits. The hemipelagic sediments can be classified into three different lithotypes. Lithotype 1 and 2 deposits comprise calcareous and slightly calcareous silty clay and are predominantly attributed to interglacial periods with high primary productivity in the lake during summer and reduced mixing during winter. The data suggest that high ion and nutrient concentrations in the lake water promoted calcite precipitation and diatom growth in the epilmnion in during MIS15, 13, and 5. Following a strong primary productivity, highest interglacial temperatures can be reported for MIS11 and 5, whereas MIS15, 13, 9, and 7 were comparable cooler. Lithotype 3 deposits consist of clastic, silty clayey material and predominantly represent glacial periods with low primary productivity during summer and longer and intensified mixing during winter. The data imply that most severe glacial conditions at Lake Ohrid persisted during MIS16, 12, 10, and 6 whereas

  4. Growth-Climate Response of Young Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris L. Coppice Forest Stands along Longitudinal Gradient in Albania

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    Merita Stafasani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. is the most widespread species in Albania and less investigated from dendroclimatological point of view. Previous studies have reported that Q. cerris is sensitive to the environment when growing at different latitudes and ecological conditions. Based on this fact we have explored the response of different Q. cerris populations located along the longitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: The stem discs were sampled from six sites (Kukes, Diber, Rreshen, Ulez, Elbasan, Belsh along longitudinal gradient ranging from north-east to central Albania. All oak forests stands grow under the influence of specific local Mediterranean climate. Tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using a linear table, LINTAB and the TSAP-Win program. Following the standard dendrochronological procedures residual tree-ring width chronologies were built for each site. Statistical parameters commonly used in dendrochronology were calculated for each site chronology. Relations between the tree-ring chronologies were explored using Hierarchical Factor Classification (HFC and Principal Component Analysis (PCA, while the radial growth-climate relationship was analyzed through correlation analysis using a 19-month window from April in the year prior to tree-ring formation (year t - 1 until October in the year of growth (year t. Results and Conclusions: The length of the site chronologies ranged from 16 to 36 years, with the Elbasan site chronology being the longest and the Belsh site chronology the shortest one. Trees at lower elevation were younger than trees at higher elevation. Statistical parameters (mean sensitivity (MS and auto correlation (AC of site chronologies were different among them and lower values of AC1 showed a weaker dependence of radial growth from climatic conditions of the previous growing year. Principal component analysis showed that Belsh, Rreshen and Elbasan site chronologies were

  5. Telemedicine as an innovative model for rebuilding medical systems in developing countries through multipartnership collaboration: the case of Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Dasho, Erion; Shatri, Zhaneta; Tilley, Elizabeth; Osmani, Kalterina L; Doarn, Charles R; Dogjani, Agron; Olldashi, Fatos; Koçiraj, Agim; Merrell, Ronald C

    2015-06-01

    The U.S. Government and other developed nations provide billions of dollars annually in relief assistance to countries around the world. The long-term benefits of this aid, however, are often difficult to elucidate. The aim of this article is to present a model of a multipartnership collaboration among U.S. governmental, nongovernmental organizations, and academia to rebuild medical systems using telemedicine as a sustainable model of foreign aid. The International Virtual e-Hospital implemented the "initiate-build-operate-transfer" strategy to establish an effective telemedicine system in Albania that includes the National Telemedicine Center and 12 regional telemedicine centers. This nationwide telemedicine network has active clinical programs, virtual educational programs, and an electronic library that has substantially improved the access to care while advancing medical education. We propose that telemedicine is an optimal, sustainable, low-cost model for rebuilding medical systems of developing countries when implemented through a multipartnership approach.

  6. Entrepreneurship and Human Resources as Important Forces Affecting Electronic Readiness in Building the Information Society in Albania

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    Ermelinda Kordha (Tolica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Today information has become an important element without which society actors cannotachieve their goals. The term “information society” is increasingly used nowadays instead of theterms “production” or “consumption society”, because of the importance and necessity of informationin today's dynamic environment. In these conditions, even Albania is trying to give the properimportance and emphasis to, not just the use of information, but to the use of tools and technologiesthat enable efficiency in the collection, storage, processing, and distribution of data and the useinformation. Thus, information and communication technologies (ICT, are finding today in theAlbanian society, a steadily increasing use. For the Albanian Government has established andimplements the strategy is the national information and communication technologies (ICT.

  7. MARKETING CONCEPT APPLICATION WITHIN PROFITABLE TOURISM BUSINESESS OF COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES. THE CASE OF ALBANIA

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    Liljana ELMAZI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates marketing concept application in the most profitable of tourism businesses in Albania. The total population is defined according to the profitability criteria, whereby the stratified sample of 100 tourism businesses was applied. The research is aimed at gathering primary data by the questionnaire sent via mail.The goal of each economic activity is creating value for the end users. In this context, profit is both a measure of value which the firm has created for the customer and an indicator of how well the enterprise has understood customer needs and translated the understanding into products and services that deliver superior value. From the above stated, the conclusion can be made that the most profitable tourism businesses adopt marketing concept to the largest extent.

  8. The justice system for the juveniles Juveniles adjudicated for the criminal act of “theft” in Albania

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    Etilda Gjonaj Saliu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The juvenile justice system in Albania has improved from year to year but slow movements are done in improving the whole system for the implementation of the guarantees prescribed in international acts and Albanian legislation. This article, is aiming to offer some opinions related to the justice system for the juveniles based on the statistical and qualitative data regarding the criminal policy that is used and the precautionary measures given through court decisions. This article, aims in identifying the issues and provide recommendations, with the main goal of improvement of the legislation and its best implementation in practice by the criminal justice instances, particularly by the prosecution and the court. Through the conclusions derived by this article is intended to exert the right pressure towards state authorities, to improve and better orient criminal policy and to increase the use of alternatives to the precautionary measure of “jail arrest” and imprisonment.

  9. Response of rocky shore communities to anthropogenic pressures in Albania (Mediterranean Sea): Ecological status assessment through the CARLIT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanfuné, Aurélie; Boudouresque, Charles François; Verlaque, Marc; Beqiraj, Sajmir; Kashta, Lefter; Nasto, Ina; Ruci, Stela; Thibaut, Thierry

    2016-08-15

    The lower mid-littoral and shallow subtidal communities were studied in the district of Vlora (Albania), three years after the establishment of a Marine Protected Area, with particular attention to the long-lived species. The bioconstructions built in the mid-littoral zone by the calcified rhodobiont Lithophyllum byssoides were in poor condition and sometimes even dead. In contrast, the brown alga Cystoseira amentacea constituted lush stands. For assessing the ecological status of the studied area, the CARLIT method, based upon macroalgal communities, was applied. The observed range of ecological status was wide ('high' through 'bad') and was overall among the lowest assessed to date in the Mediterranean Sea. The occurrence of extensive sea-urchin barren-grounds, though not taken into consideration by the CARLIT index, confirmed the poor condition of large sectors of the study area. Overall, the CARLIT index is well correlated with anthropogenic pressures, as assessed by the LUSI index.

  10. Social impact caused by european economical recession in food business operators of industrial zone Tirana-Durres in Albania

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    Anila Sulaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore situation of the Albania Food industry in relation to the European recession to clarify mainly negative effects to food business operators along the corridor Tirana-Durres and to identify social problems caused by this impact. Effect of economical European crisis in food operators of corridor Tirana-Durres causing slightly increase of unemployment and increase of food prices. Our study has evaluated the unemployment situation and food retail prices using data analyzing methodology for three big food processing companies located in this area. From study results was concluded that unemployment is slightly increased a respectively was evaluated as following. For first company unemployment has been increased with 2, 8%, however for second company it was increased with 2, 1% and for third company it was increased with 1, 8%. Food retail prices produced by these companies are increased referring to food prices evaluated on 2009. Retail food prices are increased respectively for three food kinds. Beer retail prices produced by first company are increased with 3, 8%, dried sausages retail prices produced by second Company are increased with 2.5%. According to study results is confirmed also slightly increase of UHT milk product produced by third company with average value 1, 9%. Even thought there is no big difference between previous values for unemployment and retail prices in 2009 and results found in 2010-2011 confirmed that social impact of crises is evident because of increase of unemployment and food prices cause decrease of incomes for families living in Tirana and in Albania.

  11. AMPELOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AUTOCHTHONOUS GRAPE CULTIVAR “KALLMET” IN MAL��SIA E MADHE, ALBANIA

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    Bardhosh Ferraj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available “Kallmet” is one of the most sprout autochthonous wine grape cultivar in the North-western and Central part of Albania. Study was conducted in three consecutive years, 2009-2011, in Malësia e Madhe, 250 m above the sea level, in the North-western part of Albania, in a 10 years old vineyard. For evaluation of the main characteristics the IPGRI Descriptors of Grapevine was used. Form of the new shoot tip of “Kallmet” is half-open, with no anthocianic coloration, and densely prostrate hairs. The upper surface colour of new leaf is green with bronze spots. Flower type is functional female, and the first florescence appears at the 4-5th nodes. Mature leaf size is medium, leaf shape is pentangular, shape of the lateral teeth is convex in both sides, shape of the base sinus is half-open, shape of the upper lateral sinus is closed, and the depth of the upper lateral sinus is 63 mm. Bunch weight is small and bunch density is medium. “Kallmet” has medium-sized spherical deep red to violet berry with soft colourless pulp. Berries are not uniform and there occur a high rate of millerandage because of the lack of pollination during flowering time. Grape yield is 155 kv ha-1, grape must content is 67 ml/100 g fresh grape, sugar content is 21%, total acidity 5.7 g/l. The time of bud break is medium, while the number of inflorescences for fruit-bearing offshoot is 1.7. The annual vegetative growth is 180 cm. “Kallmet” leaves are susceptible to Plasmopara viticola, while the berries appear a relatively high resistance to Plasmopara viticola, and high resistance to Uncinula necator and Botrytis cynerea.

  12. Customs Risk Management in Albania. An important Step towards Integration in the European Union

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    Ejona Bardhi

    2015-06-01

    . Due the rules based at the trade policies of WTO, it was made possible that the fees were decreased and non-fee barriers are in cancelations. The customs administration is excepted to bring incomes, to stop the import of not safe or banned goods and to the fight the narcotics trade. It is excepted to fulfill these targets effectively without hamper the commercial facilitations. This paper has as the main objective to treat the management of risk at the customs. During this paper I will treat the main problematic of the customs administrations in Europe and Albania, including theory and practice aspects. This paper treats: controls after the passing permission at the Customs, levels of risk management, costs and benefits of the techniques of risk management, management of facilitation and customs activity, the importance of information of customs system, important problematic in customs activity, rule of origin and its importance and finally the transit as the main mean of trade facilitation. Keywords: Management, risk, customs, administration, trade

  13. Euroregions and cross border areas in South East Europe : defining an effective model for the area : comparative analysis between Bulgaria, Albania and FYROM

    OpenAIRE

    Brusaporci, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    The research deals with the topic of cross-border cooperation and Euroregions in the Balkans. Using a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), the research examines nine different cases in Albania, Bulgaria, and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The research is framed within IR theories and aims to define a good model of transborder cooperation for this region by considering its specific ethnic and historical issues. In particular, implementing Perkmann’s theory (2007) of policy entre...

  14. The evolution of administrative law in Albania and the impact of the decisions of the European Court of Justice in the Albanian legal reforms in administrative justice

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    Monika MEÇA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the thesis was generally motivated by the lack of legal treatise focused in the arguments of Administrative Court importance in Albanian Judicial system as a new judicial structure, whose role would be to check the legality of decisions of the state administration with the aim to guarantee effective protection of human rights and legitimate interests of private persons through a regular, conform, fast and reasonable judicial process. The aim of this study is to describe the institutional steps taken from Albanian Government in administrative justice evolution, enormous differences between the administrative law before and after 1990, and the impact of European Court of Justice case law and EU law in the Albanian legal reforms in administrative justice. By analyzing the development of the administrative law in Albania is highlighted that the factors which influenced the transformation processes of this branch of law are the level of political culture, the heritage of the paste and the European Union , which has long been engaged in direct support for the modernization of public administration in Albania . In conclusion studying and analyzing the recent reform undertaken in the establishment of administrative court in Albania is necessary to make an evaluation of the impact of this reform in amending the legal framework for administrative procedures and adoption of a new Code of Administrative Procedure.

  15. Parasites and vector-borne pathogens in client-owned dogs in Albania. Blood pathogens and seroprevalences of parasitic and other infectious agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge on the epidemiology of parasitic and vector-borne infections is still very limited for Albania, a country located in the Balkan Peninsula in southeast Europe. Recent publications indicated prevalence rates of up to 52% for vector-borne infections in less-cared dogs in Albania. To provide data on the epidemiological situation in dogs under veterinary care, a total of 602 client-owned dogs presented to four small animal clinics between March 2010 and April 2011 in Tirana, Albania, were screened by examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and serological methods for the presence of arthropod-borne infections, as well as Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Eight different pathogens, namely Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, and Mycoplasma haemocanis, were detected by direct methods with prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 9%. Seroprevalence for Babesia spp., L. infantum, Anaplasma spp., and E. canis were 6.6, 5.1, 24.1, and 20.8%, respectively. Dogs >1 year of age were positive for vector-borne infections significantly more often than younger dogs (p = 0.003). More than half (51.7%) of the dogs were seroreactive to T. gondii and 18.3% to N. caninum. This is the first report on the detection of A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, E. canis, and M. haemocanis by PCR as well as the serological confirmation of exposure of dogs to N. caninum and T. gondii in Albania. The spectrum of pathogens and the seroprevalences for N. caninum and T. gondii in client-owned dogs from Tirana, Albania, are comparable to that reported in other countries in the Mediterranean Basin. The prevalence rates of vector-borne pathogens are at the lower range of that reported in studies from this geographical region. This is probably due to increased awareness of the owners of pet dogs, including better husbandry conditions and ectoparasiticidal treatment, thus limiting exposure

  16. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs

  17. Between Public - Private Partnerships and public finance in the public infrastructure sector: The water and sanitation sector in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjona Zeneli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s known in the literature that public-private partnerships (PPPs are one the main instruments that permit private collaboration in projects that are public otherwise. It’s also clear that their implementation is different depending on the rules of the countries, their market level of acceptance etc. The first objective of this paper is to revise PPPs projects in the water sector in Albania, seen in the context of alternative financing ways for joint-stock companies of Albanian water sector, due to the nature of the market (a developing emerging market, in the context of bad financial times after 2008 (the start of the international financial crisis. The second objective is to describe the development of the Albanian legislation for management contracts introduced for the first time in the waters and sanitation sector in 2004 and privatization practices in public sector. The main conclusion is that in the developing markets creating possibilities for private sector participation in the infrastructure public services (especially in the drinking water and sanitation sector will be seen with skepticism because of failed previous privatization practices or the sensitivity degree of the water sector related to the penetration level of private factor in the sector. Public finance will be explored as a convenient alternative.

  18. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation.

  19. Agro-Climatic Characterization and Determination of Thermal and Pluviometric Limits in the Area of Debar, Albania

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    ALBERT KOPALI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Different climatic regimes play a determining role not just on the geographical and agronomic distribution of plants, but on the intensity of agricultural plant growth also. Climate affects the mass of structural features and especially the pace of plants development. Regarding climate Albanian territory is part of the sub-band subtropical western coast and it is divided into two climatic zones: Atlantic Mediterranean area and Continental Mediterranean area. But the microclimatic effects arising in our territory make the climate quite diverse. In a relatively small area major changes of climate elements are created, thus a variety of areas with different climatic characteristics and determining impacts on agricultural plant breeding are present. Knowing of the thermal and rainfall limits is important in the cultivation of agricultural plants; the lack of knowledge poses a risk to agricultural cultivations. On the other hand these limits must be seen closely linked to their dynamism and should be studied in relation to possible climate changes. In accordance with the climatic characteristics of agro-ecological zones, should be developed plant cultivation technologies which should take into account the different agricultural systems that are applied in these areas. This study takes into consideration for agro-climatic characterization a developed agricultural area, that of Debar, in the northeast of Albania.

  20. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

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    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious means to combat these terrorist acts. One of these efficacious means has been the seizure and confiscation of licit and illicit assets possessed by terrorist groups. This is the focus of this short study, which will be inclusive by viewing this topic under the general framework of international acts, our domestic legislation, as well as the American one. This paper aims at presenting the legislative measures taken by the Albanian state to meet international requirements. It endeavors to provide arguments why all licit and illicit assets associated with terrorist acts are seized and confiscated. Special attention is paid to the way these assets are administered. Moreover, this study tries to analyze the achievements and problems in Albania, as well as provide conclusions and recommendations.

  1. NGMSElect™ and Investigator(®) Argus X-12 analysis in population samples from Albania, Iraq, Lithuania, Slovenia, and Turkey.

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    Poulsen, L; Tomas, C; Drobnič, K; Ivanova, V; Mogensen, H S; Kondili, A; Miniati, P; Bunokiene, D; Jankauskiene, J; Pereira, V; Morling, N

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of STRs is the main tool when studying genetic diversity in populations or when addressing individual identification in forensic casework. Population data are needed to establish reference databases that can be used in the forensic context. To that end, this work investigated five population samples from Albania, Iraq, Lithuania, Slovenia, and Turkey. Individuals were typed for 16 autosomal STRs and 12 X-chromosomal STRs using the NGMSElect™ and Investigator(®) Argus X-12 kits, respectively. The aim of the study was to characterize the diversity of both STR kits in these population samples and to expand our forensic database. The results showed that all markers were polymorphic in the five populations studied. No haplotype was shared between the males analysed for X-STRs. No statistically significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed for any of the genetic markers included in both the kits. Pairwise LD was only detected in X-STRs between markers located in the same linkage group. Power of discrimination values for males and females and the probability of exclusion in duos and trios were high for the populations in this study.

  2. Building public health associations in the transition countries of south-eastern Europe: the example of Albania.

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    Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc; Bjegovic, Vesna; Georgieva, Lidia; Donev, Doncho; Scintee, Gabriela; Hysa, Bajram; Laaser, Ulrich

    2006-06-01

    The Albanian Forum of Public Health (AFPH), an umbrella organization including different public health associations operating in Albania, was established in March 2004 with the support of the European Public Health Association (EUPHA) and the Open Society Institute (OSI). Ever since its establishment the AFPH has been an open arena wherein opinions and options for rational health policies comprising all relevant issues of the New Public Health are discussed, formulated, and documented near the Albanian Ministry of Health. Notwithstanding the laudable mission of the AFPH, there is an emerging need to establish a regional Public Health Forum in south-east Europe as a basic prerequisite for sustainable development of public health in these countries. Most conveniently, this regional umbrella organization should have a supporting Secretariat based in one of the south-east European countries. Nevertheless, there is a clear call for international funding with participation of different agencies and bodies (OSI, EUPHA, Canadian International Development Agency, and the Stability Pact). A regional association in the south-east Europe would enable the organization of annual conferences in the most renowned institutions in the region. Also, a regional collaboration among public health associations would be a suitable start for the development of research in south-east Europe. Furthermore, the existence of a regional public health association would make feasible the establishment of a scientific public health journal for south-east Europe in the English language.

  3. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices about public health nutrition among students of the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania

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    Jolanda Hyska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of this survey was twofold: (i: to assess medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding nutrition in general, in order to identify their level of competences in the field of nutrition which will be useful in their future role of providers/health care professionals, and; (ii to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the discipline of public health nutrition in order to identify the needs for improving the curriculum of this subject in all the branches of the University of Medicine in Tirana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-July 2013 including a representative sample of 347 students at the University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania (61% females and 39% males; overall mean age: 23±2 years; response rate: 87%. A nutritional questionnaire, adopted according to the models used in previous international studies, was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the university students. Results: Overall, about one third of the students was not satisfied with the quality and quantity of nutritional education and demanded a more scientifically rigorous curriculum. In general, students’ knowledge about infant feeding practices was adequate. However, there were gaps in the students’ knowledge regarding the commencement of breastfeeding, or the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Furthermore, there was evidence of an insufficient level of knowledge among students regarding diet and nutrition in general and their health impact, especially on development and prevention of chronic diseases. Conclusion: This survey identified significant gaps in the current curriculum of public health nutrition at the University of Medicine in Tirana. Our findings suggest the need for intervention programs to improve both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of nutrition curricula in all the branches of the University of Medicine Tirana, in accordance with the

  4. PRIMARILY RESULTS OF PHYTOPLANKTON DNA AND VARIATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN DURRES`S BAY COASTAL WATERS (ALBANIA

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    Laura Gjyli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After isolation of phytoplankton DNA in coastal waters of Durres Bay, Albania, quantification and analysis of quality were investigated with spectrophotometric analysis. Analysis of UV absorption by the nucleotides provides a simple and accurate estimation of the concentration of nucleic acids in a sample. This method is however limited by the quantity of DNA and the purity of the preparation. Also biotic environment factors as Chlorophyll a and abiotic environment factors as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate were investigated to assess DNA quantities in different environment conditions. The Chlorophyll a was studied also to access the level of trophy. The sample stations were: Golem Beach (GB, Channel of Plepa (ChP, Hekurudha Beach (HB, Ex-Fuel Quay in Marine Durres Harbour (EFQ, Water Channel of Durres City (WChDC and Currila Beach (CB. Samples are taken in one meter depth from the water surface. Water samples were collected monthly from April to October 2011. The most abundant stations with phytoplankton DNA are Channel of Plepa and Water Channel of Durres City. This confirms that there are spills of fresh waters, sewage or agricultural water spills, often discharge in coastal waters. Referring Mutliple Regression Analysis and single regression analysis, the association between phytoplankton DNA and environment factors was strong (R2 = 0.75. Basing in single correlation and statistically significance (p-value ≤ 0.05, the enviroment factors that correlated to phytoplankton DNA were pH, salinity and phosphate; explaining thus the variation of total phytoplankton in Durres Bay coastal waters.

  5. The management of human resource in the local goverment through the presentation of the status of application of civil service in the Republic of Albania

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    Julejda Gerxhi

    2010-04-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  6. How do patient characteristics influence informal payments for inpatient and outpatient health care in Albania: Results of logit and OLS models using Albanian LSMS 2005

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    Tomini Sonila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informal payments for health care are common in most former communist countries. This paper explores the demand side of these payments in Albania. By using data from the Living Standard Measurement Survey 2005 we control for individual determinants of informal payments in inpatient and outpatient health care. We use these results to explain the main factors contributing to the occurrence and extent of informal payments in Albania. Methods Using multivariate methods (logit and OLS we test three models to explain informal payments: the cultural, economic and governance model. The results of logit models are presented here as odds ratios (OR and results from OLS models as regression coefficients (RC. Results Our findings suggest differences in determinants of informal payments in inpatient and outpatient care. Generally our results show that informal payments are dependent on certain characteristics of patients, including age, area of residence, education, health status and health insurance. However, they are less dependent on income, suggesting homogeneity of payments across income categories. Conclusions We have found more evidence for the validity of governance and economic models than for the cultural model.

  7. Development of Higher Education in Albania: The Case of the Public University Libraries in Efforts to Build Digital and Electronic Services for the Academic Community

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    Erena Haska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Between the obligation of carrying out their mission to ensure the quality development of higher education and the right to function as important centers where knowledge is taken, developed and transmitted, this paper will examine the technological developments of university libraries as an important part of higher education. Digital and electronic experiences applied in Albanian universities libraries will be brought to the attention of the public. This paper is based on the questionnaire survey conducted at public university libraries in Albania. Opinions of librarians regarding ICT application were elicited using a structured questionnaire, followed up with interviews. In the case of non-response by libraries is consulted their official web sites to have a more complete information. In addition, secondary sources were consulted as domestic and foreign literature in this field. Results show that: 1 the level of application information technology in public university libraries in Albania is acceptable. The most important and serious problem is the lack of the unique University Library ICT Policy; 2 serious handicap is the lack of educated librarians in using information technology; 3 the proportion of university library activity goes more digital, so the digital collection becomes reality in the public university libraries. This paper brings conclusions that contribute to: a national information communication technology policy for university libraries and b the creation of an integrated system for management and transmission of knowledge at the national level for all Albanian university libraries.

  8. “Why do I have to trust you?” The perspective from civil society on active citizenship in post–communist Albania

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    Dhembo Elona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Civil society (CS is the main medium in which active citizenship can flourish and have an impact on good governance and democracy. The communist past has played a major role in CS underdevelopment across Eastern European countries but research primarily targeting the elites has explained little of how citizenry has developed and mapped little of the cross-country variation. This paper attempts to increase understanding, looking at the case of Albania, where low levels of active citizenships are documented1, as the main indicator of this underdevelopment. Data from in-depth interviews with key informants explain that it results from a combination of historical factors with current determinants such as the low perceived level of impact, the transparency of CS actors and the political influence believed to often dictate their agendas. These and additional explorations of gender and age differences lead to suggested new strategies to boost active citizenship in the country.

  9. The right of social insurance as constitutional right and as an important right arising from labor relations - An overview of the framework of social insurance in Albania

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    Mirela Selita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Social insurance is part of social security which consists as well as of social assistance and services, health services and health care insurance. Everyone has the right for social insurance when retired or in case of incapacity of work under a certain system established by a law. The right of social insurance is part of labor rights. In Albania the mandatory social insurance scheme is based on the pay-as-you-earn principle, on the awareness of the individual about the risks in social field in its future and in the principle of agreement between generations. This is a scheme financed out of contributions from the employers, the employed persons and self-employed. The benefits are provided in case of sickness, maternity, old-age, disability, loss of breadwinner, employment accidents/occupational diseases and unemployment.

  10. An interdisciplinary approach to reconstructing hydrologically controlled terrestrial habitat dynamics during MIS 5 from sediments of Lake Ohrid (Albania, Macedonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtvoeth, Jens; Vogel, Hendrik; Rushworth, Danielle; Copsey, Harriet; Imeri, Alma; Valsecchi, Verushka; Cara, Magdalena; Schouten, Stefan; Wagner, Bernd; Wolff, George A.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    We investigated sediments from a piston core (site Co1202) in the northeastern part of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) that cover the period from 136 to 97 ka, i.e. most of marine isotope stage (MIS) 5 including Termination II and the peak warm period of MIS 5e (Eemian). The aim of the study was to reconstruct climatically controlled changes in the terrestrial habitat by combining data from elemental, lipid biomarker (alkyl lipids, glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers/GDGTs) and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses with pollen data. Comparison of biomarker data from sediments and modern materials shows a close similarity between the average biomarker composition of sediments and soils. This is confirmed by statistical analyses, implying that a dominant proportion of the sedimentary alkyl lipids derives from soils while aquatic sources (macrophytes, phytoplankton) can be ruled out as a major source. The carbonate record of the Co1202 sediments and the GDGT-based proxy for lake surface water temperature (TEX86) closely follow climatic trends as they are known from the North Atlantic realm, including marine isotope sub-stage 5d and short-term climate events such as cold events C25, C24 and C23. By contrast, proxies based on alkyl lipid composition reveal an entirely different pattern. Episodes of slow, continuous change are disrupted by abrupt shifts. This suggests a threshold-controlled system, with supply of organic matter from specific sources being increased or suppressed by a sudden change of supply pathways. Such a mechanism is provided by lake level change that includes rapid flooding or exposure of extensive tectonic terraces in the vicinity of site Co1202 as documented by geophysical surveys. Both flooding and exposure change the areas that certain habitats occupy in the catchment of the site, e.g., the proportions of vegetation and soils on the surrounding mountain slopes relative to that on low-lying terrace surfaces. Several such abrupt changes can

  11. What can be the Role of Public-Private Partnerships and the role of the Collective Action in Ensuring Sustainable Smallholder Participation in High Value Fruit and Vegetable Supply Chains in Albania?

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    Hergys SULI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Albania is a Mediterranean country where fruitsand vegetables occupy an important placein the cropping systems practiced by theAlbanian farms but also in the foodconsumption of the population. Today, the fruits and vegetables growers in Albania havelow production capacity and difficulties inselling their products on national and regionalmarket. These poor producers face problems ofhow to produce safe food (World Bank2007, be recognized as producing safe food, identify cost-effective technologies forreducing risk, and be competitive with larger producers with advantage of economies ofscale in compliance with food safety requirements. In enabling the smallholders to remaincompetitive in such a system, new institutional arrangements are required. The new andemerging food system (dominated by domestic urban market and export markets,regional competitiveness, globalization, etc. with high demands for compliance with foodsafety and traceability disfavor the smallholders due tohigh coordination costs. Theproblem is exacerbated by geographic dispersion, low education, and poor access tocapital and information (Poulton 2005; Humphrey 2005; Rich and Narrod 2005. Themain idea of this paper is that the public-private partnerships can play a key role increating farm to fork linkages that can satisfy the market demands for food safety whileretaining smallholders in the supply chain. Our big question is “how this can be possiblein Albania and which are the rightpolicies to forward this idea?

  12. The management of human resource in the local goverment through the presentation of the status of application of civil service in the Republic of Albania

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    Julejda Gerxhi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The social sciences have inherited a not so clear relationship with the social politics throughout the history. At the first moment the concept of social sciences came into use in the 19th century the first organizations that were promoting them were not located in the universities. They were located in the Public Sector. They brought into the scenery not only professional of the area, but also politicians, clerics and businessmen. The main objective was the promoting of the reforms that consider the social politics able to improve the so defined social problems. These associations thought that by collecting different kind of data regarding these problems they would reach a clear insight on the directions the state should follow in the framework of different politics and reforms. As a result, the national research capacity is of the highest importance to the ability of a state to invent and implement successfully its politics based on evidences that concern and come as a reaction to the concerns and issues of the social problems as a whole. In this article I will be presenting first of all an overview of the scientific research in Albania in the area of the social sciences by pointing out the main areas that deserve to be the prior ones in the contest of developing activities that aim the implementation of the research in Social Sciences. Also, a great number of Institutions has been contacted with the aim of receiving official information and data on the functioning and on the potential problems that can be faced during the research processes. These institutions have been selected based on their involvement at the area of the scientific research of the social sciences. At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able

  13. Prima indagine di prevalenza delle infezioni ospedaliere presso il Centro Ospedaliero Universitario 'Madre Teresa' (QSUT di Tirana, Albania: proposta di un protocollo operativo

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    A. Gjata

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: stimare la prevalenza delle infezioni ospedaliere (IO e la frequenza di esposizione a interventi chirurgici e procedure invasive, quantificare l’utilizzo di antibiotici e identificarne le motivazioni, dimensionare il ricorso ai servizi diagnostici, migliorare l’expertise locale nella diagnosi microbiologica delle infezioni e nella sorveglianza delle IO.

    Metodi: si tratta di un’indagine di prevalenza puntuale, preceduta da uno studio pilota, che coinvolge quasi tutti i reparti del QSUT; si adottano le definizioni di caso di IO dei Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA. Per la rilevazione è prevista una scheda ad hoc e come principali fonti informative si useranno la cartella clinica e il registro operatorio. Per l’input e l’analisi dei dati si utilizzerà il software EPI INFO 2002. La partnership italiana assicura la supervisione tecnica; a livello locale si sono identificati una figura di coordinamento/verifica e team di rilevazione, validazione delle IO e per l’input e l’analisi dei dati. Dato che la maggiore criticità è rappresentata dai laboratori, si sono previsti un protocollo per la raccolta dei campioni biologici, il rifornimento del laboratorio di microbiologia con il materiale necessario per l’identificazione dei ceppi e l’antibiogramma, l’acquisto di un cell counter per supportare il laboratorio di chimica clinica. Grande enfasi è data al training del personale locale.

    Risultati: l’indagine consentirà di avere in tempi brevi le prime stime di frequenza delle IO nell’unico grande ospedale specializzato presente in Albania e informazioni su altri aspetti rilevanti connessi alle IO, come la quota dei pazienti chirurgici e/o esposti a procedure invasive, l’uso degli antibiotici, il ricorso ai servizi diagnostici.

    Conclusioni: l’indagine è un primo passo verso l’implementazione di un programma di

  14. Copper Induced Lysosomal Membrane Destabilisation in Haemolymph Cells of Mediterranean Green Crab (Carcinus aestuarii, Nardo, 1847 from the Narta Lagoon (Albania

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    Valbona Aliko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTDestabilisation of blood cell lysosomes in Mediterranean green crabCarcinus aestuarii was investigated using Neutral Red Retention Assay (NRRA. Crabs collected in Narta Lagoon, Vlora (Albania during May 2014 were exposed in the laboratory to sub-lethal, environmentally realistic concentrations of copper. Neutral Red Retention Time (NRRT and glucose concentration in haemolymph of animals were measured. The mean NRRT showed a significant reduction for the animals of the treatment group compared to the control one (from 118.6 ± 28.4 to 36.4 ± 10.48 min, p<0.05, indicating damage of lysosomal membrane. Haemolymph glucose concentration was significantly higher in the treatment group (from 37.8 ± 2.7 to 137.8.4 ± 16.2 mg/dL, p<0.05 than in control group, demonstrating the presence of stress on the animals. These results showed thatC. aestuarii could be used as a successful and reliable bioindicator for evaluating the exposure to contaminants in laboratory conditions. NRRA provides a successful tool for rapid assessment of heavy metal pollution effects on marine biota.

  15. Corruption and legal certainty; the case of Albania and the Netherlands Implementation of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption in a transitional and consolidated democracy

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    Idlir Peçi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrepancy in corruption levels may be observed between Western European states and the post-communist states of Central and (South Eastern Europe. In order to find out whether this discrepancy corresponds with a discrepancy in legal provisions, we embarked upon a comparative exercise aimed at exploring the implementation of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption in a consolidated Western European democracy (the Netherlands and a young South Eastern European democracy (Albania. Obviously, compliance with international conventions is highly important for addressing the worldwide and cross-border nature of corruption. Our paper focuses on the clarity and accessibility of the substantive criminal legislation concerning corruption from the point of view of legal certainty. We successively discuss the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, the Albanian provisions on the passive bribery of public officials and the Dutch provisions on the passive bribery of public officials. It is concluded that a generally good legal framework seems to be in place in both countries and that the anti-corruption legislation is on the whole in line with the requirements of the Convention. Some problems may be observed in relation to legal certainty. However, it seems that the discrepancies in the legislation and the problems with legal certainty are relatively minor and therefore can hardly clarify the discrepancy in corruption levels.

  16. Demographic and Social Correlates of Tobacco, Alcohol and Cannabis Use Among 15-16-Year-Old Students in Albania: Results of the ESPAD Survey

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    Toçi Ervin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Our aim was to assess the demographic and social factors associated with lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among school students aged 15–16 in Albania in order to make information and knowledge available for health promotion specialists working on substance use prevention. DESIGN – This cross-sectional study was conducted in March–May 2011 in the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. In total, 3189 students born in 1995 participated in the survey. The standardised ESPAD questionnaire was used to collect data about substance use. RESULTS – Our multivariable adjustment analysis showed that being a male and having easy access to cigarettes were the only universal factors significantly increasing the likelihood of ever using tobacco, alcohol or cannabis. Own smoking was strongly and significantly associated with alcohol and cannabis use. The associations of own substance use with peer substance consumption were weak to moderate. CONCLUSIONS – Own smoking seems to be the most important single independent risk factor which strongly and significantly predicted alcohol and cannabis use among Albanian school students. Policy makers need to strengthen the rule of law whereas health promotion professionals should firmly address smoking in adolescence through target interventions.

  17. The status of the Civil Servant and Rules of Ethics in Public Administration efficacy in preserving the integrity of civil servants and preventing corruption: the case of Albania

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    Eralda Çani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  18. Peridotites of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc and the Eastern Mirdita ophiolite (Albania) : implications for igneous activity during subduction initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T.; Tani, K.; Dilek, Y.

    2011-12-01

    There have been few studies of the mantle evolution related to igneous activity in the earliest stages of subduction initiation. We examined peridotites recovered from an exhumed crust/mantle section exposed along the landward slopes of the northern Izu-Bonin Trench (Morishita et al., Geology, 2011) and peridotite bodies in the Eastern Mirdita ophiolite, Albania (Morishita et al., Lithos, 2011). Based on the Cr# (=Cr/(Cr+Al) atomic ratio) of spinel in the IBM, two distinctive groups, (1) High-Cr# (> 0.8) dunite and (2) Medium-Cr# (0.4-0.6) dunite, occur close to each other and are associated with refractory harzburgite. Two distinctive melts were in equilibrium with these dunites. In the case of the Eastern Mirdita ophiolite, cpx porphyroclast-bearing harzburgite (Cpx-harzburgite) occurs structurally in the lower parts of the peridotite massifs, whereas harzburgite and dunite are more abundant towards the upper parts. The Cpx-harzburgite was formed as the residue of less-flux partial melting, which are similar to those in abyssal peridotites from MOR systems. On the other hand, harzburgite was produced as a result of enhanced partial melting of depleted peridotites due to infiltration of hydrous LREE-enriched fluids/melts. The wide range of variation in dunites from the IBM forearc and the uppermost section of the EMO probably reflects changing melt compositions from MORB-like melts to boninitic melts in the forearc setting due to an increase of slab-derived hydrous fluids/melts during subduction initiation. This scenario is consistent with the temporal and spatial variation of volcanic rocks in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc (Reagan et al., G-cubed, 2010). If the "MORB-like" FAB is a ubiquitous phenomenon during the initiation of subduction, we should reconsider our interpretation of the ophiolites.

  19. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania

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    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods—dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was €6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.

  20. Complexity of diatom response to Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in ancient, deep and oligotrophic Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. S.; Reed, J. M.; Lacey, J. H.; Francke, A.; Leng, M. J.; Levkov, Z.; Wagner, B.

    2016-03-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania) is a rare example of a deep, ancient Mediterranean lake and is a key site for palaeoclimate research in the northeastern Mediterranean region. This study conducts the analysis of diatoms as a proxy for Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in Lake Ohrid at a higher resolution than in previous studies. While Lake Ohrid has the potential to be sensitive to water temperature change, the data demonstrate a highly complex diatom response, probably comprising a direct response to temperature-induced lake productivity in some phases and an indirect response to temperature-related lake stratification or mixing and epilimnetic nutrient availability in others. The data also demonstrate the possible influence of physical limnological (e.g. the influence of wind stress on stratification or mixing) and chemical processes (e.g. the influence of catchment dynamics on nutrient input) in mediating the complex response of diatoms. During the Lateglacial (ca. 12 300-11 800 cal yr BP), the low-diversity dominance of hypolimnetic Cyclotella fottii indicates low lake productivity, linked to low water temperature. Although the subsequent slight increase in small, epilimnetic C. minuscula during the earliest Holocene (ca. 11 800-10 600 cal yr BP) suggests climate warming and enhanced stratification, diatom concentration remains as low as during the Lateglacial, suggesting that water temperature increase was muted across this major transition. The early Holocene (ca. 10 600-8200 cal yr BP) is characterised by a sustained increase in epilimnetic taxa, with mesotrophic C. ocellata indicating high water-temperature-induced productivity between ca. 10 600-10 200 cal yr BP and between ca. 9500-8200 cal yr BP and with C. minuscula in response to low nutrient availability in the epilimnion between ca. 10 200-9500 cal yr BP. During the middle Holocene (ca. 8200-2600 cal yr BP), when sedimentological and geochemical proxies provide evidence for

  1. Complexity of diatom response to Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in ancient, deep, and oligotrophic Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. S. Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania is a rare example of a deep, ancient Mediterranean lake and is a key site for palaeoclimate research in the northeastern Mediterranean region. This study conducts the first high-resolution diatom analysis during the Lateglacial and Holocene in Lake Ohrid. It demonstrates a complex diatom response to temperature change, with a direct response to temperature-induced productivity and an indirect response to temperature-related stratification/mixing regime and epilimnetic nutrient availability. During the Lateglacial (ca. 12 300–11 800 cal yr BP, the low-diversity dominance of hypolimnetic Cyclotella fottii indicates low temperature-dependent lake productivity. During the earliest Holocene (ca. 11 800–10 600 cal yr BP, although the slight increase in small, epilimnetic C. minuscula suggests climate warming and enhanced thermal stratification, diatom concentration remains very low as during the Lateglacial, indicating that temperature increase was muted. The early Holocene (ca. 10 600–8200 cal yr BP marked a sustained increase in epilimnetic taxa, with mesotrophic C. ocellata indicating high temperature-induced lake productivity between ca. 10 600–10 200 cal yr BP and between ca. 9500–8200 cal yr BP, and with C. minuscula in response to low nutrient availability in the epilimnion between ca. 10 200–9500 cal yr BP. During the mid Holocene (ca. 8200–2600 cal yr BP, when sedimentological and geochemical proxies provide evidence for high temperature, anomalously low C. ocellata abundance is probably a response to epilimnetic nutrient limitation, almost mimicking the Lateglacial flora apart from mesotrophic Stephanodiscus transylvanicus indicative of high temperature-induced productivity in the hypolimnion. During the late Holocene (ca. 2600–0 cal yr BP, high abundance and fluctuating composition of epilimnetic taxa is largely a response to enhanced anthropogenic nutrient input. In this deep, oligotrophic lake

  2. The Paramountcy of EU Law Over National Law The Extent to which Lyon’s Statements Reflect on the Relationship between EU and Domestic Law within the UK and Candidate States such as Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbi Ago

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As we live in a world that is becoming ever more globalized, it is unavoidable to consider the effect supranational entities and globalization itself have on the national sovereignty of the state. The EU is probably the most well-known example of a supranational entity and as such it cannot help but bring about a number of sides regarding its power over its members. There are many that would claim the EU has undermined national sovereignty, especially when it comes to the legal sphere. The issue at hand has been addressed by scholars such as Dr. Anne Lyon and this paper is a direct analysis of her statement regarding paramountcy. In summation, Lyon has stated that EU law has undermined national law. This has happened due to a number of reasons, one of which is the passing of a parliamentary Act intending to prioritize EU law. At this point, shall they need to provide otherwise, it is quite an argument to claim whether they could give effect to national law instead. Therefore, it has become necessary to consider the extent to which these statements reflect the relationship between EU law and ‘domestic’ laws within the UK and try and apply to the legal future of candidate states, such as Albania. This paper analyzes the two parts of Lyon’s argument, namely the paramountcy and parliamentary aspects of the issue, while also aiming to provide a framework on which future candidate states such as Albania can work on in order to achieve a more efficient assimilation into the EU legal system together with the forewarnings necessary shall they wish the opposite.

  3. Involutina farinacciae Bronnimann & Koehn-Zaninetti 1969, a marker for the Middle Liassic in basinal and some platform facies of Mediterranean and near east areas: The discussion concerning the paleogeography of Montenegro-Albania border region (the Scutari-Peć lineament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoičić Rajka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraminiferal species Involutina farinacciae BRONNIMANN & KOEHN-ZANINETTI, is a marker of Middle Liassic basinal and transitional platform bassin facies widely distributed in Mediterranean area (Umbria-Marche, Pindos, Budva, Sicilia and the Inner Dinarides basin, also in Iraqi Kurdistan (“Avroman” Basin. In the Dinaric Carbonate Platform (DCP it indicates intramarginal and intraplatform depressions. Paleogeography of the Montenegro-Albania border area formed by the inherited prealpine paleogeographic scenario that resulted in a different arrangement of the paleogeographic units westward and eastward of the paleostructure (Scutari-Peć Lineament which controlled the geological history of the region. This transverse paleostructure was a coincident with the paleogeographic front of the DCP, and b the westward limit of the overtrusted Mirdita Zone. The difference in the paleogeographic features in the prolongation from the DCP througout Albania, controlled by paleostructure, are the source of seizmicity, rotation and deviation (SE to NW, into NE of the Complex Mirdita Zone.

  4. Real Estate Taxes in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Koprencka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction sector is one of the mainsectors of the Albanian economy, which,during the last 20 years, has experiencedthe greatest economic growth. In 1991 thissector has contributed by 2.5% to the GDP,in 2006 by 4.9%, while in 2008, this sectorhas contributed by 14.9% to the national GDP. The relevant legislation has played animportant role in the development of this sector. The applied laws have tried to maintainat low levels the real estate prices and totransform such a problematic sector, withreference to fiscal evasion and informality,into an easily controllable sector. The taxesapplied in the construction sector are the sameas in other economic sectors, although thetaxation management in the construction sector, except forthose common principles thatregulate the tax management in general, isbased on some specificrules related to thecharacteristics of this sector. Increase the level of taxation on the transfer of ownership tothe extent of 10%, paralyzed the housing market by reducing the number of sales,especially of real estate old, previously this was 0.3-5%of sales value.JEL Classification: H21

  5. Arnavutluk’taki Osmanlı Dönemi Mimarisinde İstanbul Tasvirli Duvar Resimleri İstanbul Depiction Mural Paintings in Architecture of Ottoman Period in Albania

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    Metin UÇAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate the Istanbul depictionsmural paintings in Ottoman period within the borders of Albania, one ofBalkan countries. Within the scope of our research, the Istanbuldepictions found in research region were described according to theircontents by classifying them according to painting dates and locations.Also by analyzing style characteristics in paintings and the effects ofperiod, we tried to compare them with their likes in Anatolia in terms oftechnic and arrangement.The mural paintings which started to be used in religious and civilarchitecture of Ottoman Empire (in Istanbul the Capital City and inAnatolia since middle of 18th century has started to be seen in wallsurfaces in Albania. Those mural paintings, which have nowadayssamples on scarce number of structures, are located in medallions,boards, springer and frames on inner and outer wall surfaces ofbuildings. The themes of paintings are generally still-life, landscape andcity depictions. Among city depictions chosen as theme, Istanbul hasprimary place because it was capital city in that era. The Istanbulfigurations, which have generally been handled fictionally, are locatedon wall surfaces of Akçahisar (Kruje Toptaniler Mansion, BeratBekarlar Mosque, Berat Cako (Xhaxhi Qako House and Görice (KorçeMirahor İlyas Bey Mosque.Although the Istanbul-themed paintings, which are now locatedwithin the borders of other countries, have been made by local artists oftheir region, they show important similarities with their contemporariesin especially Aegean and Marmara regions from the aspects of technic,style and arrangement. Bu çalışmada, Balkan ülkelerinden Arnavutluk’ta Osmanlı döneminde yapılmış olan duvar resimlerindeki İstanbul tasvirlerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu kapsamda bölgede yaptığımız araştırmada tespit edilen İstanbul tasvirleri, yapıldıkları tarihlere ve bulundukları yere göre tasnif edilerek, içeriklerine g

  6. The effects of fiscal decentralization in Albania

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    Dr.Sc. Blerta Dragusha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available “Basically decentralization is a democratic reform which seeks to transfer the political, administrative, financial and planning authority from central to local government. It seeks to develop civic participation, empowerment of local people in decision making process and to promote accountability and reliability: To achieve efficiency and effectiveness in the collection and management of resources and service delivery”1 The interest and curiosity of knowing how our country is doing in this process, still unfinished, served as a motivation forme to treat this topic: fiscal decentralization as a process of giving 'power' to local governments, not only in terms of rights deriving from this process but also on the responsibilities that come with it. Which are the stages before and after decentralization, and how has it affected the process in several key indicators? Is decentralization a good process only, or can any of its effects be seen as an disadvantage?

  7. Subsalt Depth Seismic Imaging and Structural Interpretation in Dumre Area, Albania Imagerie sismique profondeur sub-salifère et interprétation structurale dans la région de Dumre, Albanie

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    Jardin A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of seismic exploration in fold and thrust belt settings is to optimize the depth seismic images of the deep structural objectives beneath a complex overburden that may show strong horizontal and vertical velocity variations. In such areas, the seismic image is frequently of poor quality and the depth models of deep layers is often false due to the perturbed propagation of seismic energy through the deforming lens of the overlying layers. A range of seismic processing tools, including post-stack and pre-stack depth migrations, are appropriate to predict the accurate geometry of deep target structures and to improve the building of a depth structural model. A strong combination of geological reasoning and depth seismic imaging processing can improve the understanding of the deep geological structures by reducing the uncertainties in depth geometrical and velocity model estimation. We propose an interpretative and iterative approach to the post stack depth migration method to guide the interpreter in the development of a reliable subsurface model. We have applied this approach during an exploration study in the Dumre area, located in the Ionian Basin (Albania which is a complex fold and thrust belt. The main objectives of this study were to understand the failure of a former exploration well and to propose a new location for the potential closure of the carbonate structure. This subsalt imaging study aims at illustrating the improvements obtained by application of this integrated seismic imaging method especially in the evaluation of a subthrust prospect in a tectonically complex belt setting. Le challenge de l’exploration pétrolière par la sismique réflexion dans les zones de montagne est d’obtenir des coupes capables de bien imager les structures géologiques profondes situées sous une couverture sédimentaire plissée. Cette série de sédiments peut être très complexe et engendrer ainsi de fortes variations latérales et

  8. The National Security Strategy of the Republic of Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    applied consequently in a democratic system . 33. Vital interests guaranteeing, such as: exercise of sovereignty, protection of independence and...balance of security in favor of political means, of the institutions of security and diplomacy, and the dimension and human dignity in a democratic ... system . The use of military force will be executed only to guarantee the constitutional right to protect the vital interests of the country by all

  9. The New Legal Regime on Minority Shareholder Protection in Albania

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    Jonida Rustemaj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at introducing the main changes brought by the new Albanian Company Law on minority shareholders’ protection. Due to the harmonization of our legislation with the acqui, new pieces of laws were introduced in commercial law. In 2008 the new law “On entrepreneurs and commercial companies” was enacted. The latter introduced new practices and concepts, some of them not familiar to the Albanian legal system. I was motivated to write a paper on minority shareholders protection in order to emphasize the new regime and instruments of protection granted by the new laws. A matter which concerns investors and especially foreign ones is the protection of minority shareholders. This paper discusses the instruments of protection of minority shareholders bringing the novelties of the newly introduced laws because of the unclear regime under the repealed law using the analytical and comparative method. Few rights which were known by the former Albanian company law were usually compromised, but under the law in force, minorities are much more protected.Does the new law strengthen the position of such category of shareholders? What are the rights of minority shareholders conferred by the law? These and other questions will be addressed herein.

  10. The New Legal Regime On Minority Shareholder Protection In Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Rustemaj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at introducing the main changes brought by  the new Albanian Company Law on  minority shareholders’ protection. Due to the harmonization of our legislation with the acqui, new pieces of laws were introduced in commercial law. In 2008 the new law “On entrepreneurs and commercial companies” was enacted. The latter introduced new practices and concepts, some of them not  familiar  to  the Albanian  legal  system. I  was motivated  to   write  a  paper on   minority   shareholders protection  in  order to  emphasize  the new regime  and instruments of protection granted by the new laws. A matter which concerns investors and especially foreign ones is the protection of minority  shareholders. This paper discusses the instruments  of  protection  of  minority   shareholders bringing the novelties of the newly introduced laws because of  the unclear regime under the repealed law using the analytical and comparative method. Few rights which  were known by the former Albanian company law were usually compromised, but  under the law in  force, minorities are much more protected. Does the new law strengthen the position of such category of   shareholders?   What  are   the   rights   of   minority shareholders  conferred  by  the  law?  These  and other questions will be addressed herein.

  11. Economical effectiveness of vegetative pear nurseries in Albania

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    Bardhosh Ferraj

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sapling production on vegetative rootsctock is considered as an important agronomic activity while Albanian arboriculture is being oriented towards the world contemporary development. The paper presents the evaluation of economical effectiveness of the vegetative pear nurseries, since the evaluation of the increase of economical effectiveness and farm productivity as a real potential of Albanian farmers. The experiment was carried out during two consecutive years, 2009-2010, by the Department of Horticulture at Agricultural University of Tirana in collaboration with a certified national nursery. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with 4 replications and 6 variants with a plot size of 50 saplings for variant in each replication was used. Pear cultivars Abate Fetel, Williams and Koshia used as scions grafted over seedy rootsctock of wild pear and vegetative rootsctock of quince clone Anger, (EM – A, were compared. The data showed that different rootstocks affected sapling features and quality. The use of quince vegetative rootstock EM-A provided the highest values of grafting catching rate of 93.7% (V2,V4,V6 and 95.3% standard saplings of both scions (V2,V4,V6. According to the official standards of the Albanian government, considering the qualitative aspect, both pear cultivars grafted over EM-A rootstocks provided higher qualitative saplings. So, for variants V2 and V4, saplings with 2-3 sceletal branches represented 88.6% and 84.7%, respectively; while saplings with main shoot length of 31-40 cm for variants V2, V4, V6 represented 18.1%, 23.5% and 24.3%. The achieved results confirms the need of spreading and widely use of “mother“ plots for vegetative rootstock production, beside the fact that this sapling category is ready to be planted in open fields one year earlier than saplings with seedy rootstock. The two years data were confirmed statistically by LSD and ANOVA tests.

  12. Failure to report a crime and its problems in Albania

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    Besiana Muka (Petanaja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime being a social and economic phenomenon constitutes a serious threat to democratic values, not just one country or region, but beyond. Its prevention and detection constitutes the most important challenge dealing with the criminal investigation organs, where the underlying investigative process at any time should remain the utmost respect for human rights, particularly care to crime victims. The process of crime prevention should be more efficient, first there must be a spirit of close cooperation between police officers, prosecution authorities and community in order to guarantee the rule of security for citizens. This is due to the fact that all citizens are concerned about the safety of their family and the environment where they live. Through their individual skills they react to the actions and behaviors that affect the interests, values and legal norms prescribed (Nasufi & Yzeiri, 2004, 162. Besides civic reaction, criminal legislation provides for the rights and duties to citizens to denounce criminal acts. Under the criminal code, every citizen is obliged to speak of a crime that is being committed or has been committed, the bodies of prosecution, court, law enforcement bodies, government or administration, otherwise the risk is connected with a sanction of a fine or imprisonment up to three years. 1 To better understand the problems of non testifying crime and discrepancy it is important to analyze the criminal Offense of non testifying crime and Characteristics of the Offense under the Albanian criminal code.

  13. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA

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    Fioralba Vela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the focus will be on the Albanian government efforts on developing energy infrastructure, focused on electricity . One of the primary factors that need to be considered in strategic management related to energy infrastructure is the policy. In reality, the government has to consider many factors when making policy decisions, especially those related to public infrastructure investment, such as: the establishment of a modern, efficient electricity sector that operates according to sound economic, commercial, and market principles, creating conditions that will attract private investment to fund necessary rehabilitation, expansion, and improvements to electricity facilities and the participation of strategic investors in the operation of the energy sector, and the development of the Albanian electricity market in a manner that is consistent with the European Union’s requirements for liberalizing the electricity sector (Directive 96/92/EC and Albania’s commitments under the Thessaloniki Agreement12 regarding the development of a regional electricity market. A strong need to build energy infrastructure can put pressure on policymakers to invest in infrastructure; hence to determine the need for new infrastructure or its rehabilitation, it is important to examine the condition of existing energy infrastructure, part of which is the electricity sector.

  14. BANKRUPTCY AND THE ALTMAN MODELS. CASE OF ALBANIA

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    Numani Eni

    2015-07-01

    To classify bankrupt and non-bankrupt firms, this study is based on the Albanian legislation on bankruptcy (Law no. 8901, according to which bankruptcy proceedings may be opened in case of a state of insolvency, when the firm is overburdened with debts or when the earnings after tax of the firm is negative for a period of 3 years. According to the Albanian legislation on bankruptcy, 24 (from 80 firms involved in the study result legally bankrupt. The first revised model (The 1983 model of Altman predicts accurately these firms by 75%. Regarding the non-bankrupt firms (according to Albanian legislation on bankruptcy inaccuracy in the forecast is even higher than in the case of bankrupt firms. From 56 non-bankrupt firms involved in the study, 23 are classified as insolvent company under the first revised model of Altman, while these firms are not bankrupt. In case of application of the second revised model of Altman (The 1993 model the results are consistent with the results of the first model in terms of bankrupt firms. Meanwhile, what is striking is the significant reduction in the percentage of Type II error (from 41% to 23%.

  15. Poverty and inequality issues in Albania: trends and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Myftaraj (Tomori) Elena

    2010-01-01

    Poverty and inequality are complex and widespread phenomena. Poverty is an indicator and the main factor of inequality, so reduction of poverty is one of the biggest challenges for economic and social consolidation of a country. There are different concepts of poverty, in this paper we are focused on the concept of absolute poverty. The main objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis on the trends of poverty and inequality indicators, as well as an analysis on the reduction of poverty ...

  16. Modality in professional music in Albania and Kosovo

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    Kushtrim Jakupi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Albanian folk music, this great treasure preserved over generations is an expression of high consciousness of everything precious inherited from the past. In determining the typology of this folklore, Albanian Ethnomusicology rightly refers to two major ethnographic divisions, which, according to the natural boundary defined by Shkumbini River, are Gheg in the northern part and Tosk, south of it. In a general approach (even within these two large ethno music areas, folklore is presented with its striking diversity, it can be said, that: northern folklore, respectively Gheg one, is distinguished for its monodic singing, based on oj- and chromatic modes with 11 sounds, influenced by oriental music, while southern folk music generally appears unified in iso polyphony, which by modal perspective is built on pentatonic (Tole, 2007, 5. The types of degree’s steps that are encountered in Albanian folklore music can be divided in two categories, defined by their own origins. In the first group, the so-called diatonic modes, include older modes, in which did not penetrate the later influences that came from the Orient (when Albanian became part of the Ottoman Empire (Koçi, 2002, 143, a part of which with ancient origins, like three, tetra, penta and hexachord, while the rest derived from church modes, like eolik and jonic, but also anhemitonic pentatonic. To the other group belong chromatic modes, with oriental origin. Consequently, even the Albanian folk music melody is based on diatonic modes on one hand, where eolic, doric and jonic dominate (and the combination of two modes, eolic and jonic are a rather frequent phenomenon, as well as in defective modes mentioned above and on the other hand in chromatic modes (Çefa. 1997, 97.

  17. Post-socialist financial fragility: the case of Albania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Bezemer

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 collapse of the Albanian economy caused by the collapse of economy-widePonzi schemes contrasts sharply to itssuccess status as a post-socialist transition country in the years 1992-1996. Inthis paper, an attempt is made to explain this'Albanian Paradox'. The specific Albanian conditions for

  18. The Albanian National Question and the Myth of Greater Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    for the ANQ. In the late 1990s the U.S.-led intervention against Serbia over Kosova on humanitarian grounds and the Albanian insurgency in Macedonia ...intervention against Serbia over Kosova on humanitarian grounds and the Albanian insurgency in Macedonia has contributed to an altered power balance in the...cultivated a degree of animosity between the various ethnic groups that was not seen before. By backing irredentist claims of nationalist leaders

  19. Economic crisis impact on Remittances and Migration level in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Shera; Ardita Shehaj

    2014-01-01

    Remittances of international migrants as the second largest flow of incomes contribute to the well-being of their households of origin and also have an impact at macro-economic level. Out-migration is an effective means for low-income households to quickly overcome shortages of income. The sustenance of poor households might have been more difficult without such remittances. From a macro perspective, remittances contribute to the equalization of the income distribution among households having...

  20. The Development of Private International Law in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Ilda Mucmataj; Lorenc Danaj

    2014-01-01

    In a world like today’s one, with communication, trade and the increasing cross-border travels, the issue of the conflict of laws appears in every aspect of the private law. It is important that every member of the legal community understands the conflict of laws. This is important especially for judges, because they are the ones who should solve cross-border disputes submitted to them, which affect the personal lives of individuals and their businesses. Judges are precisely those who, with t...

  1. Contractual Obligations under the Private International Law in Albania.

    OpenAIRE

    Ervis Çela; Maks Qoku

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical and practical part is related to the analysis and studies of the contractual obligations under the private international law. This work is divided into three parts, where respectively, the first part deals with the general part of the contractual obligations; the second part deals with the specific contracts, which are actually found also in a general regulation under law No. 10428, dated 02.06.2011 “Private International Law”; and the third part deals with the internation...

  2. Albania and the teaching of religion in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Immacolata Macioti; Arta Musaraj

    2017-01-01

    Multiculturalism and the new multi religious social realities are becoming dominant dimensions of today’s world. The huge changes in the social tissue of those societies, which up to now had an established dominant culture and religious affiliation, made them now face more than the effects of migrant flows, which inevitably causes confrontations of cultures and believes. The clash of civilizations, which have been so accurately predicted, took different forms of confrontation by giving f...

  3. Effectiveness of Counter-Trafficking Response in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meçe Merita H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a new phenomenon of Albanian post-socialist society which significantly increased during the difficult years of its transformation from centralized state-led economy to market economy. Both economic and political instability contributed to its size, nature and multiple dynamics. Drawing on a rights-based approach to human trafficking, this paper examines the effectiveness of the counter-trafficking response of the Albanian government with a special emphasis on prevention, protection and prosecution. Using secondary data and reviewing various country strategic documents, it highlights a range of weaknesses and challenges which have hindered its effectiveness over years. It concludes that successful and effective counter-trafficking response requires well rounded and coordinated gender sensitive, victim-centred, holistic and human rights-based efforts. Combined with adequate law enforcement, they will sustainably tackle the full spectrum of this problem.

  4. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF URBAN TOURISM IN ALBANIA - THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF URBAN TOURISM IN COMPETITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ALBANIA DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fioralba VELA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main objective is to introduce the role of urban tourism as a potential form of tourism in the competitive development of the Albanian destination and the role of urban tourism to the community of the Albanian urban areas and the problems related to this development. For the purpose of the study, it’s needed to define the criteria of the study and the organization of the Albanian cities that offers the greatest possibilities to develop the urban tourism as a competitive form of tourism development. These criteria are: the evidence of the heritage historical patrimony, the evidence of the culinary patrimony, the evidence of the technical patrimony, the evidence of the hospitality patrimony, the evidence of the transport’s situation, the evidence of the cultural patrimony, the evidence of leisure structures, various services. The analyses used enable the author to come on interesting conclusions.

  5. Social Media: Opening New Doors for the Domestic Tourism Industry in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Vjollca Hysi; Klodiana Gorica; Sokol Luzi

    2015-01-01

    The online word is becoming every day more and more important for the tourism industry. Through different technologies, it has made the possibility to ease the way people search and decide for their own travel destination, the way they pick their accommodation and their traveling medium. In particular the online social media, as part of the online word, has created new opportunities for interaction and communication between people. Today individuals have the opportunity to share ...

  6. Does the Bluetongue virus circulates in cattle population of Mat district, Albania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLODIAN DEDOLLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue is a viral, infectious, non-contiguous, vector transmitted disease of ruminants animals, caused by an Orbivurus. Despite the disease is not zoonoses, it is with high economic importance and as other OIE listed disease, significantly interfere with animal health and trade. Clinically, most affected species are sheep, however cattle serve as reservoir of infection and play major role on epidemiology of disease. Presence of Blue tongue disease proved only when it is based on laboratory tests.

  7. Analysis of Land Reforms and the Review of Legislative Aspects in Rural Land in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALBONA SINANI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Albanian agriculture has been experiencing a dramatic and difficult transition period from a centralized, planned economy to a market economy. The main reasons for these difficulties are because of the expropriation of peasant property and their incorporation into the cooperative system transformed them into salaried workers with one of the lowest per capita income levels in the world. Also the laws restricting the mobility of rural people kept about 65 percent of the population in the countryside and increased impoverishment of the rural population reduced the supply of food for the cities. Ownership rights include the right to exclusive use and enjoyment as well as the right to transfer property through selling, making gifts, mortgaging, leasing, inheritance etc. At the same time, there are certain responsibilities for property owners that may limit some of these rights. Examples of these limits include zoning, environmental standards and urban planning laws. Equally important to the right of private ownership of property is the maintenance and use of property for public purposes. The purpose of this research is to move beyond the rather simplistic notions of land use and land tenure that have informed research on postsocialist land reforms. Land use generates or modifies a large variety of products and services, as highlighted by recent research on the multifunctional nature of European agriculture.

  8. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lakes Ohrid and Prespa (Macedonia/Albania border using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Leng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we present stable isotope data from three sediment records from lakes that lie along the Macedonian-Albanian border (Lake Prespa: 1 core, and Lake Ohrid: 2 cores. The records only overlap for the last 40 kyr, although the longest record contains the MIS 5/6 transition (Lake Ohrid. The sedimentary characteristics of both lakes differ significantly between the glacial and interglacial phases. At the end of MIS 6 Lake Ohrid's water level was low (high δ18Ocalcite and, although productivity was increasing (high calcite content, the carbon supply was mainly from inorganic catchment rock sources (high δ13Ccarb. During the last interglacial, calcite and TOC production and preservation increased, progressively lower δ18Ocalcite suggest increase in humidity and lake levels until around 115 ka. During ca. 80 ka to 11 ka the lake records suggest cold conditions as indicated by negligible calcite precipitation and low organic matter content. In Lake Ohrid, δ13Corg are complacent; in contrast, Lake Prespa shows consistently higher δ13Corg suggesting a low oxidation of 13C-depleted organic matter in agreement with a general deterioration of climate conditions during the glacial. From 15 ka to the onset of the Holocene, calcite and TOC begin to increase, suggesting lake levels were probably low (high δ18Ocalcite. In the Holocene (11 ka to present enhanced productivity is manifested by high calcite and organic matter content. All three cores show an early Holocene characterised by low δ18Ocalcite, apart from the very early Holocene phase in Prespa where the lowest δ18Ocalcite occurs at ca. 7.5 ka, suggesting a phase of higher lake level only in (the more sensitive Lake Prespa. From 6 ka, δ18Ocalcite suggest progressive aridification, in agreement with many other records in the Mediterranean, although the uppermost sediments in one core records low δ18Ocalcite which we interpret as a result of human activity. Overall, the isotope data present here confirm that these two big lakes have captured the large scale, low frequency palaeoclimate variation that is seen in Mediterranean lakes, although in detail there is much palaeoclimate information that could be gained, especially small scale, high frequency differences between this region and the Mediterranean.

  9. Changes while Implementing Law-reforms and Albania as a new EU candidate country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenc Danaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Every day, scientific knowledge is growing exponentially and either researcher, nor students have the ability to keep up with literature. On the other hand, new generations of students have different views of information access from that of their older professors and no longer need to depend on professors to obtain information. However, sometimes they are unable to relate this new information to existing knowledge or to transfer it to solve novel problems. It is a challenge for medical educators to search for new pedagogical models that promote in their students the development of strong cognitive processes that allow them to select, integrate, and transfer the new learning and, therefore, to reach meaningful learning. Meaningful learning occurs when the learner interprets, relates, and incorporates new information with existing knowledge and applies the new information to solve novel problems. Meaningful learning, then, involves building multiple representations (mental models of knowledge. In medicine, meaningful learning implies that knowledge acquired by the students makes sense in their future medical practice and allows them to solve different problems In biology, meaningful learning means that the students are able to apply what they know about biology to novel situations, they are able to predict and explain the responses of a biological system if it is disturbed and sometimes to solve quantitative problems (calculate something. This is easier in the clinical setting than during basic science instruction. During the latter, students receive a great amount of information, some of which does not have direct medical application. Thus, many students in the first semester use rote memorization to acquire a large amount of information that they will forget after the exams. In this study, we addressed the following research question: does the concept mapping methodology, articulated with the mediated learning experience, increase meaningful learning in students attending to the cardiovascular module of a biology course?

  10. Analysis of Venetian-type glass fragments from the ancient city of Lezha (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmit, Ž.; Stamati, F.; Civici, N.; Vevecka-Priftaj, A.; Kos, M.; Jezeršek, D.

    2009-08-01

    A series of glasses excavated in the Albanian city of Lezha (ancient Lissos) were analyzed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method in air and by source-excited XRF. The analysis revealed two types of glass that can be identified as façon de Venise glass and its subsequent younger phase, produced by chemically purer components and using As 2O 3 as decolorant.

  11. PEDIATRIC FORMULATION OF RANITIDINE USING FROM COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TABLETS IN ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Briseida Dosti; Ledjan Malaj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ranitidine Hydrochloride is H2 – receptor antagonist indicated for duodenal ulcer. It is used for the treatment of gastric/duodenal ulcer and GERD for both neonates and children, in respective dosage 1.5- 2mg/kg/24h, q12h and 1-5mg/kg/24h, q6-8h. For use in children is needed cutting into smaller parts to obtain appropriate units, since are missing more appropriate pharmaceuticals forms, such as liquid formulations. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accurac...

  12. Informal payments and intra-household allocation of resources for health care in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomini Sonila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informal payments for health care services can impose financial hardship on households. Many studies have found that the position within the household can influence the decision on how much is spent on each household member. This study analyses the intra-household differences in spending on informal payments for health care services by comparing the resources allocated between household heads, spouses and children. Methods Pooled data from two cross sectional surveys, the Albanian Living Standard Measurement Survey 2002 and 2005, are used to analyse both the probability and the amount paid in inpatient and outpatient health care services. A generalised Hausman specification test is used to compare the coefficients of probit and OLS models for nuclear and extended households. Results We find that due to the widespread informal payments there are no significant differences between households in the incidence of informal payments for households' members, but there are more differences in the amount paid informally. Results suggest that households strategically allocate their resources on health care by favouring individuals with higher earning potential who have invested more in human capital. Extended households pay higher amounts for spouses with higher education compared to nuclear households. On the other hand, nuclear households choose to pay higher amounts for children with a higher level of education compared to extended households. Conclusions The differences between households should be taken into account by public policies which should compensate this by redistribution mechanisms targeting disadvantaged groups. Governments should implement effective measures to deal with informal patient payments. JEL Codes: I10, I19, D10

  13. ASPECTS OF MARKETING APPLICATION WITHIN AIRLINE TRAVELLING COMPANIES. THE CASE OF ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areti STRINGA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were defined through the following tasks: 1. To synthesise the features of daily marketing activities of the airlines operating on the Albanian market and establish their strengths and weaknesses. 2. To analyse and establish if there are marked differences in marketing activities of the airlines operating on the Albanian market. Different sources of primary and secondary data were used in analysis of services marketing of airlines operating on the Albanian market. The nature of the research was exploratory. Primary data were mostly gathered from expert opinion by means of personal interviews. The depth interviews took place in offices of the respondents.

  14. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lakes Ohrid and Prespa (Macedonia/Albania border using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Leng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we present stable isotope data from three sediment records from lakes that lie along the Macedonian-Albanian border (Lake Prespa: 1 core, and Lake Ohrid: 2 cores. The records only overlap for the last 40 kyr, although the longest record contains the MIS 5/6 transition (Lake Ohrid. The sedimentary characteristics of both lakes differ significantly between the glacial and interglacial phases. At the end of MIS 6 Lake Ohrid's water level was low (high δ18Ocalcite and, although productivity was increasing (high calcite content, the carbon supply was mainly from inorganic catchment rock sources (high δ13Ccarb. During the last interglacial, calcite and TOC production and preservation increased, progressively lower δ18Ocalcite suggest increase in humidity and lake levels till around 115 ka. During ca. 80 ka to 11 ka the lake records suggest cold conditions as indicated by negligible calcite precipitation and low organic matter content. In Lake Ohrid δ13Corg are complacent, in contrast Lake Prespa shows consistently higher δ13Corg suggesting a low oxidation of 13C-depleted organic matter in agreement with a general deterioration of climate conditions during the glacial. From 15 ka to the onset of the Holocene, calcite and TOC begin to increase, suggesting lake levels were probably low (high δ18Ocalcite. In the Holocene (11 ka to present enhanced productivity is manifested by high calcite and organic matter content. All three cores show an early Holocene characterised by low δ18Ocalcite, apart from the very early Holocene phase in Prespa where the lowest δ18Ocalcite occurs at ca. 7.5 ka, suggesting a phase of higher lake level only in (the more sensitive Lake Prespa. From 6 ka δ18Ocalcite suggest progressive aridification, in agreement with many other records in the Mediterranean, although the uppermost sediments in one core records low δ18Ocalcite which we interpret as a result of human activity. Overall, the isotope data present here confirm that these two big lakes have captured the large scale, low frequency palaeoclimate variation that is seen in Mediterranean lakes, although in detail there is much palaeoclimate information that could be gained, especially small scale, high frequency differences between this region and the Mediterranean.

  15. E-Banking and its features - Albania as a special case

    OpenAIRE

    Ermela Bashuri

    2016-01-01

    The e-banking system is a system which enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions such as: balance inquiries, account transfers, bill payments and some of them offer even the possibility to make loan or credit card applications on a website operated by the institution via internet at any place or time. The e-banking is referred to as online banking or internet banking. The banks have chosen to be part of the wide world of Web in order to stay competitive in ...

  16. Non-Ionizing Radiation: Evaluation of General Public's Exposures in Greece and Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylli, Fatos; Karabetsos, Efthymios; Dollani, Kostandin; Koutounidis, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    With the growth of electric power generation and transmission, the development of new telecommunication systems and advances in medical and industrial applications, humans are increasingly exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The need to understand the potentially harmful effects of EMF on human health has been met by several decades of research, but the development of exposure standards is more recent and a variety of national standards now exist. A number of organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential EMF exposure. The exposure limits for EMF developed by the ICNIRP were based in large reviews of scientific literature, including thermal and non-thermal effects.

  17. The organization of Food Safety marketing of small ruminants in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoje Jakaj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the period 2009-2012. The main objectives of the study are as follows: market organization and set-up, place and the distance between market and producers, respecting animal welfare standards, animals' transportation, data collection on markets (development, trends and questions. Livestock markets of five regions including Tirana, Korça, Shkodra, Milot and Shijak were at the focus of the study. The zonal estimation method was utilized for the purposes of the study. The method was applied in five markets spreading across the afore-mentioned districts. For each district 100 farmers administering 20-50 heads (animals were randomly included in the study. On average 35 heads ( ± 18 lambs and young goats were marketed by any of the above representing farmers. The period spanning in-situ market surveillance lasted for 80 days (one day/week- market day. In addition, 3 slaughtering facilities and 20 meat dispensing shops for each district -Tirana, Korça and Shkodra as well as 30 and 10 improvised selling points at Milot and Shijak areas were respectively surveyed with regard to slaughtering techniques, hygienic sanitary conditions, livestock marketing conditions etc. Alongside direct zonal assessment and contacts established with farmers, secondary data received by thew Office of Statistics (DRBUMK and MAFPC were utilized. Data was statistically processed and analyzed by way of ANOVA.The study pointed to the following findings: Marketing infrastructure is almost lacking. Slaughtering capacities in facilities are not utilized properly. Only 15 % of meat shops have refrigerators in place.

  18. Teaching micro skills Through Communicative Activities in EFL Classes in Albania

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    Marsela HARIZAJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In English language teaching and learning, an essential role is played by grammar and vocabulary. The main question stated in the study lays on how grammar is taught in our English classes, inductively or deductively? In EFL classes, it is thought that grammar is not particularly special, but studies show that teaching it communicatively enables student to improve communicative ability in foreign language. This paper focuses on: How grammar and vocabulary are taught? What is their importance in language learning? What kind of strategies and activities may be used to facilitate teaching in English classes? What is the perception of students about communicative activities used in class? This paper is based on theoretical analysis and practical analyses. When the purpose of learning is to achieve communication, skills and microskills are learned in meaningful contexts.

  19. Spatial variability of recent sedimentation in Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vogel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid is likely of Pliocene age and thus commonly referred to as the oldest existing lake in Europe. In this study spatial variability of recent sediment composition is assessed using >50 basin wide distributed surface sediment samples. Analysis of biogeochemical bulk parameters, selected metals, pigment concentrations as well as grain size distributions revealed a significant spatial heterogeneity in surface sediment composition. It implies that sedimentation in Lake Ohrid is controlled by an interaction of multiple natural and anthropogenic factors and processes. Major factors controlling surface sediment composition are related to differences in geological catchment characteristics, anthropogenic land use, and a counterclockwise rotating surface water current. In some instances processes controlling sediment composition also seem to impact distribution patterns of biodiversity, which suggests a common interaction of processes responsible for both patterns.

  20. A comparative analysis of mathematics textbooks from Kosovo and Albania based on the topic of fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Vula, Eda; Kingji-Kastrati , Jeta; Podvorica, Fitore

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This study analyses the presentation of fractions in Kosovar and Albanian mathematics textbooks designed for students of one to fifth-grade. Physical characteristics of the selected textbooks, the presentation of fractions and the nature of the problems were analysed as well. Findings showed that Albanian mathematics textbooks covered more lessons on fractions than Kosovar textbooks. Textbooks from both countries focus mostly on part whole and operator construction. Al...

  1. Forestry seedlings production by biotechnological methods, the forestry of 21th century in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASAN CANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest biotechnology on the Faculty of Forestry Sciences is an interdisciplinary research dedicated to the development and application of advanced technology for the enhancement of forest regeneration and adaptation. Technical capabilities include Eco physiology, forest ecology, tissue culture and adaptation to climate change mitigation. These techniques are also being used to improve nursery culture regimes, pest’s management by biological fighting, planting regimes and new product development for a variety of broadleaf species (Oaks under ecological stress. Successful regeneration relies on the application of work from many forestry disciplines toward the common goal. At the center of any successful program is the production of high-quality seedlings that have god performance on reforestation site. Performance of an reforestation site depends on seedlings growth potential to be expressed. Seedlings growth potential is influenced by the inherent genetic make-up of source material and the culture used during nursery development. If these attributes can be directed toward improving seedling growth on a reforestation site, then the potential productivity of reforestation/afforestation will be increased. Disciplines that are oriented toward improving these faces of producing high-quality seedlings are the main focus of Forest biotechnology, the main objectives of which have been: (i defining forest species through ecophysiological parameters; (ii developing advanced propagation systems through somatic embryogenesis tissue culture technology; (iii applying ecophysiological assessment techniques in supporting seedling production, improved quality and reforestation site performance. The first results, presented in this paper, have been optimistic, but still the profound studies are needed. The main benefit impacts using biotechnology methods in forestry are: (i a model of sustainable development, (ii maintaining forest biodiversity, (iii extending to new areas. As the conclusion the Commercialization of biological technologies for forest tree species promise to dramatically lower raw material costs, maximize processing efficiencies, minimize environmental impacts, and improve product performances

  2. PEDIATRIC FORMULATION OF RANITIDINE USING FROM COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TABLETS IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briseida Dosti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ranitidine Hydrochloride is H2 – receptor antagonist indicated for duodenal ulcer. It is used for the treatment of gastric/duodenal ulcer and GERD for both neonates and children, in respective dosage 1.5- 2mg/kg/24h, q12h and 1-5mg/kg/24h, q6-8h. For use in children is needed cutting into smaller parts to obtain appropriate units, since are missing more appropriate pharmaceuticals forms, such as liquid formulations. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of splitting ranitidine hydrochloride 150 mg tablets, in dosage for children. Prepare extemporaneous Ranitidine syrup from commercially available tablets and determine it stability. Methods: This study was conducted with three different types of ranitidine tablets, chosen based on the presence or not of the score line. For the preparation of Ranitidine syrup were pulverized tablets of Ranitidine 150 mg and suspended in base solution distilled water and simple syrup. This mixture was diluted to a total volume of 120 ml; resulting in a final ranitidine concentration of 15 mg/ml. A UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Cary 100, Varian was used to determine ranitidine concentration at wavelength 315 nm. Results: Cutting Ranitidine TBL into halves and quarters lead to large deviations. These deviations were related to the presence or not of the score line. It was shown that prepared formulations retain minimum 98% of initial Ranitidine concentration after 7 days of storage at 25°C and 4°C.

  3. Cultural relations between Hungary and Albania during the period of Humanism and Renaissance

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    Muhamet Mala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Hungarian-Albanian relations during the Middle Ages are characterized by a relatively poor intensity. Actually, relations between these two countries are more intense in the political field and especially through the partnership between Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg and John Hunyadi. Regarding the origin, the Hungarian culture identity is rather distinct from the Albanian one. Lack of cultural contacts, among others, was conditioned also by the fact that these relations were held under war circumstances and their primary aim was the common defense from Ottoman attacks. Actually, the Albanian medieval culture remained a Mediterranean culture with elements of Byzantine influence in the continental and southern areas. Meanwhile, Hungary belonged to Central Europe, which, even though far away from Mediterranean cultural mainstream, sought to be influenced by this culture, namely by the Renaissance that emanated exactly in the Mediterranean region. It was Matthias Corvinus effort, regarding the cultural influence of the Mediterranean and Renaissance in Hungary but also the fact that Hungary possessed some of the most important towns of the Adriatic coast and particularly Ragusa. This city was the center where cultural relations between Albanian and Hungary started and became intensified in the religious, intellectual and human field.

  4. Economic and Military on Albania (November 1959 - February 1960) (22nd in the Series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    from East Germiany,. willb’bl’t Y~doallthe-work, -.and it is believedta the’co’st’df producto will be r’-duced. ’Production of sandstone tubes, floor...sold in the free market . (Zeri i Popullit, 17 Feb 60, p 1) D.Weifate in 1960 Expenses for social security in 1960 (rest homes, camps, pensions

  5. Subsalt Depth Seismic Imaging and Structural Interpretation in Dumre Area, Albania.

    OpenAIRE

    Jardin A.; Roure F.; Nikolla L.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge of seismic exploration in fold and thrust belt settings is to optimize the depth seismic images of the deep structural objectives beneath a complex overburden that may show strong horizontal and vertical velocity variations. In such areas, the seismic image is frequently of poor quality and the depth models of deep layers is often false due to the perturbed propagation of seismic energy through the deforming lens of the overlying layers. A range of seismic processing tools, incl...

  6. Turner syndrome in Albania and the efficacy of its treatment with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Petrit; Babameto-Laku, Anila; Vyshka, Gentian; Gjoka, Klodiana; Minxuri, Dorina; Myrtaj, Elira; Çakërri, Luljeta

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of Turner syndrome inside the Albanian population, its clinical, cytological and genetic characteristics, the accompanying pathologies, and the efficacy of the treatment with the growth hormone. We performed a retrospective analysis of 59 patients suffering from this syndrome (aging from 5 to 23 years old). The diagnosis of female patients suffering from Turner syndrome is delayed, with a mean age at the moment of diagnosis of 13.74 years (5-23 years). The main reason for seeking medical advice was the growth retardation or a delayed puberty. Available data for 52 patients showed that the most frequent accompanying pathologies were the following: thyroid autoimmune disorders (59%), cardiovascular anomalies (43%), renal pathologies (41%), hearing impairment (4.3%) and hypertension (3.3%). Follow-up for the growth rate was possible for 52 patients out of the total of 59 patients. Twenty-five of the female patients suffering Turner syndrome and forming part of our study sample were treated with growth hormone for a period averaging 3 years and 4 months. A variety of reasons was identified as responsible for the missed treatment in 27 patients. We saw an enhanced growth (in terms of body height) within the treated subgroup, when compared with the untreated subgroup (27 patients), especially during the first 3 years of the follow-up. No side effects of this treatment were reported. Both groups of patients initiated as well a sexual hormone therapy (estrogens and progesterone) for inducing puberty at the age of 12 years. Further work is needed for an early diagnosis of this syndrome, the prompt treatment with growth hormone and the monitoring of accompanying disorders. This will ensure a better quality of life and an improvement of the longevity of patients suffering from the Turner syndrome.

  7. Climate Vulnerability Assessments : An Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability, Risk, and Adaptation in Albania's Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Many countries are increasingly vulnerable to destructive weather events, floods, droughts, windstorms, or other parameters. The vulnerability is driven in part by recent extremes in climate variability but also by countries' sensitivity to events exacerbated by past practices, socioeconomic conditions, or legacy issues. The degree to which vulnerability to weather affects the countries' e...

  8. Hope, Arkansas to Hope, Albania: naivete and idealism to reality and tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B C

    2000-06-01

    The wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo were perpretrated by a radical nationalist Serbian cultural political consciousness that the American cultural political consciousness and leadership had difficulty responding to and understanding. There is a great cultural divide between a 'pathology' in Serbian culture, Milosević's radical nationalism, and a humane 'naivete' in American cultural consciousness. I discuss why, finally, American political leadership, Bill Clinton from Hope, Arkansas, responded to the tragedy of these wars. However, we are still left with the question of good vs evil: What is the course of human history; psychotic political leadership causing repetitive human tragedy or can there be a higher humane and moral order to human cultural events?

  9. Analysis of Consumer Awareness and Perceptions about Food Safety in Tirana, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARBEN VERÇUNI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory study based on a structured survey aimed at assessing Albanian consumer awareness about food safety assurance, standards and institutions. This paper analyzes the Albanian consumer perceptions, awareness and information about safety of food products. According to the research findings, about 30 percent of respondents perceive meat as unsafe; meanwhile 20 percent of respondents perceive dairy products as unsafe. There is a much higher distrust in relation with salami products – about 80 percent of the respondents perceive salami as unsafe. Approximately 80 percent of consumers stated that they are not aware of HACCP, 56 percent are not aware of ISO, and 52 percent do not know the institution accountable for food safety (National Food Authority. Awareness, information and promotional programs can improve consumers’ behavior with regard to food safety and reduce the public health risk.

  10. Coordination in the midst of chaos: the refugee crisis in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Porter

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the coordination of the aid effort, the role of NATO and, finally, whether the response to the Kosovo crisis hasstrengthened or undermined the principles of universality that govern the global provision of humanitarian assistance.

  11. Treatment and follow up of children with chronic hepatitis C in Albania

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    Velmishi Virtut

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of Hepatitis C in children has a better outcome than in adults, and for this reason the treatment had different views. However, in pediatric age hepatitis C is seen to have an evolution towards chronicity. Today is a normal option to treat chronic hepatitis C as early as possible according to certain criteria. The aim of this study is to show the results of treatment with interferon and ribavirin and the follow-up of children diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C in our service. Patients and methods This is a prospective study which has included children 3 up to 15 years old (13 boys and 4 girls diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C. All patients underwent a certain protocol, including liver biopsy prior to treatment. Treatment consisted in use for 48 weeks of INF α-2b, 3 MIU/m2 three times a week s/c and ribavirin 15 mg/kg orally divided bid. Two patients were treated with PEGINF α-2b with dose 1.5 mcg/kg once a week s/c and ribavirin 15 mg/kg. After the treatment all patients have stayed under our control for an average period of 24 weeks. Results At the end of the treatment we detected a patient with HCV-RNA positive. End Treatment Viral Response was 94%. Six months later we found three patients who showed relapse of disease. Sustained Viral Response was approximately 83% Conclusion The combination therapy of interferon with Ribavirin in treatment of children with chronic hepatitis C provides a higher SVR when treatment is initiated at the earliest stages of hepatic changes. Side effects of therapy are insignificant in comparison with results obtained

  12. Albania; Income Distribution, Poverty, and Social Safety Nets in the Transition, 1991-1993

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines developments in Albania’s income distribution and poverty during the transition to a market-oriented economy. It pays particular attention to the impact of price liberalization on the agricultural terms of trade and production, the decline in state enterprise employment, emigrant remittances, and social safety nets. Income and consumption data produce conflicting results. Based on income data, including average presumptive agricultural incomes and state sector wages, there...

  13. Transaction Costs in Constructing Small and Medium Hydro Power Plants in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Miti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the transaction costs helps knowing which are the real costs of starting a new business, finding bottlenecks, can serve to reduce inefficiencies and encourage more effective reforms. In  this article we analyze the impact of transaction costs in interactions between firms and public authority, when firms participate in the bidding procedure for constructing new hydropower plants until the stage of producing electricity. In the first years, after granting the concession right, firms face many difficulties due to a complex normative regulation, contractual conditions and  bureaucracy. Although in the majority of the cases, winning firms are provided by the public authority with the  concessionary permit within the legal deadlines, they fail to start producing electricity within the declared  timetable. Even though direct transaction costs computed by measuring the actual costs that firms or individuals face during these procedures may be relatively low, fairly 1-2 % of the total cost of investment, opportunity costs considering the potential loss in the revenues due to delays in producing and selling electricity, in some cases,  can be equal to the total cost of constructing the implant. Keywords: transaction costs, concessions, hydro power constructing, regulation.

  14. The restitution of property in Albania, a continuing problem after 25 years of democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimoza Mehilli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The restitution of private property to the former owner after 1990’s turned to be a real problem not only for the prior owners, but also for the Albanian governments after the communist regime. As a result of the mistakes done from the institutions and the discrepancies of Law No. 7501 date 17.07.1991 “For the Land“ and Law No. 7698 date 15.04.1993 “For the restitution of property to the former owners“ this problem is still not resolved definitely. After 25 years of democracy this problem should be solved as in other ex communist countries. The long line of cases in the Albanian courts and Court of the Human Rights in Strasburg show that this problem needs to be resolved very fast, because of the economic damage that has caused to the Albanian state budget. This paper aims to highlight the problems with the property restitution, especially the cases in the Court of Human Rights and to make a clear picture of the problem and also to show the measures that the Albanian state has taken to solve this problem.

  15. ASSESSMENTS OF HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE URBAN SOILS: A STUDY FROM ELBASANI, ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatbardh Sallaku

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a complex and heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic matter, as well as different components that determine the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. There are at least 68 trace elements in soil, representing only about 0.6% of their total composition, while 12 minor and major elements —Si, Al, O, Ca, Fe, K, Ti, Mg, Mn, Na, Cr, Ni— account for the rest. However, significant local or regional imbalances (relative to gross pedological averages may occur in the soil composition. In contrast to soils in agricultural areas, soils in urban environments, particularly in parks and gardens, have a direct influence on public health that is unrelated to production of food because they easily come into contact with humans and are transferred to them, either as suspended dust or by direct contact. Furthermore, even though urban soils are rarely used for food production, they receive higher than normal loads of contaminants from traffic and industrial activities in heavily industrialized cities. Heavy metals in soils can also generate airborne particles and dusts, which may affect the environmental air quality. Heavy metal enrichment factors have been proposed as indicators for diffuse soil contamination.

  16. Albania, the human factor and sustainable development: a lesson from the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Musaraj

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of legal systems in European is one of the most important issues. This process has started by the fact that there are significant differences between the civil law and common law system and between the legal families in it. A law (at domestic or international level should not be viewed against the backdrop of the historical, political, cultural, social and economic context in which they function. In order to shed further light for our readers, we analyze by emphasizing the significant differences between the civil law and common law system on one side and the legal families that are part of the same legal system, either “Civil” or “Common,” on the other side. The Europeanization of law refers to the communization of the law by EU institutions and to a process that aims at creating a common Europe legal system. In the end, either in medium or long term, the Europeanization is contributing to the so-called non-mandatory or soft harmonization of private law. It is in the best interest of the EU to seek adequate judicial instruments to accommodate the massive numbers of laws deriving from different Civil Law and the Common law systems.

  17. Albania’s Counter-Terrorism Policy Options: Finding a Strategy of Common Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Hoxha, Banner of Struggle for Freedom and Socialism (Tirana, N.p., 1985), 107. 15 Aleks Luarasi, Historia e Institucioneve Juridike Shqiptare...minority villages and neighborhoods. The rampage left nineteen dead; nearly 900 injured; 700 Serb, Ashkali and Roma homes, up to 10 public buildings, 30...OSCE, February 2004. http://www.osce.org/documents/pia/2004/02/2117_en.pdf (accessed 20 March 2004). Luarasi, Aleks. Historia e Institucioneve

  18. Correlation between Government and Economic Growth –Fiscal Policy during the Transition in Albania

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    MSc. Xhenet Syka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to analyze some aspects of fiscal policy in our country, without pretending to give our own sample. Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditures and taxes which affect economic activity. Determination of fiscal policy in a given year takes into account the time virtually the past (current socio-economic status and the implications for the future (fiscal sustainability. In general the cases dealt the role fiscal policy plays toward economic growth. The analysis many focused both in the theoretical treatment as well as the role that fiscal policy has played in our country, going even further in some suggestions for the future. The most important issue was addressed in the long-term fiscal policy view, fiscal sustainability. In the final everything is addressed to the role of fiscal policy on social issues. The role that fiscal policy should play in economic and social development has long been a controversial issue and is still different among economists. While a restrictive fiscal policy means increasing taxes and cut government spending. Fiscal policy may be expansionary or restrictive. An expansionary fiscal policy means a reduction of direct and indirect taxes and increased government expenditures. Choose between two types of fiscal policy is not an easy decision, both in terms of the current state of the economy, as well as political decisions.

  19. Social Media: Opening New Doors for the Domestic Tourism Industry in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjollca Hysi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The online word is becoming every day more and more important for the tourism industry. Through different technologies, it has made the possibility to ease the way people search and decide for their own travel destination, the way they pick their accommodation and their traveling medium. In particular the online social media, as part of the online word, has created new opportunities for interaction and communication between people. Today individuals have the opportunity to share knowledge, opinions and experiences through online communication. Also their impact goes even further by influencing the behavior of other users in the process of buying. This article will be focused on the usage of Facebook social media platform, arranging a content analysis regarding the different social media tools to engage and interact. This will serve as small step in understanding how domestic business and tourism industry are using social platforms to engage more users and increase their business performance.

  20. Key barriers to the use of modern contraceptives among women in Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Nielsen, Siff Malue; Butler, Robb;

    2012-01-01

    . Barriers identified included socio-cultural issues such as status of the relationship with partners and the importance of virginity, problems talking about sexual issues and contraception being taboo, health care issues--especially cost and availability--and individual issues such as unfavourable social...... attitudes towards contraceptives and a lack of knowledge about the use and benefits of modern contraception. To promote contraceptive use in the future, campaigns should address these barriers and expand from a focus on women of reproductive age only to target youth, men, health care providers, parents...

  1. The study of infectious agents of the urinary tract infections in Durrës, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Bakaj (Çizmja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are characterized by the presence of infectious agents in the genital-urinary tract that cannot be explained by contamination. These agents have the potential to invade the tissues of the urinary tract and adjacent structures. Settings and Design: Prospective study was done in the Health Directory in Durrës. Methods and Material: The study included all the patients who were admitted or visited the outpatient departments in the Health Directory and had urinary tract infection confirmed by positive urine culture reports. Results: A total 3160 urine samples were analyzed for isolation and identification of bacterial isolates. Out of which 956 (30.25% samples were found to have significant bacteriuria and remaining 2204 samples were found to have either non significant bacteriuria or very low bacterial count or sterile urine. In the present study, out of 223 isolated pathogens the most common isolate was Escherichia coli (25.89%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (2.94%, Proteus vulgaris (1.04% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.38 %. Age group most affected by Escherichia coli is 61-75 years (38.8%. Conclusions: Women are more susceptible to urinary tract infections, especially against Escherichia coli, resulting positive in 52.4% of cases; while Proteus vulgaris have a female percentage of 57.7%. This percentage increased slightly among women infected with Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 58% and low in 61.5% infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  2. POLYPARASITISM AND DAMAGE OF SMALL RUMINANTS’ EFFICIENCY IN THE DISTRICT OF ELBASAN, ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgji Stasa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases cause loss of productivity in sheep and polyparasitism is already a widespread phenomenon. This paper brings forward a preliminary parasitic study as well as data on sheep productivity, by testing samples of productive animals in the district of Elbasan. The samples were gathered and examined during the seasons that display parasitic culmination in sheep, in spring, autumn and winter. Parasitic examinations were performed in the Veterinary Laboratory in Elbasan under a permanent supervision by the Sector of Parasitolgy from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Tirana. The parasitic diagnostic methods that were used, were direct. Comparisons were later drawn, based on the results of previous years by the studies carried out previously by the FVM and the Veterinary service in the county of Elbasan. Each sample was analyzed with the method of sedimentation for the trematodes (fasciola, dicrocoelium, paramphistomum, the method of flotation (Mc Master for the gastrointestinal strongyloidiasis, dicrocoelium, strongyloides, trichuris and cestodes and the Berman method for the bronchopulmonary strongyloidiasis. The most important species resulted Fasciola hepatica, the gastrointestinal strongyloidiasis, the bronchopulmonary strongyloidiasis, which were observed all over the examined herds. The parasite load of fascioliasis in sheep fluctuated from 48 e/g/f to 114 e/g/f, dicrocoeliasis from 0 e/g/f to 60 e/g/f in winter; of the paramphistomum from 24 e/g/f to 72 e/g/f; of the gastrointestinal strongyloidiasis from 24 e/g/f to 240 e/g/f, of the bronchopulmonary strongyloidiasis from 12 l/g/f – to 120 l/g/f. Trichuris ovis was observed in almost uniform values from 6 e/g/f to 36 e/g/f. Cestodes were diagnosed in all the seasons, but their level culminated in spring. The study showed that polyparasitism in sheep is a real phenomenon which damages health and efficiency. Therapy and prophylaxis against parasites in sheep must be applied regularly and it must take into consideration the parasite load as well as the biological cycle of the parasites.

  3. An Evaluation of Advertising Models in Emergent Countries – The Case of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Elenica Pjero; Dritan Pjero; Aurela Bifsha; Ylldeze Sokoli; Xhiliola Agaraj

    2012-01-01

    The market today is confronted with cornucopia of challenges and opportunities. The unfolding scenario is being closely watched by marketers across the globe and they are competing with each other to grasp the market share. In order to win over the consumers, marketers are constantly evolving strategies. The western firms based and operating from market-based economies are progressively being confronted with the growing challenge of creating brand awareness amongst the perspective consumers. ...

  4. Impact of human-induced threats on the activity of the otter (Lutra lutra along the Drinos valley, Southern Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ETLEVA HYSAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of human threats on the activity of the otter along the Drinos valley has been studied during the period 2010-2012. The Drinos river and its tributaries, water reservoirs, and trout fish-farms situated in the Drinos valley were included in the study. The whole 60 km Drinos river was divided in three sections based on a set of environmental factors (vegetation cover, water regime, and human disturbance. Each of the three sections was divided in 200 m long stations. In each station the presence and/or absence of human disturbance or threats were assessed, such as destruction of food sources or feeding sites, habitat destruction, water pollution, animal persecution, roads and traffic, and human interference in hydrological regime of the river. Human disturbance was present in 19.33% of the stations in the river section Kakavie-Virua, 14.00% of the stations in the river section Virua-Andon Poçi and 25.00% of the stations in the river section Andon Poçi-Vjosë. In addition, human disturbance was higher along the western riverbank of Drinos, due to proximity of the national road passing by. Results of our study reveal significant influence of the human disturbance in the activity of the otter along the Drinos river. Thus, the values of the otter marking activity along the western (more disturbed and eastern (less disturbed river banks change significantly during both maximum and minimum river flow seasons, respectively (χ2=428.7*** during maximum river flow season, and (χ2=437.3***, during the minimum river flow.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Thrombolytic Therapy, Compared with Anticoagulants Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirvete Rama

    2015-05-01

    CONCLUSIONS: SK and r-Pa are successful thrombolytics with high effectiveness. It is gained a higher survival with the thrombolytic treatments. Reteplase is well tolerated in older patients than SK, is easier to apply than Streptokinase, but has higher cost.

  6. The effect of demographic variables on the user’s behavior in the Mobile Telecommunication Market of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikollaq Terezi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the mobile operator users living in Tirana, urban area and its outskirts. The level of confidence for sampling is 95%, (p <0.05. The used methodology is implemented through interviews with experts (the employee of mobile operators, as well as, observation of the service process in general and face to face interview according to a properly designed questionnaire. The evaluation methods for approving the hypothesis are based on linear regression and ÷2 tests. This paper aims to find a significant correlation between the duration of contractual agreement and the occupation of the mobile service users. There is significant dependence between groups of age and the variables like Web-page of the operator, signal coverage and the price of 3Gservice

  7. Implementation by Albania of the Acquis Communautaire on Renewable Energy, and Environment with Focus to the Energy Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dervishi, Dael

    2010-09-15

    The Energy Community aims at establishing a common regulatory framework for energy markets in contracting parties by extending the acquis communautaire of the European Union to the territories of participating countries. The Albanian Government is drafting the Law on Renewable Energy Sources. The purpose of the law is to promote a greater contribution of renewable sources of energy to the production of electricity in the domestic energy market. In this paper, I describe the policy mechanisms and the market conditions mandated by the EU directive aimed at liberalizing the electric energy market.

  8. Diarrhea Associated Costs among Children Less Than 5 Years of Age from Health Care Provider and Social Perspectives in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Ahmeti

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The high burden of diarrhea associated costs for the Albanian health care system finances dictates the necessity to assess the costs of a potential rotavirus immunization program in order to prioritize the interventions based on scientific evidence.

  9. Primo studio di prevalenza delle infezioni ospedaliere presso il Centro Ospedaliero Universitario (QSUT di Tirana, Albania: training e studio pilota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Faria

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: training: fornire strumenti conoscitivi ed operativi per svolgere un’indagine di prevalenza delle infezioni ospedaliere (IO; studio pilota: valutare la qualità dei rilevatori e della scheda di raccolta dati, le problematiche organizzative del QSUT (circa 1.600 posti-letto, l’operatività della microbiologia.

    Metodi: training: destinato a 17 operatori del QSUT, si è svolto in due giorni. Nel primo si sono introdotti i concetti di base della sorveglianza epidemiologica delle IO, nel secondo si è presentato il protocollo dell’indagine di prevalenza, di cui si sono discussi gli aspetti organizzativi. Per valutare l’apprendimento si è somministrato un test in entrata e in uscita, costituito da 10 quiz a risposta multipla. Studio pilota: in un giorno si è sperimentata l’indagine in tre reparti: chirurgia, rianimazione ed ematologia pediatrica.

    Con la scheda predisposta ad hoc e la supervisione dei docenti del corso, i rilevatori hanno raccolto dati dalle cartelle cliniche, visita dei pazienti e chiesto informazioni al personale dei reparti; le IO sospette sono state validate secondo i criteri dei Centers for Disease Control, USA.

    Risultati: training: la proporzione media delle risposte esatte per ogni partecipante è passata dal 54,2% del pre-test al 74,2% del post-test, quella delle risposte esatte per ogni domanda è stata del 57,9% nel pre-test versus l’81,4% del post-test.
    Studio pilota: si sono arruolati 79 pazienti, di cui 49,4% femmine; di età media 36,6 anni; il 58,2% dei pazienti era esposto ad almeno una procedura invasiva, gli operati erano il 65,8% e il 66,7% era in trattamento antibiotico. La prevalenza di pazienti con IO è del 9,3%, quella di IO del 13,9%; nessuna IO ha avuto conferma con esame microbiologico.

    Conclusioni: selezionare meglio i componenti del gruppo di lavoro, apportare modifiche alla scheda di raccolta dati, utilizzare anche il registro operatorio come fonte dei dati, preparare un protocollo per il laboratorio di microbiologia e fornire a questo il materiale necessario, addestrare tre infermiere per la raccolta standard dei campioni microbiologici.

  10. Behavioral risk factors and prevalence of HIV and other STIs among female sex workers in Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qyra, Shp Tim; Basho, Moza; Bani, Roland; Dervishi, Marjeta; Ulqinaku, Dritan; Bino, Silva; Kakarriqi, Eduart; Alban, Ylli; Simaku, Artan; Vasili, Adela; Rjepaj, Klodjan; Pipero, Pellumd; Duro, Vjollca; Byku, Betim; Koraqi, Andi

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the research and a comparative analysis of findings on key indicators for the study population. The study instrument was a standardized behavior study questionnaire provided in the Family Health International published manual (Family Health International, 2000). The target group was female sex workers working in Tirana. The prevalence of biological infections was low. HIV was detected in one case. Syphilis and Hepatitis B rates resulted to be respectively 6.5% and 7.6%. The median age of the study participants is 28 years. Almost 38% of the participants were illiterate, and more than half belong to the Roma community. Almost 50% of the respondents had received money in exchange of sex for the first time 18 years earlier. Almost 65% of respondents reported two or more different sex partners in the last seven days, while almost 30% referred five or more. Condom use at last sex with a paying client was reported by almost 68%. Consistent condom use with paying clients in the last month was reported by almost 35% of the respondents.

  11. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious mea...

  12. Communication Technologies and the public service: Is it the case of citizens inclusion in the public service standard in Albania?

    OpenAIRE

    Arta Musaraj; Argita Malltezi

    2012-01-01

    The Albanian challenges have been insistent not just for domestic researchers, academics, or even Albanian citizens; they pique a lot of people in different geographic positions, first of all, the European ones, because by a strong European drive Albanian progresses have been oriented. This brings a great necessity to watch very close those evolutions, processes and the impacts they have in the Albanian social tissue. At the same time, it is very important to understand what streamline has be...

  13. Communication Technologies and the public service: Is it the case of citizens inclusion in the public service standard in Albania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Musaraj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Somalia has been one of the UN member countries who lingers from the presence of terrorist groups in its territory, that exert tremendous influence in the daily life of its society and economy. Al Shabaab is well known in the horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, for its terrorist training and strong affiliation with other terrorist groups in Nigeria and Al-Qaeda. The Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, also known as Al-Shabaab. has completely controlled the central and southern part of Somalia including some of its important sea ports, which are vital for the country’s economy. Although Ethiopian and Somali military forces attempted to rout the group in a two week war between December 2006 and January 2007, Al Shabaab, with its 14,500 militants, still continues to maintain control over strategic locations, not only in Somalia, but also throughout the horn of Africa. The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

  14. Artificial neural networks in forecasting tourists’ flow, an intelligent technique to help the economic development of tourism in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezdemona Gjylapi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the neural network usage in the tourists’ number forecasting and to determine the trends of the future tourist inflow, thus helping tourism management agencies in making scientific based financial decisions.

  15. Religious Education and the Prevention of Islamic Radicalization: Albania, Britain, France and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    but now they are also ready to be used actively in terrorist operations. This new terrorist recruitment strategy is intended to benefit from the...interference.70 Moreover, some of them have already benefited from the process of restitution and compensation for property that was confiscated by the...prohibited from homeschooling their children. Moreover, the activities of foreign preachers and missionaries were restricted, while foreigners in general

  16. Communication Technologies and the public service: Is it the case of citizens inclusion in the public service standard in Albania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Musaraj

    2012-02-01

    The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

  17. Tourism Development Strategies, SWOT analysis and improvement of Albania’s image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriketa Vladi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Albania has a range of historical, natural and cultural potentials. The marketing strategiesprepared with the aim to create and develop Albania’s tourism and at what stage is theimage of Albania is the subject of this paper. I considered necessary also to conduct aSWOT analysis on tourism development strategies and communication of Albania as atourist destination.Keywords: Albania, Tourism Communication, Image Management, Destination Branding,Marketing Strategies.

  18. Corruption and legal certainty; the case of Albania and the Netherlands Implementation of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption in a transitional and consolidated democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peçi, Idlir; Sikkema, E.

    2010-01-01

    A discrepancy in corruption levels may be observed between Western European states and the post-communist states of Central and (South) Eastern Europe. In order to find out whether this discrepancy corresponds with a discrepancy in legal provisions, we embarked upon a comparative exercise aimed at e

  19. Analysis of the spatio-temporal and semantic aspects of land-cover/use change dynamics 1991-2001 in Albania at national and district levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Louisa J M; Carrai, Giancarlo; Morandini, Luca; Cerutti, Paolo O; Spisni, Andrea

    2006-08-01

    In the turmoil of a rapidly changing economy the Albanian government needs accurate and timely information for management of their natural resources and formulation of land-use policies. The transformation of the forestry sector has required major changes in the legal, regulatory and management framework. The World Bank financed Albanian National Forest Inventory project provides an analysis of spatially explicit land-cover/use change dynamics in the period 1991-2001 using the FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System for codification of classes, satellite remote sensing and field survey for data collection and elements of the object-oriented geo-database approach to handle changes as an evolution of land-cover/use objects, i.e. polygons, over time to facilitate change dynamics analysis. Analysis results at national level show the trend of natural resources depletion in the form of modifications and conversions that lead to a gradual shift from land-cover/use types with a tree cover to less dense tree covers or even a complete removal of trees. Policy failure (e.g., corruption, lack of law enforcement) is seen as the underlying cause. Another major trend is urbanisation of areas near large urban centres that change urban-rural linkages. Furthermore, after privatisation agricultural areas increased in the hills where environmental effects may be detrimental, while prime agricultural land in the plains is lost to urbanisation. At district level, the local variability of spatially explicit land-cover/use changes shows different types of natural resources depletion. The distribution of changes indicates a regional prevalence, thus a decentralised approach to the natural resources management could be advocated.

  20. Development of Higher Education in Albania: The Case of the Public University Libraries in Efforts to Build Digital and Electronic Services for the Academic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erena Haska

    2013-01-01

    This paper brings conclusions that contribute to: a national information communication technology policy for university libraries and b the creation of an integrated system for management and transmission of knowledge at the national level for all Albanian university libraries.

  1. The Inhibitory Role Of Natural Conditions In The Use Of Space And Regulation Of Rural Territories In The Region Of Gjirokastra In The Southern Of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Sinani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In rural area the impact of natural conditions on the use of space, production activities and ways of life is permanent and more sensitive than in urban space. The degree of impact depends on the particulars of building land, relief, climate, hydrographs, land, flora, fauna and level of development of society, which says the size and way of human intervention in the environment. As part of the Mediterranean space, Gjirokastra, with mountainous relief and climate caprices, is very exposed to the influence of natural factors.

  2. Age depth-model for the past 630 ka in Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania based on cyclostratigraphic analysis of downhole gamma ray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Baumgarten

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the gamma ray fluctuations from downhole logging data obtained in the sediments of Lake Ohrid from 0 to 240 m below lake floor. These variations in gamma ray and potassium values strongly correlate with fluctuations in global δ18O values and can be thus considered a reliable proxy to depict glacial–interglacial cycles, with high clastic input during cold and/or drier periods and high carbonate precipitation during the warm and/or humid periods in Lake Ohrid. Spectral analysis (sliding window was applied to investigate the climate signal and their evolution over the length of the borehole. Linking the downhole logging data with orbital cycles was used to estimate sedimentation rates, which shift from 45 cm ka−1 between 0 to 110 m to 30 cm ka−1 from 110 to 240 m below lake floor. The effect of compaction was compensated for. Sedimentation rates increase on average by 14% after decompaction of the sediment layers. Tuning of minima and maxima in gamma ray and potassium values vs. LR04 minima and maxima, in combination with eight independent tephrostratigraphical tie points, allows the establishment of a robust age model for the downhole logging data over the past 630 ka in Lake Ohrid.

  3. Spatial variability of recent sedimentation in Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia – a complex interplay of natural and anthropogenic factors and their possible impact on biodiversity patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vogel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid is likely of Pliocene age and thus commonly referred to as the oldest existing lake in Europe. In this study spatial variability of recent sediment composition is assessed using >50 basin wide distributed surface sediment samples. Analysis of biogeochemical bulk parameters, selected metals, pigment concentrations as well as grain size distributions revealed a significant spatial heterogeneity in surface sediment composition. It implies that sedimentation in Lake Ohrid is controlled by an interaction of multiple natural and anthropogenic factors and processes. Major factors controlling surface sediment composition are related to differences in geological catchment characteristics, anthropogenic land use, and a counter-clockwise rotating surface water current. In some instances processes controlling sediment composition also seem to impact distribution patterns of biodiversity, which suggests a common interaction of processes responsible for both patterns.

  4. Legal issues on subsidies of endangered animal breeds in Albania and their need for improvement in light of international and EU legislations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Kume

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian legislation treats partially and as separate matters issues related to subsidies for endangered animal breeds. In order to approximate this legislation with the international and EU member states one, these issues are to be treated and developed as integral part of agriculture and sustainable rural development legislation. This legislation should clarify specifically the concept of animal breed that may be subject to subsidise. A legal framework should be developed in order to create and update the “Red Book” for endangered animal breeds. The legislation should define the criteria and the methodological principles, according to which the subsidy measures for animal breeds at risk are to be assessed. The subsidy should aim to reduce financial losses caused by raising these breeds.

  5. NGMSElectTM and Investigator® Argus X-12 analysis in population samples from Albania, Iraq, Lithuania, Slovenia, and Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lena; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Drobnic, Katja;

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of STRs is the main tool when studying genetic diversity in populations or when addressing individual identification in forensic casework. Population data are needed to establish reference databases that can be used in the forensic context. To that end, this work investigated five po...

  6. Electromagnetic fields levels measurement in the vicinity of Vodafone's cellular base stations located in the cities of Tirana, Durres and Librazhd in Albania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, B.; Arapi, S. [Institute of Public Health, Tirana (Albania). Radiation Protection Office

    2004-07-01

    The instrument can record and store instantaneous, maximum and mean values of electric and magnetic field values. According to all European and international standards, the measured values in the frequency range 100 kHz - 10 GHz should be expressed in any 6 minute time period. In the measuring set up used, aquisition, storage and processing of the measurements data is controlled with portable pc via a double optical interface and a special software. (orig.)

  7. Assessing Legal Environment Factors that Impact in the Decision to Invest in Electricity generation from Renewable Resources – Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABAZ ALIKO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and assessing the factors impacting investments in electricity generation is important for both private and public decision-makers. Understanding the decision-making process helps to stimulate and increase investments in the energy sector. This paper examines the legal environment factors that affect the decision to invest in electricity generation. Seventeen sub-factors of this environment are identified and its relative importance in the decision-making is measured, by interviewing 68 investors having invested or having obtained the right to invest in the electricity generation. We perform the Principal Component Analysis (PCA in 17 sub-factors to find more general latent structures (factors that characterize the legal environment affecting investments. The latent factors discovered are: Legal and Favourable Framework for the Concessions, Protecting Foreign Investments, Government Conditions and Bureaucracy as well as the Cascade Investments and Information. These are the most important factors of the legal environment in the decision-making process to invest in electricity generation.

  8. The status of the Civil Servant and Rules of Ethics in Public Administration efficacy in preserving the integrity of civil servants and preventing corruption: the case of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Eralda Çani

    2011-01-01

    Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative wa...

  9. 15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... among: Albania, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia,...

  10. 75 FR 77561 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Herzegovina, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein,...

  11. 78 FR 9851 - Importation of Plants for Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... cultures of orchid plants) from any country or locality except Canada, as subparagraph (a)(1). (Current... discovered in Albania, Falkland Islands, Indonesia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Madeira, Mallorca, Romania,...

  12. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: The ICDP SCOPSCO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Thomas, Wonik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Roberto, Sulpizio; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site "DEEP" in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be more than 1.2 Ma old and likely covers the entire lacustrine deposits of the Lake Ohrid Basin. Currently, an age model for the upper 260m of the DEEP- site sequence is available. This age model is based on chronological tie points (tephrochronology), and wiggle matching of down hole logging data and (bio-)geochemistry data (XRF, TIC, TOC) from the core sequence to the global benthic stack LR04 and local insolation patterns. The data suggests that the upper 260 m of the DEEP-site sequence corresponds to the time period between the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) and present days. During this period, the sedimentological properties of the sediments show a strong dependency on environmental variability in the area. Interglacial deposits appear massive or marbled, contain up to 80 % of CaCO3 (high TIC), high amounts of organic matter (high TOC) and biogenic silica (high BSi), and low contents of clastic material. Glacial deposits are predominantly marbled and calcite is generally absent. Similarly, the amounts of organic matter and biogenic silica are low, and glacial sediments predominately consist of clastic matter. Distinct layers of siderite and uniformly distributed Fe- or Mn- oxides occur in the glacial deposits, vivianite concretions occur in both the glacial and interglacial periods. High CaCO3 contents in deposits formed during warm (interglacial) periods are also known from studies on short pilot cores from Lake Ohrid and are triggered by increased productivity in the lake, such as also indicated by enhanced contents of organic matter and biogenic silica. Thereby, CaCO3 precipitation is caused by photosynthesis induced calcite precipitation during algae blooms in spring and early summer. Negligible contents of TIC in deposits formed during glacial periods can be explained by an overall low productivity (low TOC and BSi) and, in addition, by dilution of CaCO3. Dilution of CaCO3 might be a result of more acid bottom water conditions, triggered by improved mixing conditions (less thermal stratification), oxidation of OM and CO2 release from the surface sediments. Oxygenated surface sediments and degradation of organic matter are indicated by the marbled structure of the glacial sediments implying intensive bioturbation, and by TOC/TN ratios around 4, respectively. The high amount of clastic material in deposits from cold (glacial) periods can be a result of mutual dilution with calcite, organic matter and biogenic silica, but might also indicate more intensive erosion in the catchment due to a less dense vegetation cover.

  13. The dime nsion of constitutional protection and the guarantee of citizen rights and freedoms-A comparative view of the Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo with the Constitutions of neighbouring countries: Albania, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Kryeziu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In different historic periods of time and in various political regimes, people felt free and enjoyed their rights in different ways, but very little was said about individual freedoms, as it was said more about collective freedoms. The term freedom is an antique, historic term. The corpus of human rights and fundamental freedoms has been studied since the ancient times, including middle ages until modern times of human civilization. However, the origin for protection of these rights and freedoms was sanctioned in the constitutional aspect in Magna Charta issued on 15-th of June 1215, which comprises the milestone in the history of constitutional regimes on human rights and freedoms. The protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms is admitted by everyone. That is embedded in written constitutions worldwide, as well as in the United Nations Charter, final act of the Conference of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSBE known as Helsinki Act. The majority of democratic constitutions adopted after the Second World War, and the latest constitutions of the countries of Southeastern Europe, give an important place to the evidencing and guaranteeing of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

  14. The dimension of constitutional protection and the guarantee of citizen rights and freedoms-A comparative view of the Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo with the Constitutions of neighbouring countries: Albania, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Kryeziu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In different historic periods of time and in various political regimes, people felt free and enjoyed their rights in different ways, but very li$ le was said about individual freedoms, as it was said more about collective freedoms. The term freedom is an antique, historic term. The corpus of human rights and fundamental freedoms has been studied since the ancient times, including middle ages until modern times of human civilization. However, the origin for protection of these rights and freedoms was sanctioned in the constitutional aspect in Magna Charta issued on 15-th of June 1215, which comprises the milestone in the history of constitutional regimes on human rights and freedoms. The protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms is admitted by everyone. That is embedded in written constitutions worldwide, as well as in the United Nations Charter, final act of the Conference of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSBE known as Helsinki Act. The majority of democratic constitutions adopted after the Second World War, and the latest constitutions of the countries of South-eastern Europe, give an important place to the evidencing and guaranteeing of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

  15. A lexander, F rankenstein and regular days in the life of a B alkan archaeologist. T he experience of the G reek – A lbanian A rchaeological E xpedition at P respa (Albania , in the years 2009 – 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros OIKONOMIDIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a short account of how archaeology and archaeologists could become protagonists of a political psychodrama, very common in an ancient land like the Balkans. Old and rich heritages often are responsible for the bad relations occurred among people who in reality have nothing to divide except from the ghosts of presumed anci ent ancestors. Alexander described here is not the King of Macedonia and Asia but his Frankensteinish version, which was created, fed and grown like a Prague‟s Golem in order to be used as a puppet in the hands of able manipulators. The case of the Greek – Albanian Archaeological Expedition on the island of Maligrad, in the Tri – National zone of Prespa, is given as an example of how things work some times in our days, in places which have never been something else than “grey zones” on the map. The case of the “recent” discovery of the Macedonian tomb at Amphipolis, Greece, is given here as a counter balance to the case of Maligrad. The polemic of the article is not focusing on cultural or demographic minorities of any place in the Balkans but on the ill use of our common historical heritage by political authorities.

  16. The Comparison of Differences of Albania against Yugoslavia Two Times in the Mid-20th Century%论20世纪中期阿尔巴尼亚两次反对南斯拉夫之差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盛楠

    2016-01-01

    20世纪40年代末和50年代末,在苏联与南斯拉夫的两次交恶过程中,阿尔巴尼亚均冲在反南第一线,严厉谴责南斯拉夫的"修正主义".但比较阿尔巴尼亚的两次批南运动,却有着一系列的差异性:第一,从其打击对象来看,前者是反对南斯拉夫,后者是反南与反苏同步进行;第二,从其借力来看,前者是依靠苏联反对南斯拉夫,后者是依靠中国反对苏南;第三,从其主要缘由来看,前者是出于阿尔巴尼亚国家和民族利益的考量,后者是关于意识形态的"旗帜"之争.

  17. Arnavutluk'ta Enver Hoca Dönemi İnsan Hakları ve Özgürlükler(1945-1985 Humanrights and Freedom in Albania Under Enver Hoxha Period(1945-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ÖZKAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human rights are the basic rights of people which have been born from the first days of humanity. According to Jean Jacques Rousseua, getting read of freedom means getting read of all values of humanbeings. It is almost imposible to think this kind of giving up of human rights and freedom. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the EuroeanConvention on Human Rights both generally comprises rights andfreedom, prohibition of torture, slavery, forced labor, freedom, the rightto a fair tail, legal penalties, private and family life, freedom of opinion,speech, religio and conscrence.In this essay, Enver Hoxha was subjected to value himself and hisperiod on ten different areas of human rights and freedom. Comperingthe human rights and freedom of Enver Hoxha’s to the other Balkanand Eastern European States, it is seen that there is a little e diferenceat that time.Enver Hoxha rescued his country from the invaderes country andruled it forty years without any gap. What makes different is that EnverHoca never accepts human rights and freedom although he was themost educated and enlightened man among the dictatorships in theworld at that time. The main reason of this is that Enver Hoca wants tolimit the human rights and freedom or to control all these rights.Additionally, it is well known that Markist Leninist İdeology andStalinist Opinion is a kind of structure in which you can not findfreedom and human rights. İnsan hakları insanlık tarihinin başlamasıyla birlikte doğan ve insanlığın gelişimiyle birlikte ilerleme gösteren en temel haklardır. Jean Jacques Rousseau’ya göre, insan için hürriyetinden vazgeçmek, insanlık sıfatından, insanlığın haklarından hatta görevlerinden vazgeçmek demektir. Böyle bir vazgeçmenin insan tabiatı ile bağdaşması mümkün değildir İnsan Hakları Evrensel Bildirisi ve Avrupa İnsan Hakları Sözleşmesi genel olarak haklar ve özgürlükler, işkence yasağı, kölelilik ve zorla çalıştırma, özgürlük ve güvenlik hakları, adil yargılanma hakkı, cezaların yasallığı, özel ve aile hayatının korunması, düşünce, ifade, din ve vicdan özgürlükleriyle vb. gibi ilgili hususları içermektedir. Çalışmada Enver Hoca dönemi insan hakları ile ilgili on konuda değerlendirilmiştir. Enver Hoca İkinci Dünya Savaşı’nda ülkesini işgalci güçlerden kurtarmış ve ülkesini 1945-1985 yılları arasında kesintisiz kırk yıl yönetmiştir. Enver Hoca döneminde insan hakları ve özgürlükler diğer Balkan ve Doğu Avrupa ülkeleri ile aynı dönem süresince kıyaslandığında aslında çok farklı olmadığı görülmüştür. Enver Hoca’yı bu konuda farklı kılan husus ise O’nun emsalleri arasında en okumuş lider olmasına rağmen söz konusu hak ve özgürlükleri hiçe sayması olmuştur. Bunun en temel nedeni ise Enver Hoca’nın iktidarının garantisi olarak bu hak ve özgürlüklerin kısıtlanması veya tamamen kendi kontrolü altında olmasını istemek gelmektedir. Ayrıca takip ettiği Marksist-Leninist İdeoloji ile Stalinist düşünce insan haklarına ve özgürlüklere yer vermeyen yapıya sahiptir.

  18. The U.N. Population Fund: Background and the U.S. Funding Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-20

    natural disasters; 5) elimination of female genital mutilation ; and 6) access by unaccompanied women and other vulnerable individuals to vital services...activities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria , Tanzania, Uganda, Haiti, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Albania, Romania, and...activities in Albania, Azerbaijan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Georgia, Haiti, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Nigeria , Romania, Russia, Rwanda

  19. Why Foreign Direct Investment- Albanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Luçi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among other financial inflows, foreign direct investment makes a major stimulus to economic growth in many developing countries. The ability to deal with two major obstacles, namely, the shortages of financial resources and the lack of technology and skills, has put foreign direct investments in the centre of attention for policy-makers, particularly in developing countries. Albania is committed to maintaining an open environment for investments. This is vital for a long-term and sustainable economic growth. As a lowsavings developing economy, with high domestic investment requirements, Albania needs to attract foreign direct investment in order to support domestic investment financing requirements. However, Albania has not been successful in obtaining substantial and consistent FDI inflows. Furthermore, the meagre inflows that the country has received have not been utilized appropriately to enhance the economic performance. The type of FDI and its structural composition matter as much for economic growth. This paper reviews the recent evidence on the scale of FDI to Albania. The paper reviews also some of the main areas of the existing policy framework for inward FDI in Albania among the major factors determining foreign companies' decisions to invest in Albania. We discuss these issues and try to make the case for a more coherent, harmonized and transparent framework to cover all foreign direct investment into Albania. The regulation of inward investment is one of several policy and institutional variables likely to influence the volume of FDI.

  20. TOURISM AN IMPORTANT SECTOR OF ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhiliola Agaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an important sector that has an impact on development of country economy. The main benefits of tourism are income creation and generation of jobs. For many regions and countries it is the most important source of welfare. The ability of the national economy to benefit from tourism depends on the availability of investment to develop the necessary infrastructure and on its ability to supply the needs of tourists. Albania has a touristic potential for development of seaside tourism and other alternative forms of tourism. The scope of the paper is to present the impact of tourism on economy and especially on income. paper treats why Albania is an attractive country for investors, and which are the possibilities to invest. Through a questioner scattered in different publics and private institution of Albania are presented major problematical of tourism in Albania

  1. Reflections on e-Learning Readiness in Albanian Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezmolda Barolli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays e-Learning has been identified to be the future of learning worldwide since the very powerful platform of the Internet has accelerated the speed of communication. Adoption of e-learning has become the latest trend across universities all over the world. Albania is part of a global shift from material resources to knowledge and intellectual resources as the basis for economic growth. Educators across Albania are aware that students must have an education that enables the students to participate successfully in and contribute to the knowledge economy. E-Learning readiness is an initial part of e- Learning development. In order to benefit from e-learning, higher education institutions in Albania should conduct considerable up-front analysis to assess their readiness. In this paper we are trying to examine the status of e-Learning readiness in Albania, analyzing and discussing several components and criteria based on literature.

  2. Hamsi scoring in the prediction of unfavorable outcomes from tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Ozturk-Engin, Derya; Tireli, Hulya

    2015-01-01

    Predicting unfavorable outcome is of paramount importance in clinical decision making. Accordingly, we designed this multinational study, which provided the largest case series of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). 43 centers from 14 countries (Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq...

  3. Geologic provinces of Europe including Turkey, 2000 (prv4_2l)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of Europe including Turkey. (Albania,...

  4. Faults of Europe including Turkey (flt4_2l)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs that describe faults found in the surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and...

  5. The Future of NATO Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Baltic states, Estoma , Latvia and Llthuama, as well as Albania and states of the former Yugoslatla are also generally consldered to be part of...Rornama, Slovema. Slovakia, Bulgaria. Macedoma Albania, Estoma , Latvia and Llthuama) decided to participate. The exceptions were the three states...reforms. Estoma 1s already a strong candidate for NATO member&up Latvia and Lrthuama are havmg greater drfficulties in implementing reforms, but then

  6. Untersuchungen zum Vorkommen von Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, haemotrophen Mykoplasmen und vektorübertragenen Pathogenen bei Polizeihunden aus Albanien

    OpenAIRE

    Schüle, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on the prevalence of the zoonotic and animal pathogens in dogs from Albania is thus far limited. Samples were collected from 119 police dogs which were deployed throughout Albania and which were living in close relationship with humans. Direct and/or indirect methods were used to examine 119 whole blood and 117 serum samples for the protozoans Toxoplasma gondii (IFAT) and Neospora caninum (IFAT), various vector-borne pathogens of zoonotic and veterinary concern (SFG rickettsiae [ELI...

  7. Frequency and characteristics of Listeria spp. in minced meat in Albanian retail market

    OpenAIRE

    ELVIRA BELI; RENIS MAÇI; SONILA ÇOÇOLI; HALIT MEMOÇI

    2014-01-01

    Listeriosis is the emerging bacterial zoonotic infections worldwide. Among the species of the genus Listeria, Listeria monocytogens is known as causative agent of humans and animals listeriosis. Information on the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria species is limited in the veterinary and public health sectors in Albania. The studies for Listeria spp. in the food in Albania belongs to the last ten years. This survey was conducted determinate the incidence of Listeria spp. in mi...

  8. ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION SERVICES USING A MODIFIED SERVQUAL SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the service quality in high publiceducation in Albania, using the SERVQUAL approach. Today Albanian public universitiesare facing fierce competition from private universities, so they find imperative focusingfirmly on service quality they offer to students. The paper reports on a modifiedSERVQUAL survey of students from five public universities in Albania. The survey aims tocapture the perceptions and expectations students have about the service they rece...

  9. The March 2004 Riots in Kosovo: A Failure of the International Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    in Albania influenced what happened in Kosovo. Yugoslavia backed one of the leaders in that struggle, Ahmet Zogolli, with money and weapons, and...pressured the Albanian regime to stop it. This was not the only military training in Albania. In 1990, Adem Jashari, Sami Lushtaku, Shaban Shala ...like Shaban Shala had a background from LPRK. Some were supporters of Bukoshi and Rugova, and yet others were Marxist.178 In 1993, there was

  10. The wild heart of a wild land. Tra le Alpi albanesi sulle orme di Mary Edith Durham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Genesin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ENIn 2007 we decided to follow the same route through northern Albania which was covered almost 100 years ago by the victorian traveller Mary Edith Durham, author of the books High Albania and Some Tribal Origins, Laws and Customs of the Balkans. The journey described in High Albania was the culmination of seven years of regular Balkan travels during which she was rewarded with insights into north Albanian life denied to all previous travellers. Unlike her other expeditions in the Balkans, her journey in northern Albania was an existential experience which deeply affected Durham’s perception of the tribespeople’s world and marked a turning point in her life. In the second part of the article some ethnographical aspects which were pointed out by Durham and are still alive in those regions are dealt with. Keywords: Balkan Studies; Cultural Studies; Ethnography; Mary Edith Durham; Albania  ITNel 2007 abbiamo deciso di organizzare una spedizione a carattere linguistico e etnogrfico nell’Albania settentrionale sulle orme dell’itinerario percorso quasi 100 anni prima dalla viaggiatrice vittoriana Mary Edith Durham, autrice dei volumi High Albania e Some Tribal Origins, Laws and Customs of the Balkans. L’itinerario descritto in High Albania coronò setti lunghi anni di esplorazioni balcaniche nel corso delle quali l’autrice riuscì a penetrare nella vita della popolazione locale, un importante esperienza che era invece mancata a tutti i precedenti viaggiatori. A differenza dagli altri viaggi precedenti nei balcani, quello nell’Albania settentrionale costituì un esperienza esistenziale che segnò profondamente la percezione della Durham del mondo delle alpi albanesi e rappresentò una svolta nella sua vita. Nella seconda parte dell’articolo sono illustrati alcuni fenomeni di carattere etnografico che furono rilevati dalla Durham e che, con nostra grande sorpresa, abbiamo potuto riscontrare sul campo nel corso della spedizione.

  11. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  12. Albanian economy, sustainable development and comparative analysis of SME growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hava Mucollari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial activity in Albania as well as in other countries of Eastern Europe during the past few years has seen significant important developments. One of the main features observed is that financial activity in Albania is dominated by banking activity, while non-banking activity remains extremely limited. The investment funds in Albania according to the Albanian legislation on “Investment Funds” could be any private entity that accumulates financial resources of natural or legal persons (Vouchers, cash etc. In this paper we will focus precisely on the definition of SME and their ability to build a business plan that will help them to be successful in terms of seeking funds. For this reason, SME and their financing opportunities in Albania is one of the issues that will be analyzed. Firstly we will treat the business plan in theory and its role in SME, and hot to draft a business plan for a Travel Agency. In this paper we study the literature on the concept of SME and the business plan. For this reason we have found valid date information on studies from various writers and publications. By giving a financial view on SME on Albania, we have analyzed information from bulletins of the Albanian Bank.

  13. Extractive industry a burden or an opportunity for sustainable development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of raw materials in global markets and the sky rocketing of commodityprices, have induced European authorities to take initiatives to improve innovation inEurope by creating the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials (2012 andmake inventory of the existing European raw materials. Albania is a rich country innatural raw materials, such as chromium, copper, ferronickel, coal, bitumen as well ascrude oil which might supply primary and secondary raw materials for some of theEuropean needs. This literature review discusses the role of the Albanian institutions, thenatural resources industry, potential investors and stakeholders in order to provide a setof indicators and platforms that can help to develop the extractive industry in Albania andmonitor amelioration within sustainable development principles. A map with the potentialprospects of the natural resources will be a first step in identifying the further potentialfor exploitation. Mineral resource policies and governance, sustainable processing andsupply chain as well as environmental management information system (EMIS are someof the crucial tools identified, which will help to set up the indicators and quantify theachievements in environmental management in Albania. Moreover, the integration ofpractices that will support institutional capacity building; follow-up practices; themainstreaming of global environment into planning; and the compliance monitoringprocess will additionally improve the environmental situation in Albania. Aligningbusiness strategy with environmental policy, socio-economic analysis, environmentalauditing are decisive tools in order to provide the Albanian authorities with a clearoverview of the economic costs and the social benefits for sustainable development ofthe extractive sector in Albania.

  14. Language as a Tool for Multinational companies, Insights on the Issue, including Albanian Market Proposal for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olda Çiço

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We communicate with words. Language as a tool of understanding, giving responses, making decisions, and having a better way to reach business goals is to be underconsideration. This paper aims to explain why globalization has a very important impact on management, particularly because of the language used during various work aspects of multinational companies. The focus is why experience in this kind of research suggests writing on this issue and trying to implement the past results in Albania. While Albania is facing the integration process and it is part of a globalized economy, it has to be considered the fact that we are expecting more foreign investments, even from multinational companies. Cross-cultural problems are to be taken under consideration, especially the language.Keywords: Language, knowledge, Diversity, Multinational Companies, Albania, Performance.

  15. Toskové a Gegové v Albánii a etnické cítění albánských komunit v okolních státech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Jodas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper has two main goals. The first one is to describe Tosks and Ghegs in Albania, their situation from the past till nowadays. The thesis will focus on comparing the two main ethnic groups in the plane of historical, political, religious and cultural. Bachelor thesis will be based both from literature and from testimony of the respondents from the northern, southern and central part of Albania. The aim of the introduction of practical part is to determine whether it is possible to perceive social tensions between Tosks and Ghegs, or whether this division is no longer so important, and it is rather a construct. The second issue is to compare the Albanians In the wider regional level. The aim is to determinate whether the Albanians communities in the neighbouring countries (especially Albanians minority in the Republic of Macedonia of Albania creates a homogeneous nation of Albanians or if it consists of separate units without the feeling of belonging wider.

  16. Sexual orientation, gender identity and non-discrimination - The Albanian labor legislation and its effects on employment and vocational training potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Shtylla

    2013-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian labour legislation and the legislation generally, are inspired in accordance with the non-discrimination principles, objectives and definitions of international acts, promoting and expressing protection of human rights and freedoms in general, and in particular in the field of employment and vocational training. This paper will analyze, if the sexual orientation, is one of the causes of discrimination for employment and vocational training, in Albanian legislation, especially how it is expressed this issue on the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian Labour Code, the Albanian law “On the protection against discrimination” ect.

  17. DETERMINANTS OF EFFICIENCY IN ALBANIAN BANKING INDUSTRY; AN EMPIRICAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elona Shehu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many articles discuss the importance of banking systems and their profitability as well as the factors determining these. This article examines the determinants of bank efficiency in the Albanian banking industry. During the second half of this decade a considerable decrease in the efficiency ratio of the Albanian banking system was evident. To understand which factors affected the efficiency, and whether Albania should control certain factors in order to improve efficiency, relationships between particular factors were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis. The study examines 16 commercial banks in Albania, from 1998 to 2015. It finds a significant relationship between efficiency, capital adequacy, the return on assets, and solvency

  18. Tax evasion in transition: Outcome of an institutional clash? - Testing Feige's conjecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.

    2003-01-01

    A field survey of households was conducted in Tirana, Albania in 2000. A response rate of 89.3% yielded 1.340 valid questionnaires, allowing us to test Feige’s (1997) conjecture that more tax evasion will be observed, when formal and informal institutions clash. Respondents’ attitudes towards formal

  19. Financing, Efficiency, and Equity in Albanian Education. World Bank Technical Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, Geremia; Vodopivec, Milan

    When Albania began its transition to a market economy, its education was geared to meeting the productive needs of a controlled economy and the social and ideological needs of a socialist state. Expanding the economy's long-term productive capacity in a market environment and building a democratic system called for thorough reform of the education…

  20. Gender and Banking : Are Women Better Loan Officers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Behr, P.; Guttler, A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze gender differences associated with loan officer performance. Using a unique data set for a commercial bank in Albania over the period 1996 to 2006, we find that loans screened and monitored by female loan officers show statistically and economically significant lower default rates than lo

  1. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  2. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia...

  3. Rio de Janeiro, Winter 2011 - The cidade maravilhosa’s expectations and contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Clemente

    2012-06-01

    Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  4. Middlemen and Midwives of Reform: The In-Between Worlds of Albanian Educational Policy-Makers and Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardinier, Meg P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a vertical case study in post-communist Albania, this article examines how three local experts become "in-betweens" who strategically mediate processes of social change. For example, they negotiate constructions of time and place, East and West, policy and practice, state and society. As they localise global educational models,…

  5. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mone, I.; Kraja, B.; Bregu, A.; Duraj, V.; Sadiku, E.; Hyska, J.; Burazeri, G.

    2015-01-01

    W1-publicatie Our aim was to assess the association of a Mediterranean diet and gastroesophageal reflux disease among adult men and women in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe with a predominantly Muslim population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, which includ

  6. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  7. Italianization Accomplished. Forms and Structures of Albanian Television’s Dependency on Italian Media and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carelli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    abstractAfter the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of communist regimes in 1989, national media systems of the Eastern European countries belonging to the Soviet bloc began a process of transformation along the way of liberalization and commercialization. In Albania, this process occurred in diff

  8. Loss of parental responsibility – a new legal instrument between need of protection of the best interest of the child and respect of parent fundamental rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonila Omari

    2011-07-01

    Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  9. Are Teachers Teaching for a Knowledge Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Boce, Elona

    2010-01-01

    Many countries whose economies are in transition have initiated ambitious education reforms intended to modernize their education systems to better respond to the needs of new social and economic realities. Albania is a good example of a society that is emerging from a closed planned socialist system and moving fast to an open society and…

  10. Tax evasive behavior and gender in a transition count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.; Kuiper, E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a structural explanation of gender difference with respect to tax evasion. A unique data set, collected from a field survey of households in Albania, allows us to test and explore the established fact, in a transition country. The results show that women tend to evade taxes

  11. Fact Book 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Tunisia 10 Uganda 1 Total 19 CARIbbEAN, CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA Argentina 2 Brazil 4 Chile 2 Colombia 4 Total 12 EUROPE Albania 1 Bulgaria 2 Croatia...percentage captured using the daily Scheduled Anti- Virus scans .......................................... 50% Of all malware blocked, percentage captured

  12. The anti-Yugoslavian Propaganda in the Albanian Press during Communism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsel Nilaj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 50-s, found Albania separated from its closet communist ally for almost a decade, Yugoslavia. The ideological separation had now been completed in between Enver Hoxha and Marshal Tito. Hence, the Albanian communism saw Yugoslavia as the active enemy against the Albanian state. This period involved Albania even more into the popular democratic camp, where together with a lot other countries, were the satellite states of URSS. However, the Albanian state was considered as the weakest satellite of URSS, and since that time the enclave satellite. One of the most used elements to "fi ght" Yugoslavia, was creating propaganda against and the best and almost the only way to do this, was through the local press of that time. The fact of having a considerable number of local newspapers, was greatly exploited. This propaganda, instead of being used to fight Yugoslavia, was rather used to keep Albanians away from even thinking about Yugoslavia but at the same time, it was clearly visible that Albania would be doctrinal, up to naivety. Analyses of the press of the time, lead researchers to the idea that the regime of that period, was willingly entering itself into internationalism, and was trying to avoid any national or western element. Such a severe propaganda against Yugoslavia, had also an international impact, due to the positions held towards Albania.

  13. Dearth of Early Education Experience: A Significant Barrier to Educational and Social Inclusion in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Suncica Macura; Kokic, Ivana Batarelo; Kristiansen, Selma Džemidžic; Gera, Ibolya; Ikonomi, Estevan; Kafedžic, Lejla; Milic, Tamara; Rexhaj, Xhavit; Spasovski, Ognen; Closs, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The article summarises the socio-political, cultural, economic and educational background to the Western Balkans region and outlines the wider qualitative research study that provided the data on early and pre-school educational opportunities in the seven countries involved; Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo (under United Nations…

  14. 77 FR 22668 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: International Import Certificate BIS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Justice's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE); and the Department of State's... countries: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives for the appropriate documentation. A DSP-61 will not be...

  15. 15 CFR 742.6 - Regional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-user to whom such exports or reexport are not otherwise prohibited by U.S. law in Albania, Australia..., New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain..., Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,...

  16. Payout phase in DC pension funds – policy option - Theoretical considerations and Albanian available options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkeleda Shehi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the third pillar of pensions in Albania and what are the different alternatives related to the payout. Referring to the actual development of this market in Albania, experience of the actors involved, I find it indispensable and necessary to provide some theoretical background and considerations, and then build up a simple model of projection of a pension scheme cost and a model for payout alternatives for the Albanian pension funds. A great deal of importance is shown towards posing the assumptions. Also, the paper gives an explanation about the differences among different payout options and suggests the best option for the existing pension funds in Albania. The best option represents my conclusion and recommendation for the actual third pillar of pensions and the others that might join latter. To sum up, the first conclusion of the paper is that the annuity option is the best alternative for the payout phase of the pensions. It has the advantage of providing the highest protection against the risk of longevity. The second conclusion is that based on other countries experiences, the annuity market have to be developed hand in hand with the pension system development. Therefore Albania should rely on and follow this experience.

  17. Financial Satisfaction and (In)formal Sector in a Transition Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Gerxhani, Klarita

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between working in the formal or informal sector and self-reported individual financial satisfaction in a country in transition. It does so by allowing for individual heterogeneity in terms of perceived financial insecurity and tax morale. The empirical analysis uses a dataset for Albania, a country in…

  18. On the distribution of Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulezim; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) are reported for the first () and () are reported for the first time in C and NE Albania. These two taxa were previously considered serpentine endemics restricted to a few localities in NW Greece and the extension...

  19. Europe's Second Demographic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kaa, Dirk J.

    1987-01-01

    By 1985, fertility rates in Europe were below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman in all but Albania, Ireland, Malta, Poland, and Turkey, following a steady decline from a 1965 postwar peak well above 2.5 in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe and an erratic trend from a lower level in Eastern Europe. Natural decrease (fewer births…

  20. Las relaciones geopolíticas de las áreas albanesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máté Kitanics

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo los autores examinan las relaciones geopolíticas de los territorios albaneses, extendiéndose al análisis de las relaciones entre albaneses y albaneses, albaneses y serbios, macedonios, montenegrinos, griegos e incluyendo el estudio de los organismos albaneses en las organizaciones internacionales. El análisis enfoca la cuestión de cómo es posible la existencia de una nación albanesa unida a pesar de las diferencias religiosas y culturales internas y la posibilidad de la formación de una Gran Kosovo/Gran Albania. Palabras claves: territorios históricos albaneses, geopolítica, vecindad, Gran Albania______________________Abstract:In this article the writers make an attempt to reveal the geopolitical relationsystem of the coherent Albanian quarter territory in the Balcan. The article includes not just the general characterization of the quarter territory and the examination of the Albanian-Albanian, Albanian–Serbian-Macedonian- Montenegrian-Greek relations but the examination of the role and importance of the Albanian national bodies in the international system. In the study is put emphasis on the analysis of the question if there can be an united Albanian nation in spite of the inner religious and cultural fracture lines respectively the author pair touches upon the chances of founding Great-Kosovo and Great-Albania, too.KeyWords: quarter territory, geopolitics, neighbourhood, Great-Albania

  1. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-17

    EAST EUROPE CONTENTS POLITICAL ALBANIA Alia’s Views on Links to Masses Stressed ( Guro Zeneli; BASHKIMI, 8 Jul 87) , 1 Party Control Over Army...ALIA’S VIEWS ON LINKS TO MASSES STRESSED Tirana BASHKIMI in Albanian 8 Jul 87 p 2 [Article by Guro Zeneli: "Always with the Rhythm, the Vigor, the Will

  2. Business Climate and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besmira Manaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three factors, namely: Good Governance, Business Climate and Corruption. How they affect the development product of Albania, not only as a concept, and a principle but mostly as a sensitive aspect in the integration process. There are some interpretations of this concept, but I intend to analyze the key factors and actors, their cooperation and concrete production in society. Improving governance is necessary to have an integrated long term strategy based upon a continuous cooperation between institutions and citizens. But in developing countries like Albania there are some important questions such as: How can we measure the improvement of Good Governance through policies? Has Good Governance indicated an effective way for the sustainable development? (Meisel, 2008, 6. These question give us the orientation to reflect about the process of development, social economic political behavior and how this multidimensional is transformed in product of good governance. The business cycle is strongly connected with many aspects of political-, social-, juridical aspects and good governance. Despite attempts to draft law regulations, the level of corruption and informality in Albania continues to be a major obstacle. The credibility level in the implementation of law is an indicator that affects democratization and institutional integration. At present, different reports of international institutions, define Albania as the country with the highest level of Corruption in the Balkans, which is a key factor influencing business. The ways with

  3. Kosovo’s Crisis: Genesis of a Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    followed the Serb migration witnessed the arrival of more migrants from the impoverished highlands of northern Albania.”21 In the beginning of the... reception surprised him, but he used the opportunity to increase his popularity. From that point, his policy changed and became more hard-line.69 In

  4. Sexual orientation, gender identity and non-discrimination - The Albanian labor legislation and its effects on employment and vocational training potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Shtylla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Albania is undergoing an important moment in its integration process to European Union. In this context, the Albanian legislation should compare with the best international standards, in guaranteeing the implementation of the rule of law, democratic principals, the citizen’s equity and the observance of fundamental human rights and freedoms. The promotion, protection and the guaranteeing of the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, including the LGBT person’s rights, must have the same attention and consideration, irrespective of the fact that the individual is being part of a social minor group, or part of the majority of the society. The community of the Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT in Albania, based on the legislation in force, should enjoy equal rights and freedoms like all other members of the society. The Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian labour legislation and the legislation generally, are inspired in accordance with the non-discrimination principles, objectives and definitions of international acts, promoting and expressing protection of human rights and freedoms in general, and in particular in the field of employment and vocational training. This paper will analyze, if the sexual orientation, is one of the causes of discrimination for employment and vocational training, in Albanian legislation, especially how it is expressed this issue on the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian Labour Code, the Albanian law “On the protection against discrimination” ect.

  5. Area Handbook Series: Thailand. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    of the baht-see Glossary. 7 Includes fresh and canned fish, crustaceans , and mollusks. Source: Based on information from Bank of Thailand, Quarterly...364 Published Country Studies (Area Handbook Series) 550-65 Afghanistan 550-153 Ghana 550-98 Albania 550-87 Greece 550-44 Algeria 550-78 Guatemala 550

  6. Teacher's Influence Scale from Their Colleagues and Principals: Its Relation with School Performance in Public Schools of the Albanian Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanaili, Valbona

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the relation between school performance and the Teacher's Influence Scale on certain issues from their colleagues and principals in the public educational system of Albania. For this purpose, a questionnaire was used. The sample consisted of 428 teachers, teaching at 20 public schools in the pre-university educational…

  7. Albanian veterinary legislation and its approximation with acquis communautaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhelil Koleci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement with the European Union and its ratification by all member states, Albania has made serious efforts towards the harmonization and approximation of its legislation, to align it more with the standards of the member countries. Setting of new game rules makes Albanian society walk safer in a process of integration, where the EU principles are inserted even better in domestic laws. Core legislation, food safety and veterinary fields, are some prerequisites that Albania should meet in its way towards full membership in the EU. For a long time now, Albania has been establishing new food and feed standards and all its actions are in full compliance with EU regulations and directives. In addition to adequate policies to enforce better the current legislation in respect with an effective consumer protection, it is worth mentioning full reforming and streamlining of functioning institutions in the framework of food safety.The veterinary legislation is a main discipline of veterinary medicine regulating veterinary service relations with food business operators. It establishes legal criteria and standards for animal health and welfare protection, public health, food safety and other related areas. ‘Acquis communautaire’ refers to the EU’s total body of legislation, i.e. everything from treaties to directives, the case-law of the Court of Justice, declarations and international agreements, etc. When a new member country is to be admitted to the EU, the point of departure is that it must satisfy the entire body of rules and regulations, i.e. the ‘acquis communautaire’ or the ‘acquis’ as it is also known, from the first day of membership. As a candidate country Albania should accept acquis communautaire before joining the European Union. Currently, Albania is undergoing the process of harmonization, approximation and transposition of acquis to the domestic legislation.

  8. The fall of the Albanian - Chinese Relations 1971-1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriçi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian - Chinese relations in the years of the Cold War were thrilling as much as dramatic. The age of their flourish in the '60-ies, unfortunately did not last for long. The Albanian sponsorship that China be admitted in the UN with full rights was a test that Enver Hoxha should exploit for the good of the Albanian people. It was a historic and unrepeated opportunity for little Albania to escape the political and economic impasse since the breakup of relations with the Soviet Union in 1961. The incompetence of the Albanian leadership to understand the trends of the age would mark the following political failure of Albania and would influent in the total isolation of the country. It's not difficult to understand that Albania had historic opportunities to join the Western side but chose to align with the Eastern bloc. The beginnings are with sensational approach with Tito's Yugoslavia. After that the Albanian political leadership kept Albania under the umbrella of the Soviet Union and at the end with China. After the end of the relations with China in 1978, Albania paved the way of the total isolation.  The secret visit of the President Nixon's national security adviser Dr. Kissinger to China in July 1971 was interpreted by the Albanian communist leader as a betrayal of the Marxist ideology. Enver Hoxha responded with a harsh and rude letter on August 6th 1971 urging China to not accept the visit of President Nixon the following year. This was the first major break in the relations between the two countries. Since then, the help from China for the weak Albanian economy would decline till the unavoidable break of July 1978. The methodology used in this paper is strictly comparative history analyzing the way diplomacy and politics should work to achieve the set aim.

  9. Extractive industry a burden or an opportunity for sustainable development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurela SHTIZA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of raw materials in global markets and the sky rocketing of commodityprices, have induced European authorities to take initiatives to improve innovation inEurope by creating the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials (2012 and make inventory of the existing European raw materials. Albania is a rich country in natural raw materials, such as chromium, copper, ferronickel, coal, bitumen as well ascrude oil which might supply primary and secondary raw materials for some of the European needs. This literature review discusses the role of the Albanian institutions, the natural resources industry, potential investors and stakeholders in order to provide a setof indicators and platforms that can help to develop the extractive industry in Albania and monitor amelioration within sustainable development principles. A map with the potential prospects of the natural resources will be a first step in identifying the further potential for exploitation. Mineral resource policies and governance, sustainable processing and supply chain as well as environmental management information system (EMIS are some of the crucial tools identified, which will help to set up the indicators and quantify the achievements in environmental management in Albania. Moreover, the integration of practices that will support institutional capacity building; follow-up practices; the mainstreaming of global environment into planning; and the compliance monitoring process will additionally improve the environmental situation in Albania. Aligning business strategy with environmental policy, socio-economic analysis, environmental auditing are decisive tools in order to provide the Albanian authorities with a clear overview of the economic costs and the social benefits for sustainable development of the extractive sector in Albania.

  10. Comparing ENQA, British, German & Albanian Standards of Quality in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jona Hoxhaj

    2015-06-01

    compared to ENQA. In this study it has been investigated the whole higher education system of the region and the effectiveness and quality of education in the universities and colleges of UK. Albania is part of ENQA from 18 September 2003 (Golloshi, 2013 when the Bologna Declaration was signed. But Albania because of being a developing country is having difficulties in accomplishing all the standards and criterion as European Countries. This decade has been very crucial for changes in education system in Albania and the system is being developed year by year. The study examines and compares the fulfillment and quality of standards in Albania with those of other European countries and also will compare the higher education system of the small developing country of Albania with those of Great Britain. Keywords:  Higher Education, Quality, Standards, Criterion, ENQA, Britain, Albania

  11. Corruption and innovation in the Albanian public procurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reida Kashta

    2014-07-01

    The question marks that this paper raises are: what are the means used in the war against corruption in the public procurement field in Albania? Did they had any real impact or they just reshaped the ways of doing corruption? The main finding of this paper is that introduction of e-procurement system was one of the most appropriate means to fight corruption in Albania, because this system fixed one of the biggest problems of the Albanian Public Procurement system; lack of transparency. The electronic system is transparent, since it provides the increasing of information passing through it, and the most important, it enhances the responsibility in relations between the contracting authorities and economic operators, enabling a more effective and efficient use of the tax payers’ money.

  12. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjola Pampuri

    2015-12-01

    the overall scores and the subscale scores of the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals. Results: Mean value of the overall summary score for the 52 items of the instrument was significantly lower for the current leadership competency level compared with the required leadership competency level (138.4±11.2 vs. 159.7±25.3, respectively; P<0.001. Most of the subscales’ scores were significantly higher for the required than for the current leadership competency level. Conclusion: Our study provides useful evidence about the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals in transitional Albania. Findings of this study may help policymakers in Albania to identify the gap between the required and the current level of leadership competencies among health  professionals. Furthermore, findings of this study should be expanded in the neighbouring countries of the South Eastern European region and beyond.

  13. Optimization of the melting process of electrical furnaces in drenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haxhiaj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The weight, composition and loads are the main parameters of the melting process in electrical furnace. The charge is roasted in rotary furnace. Roasting of charge which consists of Drenas and Albanians ore is done at about 950°C. Also, article has the experimental analyses that modify some parameters of the production which are the reduction of quantity of limestone and the increase of quantity of quartz in the charge. The paper analysis the possibility of mixing the ore from Kosova with lateritic ore from Albania with the aim of reducing the acidity of weight which is loaded in the electrical furnace. The composition of the furnace must satisfy the ratio 1:10 of ore from Kosova and Albania.

  14. Workplace Bullying Scale: The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Doğar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to adapt the Workplace Bullying Scale (Tınaz, Gök & Karatuna, 2013 to Albanian language and to examine its psychometric properties. The research was conducted on 386 person from different sectors of Albania. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that Albanian scale yielded 2 factors different from original form because of cultural differences. Internal consistency coefficients are,890 -,801 and split-half test reliability coefficients, 864 -,808. Comfirmatory Factor Analysis results change from,40 to,73. Corrected item-total correlations ranged,339 to,672 and according to t-test results differences between each item’s means of upper 27% and lower 27% points were significant. Thus Workplace Bullying Scale can be use as a valid and reliable instrument in social sciences in Albania.

  15. Considerations on Albanian Life Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentiana Sharku

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The life insurance sector is an important sector of the economy all over the world. Life insurance provides the economy and the individuals as well, a variety of fundamental financial services.Regardless the importance it has all around the world, life insurance market in Albania is still underdeveloped comparing not only to the Western European countries, but to the region countries as well. The comparative analysis of insurance market is carried out by means of two indexes: insurance density and penetration index. The life insurance market in Albania is facing several problems which will be further explained in the paper, together with some recommendations to be taken in account by Albanian insurance companies and the Albanian government as well.

  16. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALBANIAN INFORMAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda BELLO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze the informal economy in Albania. The measurement of informal economy may be realized through direct and indirect methods. The collection of data about informal economic activities, the frequency and the volume of the underground activities present a challenge, because of the data limitations. Therefore, to measure it used more indirect methods. Albanian governments have always adopted a philosophy that aims to formalize the economy through legal and institutional improvements, reducing taxes, fighting corruption and tax evasion; improvement in revenue collection from customs and taxes in general, improving governance and increasing efficiency of public institutions. Albania is on the way of the integration in the EU. The integration perspective should be supported by concrete politics on the improvement of government functioning and decrease of the informal sector, so that the people think that their country is on the right way toward modernization and prosperity.

  17. The prevalence and consequences of malnutrition risk in elderly Albanian intensive care unit patients

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Vjollca Shpata,1 Ilir Ohri,2 Tatjana Nurka,1 Xhensila Prendushi1 1Faculty of Medical Technical Sciences, 2University Hospital Center of Tirana “Mother Theresa”, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine in Tirana, Tirana, Albania Purpose: Many investigators have reported rising numbers of elderly patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition risk in the ICU by comparing the prevalence of malnutritio...

  18. The prevalence and consequences of malnutrition risk in elderly Albanian intensive care unit patients

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Vjollca Shpata,1 Ilir Ohri,2 Tatjana Nurka,1 Xhensila Prendushi1 1Faculty of Medical Technical Sciences, 2University Hospital Center of Tirana “Mother Theresa”, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine in Tirana, Tirana, Albania Purpose: Many investigators have reported rising numbers of elderly patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition risk in the ICU by comparing the prevalence of mal...

  19. Capacity Development Services and the Demand Market in Albanian Tourism Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezarta BROKAJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years the role of tourism has been increasingly recognized as an important development strategy, considering its importance in creating positive economical effects in worldwide level. Sustainability has become nowadays a principle of development and obviously of tourism development.Sustainable tourism is one of the main development priorities of local, national and international authorities to ensure long term success on a global market.One of the main reasons in sustainability of tourism development in Albania is that almost planners, operators and local community could not have created a connection through different dimensions of the sustainability.The paper explores the need and demand for building Albania`s private sector capacity for tourism development. This study was run in the most important market actors which operate in the tourism sector in Albania, especially focusing in clients of capacity development services. Questionnaire was used to collect data from the most important tourism operators, that use these services.The aim was to examine their views on tourism development, in an attempt to establish overall desired directions for tourism development and to suggest effective tourism strategies and policies to reinforce positive outcomes and alleviate problems resulting from previous unplanned tourism development.According to the survey, results showed the availability of capacity building services, the links with local and international service providers, their preferred service delivery mechanisms and the barriers that exist in this market.Hence understanding barriers of capacity development services can help to all the actors for future planning to achieve sustainable tourism development.Keywords: capacity development, tourism operators, sustainable development, service quality .

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF REMITTANCES IN IMPROVING THE WELL-BEING OF ALBANIAN FAMILIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dritan Shoraj; Leontiev Çuçi

    2013-01-01

    Massive immigration of the active labor force or “brain” of Albania had its effects following the period of collapse of communism in 1991. Since the first years, net incomes of the immigrants for their families influenced the improvement of miserable economic conditions during that period. In this study, through empirical revision, quantitative analysis of data and theoretical study of literature sources and different authors, we have explored the impact they have on the immigrants’ revenues ...

  1. The Transition and Integration of the Albanian Economy in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Leontiev Çuçi

    2014-01-01

    The transition and integration of the Albanian economy in the EU constitutes a special valuable experience that would be relevant for the present and future development processes of economic market in general. Albania's experience in this regard carries two salient features in the path of Euro-Atlantic integration. First of all, the transition and economic integration in the EU began from scratch without inheriting any element or experience of the market economy and democratic cul...

  2. An assessment of the perception of physical activity, eating habits, self-efficacy and the knowledge about healthy food in Albanian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Çitozi, Robert; Bozo, Dhurata; Pano, Genti

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluates eating habits and behaviors, and nutritional and food safety knowledge of a group of Albanian adolescents. Design: A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested was self-administered during school time. Each section was evaluated using a separate score. Setting: The study was carried out as a part of a nutritional surveillance project in the capital of Albania, Tirana. Subjects: Three hundred and forty (340) adolescent subjects (180 males, 16...

  3. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    economic aid and loans. That proposal was, in turn, rejected by Albania. As a consequence, no progress was made despite the marathon talks. It was not...proportion of energy and nutrient material content in the product at each stage in the nutritional process is very slight. Most of the material energy...conversion rate between one nutritional stage and another is approximately 10 percent. Despite the differ- ence between the situation under artificially

  4. Teaching Methods - Policy Possibilities for Public Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Bakaradze, Ekaterine; Bezovski, Zlatko; Grabova, Perseta; Hasaj, Alkida; Jurcic, Ana; Kalemi, Marsel; Natsvlishvili, Ia; Simic, Ruzica

    2010-01-01

    The discussion on Teaching Methods was conducted in cooperation with The George Washington University’s Research Program in Social and Organizational Learning. Its participants included university teachers from Albania, Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia, and Georgia who had come to the United States under the auspices of the United States State Department’s Junior Faculty Development Program and the Open Society Institute to learn about new teaching methods that they might use in their classes back ...

  5. The Infusion of Language, Regional, and Cultural Content into Military Education: Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Iran, Iraq Balkans Albania, Bosnia , Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia...studies, the culture-general framework, and issues/interests (e.g., drug trafficking in Latin America, ecological destruction in Africa). In this...mission understanding impact and consequences of actions Source: Michael Lewis, “Warrior Tasks and Battle Drills,” The NCO Journal : A Monthly Forum for

  6. An Analysis of United States-Albanian Security Relations in Light of the War on Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    poorly armed resistance, easy 49 Stanley G. Payne: A History of Fascism 1914-1945.The University of...give support to the opposition in Albania. 106 U.S. Foreign Relations, 1945, Vol. IV, p.26. 107 Mr. Hayter , Chief of the Southern Department; Mr...unique move, U.S. Ambassador to Tirana, William Ryerson, participated in opposition rallies.172 The U.S. support proved to be of critical importance

  7. Notes concerning the distribution of Asian fish species, Pseudorasbora parva, in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Gavriloaie; Laurenţiu Burlacu; Cecilia Bucur; Corina Berkesy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss about the origin and distribution of a gobionin fish species, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) in the inland waters of Europe. This species was introduced in our continent for the first time in Romania in 1961 and in Albania, probably in 1960, direct from China. Later, the topmouth gudgeon spread extremely fast in almost the whole Europe, only in a few countries the species being so far absent. In the most cases, this spreading was possible due t...

  8. Experiences of violence across life course and its effects on mobility among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Dimitri Taurino; Vafaei, Afshin; Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zunzunegui, María Victoria; Guerra,Ricardo Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Background Life course exposure to violence may lead to disability in old age. We examine associations and pathways between life course violence and mobility disability in older participants of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Methods A cross-sectional study using IMIAS 2012 baseline. Men and women aged 65–74 years were recruited at 5 cities (n=1995): Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia) and Natal (Brazil). Mobility was assessed by th...

  9. JPRS Report East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Soccer Team Defies Boycott, Travels to South Africa [VILAG 3 May] .............. 42 Society for Protection of Unborn Holds Conference [VILAG 3 May...ever read what was written about Albanians and their dreamed-of "Greater Albania"-for instance, by In fact, exactly five years after Enver’s death , the...all Ramiz Alia, in a speech that coincided with the fifth of Yugoslavia) if the Albanian regime were liberalized? anniversary of the death of Enver

  10. Analysis of the agricultural and rural development policies of the Western Balkan countries

    OpenAIRE

    BAJRAMOVIĆ Sabahudin; Bogdanov, Natalija; BUTKOVIĆ Jakub; DIMITROVSKI Dragi; Erjavec, Emil; GJECI Grigor; GJOKAJ Ekrem; HOXHA Bekim; STOMENKOVSKA Ivana Janeska; KONJEVIĆ Darko; KOTEVSKA Ana; MARTINOVIĆ Aleksandra; MIFTARI Iliriana; Nacka, Marina; OGNJENOVIĆ Dragana

    2016-01-01

    This report was prepared by a team of academic experts from Western Balkan (WB) countries coordinated by the Regional Rural Development Standing Working Group (SWG) in South-East Europe. The study targets EU candidate and potential candidate countries from the Western Balkan region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo*). The main objectives of the study is the monitoring and evaluation of agricultural policies in the period 2012-2014 and assessment of the...

  11. Prevalence and demographic correlates of overweight and obesity among children in a transitional southeastern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyska, Jolanda; Mersini, Ehadu; Mone, Iris; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the prevalence and demographic correlates of overweight and obesity among children in Albania, a transitional country in Southeastern Europe. A nationwide survey was conducted in Albania in 2013 including a representative sample of 5,810 schoolchildren aged 7.0-9.9 years (51.5 % boys aged 8.5 ± 0.6 years and 49.5 % girls aged 8.4 ± 0.6 years; overall response: 97 %). All children were measured height and weight, based on which the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) were used to describe the distribution of BMI among children. Overall, mean value of BMI was 16.4 ± 2.4 (16.7 ± 2.5 in boys vs. 16.2 ± 2.4 in girls, P < 0.001). As per WHO criteria, 9.8 % of the boys were obese versus 5.5 % of the girls (P < 0.001). The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were remarkably higher among urban children compared with their rural counterparts (17.9 vs. 10.5 and 11.9 vs. 4.0 %, respectively, P < 0.001). As per IOTF criteria, 3.8 % of the boys were obese compared with 2.8 % of the girls (P < 0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity were similarly higher among urban children than in rural children (15.6 vs. 7.3 and 5.5 vs. 1.4 %, respectively, P < 0.001). Our findings indicate that Albania is in the middle of nutritional transition with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 7.0-9.9 years. This is particularly evident in urban areas of the country. Conversely, our data do not indicate a double burden of malnutrition among children in Albania.

  12. Optimizing water treatment practices for the removal of actinomycetes and earthy odor in water of Bovilla reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    ADELA KULLAJ; MARGARITA HYSKO

    2014-01-01

    Bovilla reservoir, which is situated 15 km North-East of Tirana the capital city of Albania is one of the major hidrotechnical works of this country. This reservoir is a warm monomictic water body and stratifies higher in the summer season. The predominant trophic state of Bovilla reservoir is oligotrophy. From autumn 2001 this reservoir repeatedly manifests an unpleasant taste and odor which is defined as musty- earthy. Taste and odor control has become an important issue for drinking water ...

  13. The Expanding Context of European and Mediterranean Security: A Joint Project Between the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA) and Centro Militare di Studi Strategici (CeMiSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Moyseowicz, USN (Retired), Captain Mark Rosen, USN (Retired) and Dr. Lucio Martino). Commentaries were provided by Dr. Alessandro Politi and Mr. Roberto ...conducts Operation ALLIED FORCE (a 78-day air campaign) against what was left of Yugoslavia (i.e., Serbia- Montenegro , but essentially to send a message to...The remaining European nations of the littoral (Croatia, Albania, Montenegro , Turkey) and elsewhere in southern Europe (Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia

  14. Islamic actors' support for democracy and European integration: A case for power-seeking?

    OpenAIRE

    Elbasani, Arolda; Saatçioğlu, Beken

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates when and how Islamic political actors support democracy, and in particular, the EU's democratic criteria subsumed under membership conditionality. The research focuses on the main Islamic organizations in two Muslim-majority, EU applicant states, Turkey and Albania. The analysis suggests that Islamic actors endorsed democratic rules based on a rationalist logic, which combines interest-driven and ideational concerns. The weak Albanian actors have shown unconditional su...

  15. Eastern European Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Dabalen, Andrew; Miluka, Juna

    2010-01-01

    The literature on migration has documented the benefits of sending migrants abroad, but much less attention has been paid to the adverse consequences of international migration on those left behind. In this paper, we examine the role of international migration on the accumulation of human capital in Albania. We ask whether investment in human capital of children growing up in households with international migrants is higher compared with children in households without migrants. We find that, ...

  16. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic.

  17. Why Did Southeastern European Countries Experience Low Inflation Rates in the Beginning of This Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yamada

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the inflation rates of Southeastern European (SEE countries - Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia - have been more comparable to those in the euro area than to those in otherwise similar emerging economies; the only exception is Serbia. These low inflation rates can only partly be explained by initial price levels. In addition, the exchange rate regime is of paramount importance. Our analysis also explores additional differences between SEE and other regions

  18. "To Hell with the Paperwork:" Deciphering the Culture of the Air Commandos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    1 I. INTRODUCTION A. A DARK NIGHT IN ALBANIA A painting hangs in the upstairs lounge of the 7th Special Operations Squadron (SOS) at RAF...and glider aircraft. Cochran and Alison assembled a force of 523 volunteers and 348 aircraft (Haas, 1997, p. 8). Having already coined the...with particular emphasis on blacked out operations at night. The aviators attempted to innovate employment methods for gliders —an untested concept

  19. Albanian-NATO Relations in the Fight Against International Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Thimi Hudhra, “Beyond Strasbourgh&Kehl:Military Challenges of NATO Membership,” Revista Ushtarake, (March 2011), 36. 247 Ministry of Defense, “Speech by...and the Armed Forces,” Revista Ushtarake, (March 2011), 70. 93 Albanian-NATO relations have been eased especially because of the big public...Military Challenges of NATO Membership.” Revista Ushtarake (March 2011): 335. Institute for Democracy and Mediation Albania. Context Analysis

  20. People of Albanian nationality in school system in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cahunek, Lea

    2013-01-01

    This research deals with the way people of Albanian ethnicity experience the Slovenian school system and how they construct their lives within the bounds of society. The theoretical part in the beginning of the research focuses on the migration processes, learning of the mother tongue and the second language, and the key characteristics of the Albanian nation from Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia. I have also focused on prejudices, stereotypes and discrimination, and the role of teachers and ...

  1. Operation Inherent Resolve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    on political, religious, or ethnic affili- ations.24 QUARTERLY AND BIANNUAL REPORTS TO CONGRESS 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 IMPLEMENTING THE LEAD IG MODEL...ort to date. Albania Finland Lithuania Saudi Arabia Arab League France Luxembourg Serbia Australia Georgia Macedonia Singapore Austria...targeted based on political, religious, or ethnic affiliations. DoS OIG, response to Lead Inspector General request for information, 4/20/2015. 147

  2. The administrative review of concession agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmira Hajdari

    2014-01-01

    The practice of concessionary agreements in Albania is only in its early steps of development. Furthermore, the legislation that provides for the concession agreements has suffered changes to reflect the international legislation. All of which have led to the case law encountering various issues, which we have only humbly tried to reflect in this paper, while also providing our opinion with regard to addressing them.

  3. Impact of the 20th Century War on Democratic Serbia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    addition to the already obtained territories of Istria peninsula, Zara and a few more Adriatic islands. Furthermore, he attempted to establish a Balkan...leaders. The supply of the weapons came from radical Muslim countries. The ones who were trained in Albania, Iran, and Pakistan, who participated in the...in the chain of events. Of course, there will be some trials towards Greater Serbia and Greater Croatia. Having everything considered, there will be

  4. The Rules of Engagement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Russia views NATO’s new round of expansion as a threat to its security and global strategy NATO held its summit on April 2-4 in the Romanian capital Bucharest with an unprecedented number of participants.Its attention-grabbing enlargement plan once again became the meeting’s focus.The summit approved the membership applications of Croatia and Albania,put on hold the entry of Ukraine

  5. The Process of Evidencing (Offer of Proof at Administrative Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Vokopola

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments are very important for the implementation of strategic reforms, transfer of advanced technologies and managerial methods, thereby stimulating economic growth in developing countries and in particular, transition economies such as Albania is. During the last years, Albania experienced an increase in foreign investors’ interest in a wide range of sectors, with energy generation, telecommunication, cement production, mining, oil and industrial parks heading the list. However, the major obstacle factors for FDI inflows seem to remain the same: pervasive corruption, weak law enforcement, poor rule of law, lack of developed infrastructure, lack of a reliable energy supply and insufficiently defined property rights. Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  6. Technology and media preferences: Results from some user studies in Albanian public libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Basha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the state of awareness of information literacy and media literacy in Albania and the role of libraries in raising their capacity in fostering use of technology and media and practicing polices of life-long learning (LLL and education. There is an urgent need in Albania to raise the awareness of information and media literacy issues in the new realities and the skills needed to navigate, evaluate, and use information and technology. The role of the libraries and other institutions is of great importance and impact when it comes to assisting users of all levels not only to find but also to evaluate and use information properly for professional and daily life decisions. This research and the surveys done in Fier Public Library during 1995-2012, will bring a contribution to a greater understanding of the situation in most of the public libraries in Albania and the impact that information, media, and new technologies have in our daily life. The purpose of the research is to raise the awareness of all the stakeholders in Albanian society on its importance for future development. The research has shown that libraries, librarians, and other stakeholders of the society lack understanding on information and media literacy as well as the right infrastructure to support the development of information and communication technology (ICT.

  7. Corporate Governance In Transition Economies- Comparative Analysis Of Contemporary Corporate Governance Issues In Selected Of This Economies In South-Eastern Europe. The Albanian Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezart Dibra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at introducing the main corporate governance mechanism’ influence on governance in South Eastern Europe (Western Balkans transition economies: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. The implementation of corporate governance in transition economies, where Albania is one of the countries that have implemented such corporate governance principles, require a suitable legal framework and relevant protection of minority shareholders. In 2008 the new law “On entrepreneurs and commercial companies”was enacted.The latter introduced new practices and concepts, some of them not familiar to the Albanian legal system. This paper discusses comparative insight on the most pressing issues of corporate governance in selected economies of South-East Europe (Western Balkans. It is widely accepted that both private sector and governments can benefit from identification of the most important determinants and implications of good corporate governance. Corporate governance systems have a common goal – protection of investor’s rights and transparency of the system in which transactions take place. However, it is also well recognized that systems of corporate governance in attempt to gain necessary level of harmonization and consistency rely heavily on contextual factors of specific economy. Specifically, the research covers corporate governance in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. 

  8. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, I; Kraja, B; Bregu, A; Duraj, V; Sadiku, E; Hyska, J; Burazeri, G

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the association of a Mediterranean diet and gastroesophageal reflux disease among adult men and women in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe with a predominantly Muslim population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, which included a population-based sample of 817 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana, the Albanian capital (333 men; overall mean age: 50.2 ± 18.7 years; overall response rate: 82%). Assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease was based on Montreal definition. Participants were interviewed about their dietary patterns, which in the analysis was dichotomized into: predominantly Mediterranean (frequent consumption of composite/traditional dishes, fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and fish) versus largely non-Mediterranean (frequent consumption of red meat, fried food, sweets, and junk/fast food). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with the dietary patterns. Irrespective of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors including eating habits (meal regularity, eating rate, and meal-to-sleep interval), employment of a non-Mediterranean diet was positively related to gastroesophageal reflux disease risk (fully adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.5). Our findings point to a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in transitional Albania. Findings from this study should be confirmed and expanded further in prospective studies in Albania and in other Mediterranean countries.

  9. Results based management in Albanian local governments. Case study municipality of Korca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dhimitri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public Management has been a constant concern for all politicians and public administrators at all levels of governance in Albania. Increase of public demand for higher accountability, efficiency in the administration of public goods and services is now challenging the traditional means of governance by so aiming tangible results in the public management. Results Based Management (RBM is a new approach in the public management, a practice already developed in the western countries. RBM is defined as an approach that integrates in one whole instrument the strategies, human resources, processes and their evaluation, with the aim of improving decision-making, transparency, and accountability of public institutions. This study makes an effort to approximate and clarify as simply as possible such a management scheme which remains a relatively new approach for Albania and especially for local governance stakeholders. RBM is not only a planning-monitoring -evaluation tool but also a model that can facilitate the activity and development of Local Government Units in order for them to improve their “product/services”. From empirical data deriving from this prior assessment it results that municipality of Korca in Albania have the willingness and the institutional and technical capacities, though very fragmented and not integrated in one whole clear model, to embrace the RBM as a new approach in their institution’s management.

  10. Albanian trade policy and the process of alignment with EU Common Commercial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranvera Kastrati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Albania is a member of WTO from September 2000 and is currently in a deep and substantial transformation of the trade policy. Albanian trade regime is very liberal, open and transparent fully compliant with WTO law. Accession to EU is the strategic goal of all Governments after ’90s and alignment with EU acquis is at the core of any process. EU integration is an engine for the development in all candidate or potential candidate countries. This process requires the alignment of national policies and harmonization of the legislation. Trade policy is among the most developed policies in European Union and Albania. This is mainly due to the membership in World Trade Organization (WTO and Free Trade Agreements (FTA with the most important trading partners. The accession of Albania to EU will significantly affect the Albanian trade policy. This paper analyses the state of play of Albanian trade policy and presents the main developments in the EU Common Commercial Policy after the Lisbon Treaty (2009. Based on this analysis the paper highlights the implications for Albanian trade policy.

  11. INFLUENCE OF TOURISM SECTOR IN ALBANIAN GDP: STIMATION USING MULTIPLE REGRESSION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina HYSA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During last years, tourism sector has significantly increased in Albania, since after year 1990 Albania has passed from a centralized economy to a liberal one. Tourism sector plays an important role in economic and social development. The contributions of this sector reflect directly into the generation of national income. The two main components matching the tourism movements are the number of tourists and the number of overnights in hotels. Investments done in this sector could be expected to have high positive influence in the country's GDP. This study seeks to identify the influence of tourists, their overnights in hotels and capital investment spending by all sectors directly involved in tourism sector on tourism total contribution to gross domestic product of Albania during 1996-2009. A regression analysis has been performed taking as dependent variable GDP generated by tourism sector and as independent variables, capital investment, tourist number and overnights in hotels. Even if all the variables have been found to be positivlye related, the variable ‘overnights of foreigners and Albanians in hotels' have beenfound insignificant.

  12. An Intelligent Market: Possibilities of a Revolution in Supermarkets Organization Using Agent Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Cipi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments are very important for the implementation of strategic reforms, transfer of advanced technologies and managerial methods, thereby stimulating economic growth in developing countries and in particular, transition economies such as Albania is. During the last years, Albania experienced an increase in foreign investors’ interest in a wide range of sectors, with energy generation, telecommunication, cement production, mining, oil and industrial parks heading the list. However, the major obstacle factors for FDI inflows seem to remain the same: pervasive corruption, weak law enforcement, poor rule of law, lack of developed infrastructure, lack of a reliable energy supply and insufficiently defined property rights. Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  13. Rio de Janeiro, Winter 2011 - The cidade maravilhosa’s expectations and contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Clemente

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments are very important for the implementation of strategic reforms, transfer of advanced technologies and managerial methods, thereby stimulating economic growth in developing countries and in particular, transition economies such as Albania is. During the last years, Albania experienced an increase in foreign investors’ interest in a wide range of sectors, with energy generation, telecommunication, cement production, mining, oil and industrial parks heading the list. However, the major obstacle factors for FDI inflows seem to remain the same: pervasive corruption, weak law enforcement, poor rule of law, lack of developed infrastructure, lack of a reliable energy supply and insufficiently defined property rights. Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.

  14. The Albanian Brain Drain phenomena and the Brain Gain strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Musaraj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative human resources remain one of the main problem of Eastern Europe and in particular Western Balkan countries. After 20 years of deep economic, political and social transformation, those countries are facing the problem of the highly qualified human resources they lost in these two decades, while in most of cases there is no a real measurement of the weight and impact these phenomena of Brain Drain has in the quality of the work force. Most of them are trying to set up and apply Brain Gain strategies at a national level. The paper aims to analyze and evaluate the influence that the missing of a previous qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the Phenomena of Brain Drain in Albania, has in the successful application of the Brain Gain strategy. The research objective will be fulfilled by analyzing the evolution of the Brain Drain phenomena, by an introduction of the Albanian characteristic and shape of  Brain Drain from 1990, by analyzing the Brain Gain strategy applied in the country comparing it to a successful application. The paper analyzes factors and variables which may affect the successful application of Brain Gain in Albania while  evidences the importance of stakeholder approach in objectives and aims of Brain Gain program and strategy and the use of the  Balance Scorecard as a strategic management system in “brain gain” strategy set up and application in the case of Albania and those of other countries of the region as well.

  15. Paradoxes in medicine: an access to new knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V; Dolinska, S

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of health and nutrition data from various countries shows many surprising and seemingly incomprehensible facts and paradoxical relationships. Health status of a country is the result of long-term factors and therefore it cannot be changed from day to day. For example in Central European countries there was a sudden increase in life expectancy after the fall of Soviet hegemony. French paradox is the oldest example of apparent contrast between "unhealthy" nutrition and low cardiovascular mortality. Although, the consumption of animal fat and milk and milk products in Switzerland is very high, but premature cardiovascular mortality of Swiss men and women is the lowest in Europe. In USA there is concominant increase of obesity and decrease in cardiovascular mortality. In Cuba, in spite of great economic problems its relatively high male and female life expectancy is very similar to the rich USA. The life expectancy in Albania is significantly higher than in many countries in Central Europe and in the Balkan region, in spite of the fact that Albania remains the poorest European country. Analysis of these unexpected and paradoxical relations indicate the importance of the quality of medical care, control of cardiovascular risk factors (USA) and the influence of modest but biologically balanced diet on low prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Cuba and Albania. The experience from former communist Central European countries suggests important influence of chronic stress and psychosocial factors on heart diseases and life expectancy. These paradoxes open the door to new information (Fig. 5, Ref. 11). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  16. Ministry of Defense Budged and the Economic Responsibilities as NATO Member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Metushaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Every four years Albania is confronted with several social issues which demand real and immediate solutions. These issues are often confronted with political implications offering no benefit for the civil society in general, or any of its levels, given the fact that all Albanian citizens are part of it in different levels. The main level affected by these social issues is the poor, women, unemployed, the youth and retired people. Albania is classified as the poorest country in the Balkan Peninsula and overcoming the social challenge of life quality in all social levels is the main challenge. During the last 10 years, the Albanian Governments has undertaken several reforms to meet all the criteria for the European integration. One of the most important criteria is the economical reform affecting the unemployment and the decrease of poverty, as these problems affect a considerable number of families, and in the same time they affect education and health service, two other rings of the social chains that are very important. Becoming a NATO member gave Albania a great encouragement to face the next challenges of the international arena and in this sense the Albanian Government is aware that being part of such an important organization would require availability and involvement of human resources and financial responsibilities, which would be a further burden for the budget. Therefore, it is important to create a suitable ground to implement these fundamental projects for the society. This is another challenge for the Albanian people with requires responsibility and sacrifice to meet the so much hoped ideals of democracy and solidarity, which establish peace, stability and prosperity for our country.

  17. The Cultural Heritage of the Great Prespa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Muslli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Great Prespa region is situated in the Balkan Peninsula and is divided between Albania, Macedonia and Greece. It includes the Great Prespa Lake and the surrounding beach and meadow, areas designated for agricultural use and the towns of Pusteci (formerly known as Liqenas and Resen. This region is now part of the Trans-Boundary Biosphere Reserve ‘Ohrid-Prespa Watershed. Great and Small Prespa lakes plus Ohrid Lake are included in this newly-approved UNESCO world Heritage Site, but for this paper, we are looking only at the area surrounding the Great Prespa Lake. It is critical for this area to be protected immediately, because of the overuse it has undergone in recent years. While current levels of fauna are dangerously declining due to recent over-harvesting, this area has been known historically for its diverse natural and cultural features. Thus it is important to take drastic measures to reclaim the natural beauty immediately, including those areas currently covered by Prespa National Parks in Albania and Greece and Galichica and Pelisteri National Parks in Macedonia. Due to many wars over the centuries, it exists a mixture of Albanian and Macedonian culture. The historical and architectural remaining, religious structures and artifacts testify the richness and uniqueness of the communities of Pustec and Resen have. The cultural heritage is now a key element designated for the development of the region’s sustainable tourism development. This study was enhanced via the Geographic Info System (GIS digital presentation showing the opportunities for natural and cultural tourism in both countries (Albania and Macedonia.

  18. The University With a Soul. University of Vlora and the Reforms that Revolutionized Standards of Student Enrollment, Training, and Advancement in Albanian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erida PRIFTI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With the world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the role of higher education is becoming increasingly important. Starting in January 2008, the University of Vlora is applying a modernization agenda through setting higher standards of scholarship, accompanied by curricular and governance reforms, causing changes to happen that are shaping themselves into an era of progress and rapid development, and planting a pioneer flag in the historical timeline of Albanian higher education. Differently from all other higher education institutions in Albania, and for the first time in decades of fictitious recognition of competency, the University of Vlora is striving to detach itself from the traditional oldsystem teaching mentality and methodology, managing through many struggles to be the first public university that is uninfluenced by the pressure of corruption and nepotism, and headed towards internationalization based on western standards. In its July 2010 edition, the Ranking Web of WorldUniversities ranks University of Vlora number one among all public and private universities in Albania, a title that is well deserved and earned through genuine, untiring and unbiased efforts to reach out and aspire to be what the rankings call the best university in Albania. University of Vlora students are now studying in a university that offers updated curricula, flexible learning paths, and a fully functional automated online academic transcript system, a very productive application that combines online and batch processing to generate student transcripts, as well as to facilitate student-faculty and administration-faculty communication via a university email system. This paper explores the achievements as well as the challenges that students and professors are facing in this completely new way of learning and teaching at an institution of higher education in a post-Communist country. Data was collected using interviews, as well as open-ended and

  19. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Complicated by Orchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edmond Puca; Arben Pilaca; Pellumb Pipero; Silva Bino; Majlinda Kote; Elton Rogozi; Entela Puca; Dhimiter Kraja

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a disease caused by viruses of the family Bunyaviridae,genus Hantavirus.HFRS from Dobrava virus (DOBV) is a seldom reported disease in Albania.Clinically HFRS is manifested as mild,moderate,or severe.Therefore,the number of cases of Hantavirus'infection may be underestimated,and should be included in the differential diagnosis of many acute infections,hematologic diseases,acute abdominal diseases and renal diseases complicated by acute renal failure.We report here an atypical presentation of HFRS from Dobrava virus complicated by orchitis with a positive outcome.

  20. Some Aspects of Surface Water Treatment Technology in Tirana Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    , Tania Floqi; , Aleksandër Trajçe; , Daut Vezi

    2009-01-01

    Tirana’s Bovilla treatment plant was the Şrst of its kind for Albania, which treats surface water. The input water comes from the Bovilla artiŞcial lake, around which, the presence of villages induces pollution in the surface water and therefore affects the efŞciency of treatment plant and consequently the quality of drinking water. The treatment plant is a simple conventional system and includes pre-oxidation, coagulation, şocculation & sedimentation, fast Şltration, post-oxidation. ...

  1. Observations of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni in Bulgaria during the period of post-breeding dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalova Girgina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni was considered extinct as a breeding species in Bulgaria, but recently a small breeding colony was found again in the south-eastern part of the country. Seven recent observations of flocks or solitary birds of the species in Bulgaria during the post-breeding period are presented and commented here. It is shown that the territory of the country is a regular area for post-breeding dispersal and pre-migratory feeding of lesser kestrels. The origin of these is not known, but most probably birds from the populations of the European part of Turkey, Greece, Republic of Macedonia and Albania are involved.

  2. TAX COMPETITION REGARDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT BETWEEN TRANSITION EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Ramona DUMITRIU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the fiscal measures adopted in the transition European countries in order toencourage the foreign direct investment. There were analysed six countries: Albania, Macedonia,Moldova, Russian Federation, Union of Serbia and Muntenegro, Ukraine, based on the four criteria:corporate and capital gains tax rates, withholding taxes, tax incentives, foreign tax relief andtransfer pricing rules. Finally, the conclusion is that all the analysed countries offer favourable fiscalconditions for the foreign direct investment. Serbia, Muntenegro, Macedonia and Moldova haveattractive fiscal regimes, showing that the authorities from these countries count on the foreign directinvestment as a solution of solving the social and economic problems.

  3. Individual Characteristics of Entrepreneurs in Transition Countries. The Albanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areti Stringa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition process in Albania, as in other ex-communist countries, stopped the enterprise development. The increasing number of small and medium enterprises is the most promising consequence of the transition process. Several researches in western countries have demonstrated that entrepreneurship involves objective and subjective factors and is interrelated with environmental objective factors and individual subjective ones. Our research examines clear characteristics of the businesses’ analysis, the performance of the entrepreneurs themselves (their background and personal characteristics, their motivation to start a business and the perceptions of the different characteristics and the aspects of the businesses they run.

  4. The Conflict Forecasting Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    1918 Rusia Estonia 1.007 -.944 .464 -. 294 . o1 .667 1918 Russa UK -. 260 -. 009 -. 300 .018 .061 .345 1920 UK Turkey .810 -. 732 .795 -. 581 .192 .32...EiW±U) EJ (U ) R1 Rj 121 Russia Turkey .309 -.813 .974 -1.132 -1.000 .329 * 126 Rusia Turkey .4126 -.206 .13 -. 191 .384 .412 1810 France UK -.714...Albania 1.214 -1.113D 1.287 -1.362 -. 361 .033 19110 Fra ncs Rusia -. 393 .177 -. 355 .291 -. 4125 -. 011 19110 UK Ru la -.1175 .1119 -. 691 .332 .181

  5. Social inclusion and inclusive education

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    Marsela Robo

    2014-07-01

    In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.

  6. Albanian women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Antoneta; Alushllari, Mirela; Mico, Silvana

    2015-12-01

    In this report, presented at the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we describe the status of women physicists in Albania and offer some statistical data illustrating the present situation. Undergraduate physics enrollment by girls is high and stable, more women are receiving financial support for doctoral studies, women are well represented in recent academic promotions, and recently women scientists have been appointed to several leadership positions. However, both women and men are challenged by the overall low levels of funding for research and by issues of availability and affordability of child care.

  7. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  8. Genetic structure of Apis mellifera macedonica in the Balkan Peninsula based on microsatellite DNA polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzunov, Aleksandar; Meixner, Marina D; Kiprijanovska, Hrisula;

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variability of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) from south eastern Europe was investigated using microsatellite analyses of 107 samples from Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Bulgaria together with 42 reference samples (Apis mellifera carnica) from Slovenia. Genetic structure...... and spatial analyses of the microsatellite data showed a clear distinction between the Slovenian bees and all other populations, and confirmed the existence of Apis mellifera macedonica as an indigenous honey bee population in the regions that were sampled. In most areas however, varying degrees...

  9. National movement in Diber after Young Turks Revolution

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    Fatjon Kica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As all Albanians, people in Diber welcomed the new regime of the Young Turks. After Young Turks Revolution, the movement about the national Education, in the same way as the National Movement, achieved the highest level of development during Renaissance. However the success achieved from legal development of National Education in Albania, the widespread of Albanian language in different ways and the widespread of Albanian language school nets, which became home for the strengthening of National feelings, disturbed Young Turks a lot, which used every tool against them, from the exertion of religion feelings and intrigues, to the violence.

  10. A case of beta-thalassaemia major resistant to standard treatment

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    Nicoletta Masera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 22-year-old woman from Albania, with thalassaemia major, in severe clinical condition who could no longer be transfused due to the occurrence of severe, acute, post-transfusional reactions. After 10 years of treatment, she failed to respond to hydroxyurea. When she received thalidomide, haemoglobin levels increased from 3.7 g/dl to 9 g/dl. Since then, at 22 months of follow-up, the therapy is still effective and well tolerated. The case gives the opportunity to describe the clinical use of thalidomide, and its potential in the management of beta-thalassaemia.

  11. Review of confiscation decisions under the Anti-mafia Law-preventive procedure

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    Lirime Çukaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The review of final decisions is regarded as an unusual means of appeal aimed at countering a final decision that is considered adjudicated (res judicata. This means of appeal has been provided for in the European Convention on Human Rights, the Constitution of Albania, and the national laws of the Albanian state. Thus, at first sight, the review seems to be in contravention of Article 4 and 34 of the Constitution, the principle of legal certainty. But, in essence, this extraordinary means of appeal attempts to establish effective justice by overturning a wrong decision, despite the fact that this decision has been executed, suspended or terminated. To combat dangerous criminal activities Albania has adopted the Anti-mafia Law, which provides the confiscation of proceeds that are obtained from some of the most dangerous criminal activities such as organized crime, terrorist acts, trafficking, corruption and laundering of crime proceeds. This kind of civil confiscation constituted a novelty in the procedural law and it was imposed when the person was not able to prove the lawful origin of these proceeds obtained from criminal activities. But can these confiscation decisions about the final transfer of property to the state be reviewed? If so, which law shall be applied, the civil or criminal one? This and other answers will be provided in this paper.

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Imported Powered Infant Formula (PIF

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    RENIS MAÇI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella species are well-known long-standing foodborne human pathogen that demonstrate long-term survival in/on dry or low-water activity (aw in foods. Salmonellosis caused by ingestion of contaminated powdered infant formula has been reported nationwide. In recent years, 8 reported outbreaks of Salmonella infection in infants have been linked to the consumption of powdered infant formula. Outbreaks of Salmonellosis due to contaminated PIF are likely to be under-reported nationwide even in Albania. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential existence of Salmonella spp. in canned powdered infant formula in Albania. During two years investigation Salmonella spp was on the focus and was detected in 1 out of 70 analysed samples (1.43%. The strain of Salmonella spp. was biochemically identified by the analytical profile index (API 20 E system and poly A, H, and Vi antiserum. Food safety criteria are laid down in EU regulation “EC No. 2073/2005” for Salmonella spp. in dried infant formula and dried dietary foods for special medical purposes intended for infants. These criterias are transposed to Albanian Legislation. A laboratory-based on food-borne disease surveillance systems is needed in terms of strethening control and reducing the risk of exposure.

  13. THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS ENERGY IN THREE ALBANIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jupe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass combustion is amongst the oldest and the most mature technique for conversion of biomass to energy; but still a great challenge lies ahead in developing new; more efficient and environmentally sustainable -systems. In light of the European Action and the National Strategy in the energy sector; Albania has enacted a friendly policy regarding renewable energy sources; including biomass. Execution of such projects is delegated to both regional and local authorities for various technical; economic and socio-environmental considerations as well as for an integrated approach to the land use planning. This paper identifies the main sources of biomass energy in three different regions of Albania i.e. Korça; Tirana and Vlora. It shows the weight of each possibility on the total potential for energy production by biomass as well as the type and distribution of each biomass. The manner how the potential offered by forestry; agriculture and agro-industry would be utilized will; apart from availability of appropriate technology; also depend on the ability of economic operators to organize themselves efficiently while respecting environmental sustainability.

  14. Euro-Mediterranean Public Relations. Developing a new public relations approach for cooperation among local systems in the Euro-Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Jane Succi

    2010-07-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  15. Protection of the Human Right to Water Under International Law - The Need for a New Legal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Daci

    2012-06-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  16. A Survey of QoS Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igli Tafa

    2011-01-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  17. Development: What’s in a name?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Baysal

    2011-07-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  18. Social sciences, scientific research, higher education and social developments - An Albanian inside of dialectics and structured scientific research, in social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Kallçiu

    2013-01-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  19. Energy, transport network and financial issues: PR perspectives for economic development in time of Euro-Med area change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Jane Succi

    2012-02-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  20. IMPORTANT - PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AS A TOOL IN DESTINATION MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleina QIRICI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Korça Region is located in the Southeast of Albania and borders Greece and Macedonia to the South and the East. It is a mountainous region with two major lakes, Lake Ohrid, the oldest lake in Europe, which is shared with Macedonia and Lake Prespa which is shared with Greece and Macedonia (100km2 in Albania.If we consider the last years, there is an increasing tendency to improve the tourist facilities and to attract the tourist market which is interested for activities in open nature and relax in fresh and pure air. These demands could be met very well in Korca destination which is characterized by suitable climatic conditions and tourist services. Eventually a combination of development of town tourism and tourist villages helped the sustainability of the development of Korca as tourist destination in general.The main purpose of this paper is to present the using of important - performance analysis in marketing destination for the development of tourism.Highlights: (1 the paper considers multifarious goals of the destination management; (2 a computer booking system is used by hotels and guest houses in the region; (3 the relationship between what a tourists wants to find in a destination and that he finds in fact.

  1. Assessment of stilbene residues in cattle through analytical control in Korca region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI LILO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of substances having hormonal action is banned in Albania. However, sometimes forbidden drugs may be added to feeds for illegal administration or treatment to cattle for promoting increased muscle development or increased water retention and thus obtain an economical benefit. Residues of these substances may remain in meat and may pose a real threat to the consumer either through exposure to the residues. On this context use of stilbens as hormonal dugs in cattle is used in illegal way. Evaluation of stilbens residues in live cattle and beef meat samples remains a common objective of food control in Albania. Assessment of stilbene residues (diethylstilbestrol, hexerol and dienstrol is carried out from 2012 to 2013 in 94 urine samples collected from cattle in region of Korca. Analytical control is performed by ELISA test as commercial product following the use instructions. Study results showed the positive results for stilbens group of substances in 8, 5% (8/ 94 of urine samples. Detection limit of ELISA test is respectively 0.15ng/ml for diethylstilbestrol, 0.25ng/ml for hexerol and 0.5ng/ml for dienstrol residues. 6 out 8 positive urine samples for stilbens residues contained diethylstilbestrol confirming as well use of hormones in cattle treatment.

  2. Some opportunities for sustainable development in Korça Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alket Dino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today all over the world, as well as in Albania, we hear more and more about economic development in developing countries. A successful branch of the economy of these countries is tourism. Based on socio-geographic studies, Albania in general and the region of Korça, in particular, should have an orientation study to promote this branch of economy. I refer to the case of a successful banker from Bangladesh, Muhammad Yunus, who won the Nobel Prize in 2006, due to the development of his thesis for microcredit. We must understand the importance of studying sociology of tourism in Korça region as one of the priority for the economic development in the region and beyond. There are few studies on the development of tourism in the region of Korça, but these studies do not capture the socio-geographic and social analysis of the study of the region in particular, they only show the instruments that should be used in such studies. There are no accurate statistics on social coloring of the population, places of worship, museums, ethnography, archeology, gastronomy, customs, traditions, sports, climate of the Korça region.

  3. Factorial Analysis of Albanian Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Kabello Koprencka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing market and housing price dynamics are very important to the economy. About 65% of households in the western world and 85% of Albania's own private apartment. The market of residential estates is very complex and influenced by many factors, some of which are hard to be measured. Such factors include handling of taxes and remittances. The analysis of such factors becomes more complicated by the interference of temporary trends during the period that some explanatory variables have at their disposal. This generates an important identification problem, which prevents the accurate evaluation of long-term changes in the housing prices. The data used in this study are extracted from reports of Bank of Albania, INSTAT, IMF and newspaper “Celes” as well as from surveys to individual purchasers, investors and developers. Through the model it is analyzed the development of residential estates‟ market compared to the historical trend of housing prices and to the theoretical determinant. The econometric model used is a generalized multiple regression equation. The model allows us to see the dynamic interaction between the housing prices and the variables selected according to hypotheses on the very complex economic structure associated with this market.

  4. Concrete as “Green Building” Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESMERALD FILAJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most widely used construction material. This is due to its low cost, general availability, and of course quite easy and wide applicability. But concrete also is characterized by great environmental cost. The natural materials mined and processed each year, by their sheer volume, are bound to leave a substantial mark on the environment. Most damaging are the enormous amounts of energy required to produce Portland cement as well as the large quantities of CO2 released into the atmosphere in the process. All enlisted herein, is more than verified in Albania, especially in the territories where cement production factories operate. In order to have a future sustainable development, while in the same time trying to reduce the already noticed negative effects, measures need to be taken urgently. Related to this issue ,a very successful measure is considered the use of suitable substitutes for Portland cement, especially with those that are byproducts of industrial processes, like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, and silica fume. Suitable recycled materials as substitutes for concrete aggregate are gaining in importance too, such as recycled concrete aggregate, post-consumer glass, tires, etc .This paper summarizes the various efforts underway worldwide, that should be undertaken in Albania also, to improve the environmental friendliness of concrete, to make it suitable as a “Green Building” material.

  5. First record of the Asian diaptomid Neodiaptomus schmackeri (Poppe & Richard, 1892 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Alfonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania, as well as a great part of the Balkan area in general, still suffers a lack of environmental studies especially in limnological research. The Dumre plateau, in Central Albania, is characterized by an extraordinary high number of karst lakes in a small geographic area. Despite their environmental peculiarity, very few biological data are to date available for these lakes, none on the zooplankton. For this reason, 15 water bodies located in the central area of the plateau were selected for a preliminary limnological survey carried out in the years 2008-2011. Neodiaptomus schmackeri (Poppe & Richard, 1892, a diaptomid calanoid copepod characterized by a South-Eastern Palearctic - Oriental distribution, and the most widely spread Neodiaptomus species in Asia, was found in 8 lakes of the Dumre area. This finding represents the first record of the species, and of the entire genus Neodiaptomus, for Europe. Several environmental variables were measured to characterize the lakes, and the co-occurring planktonic crustaceans were also identified. Taxonomical drawings and descriptions of the main morphological features of both sexes are herein provided in order to compare the Albanian populations of N. schmackeri with those of the native distribution area of the species. The possible causes which determined the occurrence of this non-indigenous species in several Dumre lakes are discussed.

  6. EFFECTS OF PRE-INCUBATION STORAGE TIME OF OSTRICH EGGS ON THEIR INCUBATION AND HATCHING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumturi Sena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the “ANOC” ostrich farm in Patos/Albania, in order to determine the effects of storage period on the hatchability of 197 ostrich (Struthio camelus eggs. One egg setting was monitored, through dividing the eggs into three groups according to their age, as following: 20-30, 10-20 and 1-10 days old, containing respectively 49, 80 and 68 eggs/group. During the hatching process, the respective parameters, such as: fecundity, embryonic mortality, weight egg loss and hatchability were recorded and monitored. After two weeks, the average weight loss of the all eggs resulted to be 0.5% more than the standard, referred as such, the instructions given by the Dutch company PAS REFORM, producer of the ostrich eggs incubation and hatching machines. The reason of the high embryonic mortality (40.7% mainly relates with the long pre-incubation storage time. Higher sterility (42.6% might especially relate with the high temperature stress in the farm, considering the fact that the animals were just transferred from the Netherlands to Albania. The hatching rate (29.9%, compared to the total number of the set eggs is comparable with the same parameter achieved in the UK. Out of these results, it is concluded that: the shorter the egg storage time before the setting the better will the hatching results be.

  7. Early Bilingual Education Moving Towards The Dual Language Immersion Program. An Upcoming Reality Also In Gjirokastra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamira Kote

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the issues of bilingual education in Gjirokastra, in the 9-year primary schools, as an important link in the process of foreign language learning by our children. Albania has quickly embraced the concept of early foreign language learning. A memorandum signed by the respective governments of Albania and Italy  in 2002 opened the way to a teaching process conducted in two languages, Italian and Albanian, in the upper cycle of the primary school and also in the high schools, so that half of the subjects would be taught in a foreign language. Through this paper we try to give our opinion why the implementation of this program of dual language immersion is necessary as an educational system based on pragmatic and functional concepts. The achievement of the dual language immersion program also in our schools, aims at a transmission of knowledge for a better internalization of the foreign language, and also at improving the perspectives of our students in the European labor market. The difficulties and the obstacles which might condition this process cannot diminish the advantages and benefits that the children studying in these schools where the teaching process will be conducted in two languages, will have over the children who will study a foreign language as a separate subject. The role of parents and  a highly qualified teaching staff are important factors in the success of this process.

  8. Earnings management and the quality of the financial reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Shuli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last time in the development of the financial reporting and frauds there have emerged several problems related to the quality of several indicators on the financial statements and especially the quality of the earnings indicator. According to the literature on the financial reporting it results that companies have the possibility to smooth earnings or manage earnings as a tool to avoid reporting a loss. While the economic entities are using the national and international accounting standards, the working practice of accountants/auditors shows episodes of the management of the earnings. One of the conclusions of this paper is that there is not enough information among accounting professionals regarding the practices of the earnings management. One of the recommendations is to include issues of fair and ethical reporting in the modules of the faculty of economics especially on the master level.Based on the many studies of this issue in other countries, this paper will show if this phenomenon is known in Albania and furthermore how important it is for the quality of the financial reporting in Albania. In order to achieve this objective it has been done a review of related studies. Because of the new legislation on the financial reporting being implemented in our country the recommendations of this paper may be valuable to the enforcement of the accounting standards mechanisms.

  9. Literature and National Consciousness of the Greek Minority in NorthernEpirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anteia Frantzi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first period of Albanian rule in Northern Epirus, from 1912 to 1945, witnessed a continuation of the oral tradition enriched by the experience of the unceasing struggle for liberation. It should be stressed that what we now call "literature of the ethnic Greek minority of Albania" is in fact nothing but an integral part of Greek literature. It is the literary output of the Greek inhabitants of the area who, despite the adverse political developments that left them outside the borders of the Greek state, maintained their creativity and their Greek identity. From 1945 onwards, with the establishment of the People's Republic of Albania, any attempt to assess the literature of the Greek minority in Northern Epirus stumbles upon the political and national dichotomy of the land and its people. Firstly, the writers who identified themselves with the Communist ideals were following the principles of Socialist Realism. Secondly, those who followed a path of silent resistance and struggled for the preservation of the Greek language reverted to allegory and cryptic writing.

  10. Il Sistema Bancario di Fronte ai Problemi Economici

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    Anila Bozdo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe deteriorating reasons of banking portfolio loans and some necessary measures for theimprovement of this situation will be main topics of this article. The corruption in thebanking system, is a phenomenon that has passed unobserved, but for our opinion is veryoften. Non professional loan officers, who lack the essential knowledge of identifying theclients, are common among the Banks of Albania; The new banking system, appears withthe old problems of expansion of loan portfolio during 2005-2007,without the bankcapacity to manage them and that for sure will be accompanied with influx of many clientswith problems. The objective reason is also economic situation of our country and ourregion that for sure will reflect in quality of loans portfolio;The measures that are important to take are: a reform in banking system for what itconcerned structure management in charge of loans giving. The loan officers rewardshould be connected with quality of portfolio management. Bank of Albania shouldenforce banks to spend more for training the loan officer. It may organize itself thetraining courses by raising a training center. It should control on-site banks morefrequently. Should pay attention on giving new loans, which will improve gradually thequality of loan portfolio. Despite the situation must not restraint the loan process in bank.Keywords : Nonperforming loans, loan officer; corruption; financial crisis.

  11. The Albanian organization and organizational structure - the challenges of the adaptation to the dynamic reality

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    Ludmilla Shkurti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There were 78,400 enterprises active in Albania in 2011, employing 180,800 people, of which 47% worked in 1,684 enterprises employing more than 20 people. These last enterprises represented 61 percent of the total turnover, and 75 percent of the total investments. These enterprises are predominantly in the industrial and construction sectors. Enterprises with 1-4 employees represent 91 percent of the total enterprises, and represent 14 percent of total turnover. Small enterprises are dominant in the service sector. Business in Albania is currently operating in a global environment, which has a great impact on the theory or practice of organizations, and also on the working behaviour of employees. This already complex environment, which is becoming increasingly dynamic, and growing competition, are also changing the way in which work is organized, as well as the solutions. Great opportunities are arising from a better understanding of Albanian contemporary organizations and the work environment. To take advantage of these opportunities, the trends regarding the relationship between organizational design and design work should be studied and identified. The aim is to identify the potential patterns and the current trends and tendencies in Albanian organization design, providing useful knowledge in the field of Albanian business practices, and future challenges for research in this direction.

  12. Subgeneric division of the genus Orcula Held 1837 with remarks on Romanian orculid data (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orculidae

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    Barna Pall-Gergely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The genital anatomy of Orcula jetschini (Romania, O. zilchi (Bulgaria and O. wagneri (Albania is described. Based on anatomical features (morphology of the penial caecum, shell characters (sculpture and shape and unpublished molecular data, the genus Orcula is subdivided into three subgenera. O. zilchi was classified within the monotypic subgenus Orcula (Hausdorfia subgen. n.; O. jetschini, O. wagneri and O. schmidtii were classified to Orcula (Illyriobanatica subgen. n. (type species: Pupa Schmidtii, whereas the other Orcula species remain in the nominotypical subgenus. Orcula (Hausdorfia is known from South-Eastern Bulgaria and North-Western Turkey, Orcula (Illyriobanatica inhabits Western Romania, North-Western Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo and Montenegro. The nine species of Orcula (Orcula are known mainly from the Alps and the Western Carpathians (from Eastern France to Eastern Hungary and Slovakia.The occurrence of only one Orcula species, namely O. jetschini is verified from Romania. Available information suggests that data on the Romanian occurrence of Orcula dolium and O. gularis were based on wrongly identified specimens. Sphyradium dobrogicum (=Orcula dobrogica is considered as a synonym of S. doliolum.

  13. INVESTMENTS AND INVESTMENT INCENTIVES IN THE BALKAN STATES

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    MEHMET YÜCE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Balkan region, located in the south eastern part of the European Continent, is composed Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia, Greece with a portion of the Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey. Southeast Europe are composed of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia and Albania which known as the Western Balkans countries. That international investments are assessed on a regional and global scale in the Balkans, these investments gained importance after the 1990s with political, social and geographical variation. In the 2000s, after legal and administrative framework oriented reforms of investments which are continuations of global integration efforts, development of the investment opportunities in Balkans have been considered positively. While the investment incentive structures and rates differ on the basis of the countries, they are of capital importance for investors. After the 2008 global economic crisis which has happened because of the economic shrinkage on global scale, despite the worries for political and economic unsteadiness in specific countries, development of investments in Balkans has not been affected in a negative way. In this study development of investment in Balkans is analysed with negative and positive factors, investment opportunities and incentives are examined on the basis of countries. The Balkans gain acceleration positively thanks to the reforms of investment opportunities on the national scope. As to the need of investment development oriented local and international coordinated programme and approach is an important issue that should be analysed.

  14. AUDIT COMMITTEE’S ROLE IN ENHANCING ACCOUNTABILITY OF THE ALBANIAN, PUBLIC SECTOR

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    Holtjana Bello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main question around which this paper is based is whether the public sector in Albania needs to establish the Audit Committees as a demand for enhanced quality of services and accountability over the use of public funds is increasing. This paper analyzes the role of public sector Audit Committees in common law practices established to advise management on the adequacy of structures and processes that ensure the integrity of the accounting, auditing, risk management internal controls, and financial reporting. This paper founds out that Audit Committees are not best practices established in every country considering the fact that this practice is appropriate to the private sector corporate governance. However, it reveals that lack of such committees put into question the achievement of good governance objectives. Therefore, this document recommends the establishment of the Audit Committees across the public sector as a practice strongly recommended in the central government bodies within United Kingdom. Such Committees will advise the head of public organizations on risk exposure, corporate governance and control issues, and will enhance and improve the professionalism of internal auditors who still in Albania are adopting and relying on a traditional financial internal audit approach.

  15. Naim Frashëri - Founder and professor of Albanian literature for children

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    Rudina Alimerko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Between the obligation of carrying out their mission to ensure the quality development of higher education and the right to function as important centers where knowledge is taken, developed and transmitted, this paper will examine the technological developments of university libraries as an important part of higher education. Digital and electronic experiences applied in Albanian universities libraries will be brought to the attention of the public. This paper is based on the questionnaire survey conducted at public university libraries in Albania. Opinions of librarians regarding ICT application were elicited using a structured questionnaire, followed up with interviews. In the case of non-response by libraries is consulted their official web sites to have a more complete information. In addition, secondary sources were consulted as domestic and foreign literature in this field. Results show that: 1 the level of application information technology in public university libraries in Albania is acceptable. The most important and serious problem is the lack of the unique University Library ICT Policy; 2 serious handicap is the lack of educated librarians in using information technology; 3 the proportion of university library activity goes more digital, so the digital collection becomes reality in the public university libraries. This paper brings conclusions that contribute to: a national information communication technology policy for university libraries and b the creation of an integrated system for management and transmission of knowledge at the national level for all Albanian university libraries.

  16. Effects of two physical education programmes on health- and skill-related physical fitness of Albanian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarani, J; Grøntved, Anders; Muca, F

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two school-based physical education (PE) programmes (exercise-based and games-based) compared with traditional PE, on health- and skill-related physical fitness components in children in Tirana, Albania. Participants were 378 first-grade (6.8 years......- and skill-related physical fitness in Albanian elementary school children. In addition, the study shows that exercise-based PE was more effective than games-based PE in improving gross motor function and cardiorespiratory fitness.......This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two school-based physical education (PE) programmes (exercise-based and games-based) compared with traditional PE, on health- and skill-related physical fitness components in children in Tirana, Albania. Participants were 378 first-grade (6.8 years......) and 389 fourth-grade (9.8 years) children attending four randomly selected schools in Tirana. Twenty-four school classes within these schools were randomly selected (stratified by school and school grade) to participate as exercise group (EG), games group (GG) and control group (CG). Both EG and GG...

  17. An Application of EVT, GPD and POT Methods in the Albanian Insurance Market

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    Enkeleda Shehi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite its relatively fast development, the insurance sector in Albania suffers from laco of experience, and lack of a database with historical records to make risk assessments feasible and to enable risk calculation. Consequently the newly established companies that operate in the insurance market in Albania cope with difficulties to make accurate calculations of reinsurance premium, i.e. the premium paid by a ceding company to an reinsurer in exchange of the liability assumed by the reinsurer. Given the situation, this research paper aims to provide an alternative way to make pure premium estimations. We have taken in consideration a dataset of fire insurance and other perils' claims, which have taken place in the Albanian insurance market during 2007 t 2014 period. Prices have been inflated to take into account the inflation of the period. There are n=401 fire insurance and other peril losses, the largest of them is Euro 1.203.798, the average is 20.156 Euro and the standard deviation is s= 83.037 Euro. The skewness coefficient of 9,94, indicates that the right tail is heavy, with considerable scope for llarge losses.

  18. The Relationship between EU Legal Order and Albanian Legal Order

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    Merisë Rukaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the interaction of Community law with the national law and in particular the ratio between Community - Albanian law. Main purpose of this paper is to clarify the position of the international legal order and in particular that of the Community in the Albanian legal regulated by constitutional provisions. During the analysis of the interaction between the Community and the Albanian law a question arises in case of a conflictual confrontation between the two legal systems, which one will be applied? Such situation always occurs in the cases when a provision of EU law transfers the rights and imposes direct obligations to the citizens of the EU while the content of this provision collides with the rule of national law. To resolve such a situation, the Republic of Albania has held a definite stance: bigotry retains superiority of international versus national law, positioning it in the hierarchy of sources of law immediately after the Constitution of the Republic of Albania. It is clear that the Albanian constitution legislators have been aware of their European perspective and for this fact the EU law and its legal order can survive only if compliance and protection is guaranteed by two cornerstones: direct applicability of Community law and the advantage of Community law over national law. They are two fundamental principles of European law which guarantee the implementation of the uniform and priority of the right of the EU in all Member States.

  19. Insurance Contract, Just Compensation as Result of Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Mustafaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between the obligation of carrying out their mission to ensure the quality development of higher education and the right to function as important centers where knowledge is taken, developed and transmitted, this paper will examine the technological developments of university libraries as an important part of higher education. Digital and electronic experiences applied in Albanian universities libraries will be brought to the attention of the public. This paper is based on the questionnaire survey conducted at public university libraries in Albania. Opinions of librarians regarding ICT application were elicited using a structured questionnaire, followed up with interviews. In the case of non-response by libraries is consulted their official web sites to have a more complete information. In addition, secondary sources were consulted as domestic and foreign literature in this field. Results show that: 1 the level of application information technology in public university libraries in Albania is acceptable. The most important and serious problem is the lack of the unique University Library ICT Policy; 2 serious handicap is the lack of educated librarians in using information technology; 3 the proportion of university library activity goes more digital, so the digital collection becomes reality in the public university libraries. This paper brings conclusions that contribute to: a national information communication technology policy for university libraries and b the creation of an integrated system for management and transmission of knowledge at the national level for all Albanian university libraries.

  20. Modelling origin and transport fate of waste materials on the south-eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia

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    M. Tudor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern parts of the Adriatic Sea coastline were severely polluted by large amounts of accumulated waste material in the second half of November 2010. The waste, reported by major news agencies, accumulated dominantly during 21 November 2010 by favourable wind – ocean current transport system. In the study we analysed meteorological and oceanographic conditions that lead to the waste deposition using available in situ measurements, remote sensing data as well numerical models of the ocean and the atmosphere. The measured data reveal that an intensive rainfall event from 7 till 10 November 2010, over the parts of Montenegro and Albania, was followed by a substantial increase of the river water levels indicating flash floods that possibly splashed the waste material into a river and after to the Adriatic Sea. In order to test our hypothesis we set a number of numerical drifter experiments with trajectories initiated off the coast of Albania during the intensive rainfall events following their faith in space and time. One of the numerical drifter trajectory experiment resulted with drifters reached right position (south-eastern Adriatic coast and time (exactly by the time the waste was observed when initiated on 00:00 and 12:00 UTC of 10 November 2010 during the mentioned flash flood event.

  1. Acculturation and adaptation of immigrant adolescents in Greek urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Obradović, Jelena; Masten, Ann S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acculturation, psychological well-being, and school adjustment of Pontian adolescents from the former Soviet Union (FSU-Pontians), who are immigrants of the diaspora living in Greece, compared with an immigrant group from Albania and native Greek classmates. The sample included 165 FSU-Pontian immigrants, 272 immigrants from Albania, and their 525 Greek classmates (mean age = 13.7 years). School adjustment data were obtained using multiple methods and informants. Students also reported their subjective well-being and acculturation via multiple measures. Findings indicated that FSU-Pontian adolescents, although they are Greek citizens, had a stronger ethnic and a lower host-national orientation than did Albanian students. Both immigrant groups experienced similar difficulties in school adjustment. Involvement in Greek culture was a salient predictor of school adjustment, while involvement in one's ethnic culture was related to subjective well-being. Findings suggest that the acculturation expectations of host country members may be related to immigrants' acculturation orientations.

  2. Albanian Industry Problems and Perspectives, in Front of the Crisis and International Labor Allocation

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    Ermonela Ruspi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently the Albanian economy has continuously recorded a significant reduction of the GDP growth rate, from 7.5 % in 2008 to 1.3% in 2013. This decline is followed by the deficit and public debt increase, where the latter reached in 70.4% in March 2014,compared to 59.9% in 2009. The interesting fact to note is that, although the 2008 financial crisis first was initiated in USA, it has influenced the economic development of all the countries. While our country that was indirectly affected by the crisis hasexperienced a substantial decline of remittances, significant reduction of FDI, and shrunken labor market dynamics even in those activities that generated employment at a large extent although under the legal and vital minimum wage such as fasson or callcenter services, which has directly affected unemployment growth and domestic consumption reduction.This paper aims to provide an analysis of the Albanian economy from two main aspects, both macroeconomic and microeconomic. In the first part it will be discussed recently Albania's economic performance and the main factors affecting its growth in the longterm. While in the second part it will be discussed Albanian productive structure, analyzing the changes of export structure of Albania, its production specialization, speaking about labor intensive sectors and their impact on the domestic economy.Keywords: foreign trade, economic development, commercial specialization.

  3. Lifecourse adversity and physical performance across countries among men and women aged 65-74.

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    Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque Sousa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. METHODS: We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada, Natal (Brazil, Manizales (Colombia and Tirana (Albania. The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB. Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. RESULTS: A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life.

  4. A review on anthropogenic impact to the Micro Prespa lake and its damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasheri, N.; Pano, N.; Frasheri, A.; Beqiraj, G.; Bushati, S.; Taska, E.

    2012-04-01

    karstic connection ways has diminished not only the components of the lake water balance, but also the decreasing yield of the underground springs, that supply the Ohrid lake and drinkable water springs. The Albanian part of the Micro Prespa Lake plays the role of a gigantic decanter. This is an unprecedented case, not only in Albanian but also in Balkan and World hydrography. Devolli river alluvium deposited in Micro Prespa Lake caused the otherwise of territory of Republic of Albania in this area. Albania will not have any part in this lake after some years. The social and public opinion in Albania, must be conscious for the otherwise of Albanian territory, which in the case of Micro Prespa Lake has a national and international negative effect on destructions of a transborder lake, defendey by Europian Convents.

  5. Parental Involvement in Education, Challenges and Recommendations for the Future

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    Mexhit Hajdari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this study is to make a general assessment of parental involvement in education and to give ideas of the way of their involvement to the benefit of a better quality of education for children in Albania. Despite the role of parents in education is considered important in official documents and in the daily propaganda, in reality, the parental movement and parental involvement in education is at low levels and does not provide the necessary influence to a better education of children. Projects and programs implemented by foreign organizations have brought positive experiences in the new conceptions and commitment of activities through the application of contemporary methods and approaches in the field of parenting movement. Nevertheless, these experiences are not sent further ahead and now they have remained just as memories of the past. Based on the principle that the fulfillment of the mission of education can not be done only by school teachers, but it needs the engagement of other factors, among them, parents have an irreplaceable role, the study can assess what is already achieved and can propose ways of strengthening the involvement of parents in education in the Albanian territory. The study was conducted based on the review and analysis of official documentations of the administration and that of foreign organizations. Questionnaires and interviews were developed and later analysed. As a source of the data collection and analysis were round tables/meetings with stakeholders of education. The study points out that the involvement of parents in education is at lower levels than the pace and goals of education reform in Albania. This situation is due to the insufficient awareness of parents about their role and involvement in education, lack of knowledge and skills of parents to fulfill this role and demotivating policies by authorities at central and school levels to realize the openess to parents. This is also demonstrated

  6. Migrations of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo 1938-1950

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    Bjelajac Mile

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kosovo crisis and the dissolution of the SFR of Yugoslavia provoked the scholarly community to respond in many and varied ways. This paper seeks to show how difficult it was for many to 'navigate' between the 'rocks' of hard fact and pure propaganda, and in what ways that open-ended situation echoes in the present. A more important goal, however, is to put forward the results of my research regarding the reliability of the Yugoslav census data of 1931 which may shed clarifying light on the vastly discrepant demographic figures that are currently in use. The 1931 census data for non-Slav minorities were highly classified and intended only for internal government use in response to the needs of external defense or internal order. Migrations of the ethnic Albanians and other ethnic groups in the Kosovo region during the first half of the twentieth century led to significant shifts in ethnic proportions. It is almost impossible to form a clear fact-based picture of what had happened during the First World War and why the Orthodox Christian Serbian population dropped to 21.1% in 1921, almost twice as low as their number in 1911. On the other hand, it is debatable how many ethnic Albanians or Turks permanently emigrated or went in exile in 1918-21. According to various Yugoslav data sources, some 65,000 settlers and state officials came to Kosovo, while some 24,000 Muslims from all parts of Yugoslavia emigrated to Turkey or Albania. The Second World War brought about another significant population shift. Some 10,000 Serbs were killed in 1941, while almost all Christian Orthodox settler families (about 60,000 people were expelled. The expulsion was followed by an inflow of Albanians from Albania proper. Only two thirds of the expelled were permitted to return after 1945. The provisional Yugoslav census of 1948 registered a significant increase for Albanians and a decrease for Serbs and Montenegrins or, expressed in percentage terms, Serbs dropped

  7. A contemporary decennial global Landsat sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emma; Roy, David

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change, with dramatic cropland expansion in the last century and significant increases in productivity over the past few decades. Satellite data have been used for agricultural applications including cropland distribution mapping, crop condition monitoring, crop production assessment and yield prediction. Satellite based agricultural applications are less reliable when the sensor spatial resolution is small relative to the field size. However, to date, studies of agricultural field size distributions and their change have been limited, even though this information is needed to inform the design of agricultural satellite monitoring systems. Moreover, the size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLU change. In many parts of the world field sizes may have increased. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, and impacts on the diffusion of herbicides, pesticides, disease pathogens, and pests. The Landsat series of satellites provide the longest record of global land observations, with 30m observations available since 1982. Landsat data are used to examine contemporary field size changes in a period (1980 to 2010) when significant global agricultural changes have occurred. A multi-scale sampling approach is used to locate global hotspots of field size change by examination of a recent global agricultural yield map and literature review. Nine hotspots are selected where significant field size change is apparent and where change has been driven by technological advancements (Argentina and U.S.), abrupt societal changes (Albania and Zimbabwe), government land use and agricultural policy changes (China, Malaysia, Brazil), and/or constrained by

  8. Electoral Offenses in The Common Law System

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    Vladimir Mulaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electoral behavior is a new element in the political analysis of democracy in Albania. Distinctive features of the Albanian transition distinguish other models of the former communist countries, as well as significantly differ with Western models and electoral behavior analysis of the relations between political actors and citizens voting. Penal Code of the Republic of Albania remains the basis of criminal law to sanction criminal acts in the election. The object of criminal misconduct are directly related to the normal criminal and legal protection and free elections as well as the Albanian Constitution provides all these obstacles to electoral subjects committed by force or by any other means which directly affect the normal performance electoral system. Barriers can be done with physical or psychological, and consists in blocking commissioners election materials, election materials decay affecting decay electoral system unfairly supported a particular political party or a coalition of political parties that present list candidacy according to the rules defined in the electoral code. Albanian Constitution as the fundamental law of the Albanian state provides for the rightness of the equality of the vote for all Albanian citizens The vote is the democratic way that every citizen expressing the opinion and its political will but to have democratic value ratings should be personal equal, free and secret. The right to vote is a political right provided by the Albanian Constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and as such is closely linked to democracy, the sovereignty of the people and citizens. Total vote, or the right to get to the polls all Albanian citizens, men and women, and in fact is the greatest achievement of the twentieth century. According to the Electoral Code of the Republic of Albania every citizen exercises his right to vote at his polling station, where placed under citizen’s location criteria. Voting centers

  9. 5th Regional Study on Cadastre and Spatial Data Infrastructure

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    Ivica Skender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 5th Regional Conference on Cadastre and Spatial Data Infrastructure (Banja Luka and Laktaši, Bosnia and Herzegovina, June 6–8, 2012, the Republic Authority for Geodetic and Property Affairs of the Republic of Srpska and the Federal Administration for Geodetic and Real Property Affairs published the 5th Regional Study on Cadastre and Spatial Data Infrastructure. The study was produced in the frame of the Project INSPIRATION – Spatial Data Infrastructure in the Western Balkans, which is being realized for the benefit and with cooperation of representatives of eight geodetic administrations in the region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Serbia by consortium led by German company GFA of Hamburg, in cooperation with GDi GISDATA of Zagreb, experts from the Austrian Environmental Agency and German company con terra GmbH and financed from the European Union IPA funding programme for 2010.

  10. An efficient methodology for the analysis of primary frequency control of electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D.P. [Nikola Tesla Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Mijailovic, S.V. [Electricity Coordinating Center, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2000-06-01

    The paper presents an efficient methodology for the analysis of primary frequency control of electric power systems. This methodology continuously monitors the electromechanical transient processes with durations that last up to 30 s, occurring after the characteristic disturbances. It covers the period of short-term dynamic processes, appearing immediately after the disturbance, in which the dynamics of the individual synchronous machines is dominant, as well as the period with the uniform movement of all generators and restoration of their voltages. The characteristics of the developed methodology were determined based on the example of real electric power interconnection formed by the electric power systems of Yugoslavia, a part of Republic of Srpska, Romania, Bulgaria, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Albania (the second UCPTE synchronous zone). (author)

  11. IPA CBC FUND - TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE BRCKO DISTRICT

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    Aleksandar Maksimovic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union in different ways and through the structural funds, helps countries to develop in the Western Balkans. Decision of the EU, the total amount that will be available in Turkey, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period since 2007. 2013. is 4 billion. One of the priority measures under the IPA Cros-border coopertion (CBC programme is the development of tourism. These measures should help and contribute to the development of tourism. How and in what way to access and become a user of these programs can help or helps? Cross-border projects involve regional cooperation and require financial resources in the preparation of the project. Trained staff is needed for this job. Local communities, along with their capacities should take on the preparation of these projects, and as partners include the tourist industry (workers and encourage and inspire other tourist capacities in their local community.

  12. How Albanian Private Universities can use Game Theory for Optimization of Scholarship Offers

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    Llambrini Sota

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There are 46 private universities in Albania. We believe that the tuition fee andscholarship for high GPA students are two important components of the competitionbetween private universities. This study is a first attempt in applying Game Theory foroptimization of scholarship offers by Albanian private universities during academic years.There is a conflict between the utility functions of shareholders to maximize their profitsand the utility functions of the students enrolled in private universities to minimize theirexpenses. The best solution of the conflict is a Nash equilibrium or Bayes-Nash-Harsanyiequilibrium, respectively. We prove the existence of these equilibria. However, there existmany equilibria, depending of private information. We interpret the Boyes-Nash-Harsanyiequilibrium solution as the set of possible rational concessions made by all players.

  13. L’Arma dei Carabinieri e le attività di prevenzione e repressione delle organizzazioni criminali /The « Arma dei Carabinieri » and the prevention and repression of organized crime / L’Arme des Carabiniers et les activités de prévention et de répression des organisations criminelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parente Mario

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organized crime now has an international face: it controls illegal international activities and all the huge profits made by drug trafficking, the illegal weapons business, money laundering and trafficking of human beings. There are new criminals in the international criminal scene: people from North Africa, Nigeria, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo, Russia and China.Italy is the destination of much illegal migratory flow, so the “Arma dei Carabinieri” is investigating criminal organisation thanks to new investigative resources.It remains a hard obstacle to overcome. Organized crime exploits different countries’ legal systems and exploits the police’s techniques of investigation.In order to fight international organized crime and the trafficking of human beings, it’s important to increase international co-operation and to promote legal agreements.

  14. Working conditions, work style, and job satisfaction among Albanian teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, Marion; Tarifa, Fatos

    1994-03-01

    For the first time in Albania, a large-scale study investigating teachers' working conditions was conducted. 349 teachers from many parts of the country and from all school levels answered an extensive questionnaire, providing a comprehensive description of their working situation. As data for parts of the study exist from the USA, Germany, Singapore, England, and Poland, results could be discussed in comparison to the conditions in these countries, showing that self-reported job satisfaction and engagement in effective classroom practices is relatively high among Albanian teachers, while the economic and physical conditions are bad. Stepwise regression analyses reveal that the items measuring professional autonomy account for a considerable part of the variance of the job satisfaction measure; while work efficiency is mainly predicted by items measuring social support and, again, professional autonomy.

  15. Greek Language teaching by means of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donika Koçi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of technology in the process of second language acquisition has always been a priority for teachers and students. This article reviews the current trends in using technology based on language instructions in Greek language teaching educational settings. Although it has been demonstrated that the use of technology as an instructional medium provides unique learning qualities, it has not been entirely embraced by Greek language teachers and professors in Albania. Furthermore, recent advancements of internet services provide remarkable possibilities for supporting a variety of learning activities in Greek language classrooms. Yet, classroom practice in using technology has not gone too far beyond simple viewing and listening to video content for eliciting discussion among Greek language students. This paper particularly highlights the role of technology in the process of improving student skills.

  16. Assessment of the olive territory thrung bio-morphological and geographical analysis

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    Hairi Ismaili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous germoplasm of the olive with 156 accessions, (O europaea L. ssp. Sativa Hoffm, ssp. O. Oleaster Hoffm, and ssp. Sylvestris, has been analyzed with biological valences of the species (catminate code and D-GIS (Bioclim / Domain, to identify diversity and suitability of the territory for olive cultivation. Cartography with spatial analysis detects areas of different height diversity levels. (a lot of estimators and variability. In the explored space, 20-37% of the territory resulted excellent for olive cultivation. In the analysis of spatial density, the area of Albania has two major hearths: the Ionian and Adriatic Hearth. In general, 21 genotypes resulted synonyms of 7 standard cv, whereas 21 genotypes resulted homonymous. PCA between correlation matrices of all variables, classified 16 unrelated variables explaining >95 % of total variance. PCoA indexes eigevectors positioned genotypes and their characters according to their degree of variability in negative or positive space. (Axes, x, y and z.

  17. Montenegrin-Albanian relations according to the views of Edith Durham

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    Afrim Sijarina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript analyzes Madam Durham, who visited every corner of Balkan for a quarter of century. In her works there has been a multidimensional picture of events such as international, regional, and local. She has written about the relationship of cooperation and friendship between Montenegro and Albania, including the way of life, habits, traditions and customs. The description of events starts from the congress of Berlin to the Balkan wars. Being a very intense period for relations between the two countries, the entire backstage has been analyzed. According to Mrs. Durham the conflict was not dispersed for national religious reasons. In most of the cases the reasons were based on property and wealth purposes.

  18. Evaluation of ecological quality of Albanian rocky shore waters using macroalgae as bioindicators

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    Sonila Gogo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological Evaluation Index (EEI is an important tool that uses phytobenthos as bio indicator for assessing quality of coastal and transitional rocky shore waters. This method is considered by The Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC to achieve the Ecological Status of water bodies by monitoring temporal changes in communities of benthic macroalgae. In this study destructive sampling was performed on macrophytobenthic populations of the upper infralittoral zone. The aim of the study was to estimate the ecological status, using EEI and to know the composition of these floristic communities in space and time. Samples were taken seasonally for two years from 8 rocky shore stations in Albania (three stations in Adriatic and five stations in Ionian Sea. 62 taxa were identified and the diversity indexes were calculated. All sites were characterized by anthropogenic disturbance of different degrees. A gradient of Ecological Statuses from "low" to "high" was noticed seasonally passing from North to South stations.

  19. Multi-Country Experience in Delivering a Joint Course on Software Engineering – Numerical Results

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    Zoran Budimac1, 1, 1, 2, 3, and 3

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A joint course, created as a result of a project under the auspices of the ‘Stability Pact of South-Eastern Europe’ and DAAD, has been conducted in several Balkan countries: in Novi Sad, Serbia, for the last six years in several different forms, in Skopje, FYR of Macedonia, for two years, for several types of students, and in Tirana, Albania, in the form of a crash, seven-day course, for the last two years. In this paper, we will put an emphasis on the assessment methods used within these courses, and compare them with the ‘original’ course that has been conducted at the Humboldt University in Berlin for almost a decade. Having a good environment for comparisons we draw some conclusions about teaching software engineering in different environments.

  20. L’azione di contrasto al fenomeno della tratta di esseri umani. Le linee del Dipartimento di Pubblica Sicurezza / Mésures répressives contre la traite des personnes. Le rôle du Département de la Sécurité Publique Italien / Measures against trafficking in human beings. The role of the Italian Department of Public Security

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    Grassi Raffaele

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the international criminal scene one of the most serious threats is illegal immigration and the trafficking in human beings. This is one of the most profitable organized crimes and one of the most hateful and vile crimes against people.In Italy, repressive and preventative measures have been adopted by politicians, especially after the increase of the trafficking of human beings towards Lampedusa and Pantelleria. For example, we can mention the introduction of Law 228/2003 named “Measures against the trafficking of human beings” and the possibility of introducing under cover policemen into criminal organizations.Gangs from Albania, Nigeria, China and East Europe have reduced non-European people to slavery and used women to earn money. It is important that all countries, the Interpol and the legal system work together in order to fight organized crime.