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Sample records for alaska river

  1. Geomorphology and river dynamics of the lower Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges.Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005–07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36–37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36–37 during average flow periods.The U.S. Geological Survey’s Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the

  2. Remediating and Monitoring White Phosphorus Contamination at Eagle River Flats (Operable Unit C), Fort Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, M. E; Racine, C. H; Collins, C. M; Walsh, M. R; Bailey, R. N

    2001-01-01

    .... Army Engineer District, Alaska, and U.S. Army Alaska, Public Works, describing the results of research, monitoring, and remediation efforts addressing the white phosphorus contamination in Eagle River Flats, an 865-ha estuarine salt marsh...

  3. Monitoring winter flow conditions on the Ivishak River, Alaska : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Sagavanirktok River, a braided river on the Alaska North Slope, flows adjacent to the trans-Alaska pipeline for approximately 100 miles south of Prudhoe Bay. During an unprecedented flooding event in mid-May 2015, the pipeline was exposed in an a...

  4. Glaciers along proposed routes extending the Copper River Highway, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Three inland highway routes are being considered by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to connect the community of Cordova in southcentral Alaska to a statewide road system. The routes use part of a Copper River and Northwest Railway alignment along the Copper River through mountainous terrain having numerous glaciers. An advance of any of several glaciers could block and destroy the roadway, whereas retreating glaciers expose large quantities of unconsolidated, unvegetated, and commonly ice-rich sediments. The purpose of this study was to map historical locations of glacier termini near these routes and to describe hazards associated with glaciers and seasonal snow. Historical and recent locations of glacier termini along the proposed Copper River Highway routes were determined by reviewing reports and maps and by interpreting aerial photographs. The termini of Childs, Grinnell, Tasnuna, and Woodworth Glaciers were 1 mile or less from a proposed route in the most recently available aerial photography (1978-91); the termini of Allen, Heney, and Schwan Glaciers were 1.5 miles or less from a proposed route. In general, since 1911, most glaciers have slowly retreated, but many glaciers have had occasional advances. Deserted Glacier and one of its tributary glaciers have surge-type medial moraines, indicating potential rapid advances. The terminus of Deserted Glacier was about 2.1 miles from a proposed route in 1978, but showed no evidence of surging. Snow and rock avalanches and snowdrifts are common along the proposed routes and will periodically obstruct the roadway. Floods from ice-dammed lakes also pose a threat. For example, Van Cleve Lake, adjacent to Miles Glacier, is as large as 4.4 square miles and empties about every 6 years. Floods from drainages of Van Cleve Lake have caused the Copper River to rise on the order of 20 feet at Million Dollar Bridge.

  5. Streamflow and streambed scour in 2010 at bridge 339, Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Copper River Highway traverses a dynamic and complex network of braided and readily erodible channels that constitute the Copper River Delta, Alaska, by way of 11 bridges. Over the past decade, several of these bridges and the highway have sustained serious damage from both high and low flows and channel instability. This investigation studying the impact of channel migration on the highway incorporates data from scour monitoring, lidar surveys, bathymetry, hydrology, and time-lapse photography.

  6. Timber resource statistics for the Copper River inventory unit, Alaska, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl M. Hegg

    1975-01-01

    This first intensive forest inventory of Alaska's Copper River Valley found a commercial forest area of 287,800 acres with 303.8 million cubic feet of growing stock. Additionally, a noncommercial stratum was examined that had substantial standing volume but did not meet the growth criteria for commercial forest land. This stratum contained 152,800 acres with a...

  7. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Meade River quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 515 water samples from the Meade River Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  8. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Charley River Quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 1322 water samples from the Charley River Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  9. A survey of sport fish use on the Copper River Delta, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk W. Lang

    2010-01-01

    Aerial counts, in-person interviews, and mail-in questionnaires were used to survey sport fish use during the coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) season on the Copper River Delta, Alaska from 2002 through 2006. Angler counts provided an index of use on individual streams and were used to develop a spatial database exhibiting patterns of use...

  10. Behavior and reproductive success of Rock Sandpipers breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta, Alaska

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Matthew; Conklin, J.R.; Johnson, Branden; McCaffery, Brian J.; Haig, Susan M.; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    We studied Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) breeding behavior and monitored reproductive success from 1998 to 2005 on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta, Alaska, USA. We banded 24 adults and monitored 45 nests. Annual return rate of adults ranged between 67 and 100%. Six pairs of Rock Sandpipers

  11. Fire behavior, weather, and burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin M. Jones; Crystal A. Kolden; Randi Jandt; John T. Abatzoglu; Frank Urban; Christopher D. Arp

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River Fire (ARF) became the largest recorded tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. The ARF burned for nearly three months, consuming more than 100,000 ha. At its peak in early September, the ARF burned at a rate of 7000 ha d-1. The conditions potentially responsible for this large tundra fire include modeled record high...

  12. Mapping Soil Carbon in the Yukon Kuskokwim River Delta Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, S.; Fiske, G.; Schade, J. D.; Mann, P. J.; Holmes, R. M.; Ludwig, S.; Melton, S.; Sae-lim, N.; Jardine, L. E.; Navarro-Perez, E.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic river deltas are hotspots for carbon storage, occupying 10% of carbon stored in arctic permafrost. The Yukon Kuskokwim (YK) Delta, Alaska is located in the lower latitudinal range of the northern permafrost region in an area of relatively warm permafrost that is particularly vulnerable to warming climate. Active layer depths range from 50 cm on peat plateaus to >100 cm in wetland and aquatic ecosystems. The size of the soil organic carbon pool and vulnerability of the carbon in the YK Delta is a major unknown and is critically important as climate warming and increasing fire frequency may make this carbon vulnerable to transport to aquatic and marine systems and the atmosphere. To characterize the size and distribution of soil carbon pools in the YK Delta, we mapped the land cover of a 1910 km2 watershed located in a region of the YK Delta that was impacted by fire in 2015. The map product was the result of an unsupervised classification using the Weka K Means clustering algorithm implemented in Google's Earth Engine. Inputs to the classification were Worldview2 resolution optical imagery (1m), Arctic DEM (5m), and Sentinel 2 level 1C multispectral imagery, including NDVI, (10 m). We collected 100 soil cores (0-30 cm) from sites of different land cover and landscape position, including moist and dry peat plateaus, high and low intensity burned plateaus, fens, and drained lakes; 13 lake sediment cores (0-50 cm); and 20 surface permafrost cores (to 100 cm) from burned and unburned peat plateaus. Active layer and permafrost soils were analyzed for organic matter content, soil moisture content, and carbon and nitrogen pools (30 and 100 cm). Soil carbon content varied across the landscape; average carbon content values for lake sediments were 12% (5- 17% range), fens 26% (9-44%), unburned peat plateaus 41% (34-44%), burned peat plateaus 19% (7-34%). These values will be used to estimate soil carbon pools, which will be applied to the spatial extent of each

  13. Genetics, recruitment, and migration patterns of Arctic Cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) in the Colville River, Alaska and Mackenzie River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Ramey, Andy M.; Turner, S.; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis have a complex anadromous life history, many aspects of which remain poorly understood. Some life history traits of Arctic cisco from the Colville River, Alaska, and Mackenzie River basin, Canada, were investigated using molecular genetics, harvest data, and otolith microchemistry. The Mackenzie hypothesis, which suggests that Arctic cisco found in Alaskan waters originate from the Mackenzie River system, was tested using 11 microsatellite loci and a single mitochondrial DNA gene. No genetic differentiation was found among sample collections from the Colville River and the Mackenzie River system using molecular markers (P > 0.19 in all comparisons). Model-based clustering methods also supported genetic admixture between sample collections from the Colville River and Mackenzie River basin. A reanalysis of recruitment patterns to Alaska, which included data from recent warm periods and suspected changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, still finds that recruitment is correlated to wind conditions. Otolith microchemistry (Sr/Ca ratios) confirmed repeated, annual movements of Arctic cisco between low-salinity habitats in winter and marine waters in summer.

  14. Development and Calibration of Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model of the Tanana River near Tok, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Moran, Edward H.

    2004-01-01

    Bathymetric and hydraulic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Tanana River in proximity to Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities' bridge number 505 at mile 80.5 of the Alaska Highway. Data were collected from August 7-9, 2002, over an approximate 5,000- foot reach of the river. These data were combined with topographic data provided by Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to generate a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated with water-surface elevations, flow velocities, and flow directions collected at a discharge of 25,600 cubic feet per second. The calibrated model was then used for a simulation of the 100-year recurrence interval discharge of 51,900 cubic feet per second. The existing bridge piers were removed from the model geometry in a second simulation to model the hydraulic conditions in the channel without the piers' influence. The water-surface elevations, flow velocities, and flow directions from these simulations can be used to evaluate the influence of the piers on flow hydraulics and will assist the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities in the design of a replacement bridge.

  15. Water Quality in the Tanana River Basin, Alaska, Water Years 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.

    2007-01-01

    OVERVIEW This report contains water-quality data collected from 84 sites in Tanana River basin during water years 2004 through 2006 (October 2003 through September 2006) as part of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) Alaska Monitoring and Assessment Program (AKMAP), supported in part through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Office of Water, Cooperative Assistance Agreement X7-97078801. A broad range of chemical analyses are presented for 93 sets of samples collected at 59 tributaries to the Tanana River and at 25 locations along the mainstem. These data are to provide a means to assess baseline characteristics and establish indicators that are ecologically important, affordable, and relevant to society.

  16. Defining interactions of in-stream hydrokinetic devices in the Tanana River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Toniolo, H.; Seitz, A. C.; Schmid, J.; Duvoy, P.

    2012-12-01

    The acceptance, performance, and sustainability of operating in-stream hydrokinetic power generating devices in rivers depends on the impact of the river environment on hydrokinetic infrastructure as well as its impact on the river environment. The Alaska Hydrokinetic Energy Research Center (AHERC) conducts hydrokinetic "impact" and technology studies needed to support a sustainable hydrokinetic industry in Alaska. These include completed and ongoing baseline studies of river hydrodynamic conditions (river stage, discharge, current velocity, power, and turbulence; suspended and bed load sediment transport), ice, fish populations and behavior, surface and subsurface debris flows, and riverbed conditions. Technology and methods studies to minimize the effect of debris flows on deployed turbine system are in-progress to determine their effectiveness at reducing the probability of debris impact, diverting debris and their affect on available river power for conversion to electricity. An anchor point has been placed in the main flow just upstream of Main (Figure 1) to support projects and in preparation for future projects that are being planned to examine hydrokinetic turbine performance including power conversion efficiency, turbine drag and anchor chain loads, wake generation and effects on fish. Baseline fish studies indicate that hydrokinetic devices at the test site will have the most potential interactions with Pacific salmon smolts during their down-migration to the ocean in May and June. At the AHERC test site, the maximum turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) occurs just down stream from the major river bends (e.g., 000 and near the railroad bridge [upper center of the figure]) and over a deep hole at 440 (Figure 1), Minimum TKE occurs between main and 800. River current velocity measurements and simulations of river flow from 000 downstream past the railroad bridge indicate that the most stable current in the river reach is between Main and 800. The stable current

  17. Hydraulic survey and scour assessment of Bridge 524, Tanana River at Big Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Thomas A.; Langley, Dustin E.; Burrows, Robert L.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    Bathymetric and hydraulic data were collected August 26–28, 1996, on the Tanana River at Big Delta, Alaska, at the Richardson Highway bridge and Trans-Alaska Pipeline crossing. Erosion along the right (north) bank of the river between the bridge and the pipeline crossing prompted the data collection. A water-surface profile hydraulic model for the 100- and 500-year recurrence-interval floods was developed using surveyed information. The Delta River enters the Tanana immediately downstream of the highway bridge, causing backwater that extends upstream of the bridge. Four scenarios were considered to simulate the influence of the backwater on flow through the bridge. Contraction and pier scour were computed from model results. Computed values of pier scour were large, but the scour during a flood may actually be less because of mitigating factors. No bank erosion was observed at the time of the survey, a low-flow period. Erosion is likely to occur during intermediate or high flows, but the actual erosion processes are unknown at this time.

  18. Interactions between brown bears and chum salmon at McNeil River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Joshua M.; Otis, Edward O.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Follmann, Erich H.

    2013-01-01

    Predation on returning runs of adult salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can have a large influence on their spawning success. At McNeil River State Game Sanctuary (MRSGS), Alaska, brown bears (Ursus arctos) congregate in high numbers annually along the lower McNeil River to prey upon returning adult chum salmon (O. keta). Low chum salmon escapements into McNeil River since the late 1990s have been proposed as a potential factor contributing to concurrent declines in bear numbers. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of bear predation on chum salmon in McNeil River, especially on pre-spawning fish, and use those data to adjust the escapement goal for the river. In 2005 and 2006, 105 chum salmon were radiotagged at the river mouth and tracked to determine cause and location of death. Below the falls, predators consumed 99% of tagged fish, killing 59% of them before they spawned. Subsequently, the escapement goal was nearly doubled to account for this pre-spawning mortality and to ensure enough salmon to sustain both predators and prey. This approach to integrated fish and wildlife management at MRSGS can serve as a model for other systems where current salmon escapement goals may not account for pre-spawning mortality.

  19. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Meade River Quadrangle, Alaska. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The results obtained from an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over the Meade River map area of Alaska are presented. Based on the criteria outlined in the general section on interpretation, a total of eight uranium anomalies have been outlined on the interpretation map. Most of these are only weakly to moderately anomalous. Zones 3 and 7 are relatively better than the others though none of the anomalies are thought to be of any economic significance. No follow-up work is recommended

  20. Indigenous observations of climate change in the Lower Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Schuster, Paul F.; Maracle, Karonhiakt'tie

    2011-01-01

    Natural science climate change studies have led to an overwhelming amount of evidence that the Arctic and Subarctic are among the world's first locations to begin experiencing climate change. Indigenous knowledge of northern regions is a valuable resource to assess the effects of climate change on the people and the landscape. Most studies, however, have focused on coastal Arctic and Subarctic communities with relatively little focus on inland communities. This paper relates the findings from fieldwork conducted in the Lower Yukon River Basin of Alaska in the spring of 2009. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with hunters and elders in the villages of St. Mary's and Pitka's Point, Alaska to document observations of climate change. This study assumes that scientific findings and indigenous knowledge are complementary and seeks to overcome the false dichotomy that these two ways of knowing are in opposition. The observed changes in the climate communicated by the hunters and elders of St. Mary's and Pitka's Point, Alaska are impacting the community in ways ranging from subsistence (shifting flora and fauna patterns), concerns about safety (unpredictable weather patterns and dangerous ice conditions), and a changing resource base (increased reliance on fossil fuels). Here we attempt to address the challenges of integrating these two ways of knowing while relating indigenous observations as described by elders and hunters of the study area to those described by scientific literature.

  1. Initial Quantification of Suspended Sediment Loads for Three Alaska North Slope Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Lamb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an initial assessment of suspended sediment transport in three rivers on the Alaska North Slope. From 2011 to 2013, the Anaktuvuk (69°27′51.00′′ N, 151°10′07.00′′ W, Chandler (69°17′0.30′′ N, 151°24′16.14′′ W, and Itkillik (68°51′59.46′′ N, 150°2′24.00′′ W Rivers were monitored for a variety of hydrologic, meteorologic, and sedimentologic characteristics. Watershed response to summer precipitation events was examined for each river. Bed sediment grain-size distribution was calculated using a photographic grid technique. Mean sediment diameters were 27.1 and 41.5 mm (Samples A and B for the Chandler, 35.8 mm for the Anaktuvuk, and 65.0 mm for the Itkillik. Suspended sediment rating curves were developed for each river. Suspended sediment discharge was analyzed. In 2011 and 2013, most of the total annual suspended sediment transport occurred during spring melt and widespread rainfall events, respectively. The results show that each river reacts differently to environmental inputs such as rain and basin characteristics.

  2. Radiotelemetry to estimate stream life of adult chum salmon in the McNeil River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Joshua M.; Otis, Edward O.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Follmann, Erich H.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating salmon escapement is one of the fundamental steps in managing salmon populations. The area-under-the-curve (AUC) method is commonly used to convert periodic aerial survey counts into annual salmon escapement indices. The AUC requires obtaining accurate estimates of stream life (SL) for target species. Traditional methods for estimating SL (e.g., mark–recapture) are not feasible for many populations. Our objective in this study was to determine the average SL of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta in the McNeil River, Alaska, through radiotelemetry. During the 2005 and 2006 runs, 155 chum salmon were fitted with mortality-indicating radio tags as they entered the McNeil River and tracked until they died. A combination of remote data loggers, aerial surveys, and foot surveys were used to determine the location of fish and provide an estimate of time of death. Higher predation resulted in tagged fish below McNeil Falls having a significantly shorter SL (12.6 d) than those above (21.9 d). The streamwide average SL (13.8 d) for chum salmon at the McNeil River was lower than the regionwide value (17.5 d) previously used to generate AUC indices of chum salmon escapement for the McNeil River. We conclude that radiotelemetry is an effective tool for estimating SL in rivers not well suited to other methods.

  3. Investigation of Alaska's uranium potential. Part 1. Reconnaissance program, West-Central Alaska and Copper River basin. Part 2. Uranium and thorium in granitic and alkaline rocks in Western Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, G.R.; Jones, B.K.; Forbes, R.B.

    1977-02-01

    A 6-week reconnaissance program was conducted in west-central Alaska and in the Copper River basin--Chitina River valley area to aid in determining the uranium potential of the state. Division personnel also submitted samples from the Healy, Eagle, and Charley River quadrangles. Collected were 916 stream-sediment samples and 427 bedrock samples for uranium, thorium, and potassium oxide determinations, and 565 water samples for uranium analyses. A statistical analysis of the determinations was made using a computer at the University of Alaska. Thresholds, anomalies, and U:Th ratios were calculated for eight separate regions. Anomalous values of the U, Th, and K 2 O, and radiometric measurements are discussed. A combination of all uranium exploration techniques is needed to locate potential uranium deposits in Alaska. Correlations between aerial and ground radiometric surveys and geochemical surveys were often lacking, indicating that each method may or may not be effective, depending on local conditions. One hundred and eight rock samples were selected from traverses across five plutons in western Alaska and analyzed for uranium, thorium, and potassium. The highest uranium concentrations detected were 86 and 92 ppM from a mineralized dike intrusion zone in the Selawik Lake Complex. Analysis of individual plutons yields strong correlations between mineralogy and radioactivity. The mineralogical variable that correlates with uranium or thorium varies from one pluton to the next. Based on these correlations, mineralogical guidelines are offered for the selection of uranium enriched variants in four of the five plutons

  4. Hydrology and modeling of flow conditions at Bridge 339 and Mile 38-43, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The Copper River basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles in south-central Alaska. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. The Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, has been affected by channel planform reconfiguration. Currently (2012), two areas of the Copper River Highway are at risk: at Mile 38-43, the road grade is too low and the highway could be flooded by high flows of the Copper River, and at Mile 36, the main channel of the Copper River has migrated directly toward Bridge 339. Because Bridge 339 was not designed and built to convey the main flow of the Copper River, as much as 50 feet of scour occurred at the piers in 2011. The piers can no longer absorb the lateral or vertical loads, resulting in closure of the bridge and the Copper River Highway. The U.S. Geological Survey Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphologic Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) model was used to simulate the flow of the Copper River and produce simulations of depth, water-surface elevation, and velocity. At the Mile 38-43 area, FaSTMECH was used to analyze the effects of raising the road grade 5 feet, and at Mile 36, FaSTMECH was used to analyze the effects of constructing a channel to divert flow away from Bridge 339. Results from FaSTMECH indicate that if raising the road grade 5 feet in the Mile 38-43 area, a flood with an annual exceedance probability of 2 percent (400,000 cubic feet per second) would not overtop the highway. In the Bridge 339 area, results from FaSTMECH indicate that a design channel could divert flows as much as 100,000 cubic feet per second away from Bridge 339.

  5. Remote identification of maternal polar bear (Ursus maritimus) denning habitat on the Colville River Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Justin J.

    High resolution digital aerial photographs (1 foot pixel size) of the Colville River Delta, Alaska were examined in 3D, with the use of a digital photogrammetric workstation. Topographic features meeting the criteria required for adequate snow accumulation, and subsequent construction of terrestrial polar bear maternal dens, were identified and digitized into an ArcGIS line shapefile. Effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy were improved when compared to previous polar bear denning habitat efforts which utilized contact photo prints and a pocket stereoscope in other geographic areas of northern Alaska. Accuracy of photograph interpretation was systematically evaluated visually from the air with the use of a helicopter and physically on the ground. Results show that the mapping efforts were successful in identifying den habitat 91.3% of the time. Knowledge denning habitat can improve and inform decision making by managers and regulators when considering travel and development in the study area. An understanding of polar bear denning habitat extent and location will be a crucial tool for planning activities within the study area in a way that minimizes conflicts with maternal dens.

  6. Electronic tags and genetics explore variation in migrating steelhead kelts (oncorhynchus mykiss), Ninilchik river, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Turner, S.M.; Zimmerman, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic and archival tags examined freshwater and marine migrations of postspawn steelhead kelts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Ninilchik River, Alaska, USA. Postspawn steelhead were captured at a weir in 2002-2005. Scale analysis indicated multiple migratory life histories and spawning behaviors. Acoustic tags were implanted in 99 kelts (2002-2003), and an array of acoustic receivers calculated the average speed of outmigration, timing of saltwater entry, and duration of residency in the vicinity of the river mouth. Ocean migration data were recovered from two archival tags implanted in kelts in 2004 (one male and one female). Archival tags documented seasonal differences in maximum depth and behavior with both fish spending 97% of time at sea <6 m depth (day and night). All study fish were double tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted in the body cavity. Less than 4% of PIT tags were retained in postspawn steelhead. Molecular genetics demonstrated no significant differences in genetic population structure across years or among spawning life history types, suggesting a genetically panmictic population with highly diverse life history characteristics in the Ninilchik River.

  7. Braid-plain dynamics and bank erosion along the Matanuska River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    Braid-plain activity and geomorphic features in the Matanuska River in southcentral Alaska between 1949 and 2006 were examined to support a bank erosion hazard assessment. The glacial Matanuska River drains 6,500 km2 and is braided for 85 percent of its 150 km course, which parallels a major highway and flows through the towns of Sutton and Palmer, Alaska. The historical braid plain was defined as the envelope of areas with active channels, unvegetated bars, or vegetated bars with evidence of channels since 1949 and delineated in a GIS from 1949, 1962, and 2006 aerial orthoimagery. We created a strip map of bank height and composition (primarily bedrock and unconsolidated sediment) at braid-plain margins and outlined valley bottom features (terraces and tributary fans) adjacent to the braid plain to assess erodibility. Braid-plain dynamism has created a mosaic of extensive lightly vegetated bars interspersed with forested bars in strips along the banks and in small mid-channel positions. Abandoned channels filled with groundwater or tributary streamflow have created clearwater side channels within these bars that serve as the primary spawning location for chum, sockeye, and coho salmon in the Matanuska River basin. Erosion magnitudes for the periods 1949-1962 and 1962-2006 were computed as braid-plain expansion at transects across the historical braid-plain boundaries. Episodic, spatially distributed erosion and the antiquity of some eroded surfaces suggests that average annual erosion rates at a location are not adequate for assessing future erosion at that location in a braid plain. Lateral expansion caused bank erosion of 100 -275 m at 20 locations over the full period, about half at tributary fans and most occurring in a single time period. Minor growth of tributary fans constricted the braid plain, and emerging terraces have the potential to shrink the braid plain. Eroded banks included undated but pre-historic fluvial terraces and tributary fans. Where

  8. Effect of ice formation and streamflow on salmon incubation habitat in the lower Bradley River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    A minimum flow of 40 cubic feet per second is required in the lower Bradley River, near Homer, Alaska, from November 2 to April 30 to ensure adequate salmon egg incubation habitat. The study that determined this minimum flow did not account for the effects of ice formation on habitat. An investigation was made during periods of ice formation. Hydraulic properties and field water-quality data were measured in winter only from March 1993 to April 1995 at six transects in the lower Bradley River. Discharge in the lower Bradley River ranged from 42.6 to 73.0 cubic feet per second (average 57 cubic feet per second) with ice conditions ranging from near ice free to 100 percent ice cover. Stream water velocity and depth were adequate for habitat protection for all ice conditions and discharges. No relation was found between percent ice cover and mean velocity and depth for any given discharge and no trends were found with changes in discharge for a given ice condition. Velocity distribution within each transect varied significantly from one sampling period to the next. Mean depth and velocity at flows of 40 cubic feet per second or less could not be predicted. No consistent relation was found between the amount of wetted perimeter and percent ice cover. Intragravel-water temperature was slightly warmer than surface-water temperature. Surface and intragravel-water dissolved-oxygen levels were adequate for all flows and ice conditions. No apparent relation was found between dissolved-oxygen levels and streamflow or ice conditions. Excellent oxygen exchange was indicated throughout the study reach. Stranding potential of salmon fry was found to be low throughout the study reach. The limiting factors for determining the minimal acceptable flow limit appear to be stream-water velocity and depth, although specific limits could not be estimated because of the high flows that occurred during this study.

  9. Geomorphic Controls on Floodplain Soil Organic Carbon in the Yukon Flats, Interior Alaska, From Reach to River Basin Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, K. B.; Wohl, E.; Rose, J. R.

    2018-03-01

    Floodplains accumulate and store organic carbon (OC) and release OC to rivers, but studies of floodplain soil OC come from small rivers or small spatial extents on larger rivers in temperate latitudes. Warming climate is causing substantial change in geomorphic process and OC fluxes in high latitude rivers. We investigate geomorphic controls on floodplain soil OC concentrations in active-layer mineral sediment in the Yukon Flats, interior Alaska. We characterize OC along the Yukon River and four tributaries in relation to geomorphic controls at the river basin, segment, and reach scales. Average OC concentration within floodplain soil is 2.8% (median = 2.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that OC varies among river basins, among planform types along a river depending on the geomorphic unit, and among geomorphic units. OC decreases with sample depth, suggesting that most OC accumulates via autochthonous inputs from floodplain vegetation. Floodplain and river characteristics, such as grain size, soil moisture, planform, migration rate, and riverine DOC concentrations, likely influence differences among rivers. Grain size, soil moisture, and age of surface likely influence differences among geomorphic units. Mean OC concentrations vary more among geomorphic units (wetlands = 5.1% versus bars = 2.0%) than among study rivers (Dall River = 3.8% versus Teedrinjik River = 2.3%), suggesting that reach-scale geomorphic processes more strongly control the spatial distribution of OC than basin-scale processes. Investigating differences at the basin and reach scale is necessary to accurately assess the amount and distribution of floodplain soil OC, as well as the geomorphic controls on OC.

  10. Spatially explicit estimation of aboveground boreal forest biomass in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Brown, Dana R. N.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Alexander, Heather D.; Mack, Michelle C.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McFarland, Jack W.; Chen, Xuexia; Pastick, Neal J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of aboveground biomass (AGB) in Alaska’s boreal forest is essential to the accurate evaluation of terrestrial carbon stocks and dynamics in northern high-latitude ecosystems. Our goal was to map AGB at 30 m resolution for the boreal forest in the Yukon River Basin of Alaska using Landsat data and ground measurements. We acquired Landsat images to generate a 3-year (2008–2010) composite of top-of-atmosphere reflectance for six bands as well as the brightness temperature (BT). We constructed a multiple regression model using field-observed AGB and Landsat-derived reflectance, BT, and vegetation indices. A basin-wide boreal forest AGB map at 30 m resolution was generated by applying the regression model to the Landsat composite. The fivefold cross-validation with field measurements had a mean absolute error (MAE) of 25.7 Mg ha−1 (relative MAE 47.5%) and a mean bias error (MBE) of 4.3 Mg ha−1(relative MBE 7.9%). The boreal forest AGB product was compared with lidar-based vegetation height data; the comparison indicated that there was a significant correlation between the two data sets.

  11. Varying boreal forest response to Arctic environmental change at the Firth River, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu-Hayles, Laia; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott; Frank, David

    2011-01-01

    The response of boreal forests to anthropogenic climate change remains uncertain, with potentially significant impacts for the global carbon cycle, albedo, canopy evapotranspiration and feedbacks into further climate change. Here, we focus on tree-ring data from the Firth River site at treeline in northeastern Alaska, in a tundra–forest transition region where pronounced warming has already occurred. Both tree-ring width (TRW) and maximum latewood density (MXD) chronologies were developed to identify the nature of tree growth and density responses to climatic and environmental changes in white spruce (Picea glauca), a dominant Arctic treeline species. Good agreement was found between the interannual fluctuations in the TRW chronology and summer temperatures from 1901 to 1950, whereas no significant relationships were found from 1951 to 2001, supporting evidence of significant divergence between TRW and summer temperature in the second half of the 20th century. In contrast to this unstable climatic response in the TRW record, the high frequency July–August temperature signal in the MXD series seems reasonably stable through the 20th century. Wider and denser rings were more frequent during the 20th century, particularly after 1950, than in previous centuries. Finally, comparison between the tree-ring proxies and a satellite-derived vegetation index suggests that TRW and MXD correlate with vegetation productivity at the landscape level at different times of the growing season.

  12. Uranium concentrations in lake and stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the Susitna River Basin, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.E.

    1977-03-01

    During the summer of 1976, 141 water and 211 sediment samples were taken from 147 locations in the Susitna River basin in Alaska by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska for the LASL. These samples were taken to provide preliminary information on the uranium concentrations in waters and sediments from the Susitna River basin and to test the analytical methods proposed for the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance for uranium in Alaska. The uranium determinations resulting from the fluorometric analysis of the water samples and the delayed-neutron counting of the sediment samples are presented. The low levels of uranium in the water samples, many of which were below the detectable limit of the LASL fluorometric technique, indicate that a more sensitive analytical method is needed for the analysis of Alaskan water samples from this area. An overlay showing numbered sample locations and overlays graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in the water and sediment samples, all at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing USGS topographic sheets, are also provided as plates

  13. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Utukok River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfeldt, S.L.; Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Utukok River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1;1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  14. Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental records from the Chatanika River valley near Fairbanks (Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Meyer, Hanno; Andreev, Andrei; Wetterich, Sebastian; Kienast, Frank; Bobrov, Anatoly; Fuchs, Margret; Sierralta, Melanie; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    Perennially-frozen deposits are considered as excellent paleoenvironmental archives similar to lacustrine, deep marine, and glacier records because of the long-term and good preservation of fossil records under stable permafrost conditions. A permafrost tunnel in the Vault Creek Valley (Chatanika River Valley, near Fairbanks) exposes a sequence of frozen deposits and ground ice that provides a comprehensive set of proxies to reconstruct the late Quaternary environmental history of Interior Alaska. The multi-proxy approach includes different dating techniques (radiocarbon-accelerator mass spectrometry [AMS 14C], optically stimulated luminescence [OSL], thorium/uranium radioisotope disequilibria [230Th/U]), as well as methods of sedimentology, paleoecology, hydrochemistry, and stable isotope geochemistry of ground ice. The studied sequence consists of 36-m-thick late Quaternary deposits above schistose bedrock. Main portions of the sequence accumulated during the early and middle Wisconsin periods. The lowermost unit A consists of about 9-m-thick ice-bonded fluvial gravels with sand and peat lenses. A late Sangamon (MIS 5a) age of unit A is assumed. Spruce forest with birch, larch, and some shrubby alder dominated the vegetation. High presence of Sphagnum spores and Cyperaceae pollen points to mires in the Vault Creek Valley. The overlying unit B consists of 10-m-thick alternating fluvial gravels, loess-like silt, and sand layers, penetrated by small ice wedges. OSL dates support a stadial early Wisconsin (MIS 4) age of unit B. Pollen and plant macrofossil data point to spruce forests with some birch interspersed with wetlands around the site. The following unit C is composed of 15-m-thick ice-rich loess-like and organic-rich silt with fossil bones and large ice wedges. Unit C formed during the interstadial mid-Wisconsin (MIS 3) and stadial late Wisconsin (MIS 2) as indicated by radiocarbon ages. Post-depositional slope processes significantly deformed both, ground

  15. The influence of fall-spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) on growth and production of juvenile coho salmon rearing in beaver ponds on the Copper River Delta, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk W. Lang; Gordon H. Reeves; James D. Hall; Mark S. Wipfli

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of fall-spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchrcs kisutch) on the density, growth rate, body condition, and survival to outmigration of juvenile coho salmon on the Copper River Delta, Alaska, USA. During the fall of 1999 and 2000, fish rearing in beaver ponds that received spawning salmon were compared with fish from...

  16. Medial moraines of glaciers of the Copper River Basin, Alaska: Discrete landslides dominate over other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Fischer, L.; Furfaro, R.; Huggel, C.; Korup, O.; Leonard, G. J.; Uhlmann, M.; Wessels, R. L.; Wolfe, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    Medial moraines are visually dominant structures of most large valley glaciers in the Copper River Basin (CRB), Alaska. Areally extensive but thin (usually rock falls and talus creep; rocks delivered via snow and ice avalanches; ingestion of lateral moraines along tributary convergences; and basal erosional debris. Evidence indicates that in CRB glaciers, discrete large avalanches predominate as the major contributors of moraine mass. Subglacial erosional debris is predominantly pulverized to small grain sizes and flushed. Many large, young avalanches exist on CRB glaciers. Evidence from colorimetry indicates that many medial moraines actually are landslides that have been sheared and swept downglacier, thus mimicking the form of other types of medial moraines formed where tributaries coalesce and flow down valley. Landcover classification of ASTER imagery, qualitative observations from air photos, and semiquantitative field-based estimations of rock color types indicate that on Allen Glacier, and other CRB glaciers, landslides are the sources of most medial moraines. On Allen and Root Glacier, for example, we see very few boulders with obvious signs of basal abrasion, whereas nearly all boulders exhibit signs of irregular fracture, for example in landslides. Such landslides have large effects on the thermal and mass balance of CRB glaciers, sometimes opposing or in other cases accentuating the effects of global/regional climate change. Considering the link between landslides and seismicity, and that Magnitude 8-9 earthquakes may occur nearby only about once a century, which is also the characteristic response time of large glaciers to climate shifts, seismicity must be considered along with climate change induced glacier responses in the CRB. Ultimately, climate has the final word, and already this is evident in the glacier record. Glacial flour is probably almost entirely from bed erosion. We will present estimates of the contributions of landslides and

  17. 78 FR 900 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alaska: Eagle River PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... nonattainment area (Eagle River NAA) and the State's request to redesignate the area to attainment for the... NAAQS B. Eagle River NAA and Planning Background III. Requirements for Redesignation A. CAA Requirements... and LMPs A. Has the Eagle River NAA attained the applicable NAAQS? B. Does the Eagle River NAA have a...

  18. Effects of recent volcanic eruptions on aquatic habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorava, J.M.; Milner, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano: During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano.

  19. RESEARCH: Effects of Recent Volcanic Eruptions on Aquatic Habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at Other Cook Inlet Region Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DORAVA; MILNER

    1999-02-01

    / Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano. During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. KEY WORDS: Aquatic habitat; Volcanoes; Lahars; Lahar-runout flows; Macroinvertebrates; Community structure; Community composition

  20. Application of the multi-dimensional surface water modeling system at Bridge 339, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    The Copper River Basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. Bridges along the Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, have been impacted by channel migration. Due to a major channel change in 2001, Bridge 339 at Mile 36 of the highway has undergone excessive scour, resulting in damage to its abutments and approaches. During the snow- and ice-melt runoff season, which typically extends from mid-May to September, the design discharge for the bridge often is exceeded. The approach channel shifts continuously, and during our study it has shifted back and forth from the left bank to a course along the right bank nearly parallel to the road.Maintenance at Bridge 339 has been costly and will continue to be so if no action is taken. Possible solutions to the scour and erosion problem include (1) constructing a guide bank to redirect flow, (2) dredging approximately 1,000 feet of channel above the bridge to align flow perpendicular to the bridge, and (3) extending the bridge. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) was used to assess these possible solutions. The major limitation of modeling these scenarios was the inability to predict ongoing channel migration. We used a hybrid dataset of surveyed and synthetic bathymetry in the approach channel, which provided the best approximation of this dynamic system. Under existing conditions and at the highest measured discharge and stage of 32,500 ft3/s and 51.08 ft, respectively, the velocities and shear stresses simulated by MD_SWMS indicate scour and erosion will continue. Construction of a 250-foot-long guide bank would not improve conditions because it is not long enough. Dredging a channel upstream of Bridge 339 would help align the flow perpendicular to Bridge 339, but because of the mobility of the channel bed, the dredged channel would

  1. The Alaska Water Isotope Network (AKWIN): Precipitation, lake, river and stream dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M.; Welker, J. M.; Toohey, R.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrologic cycle is central to the structure and function of northern landscapes. The movement of water creates interactions between terrestrial, aquatic, marine and atmospheric processes. Understanding the processes and the spatial patterns that govern the isotopic (δ18O & δD) characteristics of the hydrologic cycle is especially important today as: a) modern climate/weather-isotope relations allow for more accurate interpretation of climate proxies and the calibration of atmospheric models, b) water isotopes facilitate understanding the role of storm tracks in regulating precipitation isotopic variability, c) water isotopes allow for estimates of glacial melt water inputs into aquatic systems, d) water isotopes allow for quantification of surface and groundwater interactions, e) water isotopes allow for quantification of permafrost meltwater use by plant communities, f) water isotopes aid in migratory bird forensics, g) water isotopes are critical to estimating field metabolic rates, h) water isotopes allow for crop and diet forensics and i) water isotopes can provide insight into evaporation and transpiration processes. As part of a new NSF MRI project at the Environment and Natural Resources Institute (ENRI) at the University of Alaska Anchorage and as an extension of the US Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (USNIP); we are forming AKWIN. The network will utilize long-term weekly sampling at Denali National Park and Caribou Poker Creek Watershed (USNIP sites-1989 to present), regular sampling across Alaska involving land management agencies (USGS, NPS, USFWS, EPA), educators, volunteers and citizen scientists, UA extended campuses, individual research projects, opportunistic sampling and published data to construct isoscapes and time series databases and information packages. We will be using a suite of spatial and temporal analysis methods to characterize water isotopes across Alaska and will provide web portals for data products. Our network is

  2. Genetic investigation of natural hybridization between rainbow and coastal cutthroat trout in the copper River Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I.; Reeves, G.H.; Graziano, S.L.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular genetic methods were used to quantify natural hybridization between rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or steelhead (anadromous rainbow trout) and coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii collected in the Copper River delta, Southeast Alaska. Eleven locations were sampled to determine the extent of hybridization and the distribution of hybrids. Four diagnostic nuclear microsatellite loci and four species-specific simple sequence repeat markers were used in combination with restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of NADH dehydrogenase 5/6 (ND5/6) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to investigate the genetic structure of trout from both species and identify putative interspecific hybrids. Hybrids were found in 7 of the 11 streams sampled in the Copper River delta, the extent of hybridization across all streams varying from 0% to 58%. Hybrid trout distribution appeared to be nonrandom, most individuals of mixed taxonomic ancestry being detected in streams containing rainbow trout rather than in streams containing coastal cutthroat trout. Genotypic disequilibrium was observed among microsatellite loci in populations with high levels of hybridization. We found no significant correlation between unique stream channel process groups and the number of hybrid fish sampled. Eighty-eight percent of fish identified as first-generation hybrids (F1) in two populations contained coastal cutthroat trout mtDNA, suggesting directionality in hybridization. However, dominance of coastal cutthroat trout mtDNA was not observed at a third location containing F1 hybrids, indicating that interspecific mating behavior varied among locations. Backcrossed individuals were found in drainages lacking F1 hybrids and in populations previously thought to contain a single species. The extent and distribution of backcrossed individuals suggested that at least some hybrids are reproductively viable and backcrossed hybrid offspring move throughout the system.

  3. Stratigraphy and Facies of Cretaceous Schrader Bluff and Prince Creek Formations in Colville River Bluffs, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Myers, Mark D.; Houseknecht, David W.; Stricker, Gary D.; Brizzolara, Donald W.; Ryherd, Timothy J.; Takahashi, Kenneth I.

    2007-01-01

    Stratigraphic and sedimentologic studies of facies of the Upper Cretaceous rocks along the Colville River Bluffs in the west-central North Slope of Alaska identified barrier shoreface deposits consisting of vertically stacked, coarsening-upward parasequences in the Schrader Bluff Formation. This vertical stack of parasequence deposits represents progradational sequences that were affected by shoaling and deepening cycles caused by fluctuations of sea level. Further, the vertical stack may have served to stabilize accumulation of voluminous coal deposits in the Prince Creek Formation, which formed braided, high-sinuosity meandering, anastomosed, and low-sinuosity meandering fluvial channels and related flood plain deposits. The erosional contact at the top of the uppermost coarsening-upward sequence, however, suggests a significant drop of base level (relative sea level) that permitted a semiregional subaerial unconformity to develop at the contact between the Schrader Bluff and Prince Creek Formations. This drop of relative sea level may have been followed by a relative sea-level rise to accommodate coal deposition directly above the unconformity. This rise was followed by a second drop of relative sea level, with formation of incised valley topography as much as 75 ft deep and an equivalent surface of a major marine erosion or mass wasting, or both, either of which can be traced from the Colville River Bluffs basinward to the subsurface in the west-central North Slope. The Prince Creek fluvial deposits represent late Campanian to late Maastrichtian depositional environments that were affected by these base level changes influenced by tectonism, basin subsidence, and sea-level fluctuations.

  4. Changes in diets of river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B.; Schwartz, C.C.; Browning, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the diets of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, were examined in 1989 and 1990. On the basis of identification of prey remains in their feces, otters fed principally on marine, bottom-dwelling fishes. Marine gastropods, bivalves, and crustaceans composed most of the invertebrates in the diet of otters; freshwater and terrestrial food items seldom occurred in their feces. The diets of otters included 149 different taxa, most of which rarely occurred in their feces. Sixty-five taxa occurred ≥5 times in the combined data set. Species richness and diversity of prey remains in otter feces were similar on oiled and nonoiled study areas in late winter 1989 (before the oil spill) and during summer 1989 following the spill. By summer 1990, however, there were significant declines in the richness and diversity of species (mostly bony fish, molluscs, and bivalves) in otter diets on the oiled area. Likewise, the relative abundance of prey remains in otter feces showed strong differences between areas and years, and an area by year interaction. Members of the Perciformes and Archaeogastropoda declined from 1989 to 1990 on the oiled area while they increased on the nonoiled site; Malacostraca exhibited the opposite pattern. These outcomes, when considered with other data on body mass and blood chemistry, strongly suggest that some effects of the oil spill on otters were delayed. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Oceanographic studies in Harrison Bay and the Colville River Delta, Alaska, to support the development of oil spill response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Taylor, E.; Hale, B.

    2003-01-01

    The risk of an oil spill resulting from the development of the Alpine oil field is considered to be low. The field is located on the North Slope of Alaska adjacent to the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and reaches coastal waters from the distributary channels of the Colville River Delta. The physical environmental (hydrodynamic) conditions that would affect the transport and fate of spilled oil was investigated to further reduce the risk. During the open-water season of 2001 in Harrison Bay, near shore current meters were deployed and data on weather and surface currents was analyzed. Ocean current and wind measurements were examined to evaluate the relationship between meteorology and water levels during the open-water season. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the near shore hydrodynamic processes at play in Harrison Bay, in order to plan the most appropriate spill response strategies. The results obtained indicate that surface currents within the bay adjacent to the Colville Delta are variable. They respond to wind forces as well as other possible mechanisms like estuarine circulation. The surface currents reach maximum speeds of 0.26 metre per second. For the late July-September deployment, the calculated net surface drift was a 0.02 metre per second current to the east southeast. In both Harrison Bay and Colville Delta, prevailing southwest and northeast winds, respectively, induced water level changes of more than 0.5 metre above and below the average. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  6. Rainbow trout movement behavior and habitat occupancy are influenced by sex and Pacific salmon presence in an Alaska river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Kevin M.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; McPhee, Megan V.; Prakash, Anupma

    2018-01-01

    We used spatially continuous field-measured and remotely-sensed aquatic habitat characteristics paired with weekly ground-based telemetry tracking and snorkel surveys to describe movements and habitat occupancy of adult rainbow trout (N = 82) in a runoff-fed, salmon-influenced southcentral Alaska river system. We found that during the ice-free feeding season (June through September) rainbow trout occurrence was associated more with fine-scale (channel unit) characteristics relative to coarse-scale (stream reach) variables. The presence of Pacific salmon (which provide an important seasonal food subsidy), and habitat size were particularly useful predictors. Weekly movement distance differed between pre- and post- spawning salmon arrival, but did not vary by sex. Habitat quality, season, and the arrival of spawning salmon influenced the likelihood of rainbow trout movement, and fish moved farther to seek out higher quality habitats. Because rainbow trout respond to habitat factors at multiple scales and seek out salmon-derived subsidies, it will be important to take a multiscale approach in protecting trout and salmon populations and managing the associated fisheries.

  7. Sources and Reactivity of Terrestrial Organic Carbon to the Colville River Delta, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Bianchi, T. S.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial particulate organic carbon (tPOC) delivery to nearshore deltaic regions is an important mechanism of OC storage and burial, and continental margins worldwide account for approximately 90% of the carbon burial in the ocean. Increasing warming in the Arctic is leading to an acceleration of the hydrologic cycle, warming of permafrost, and broad shifts in vegetation. All of these changes are likely to affect the delivery, reactivity, and burial of tPOC in nearshore Arctic regions, making the Arctic an ideal place to study the effects of climate change on tPOC delivery. However, to date, most studies of tPOC delivery from North America to the Arctic Ocean have focused on large Arctic rivers like the Mackenzie and Yukon, and a significant portion of those watersheds lie in sub-Arctic latitudes, meaning that their tPOC delivery is likely not uniquely representative of the high Arctic tundra. Here, we focus on tPOC delivery by the Colville River, the largest North American river with a watershed that does not include sub-Arctic latitudes. Sediment samples from the river delta and nearby Simpson's Lagoon were taken in August of 2010 and subsequently fractionated by density, in order to study the delivery of both discrete and sediment-sorbed tPOC. Samples were analyzed for stable carbon isotopes, bulk radiocarbon, terrestrial biomarkers (including lignin-phenols, and other CuO reaction products), and aquatic biomarkers (algal pigments), and additionally a subset of the samples were analyzed by ramped pyrolysis-14C. Results show that tPOC delivery near the river mouth is sourced from coastal plain tundra, with additional delivery of tPOC from peat released into the lagoon from the seaward limit of the tundra by coastal erosion. Ramped pyrolysis-14C analysis also shows a clear differentiation between tPOC delivered by the river and tPOC delivered by coastal retreat in the lagoon. Additionally, a significant portion of the OC released by the Colville River is

  8. Off-platform Silurian sequences in the Ambler River quadrangle: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.

    1988-01-01

    Lithofacies changes in coeval upper Paleozoic rocks have been used to unravel the tectonic history of northern Alaska (for example, Mayfield and others, 1983). Conodont biostratigraphy and detailed petrologic studies are now revealing facies differences in lower Paleozoic rocks that can also be used to constrain their tectono-sedimentary framework (Dumoulin and Harris, 1987). A basic element of basin analysis is the discrimination of shallow-water shelf and platform sequences from deeper water slope and basinal deposits. This report documents several new localities of deeper water, off-platform Silurian deposits in the Ambler River quadrangle and briefly outlines some of their paleogeographic implications.

  9. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Charley River NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Charley River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  11. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Kateel River NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Kateel River NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, lake-sediment, stream-water, lake-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  12. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Black River NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Black River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  13. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Kantishna River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Kantishna River NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  14. The Response of Tundra to Biophysical Changes Ten Years Following the Anaktuvuk River Fire, Arctic Foothills, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. M.; Miller, E. A.; Jandt, R.; Baughman, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Ten years following a large and severe wildfire in the arctic foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska, tundra is experiencing rapid biophysical changes. Plant communities are responding to primary disturbance by fire but also to ground-ice melt, terrain subsidence, and apparent increase in soil drainage or evapotranspiration.The Anaktuvuk River Fire burned about 104,000 ha in 2007, spreading over broad ranges in soils, topography, hydrography, and permafrost features. Fourteen marked transects were measured between 2008-2011 and again in 2017 for cover of ground-layer vegetation, tall shrub abundance, thaw depth, and soil properties. A complementary set of 11 reference transects surrounding the burn was also sampled.We observed much higher rates of thermokarst inside the burn than out. Even low severity burn areas experienced noticeable thaw subsidence. Mean annual ground temperature at 1 m depth has warmed 1.5°C relative to unburned tundra. In cases ice wedge troughs have deepened by more than 1 m in areas underlain by yedoma soils. Troughs were characterized by cracking soil and slumping tussocks, often into ponded water. Troughs and degraded ice features appear to be draining adjacent polygon centers leading to a general drying of the tundra. Tussockgrasses inside the burn continue to grow and flower vigorously, suggesting a continued flush of soil nutrients. Post-fire accumulation of organic material is generally fire greatly accelerates this succession. Records and observations suggest that lightning and ignitions are becoming more frequent north of the Brooks Range.Our monitoring of this burn over the last ten years reveals a story much more complicated than our team can tell, inviting involvement of other disciplines, particularly hydrology, soil and landform science, remote sensing, and wildlife and subsistence resource management.

  15. Uranium concentrations in stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the eastern Seward Peninsula, Koyukuk, and Charley River areas, and across South-Central Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Hill, D.E.

    1978-04-01

    During the summer of 1975, a 6-week reconnaissance was conducted in widespread areas of Alaska as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program; Water, stream sediment, and bedrock samples were taken from the eastern Seward Peninsula, from north of Koyukuk River, from the Charley River area, and from across south central Alaska. This report contains the LASL uranium determinations resulting from fluorometric analysis of the water samples and delayed-neutron counting of the stream sediment samples. Results of total uranium for 611 water and 641 sediment samples, from 691 stream locations, are presented. Overlays showing the numbered sample locations and graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in water and stream sediment samples, at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) sheets and published geologic maps, are provided as plates. The main purposes of this work are to make the uranium data available to the public in the standard computer format used in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (i.e., with a DOE sample number giving the latitude and longitude of each sample location) and to provide uranium concentration overlays at the standard scale of 1:250,000 adopted by the DOE for the NURE program. It also allows a plausible explanation of differences between the uranium values for sediment as determined by acid dissolution/extraction/fluorometry and by delayed-neutron counting that were noted in the earlier report

  16. White phosphorus at Eagle River Flats, Alaska: A case history of waterfowl mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, Donald W.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    White phosphorus has a limited distribution in the environment because it only occurs where it has been directly used by humans. It is not transported aerially for any distance and, due to its density, has a limited ability to disperse through water. Therefore, it is not a contaminant of broad-scale concern. However, where it does occur, it can cause substantial mortality or critically injure populations of waterfowl. This chronic harm includes impaired liver and kidney functioning, decreased respiratory efficiency, increased susceptibility to predation, loss of body mass, general weakening and malaise, and curtailment of reproductive functioning. Lethal effects occur around 3---4 mg/kg or approximately 3-6 ingested particles; sublethal effects can occur with ingestion of as little as a single particle. The impact of P4 on waterfowl populations nesting around ERF has never been estimated. Even if direct mortality on ERF could be estimated accurately in ducks, the delayed toxicity of P4 in swans (and presumably other species that use small grit size) and the potential for swans to fly away after ingesting a lethal dose of P4 could greatly underestimate the overall mortality. Inhibition of laying, reduced fertility and hatchability, and teratogenesis in hens ingesting even a small amount of P4 could potentially have, an effect on populations greater than that exhibited by direct mortality. Predators such as bald eagles and gulls are also at risk due to the toxicity of pelletized, dissolved, and assimilated P4 in prey organisms. Although the U.S. Army stopped using P4 in wetlands in 1993 and remediation efforts have been underway since 1995, waterfowl mortality is expected to continue for several more years. Because Eagle River Flats is only one of several sites where P4 has been found in wetland conditions, further biological investigation is warranted at these other sites.

  17. Analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP, and emission spectrographic and ICP results for many NURE stream sediments from the Killik River Quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, J.M.; Adrian, B.M.; Church, S.E.; McDougal, C.M.; Fife, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented giving analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP, and emission spectrographic and ICP results for many NURE stream sediments from the Killik River Quadrangle, Alaska

  18. Natural versus anthropogenic dispersion of metals to the environment in the Wulik River area, western Brooks Range, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Hudson, T.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc-lead-silver mineral deposits in the Wulik River region, Alaska, contain an enormous accumulation of Zn. In addition to the giant deposits at Red Dog, at least nine other deposits are known. Natural weathering of these deposits has dispersed metals over a wide region over a long period of time (c. 10 000 years) through transport by stream and groundwater, stream sediments, formation of soils, and perhaps wind-blown atmospheric deposition from weathering of naturally enriched Pb-Zn surface deposits. Anthropogenic input also contributes metals to the environment. Mining of the Red Dog deposit, which began in 1989, produces fine-grained galena and sphalerite concentrates that are transported from the mine site by truck to a storage port facility. Wind-blown dispersion of concentrate dust along the road and around the port facility has been a source of local metal-rich surficial materials. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics provide a means of distinguishing the natural versus anthropogenic metal sources. Soils over deposits have patterns of increasing metal contents with depth and proximity to the metal-bearing source, whereas ore concentrate dust is localized at the surface. The acidity produced by weathering of the sulphide deposits creates an environment in which elements such as Se and Mo are stable whereas Ca is not. Consequently, high Mo (up to 29 ppm) and Se (up to 17 ppm) and low Ca (<0.4%) concentrations characterize surficial materials near natural deposits. Acidic conditions also yield high Pb-Zn ratios (up to 70) because sphalerite is preferentially dissolved and Zn is mobilized during chemical weathering. In natural materials, secondary jarosite and anglesite are developed, and minor galena is etched and rounded due to a history of chemical and mechanical weathering. In contrast, dust-bearing samples have Pb/Zn ratios that are 0.4 or less, Ca contents are higher (0.2 to 3.6%), and Mo (<10 ppm) and Se (not detected) concentrations are low

  19. Utilizing chromophoric dissolved organic matter measurements to derive export and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon exported to the Arctic Ocean: A case study of the Yukon River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R.G.M.; Aiken, G.R.; Butler, K.D.; Dornblaser, M.M.; Striegl, Robert G.; Hernes, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The quality and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported by Arctic rivers is known to vary with hydrology and this exported material plays a fundamental role in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon at high latitudes. We highlight the potential of optical measurements to examine DOM quality across the hydrograph in Arctic rivers. Furthermore, we establish chromophoric DOM (CDOM) relationships to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and lignin phenols in the Yukon River and model DOC and lignin loads from CDOM measurements, the former in excellent agreement with long-term DOC monitoring data. Intensive sampling across the historically under-sampled spring flush period highlights the importance of this time for total export of DOC and particularly lignin. Calculated riverine DOC loads to the Arctic Ocean show an increase from previous estimates, especially when new higher discharge data are incorporated. Increased DOC loads indicate decreased residence times for terrigenous DOM in the Arctic Ocean with important implications for the reactivity and export of this material to the Atlantic Ocean. Citation: Spencer, R. G. M., G. R. Aiken, K. D. Butler, M. M. Dornblaser, R. G. Striegl, and P. J. Hernes (2009), Utilizing chromophoric dissolved organic matter measurements to derive export and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon exported to the Arctic Ocean: A case study of the Yukon River, Alaska, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L06401, doi:10.1029/ 2008GL036831. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. A promising tool for subsurface permafrost mapping-An application of airborne geophysics from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jared E.

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost is a predominant physical feature of the Earth's Arctic and Subarctic clines and a major consideration encompassing ecosystem structure to infrastructure engineering and placement. Perennially frozen ground is estimated to cover about 85 percent of the state of Alaska where northern reaches are underlain with continuous permafrost and parts of interior Alaska are underlain by areas of discontinuous and (or) sporadic permafrost (fig. 1). The region of Interior Alaska, where permafrost is scattered among unfrozen ground, is a complex mosaic of terrains and habitats. Such diversity creates arrays of lakes and surface-water and groundwater patterns that continental populations of migratory waterfowl and internationally significant fisheries have adapted to over time. A road or pipeline might pass over frozen and unfrozen ground, affecting the types of materials and engineering approaches needed to sustain the infrastructure.

  1. Tephrochronology of the Brooks River Archaeological District, Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska: What can and cannot be done with tephra deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Dumond, D.E.; Meyer, C.E.; Schaaf, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Brooks River Archaeological District (BRAD) in Katmai National Park and Preserve is a classical site for the study of early humans in Alaska. Because of proximity to the active Aleutian volcanic arc, there are numerous tephra deposits in the BRAD, which are potentially useful for correlating among sites of archaeological investigations. Microprobe analyses of glass separates show, however, that most of these tephra deposits are heterogeneous mixtures of multiple glass populations. Some glasses are highly similar to pyroclasts of Aniakchak Crater (160 km to the south), others are similar to pyroclasts in the nearby Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, and some are similar to no other tephra samples from the Alaska Peninsula. Moreover, tephra deposits in any one archaeological study site are not always similar to those from nearby sites, indicating inconsistent preservation of these mainly thin, fine-grained deposits. At least 15, late Holocene tephra deposits are inferred at the BRAD. Their heterogeneity is the result of either eruptions of mixed or heterogeneous magmas, like the 1912 Katmai eruption, or secondary mixing of closely succeeding tephra deposits. Because most cannot be reliably distinguished from one another on the basis of megascopic properties, their utility for correlations is limited. At least one deposit can be reliably identified because of its thickness (10 cm) and colour stratification. Early humans seem not to have been significantly affected by these tephra falls, which is not surprising in view of the resilience exhibited by both plants and animals following the 1912 Katmai eruption.

  2. Observations and first reports of saprolegniosis in Aanaakłiq, broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), from the Colville River near Nuiqsut, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sformo, Todd L.; Adams, Billy; Seigle, John C.; Ferguson, Jayde A.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Welch, Joseph H.; Ellis, Leah M.; Leppi, Jason C.; George, John C.

    2017-12-01

    We report the first confirmed cases (2013-2016) of saprolegniosis caused by water mold from the genus Saprolegnia in Aanaakłiq, broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), from the Colville River near Nuiqsut, Alaska. While this mold is known to be worldwide, these instances represent the first cases in Nuiqsut and only the second instance on a single fish on the North Slope, occurring in 1980. We describe the collaborative work on monitoring this emerging disease. Because fish constitute a critical component of the diet in Nuiqsut and fishing is an integral part of Inupiaq nutritional and cultural subsistence activities overall, individual subsistence fishers, local governmental entities, and Alaska Native organizations representing Nuiqsut requested an examination of affected fish and information on possible drivers of this emerging disease. The collaborative work described here ranges from recording fishermen observations, acquiring fish and mold specimens, histopathology, and molecular identification of the mold. This work, not currently grant-funded, begins with Native observation that incorporates western scientific methods and involves local, state, and federal departments as well as for-profit and non-profit organizations. Additionally, we report the more recent (2016) observation of this disease in a second species of whitefish, Pikuktuuq, humpback whitefish (Coregonus pidschain).

  3. Phytomass in southwest Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    2000-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for southwest Alaska. The methods used to estimate plant weight and occurrence in the river basin are described and discussed. Average weight is shown for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 19 forest and 48 nonforest vegetation types. Species frequency of occurrence and species constancy within the type...

  4. Distribution of branched GDGTs in surface sediments from the Colville River, Alaska: Implications for the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer in Arctic marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Andrea J. M.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Allison, Mead A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant climate fluctuations in the Arctic over the recent past, and additional predicted future temperature changes, highlight the need for high-resolution Arctic paleoclimate records. Arctic coastal environments supplied with terrigenous sediment from Arctic rivers have the potential to provide annual to subdecadal resolution records of climate variability over the last few millennia. A potential tool for paleotemperature reconstructions in these marine sediments is the revised methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT')/cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) proxy based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs). In this study, we examine the source of brGDGTs in the Colville River, Alaska, and the adjacent Simpson Lagoon and reconstruct temperatures from Simpson Lagoon sediments to evaluate the applicability of this proxy in Arctic estuarine environments. The Colville catchment soils, fluvial sediments, and estuarine sediments contain statistically similar brGDGT distributions, indicating that the brGDGTs throughout the system are soil derived with little alteration from in situ brGDGT production in the river or coastal waters. Temperatures reconstructed from the MBT'/CBT indices for surface samples show good agreement with regional summer (June through September) temperatures, suggesting a seasonal bias in Arctic temperature reconstructions from the Colville system. In addition, we reconstruct paleotemperatures from an estuarine sediment core that spans the last 75 years, revealing an overall warming trend in the twentieth century that is consistent with trends observed in regional instrumental records. These results support the application of this brGDGT-based paleotemperature proxy for subdecadal-scale summer temperature reconstructions in Arctic estuaries containing organic material derived from sediment-laden, episodic rivers.

  5. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk River drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 653 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from an area covering portions of the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk river drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, located in the Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles of eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract

  6. An earth remote sensing satellite- 1 Synthetic Aperture Radar Mosaic of the Tanana River Basin in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wivell, Charles E.; Olmsted, Coert; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Taylor, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Because the pixel location in a line of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image data is directly related to the distance the pixel is from the radar, terrain elevations cause large displacement errors in the geo-referenced location of the pixel. This is especially true for radar systems with small angles between the nadir and look vectors. Thus, to geo-register a SAR image accurately, the terrain of the area must be taken into account. (Curlander et al., 1987; Kwok et al., 1987, Schreier et al., 1990; Wivell et al., 1992). As part of the 1992 National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Version 0 activities, a prototype SAR geocod-. ing and terrain correction system was developed at the US. Geological Survey's (USGS) E~os Data Center (EDC) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Using this system with 3-arc-second digital elevation models (DEMs) mosaicked at the ED^ Alaska Field Office, 21 ERS-I s.4~ scenes acquired at the Alaska SAR Facility were automatically geocoded, terrain corrected, and mosaicked. The geo-registered scenes were mosaicked using a simple concatenation.

  7. Reconnaissance from Fort Hamlin to Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, by way of Dall, Kanuti, Allen, and Kowak rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, W.C.

    1902-01-01

    The reconnaissance described in the following pages was carried out in pursuance of a plan which has been followed for some years by the United States Geological Survey in the topographic and geologic exploration of the little-known parts of Alaska and in the collection of such information as will be of value not only to the scientific world, but to the prospector, the miner, and the trader. Capital disappears and years are wasted by prospectors who push out beyond the shifting frontier and pursue their search for gold where gold is not to be expected, and lives are being continually lost because the location and character of trails, drainage ways, and mountain ranges and passes are unknown, or because the knowledge which a few possess is not in a form available for the use of others.

  8. Reconstructing satellite images to quantify spatially explicit land surface change caused by fires and succession: A demonstration in the Yukon River Basin of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Jin, Suming; Dahal, Devendra; Chen, Xuexia; Young, Claudia; Liu, Heping; Liu, Shuguang

    2013-01-01

    Land surface change caused by fires and succession is confounded by many site-specific factors and requires further study. The objective of this study was to reveal the spatially explicit land surface change by minimizing the confounding factors of weather variability, seasonal offset, topography, land cover, and drainage. In a pilot study of the Yukon River Basin of interior Alaska, we retrieved Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), albedo, and land surface temperature (LST) from a postfire Landsat image acquired on August 5th, 2004. With a Landsat reference image acquired on June 26th, 1986, we reconstructed NDVI, albedo, and LST of 1987–2004 fire scars for August 5th, 2004, assuming that these fires had not occurred. The difference between actual postfire and assuming-no-fire scenarios depicted the fires and succession impact. Our results demonstrated the following: (1) NDVI showed an immediate decrease after burning but gradually recovered to prefire levels in the following years, in which burn severity might play an important role during this process; (2) Albedo showed an immediate decrease after burning but then recovered and became higher than prefire levels; and (3) Most fires caused surface warming, but cooler surfaces did exist; time-since-fire affected the prefire and postfire LST difference but no absolute trend could be found. Our approach provided spatially explicit land surface change rather than average condition, enabling a better understanding of fires and succession impact on ecological consequences at the pixel level.

  9. Modeling Behavior by Coastal River Otter (Lontra Canadensis in Response to Prey Availability in Prince William Sound, Alaska: A Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E Albeke

    Full Text Available Effects of climate change on animal behavior and cascading ecosystem responses are rarely evaluated. In coastal Alaska, social river otters (Lontra Canadensis, largely males, cooperatively forage on schooling fish and use latrine sites to communicate group associations and dominance. Conversely, solitary otters, mainly females, feed on intertidal-demersal fish and display mutual avoidance via scent marking. This behavioral variability creates "hotspots" of nutrient deposition and affects plant productivity and diversity on the terrestrial landscape. Because the abundance of schooling pelagic fish is predicted to decline with climate change, we developed a spatially-explicit individual-based model (IBM of otter behavior and tested six scenarios based on potential shifts to distribution patterns of schooling fish. Emergent patterns from the IBM closely mimicked observed otter behavior and landscape use in the absence of explicit rules of intraspecific attraction or repulsion. Model results were most sensitive to rules regarding spatial memory and activity state following an encounter with a fish school. With declining availability of schooling fish, the number of social groups and the time simulated otters spent in the company of conspecifics declined. Concurrently, model results suggested an elevation of defecation rate, a 25% increase in nitrogen transport to the terrestrial landscape, and significant changes to the spatial distribution of "hotspots" with declines in schooling fish availability. However, reductions in availability of schooling fish could lead to declines in otter density over time.

  10. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  11. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  12. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  13. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  14. Tanana River Monitoring and Research Program: Relationships Among Bank Recession, Vegetation, Soils, Sediments and Permafrost on the Tanana River Near Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    influencing bank erosion along the Tanana River. Soils The regional soil association along both reaches is loamy, consisting of nearly level histic pergelic ...conspicuous. Most areas of this association are flooded occasionally. The histic pergelic cryaquepts occur in poorly drained, low areas such as meander...great depth; usually occupy natural levees. 6Histic pergelic cryaquepts: soils with texture ranging from gravelly sand to clay, color from gray to

  15. Investigation of Alaska's uranium potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    Of the various geographical regions in Alaska that were examined in an exhaustive literary search for the possibility of uranium--either vein type or sedimentary--six offer encouragement: the Copper River Basin, the alkaline intrusive belt of west-central Alaska and Selawik Basin area, the Seward Peninsula, the Susitna Lowland, the coal-bearing basins of the north flank of the Alaska Range, the Precambrian gneisses of the USGS 1:250,000 Goodnews quadrangle, and Southeastern Alaska, which has the sole operating uranium mine in the state. Other areas that may be favorable for the presence of uranium include the Yukon Flats area, the Cook Inlet Basin, and the Galena Basin

  16. Visitor, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    /Fishing License Get a Birth Certificate, Marriage License, etc. Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend Statewide Library Alaska Historical Society Alaska State Museum Sheldon Jackson Museum Industry Facts Agriculture

  17. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data from the area of the Noatak and portions of the Baird Mountains and Ambler River Quadrangles, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, P.L.; Hill, D.E.; Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    During August 1976, a total of 876 natural waters and 861 bottom sediments were collected at a nominal density of one location each 23 km 2 from streams and small lakes throughout the Noatak NTMS quadrangle, the southern two-thirds of the Baird Mountains NTMS quadrangle, and in the southwest corner of the Ambler River NTMS quadrangle. These samples were collected as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program in Alaska being conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). The field collection and treatment of the samples were performed following strict LASL specifications. Total uranium was measured in the waters by fluorometry and in the sediments by delayed-neutron counting, using stringent quality assurance controls at the LASL. The uranium contents of the waters ranged from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to a high of 8.38 ppB, and the uranium contents of the sediments ranged from a low of 0.3 parts per million (ppM) to a high of 34.0 ppM. In general, the locations of waters containing relatively high uranium contents were found to occur in clusters, and particularly in the headwaters of streams draining the southern slopes of the Baird Mountains. Few sediments contained relatively high uranium contents. These usually occurred singly at isolated locations scattered throughout the area. No obvious association exists between the location of high-uranium waters and sediments anywhere in the study area. The geology, mineralogy, and hydrology of this area is only generally described in the literature; therefore, it is difficult to correlate these data with particular aspects of the physical environment where individual samples were collected. However, the data do indicate that certain areas underlaid by Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and granitic intrusives within the Baird Mountains and a quartz-pebble conglomerate in the Waring Mountains may warrant more detailed field investigations

  18. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the area of the Teller, Bendeleben, Candle, and Kateel River Quadrangles, Seward Peninsula and vicinity, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Hill, D.E.

    1978-05-01

    During July-August 1976, 2026 natural waters and 2085 bottom sediments were collected from 2209 sample locations (at a nominal density of one location each 23 km 2 ) on streams and small lakes throughout the Teller, Bendeleben, Candle, and western one-third of the Kateel River NTMS quadrangles, Alaska. Total uranium was measured in the waters by fluorometry and in the sediments and a few waters by delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of the waters ranged from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to a high of 14.50 ppB, averaging 0.44 ppB, and that of the sediments ranged from a low of 0.2 parts per million (ppM) to a high of 107.4 ppM, averaing 3.93 ppM. The uranium data for water and sediment are separately presented--as computer listings that include pertinent field measurements from each location, as graphically portrayed concentration overlays at 1:250,000 scale for each quadrangle, and as reduced figures showing contours drawn at various concentration levels for each quadrangle--and their areal distributions are compared and correlated with the known features and uranium showings. A test of increasingly detailed methods of data evaluation shows that the more extensive the evaluation, the more useful the reconnaissance uranium data are likely to be. The validity and potential usefulness of the HSSR uranium data are conclusively substantiated by the fact that evidence of all 23 of the reported uranium showings in the 50,000-km 2 study area can be discerned. Several new locations of interest for further field investigation are identified in each of the quadrangles, and most notably in the Bendeleben Mountains. However, the data presented would appear equally useful in guiding field investigation around the uranium occurrences already known, as noteworthy samples often come from close by but on tributary drainages adjacent, opposite, or above them

  19. The EO-1 hyperion and advanced land imager sensors for use in tundra classification studies within the Upper Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Brown, Mary

    The heterogeneity of Arctic vegetation can make land cover classification vey difficult when using medium to small resolution imagery (Schneider et al., 2009; Muller et al., 1999). Using high radiometric and spatial resolution imagery, such as the SPOT 5 and IKONOS satellites, have helped arctic land cover classification accuracies rise into the 80 and 90 percentiles (Allard, 2003; Stine et al., 2010; Muller et al., 1999). However, those increases usually come at a high price. High resolution imagery is very expensive and can often add tens of thousands of dollars onto the cost of the research. The EO-1 satellite launched in 2002 carries two sensors that have high specral and/or high spatial resolutions and can be an acceptable compromise between the resolution versus cost issues. The Hyperion is a hyperspectral sensor with the capability of collecting 242 spectral bands of information. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is an advanced multispectral sensor whose spatial resolution can be sharpened to 10 meters. This dissertation compares the accuracies of arctic land cover classifications produced by the Hyperion and ALI sensors to the classification accuracies produced by the Systeme Pour l' Observation de le Terre (SPOT), the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors. Hyperion and ALI images from August 2004 were collected over the Upper Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska. Image processing included the stepwise discriminant analysis of pixels that were positively classified from coinciding ground control points, geometric and radiometric correction, and principle component analysis. Finally, stratified random sampling was used to perform accuracy assessments on satellite derived land cover classifications. Accuracy was estimated from an error matrix (confusion matrix) that provided the overall, producer's and user's accuracies. This research found that while the Hyperion sensor produced classfication accuracies that were

  20. Fiscal Year 1988 program report: Alaska Water Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The contents of this study includes: water problems and issues of Alaska; program goals and priorities; research project synopses are: radium levels in, and removal from, ground waters of interior alaska; assessment of stream-flow sediment transport for engineering projects; productivity within deep glacial gravels under subarctic Alaska rivers; nitrogen-cycle dynamics in a subarctic lake; and the use of peat mounds for treatment of household waste water

  1. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in Alaska, 1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

    1955-01-01

    During the summer of 1953 the areas investigated for radioactive deposits in Alaska were on Nikolai Creek near Tyonek and on Likes Creek near Seward in south-central Alaska where carnotite-type minerals had been reported; in the headwaters of the Peace River in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula and at Gold Bench on the South Fork of the Koyukuk River in east-central Alaska, where uranothorianite occurs in places associated with base metal sulfides and hematite; in the vicinity of Port Malmesbury in southeastern Alaska to check a reported occurrence of pitchblende; and, in the Miller House-Circle Hot Springs area of east-central Alaska where geochemical studies were made. No significant lode deposits of radioactive materials were found. However, the placer uranothorianite in the headwaters of the Peace River yet remains as an important lead to bedrock radioactive source materials in Alaska. Tundra cover prevents satisfactory radiometric reconnaissance of the area, and methods of geochemical prospecting such as soil and vegetation sampling may ultimately prove more fruitful in the search for the uranothorianite-sulfide lode source than geophysical methods.

  2. Western Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, mining sites, area boundaries, and scenic rivers in Western Alaska. Vector points and lines in this data...

  3. State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assistance Center Occupations Requiring Licenses Corporations Employer Information Alaska's Job Bank/Alaska Assistance Center Alaska's Job Bank Occupations Requiring Licenses Corporations Unemployment Insurance Tax Child Care Child Protection Denali KidCare Food Stamps Poison Control Seasonal Flu Immunization

  4. CSI : Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letwin, S.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation emphasized the need for northern gas supply at a time when conventional natural gas supplies are decreasing and demand is growing. It highlighted the unique qualifications of Enbridge Inc. in creating an infrastructure to move the supply to where it is in most demand. Enbridge has substantial northern experience and has a unique approach for the construction of the Alaskan Gas Pipeline which entails cooperation, stability and innovation (CSI). Enbridge's role in the joint venture with AltaGas and Inuvialuit Petroleum was discussed along with its role in the construction of the first Canadian pipeline in 1985. The 540 mile pipeline was buried in permafrost. A large percentage of Enbridge employees are of indigenous descent. Enbridge recognizes that the amount of capital investment and the associated risk needed for the Alaska Gas Pipeline will necessitate a partnership of producers, pipeline companies, Native organizations, the State of Alaska, market participants and other interested parties. 9 figs

  5. Business, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investment Advisors Business Law Charitable Gaming Division of Banking & Securities Laws Relating to Skip to content State of Alaska myAlaska My Government Resident Business in Alaska Visiting Alaska State Government Jobs Federal Jobs Starting a Small Business Living Get a Driver License Get a Hunting

  6. Alaska Community Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Information Human Services Funding 5310 5316 (Repealed) 5317 (Repealed) Alaska Mental Health Trust Department of Transportation & Public Facilities/ Alaska Community Transit Search DOT&PF State of Alaska Photo banner DOT&PF> Program Development > Alaska Community Transit Home About Us

  7. Alaska State Trails Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recreation Search DNR State of Alaska Home Menu Parks Home Alaska State Trails Boating Safety Design and Home / Alaska State Trails Alaska State Trails Program Trails in the Spotlight Glacier Lake and Saddle Trails in Kachemak State Park Glacier Lake A Popular route joins the Saddle and Glacier Lake Trails. The

  8. Alaska's indigenous muskoxen: a history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Lent

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus were widespread in northern and interior Alaska in the late Pleistocene but were never a dominant component of large mammal faunas. After the end of the Pleistocene they were even less common. Most skeletal finds have come from the Arctic Coastal Plain and the foothills of the Brooks Range. Archaeological evidence, mainly from the Point Barrow area, suggests that humans sporadically hunted small numbers of muskoxen over about 1500 years from early Birnirk culture to nineteenth century Thule culture. Skeletal remains found near Kivalina represent the most southerly Holocene record for muskoxen in Alaska. Claims that muskoxen survived into the early nineteenth century farther south in the Selawik - Buckland River region are not substantiated. Remains of muskox found by Beechey's party in Eschscholtz Bay in 1826 were almost certainly of Pleistocene age, not recent. Neither the introduction of firearms nor overwintering whalers played a significant role in the extinction of Alaska's muskoxen. Inuit hunters apparently killed the last muskoxen in northwestern Alaska in the late 1850s. Several accounts suggest that remnant herds survived in the eastern Brooks Range into the 1890s. However, there is no physical evidence or independent confirmation of these reports. Oral traditions regarding muskoxen survived among the Nunamiut and the Chandalar Kutchin. With human help, muskoxen have successfully recolonized their former range from the Seward Peninsula north, across the Arctic Slope and east into the northern Yukon Territory.

  9. Observations of the vegetation of the Atigun River floodplain as affected by the crude oil spill from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of botanical investigation conducted along the Atigun River, associated side channels and tributaries during the period 26 –...

  10. Alaska Child Support Services Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payments Online! The CSSD Business Services Portal offers employers the convenience of paying child support ://my.Alaska.gov. Reporting online will save you time and money! If your business already has a myAlaska account Skip to content State of Alaska myAlaska My Government Resident Business in Alaska Visiting Alaska

  11. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Ward

    Full Text Available The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp. in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1 density dependence, (2 the EVOS event, (3 changing environmental conditions, (4 interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5 predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the

  12. Water quality of the Chokosna, Gilahina, Lakina Rivers, and Long Lake watershed along McCarthy Road, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Ourso, Robert T.; Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M. D.

    2011-01-01

    The Chokosna, Gilahina, and Lakina River basins, and the Long Lake watershed are located along McCarthy Road in Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve. The rivers and lake support a large run of sockeye (red) salmon that is important to the commercial and recreational fisheries in the larger Copper River. To gain a better understanding of the water quality conditions of these watersheds, these basins were studied as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service during the open water periods in 2007 and 2008. Water type of the rivers and Long Lake is calcium bicarbonate with the exception of that in the Chokosna River, which is calcium bicarbonate sulfate water. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 63 to 222 milligrams per liter, indicating a high buffering capacity in these waters. Analyses of streambed sediments indicated that concentrations of the trace elements arsenic, chromium, and nickel exceed levels that might be toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms. However, these concentrations reflect local geology rather than anthropogenic sources in this nearly pristine area. Benthic macroinvertebrate qualitative multi-habitat and richest targeted habitat samples collected from six stream sites along McCarthy Road indicated a total of 125 taxa. Insects made up the largest percentage of macroinvertebrates, totaling 83 percent of the families found. Dipterans (flies and midges) accounted for 43 percent of all macroinvertebrates found. Analysis of the macroinvertebrate data by non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated differences between (1) sites at Long Lake and other stream sites along McCarthy Road, likely due to different basin characteristics, (2) the 2007 and 2008 data, probably from the higher rainfall in 2008, and (3) macroinvertebrate data collected in south-central Alaska, which represents a different climate zone. The richness, abundance, and community composition of periphytic algae taxa was variable between sampling sites

  13. Alaska Public Offices Commission, Department of Administration, State of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visiting Alaska State Employees State of Alaska Department of Administration Alaska Public Offices Commission Alaska Department of Administration, Alaska Public Offices Commission APOC Home Commission Filer ; AO's Contact Us Administration > Alaska Public Offices Commission Alaska Public Offices Commission

  14. Alaska Kids' Corner, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    /Fishing License Get a Birth Certificate, Marriage License, etc. Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend Statewide shocks of wheat represent Alaskan agriculture. The fish and the seals signify the importance of fishing

  15. Alaska Consumer Protection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drafting Manual Attorney General Opinions Executive Branch Ethics Criminal Justice Alaska Medicaid Fraud make wise purchasing decisions and avoid becoming victims of consumer fraud. The site also includes

  16. Regulatory Commission of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Map Help Regulatory Commission of Alaska Login Forgot Password Arrow Image Forgot password? View Cart login Procedures for Requesting Login For Consumers General Information Telephone Electric Natural Gas

  17. Tourism in rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrina Church-Chmielowski

    2007-01-01

    Tourism in rural Alaska is an education curriculum with worldwide relevance. Students have started small businesses, obtained employment in the tourism industry and gotten in touch with their people. The Developing Alaska Rural Tourism collaborative project has resulted in student scholarships, workshops on website development, marketing, small...

  18. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  19. Alaska Administrative Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards Division of Finance is to provide accounting, payroll, and travel services for State government Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search

  20. LearnAlaska Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards Mission Statement The mission of the Division of Finance is to provide accounting, payroll, and travel Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search

  1. Geochemical evidence for the origin of late Quaternary loess in central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Loess is extensive in central Alaska, but there are uncertainties about its source and the direction of paleo-winds that deposited it. Both northerly and southerly winds have been inferred. The most likely sources of loess are the Tanana River (south), the Nenana River (southeast), and the Yukon River (north). Late Quaternary loess in central Alaska has immobile trace-element compositions (Cr/Sc, Th/Ta, Th/ Sc, Th/U, Eu/Eu*, GdN/YbN) that indicate derivation mostly from the Tanana River. However, other ratios (As/Sb, Zr/Hf, LaN/YbN) and quantitative modeling indicate that the Yukon River was also a source. During the last glacial period, there may have been a longer residence time of the Siberian and Canadian high-pressure cells, along with a strengthened Aleutian low-pressure cell. This would have generated regional-scale northeasterly winds and explains derivation of loess from the Yukon River. However, superim-posed upon this synoptic-scale circulation, there may have been strong, southerly katabatic winds from expanded glaciers on the northern flank of the Alaska Range. These winds could have provided eolian silt from the Tanana River. Yukon River and Tanana River sediments are highly calcareous, whereas Fairbanks-area loess is not. This suggests that carbonate leaching in loess kept ahead of sedimentation and that late Quaternary loess in central Alaska was deposited relatively slowly. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  2. Alaska Resource Data File, Nabesna quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  3. Invasive sweetclover (Melilotus alba) impacts native seeding recruitment along floodplains of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine T. Spellman; Tricia L. Wurtz

    2011-01-01

    Sweetclover (Melilotus alba) is a nonnative legume that has formed dense and extensive patches along several rivers in Alaska. Our research objective was to determine if sweetclover impacts recruitment of native seedlings in floodplain habitats. To determine if sweetclover impacted recruitment, we conducted a removal experiment along two rivers in...

  4. Phytomass in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    1998-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for the southeast Alaska archipelago. Average phytomass for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 10 forest and 4 nonforest vegetation types is shown.

  5. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  6. Employee, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Resources Division of Corporations, Business & Professional Licensing Dept. of Commerce Benefits Resources State Employee Directory State Calendar State Training: LearnAlaska State Travel Manager) Web Mail (Outlook) Login Who to Call Health Insurance Insurance Benefits Health and Optional

  7. Bears and pipeline construction in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follmann, E.H.; Hechtel, J.L. (Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks, AK (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Serious problems were encountered with bears during construction of the 1274-km trans-Alaska oil pipeline between Prudhoe Bay and Valdez. This multi-billion-dollar project traversed both black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) and grizzly bear (U. arctos L.) habitat throughtout its entire length. Plans for dealing with anticipated problems with bears were often inadequate. Most (71%) problems occurred north of the Yukon River in a previously roadless wilderness where inadequate refuse disposal and widespread animal feeding created dangerous situations. Of the 192 officially reported bear problems associated with the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) (1971-1979), about 65% involved the presence of bears in camps or dumps, 13% the feeding of bears on garbage or handouts, 10% property damage or economic loss, 7% bears under and in buildings, and only 5% charges by bears. Remarkably, no bear-related injuries were reported, suggesting that bears became accustomed to people and did not regard them as a threat. Following construction of the TAPS there have been proposals for pipelines to transport natural gas from Prudhoe Bay to southern and Pacific-rim markets. Based on past experience, some animal control measures were developed during the planning phase for the authorized gas pipeline route in Alaska. Fences installed around 100-person survey camps were found to be effective in deterring bears in two traditionally troublesome areas. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  9. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  10. EPA Research in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s collaboration with the DEC and the Air Force on PFAS sampling and analytical methods is key to ensuring valid, defensible data are collected on these emerging contaminants that are being found in soil, groundwater and drinking water in Alaska.

  11. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  12. The evolving Alaska mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P.D.; O'Brien, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development of mapping in Alaska, the current status of the National Mapping Program, and future plans for expanding and improving the mapping coverage. Research projects with Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Return Vidicon imagery and real- and synthetic-aperture radar; image mapping programs; digital mapping; remote sensing projects; the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act; and the Alaska High-Altitude Aerial Photography Program are also discussed.-from Authors

  13. Alaska's nest egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Thomas.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the Alaska Permanent Fund was established to receive a substantial share of the state's oil receipts and to invest these monies each year. Four key aspects are unique to Alaska's providential fund among oil-producing states. Firstly a constitutional amendment is needed to touch the assets so the capital is safe from encroachment by the government. Secondly, each Alaskan gets a detailed breakdown of what is invested and what is earned. In the third place, and most importantly, each Alaskan receives an annual dividend from the Fund. Fourthly, the funds have been prudently invested almost entirely outside Alaska rather than in unremunerative vanity infrastructure projects. Now, however, oil production is falling and revenues per barrel from new fields with higher costs are projected to decline as well. Given the budget shortfall, there is now a debate about whether the dividends paid directly to the people, should be shifted, at least in part to the state budget. Although the Fund's capital cannot be touched by the government, the Legislature does have the right to dispose of the income. The arguments in this debate over policy and political philosophy are examined. (UK)

  14. Chena River Lakes Project, Fairbanks, Alaska. Overview of Tanana River Monitoring Research Studies Near Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    SOILS The regional soil association along both reaches is loamy, consisting of nearly level histic pergelic cryaquepts5 and typic cryofluvents6...are flooded occasionally. The histic pergelic cryaquepts occur in poorly drained, low areas such as meander scars. They have thick surface organic...rHistic pergelic cryaquepts: soils with texture ranging from gravelly sand to clay, color from gray to olive grey, thick organic matter on surface

  15. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    marijuana means for Alaska and you. Careline: 1-877-266-HELP (4357) Alaska's Tobacco Quitline Learn the Twitter Find us on Facebook Quicklinks Alaska Opioid Policy Task Force "Spice" Synthetic Marijuana Health Information Alaska State Plan for Senior Services, FY 2016-FY 2019 Get health insurance at

  16. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  17. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, V M; Causey, D; López, J A

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the first detailed analysis of the mitochondrial DNA diversity of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska using a 678 bp segment of the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial genome. Findings suggest that the history of C. sardinella in Alaska differs from that of other species of Coregonus present in the state and surrounding regions. The examined populations of C. sardinella are genetically diverse across Alaska. Sixty-eight distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were identified among 305 individuals sampled from nine locations. The haplotype minimum spanning network and phylogeny showed a modest level of geographic segregation among haplotypes, suggesting high levels of on-going or recent connectivity among distant populations. Observed Φ ST values and the results of homogeneity and AMOVAs indicate incipient genetic differentiation between aggregations in three broad regional groups. Sites north of the Brooks Range formed one group, sites in the Yukon and Selawik Rivers formed a second group and sites south of the Yukon drainage formed the third group. Overall, the sequence data showed that a large proportion of mtDNA genetic variation in C. sardinella is shared across Alaska, but this variation is not homogeneously distributed across all regions and for all haplotype groups. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew R. Sloat; Gordon H. Reeves; Kelly R. Christiansen

    2016-01-01

    In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural...

  19. Alaska exceptionality hypothesis: Is Alaska wilderness really different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Brown

    2002-01-01

    The common idiom of Alaska as “The Last Frontier” suggests that the relative remoteness and unsettled character of Alaska create a unique Alaskan identity, one that is both a “frontier” and the “last” of its kind. The frontier idiom portrays the place and people of Alaska as exceptional or different from the places and people who reside in the Lower Forty- Eight States...

  20. Engineering Geology | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska's Mineral Industry Reports AKGeology.info Rare Earth Elements WebGeochem Engineering Geology Alaska content Engineering Geology Additional information Engineering Geology Posters and Presentations Alaska Alaska MAPTEACH Tsunami Inundation Mapping Engineering Geology Staff Projects The Engineering Geology

  1. 2005 Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Lidar: Unalakleet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report is a summary of a LiDAR data collection over the community of Unalakleet, in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The original data were collected on...

  2. Kevadel Alaska talves / Tiiu Ehrenpreis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehrenpreis, Tiiu

    2007-01-01

    Autori muljeid 22.-25. märtsini Fairbanksis toimunud Alaska Ülikooli ja Ülemaailmse Arktika Uurimise Keskuse (IARC) juhtimisel GLOBE'i programmi uue projekti "Aastaajad ja bioomid" koolitusseminarist

  3. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...

  4. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  5. Level III Ecoregions of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. The ecoregions of Alaska are a...

  6. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  7. On the climate and climate change of Sitka, Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Gerd; Galloway, Kevin; Stuefer, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Sitka, located in southeastern coastal Alaska, is the only meteorological station in Alaska and northern coastal British Columbia, with a long climatological record, going back to the first half of the nineteenth century. Sitka was the capital of Alaska, when it was part of the Russian Empire, to which Alaska belonged until 1867, when the American government purchased it. In 1827, the Russian established an observatory on Baranof Island, Sitka Harbor, which made 17-hourly observations, later extended to 19 and thereafter to all hours of the day. When analyzing the data, the 12-day time difference between the Russian (Julian) calendar, at which the observations were made, and ours (Gregorian) has to be considered. The climate of Sitka is maritime, with relative warm winter temperatures—there is no month with a mean temperature below freezing—and moderately warm summer temperatures with 4 months above the 10 °C level and plentiful precipitation all-year long. It is the warmest zone of Alaska. Even though there is a substantial break in observations in the late nineteenth century, these are the only observation, which started so early in the nineteenth century. Systematic US-based observations commenced much later normally in connection with the gold rush, whaling in Northern Alaska, and the fur trade, predominantly along the Yukon River. During the 186 years of observations from 1827 to 2013, the best linear fit gave a temperature increase of 1.56 °C for the whole period or 0.86 °C per century, somewhat lower than expected for the relatively high latitudes. The increase was nonlinear, with several multi-decadal variations. However, when comparing the first normal (1831-1860) to the last normal (1981-2010) and assuming a linear trend, a higher value of 1.06 °C per century was calculated. The discrepancy might be explained by nonlinearity and the fact that during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, observations were sporadic. Furthermore, the

  8. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Alaska. Final report, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    During the months of July and August of 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 3 0 x 1 0 and one (1) 4 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles of the Alaska North Slope. These include the Barrow, Wainwright, Meade River, Teshekpuk, Harrison Bay, Beechey Point, Point Lay, Utukok River, Lookout Ridge, Ikpikpuk River, Umiat, and Sagavanirktok quadrangles. This report discusses the results obtained over the Harrison Bay map area

  9. Rural Alaska Science and Mathematics Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brunk, Blanche R

    2005-01-01

    ...), are awarded to Alaska Native students. Academic preparation, lack of exposure to science careers in rural Alaska, and little connection between western science and Native traditional life have combined to impede Native students' interest...

  10. Life cycle costs for Alaska bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    A study was implemented to assist the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (ADOT&PF) with life cycle costs for : the Alaska Highway Bridge Inventory. The study consisted of two parts. Part 1 involved working with regional offices...

  11. Publications - Geospatial Data | Alaska Division of Geological &

    Science.gov (United States)

    from rocks collected in the Richardson mining district, Big Delta Quadrangle, Alaska: Alaska Division Island 2009 topography: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Miscellaneous Publication , Geologic map of portions of the Livengood B-3, B-4, C-3, and C-4 quadrangles, Tolovana mining district

  12. Harvesting morels after wildfire in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricia L. Wurtz; Amy L. Wiita; Nancy S. Weber; David Pilz

    2005-01-01

    Morels are edible, choice wild mushrooms that sometimes fruit prolifically in the years immediately after an area has been burned by wildfire. Wildfires are common in interior Alaska; an average of 708,700 acres burned each year in interior Alaska between 1961 and 2000, and in major fire years, over 2 million acres burned. We discuss Alaska's boreal forest...

  13. Paleoseismic study of the Cathedral Rapids fault in the northern Alaska Range near Tok, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, R. D.; Farrell, R.; Carver, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Cathedral Rapids fault extends ~40 km between the Tok and Robertson River valleys and is the easternmost fault in a series of active south-dipping imbricate thrust faults which bound the northern flank of the Alaska Range. Collectively, these faults accommodate a component of convergence transferred north of the Denali fault and related to the westward (counterclockwise) rotation of the Wrangell Block driven by relative Pacific/North American plate motion along the eastern Aleutian subduction zone and Fairweather fault system. To the west, the system has been defined as the Northern Foothills Fold and Thrust Belt (NFFTB), a 50-km-wide zone of east-west trending thrust faults that displace Quaternary deposits and have accommodated ~3 mm/yr of shortening since latest Pliocene time (Bemis, 2004). Over the last several years, the eastward extension of the NFFTB between Delta Junction and the Canadian border has been studied by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys to better characterize faults that may affect engineering design of the proposed Alaska-Canada natural gas pipeline and other infrastructure. We summarize herein reconnaissance field observations along the western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault. The western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault extends 21 km from Sheep Creek to Moon Lake and is characterized by three roughly parallel sinuous traces that offset glacial deposits of the Illinoian to early Wisconsinan Delta glaciations and the late Wisconsinan Donnelly glaciation, as well as, Holocene alluvial deposits. The northern trace of the fault is characterized by an oversteepened, beveled, ~2.5-m-high scarp that obliquely cuts a Holocene alluvial fan and projects into the rangefront. Previous paleoseismic studies along the eastern part of the Cathedral Rapids fault and Dot “T” Johnson fault indicate multiple latest Pleistocene and Holocene earthquakes associated with anticlinal folding and thrust faulting (Carver et al., 2010

  14. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  15. Waterborne Commerce of the United States Calendar Year 1987. Part 4. Waterways and Harbors Pacific Coast, Alaska and Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-31

    AND UNAR OR DRY CARGO TANKER AN TASER DRY CARGO TUGBOAT DR CARGO RUGASO SK3G4 AY IARBOR, ALASKA..(CONTINJED) INJ8IJJND OJTBOJND 25...122 Colombia River Entrance, Oreg., and Lewis River, Wash. ---- 59, 119 Wash. ------------ 40, 115 Long Beach Harbor, Calif. ,----- 4 105...6, 105 Colombia Rsver, Portn other than Portland, Lynn Canal, blask--------5. 128 Astoria, St. Helens, Longvien, Vanvoover, and Kala -------- 4

  16. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Cristina M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state.

  17. Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

    2013-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

  18. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  19. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  20. Resilience of Alaska's Boreal Forest to Climatic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. S., III; McGuire, A. D.; Ruess, R. W.; Hollingsworth, T. N.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Kasischke, E. S.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Jones, J. B.; Jorgenson, M. T.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the resilience of Alaska s boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. Recent warming is associated with reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease and insect outbreaks, warming and thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes, increased wildfire extent, increased postfire recruitment of deciduous trees, and reduced safety of hunters traveling on river ice. These changes have modified key structural features, feedbacks, and interactions in the boreal forest, including reduced effects of upland permafrost on regional hydrology, expansion of boreal forest into tundra, and amplification of climate warming because of reduced albedo (shorter winter season) and carbon release from wildfires. Other temperature-sensitive processes for which no trends have been detected include composition of plant and microbial communities, long-term landscape-scale change in carbon stocks, stream discharge, mammalian population dynamics, and river access and subsistence opportunities for rural indigenous communities. Projections of continued warming suggest that Alaska s boreal forest will undergo significant functional and structural changes within the next few decades that are unprecedented in the last 6000 years. The impact of these social ecological changes will depend in part on the extent of landscape reorganization between uplands and lowlands and on policies regulating subsistence opportunities for rural communities.

  1. Alaska Resource Data File, McCarthy quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Travis L.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  2. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Peninsula is composed of the late Paleozoic to Quaternary sedimentary, igneous, and minor metamorphic rocks that record the history of a number of magmatic arcs. These magmatic arcs include an unnamed Late Triassic(?) and Early Jurassic island arc, the early Cenozoic Meshik arc, and the late Cenozoic Aleutian arc. Also found on the Alaska Peninsula is one of the most complete nonmetamorphosed, fossiliferous, marine Jurassic sedimentary sections known. As much as 8,500 m of section of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks record the growth and erosion of the Early Jurassic island arc.

  3. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  4. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  5. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  6. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  7. Cambrian trilobites with Siberian affinities, southwestern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.R.; Egbert, R.M.; Sullivan, R.; Knoth, J.S.

    1985-02-01

    Cambrian trilobites occur in two levels (about 7 m apart) in the core of a large, complex anticlinal structure in the area between the Taylor Mountains and the Hoholitna River in southwestern Alaska. The lower collection contains Erbia, Macannaia (a species close to Soviet forms described as Pagetia ferox Lermontova), two species of Kootenia (including one perhaps cospecific with forms from the central Brooks range), and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. It is clear that biogeographic affinities are with the transitional facies of the eastern Siberian platform and the south Siberian foldbelt. In Soviet terms, the age of the collection falls in a disputed interval called latest Early Cambrian (Tojonian) by some authors, and earliest Middle Cambrian (Amgan) by others. In North American terms, Macannaia is known only from early Middle Cambrian beds. The younger collection contains abundant agnostids, a variety of conocoryphids, Paradoxides, and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. This is an assemblage of undoubted late Middle Cambrian age, comparable to faunas described from the Maya State of the Siberian platform and the Paradoxides paradoxissimus Stage of the Baltic region. Both faunas are from ocean-facing or outer shelf environments. None of the key non-agnostid or non-pagetiid elements have been seen previously in deposits of Cambrian North America.

  8. Geochemical evidence for seasonal controls on the transportation of Holocene loess, Matanuska Valley, southern Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel; Budahn, James R.; Skipp, Gary L.; McGeehin, John

    2016-01-01

    Loess is a widespread Quaternary deposit in Alaska and loess accretion occurs today in some regions, such as the Matanuska Valley. The source of loess in the Matanuska Valley has been debated for more than seven decades, with the Knik River and the Matanuska River, both to the east, being the leading candidates and the Susitna River, to the west, as a less favorable source. We report here new stratigraphic, mineralogic, and geochemical data that test the competing hypotheses of these river sources. Loess thickness data are consistent with previous studies that show that a source or sources lay to the east, which rules out the Susitna River as a source. Knik and Matanuska River silts can be distinguished using Sc–Th–La, LaN/YbN vs. Eu/Eu∗, Cr/Sc, and As/Sb. Matanuska Valley loess falls clearly within the range of values for these ratios found in Matanuska River silt. Dust storms from the Matanuska River are most common in autumn, when river discharge is at a minimum and silt-rich point bars are exposed, wind speed from the north is beginning to increase after a low-velocity period in summer, snow depth is still minimal, and soil temperatures are still above freezing. Thus, seasonal changes in climate and hydrology emerge as critical factors in the timing of aeolian silt transport in southern Alaska. These findings could be applicable to understanding seasonal controls on Pleistocene loess accretion in Europe, New Zealand, South America, and elsewhere in North America.

  9. Origin of last-glacial loess in the western Yukon-Tanana Upland, central Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Budahn, James R.; Skipp, Gary L.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Jensen, Britta

    2018-01-01

    Loess is widespread over Alaska, and its accumulation has traditionally been associated with glacial periods. Surprisingly, loess deposits securely dated to the last glacial period are rare in Alaska, and paleowind reconstructions for this time period are limited to inferences from dune orientations. We report a rare occurrence of loess deposits dating to the last glacial period, ~19 ka to ~12 ka, in the Yukon-Tanana Upland. Loess in this area is very coarse grained (abundant coarse silt), with decreases in particle size moving south of the Yukon River, implying that the drainage basin of this river was the main source. Geochemical data show, however, that the Tanana River valley to the south is also a likely distal source. The occurrence of last-glacial loess with sources to both the south and north is explained by both regional, synoptic-scale winds from the northeast and opposing katabatic winds that could have developed from expanded glaciers in both the Brooks Range to the north and the Alaska Range to the south. Based on a comparison with recent climate modeling for the last glacial period, seasonality of dust transport may also have played a role in bringing about contributions from both northern and southern sources.

  10. Hydrologic information for land-use planning; Fairbanks vicinity, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gordon L.

    1978-01-01

    The flood plain on the Chena and Tanana Rivers near Fairbanks, Alaska, has abundant water in rivers and in an unconfined alluvial aquifer. The principal source of ground water is the Tanana River, from which ground water flows northwesterly to the Chena River. Transmissivity of the aquifer commonly exceed 100 ,000 sq ft. The shallow water table (less than 15 ft below land surface), high hydraulic conductivity of the sediments and cold soil give the flood plain a high susceptibility to pollution by onsite sewerage systems. The Environmental Protection Agency recommended maximum concentrations for drinking water may be exceeded in surface water for manganese and bacteria and in ground water for iron, manganese, and bacteria. Residents of the uplands obtain water principally from a widely-distributed fractured schist aquifer. The aquifer is recharged by local infiltration of precipitation and is drained by springs on the lower slopes and by ground-water flow to alluvial aquifers of the valleys. The annual base flow from basins in the uplands ranged from 3,000 to 100,000 gallons per acre; the smallest base flows occur in basins nearest the city of Fairbanks. The thick silt cover and great depth to the water table give much of the uplands a low susceptibility to pollution by onsite sewage disposal. Ground water is locally high in nitrate, arsenic, iron , and manganese. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Home Page, Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Training Services Alaska Labor Relations Agency Labor Standards and Safety Vocational Rehabilitation Workers' Compensation Of Interest Alaska's Job Bank Job Fairs, Recruitments, and Workshops Finding

  12. Recruiting first generation college students into the Geosciences: Alaska's EDGE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A.; Connor, C.

    2008-12-01

    Funded in 2005-2008, by the National Science Foundation's Geoscience Education Division, the Experiential Discoveries in Geoscience Education (EDGE) project was designed to use glacier and watershed field experiences as venues for geospatial data collected by Alaska's grade 6-12 middle and high school teachers and their students. EDGE participants were trained in GIS and learned to analyze geospatial data to answer questions about the warming Alaska environment and to determine rates of ongoing glacier recession. Important emphasis of the program was the recruitment of Alaska Native students of Inupiat, Yup'ik, Athabascan, and Tlingit populations, living in both rural and urban areas around the state. Twelve of Alaska's 55 school districts have participated in the EDGE program. To engage EDGE students in the practice of scientific inquiry, each was required to carry out a semester scale research project using georeferenced data, guided by their EDGE teacher and mentor. Across Alaska students investigated several Earth systems processes including freezing conditions of lake ice; the changes in water quality in storm drains after rainfall events; movements of moose, bears, and bison across Alaskan landscapes; changes in permafrost depth in western Alaska; and the response of migrating waterfowl to these permafrost changes. Students correlated the substrate beneath their schools with known earthquake intensities; measured cutbank and coastal erosion on northern rivers and southeastern shorelines; tracked salmon infiltration of flooded logging roads; noted the changing behavior of eagles during late winter salmon runs; located good areas for the use of tidal power for energy production; tracked the extent and range of invasive plant species with warming; and the change of forests following deglaciation. Each cohort of EDGE students and teachers finished the program by attended a 3-day EDGE symposium at which students presented their research projects first in a

  13. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  14. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  15. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  16. Canyon Creek: A late Pleistocene vertebrate locality in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Florence R.; Hamilton, Thomas D.; Hopkins, David M.; Repenning, Charles A.; Haas, Herbert

    1981-09-01

    The Canyon Creek vertebrate-fossil locality is an extensive road cut near Fairbanks that exposes sediments that range in age from early Wisconsin to late Holocene. Tanana River gravel at the base of the section evidently formed during the Delta Glaciation of the north-central Alaska Range. Younger layers and lenses of fluvial sand are interbedded with arkosic gravel from Canyon Creek that contains tephra as well as fossil bones of an interstadial fauna about 40,000 years old. Solifluction deposits containing ventifacts, wedge casts, and rodent burrows formed during a subsequent period of periglacial activity that took place during the maximum phase of Donnelly Glaciation about 25,000-17,000 years ago. Overlying sheets of eolian sand are separated by a 9500-year-old paleosol that may correlate with a phase of early Holocene spruce expansion through central Alaska. The Pleistocene fauna from Canyon Creek consists of rodents (indicated by burrows), Mammuthus primigenius (woolly mammoth), Equus lambei (Yukon wild ass), Camelops hesternus (western camel), Bison sp. cf. B. crassicornis (large-horned bison), Ovis sp. cf. O. dalli (mountain sheep), Canis sp. cf. C. lupus (wolf), Lepus sp. cf. L. othus or L. arcticus (tundra hare), and Rangifer sp. (caribou). This assemblage suggests an open landscape in which trees and tall shrubs were either absent or confined to sheltered and moist sites. Camelops evidently was present in eastern Beringia during the middle Wisconsin interstadial interval but may have disappeared during the following glacial episode. The stratigraphic section at Canyon Creek appears to demonstrate that the Delta Glaciation of the north-central Alaska Range is at least in part of early Wisconsin age and was separated from the succeeding Donnelly Glaciation by an interstadial rather than interglacial episode.

  17. Economic growth and change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on economic trends since the 1970s in rural southeast Alaska. These trends are compared with those in the Nation and in nonmetropolitan areas of the country to determine the extent to which the economy in rural southeast Alaska is affected by regional activity and by larger market forces. Many of the economic changes occurring in rural southeast...

  18. The State of Alaska Agency Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administrative Services Division of Banking and Securities Division of Community & Regional Affairs Division Services Public Notices Alaska Communities Resident Working Finding Work in Alaska Private Industry Jobs Development Environmental Conservation Fish and Game Governor's Office Health and Social Services Labor and

  19. Alaska Plant Materials Center | Division of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management Plan for Alaska, 2005 2017 AK Potato Seed Certification Handbook Tobacco Rattle Virus in Peonies Virus and Thrips Vectors Resources Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook Pacific Northwest Potato Production Disease Risk Monitoring Publications and Reports Late Blight Management Plan for Alaska

  20. Nontimber forest product opportunities in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilz; Susan J. Alexander; Jerry Smith; Robert Schroeder; Jim. Freed

    2006-01-01

    Nontimber forest products from southern Alaska (also called special forest products) have been used for millennia as resources vital to the livelihoods and culture of Alaska Natives and, more recently, as subsistence resources for the welfare of all citizens. Many of these products are now being sold, and Alaskans seek additional income opportunities through...

  1. Potential for forest products in interior Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R. Sampson; Willem W.S. van Hees; Theodore S. Setzer; Richard C. Smith

    1988-01-01

    Future opportunities for producing Alaska forest products were examined from the perspective of timber supply as reported in timber inventory reports and past studies of forest products industry potential. The best prospects for increasing industrial production of forest products in interior Alaska are for softwood lumber. Current softwood lumber production in the...

  2. Administrative Services Division - Alaska Department of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    accounting practices and procedures. JoAnn Pelayo Finance Officer Email: joann.pelayo@alaska.gov Tel: (907 @alaska.gov Tel: (907) 465-3674 Fiscal and Accounting Provide centralized fiscal and accounting functions for , inter-departmental payments for core services, payroll accounting adjustments and oversight, and grant

  3. Impact of remote oceanic forcing on Gulf of Alaska sea levels and mesoscale circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Metzger, E. Joseph; Hurlburt, Harley E.

    2003-11-01

    We examine the relative importance of regional wind forcing and teleconnections by an oceanic pathway for impact on interannual ocean circulation variability in the Gulf of Alaska. Any additional factors that contribute to this variability, such as freshwater forcing from river runoff, are disregarded. The study is based on results from numerical simulations, sea level data from tide gauge stations, and sea surface height anomalies from satellite altimeter data. At the heart of this investigation is a comparison of ocean simulations that include and exclude interannual oceanic teleconnections of an equatorial origin. Using lagged correlations, the model results imply that 70-90% of the interannual coastal sea level variance in the Gulf of Alaska can be related to interannual sea levels at La Libertad, Equador. These values are higher than the corresponding range from sea level data, which is 25-55%. When oceanic teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific are excluded in the model, the explained variance becomes about 20% or less. During poleward propagation the coastally trapped sea level signal in the model is less attenuated than the observed signal. In the Gulf of Alaska we find well-defined sea level peaks in the aftermath of El Niño events. The interannual intensity of eddies in the Gulf of Alaska also peaks after El Niño events; however, these maxima are less clear after weak and moderate El Niño events. The interannual variations in eddy activity intensity are predominantly governed by the regional atmospheric forcing.

  4. Observing a catastrophic thermokarst lake drainage in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The formation and drainage of thermokarst lakes have reshaped ice-rich permafrost lowlands in the Arctic throughout the Holocene. North of Teshekpuk Lake, on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, thermokarst lakes presently occupy 22.5% of the landscape, and drained thermokarst lake basins occupy 61.8%. Analysis of remotely sensed imagery indicates that nine lakes (>10 ha) have drained in the 1,750 km2 study area between 1955 and 2014. The most recent lake drainage was observed using in situ data loggers providing information on the duration and magnitude of the event, and a nearby weather station provided information on the environmental conditions preceding the lake drainage. Lake 195 (L195), an 80 ha thermokarst lake with an estimated water volume of ~872,000 m3, catastrophically drained on 05 July 2014. Abundant winter snowfall and heavy early summer precipitation resulted in elevated lake water levels that likely promoted bank overtopping, thermo-erosion along an ice-wedge network, and formation of a 9 m wide, 2 m deep, and 70 m long drainage gully. The lake emptied in 36 hours, with 75% of the water volume loss occurring in the first ten hours. The observed peak discharge of the resultant flood was 25 m3/s, which is similar to that in northern Alaska river basins whose areas are more than two orders of magnitude larger. Our findings support the catastrophic nature of sudden lake drainage events and the mechanistic hypotheses developed by J. Ross Mackay.

  5. Ecosystem Carbon Emissions from 2015 Forest Fires in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2018-01-01

    In the summer of 2015, hundreds of wildfires burned across the state of Alaska, and consumed more than 1.6 million ha of boreal forest and wetlands in the Yukon-Koyukuk region. Mapping of 113 large wildfires using Landsat satellite images from before and after 2015 indicated that nearly 60% of this area was burned at moderate-to-high severity levels. Field measurements near the town of Tanana on the Yukon River were carried out in July of 2017 in both unburned and 2015 burned forested areas (nearly adjacent to one-another) to visually verify locations of different Landsat burn severity classes (low, moderate, or high). Results: Field measurements indicated that the loss of surface organic layers in boreal ecosystem fires is a major factor determining post-fire soil temperature changes, depth of thawing, and carbon losses from the mineral topsoil layer. Measurements in forest sites showed that soil temperature profiles to 30 cm depth at burned forest sites increased by an average of 8o - 10o C compared to unburned forest sites. Sampling and laboratory analysis indicated a 65% reduction in soil carbon content and a 58% reduction in soil nitrogen content in severely burned sample sites compared to soil mineral samples from nearby unburned spruce forests. Conclusions: Combined with nearly unprecedented forest areas severely burned in the Interior region of Alaska in 2015, total ecosystem fire emission of carbon to the atmosphere exceeded most previous estimates for the state.

  6. Western Alaska ESI: STREAMS (River and Stream Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines representing inland linear hydrography features used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western...

  7. The 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake and tsunamis: a modern perspective and enduring legacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Filson, John R.; Fuis, Gary S.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Holzer, Thomas L.; Plafker, George; Blair, J. Luke

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake that struck south-central Alaska at 5:36 p.m. on Friday, March 27, 1964, is the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history and the second-largest earthquake recorded with modern instruments. The earthquake was felt throughout most of mainland Alaska, as far west as Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands some 480 miles away, and at Seattle, Washington, more than 1,200 miles to the southeast of the fault rupture, where the Space Needle swayed perceptibly. The earthquake caused rivers, lakes, and other waterways to slosh as far away as the coasts of Texas and Louisiana. Water-level recorders in 47 states—the entire Nation except for Connecticut, Delaware, and Rhode Island— registered the earthquake. It was so large that it caused the entire Earth to ring like a bell: vibrations that were among the first of their kind ever recorded by modern instruments. The Great Alaska Earthquake spawned thousands of lesser aftershocks and hundreds of damaging landslides, submarine slumps, and other ground failures. Alaska’s largest city, Anchorage, located west of the fault rupture, sustained heavy property damage. Tsunamis produced by the earthquake resulted in deaths and damage as far away as Oregon and California. Altogether the earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused 129 fatalities and an estimated $2.3 billion in property losses (in 2013 dollars). Most of the population of Alaska and its major transportation routes, ports, and infrastructure lie near the eastern segment of the Aleutian Trench that ruptured in the 1964 earthquake. Although the Great Alaska Earthquake was tragic because of the loss of life and property, it provided a wealth of data about subductionzone earthquakes and the hazards they pose. The leap in scientific understanding that followed the 1964 earthquake has led to major breakthroughs in earth science research worldwide over the past half century. This fact sheet commemorates Great Alaska Earthquake and

  8. Perinatal mortality in caribou from the Porcupine herd, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T J

    1993-04-01

    During the 1989 caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calving season on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska (USA), 61 calf carcasses were examined for cause of death and associated pathology. Dead calves were located by low-level aerial searches with two fixed-wing aircraft and a helicopter over high density calving areas between the Hulahula and Aichilik rivers. Primary diagnoses included emaciation (39%), malnutrition (8%), stillbirth (21%), trauma (16%), other primary causes (7%), and undetermined causes (8%). Twenty calves had contributory renal tubular degeneration. The findings indicate that factors contributing to nutritional deprivation in calves were the major cause of neonatal mortality; however, factors affecting stillbirth, abortion, or the urogenital system may have major effects on neonatal caribou and warrant further investigation.

  9. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  10. Sitka, Alaska 9 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 9 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  11. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  12. Homer, Alaska 8 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 8-second Homer Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 8-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  13. Western Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent species occurrences...

  14. Gravity Data for Southwestern Alaska #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1294 records) were compiled by the Alaska Geological Survey and the U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. This data base was...

  15. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  16. Southeast Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, aquaculture sites, boat ramps, marinas, heliports, and log storage areas in Southeast Alaska. Vector...

  17. Alaska North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  18. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  19. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  20. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  1. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  2. Alaska East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 millionterrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  3. Alaska1(ak1_wpn) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (10,578 records) were compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the State of Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. This...

  4. ANWR and Alaska Peninsula Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1252 records) were compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the State of Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. This...

  5. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  6. Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish Program) on June 14, 2010, to replace the expiring Pilot...

  7. Southeast Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for waterfowl in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of foraging and rafting...

  8. Seldovia, Alaska 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3-second Seldovia Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly...

  9. Sitka, Alaska 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  10. Sitka, Alaska 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 3 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  11. 2 minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2-minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2-minute resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  12. Seward, Alaska 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second Seward Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2.67-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  13. Southeast Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and areas designated as Critical Habitat in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in...

  14. Seldovia, Alaska 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Seldovia, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  15. Kodiak, Alaska 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3-second Kodiak Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2.67-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly...

  16. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  17. Civil Division - Alaska Department of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attorney General Opinions Executive Branch Ethics Criminal Justice Alaska Medicaid Fraud Control Anchorage department and other agencies on the management, retention, communication, and disclosure of information matters. In addition, the legislative liaison coordinates responses to media requests. Natural Resources

  18. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of fish streams....

  19. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  20. Western Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  1. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  2. Southeast Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls, and terns in Southeast Alaska. Points in this...

  3. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  4. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  5. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  6. 14 CFR 99.45 - Alaska ADIZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alaska ADIZ. 99.45 Section 99.45 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... Zones § 99.45 Alaska ADIZ. The area is bounded by a line from 54°00′N; 136°00′W; 56°57′N; 144°00′W; 57...

  7. Crustal Structure beneath Alaska from Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, A.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal structure in Alaska has not been well resolved due to the remote nature of much of the state. The USArray Transportable Array (TA), which is operating in Alaska and northwestern Canada, significantly increases the coverage of broadband seismic stations in the region and allows for a more comprehensive study of the crust. We have analyzed P-receiver functions from earthquake data recorded by 76 stations of the TA and AK networks. Both common conversion point (CCP) and H-K methods are used to estimate the mean crustal thickness. The results from the CCP stacking method show that the Denali fault marks a sharp transition from thick crust in the south to thin crust in the north. The thickest crust up to 52 km is located in the St. Elias Range, which has been formed by oblique collision between the Yakutat microplate and North America. A thick crust of 48 km is also observed beneath the eastern Alaska Range. These observations suggest that high topography in Alaska is largely compensated by the thick crust root. The Moho depth ranges from 28 km to 35 km beneath the northern lowlands and increases to 40-45 km under the Books Range. The preliminary crustal thickness from the H-K method generally agrees with that from the CCP stacking with thicker crust beneath high mountain ranges and thinner crust beneath lowlands and basins. However, the offshore part is not well constrained due to the limited coverage of stations. The mean Vp/Vs ratio is around 1.7 in the Yukon-Tanana terrane and central-northern Alaska. The ratio is about 1.9 in central and southern Alaska with higher values at the Alaska Range, Wrangell Mountains, and St. Elias Range. Further data analyses are needed for obtaining more details of the crustal structure in Alaska to decipher the origin and development of different tectonic terranes.

  8. Introduced northern pike consumption of salmonids in Southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Dupuis, Aaron W; Shields, Patrick A; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced northern pike (Esox lucius) on salmonid populations have attracted much attention because salmonids are popular subsistence, sport and commercial fish. Concern over the predatory effects of introduced pike on salmonids is especially high in Southcentral Alaska, where pike were illegally introduced to the Susitna River basin in the 1950s. We used pike abundance, growth, and diet estimates and bioenergetics models to characterise the realised and potential consumptive impacts that introduced pike (age 2 and older) have on salmonids in Alexander Creek, a tributary to the Susitna River. We found that juvenile salmonids were the dominant prey item in pike diets and that pike could consume up to 1.10 metric tons (realised consumption) and 1.66 metric tons (potential consumption) of juvenile salmonids in a summer. Age 3–4 pike had the highest per capita consumption of juvenile salmonids, and age 2 and age 3–4 pike had the highest overall consumption of juvenile salmonid biomass. Using historical data on Chinook salmon and pike potential consumption of juvenile salmonids, we found that pike consumption of juvenile salmonids may lead to collapsed salmon stocks in Alexander Creek. Taken together, our results indicate that pike consume a substantial biomass of juvenile salmonids in Alexander Creek and that coexistence of pike and salmon is unlikely without management actions to reduce or eliminate introduced pike.

  9. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Kotzebue, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Kotzebue, Alaska. Data provided for this project include wind turbine output, average wind speed, average net capacity factor, and optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  10. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...-0082; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...

  11. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... the taking of migratory birds and the collection of their eggs, by the indigenous inhabitants of the... particular land ownership, but applies to the harvesting of migratory bird resources throughout Alaska. A... ensure an effective and meaningful role for Alaska's indigenous inhabitants in the conservation of...

  12. 76 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... the collection of their eggs, by the indigenous inhabitants of the State of Alaska, shall be permitted... implications. This rule is not specific to particular land ownership, but applies to the harvesting of... the creation of management bodies to ensure an effective and meaningful role for Alaska's indigenous...

  13. Alaska Native Languages: Past, Present, and Future. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Michael E.

    Three papers (1978-80) written for the non-linguistic public about Alaska Native languages are combined here. The first is an introduction to the prehistory, history, present status, and future prospects of all Alaska Native languages, both Eskimo-Aleut and Athabaskan Indian. The second and third, presented as appendixes to the first, deal in…

  14. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 [EPA-EPA-R10-RCRA-2010-0953; FRL-9247-5] Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental... modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. On March 22, 2004, EPA...

  15. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...] Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved modification allows the State..., EPA issued a final rule (69 FR 13242) amending the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) criteria in...

  16. Controls on the size and occurrence of pools in coarse-grained forest rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Buffington; Thomas E. Lisle; Richard D. Woodsmith; Sue Hilton

    2002-01-01

    Controls on pool formation are examined in gravel- and cobble-bed rivers in forest mountain drainage basins of northern California, southern Oregon, and southeastern Alaska. We demonstrate that the majority of pools at our study sites are formed by flow obstructions and that pool geometry and frequency largely depend on obstruction characteristics (size, type, and...

  17. Dictionary of Alaska place names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.

    1971-01-01

    This work is an alphabetical list of the geographic names that are now applied and have been applied to places and features of the Alaska landscape. Principal names, compiled from modem maps and charts and printed in boldface type, generally reflect present-day local usage. They conform to the principles of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names for establishing standard names for use on Government maps and in other Government publications. Each name entry gives the present-day spelling along with variant spellings and names; identifies the feature named; presents the origin and history of the name; and, where possible, gives the meaning of an Eskimo, Aleut, Indian, or foreign name. Variant, obsolete, and doubtful names are alphabetically listed and are cross referenced, where necessary, to the principal entries.

  18. Authropogenic Warming in North Alaska?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Sappington, David E.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1988-09-01

    Using permafrost boreholes, Lachenbruch and Marshall recently reported evidence for a 2°-4°C warming in North Alaska occurring at some undetermined time during the last century. Popular accounts suggest their findings are evidence for anthropogenic warming caused by trace gases. Analyses of North Alaskan 1000-500 mb thickness onwards back to 1948 indicate that the warming was prior to that date. Relatively sparse thermometric data for the early twentieth century from Jones et al. are too noisy to support any trend since the data record begins in 1910, or to apply to any subperiod of climatic significance. Any warming detected from the permafrost record therefore occurred before the major emissions of thermally active trace gases.

  19. Geologic Map and Engineering Properties of the Surficial Deposits of the Tok Area, East-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    The Tok area 1:100,000-scale map, through which the Alaska Highway runs, is in east-central Alaska about 160 km west of the Yukon border. The surficial geologic mapping in the map area is in support of the 'Geologic Mapping in support of land, resources, and hazards issues in Alaska' Project of the USGS National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The Tok map area contains parts of three physiographic provinces, the Alaska Range, the Yukon-Tanana Upland, and the Northway-Tanana Lowland. The high, rugged, glaciated landscape of the eastern Alaska Range dominates the southwestern map area. The highest peak, an unnamed summit at the head of Cathedral Rapids Creek No. 2, rises to 2166 m. The gently rolling hills of the Yukon-Tanana Upland, in the northern map area, rise to about 1000 m. The Northway-Tanana Lowland contains the valley of the westerly flowing Tanana River. Elevations along the floor of the lowland generally range between 470 and 520 m. The dominant feature within the map is the Tok fan, which occupies about 20 percent of the map area. This large (450 km2), nearly featureless fan contains a high percentage of volcanic clasts derived from outside the present-day drainage of the Tok River. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 26 different surficial units consisting of man-made, alluvial, colluvial, eolian, lacustrine, organic, glaciofluvial, glacial, and periglacial deposits. The accompanying table provides information concerning the various units including their properties, characteristics, resource potential, and associated hazards in this area of the upper Tanana valley.

  20. Aviation and Airports, Transportation & Public Facilities, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities header image Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities / Aviation and Airports Search DOT&PF State of pages view official DOT&PF Flickr pages Department of Transportation & Public Facilities PO Box

  1. Alaska Native Villages and Rural Communities Water Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant human health and water quality problems exist in Alaska Native Village and other rural communities in the state due to lack of sanitation. To address these issues, EPA created the Alaska Rural and Native Villages Grant Program.

  2. Landsat time series analysis documents beaver migration into permafrost landscapes of arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. M.; Tape, K. D.; Nitze, I.; Arp, C. D.; Grosse, G.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape-scale impacts of climate change in the Arctic include increases in growing season length, shrubby vegetation, winter river discharge, snowfall, summer and winter water temperatures, and decreases in river and lake ice thickness. Combined, these changes may have created conditions that are suitable for beaver colonization of low Arctic tundra regions. We developed a semi-automated workflow that analyzes Landsat imagery time series to determine the extent to which beavers may have colonized permafrost landscapes in arctic Alaska since 1999. We tested this approach on the Lower Noatak, Wulik, and Kivalina river watersheds in northwest Alaska and identified 83 locations representing potential beaver activity. Seventy locations indicated wetting trends and 13 indicated drying trends. Verification of each site using high-resolution satellite imagery showed that 80 % of the wetting locations represented beaver activity (damming and pond formation), 11 % were unrelated to beavers, and 9 % could not readily be distinguished as being beaver related or not. For the drying locations, 31 % represented beaver activity (pond drying due to dam abandonment), 62 % were unrelated to beavers, and 7 % were undetermined. Comparison of the beaver activity database with historic aerial photography from ca. 1950 and ca. 1980 indicates that beavers have recently colonized or recolonized riparian corridors in northwest Alaska. Remote sensing time series observations associated with the migration of beavers in permafrost landscapes in arctic Alaska include thermokarst lake expansion and drainage, thaw slump initiation, ice wedge degradation, thermokarst shore fen development, and possibly development of lake and river taliks. Additionally, beaver colonization in the Arctic may alter channel courses, thermal regimes, hyporheic flow, riparian vegetation, and winter ice regimes that could impact ecosystem structure and function in this region. In particular, the combination of beaver

  3. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whissel, John C. [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States); Piche, Matthew [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  4. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  5. Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. Stuart; Trainor, Sarah F.; Cochran, Patricia; Huntington, Henry; Markon, Carl J.; McCammon, Molly; McGuire, A. David; Serreze, Mark; Melillo, J.M.; Richmond, Terese; Yohe, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Key Messages Arctic summer sea ice is receding faster than previously projected and is expected to virtually disappear before mid-century. This is altering marine ecosystems and leading to greater ship access, offshore development opportunity, and increased community vulnerability to coastal erosion.

  6. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  7. 24 CFR 598.515 - Alaska and Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alaska and Hawaii. 598.515 Section 598.515 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....515 Alaska and Hawaii. A nominated area in Alaska or Hawaii is deemed to satisfy the criteria of...

  8. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude 146°40...

  9. Wilderness insights From Alaska: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah L. Williams

    2007-01-01

    For many reasons, a significant percentage of Alaska’s wildlands have been successfully protected. The passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), in particular, represents one of the greatest land protection measures in human history. Numerous important factors have contributed to Alaska’s conservation successes, and many of these factors...

  10. Reality Investing | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content State of Alaska myAlaska My Government Resident Business in Alaska Visiting Comp All Other Programs Features Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Member Services Seminars Benefits > Reality Investing Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB

  11. 77 FR 4578 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-AKR-ANIA; 9924-PYS] Alaska Region's... public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC..., Alaska Region. [FR Doc. 2012-1860 Filed 1-27-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4310-HE-P ...

  12. 77 FR 4579 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-AKR-DENA; 9924-PYS] Alaska Region's... public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC..., Associate Regional Director, Resources and Subsistence, Alaska Region. [FR Doc. 2012-1877 Filed 1-27-12; 8...

  13. 77 FR 4581 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-AKR-LACL; 9924-PYS] Alaska Region's... public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC... Meeting Debora R. Cooper, Associate Regional Director, Resources and Subsistence, Alaska Region. [FR Doc...

  14. Geology of the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.

    2012-01-01

    The Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region includes a significant part of one of the world’s largest accretionary complexes and a small part of the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula. Physiographically, the map area ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska and Aleutian Ranges and the Chugach Mountains to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet and the Copper River delta. Structurally, the map area is cut by a number of major faults and postulated faults, the most important of which are the Border Ranges, Contact, and Bruin Bay Fault systems. The rocks of the map area belong to the Southern Margin composite terrane, a Tertiary and Cretaceous or older subduction-related accretionary complex, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane. Mesozoic rocks between these two terranes have been variously assigned to the Peninsular or the Hidden terranes. The oldest rocks in the map area are blocks of Paleozoic age within the mélange of the McHugh Complex; however, the protolith age of the greenschist and blueschist within the Border Ranges Fault zone is not known. Extensive glacial deposits mantle the Kenai Peninsula and the lowlands on the west side of Cook Inlet and are locally found elsewhere in the map area. This map was compiled from existing mapping, without generalization, and new or revised data was added where available.

  15. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska is one of the most seismically active and tectonically diverse regions in the United States. To examine risk, we have updated the seismic hazard model in Alaska. The current RMS Alaska hazard model is based on the 2007 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Alaska (Wesson et al., 2007; Boyd et al., 2007). The 2015 RMS model will update several key source parameters, including: extending the earthquake catalog, implementing a new set of crustal faults, updating the subduction zone geometry and reoccurrence rate. First, we extend the earthquake catalog to 2013; decluster the catalog, and compute new background rates. We then create a crustal fault model, based on the Alaska 2012 fault and fold database. This new model increased the number of crustal faults from ten in 2007, to 91 faults in the 2015 model. This includes the addition of: the western Denali, Cook Inlet folds near Anchorage, and thrust faults near Fairbanks. Previously the subduction zone was modeled at a uniform depth. In this update, we model the intraslab as a series of deep stepping events. We also use the best available data, such as Slab 1.0, to update the geometry of the subduction zone. The city of Anchorage represents 80% of the risk exposure in Alaska. In the 2007 model, the hazard in Alaska was dominated by the frequent rate of magnitude 7 to 8 events (Gutenberg-Richter distribution), and large magnitude 8+ events had a low reoccurrence rate (Characteristic) and therefore didn't contribute as highly to the overall risk. We will review these reoccurrence rates, and will present the results and impact to Anchorage. We will compare our hazard update to the 2007 USGS hazard map, and discuss the changes and drivers for these changes. Finally, we will examine the impact model changes have on Alaska earthquake risk. Consider risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the

  16. 78 FR 4435 - BLM Director's Response to the Alaska Governor's Appeal of the BLM Alaska State Director's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is publishing this notice to explain why the BLM Director is rejecting... Director's Response to the Alaska Governor's Appeal of the BLM Alaska State Director's Governor's... the BLM Alaska State Director. The State Director determined the Governor's Finding was outside the...

  17. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa Moreira, Paula [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report quantifies Alaska's offshore wind resource capacity while focusing on its unique nature. It is a supplement to the existing U.S. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment, which evaluated the offshore wind resource for all other U.S. states. Together, these reports provide the foundation for the nation's offshore wind value proposition. Both studies were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis presented herein represents the first quantitative evidence of the offshore wind energy potential of Alaska. The technical offshore wind resource area in Alaska is larger than the technical offshore resource area of all other coastal U.S. states combined. Despite the abundant wind resource available, significant challenges inhibit large-scale offshore wind deployment in Alaska, such as the remoteness of the resource, its distance from load centers, and the wealth of land available for onshore wind development. Throughout this report, the energy landscape of Alaska is reviewed and a resource assessment analysis is performed in terms of gross and technical offshore capacity and energy potential.

  18. 2014 volcanic activity in Alaska: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl E.; Dixon, James P.; Neal, Christina A.; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Schaefer, Janet R.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2017-09-07

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 18 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2014. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash eruptions from long-active Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands, and two eruptive episodes at Pavlof Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula. Semisopochnoi and Akutan volcanoes had seismic swarms, both likely the result of magmatic intrusion. The AVO also installed seismometers and infrasound instruments at Mount Cleveland during 2014.

  19. The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.

    2005-05-01

    Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through such channels. A similar percentage of the 37 ORWB located between Baton Rouge and Memphis on the lower Mississippi River at one time were linked to the river by tie or batture (as they are locally known) channels. Levee construction and other alterations aimed at flood control or navigation on the Mississippi have left only a handful of lakes connected to the river, of these, most are heavily altered by dredging or other modifications. Tie channels were also once common along major tributaries to the Mississippi, such as the Red River. In the much less disturbed Alaskan environment, tie channels are still common, especially along Birch Creek and the Koyukuk and Black rivers. Our studies on the Mississippi River, in Alaska and in Papua New Guinea indicate that tie channels possess a common channel form that is stable and self-maintaining for hundreds to possibly a thousand years. Tie channels exhibit narrow width to depth ratios (~ 5.5) and consistently scale in cross-sectional dimensions to the size of the lake into which they flow. Variations in river and lake stage drive flow bi-directionally through tie channels. A local high or sill in the bed of tie channels controls the degree and duration of connection between the river and ORWB, with many lakes becoming isolated during periods of low stage. The life-span of a tie channel depends on the rate of sediment loading to the ORWB. Our research indicates that this rate directly corresponds to the sediment loading in the main stem river. Along the Fly River, for example, a 5 to 7 fold increase in the river sediment load has resulted increases of 6 to 17

  20. AirSWOT Measurements of Water Surface Elevations and Hydraulic Gradients over the Yukon Flats, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, L. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Smith, L. C.; Moller, D.; Altenau, E. H.; Lion, C.; Bertram, M.; Cooley, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    AirSWOT is an airborne, Ka-band synthetic aperture radar interferometer (InSAR) intended to quantify surface water fluxes by mapping water surface elevations (WSE). AirSWOT will also serve as a calibration/validation tool for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (scheduled for launch in 2021). The hydrology objectives for AirSWOT and SWOT are to measure WSE with accuracies sufficient to estimate hydrologic fluxes in lakes, wetlands and rivers. However, current understanding of the performance of these related though not identical instruments when applied to complex river-lake-wetland fluvial environments remains predominantly theoretical. We present AirSWOT data acquired 15-June-2015 over the Yukon Flats, Alaska, USA, together with in situ field surveys, to assess the accuracy of AirSWOT WSE measurements in lakes and rivers. We use these data to demonstrate that AirSWOT can be used to estimate large-scale hydraulic gradients across wetland complexes. Finally, we present key lessons learned from this AirSWOT analysis for consideration in future campaigns, including: maximizing swath overlap for spatial averaging to minimize uncertainty as well as orienting flight paths parallel to river flow directions to reduce along track aircraft drift for neighboring flight paths. We conclude that spatially dense AirSWOT measurements of river and lake WSEs can improve geospatial understanding of surface water hydrology and fluvial processes.

  1. Robotic weather balloon launchers spread in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Julia

    2018-04-01

    Last week, things began stirring inside the truck-size box that sat among melting piles of snow at the airport in Fairbanks, Alaska. Before long, the roof of the box yawned open and a weather balloon took off into the sunny afternoon, instruments dangling. The entire launch was triggered with the touch of a button, 5 kilometers away at an office of the National Weather Service (NWS). The flight was smooth, just one of hundreds of twice-daily balloon launches around the world that radio back crucial data for weather forecasts. But most of those balloons are launched by people; the robotic launchers, which are rolling out across Alaska, are proving to be controversial. NWS says the autolaunchers will save money and free up staff to work on more pressing matters. But representatives of the employee union question their reliability, and say they will hasten the end of Alaska's remote weather offices, where forecasting duties and hours have already been slashed.

  2. Amchitka, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Amchitka Island is near the western end of the Aleutian Island chain and is the largest island in the Rat Island Group that is located about 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, and 870 miles east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The island is 42 miles long and 1 to 4 miles wide, with an area of approximately 74,240 acres. Elevations range from sea level to more than 1,100 feet above sea level. The coastline is rugged; sea cliffs and grassy slopes surround nearly the entire island. Vegetation on the island is low-growing, meadow-like tundra grasses at lower elevations. No trees grow on Amchitka. The lowest elevations are on the eastern third of the island and are characterized by numerous shallow lakes and heavily vegetated drainages. The central portion of the island has higher elevations and fewer lakes. The westernmost 3 miles of the island contains a windswept rocky plateau with sparse vegetation

  3. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  4. Consumer willingness to pay a price premium for standing-dead Alaska yellow-cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2004-01-01

    Alaska yellow-cedar has declined in Southeast Alaska over the past 100 years, resulting in half a million acres of dead or dying trees. The natural decay resistance of Alaska yellow-cedar means that many of these trees are still merchantable. However, the topography of Southeast Alaska is such that selectively harvesting Alaska yellow-cedar may often require helicopter...

  5. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Lime Hills and Tyonek NTMS Quadrangles, Alaska, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, S.I.; Aamodt, P.L.; Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The U contents of the 671 waters from the Lime Hills quadrangle range from below 0.02 ppB to a high of 11.29 ppB. U contents of the 667 sediments from this quadrangle range from a low of 0.1 ppM to a high of 94.9 ppM. Both waters and sediments containing relatively high U concentrations are found to cluster in association with plutonic rocks in the Alaska Range, and particularly so in the vicinity of the Tired Pup batholith and Mount Estelle pluton. The U contents of 575 waters from the Tyonek quadrangle range from below the detection limit to 13.13 ppB. Relatively high U concentrations in waters were found to cluster near the Mount Estelle pluton and undifferentiated igneous, metasedimentary, and volcanic rocks in the Alaska Range and in Pleistocene deposits along the Castle Mountain fault. Uranium contents in 502 sediments from the Tyonek quadrangle range from 0.1 to 58 ppM. Most sediment samples having high U concentrations are from locations near the Mount Estelle pluton and Styx River batholith in the Alaska Range. Data for samples collected in the Alaska Range and the two flanking lowlands were also examined separately. Water samples from all source types in the Alaska Range had a higher mean U concentration (0.85 ppB) than those from the Western Lowland (0.34 ppB) or the Susitna Lowland (0.51 ppB). The mean U concentrations for lake water samples from the Alaska Range and the lowland areas are similar. Sediment samples from streams and lakes in the Alaska Range have a markedly higher mean U concentration (7.00 ppM) than sediment samples from either the Western Lowland (2.46 ppM) or the Susitna Lowland area

  6. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Kougarok area, Bendeleben and Teller quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 302 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Kougarok River drainage as well as smaller adjacent drainages in the Bendeleben and Teller quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract lab. The new geochemical data are published in this report as a coauthored DGGS report, and will be incorporated

  7. 2012 Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) Lidar: Whittier, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In support of geologic mapping and hazards evaluation in and near Whittier, Alaska, the Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) acquired, and is making...

  8. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  9. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  10. Successful aging through the eyes of Alaska Natives: exploring generational differences among Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jordan P

    2010-12-01

    There is very little research on Alaska Native (AN) elders and how they subjectively define a successful older age. The lack of a culturally-specific definition often results in the use of a generic definition that portrays Alaska Native elders as aging less successfully than their White counterparts. However, there is a very limited understanding of a diverse array of successful aging experiences across generations. This research explores the concept of successful aging from an Alaska Native perspective, or what it means to age well in Alaska Native communities. An adapted Explanatory Model (EM) approach was used to gain a sense of the beliefs about aging from Alaska Natives. Research findings indicate that aging successfully is based on local understandings about personal responsibility and making the conscious decision to live a clean and healthy life, abstaining from drugs and alcohol. The findings also indicate that poor aging is often characterized by a lack of personal responsibility, or not being active, not being able to handle alcohol, and giving up on oneself. Most participants stated that elder status is not determined by reaching a certain age (e.g., 65), but instead is designated when an individual has demonstrated wisdom because of the experiences he or she has gained throughout life. This research seeks to inform future studies on rural aging that prioritizes the perspectives of elders to impact positively on the delivery of health care services and programs in rural Alaska.

  11. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the... affected waters of Eagle Bay and Eagle River in order to enhance safety and security. This portion of Eagle... B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier: Due to security...

  12. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...

  13. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    principals randomly selected from one hundred secondary schools in Cross River State. The data collected ... There was no siyriificant influerlce of gender on principals' leadership styles effectiveness. ... result of the cultural stereotyping of males and females by .... schools were single sex boys, another 10 were single sex ...

  14. USGS US topo maps for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Becci; Fuller, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    In July 2013, the USGS National Geospatial Program began producing new topographic maps for Alaska, providing a new map series for the state known as US Topo. Prior to the start of US Topo map production in Alaska, the most detailed statewide USGS topographic maps were 15-minute 1:63,360-scale maps, with their original production often dating back nearly fifty years. The new 7.5-minute digital maps are created at 1:25,000 map scale, and show greatly increased topographic detail when compared to the older maps. The map scale and data specifications were selected based on significant outreach to various map user groups in Alaska. This multi-year mapping initiative will vastly enhance the base topographic maps for Alaska and is possible because of improvements to key digital map datasets in the state. The new maps and data are beneficial in high priority applications such as safety, planning, research and resource management. New mapping will support science applications throughout the state and provide updated maps for parks, recreation lands and villages.

  15. 76 FR 3156 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... located in: Seward Meridian, Alaska T. 26 N., R. 47 W., Sec. 3, those lands formerly within mining claim... claim recordation AA- 32365. Containing approximately 155 acres. T. 27 N., R. 47 W., Sec. 34, those... e-mail at ak[email protected] , or by telecommunication device (TTD) through the Federal...

  16. 75 FR 13297 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... for 118.47 acres, located southeast of the Native village of Hughes, Alaska. Notice of the decision...: The Bureau of Land Management by phone at 907-271-5960, or by e-mail at ak[email protected]ak.blm.gov...

  17. Alaska Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' gravity anomaly grid for Alaska is NOT the input data set used in development of the GEOID96 model. This gravity grid models the 1.1 million terrestrial...

  18. Alaska midgrade logs: supply and offshore demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Wendy J. McGinnis

    1989-01-01

    The outlook for shipments and prices of export logs from Alaska differs significantly by grade (quality class). For the majority lying in the middle of the value range, the trend of prices is projected to increase $200 per thousand board feet, or about 55 percent, by 2000. Shipments are expected to rise about 30 percent by 1995 and then subside about 10 percent. These...

  19. Kids Count Alaska Data Book: 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska Univ., Anchorage. Inst. of Social and Economic Research.

    This statistical report examines findings on 15 indicators of children's well-being in Alaska: (1) percent of births with low birth weight; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child poverty rate; (4) children in single parent families; (5) births to teenagers age 15 to 17; (6) teen (age 16 to 19) high school dropout rate; (7) teens not in school and…

  20. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  1. University of Alaska 1997 Facilities Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Statewide Office of Institutional Research.

    This facilities inventory report presents a comprehensive listing of physical assets owned and operated by the University of Alaska and includes, for each asset, data on average age, weighted average age, gross square footage, original total project funding, and the asset's plant investment value adjusted to the current year. Facilities are listed…

  2. Grizzly bears and calving caribou: What is the relation with river corridors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Researchers have debated the effect of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline (TAP) and associated developments to caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the central Arctic herd (CAH) since the 1970s. Several studies have demonstrated that cows and calves of the CAH avoided the TAP corridor because of disturbance associated with the pipeline, whereas others have indicated that female caribou of the CAH avoided riparian habitats closely associated with the pipeline. This avoidance was explained as a predator-avoidance strategy. We investigated the relation between female caribou and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) use of river corridors on the yet undisturbed calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou herd (PCH) in northeastern Alaska. On the coastal plain, caribou were closer to river corridors than expected (P = 0.038), but bear use of river corridors did not differ from expected (P = 0.740). In the foothills, caribou use of river corridors did not differ from expected (P = 0.520), but bears were farther from rivers than expected (P = 0.001). Our results did not suggest an avoidance of river corridors by calving caribou or a propensity for bears to be associated with riparian habitats, presumably for stalking or ambush cover. We propose that PCH caribou reduce the risks of predation to neonates by migrating to a common calving grounds, where predator swamping is the operational antipredator strategy. Consequently, we hypothesize that nutritional demands, not predator avoidance strategies, ultimately regulate habitat use patterns (e.g., use of river corridors) of calving PCH caribou.

  3. Estimating River Surface Elevation From ArcticDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chunli; Durand, Michael; Howat, Ian M.; Altenau, Elizabeth H.; Pavelsky, Tamlin M.

    2018-04-01

    ArcticDEM is a collection of 2-m resolution, repeat digital surface models created from stereoscopic satellite imagery. To demonstrate the potential of ArcticDEM for measuring river stages and discharges, we estimate river surface heights along a reach of Tanana River near Fairbanks, Alaska, by the precise detection of river shorelines and mapping of shorelines to land surface elevation. The river height profiles over a 15-km reach agree with in situ measurements to a standard deviation less than 30 cm. The time series of ArcticDEM-derived river heights agree with the U.S. Geological Survey gage measurements with a standard deviation of 32 cm. Using the rating curve for that gage, we obtain discharges with a validation accuracy (root-mean-square error) of 234 m3/s (23% of the mean discharge). Our results demonstrate that ArcticDEM can accurately measure spatial and temporal variations of river surfaces, providing a new and powerful data set for hydrologic analysis.

  4. Tundra Rehabilitation in Alaska's Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in Alaska's Arctic has been conducted for more than 40 years, resulting in over 3,640 ha of gravel fill placed for roads, pads, and airstrips to support the industry. Likewise, tundra disturbance from burying power lines and by tundra vehicle travel are also common. Rehabilitation of disturbed sites began around 2002, with well over 150 ha that has been previously treated or is currently being rehabilitated. Two primary goals of rehabilitation efforts have been 1) revegetation by indigenous species, and 2) limiting thermokarst. Early efforts were concerned that removing gravel and having exposed bare ground would lead to extensive subsidence and eolian erosion. Native grass cultivars (e.g. Poa glauca, Arctagrostis latifolia, and Festuca rubra) were seeded to create vegetation cover quickly with the expectation that these grasses would survive only temporarily. The root masses and leaf litter were also expected to trap indigenous seed to enhance natural recolonization by indigenous plants. Due to the remote location of these sites, many of which are only accessible by helicopter, most are visited only two to three times following cultivation treatments, providing a limited data pool. At many sites, the total live seeded grass cover declined about 15% over the first 5¬-6 years (from around 30% to 15% cover), while total live indigenous vascular cover increased from no or trace cover to an average of 10% cover in that time. Cover of indigenous vascular plants at sites that were not seeded with native grass cultivars averaged just less than 10% after 10 years, showing no appreciable difference between the two approaches. Final surface elevations at the sites affect local hydrology and soil moisture. Other factors that influence the success of vegetation cover are proximity to the Arctic coast (salt effects), depth of remaining gravel, and changes in characteristics of the near-surface soil. Further development of rehabilitation techniques and the

  5. Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) to Monitor Forest Health Conditions in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.; Winton, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating the capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS, "drone" informally) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. On July 17-20 2017, FHP and ACUASI deployed two different UAS at permanent forest inventory plots managed by the UAF programs Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) and Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI). The purpose of the mission was to explore capabilities of UAS for evaluating aspen tree mortality at inaccessible locations and at a scale and precision not generally achievable with currently used ground- or air-based methods. Drawing from experience gained during the initial 2016 campaign, this year emphasized the efficient use of UAS to accomplish practical field research in a variety of realistic situations. The vehicles selected for this years' effort included the DJI Matrice quadcopter with the Zenmuse-X3 camera to quickly capture initial video of the site and tree conditions; followed by the ING Responder (single rotor electric helicopter based on the Gaui X7 airframe) outfitted with a Nikon D810 camera to collect high-resolution stills suitable for construction of orthomosaic models. A total of 12 flights were conducted over the campaign, with two full days dedicated to the Delta Junction Gerstle River Intermediate (GRI) sites and the remaining day at the Bonanza Creek site. In addition to demonstrating the ability of UAS to operate safely and effectively in various canopy conditions, the effort also validated the ability of teams to deliver UAS and scientific payloads into challenging terrain using all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and foot traffic. Analysis of data from the campaign is underway. Because the permanent plots have been recently evaluated it is known that nearly all aspen mortality is caused by an aggressive canker

  6. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  7. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.

    1979-04-01

    The following are presented: the history of geothermal energy in Alaska; a history of Alaska land ownership; legal and institutional barriers; and economics. Development, the socio-economic and physical data concerning geothermal energy are documented by regions. The six regions presented are those of the present Alaska State Planning Activities and those of the Federal Land Use Commission. Site data summaries of the one hundred and four separate geothermal spring locations are presented by these regions. (MHR)

  8. Interdisciplinary approach to hydrological hazard mitigation and disaster response and effects of climate change on the occurrence of flood severity in central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.; Bhatt, U. S.; Lindsey, S. D.; Plumb, E. W.; Thoman, R. L.

    2015-06-01

    In May 2013, a massive ice jam on the Yukon River caused flooding that destroyed much of the infrastructure in the Interior Alaska village of Galena and forced the long-term evacuation of nearly 70% of its residents. This case study compares the communication efforts of the out-of-state emergency response agents with those of the Alaska River Watch program, a state-operated flood preparedness and community outreach initiative. For over 50 years, the River Watch program has been fostering long-lasting, open, and reciprocal communication with flood prone communities, as well as local emergency management and tribal officials. By taking into account cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic features of rural Alaskan communities, the River Watch program was able to establish and maintain a sense of partnership and reliable communication patterns with communities at risk. As a result, officials and residents in these communities are open to information and guidance from the River Watch during the time of a flood, and thus are poised to take prompt actions. By informing communities of existing ice conditions and flood threats on a regular basis, the River Watch provides effective mitigation efforts in terms of ice jam flood effects reduction. Although other ice jam mitigation attempts had been made throughout US and Alaskan history, the majority proved to be futile and/or cost-ineffective. Galena, along with other rural riverine Alaskan communities, has to rely primarily on disaster response and recovery strategies to withstand the shock of disasters. Significant government funds are spent on these challenging efforts and these expenses might be reduced through an improved understanding of both the physical and climatological principals behind river ice breakup and risk mitigation. This study finds that long term dialogue is critical for effective disaster response and recovery during extreme hydrological events connected to changing climate, timing of river ice breakup, and

  9. Interdisciplinary approach to hydrological hazard mitigation and disaster response and effects of climate change on the occurrence of flood severity in central Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Kontar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2013, a massive ice jam on the Yukon River caused flooding that destroyed much of the infrastructure in the Interior Alaska village of Galena and forced the long-term evacuation of nearly 70% of its residents. This case study compares the communication efforts of the out-of-state emergency response agents with those of the Alaska River Watch program, a state-operated flood preparedness and community outreach initiative. For over 50 years, the River Watch program has been fostering long-lasting, open, and reciprocal communication with flood prone communities, as well as local emergency management and tribal officials. By taking into account cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic features of rural Alaskan communities, the River Watch program was able to establish and maintain a sense of partnership and reliable communication patterns with communities at risk. As a result, officials and residents in these communities are open to information and guidance from the River Watch during the time of a flood, and thus are poised to take prompt actions. By informing communities of existing ice conditions and flood threats on a regular basis, the River Watch provides effective mitigation efforts in terms of ice jam flood effects reduction. Although other ice jam mitigation attempts had been made throughout US and Alaskan history, the majority proved to be futile and/or cost-ineffective. Galena, along with other rural riverine Alaskan communities, has to rely primarily on disaster response and recovery strategies to withstand the shock of disasters. Significant government funds are spent on these challenging efforts and these expenses might be reduced through an improved understanding of both the physical and climatological principals behind river ice breakup and risk mitigation. This study finds that long term dialogue is critical for effective disaster response and recovery during extreme hydrological events connected to changing climate, timing of

  10. Environmental Impact Statement for the Modernization and Enhancement of Ranges, Airspace, and Training Areas in the Joint Pacific Alaska Range Complex in Alaska. Volume 2 - Appendices A through L

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Spenard Road, Anchorage, Alaska. Tuesday , January 18, 2011:6:30-8:30 p.m., Caribou Hotel, Mile 186.5 Grand Highway, Glenallen, Alaska. Wednesday...Highway, Healy, Alaska. Tuesday , january 25, 2011:6:30-8:30 p.m., Swiss Alaska Inn, 22056 South F Street, Talkeetna, Alaska. Wednesday, january...Board of Fisheries Mel Morris , Board Member, Alaska Board of Fisheries Mike Smith, Board Member, Alaska Board of Fisheries Cliff Judkins, Chair

  11. Alaska Highway bibliography, 3rd edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    Since the early 20th century various schemes were considered for the construction of roads, trails or railways 71 to link the Yukon, northern British Columbia and Alaska to the “outside.” These schemes were motivated by economic interests, including mining, lumber and tourism concerns. During...... the 1920s and 1930s a small but vocal group of “builders” began to campaign for a highway, either a coastal or inland route, to improve the northwest’s economic base. With the impending threat of war in the late 1930s, there was an increasing awareness by the American and Canadian governments...... increasing military needs. The unexpected bombing of Pearl Harbour in December 1941 stimulated interest in the construction of the Alaska Highway by the American government. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers selected a route based on the location of the NWSR airfields and the military needs for an alternative...

  12. The Alaska North Slope spill analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Leslie; Robertson, Tim L.; DeCola, Elise; Rosen, Ira

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports Alaska North Slope crude oil spills, provides information to help operators identify risks and presents recommendations for future risk reduction and mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency and severity of future spills from piping infrastructure integrity loss. The North Slope spills analysis project was conducted during 2010 by compiling available spill data, and analyzing the cause of past spills in wells and associated piping, flowlines, process centers with their associated piping and above ground storage tanks, and crude oil transmission pipelines. An expert panel, established to provide independent review of this analysis and the presented data, identified seven recommendations on measures, programs, and practices to monitor and address common causes of failures while considering information provided from regulators and operators. These recommendations must be evaluated by the State of Alaska which will consider implementation options to move forward. Based on the study observations, future analyses may show changes to some of the observed trends.

  13. Environmental Audit of the Alaska Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit of the Alaska Power Administration (APA) headquartered in Juneau, Alaska. This Audit was conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) from August 24 to December 8, 1992. The scope of the Audit was comprehensive, covering all environmental programs and activities with the exception of those relating to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Specifically considered was the compliance status of APA regarding Federal, state, and local statutes and regulations, DOE Orders and Directives, and best management practices. The technical disciplines addressed by the Audit were: air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. Due to the nature of the activities carried out at the two Federal hydroelectric projects operated by APA, the area of radiation was not investigated during the Audit

  14. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  15. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  16. 76 FR 16804 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AA-8102-05, AA-8102-08, AA-8102-10, AA-8102-25, AA-8102-28, AA-8102- 37, AA-8102-47; LLAK965000-L14100000-KC0000-P] Alaska Native Claims... phone at 907-271-5960, by e-mail at ak[email protected] , or by telecommunication device (TTD...

  17. Wildlife disease and environmental health in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline; Pearce, John; Oakley, Karen; Whalen, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health is defined by connections between the physical environment, ecological health, and human health. Current research within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recognizes the importance of this integrated research philosophy, which includes study of disease and pollutants as they pertain to wildlife and humans. Due to its key geographic location and significant wildlife resources, Alaska is a critical area for future study of environmental health.

  18. Bedrock geologic map of the northern Alaska Peninsula area, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Blome, Charles D.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Preller, Cindi C.; Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2017-03-03

    The northern Alaska Peninsula is a region of transition from the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula to a Proterozoic and early Paleozoic carbonate platform and then to the poorly understood, tectonically complex sedimentary basins of southwestern Alaska. Physiographically, the region ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska-Aleutian Range to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet on the east and Bristol Bay on the southwest. The lower Ahklun Mountains and finger lakes on the west side of the map area show strong effects from glaciation. Structurally, a number of major faults cut the map area. Most important of these are the Bruin Bay Fault that parallels the coast of Cook Inlet, the Lake Clark Fault that cuts diagonally northeast to southwest across the eastern part of the map area, and the presently active Holitna Fault to the northwest that cuts surficial deposits.Distinctive rock packages assigned to three provinces are overlain by younger sedimentary rocks and intruded by widely dispersed latest Cretaceous and (or) early Tertiary granitic rocks. Much of the east half of the map area lies in the Alaska-Aleutian Range province; the Jurassic to Tertiary Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith and derivative Jurassic sedimentary rocks form the core of this province, which is intruded and overlain by the Aleutian magmatic arc. The Lime Hills province, the carbonate platform, occurs in the north-central part of the map area. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic Ahklun Mountains province in the western part of the map area includes abundant chert, argillite, and graywacke and lesser limestone, basalt, and tectonic mélange. The Kuskokwim Group, an Upper Cretaceous turbidite sequence, is extensively exposed and bounds all three provinces in the west-central part of the map area.

  19. A global change policy for Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Alaska Science and Engineering Advisory Committee attempted to formulate a suitable state policy for global climate change. The main elements and rationale for this policy are described, along with lessons learned from the Montreal protocol on global ozone and the policy itself. A discussion of issues relating to public presentation and reaction to a climate change policy indicates that elements necessary for a strategy presenting a case for global change needs to be credible, simple, and unambiguous, with risks clearly defined. Society and business must see themselves as stakeholders in the issue, and policies must be formulated accordingly. The Montreal protocol provides an example of success in advanced planning on a major global issue. The six main components of the Alaskan policy relate to fossil fuel production and marketing, the economic mix of energy production for in-state use, the efficiency and effectiveness of energy end-use services, the impact of climatic change on Alaska as a geographic unit, Alaska as a high-latitude site for climate change monitoring and analysis, and Alaskan participation with other countries in research and policy development. 7 refs

  20. Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Riley [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Farnsworth, David [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.

  1. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  2. Bryophytes from Tuxedni Wilderness area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The bryoflora of two small maritime islands, Chisik and Duck Island (2,302 ha), comprising Tuxedni Wilderness in western lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. The field study was conducted from sites selected to represent the totality of environmental variation within Tuxedni Wilderness. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare the bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 286 bryophytes were identified: 230 mosses and 56 liverworts. Bryum miniatum, Dichodontium olympicum, and Orthotrichum pollens are new to Alaska. The annotated list of species for Tuxedni Wilderness expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Central Pacific Coast district. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Tuxedni Wilderness primarily includes taxa of boreal (61%), montane (13%), temperate (11%), arctic-alpine (7%), cosmopolitan (7%), distribution; 4% of the total moss flora are North America endemics. A brief summary of the botanical exploration of the general area is provided, as is a description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types of Chisik and Duck Islands.

  3. The geochemical atlas of Alaska, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory K.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Granitto, Matthew; Denning, Paul; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.

    2016-06-21

    A rich legacy of geochemical data produced since the early 1960s covers the great expanse of Alaska; careful treatment of such data may provide significant and revealing geochemical maps that may be used for landscape geochemistry, mineral resource exploration, and geoenvironmental investigations over large areas. To maximize the spatial density and extent of data coverage for statewide mapping of element distributions, we compiled and integrated analyses of more than 175,000 sediment and soil samples from three major, separate sources: the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys geochemical databases. Various types of heterogeneity and deficiencies in these data presented major challenges to our development of coherently integrated datasets for modeling and mapping of element distributions. Researchers from many different organizations and disparate scientific studies collected samples that were analyzed using highly variable methods throughout a time period of more than 50 years, during which many changes in analytical techniques were developed and applied. Despite these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey has produced a new systematically integrated compilation of sediment and soil geochemical data with an average sample site density of approximately 1 locality per 10 square kilometers (km2) for the entire State of Alaska, although density varies considerably among different areas. From that compilation, we have modeled and mapped the distributions of 68 elements, thus creating an updated geochemical atlas for the State.

  4. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  5. International migration patterns of Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) from four breeding populations in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Sarah E.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Thomas F.

    2018-01-01

    Identifying post-breeding migration and wintering distributions of migratory birds is important for understanding factors that may drive population dynamics. Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) are widely distributed across Alaska and currently have varying population trends, including some populations with recent periods of decline. To investigate population differentiation and the location of migration pathways and wintering areas, which may inform population trend patterns, we used satellite transmitters (n = 32) to describe migration patterns of four geographically separate breeding populations of Red-throated Loons in Alaska. On average (± SD) Red-throated Loons underwent long (6,288 ± 1,825 km) fall and spring migrations predominantly along coastlines. The most northern population (Arctic Coastal Plain) migrated westward to East Asia and traveled approximately 2,000 km farther to wintering sites than the three more southerly populations (Seward Peninsula, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and Copper River Delta) which migrated south along the Pacific coast of North America. These migration paths are consistent with the hypothesis that Red-throated Loons from the Arctic Coastal Plain are exposed to contaminants in East Asia. The three more southerly breeding populations demonstrated a chain migration pattern in which the more northerly breeding populations generally wintered in more northerly latitudes. Collectively, the migration paths observed in this study demonstrate that some geographically distinct breeding populations overlap in wintering distribution while others use highly different wintering areas. Red-throated Loon population trends in Alaska may therefore be driven by a wide range of effects throughout the annual cycle.

  6. Predicting breeding shorebird distributions on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.

  7. 47 CFR 80.705 - Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.705 Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed stations. Each Alaska-public fixed station whose hours of service are not... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hours of service of Alaska-public fixed...

  8. 76 FR 32142 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Saltwater Sportfishing Economic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... marine sport species in Alaska (e.g., lingcod and rockfish). The data collected from the survey will be... a survey to collect data for conducting economic analyses of marine sport fishing in Alaska. This... management of the Pacific halibut sport fishery off Alaska, while the State of Alaska manages the salmon...

  9. 75 FR 62460 - Revocation and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Northeast Alaska, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...-0445; Airspace Docket No. 10-AAL-13] Revocation and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Northeast Alaska... removes redundant Class E airspace in Northeast Alaska and establishes Class E airspace near Eagle, Alaska... proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register to remove some Class E airspace in Northeast Alaska and...

  10. Demography of Dall's sheep in northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckner, Christopher; Udevitz, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.; Shults, Brad S.

    2003-01-01

    Dall’s sheep in northwestern Alaska declined in the early 1990s following the severe 1989-90 and 1990-91 winters. In the Baird Mountains of Noatak National Preserve, estimates of adult sheep declined by 50% from 800 in 1989 to under 400 in 1991. Population counts remained low throughout 1991 to 1996, reaching a minimum of 244 adult sheep in 1996. Few lambs were observed during annual midsummer aerial surveys in 1991 to 1994. We suspect that these declines resulted from a combination of poorer nutritional condition and increased vulnerability of sheep to predation resulting from severe winter conditions.As a result of these declines, both subsistence and sport hunting seasons were closed by emergency order in 1991, resulting in substantial management controversy. The affected publics, although willing to accept the closures, questioned the validity of the sheep survey data and strongly emphasized their interest in restoring harvests as soon as populations increased sufficiently. In 1995 the Northwest Arctic Regional Advisory Council, the local advisory committee for the Federal Subsistence Board, passed a motion supporting efforts to initiate research on sheep populations in the region to better understand the factors limiting sheep populations and to evaluate sheep survey methodologies.Currently estimates of Dall’s sheep population size and composition in the western Brooks Range are based on intensive fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted annually since 1986 in areas including the Baird Mountains. The annual variation in recent Baird Mountains aerial counts cannot be explained with reasonable assumptions about reproduction and survival, suggesting that there is some variability in the proportion of the population observed each year or that a substantial number of sheep move during the survey. Prior to our research, no attempt had been made to estimate visibility bias or precision for these surveys.Our understanding of Dall’s sheep population biology comes

  11. Alaska Seismic Network Upgrade and Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandru, J. M.; Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S. A.; Fowler, M.

    2009-12-01

    AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) has begun the task of upgrading the older regional seismic monitoring sites that have been in place for a number of years. Many of the original sites (some dating to the 1960's) are still single component analog technology. This was a very reasonable and ultra low power reliable system for its day. However with the advanced needs of today's research community, AEIC has begun upgrading to Broadband and Strong Motion Seismometers, 24 bit digitizers and high-speed two-way communications, while still trying to maintain the utmost reliability and maintaining low power consumption. Many sites have been upgraded or will be upgraded from single component to triaxial broad bands and triaxial accerometers. This provided much greater dynamic range over the older antiquated technology. The challenge is compounded by rapidly changing digital technology. Digitizersand data communications based on analog phone lines utilizing 9600 baud modems and RS232 are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and increasingly expensive compared to current methods that use Ethernet, TCP/IP and UDP connections. Gaining a reliable Internet connection can be as easy as calling up an ISP and having a DSL connection installed or may require installing our own satellite uplink, where other options don't exist. LANs are accomplished with a variety of communications devices such as spread spectrum 900 MHz radios or VHF radios for long troublesome shots. WANs are accomplished with a much wider variety of equipment. Traditional analog phone lines are being used in some instances, however 56K lines are much more desirable. Cellular data links have become a convenient option in semiurban environments where digital cellular coverage is available. Alaska is slightly behind the curve on cellular technology due to its low population density and vast unpopulated areas but has emerged into this new technology in the last few years. Partnerships with organizations

  12. Alaska oil and gas: Energy wealth or vanishing opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Harrison, W.E.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically identify and review (a) the known and undiscovered reserves and resources of arctic Alaska, (b) the economic factors controlling development, (c) the risks and environmental considerations involved in development, and (d) the impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Alaska North Slope Oil Delivery System (ANSODS). 119 refs., 45 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. Downed woody material in southeast Alaska forest stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederic R. Larson

    1992-01-01

    Data collected in conjunction with the multiresource inventory of southeast Alaska in 1985-86 included downed wood along 234 transects at 60 locations. Transects occurred in 11 forest types and 19 plant associations within the entire southeastern Alaska archipelago. Downed wood weights in forest types ranged from 1232 kilograms per hectare (0.6 ton per acre) in muskeg...

  14. 75 FR 8396 - Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Cold Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...] Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Cold Bay, Alaska AGENCY: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior..., we will hold public scoping meetings in King Cove, Cold Bay, Sand Point, and Nelson Lagoon in Alaska... Aleutian arc chain of volcanoes. Landforms include mountains, active volcanoes, U-shaped valleys, glacial...

  15. Tradeoffs and interdependence in the Alaska cant and log markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Flora; Una Woller; Michael. Neergaard

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s, log exports from Alaska have risen while cant (lumber) exports have declined. Eight explanations for the difference between cant and log market behavior are explored. It seems that declining demand for wood products in Japan and a surge of private-sector log harvests in Alaska are enough to account for the apparent substitution of logs for cants. It...

  16. Resilience of Athabascan subsistence systems to interior Alaska's changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary P. Kofinas; F. Stuart Chapin; Shauna BurnSilver; Jennifer I. Schmidt; Nancy L. Fresco; Knut Kielland; Stephanie Martin; Anna Springsteen; T. Scott Rupp

    2010-01-01

    Subsistence harvesting and wild food production by Athabascan peoples is part of an integrated social-ecological system of interior Alaska. We describe effects of recent trends and future climate change projections on the boreal ecosystem of interior Alaska and relate changes in ecosystem services to Athabascan subsistence. We focus primarily on moose, a keystone...

  17. Developing a mariculture business in Alaska: information and resources.

    OpenAIRE

    RaLonde, Ray; Paust, Brian

    1993-01-01

    This booklet provides information needed to start a mariculture business in Alaska, including agency resources and lists of publications. Everything you need to know about permits, planning, and financing is presented in an easy to follow layout. From preliminary steps to marketable product, this booklet will help the aquaculturist with all species farmed in Alaska, including oysters, mussels, scallops, clams, and seaweed. (41pp.)

  18. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Data assimilation has been demonstrated very useful in improving both global and regional numerical weather prediction. Alaska has very coarser surface observation sites. On the other hand, it gets much more satellite overpass than lower 48 states. How to utilize satellite data to improve numerical prediction is one of hot topics among weather forecast community in Alaska. The Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at University of Alaska is conducting study on satellite data assimilation for WRF model. AIRS/CRIS sounder profile data are used to assimilate the initial condition for the customized regional WRF model (GINA-WRF model). Normalized standard deviation, RMSE, and correlation statistic analysis methods are applied to analyze one case of 48 hours forecasts and one month of 24-hour forecasts in order to evaluate the improvement of regional numerical model from Data assimilation. The final goal of the research is to provide improved real-time short-time forecast for Alaska regions.

  19. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Flint, Paul L.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since 1976, the distribution of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a 'tipping point' whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes.

  20. Analysis of the origin of Aufeis feed-water on the arctic slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. K.; Roswell, C. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The origin of water feeding large aufeis fields (overflow river ice) on the Arctic Slope of Alaska is analyzed. Field measurements of two large aufeis fields on the eastern Arctic Slope were taken during July of 1978 and 1979. Measurements of aufeis extent and distribution were made using LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) satellite data from 1973 through 1979. In addition, ice cores were analyzed in the laboratory. Results of the field and laboratory studies indicate that the water derived from aufeis melt water has a chemical composition different from the adjacent upstream river water. Large aufeis fields are found in association with springs and faults thus indicating a subterranean origin of the feed water. In addition, the maximum extent of large aufeis fields was not found to follow meteorological patterns which would only be expected if the origin of the feed water were local. It is concluded that extent of large aufeis in a given river channel on the Arctic Slope is controlled by discharge from reservoirs of groundwater. It seems probable that precipitation passes into limestone aquifers in the Brooks Range, through an interconnecting system of subterranean fractures in calcareous rocks and ultimately discharges into alluvial sediments on the coastal plain to form aufeis. It is speculated that only small aufeis patches are affected by local meteorological parameters in the months just prior to aufeis formation.

  1. 76 FR 78642 - TransCanada Alaska Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Planned Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Project (APP). The APP is a planned natural gas pipeline system that would transport gas produced on the Alaska North Slope to the Alaska-Canada border to connect with a pipeline system in Canada for onward..., 2051 Barter Avenue Kaktovik, AK. Dated: December 9, 2011. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. [FR Doc. 2011...

  2. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Haines area, Juneau and Skagway quadrangles, southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 212 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from the Chilkat, Klehini, Tsirku, and Takhin river drainages, as well as smaller drainages flowing into Chilkat and Chilkoot Inlets near Haines, Skagway Quadrangle, Southeast Alaska. Additionally some samples were also chosen from the Juneau gold belt, Juneau Quadrangle, Southeast Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical

  3. 78 FR 11988 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ..., accomplishments since the Migratory Bird Treaties with Canada and Mexico were amended, and a history, was... purposes during the spring and summer months. The Canada and Mexico migratory bird treaties were amended...-0066; FF09M21200-123-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AY70 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska...

  4. 75 FR 18764 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... rulemaking, accomplishments since the Migratory Bird Treaties with Canada and Mexico were amended, and a... the spring and summer months. The Canada and Mexico migratory bird treaties were recently amended for... rural Alaska. The amendments to the Migratory Bird Treaties with Canada and Mexico recognize the...

  5. Natality and calf mortality of the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Sellers

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied natality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAP and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herds during 1996-1999, and mortality and weights of calves during 1998 and 1999- Natality was lower in the NAP than the SAP primarily because most 3-year-old females did not produce calves in the NAP Patterns of calf mortality in the NAP and SAP differed from those in Interior Alaska primarily because neonatal (i.e., during the first 2 weeks of life mortality was relatively low, but mortality continued to be significant through August in both herds, and aggregate annual mortality was extreme (86% in the NAP Predators probably killed more neonatal calves in the SAP, primarily because a wolf den (Canis lupus was located on the calving area. Despite the relatively high density of brown bears (Ursus arctos and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, these predators killed surprisingly few calves. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos were uncommon on the Alaska Peninsula. At least 2 calves apparently died from pneu¬monia in the range of the NAP but none were suspected to have died from disease in the range of the SAP. Heavy scav¬enging by bald eagles complicated determining cause of death of calves in both the NAP and SAP.

  6. 77 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... was that the Kodiak Island representative expressed concerns that he was not familiar with the AMBCC process and was not familiar with the history of the regional regulations. The Kodiak Archipelago... ensure an effective and meaningful role for Alaska's indigenous inhabitants in [[Page 17358

  7. 40 CFR 81.302 - Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Date Type Anchorage Community of Eagle River 11/15/90 Nonattainment 11/15/90 Moderate Juneau City of... river. Also, Township 1 South, Range 1 East, Sections 7, 8, and 18 and the portion of Section 19 north... urban area designated Nonattainment Kobuk Election District Nome Election District North Slope Election...

  8. Loess ecosystems of northern Alaska: Regional gradient and toposequence at Prudhoe Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.A.; Everett, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Loess-dominated ecosystems cover ∼ 14% (11,000 km 2 ) of the Arctic Coastal Plain and much of the northern portion of the Arctic Foothills. Knowledge of this poorly known ecosystem is important for sound land-use planning of the expanding developments in the region and for understanding the paleoecological dynamics of eolian systems that once dominated much of northern Alaska. A conceptual alkaline-tundra toposequence includes eight common vegetation types and associated soils and vegetation downwind of the Sagavanirktok River. Properties of loess tundra important for land-use planning include: (1) its high ice content, which contributes to its susceptibility to thermokarst; (2) high salinities, which hamper revegetation efforts; and (3) presence of certain plant species such as Dryas intergrifolia, which are particularly sensitive to disturbance. The loess gradient provides a natural analogue for road dust, and extensive disturbance associated with oil-field development

  9. Profundal sideritic mudstone from an Eocene lake in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sideritic lacustrine mudstone was found in drill core from a uranium deposit in the Death Valley area in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The precursor sediments for this rock were deposited in an unusual iron-meromictic Eocene lake, herein named Lake Tubutulik, which occupied part of the Boulder Creek basin, a graben that is probably a southern extension of the larger Death Valley basin. The Boulder Creek basin is bounded on the west by granite of the Upper Cretaceous Darby pluton and on the east by Precambrian to Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The lake basin was formed by basaltic flows that dammed the valley of the ancestral Tubutulik River in early Eocene time. The lake sediments included a nearshore facies of fine-grained organic mud and an offshore facies of laminated sideritic mud. The offshore (profundal) laminated mudstone consists of alternating layers of authigenic siderite and detrital grains, mostly quartz and clay minerals. Both lacustrine facies contain turbidites. The lacustrine rocks graded laterally into an onshore facies of colluvial and fluvial sandstone, paludal mudstone, and coal. The ancient lake occupied a small, deep basin in a tectonically active area of high relief. Meromixis was apparently stabilized by reduced iron and bicarbonate dissolved in the monimolimnion. The intensity of meromixis decreased as the lake became shallower from sediment filling. The source of the dissolved iron in the monoimolimnion was probably the Eocene basalt. Carbon isotope analysis of the siderite suggests that the dissolved bicarbonate in the profundal facies was largely inorganic. Sideritic carbon in one sample from the onshore paludal facies has an isotopic signature (δ 13 C = +16.9) consistent with residual carbonate formed during methanogenic fermentation

  10. Dissolved organic matter export in glacial and non-glacial streams along the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E. W.; Scott, D.; Jeffery, A.; Schreiber, S.; Heavner, M.; Edwards, R.; D'Amore, D. V.; Fellman, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf of Alaska drainage basin contains more than 75,000 km2 of glaciers, many of which are rapidly thinning and receding. We are using a paired watershed approach to evaluate how changes in glacier ecosystems will impact the export dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the Gulf of Alaska. Our primary study watersheds, Lemon Creek and Montana Creek, are similar in size, bedrock lithology and elevation range and extend from near sea level to the margin or interior of the Juneau Icefield. Lemon Creek has a glacial coverage of ~60%, while Montana Creek is free of glacier ice. Our goal is to evaluate seasonal differences in the quantity, chemical character and reactivity of DOM being exported from these watersheds to downstream near-shore marine ecosystems. In addition, we are monitoring a variety of physical parameters that influence instream DOM metabolism in both watersheds. Our initial results from the 2009 runoff season indicate that concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are substantially higher in the non-glacial watershed. However, fluorescence analyses indicate that DOM from the glacier watershed has a higher protein and lower humic material content compared to DOM from the non-glacial watershed. After the spring snowmelt season, physical parameters between the two watersheds diverged, with higher streamflow and turbidity as well as colder water temperatures in the glacial watershed. Although our previous yield calculations show significantly higher DOC fluxes from the forested watershed, our results here suggest that glacier watersheds may be an important source of labile carbon to the near shore marine ecosystem. The contrast in the physical habitat between the two rivers (e.g glacier stream = cold, low light penetration, unstable substrate) supports the hypothesis that that in-stream DOM processing is limited within glacier dominated rivers, therefore delivering a higher percentage of labile DOM downstream.

  11. Monitoring Start of Season in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, J.; Dubayah, R.; Sparrow, E.; Levine, E.

    2006-12-01

    In biomes that have distinct winter seasons, start of spring phenological events, specifically timing of budburst and green-up of leaves, coincides with transpiration. Seasons leave annual signatures that reflect the dynamic nature of the hydrologic cycle and link the different spheres of the Earth system. This paper evaluates whether continuity between AVHRR and MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is achievable for monitoring land surface phenology, specifically start of season (SOS), in Alaska. Additionally, two thresholds, one based on NDVI and the other on accumulated growing degree-days (GDD), are compared to determine which most accurately predicts SOS for Fairbanks. Ratio of maximum greenness at SOS was computed from biweekly AVHRR and MODIS composites for 2001 through 2004 for Anchorage and Fairbanks regions. SOS dates were determined from annual green-up observations made by GLOBE students. Results showed that different processing as well as spectral characteristics of each sensor restrict continuity between the two datasets. MODIS values were consistently higher and had less inter-annual variability during the height of the growing season than corresponding AVHRR values. Furthermore, a threshold of 131-175 accumulated GDD was a better predictor of SOS for Fairbanks than a NDVI threshold applied to AVHRR and MODIS datasets. The NDVI threshold was developed from biweekly AVHRR composites from 1982 through 2004 and corresponding annual green-up observations at University of Alaska-Fairbanks (UAF). The GDD threshold was developed from 20+ years of historic daily mean air temperature data and the same green-up observations. SOS dates computed with the GDD threshold most closely resembled actual green-up dates observed by GLOBE students and UAF researchers. Overall, biweekly composites and effects of clouds, snow, and conifers limit the ability of NDVI to monitor phenological changes in Alaska.

  12. Topographic soil wetness index derived from combined Alaska-British Columbia datasets for the Gulf of Alaska region

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, D. V.; Biles, F. E.

    2016-12-01

    The flow of water is often highlighted as a priority in land management planning and assessments related to climate change. Improved measurement and modeling of soil moisture is required to develop predictive estimates for plant distributions, soil moisture, and snowpack, which all play important roles in ecosystem planning in the face of climate change. Drainage indexes are commonly derived from GIS tools with digital elevation models. Soil moisture classes derived from these tools are useful digital proxies for ecosystem functions associated with the concentration of water on the landscape. We developed a spatially explicit topographically derived soil wetness index (TWI) across the perhumid coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) of Alaska and British Columbia. Developing applicable drainage indexes in complex terrain and across broad areas required careful application of the appropriate DEM, caution with artifacts in GIS covers and mapping realistic zones of wetlands with the indicator. The large spatial extent of the model has facilitated the mapping of forest habitat and the development of water table depth mapping in the region. A key element of the TWI is the merging of elevation datasets across the US-Canada border where major rivers transect the international boundary. The unified TWI allows for seemless mapping across the international border and unified ecological applications. A python program combined with the unified DEM allows end users to quickly apply the TWI to all areas of the PCTR. This common platform can facilitate model comparison and improvements to local soil moisture conditions, generation of streamflow, and ecological site conditions. In this presentation we highlight the application of the TWI for mapping risk factors related to forest decline and the development of a regional water table depth map. Improved soil moisture maps are critical for deriving spatial models of changes in soil moisture for both plant growth and streamflow across

  13. The planned Alaska SAR Facility - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, Frank; Weeks, Wilford

    1987-01-01

    The Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) is described in an overview fashion. The facility consists of three major components, a Receiving Ground System, a SAR Processing System and an Analysis and Archiving System; the ASF Program also has a Science Working Team and the requisite management and operations systems. The ASF is now an approved and fully funded activity; detailed requirements and science background are presented for the facility to be implemented for data from the European ERS-1, the Japanese ERS-1 and Radarsat.

  14. Improving Sanitation and Health in Rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Alaskan communities personal health is threatened by energy costs and limited access to clean water, wastewater management, and adequate nutrition. Fuel-­-based energy systems are significant factors in determining local accessibility to clean water, sanitation and food. Increasing fuel costs induce a scarcity of access and impact residents' health. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences (SNRAS), NASA's Ames Research Center, and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have joined forces to develop high-efficiency, low­-energy consuming techniques for water treatment and food production in rural circumpolar communities. Methods intended for exploration of space and establishment of settlements on the Moon or Mars will ultimately benefit Earth's communities in the circumpolar north. The initial phase of collaboration is completed. Researchers from NASA Ames Research Center and SNRAS, funded by the USDA­-ARS, tested a simple, reliable, low-energy sewage treatment system to recycle wastewater for use in food production and other reuse options in communities. The system extracted up to 70% of the water from sewage and rejected up to 92% of ions in the sewage with no carryover of toxic effects. Biological testing showed that plant growth using recovered water in the nutrient solution was equivalent to that using high-purity distilled water. With successful demonstration that the low energy consuming wastewater treatment system can provide safe water for communities and food production, the team is ready to move forward to a full-scale production testbed. The SNRAS/NASA team (including Alaska students) will design a prototype to match water processing rates and food production to meet rural community sanitation needs and nutritional preferences. This system would be operated in Fairbanks at the University of Alaska through SNRAS. Long­-term performance will be validated and operational needs of the

  15. Alaska's rare earth deposits and resource potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James C.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Alaska’s known mineral endowment includes some of the largest and highest grade deposits of various metals, including gold, copper and zinc. Recently, Alaska has also been active in the worldwide search for sources of rare earth elements (REE) to replace exports now being limitedby China. Driven by limited supply of the rare earths, combined with their increasing use in new ‘green’ energy, lighting, transportation, and many other technological applications, the rare earth metals neodymium, europium and, in particular, the heavy rare earth elements terbium, dysprosium and yttrium are forecast to soon be in critical short supply (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010).

  16. Surface-water investigations at Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stanley H.

    1972-01-01

    The U.S. Public Health Service is currently developing plans for a long-term water supply and sewage treatment system for the village of Barrow, Alaska. To assist in planning, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to initiate a cooperative streamflow data-collection program with the U.S. Public Health Service in June 1972 to determine the availability of surface water and the areal distribution of runoff in the Barrow area. This basic-data report summarizes the streamflow data collected from June 1 through July 10, 1972, at three gaging stations in the Barrow area (fig. 1) and discusses the future data-collection program.

  17. A Decade of Shear-Wave Splitting Observations in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesiles, A. K.; Christensen, D. H.; Abers, G. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Pavlis, G. L.; Song, X.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decade four PASSCAL experiments have been conducted in different regions of Alaska. ARCTIC, BEAAR and MOOS form a north-south transect across the state, from the Arctic Ocean to Price Williams Sound, while the STEEP experiment is currently deployed to the east of that line in the St Elias Mountains of Southeastern Alaska. Shear-wave splitting observations from these networks in addition to several permanent stations of the Alaska Earthquake Information Center were determined in an attempt to understand mantle flow under Alaska in a variety of different geologic settings. Results show two dominant splitting patterns in Alaska, separated by the subducted Pacific Plate. North of the subducted Pacific Plate fast directions are parallel to the trench (along strike of the subducted Pacific Plate) indicating large scale mantle flow in the northeast-southwest direction with higher anisotropy (splitting times) within the mantle wedge. Within or below the Pacific Plate fast directions are normal to the trench in the direction of Pacific Plate convergence. In addition to these two prominent splitting patterns there are several regions that do not match either of these trends. These more complex regions which include the results from STEEP could be due to several factors including effects from the edge of the Pacific Plate. The increase of station coverage that Earthscope will bring to Alaska will aid in developing a more complete model for anisotropy and mantle flow in Alaska.

  18. Reconnecting Alaska: Mexican Movements and the Last Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara V. Komarnisky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the initial findings of on-going research with Mexican migrants and immigrants to Alaska. The paper outlines the historical and on-going connections between Alaska and Mexico and explores how and why those connections have been obscured or ignored. Powerful imaginaries are associated with places: Alaska, and 'the north' more generally, and Latin America, and Mexico specifically. My research shows how interesting things happen when they are brought together through movement. People from Acuitzio del Canje, Michoacán began travelling to Alaska (Anchorage, and elsewhere to work in the 1950s, and movement between Mexico and Alaska has continued across generations since then. Today, many Acuitzences who live in Anchorage maintain a close relationship with friends and family members in Acuitzio, and travel back and forth regularly. However, this movement is obscured by ideological work that makes Alaska seem separate, isolated, wild, and a place where Mexicans are not imagined to be. Mexican movements into Alaska over time disrupt this vision, showing how Alaska is connected to multiple other geographies, and making the US-Mexico border a salient reference point in everyday life in Anchorage. When the South moves into the North, it can make us think about both 'Alaska' and 'Mexico' in different ways. When the US-Mexico border is relocated to Anchorage, if only for a moment, it can elicit a reaction of humour or surprise. Why is that? And what does this have to do with how people actually live in an interconnected place?

  19. Financing Opportunities for Renewable Energy Development in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K.; Hillman, D.; Busche, S.

    2013-04-01

    This technical report provides an overview of existing and potential financing structures for renewable energy project development in Alaska with a focus on four primary sources of project funding: government financed or supported (the most commonly used structure in Alaska today), developer equity capital, commercial debt, and third-party tax-equity investment. While privately funded options currently have limited application in Alaska, their implementation is theoretically possible based on successful execution in similar circumstances elsewhere. This report concludes that while tax status is a key consideration in determining appropriate financing structure, there are opportunities for both taxable and tax-exempt entities to participate in renewable energy project development.

  20. Biogeochemistry of a treeline watershed, northwestern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottlemyer, R

    2001-01-01

    Since 1950, mean annual temperatures in northwestern Alaska have increased. Change in forest floor and soil temperature or moisture could alter N mineralization rates, production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic nitrogen (DON), and their export to the aquatic ecosystem. In 1990, we began study of nutrient cycles in the 800-ha Asik watershed, located at treeline in the Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska. This paper summarizes relationships between topographic aspect, soil temperature and moisture, inorganic and organic N pools, C pools, CO2 efflux, growing season net N mineralization rates, and stream water chemistry. Forest floor (O2) C/N ratios, C pools, temperature, and moisture were greater on south aspects. More rapid melt of the soil active layer (zone of annual freeze-thaw) and permafrost accounted for the higher moisture. The O2 C and N content were correlated with moisture, inorganic N pools, CO2 efflux, and inversely with temperature. Inorganic N pools were correlated with temperature and CO2 efflux. Net N mineralization rates were positive in early summer, and correlated with O2 moisture, temperature, and C and N pools. Net nitrification rates were inversely correlated with moisture, total C and N. The CO2 efflux increased with temperature and moisture, and was greater on south aspects. Stream ion concentrations declined and DOC increased with discharge. Stream inorganic nitrogen (DIN) output exceeded input by 70%. Alpine stream water nitrate (NO3-) and DOC concentrations indicated substantial contributions to the watershed DIN and DOC budgets.

  1. Occupational safety and health training in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, C M

    1992-01-01

    We have eleven years of experience delivering a wide variety of worker education programs in cross-cultural settings to reduce the levels of occupational fatalities and injuries in Alaska. We published an instructional manual and informational poster for workers, on Alaska's "Right-To-Know" law regarding chemical and physical hazards. The "Job Hazard Recognition Program" curriculum for high school students has received national acclaim for being proactive in dealing with worker safety education before the student becomes a member of the work force. Adult educational programs and materials have been designed to include less lecture and formal presentation, and more practical "hands on" and on-the-job experience for specific trades and hazards. New industry specific manuals deal with hazardous waste reduction as a method to reduce harm to the employee. Difficulty in getting instructors and training equipment to rural locations is dealt with by becoming creative in scheduling classes, using locally available equipment, and finding regional contacts who support the overall program. Alternative approaches to funding sources include building on regional long-term plans and establishing complementary program objectives.

  2. Global change and its implications for Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, G.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1980s versions of climate models, the Arctic and Antarctic regions were considered crucial in understanding and predicting climate change, and there is also agreement that climate change will have large impacts in the Arctic since the climate signal is amplified at high latitudes. The earlier climate change scenarios are re-examined for the case of Alaska, in light of more recent information. Observational evidence in the Arctic over the last few decades agrees well with predictions of a current global climate model, including temperature increase over land masses of up to 1 degree C per decade in winter, with smaller changes in summer. Other indirect evidence of a warmer Arctic climate includes receding glaciers and warmer permafrost temperatures. It is predicted that after the CO 2 content of the atmosphere doubles, winter temperatures in Alaska will increase 6-8 degree C. In much of the interior, mean annual temperature will rise above freezing, leading to disappearance of discontinuous permafrost. The growing season would be lengthened by about three weeks, vegetation types and the abundance and distribution of mammals will change, and there will be less sea ice along coastal areas. Impacts on human activities will be both adverse and favorable; for example, in the petroleum industry, maintenance of pipelines and roads will be more difficult but offshore exploration and marine supply operations will be made easier. 6 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the McGrath and Talkeetna NTMS Quadrangles, Alaska, including concentrations of forty-three additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, P.L.; Jacobsen, S.I.; Hill, D.E.

    1979-04-01

    During the summer of 1977, 1268 water and 1206 sediment samples were collected from 1292 lakes and streams throughout the two quadrangles in south-central Alaska. Each of the water samples was analyzed for uranium and 12 other elements and each of the sediment samples for uranium, thorium, and 41 other elements. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below 0.02 ppB to 19.64 ppB. In general, lake waters contain somewhat less uranium than stream waters, and the highest concentrations in both sample types were found in or near the Alaska Range. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 0.10 ppM to 172.40 ppM. The highest concentrations are found in samples collected in the Alaska Range near areas of felsic igneous rocks. Sediment samples having high thorium concentrations also come from areas underlain by felsic igneous rocks in the Alaska Range. The following areas were found to be most favorable for significant uranium mineralization: (1) the Windy Fork stock on the southeastern boundary of the McGrath quadrangle; (2) an area in the northwest corner of the Talkeetna quadrangle near the Mespelt prospects; (3) the Hidden River drainage in the northeast corner of the Talkeetna quadrangle; (4) an area near Chelatna Lake in the center of the Talkeetna quadrangle; (5) the Kichatna River drainage, near the western border of the Talkeetna quadrangle; and (6) an area near the Mount Estelle pluton in the extreme southwest corner of the Talkeetna quadrangle

  4. Western Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for Designated Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, Wild and Scenic Rivers, and State Parks. Vector polygons in this data...

  5. Simulating Glacial Outburst Lake Releases for Suicide Basin, Mendenhall Glacier, Juneau, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A. B.; Moran, T.; Hood, E. W.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial Lake outbursts from Suicide Basin are recent phenomenon first characterized in 2011. The 2014 event resulted in record river stage and moderate flooding on the Mendenhall River in Juneau. Recognizing that these events can adversely impact residential areas of Juneau's Mendenhall Valley, the Alaska-Pacific River Forecast Center developed a real-time modeling technique capable of forecasting the timing and magnitude of the flood-wave crest due to releases from Suicide Basin. The 2014 event was estimated at about 37,000 acre feet with water levels cresting within 36 hours from the time the flood wave hit Mendenhall Lake. Given the magnitude of possible impacts to the public, accurate hydrological forecasting is essential for public safety and Emergency Managers. However, the data needed to effectively forecast magnitudes of specific jökulhlaup events are limited. Estimating this event as related to river stage depended upon three variables: 1) the timing of the lag between Suicide Basin water level declines and the related rise of Mendenhall Lake, 2) continuous monitoring of Mendenhall Lake water levels, and 3) estimating the total water volume stored in Suicide Basin. Real-time modeling of the event utilized a Time of Concentration hydrograph with independent power equations representing the rising and falling limbs of the hydrograph. The initial accuracy of the model — as forecasted about 24 hours prior to crest — resulted in an estimated crest within 0.5 feet of the actual with a timing error of about six hours later than the actual crest.

  6. Lidar data for the community of Golovin, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication presents lidar data collected over the community of Golovin, on the southern coast of the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska (fig. 1). The original...

  7. AFSC/REFM: Atka mackerel Tagging Studies, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1999-2015, approximately 130,000 Atka mackerel have been tagged and released in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, specifically at Seguam Pass, Tanaga Pass, Amchitka...

  8. Western Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, dolphins, walruses, and Steller sea lions in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this...

  9. Sitka, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is...

  10. 78 FR 15669 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    .... 2007; Womble et al. 2010). Vessel-based tourism in Alaska has been increasing rapidly over the last few... collaboration with the Yakutat Tlingit Tribe and Northwest Cruise Ship Association examined the effects of...

  11. North Slope, Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears, caribou, and muskoxen for the North Slope, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  12. North Slope, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales, seals, walruses, and polar bears for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  13. AFSC/REFM: Alaska groundfish AGEDATA database,1982 to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AFSC AGEDATA database is a collection of historic and ongoing fish ageing efforts by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's Age and Growth Program from 1982 to...

  14. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  15. AFSC/NMML: Southeast Alaska Cetacean Vessel Surveys, 1991 - 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1991, NMML initiated cetacean studies with vessel coverage throughout inland waters of Southeast Alaska. Between 1991 and 1993, line-transect methodology was used...

  16. Southeast Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for brown bears in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of bear concentrations....

  17. Shemya, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shemya, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is...

  18. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  19. Alaska Steller sea lion Count Database (Non-pups)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  20. Alaska Phocid Argos Telemetry Archive (2004-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Polar Ecosystems Program conducts research and monitoring on phocid seals in the East Bering Sea, West Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Beaufort Sea, and Chukchi Sea...

  1. Kodiak, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Kodiak, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is...

  2. 24 arc-second Kenai Peninsula Bororugh Alaska Elevation Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 24 arc-second Kenai Peninsula Bororugh Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 24 second resolution in geographic coordinates....

  3. Sand Point, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sand Point, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  4. Radionuclide Site Survey Report Salchaket (Eielson), Alaska (RN-76)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to validate that the Eielson, Alaska, site will fulfill treaty requirements as set forth by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization...

  5. Gravity Data for Southwestern Alaska (1294 records compiled)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1294 records) were compiled by the Alaska Geological Survey and the U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. This data base was...

  6. Alaska Gravity Data per 2 x 4 min Cell (96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' gravity density grid for Alaska displays the distribution of about 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the National Geodetic Survey...

  7. Cordova, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cordova, Alaska Forecast Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  8. Unalaska, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Unalaska, Alaska Forecast Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  9. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for razor clams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  10. Seward, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Seward, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is...

  11. Adak, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Adak, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  12. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for herring spawning areas in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent...

  14. Southeast Alaska ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in Southeast Alaska. Points in this data set represent locations of haulout and rookery...

  15. Homer, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Homer, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is...

  16. AFSC/ABL: Ocean Acidification in Southeast Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information from one primary project a Southeast Alaska (SEAK) environmental monitoring study. It also includes support analyses for Kodiak...

  17. Nikolski, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nikolski, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  18. Soda Creek springs - metamorphic waters in the eastern Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D.H.; Donaldson, D.E.; Lamarre, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    The Soda Creek springs are a group of small, cold mineral springs on the southern flank of the eastern Alaska Range. The spring waters contain anomalous concentrations of carbon dioxide, sodium, chlorine, sulfate, boron, and ammonia and are actively precipitating deposits of calcite and aragonite. Sparingly present in these deposits are mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite clays and zeolite minerals. Low-temperaturemetamorphic reactions in subjacent marine sedimentary rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age may have produced the fluids and silicate minerals. With only a few exceptions, cool bicarbonate-rich springs in Alaska are concentrated south of the Denali fault system in south-central Alaska, southeastern Alaska, and along the Kaltag-Tintina fault system. These areas are characterized by active or recently activetectonism, major faults and folds, and an abundance of marine sedimentary rocks.

  19. AFSC/REFM: Alaska Saltwater Sport Fishing Charter Business Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project was to collect cost, earning, and employment information from the Alaska saltwater sport fishing charter business sector during the...

  20. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Bird Nests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  1. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  2. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.R.

    1979-04-01

    The various factors affecting geothermal resource development are summarized for Alaska including: resource data base, geological description, reservoir characteristics, environmental character, base and development status, institutional factors, economics, population and market, and development potential. (MHR)

  3. Port Alexander, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Port Alexander, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  4. Elfin Cove, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Elfin Cove, Alaska Forecast Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  5. Winter banding of passerines on the Alaska Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between February 1969 and May 1973, bait traps were operated during winter at Cold Bay (55° 12' N, 162° 43' W), Alaska, headquarters of the Izembek National Wildlife...

  6. 76 FR 11978 - Proposed Amendment of Federal Airways; Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal airways in Alaska. Due to construction of wind turbines on Fire Island, AK, the Anchorage VOR is... to assign the use of the airspace necessary to ensure the safety of aircraft and the efficient use of...

  7. Bringing It All Together: The Southeast Alaska Music Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Brad

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Southeast Alaska Music Festival discussing topics such as the role of the host school, the communities and schools within the region, and scoring procedures at the Festival. Includes a festival schedule. (CMK)

  8. Chignik, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Chignik, Alaska Forecast Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  9. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  10. The geophysical character of southern Alaska - Implications for crustal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2007-01-01

    The southern Alaska continental margin has undergone a long and complicated history of plate convergence, subduction, accretion, and margin-parallel displacements. The crustal character of this continental margin is discernible through combined analysis of aeromagnetic and gravity data with key constraints from previous seismic interpretation. Regional magnetic data are particularly useful in defining broad geophysical domains. One of these domains, the south Alaska magnetic high, is the focus of this study. It is an intense and continuous magnetic high up to 200 km wide and ∼1500 km long extending from the Canadian border in the Wrangell Mountains west and southwest through Cook Inlet to the Bering Sea shelf. Crustal thickness beneath the south Alaska magnetic high is commonly 40–50 km. Gravity analysis indicates that the south Alaska magnetic high crust is dense. The south Alaska magnetic high spatially coincides with the Peninsular and Wrangellia terranes. The thick, dense, and magnetic character of this domain requires significant amounts of mafic rocks at intermediate to deep crustal levels. In Wrangellia these mafic rocks are likely to have been emplaced during Middle and (or) Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone volcanism. In the Peninsular terrane, the most extensive period of mafic magmatism now known was associated with the Early Jurassic Talkeetna Formation volcanic arc. Thus the thick, dense, and magnetic character of the south Alaska magnetic high crust apparently developed as the response to mafic magmatism in both extensional (Wrangellia) and subduction-related arc (Peninsular terrane) settings. The south Alaska magnetic high is therefore a composite crustal feature. At least in Wrangellia, the crust was probably of average thickness (30 km) or greater prior to Triassic mafic magmatism. Up to 20 km (40%) of its present thickness may be due to the addition of Triassic mafic magmas. Throughout the south Alaska magnetic high, significant crustal growth

  11. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP are recovering from population declines, the Northern Alaska Peninsula Herd (NAP appears to be nearing the end of a protracted decline, and the Mulchatna Herd (MCH appears to now be declining after 20 years of rapid growth. The remaining naturally occurring herd (Kilbuck has virtually disappeared. Nutrition had a significant effect on the size of 4-month-old and 10-month-old calves in the NAP and the Nushagak Peninsula Herd (NPCH and probably also on population growth in at least 4 (SAP, NAP, NPCH, and MCH of the six caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. Predation does not appear to be sufficient to keep caribou herds in southwestern Alaska from expanding, probably because rabies is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and is periodically transferred to wolves (Canis lupus and other canids. However, we found evidence that pneumonia and hoof rot may result in significant mortality of caribou in southwestern Alaska, whereas there is no evidence that disease is important in the dynamics of Interior herds. Cooperative conservation programs, such as the Kilbuck Caribou Management Plan, can be successful in restraining traditional harvest and promoting growth in caribou herds. In southwestern Alaska we also found evidence that small caribou herds can be swamped and assimilated by large herds, and fidelity to traditional calving areas can be lost.

  12. Shear-wave splitting observations of mantle anisotropy beneath Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesiles, A. K.; Christensen, D. H.; Entwistle, E.; Litherland, M.; Abers, G. A.; Song, X.

    2009-12-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy were obtained from three different PASSCAL broadband experiments throughout Alaska, using shear-wave splitting from teleseismic SKS phases. The MOOS (Multidisciplinary Observations Of Subduction), BEAAR (Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range), and ARCTIC (Alaska Receiving Cross-Transects for the Inner Core) networks were used along with selected permanent broadband stations operated by AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) to produce seismic anisotropy results for the state of Alaska along a north south transect from the active subduction zone in the south, through continental Alaska, to the passive margin in the north. The BEAAR network is in-between the ARCTIC and MOOS networks above the subducting Pacific Plate and mantle wedge and shows a tight ~90 degree rotation of anisotropy above the 70km contour of the subducting plate. The southern stations in BEAAR yield anisotropy results that are subparallel to the Pacific Plate motion as it subducts under North America. These stations have an average fast direction of -45 degrees and 1.03 seconds of delay on average. The MOOS network in south central Alaska yielded similar results with an average fast direction of -30 degrees and delay times of .9 seconds. In the north portion of the BEAAR network the anisotropy is along strike of the subduction zone and has an average fast direction of 27 degrees with an average delay time of 1.4 seconds, although the delay times above the mantle wedge range from 1 to 2.5 seconds and are directly correlated to the length of ray path in the mantle wedge. This general trend NE/SW is seen in the ARCTIC stations to the north although the furthest north stations are oriented more NNE compared to those in BEAAR. The average fast direction for the ARCTIC network is 40 degrees with an average delay time of 1.05 seconds. These results show two distinct orientations of anisotropy in Alaska separated by the subducting Pacific Plate.

  13. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  14. An overview of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Katharine F.; Buurman, Helena

    2013-06-01

    In March 2009, Redoubt Volcano, Alaska erupted for the first time since 1990. Explosions ejected plumes that disrupted international and domestic airspace, sent lahars more than 35 km down the Drift River to the coast, and resulted in tephra fall on communities over 100 km away. Geodetic data suggest that magma began to ascend slowly from deep in the crust and reached mid- to shallow-crustal levels as early as May, 2008. Heat flux at the volcano during the precursory phase melted ~ 4% of the Drift glacier atop Redoubt's summit. Petrologic data indicate the deeply sourced magma, low-silica andesite, temporarily arrested at 9-11 km and/or at 4-6 km depth, where it encountered and mixed with segregated stored high-silica andesite bodies. The two magma compositions mixed to form intermediate-silica andesite, and all three magma types erupted during the earliest 2009 events. Only intermediate- and high-silica andesites were produced throughout the explosive and effusive phases of the eruption. The explosive phase began with a phreatic explosion followed by a seismic swarm, which signaled the start of lava effusion on March 22, shortly prior to the first magmatic explosion early on March 23, 2009 (UTC). More than 19 explosions (or “Events”) were produced over 13 days from a single vent immediately south of the 1989-90 lava domes. During that period multiple small pyroclastic density currents flowed primarily to the north and into glacial ravines, three major lahars flooded the Drift River Terminal over 35 km down-river on the coast, tephra fall deposited on all aspects of the edifice and on several communities north and east of the volcano, and at least two, and possibly three lava domes were emplaced. Lightning accompanied almost all the explosions. A shift in the eruptive character took place following Event 9 on March 27 in terms of infrasound signal onsets, the character of repeating earthquakes, and the nature of tephra ejecta. More than nine additional

  15. The 2014 eruptions of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Wallace, Kristi; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Schneider, David J.

    2017-12-22

    Pavlof Volcano is one of the most frequently active volcanoes in the Aleutian Island arc, having erupted more than 40 times since observations were first recorded in the early 1800s . The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula (lat 55.4173° N, long 161.8937° W), near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The towns and villages closest to the volcano are Cold Bay, Nelson Lagoon, Sand Point, and King Cove, which are all within 90 kilometers (km) of the volcano (fig. 1). Pavlof is a symmetrically shaped stratocone that is 2,518 meters (m) high, and has about 2,300 m of relief. The volcano supports a cover of glacial ice and perennial snow roughly 2 to 4 cubic kilometers (km3) in volume, which is mantled by variable amounts of tephra fall, rockfall debris, and pyroclastic-flow deposits produced during historical eruptions. Typical Pavlof eruptions are characterized by moderate amounts of ash emission, lava fountaining, spatter-fed lava flows, explosions, and the accumulation of unstable mounds of spatter on the upper flanks of the volcano. The accumulation and subsequent collapse of spatter piles on the upper flanks of the volcano creates hot granular avalanches, which erode and melt snow and ice, and thereby generate watery debris-flow and hyperconcentrated-flow lahars. Seismic instruments were first installed on Pavlof Volcano in the early 1970s, and since then eruptive episodes have been better characterized and specific processes have been documented with greater certainty. The application of remote sensing techniques, including the use of infrasound data, has also aided the study of more recent eruptions. Although Pavlof Volcano is located in a remote part of Alaska, it is visible from Cold Bay, Sand Point, and Nelson Lagoon, making distal observations of eruptive activity possible, weather permitting. A busy air-travel corridor that is utilized by a numerous transcontinental and regional air carriers passes near Pavlof Volcano. The frequency of air travel

  16. Engaging Elements of Cancer-Related Digital Stories in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Revels, Laura; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Lanier, Anne; Dignan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The tradition of storytelling is an integral part of Alaska Native cultures that continues to be a way of passing on knowledge. Using a story-based approach to share cancer education is grounded in Alaska Native traditions and people’s experiences and has the potential to positively impact cancer knowledge, understandings, and wellness choices. Community health workers (CHWs) in Alaska created a personal digital story as part of a 5-day, in-person cancer education course. To identify engaging elements of digital stories among Alaska Native people, one focus group was held in each of three different Alaska communities with a total of 29 adult participants. After viewing CHWs’ digital stories created during CHW cancer education courses, focus group participants commented verbally and in writing about cultural relevance, engaging elements, information learned, and intent to change health behavior. Digital stories were described by Alaska focus group participants as being culturally respectful, informational, inspiring, and motivational. Viewers shared that they liked digital stories because they were short (only 2–3 min); nondirective and not preachy; emotional, told as a personal story and not just facts and figures; and relevant, using photos that showed Alaskan places and people. PMID:25865400

  17. Exploring Alaska's Seamounts on RV Atlantis in North Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Alaska between 20040730 and 20040823

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Five seamounts (Denson, Dickins, Pratt, Welker and Giacomini) in the Gulf of Alaska that had not previously been observed by manned submersible or ROV were...

  18. 75 FR 38452 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska License Limitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... for the Southeast Outside District (SEO), Central Gulf of Alaska which includes the West Yakutat...). This proposed action does not include modifications to SEO endorsed licenses because fishing in this...

  19. Managing brown bears and wilderness recreation on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Michael J.; Schloeder, Catherine A.

    1992-03-01

    The Russian River-Cooper Lake-Resurrection River trail system, on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, traverses essential brown bear habitat. To set management guidelines for this area, the trail system was monitored using questionnaire cards and electronic trail counters from 1984 through 1987. This helped to determine the extent and type of human use and human-bear encounters in the area. Management recommendations were intended to reduce the potential displacement of brown bears by hikers and to inform wilderness users of the proper camping techniques to avoid attracting bears to the campsite. An average of 5800 visitors hiked or camped along the trail system each year. Encounters between hikers and brown bears averaged 7/yr while encounters with black bears averaged 35/yr. Minor problems occurred with both the electronic trail counters and the questionnaire. Modilications to these methods are discussed. A Limits of Acceptable Change format should be considered for the trail system to determine the character and future direction of recreational activities and monitoring of the trail system should continue in the future.

  20. Flowing with Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students compare how artists have depicted rivers in paintings, using different styles, compositions, subject matter, colors, and techniques. They create a watercolor landscape that includes a river. Students can learn about rivers by studying them on site, through environmental study, and through works of…

  1. Geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, William W.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Taylor, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Saint Lawrence Island is located in the northern Bering Sea, 190 km southwest of the tip of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and 75 km southeast of the Chukotsk Peninsula, Russia (see index map, map sheet). It lies on a broad, shallow-water continental shelf that extends from western Alaska to northeastern Russia. The island is situated on a northwest-trending structural uplift exposing rocks as old as Paleozoic above sea level. The submerged shelf between the Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island is covered mainly with Cenozoic deposits (Dundo and Egiazarov, 1982). Northeast of the island, the shelf is underlain by a large structural depression, the Norton Basin, which contains as much as 6.5 km of Cenozoic strata (Grim and McManus, 1970; Fisher and others, 1982). Sparse test-well data indicate that the Cenozoic strata are underlain by Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks, similar to those exposed on the Seward Peninsula (Turner and others, 1983). Saint Lawrence Island is 160 km long in an east-west direction and from 15 km to 55 km wide in a north-south direction. The east end of the island consists largely of a wave-cut platform, which has been elevated as much as 30 m above sea level. Isolated upland areas composed largely of granitic plutons rise as much as 550 m above the wave-cut platform. The central part of the island is dominated by the Kookooligit Mountains, a large Quaternary shield volcano that extends over an area of 850 km2 and rises to an elevation of 630 m. The west end of the island is composed of the Poovoot Range, a group of barren, rubble-covered hills as high as 450 m that extend from Boxer Bay on the southwest coast to Taphook Mountain on the north coast. The Poovoot Range is flanked on the southeast by the Putgut Plateau, a nearly flat, lake-dotted plain that stands 30?60 m above sea level. The west end of the island is marked by uplands underlain by the Sevuokuk pluton (unit Kg), a long narrow granite body that extends from Gambell on the

  2. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The village of Elim, Alaska is 96 miles west of Nome, on the Seward Peninsula. The Darby Mountains north of the village are rich with hydrothermal systems associated with the Darby granitic pluton(s). In addition to the hot springs that have been recorded and studied over the last 100 years, additional hot springs exist. They are known through a rich oral history of the region, though they are not labeled on geothermal maps. This research primarily focused on Kwiniuk Hot Springs, Clear Creek Hot Springs and Molly’s Hot Springs. The highest recorded surface temperatures of these resources exist at Clear Creek Hot Springs (67°C). Repeated water sampling of the resources shows that maximum temperatures at all of the systems are below boiling.

  3. AFSC/REFM: Community Profiles for North Pacific Fisheries, Alaska 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2005, the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) compiled baseline socioeconomic information about 136 Alaska communities most involved in commercial fisheries....

  4. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  5. 77 FR 11564 - Draft Policy on Consultation With Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Claims Settlement Act Corporations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... draft policy on consultation with Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act corporations. DATES: Submit...-199, this consultation policy also applies to corporations established under the Alaska Native Claims...

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alaska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alaska.

  7. Alaska Steller Sea Lion and Northern Fur Seal Argos Telemetry Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alaska Ecosystems Program of the NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory conducts research and monitoring on Steller sea lions and...

  8. Seasonality of primary and secondary production in an Arctic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, M.; Huryn, A.; Deegan, L.

    2011-12-01

    Rivers and streams that freeze solid for 8-9 months each year provide excellent examples of the extreme seasonality of arctic habitats. The communities of organisms inhabiting these rivers must complete growth and development during summer, resulting in a rapid ramp-up and down of production over the short ice-free period. The effects of recent shifts in the timing of the spring thaw and autumn freeze-up on the duration and pattern of the period of active production are poorly understood. We are currently investigating: 1) the response of the biotic community of the Kuparuk River (Arctic Alaska) to shifts in the seasonality of the ice-free period, and 2) the community response to increases in phosphorous (P) supply anticipated as the volume of the permafrost active-layer increases in response to climate warming. Here algal production supports a 2-tier web of consumers. We tracked primary and secondary production from the spring thaw through mid-August in a reference reach and one receiving low-level P fertilization. Gross primary production/community respiration (GPP/R) ratios for both reaches were increasing through mid-July, with higher GPP/R in response to the P addition. Understanding the degree of synchrony between primary and secondary production in this Arctic river system will enhance further understanding of how shifts in seasonality affect trophic dynamics.

  9. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  10. Microclimate, Water Potential, Transpiration, and Bole Dielectric Constant of Coniferous and Deciduous Tree Species in the Continental Boreal Ecotone of Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; McDonald, K.; Way, J.; Oren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tree canopy microclimate, xylem water flux and xylem dielectric constant have been monitored in situ since June 1993 in two adjacent natural forest stands in central Alaska. The deciduous stand represents a mature balsam poplar site on the Tanana River floodplain, while the coniferous stand consists of mature white spruce with some black spruce mixed in. During solstice in June and later in summer, diurnal changes of xylem water potential were measured to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of tree transpiration and dielectric constant changes in stems.

  11. Enhancing Cancer Education through the Arts: Building Connections with Alaska Native People, Cultures and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Cueva, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Building upon the dynamic traditions of Alaska Native people, which include the arts as a viable way of knowing, the expressive arts were woven into a five-day cancer education course for Alaska village-based Community Health Workers (CHWs). Cancer is the leading cause of mortality for Alaska Native people. Course learning modalities included…

  12. Institutional innovation in less than ideal conditions: management of commons by an Alaska Native village corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixie Dayo; Gary Kofinas

    2010-01-01

    Alaska Natives have experienced less than ideal conditions for engaging in management of their homeland commons. During the first 100 years after the Treaty of Cession of 1867, Alaska Natives received limited recognition by the United States. The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 (ANCSA) was signed into law by President Richard Nixon after tedious...

  13. Timber products output and timber harvests in Alaska: projections for 1992-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.J. Brooks; R.W. Haynes

    1994-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for raw material, and timber harvest by owner are developed from a trend-based analysis. By using a spread-sheet model, material flows in the Alaska forest sectorare fully accounted for. Demand for Alaska national forest timber is projected and depends on product output and harvest by other owners. Key...

  14. Fire history and fire management implications in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Drury; P. J. Grissom

    2008-01-01

    We conducted this investigation in response to criticisms that the current Alaska Interagency Fire Management Plans are allowing too much of the landscape in interior Alaska to burn annually. To address this issue, we analyzed fire history patterns within the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, interior Alaska. We dated 40 fires on 27 landscape points within the...

  15. Wood energy for residential heating in Alaska: current conditions, attitudes, and expected use

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Valerie. Barber

    2010-01-01

    This study considered three aspects of residential wood energy use in Alaska: current conditions and fuel consumption, knowledge and attitudes, and future use and conditions. We found that heating oil was the primary fuel for home heating in southeast and interior Alaska, whereas natural gas was used most often in south-central Alaska (Anchorage). Firewood heating...

  16. 77 FR 41754 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... program in the Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery. NMFS conducted a referendum to approve the..., Chief, Financial Services Division, NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback, 1315 East-West...

  17. 78 FR 33810 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... reduction loan for the fishing capacity reduction program in the Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery... July 22, 2012. Since then, all harvesters of Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon must pay the fee and...

  18. 77 FR 26744 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... of reduction payment tender of Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon permits. SUMMARY: The National... Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery. The program authorizes NMFS to make payments to permit holders...

  19. 77 FR 12568 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Salmon Fishery. NMFS will hold a series of public meetings with Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon... to Paul Marx, Chief, Financial Services Division, NMFS, Attn: SE Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Buyback...

  20. 76 FR 58263 - Kenai Pipe Line Company; Tesoro Alaska Company; Tesoro Logistics Operations, LLC; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR11-21-000] Kenai Pipe Line Company; Tesoro Alaska Company; Tesoro Logistics Operations, LLC; Notice of Request for Jurisdictional..., 2011, Kenai Pipe Line Company (KPL), Tesoro Alaska Company (Tesoro Alaska), and Tesoro Logistics, LLC...

  1. 7 CFR 318.13-21 - Avocados from Hawaii to Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avocados from Hawaii to Alaska. 318.13-21 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-21 Avocados from Hawaii to Alaska. Avocados may be moved... marking requirements. The avocados may be moved interstate for distribution in Alaska only, the boxes of...

  2. 76 FR 41763 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Logbook Family of Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Logbook Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... (NMFS) Alaska Region manages the United States (U.S.) groundfish fisheries of the Exclusive Economic.... NMFS Alaska Region requests information from participating groundfish participants. This information...

  3. 25 CFR 142.8 - Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska Resupply Operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska... FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ALASKA RESUPPLY OPERATION § 142.8 Is economy of operation a requirement for the Alaska..., or cooperative arrangements. Whenever possible joint arrangements for economy will be entered into...

  4. Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Matthew R; Reeves, Gordon H; Christiansen, Kelly R

    2017-02-01

    In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural, and ecosystem services these fish provide. We combined field measurements and model simulations to estimate the potential influence of future flood disturbance on geomorphic processes controlling the quality and extent of coho, chum, and pink salmon spawning habitat in over 800 southeast Alaska watersheds. Spawning habitat responses varied widely across watersheds and among salmon species. Little variation among watersheds in potential spawning habitat change was explained by predicted increases in mean annual flood size. Watershed response diversity was mediated primarily by topographic controls on stream channel confinement, reach-scale geomorphic associations with spawning habitat preferences, and complexity in the pace and mode of geomorphic channel responses to altered flood size. Potential spawning habitat loss was highest for coho salmon, which spawn over a wide range of geomorphic settings, including steeper, confined stream reaches that are more susceptible to streambed scour during high flows. We estimated that 9-10% and 13-16% of the spawning habitat for coho salmon could be lost by the 2040s and 2080s, respectively, with losses occurring primarily in confined, higher-gradient streams that provide only moderate-quality habitat. Estimated effects were lower for pink and chum salmon, which primarily spawn in unconfined floodplain streams. Our results illustrate the importance of accounting for valley and reach-scale geomorphic features in watershed assessments of climate vulnerability, especially in topographically complex regions. Failure to consider the geomorphic context of stream

  5. Post-fire Thermokarst Development Along a Planned Road Corridor in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Larsen, C. F.; Hayes, D. J.; Arp, C. D.; Liu, L.; Miller, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire disturbance in northern high latitude regions is an important factor contributing to ecosystem and landscape change. In permafrost influenced terrain, fire may initiate thermokarst development which impacts hydrology, vegetation, wildlife, carbon storage and infrastructure. In this study we differenced two airborne LiDAR datasets that were acquired in the aftermath of the large and severe Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, which in 2007 burned across a proposed road corridor in Arctic Alaska. The 2009 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the Alaska Department of Transportation in preparation for construction of a gravel road that would connect the Dalton Highway with the logistical camp of Umiat. The 2014 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the USGS to quantify potential post-fire thermokarst development over the first seven years following the tundra fire event. By differencing the two 1 m resolution digital terrain models, we measured permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, and observed less than 1% in similar, undisturbed tundra terrain units. Ice-rich, yedoma upland terrain was most susceptible to thermokarst development following the disturbance, accounting for 50% of the areal and volumetric change detected, with some locations subsiding more than six meters over the study period. Calculation of rugosity, or surface roughness, in the two datasets showed a doubling in microtopography on average across the burned portion of the study area, with a 340% increase in yedoma upland terrain. An additional LiDAR dataset was acquired in April 2015 to document the role of thermokarst development on enhanced snow accumulation and subsequent snowmelt runoff within the burn area. Our findings will enable future vulnerability assessments of ice-rich permafrost terrain as a result of shifting disturbance regimes. Such assessments are needed to address questions focused on the impact of permafrost degradation on physical, ecological, and socio

  6. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, Ken D; Flint, Paul L; Meixell, Brandt W; Gaglioti, Benjamin V

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are <1 m above sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since 1976, the distribution of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a ‘tipping point’ whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes. (letter)

  7. Geologic map of the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle, east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Roberts, Paul; Smith, Moira; Gamble, Bruce M.; Henning, Mitchell W.; Gough, Larry P.; Morath, Laurie C.

    2003-01-01

    New 1:63,360-scale geologic mapping of the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle provides important data on the structural setting and age of geologic units, as well as on the timing of gold mineralization plutonism within the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska. Gold exploration has remained active throughout the region in response to the discovery of the Pogo gold deposit, which lies within the northwestern part of the quadrangle near the south bank of the Goodpaster River. Geologic mapping and associated geochronological and geochemical studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, provide baseline data to help understand the regional geologic framework. Teck Cominco Limited geologists have provided the geologic mapping for the area that overlies the Pogo gold deposit as well as logistical support, which has lead to a much improved and informative product. The Yukon-Tanana Upland lies within the Tintina province in Alaska and consists of Paleozoic and possibly older(?) supracrustal rocks intruded by Paleozoic (Devonian to Mississippian) and Cretaceous plutons. The oldest rocks in the Big Delta B-2 quadrangle are Paleozoic gneisses of both plutonic and sedimentary origin. Paleozoic deformation, potentially associated with plutonism, was obscured by intense Mesozoic deformation and metamorphism. At least some of the rocks in the quadrangle underwent tectonism during the Middle Jurassic (about 188 Ma), and were subsequently deformed in an Early Cretaceous contractional event between about 130 and 116 Ma. New U-Pb SHRIMP data presented here on zircons from the Paleozoic biotite gneisses record inherited cores that range from 363 Ma to about 2,130 Ma and have rims of euhedral Early Cretaceous metamorphic overgrowths (116 +/- 4 Ma), interpreted to record recrystallization during Cretaceous west-northwest-directed thrusting and folding. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of monazite from a Paleozoic

  8. Operation of river systems. The Otra river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harby, A.; Vaskinn, K.A.; Wathne, M.; Heggenes, J.; Saltveit, S.J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report was to prepare an operative tool for making decisions about the operation of the power system on the river Otra (Norway) with regard to how this operation might affect the various users of the river system. Above all this affects fish, outdoor life and esthetic values. The connection between water quality and volume of discharge has been examined in a sub project. How suitable parts of the river are as habitats for trout has been simulated on a computer. From field investigation it is concluded that near the Steinfoss power station the physical conditions for trout depend on the operation of the river system. Outdoor life is not much affected downstream Vikeland. 11 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs

  9. 76 FR 51887 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River... held over certain waters of the Patuxent River adjacent to Patuxent River, Maryland from September 1...

  10. Hydrological Modeling in Alaska with WRF-Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, N. J.; Zavodsky, B.; Molthan, A.

    2017-12-01

    The operational National Water Model (NWM), implemented in August 2016, is an instantiation of the Weather Research and Forecasting hydrological extension package (WRF-Hydro). Currently, the NWM only covers the contiguous United States, but will be expanded to include an Alaska domain in the future. It is well known that Alaska presents several hydrological modeling challenges, including unique arctic/sub-arctic hydrological processes not observed elsewhere in the United States and a severe lack of in-situ observations for model initialization. This project sets up an experimental version of WRF-Hydro in Alaska mimicking the NWM to gauge the ability of WRF-Hydro to represent hydrological processes in Alaska and identify model calibration challenges. Recent and upcoming launches of hydrology-focused NASA satellite missions such as the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) expand the spatial and temporal coverage of observations in Alaska, so this study also lays the groundwork for assimilating these NASA datasets into WRF-Hydro in the future.

  11. Sobriety and alcohol use among rural Alaska Native elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultural research. Objective: The present study reports findings from one of the first research studies asking directly about alcohol abuse among rural Alaska Natives (AN since the study in Barrow took place in 1979. Design: We report findings regarding self-reported alcohol use included in an elder needs assessment conducted with 134 Alaska Native elders from 5 rural villages off the road system in Alaska. Data were collected in partnership between academic researchers and community members in accordance with the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research. Results: Findings showed very high rates of sobriety and low rates of alcohol use, contradicting stereotypes of widespread alcohol abuse among AN. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed. Conclusions: This research represents one step forward in mending academic–community relationships in rural Alaska to further research on alcohol use and related health disparities.

  12. On the Precipitation and Precipitation Change in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Wendler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alaska observes very large differences in precipitation throughout the state; southeast Alaska experiences consistently wet conditions, while northern Arctic Alaska observes very dry conditions. The maximum mean annual precipitation of 5727 mm is observed in the southeastern panhandle at Little Port Arthur, while the minimum of 92 mm occurs on the North Slope at Kuparuk. Besides explaining these large differences due to geographic and orographic location, we discuss the changes in precipitation with time. Analyzing the 18 first-order National Weather Service stations, we found that the total average precipitation in the state increased by 17% over the last 67 years. The observed changes in precipitation are furthermore discussed as a function of the observed temperature increase of 2.1 °C, the mean temperature change of the 18 stations over the same period. This observed warming of Alaska is about three times the magnitude of the mean global warming and allows the air to hold more water vapor. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, which has a strong influence on both the temperature and precipitation in Alaska.

  13. Earthquake source studies and seismic imaging in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, C.; Silwal, V.

    2015-12-01

    Alaska is one of the world's most seismically and tectonically active regions. Its enhanced seismicity, including slab seismicity down to 180 km, provides opportunities (1) to characterize pervasive crustal faulting and slab deformation through the estimation of moment tensors and (2) to image subsurface structures to help understand the tectonic evolution of Alaska. Most previous studies of earthquakes and seismic imaging in Alaska have emphasized earthquake locations and body-wave travel-time tomography. In the past decade, catalogs of seismic moment tensors have been established, while seismic surface waves, active-source data, and potential field data have been used to improve models of seismic structure. We have developed moment tensor catalogs in the regions of two of the largest sedimentary basins in Alaska: Cook Inlet forearc basin, west of Anchorage, and Nenana basin, west of Fairbanks. Our moment tensor solutions near Nenana basin suggest a transtensional tectonic setting, with the basin developing in a stepover of a left-lateral strike-slip fault system. We explore the effects of seismic wave propagation from point-source and finite-source earthquake models by performing three-dimensional wavefield simulations using seismic velocity models that include major sedimentary basins. We will use our catalog of moment tensors within an adjoint-based, iterative inversion to improve the three-dimensional tomographic model of Alaska.

  14. Local sources of pollution and their impacts in Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molders, N.

    2013-12-01

    The movie 'Into the Wilde' evoke the impression of the last frontier in a great wide and pristine land. With over half a million people living in Alaska an area as larger as the distance from the US West to the East Coast, this idea comes naturally. The three major cities are the main emission source in an otherwise relative clean atmosphere. On the North Slope oil drilling and production is the main anthropogenic emission sources. Along Alaska's coasts ship traffic including cruises is another anthropogenic emission source that is expected to increase as sea-ice recedes. In summer, wildfires in Alaska, Canada and/or Siberia may cause poor air quality. In winter inversions may lead poor air quality and in spring. In spring, aged polluted air is often advected into Alaska. These different emission sources yield quite different atmospheric composition and air quality impacts. While this may make understanding Alaska's atmospheric composition at-large a challenging task, it also provides great opportunities to examine impacts without co-founders. The talk will give a review of the performed research, and insight into the challenges.

  15. NASA SPoRT JPSS PG Activities in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Molthan, Andrew; Fuell, Kevin; McGrath, Kevin; Smith, Matt; LaFontaine, Frank; Leroy, Anita; White, Kris

    2018-01-01

    SPoRT (NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center) has collaboratively worked with Alaska WFOs (Weather Forecast Offices) to introduce RGB (Red/Green/Blue false color image) imagery to prepare for NOAA-20 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System) series-20 satellite) VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) and improve forecasting aviation-related hazards. Last R2O/O2R (Research-to-Operations/Operations-to-Research) steps include incorporating NOAA-20 VIIRS in RGB suite and fully transitioning client-side RGB processing to GINA (Geographic Information Network of Alaska) and Alaska Region. Alaska Region WFOs have been part of the successful R2O/O2R story to assess the use of NESDIS (National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service) Snowfall Rate product in operations. SPoRT introduced passive microwave rain rate and IMERG (Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)) (IMERG) to Alaska WFOs for use in radar-void areas and assessing flooding potential. SPoRT has been part of the multi-organization collaborative effort to introduce Gridded NUCAPS (NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS (Crosstrack Infrared Sounder/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder) Processing System) to the Anchorage CWSU (Center Weather Service Unit) to assess Cold Air Aloft events, [and as part of NOAA's PG (Product Generation) effort].

  16. Inland waters and their role in the carbon cycle of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Butman, David E.; Clow, David W.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Genet, Hélène; Striegl, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude of Alaska (AK) inland waters carbon (C) fluxes is likely to change in the future due to amplified climate warming impacts on the hydrology and biogeochemical processes in high latitude regions. Although current estimates of major aquatic C fluxes represent an essential baseline against which future change can be compared, a comprehensive assessment for AK has not yet been completed. To address this gap, we combined available data sets and applied consistent methodologies to estimate river lateral C export to the coast, river and lake carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions, and C burial in lakes for the six major hydrologic regions in the state. Estimated total aquatic C flux for AK was 41 Tg C/yr. Major components of this total flux, in Tg C/yr, were 18 for river lateral export, 17 for river CO2 emissions, and 8 for lake CO2 emissions. Lake C burial offset these fluxes by 2 Tg C/yr. River and lake CH4 emissions were 0.03 and 0.10 Tg C/yr, respectively. The Southeast and South central regions had the highest temperature, precipitation, terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP), and C yields (fluxes normalized to land area) were 77 and 42 g C·m−2·yr−1, respectively. Lake CO2 emissions represented over half of the total aquatic flux from the Southwest (37 g C·m−2·yr−1). The North Slope, Northwest, and Yukon regions had lesser yields (11, 15, and 17 g C·m2·yr−1), but these estimates may be the most vulnerable to future climate change, because of the heightened sensitivity of arctic and boreal ecosystems to intensified warming. Total aquatic C yield for AK was 27 g C·m−2·yr−1, which represented 16% of the estimated terrestrial NPP. Freshwater ecosystems represent a significant conduit for C loss, and a more comprehensive view of land-water-atmosphere interactions is necessary to predict future climate change impacts on the Alaskan ecosystem C balance.

  17. Exotic Members of Southern Alaska's Jurassic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, E.; Jones, J. V., III; Karl, S. M.; Box, S.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Jurassic Talkeetna arc and contemporaneous plutonic rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith (ARB) are key components of the Peninsular terrane of southern Alaska. The Talkeetna arc, considered to be a type example of an intra-oceanic arc, was progressively accreted to northwestern North America in the Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, together with associated components of the Wrangellia Composite terrane. Older Paleozoic and Mesozoic rock successions closely associated with the ARB suggest that at least part of the Peninsular terrane might be an overlap succession built on pre-existing crust, possibly correlative with the Wrangellia terrane to the east. However, the relationship between the Talkeetna arc, ARB, and any pre-existing crust remains incompletely understood. Field investigations focused on the petrogenesis of the ARB near Lake Clark National Park show that Jurassic to Late Cretaceous plutonic rocks commonly host a diverse range of mineralogically distinct xenolith inclusions, ranging in size from several cm to hundreds of meters. The modal fraction of these inclusions ranges from 50% in some outcrops. They are generally mafic in composition and, with few exceptions, are more mafic than host plutonic rocks, although they are observed as both igneous (e.g., gabbro cumulate, diorite porphyry) and metamorphic types (e.g., amphibolite, gneiss and quartzite). Inclusion shapes range from angular to rounded with sharp to diffuse boundaries and, in some instances, are found as planar, compositionally distinct bands or screens containing high-temperature ductile shear fabrics. Other planar bands are more segmented, consistent with lower-temperature brittle behavior. Comparison of age, geochemical fractionation trends, and isotope systematics between the inclusions and host plutons provides a critical test of whether they are co-genetic with host plutons. Where they are related, mafic inclusions provide clues about magmatic evolution and fractionation history

  18. The species velocity of trees in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, B. D.; Napier, J.; de Lafontaine, G.; Heath, K.; Li, B.; Hu, F.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has motivated interest in the paleo record to enhance our knowledge about past vegetation responses to climate change and help understand potential responses in the future. Additionally, polar regions currently experience the most rapid rates of climate change globally, prompting concern over changes in the ecological composition of high latitude ecosystems. Recent analyses have attempted to construct methods to estimate a species' ability to track climate change by computing climate velocity; a measure of the rate of climate displacement across a landscape which may indicate the speed an organism must migrate to keep pace with climate change. However, a challenge to using climate velocity in understanding range shifts is a lack of species-specificity in the velocity calculations: climate velocity does not actually use any species data in its analysis. To solve the shortcomings of climate velocity in estimating species displacement rates, we computed the "species velocity" of white spruce, green and grey alder populations across the state of Alaska from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to today. Species velocity represents the rate and direction a species is required to migrate to keep pace with a changing climate following the LGM. We used a species distribution model to determine past and present white spruce and alder distributions using statistically downscaled climate data at 60m. Species velocity was then derived from the change in species distribution per year by the change in distribution over Alaska (km/yr). High velocities indicate locations where the species environmental envelope is changing drastically and must disperse rapidly to survive climate change. As a result, high velocity regions are more vulnerable to distribution shifts and higher risk of local extinction. Conversely, low species velocities indicate locations where the local climate envelope is shifting relatively slowly, reducing the stress to disperse quickly

  19. The pipe dream of gold in Alaska; La quimera del oro en Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, Amory B; Lovins, L Hunter [Rocky Mountain Institute (United States)

    2001-10-01

    Since 1973, the Alaska's politicians have been used all the crude oil price rises in order to put pressure in favour of the Artic National Wildlife Refuge's perforations. However, without taking into account the environment-friendly issues, the refuge's crude oil is unnecessary and quiet unsafe, besides, isn't economic-friendly and becomes a distraction to the real energy discussion. The solutions aimed to the market point to increase the efficiency; therefore, they can assure a safety and environment-friendly energy supply at very less cost. [Spanish] Desde 1973, los politicos de Alaska se han valido de todas las alzas en los precios del petroleo para presionar a favor de las perforaciones en el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre del Artico. Pero incluso si se dejan de lado las cuestiones ambientales, el petroleo del refugio es innecesario, poco seguro, economicamente riesgoso e implica una distraccion del verdadero debate energetico. Las soluciones orientadas al mercado que apuntan a aumentar la eficiencia pueden garantizar un suministro de energia seguro y limpio a un costo mucho menor.

  20. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from the persp......Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...

  1. Investing in river health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J

    2002-01-01

    Rivers provide society with numerous returns. These relate to both the passive and extractive uses of the resources embodied in river environments. Some returns are manifest in the form of financial gains whilst others are non-monetary. For instance, rivers are a source of monetary income for those who harvest their fish. The water flowing in rivers is extracted for drinking and to water crops and livestock that in turn yield monetary profits. However, rivers are also the source of non-monetary values arising from biological diversity. People who use them for recreation (picnicking, swimming, boating) also receive non-monetary returns. The use of rivers to yield these returns has had negative consequences. With extraction for financial return has come diminished water quantity and quality. The result has been a diminished capacity of rivers to yield (non-extractive) environmental returns and to continue to provide extractive values. A river is like any other asset. With use, the value of an asset depreciates because its productivity declines. In order to maintain the productive capacity of their assets, managers put aside from their profits depreciation reserves that can be invested in the repair or replacement of those assets. Society now faces a situation in which its river assets have depreciated in terms of their capacity to provide monetary and non-monetary returns. An investment in river "repair" is required. But, investment means that society gives up something now in order to achieve some benefit in the future. Society thus has to grapple wih the choice between investing in river health and other investments--such as in hospitals, schools, defence etc. - as well as between investing in river health and current consumption--such as on clothes, food, cars etc. A commonly used aid for investment decision making in the public sector is benefit cost analysis. However, its usefulness in tackling the river investment problem is restricted because it requires all

  2. Ichthyophonus in sport-caught groundfishes from southcentral Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradley P; Webster, Sarah R; Wolf, Nathan; Gregg, Jacob L; Hershberger, Paul K

    2018-05-07

    This report of Ichthyophonus in common sport-caught fishes throughout the marine waters of southcentral Alaska represents the first documentation of natural Ichthyophonus infections in lingcod Ophiodon elongates and yelloweye rockfish Sebastes ruberrimus. In addition, the known geographic range of Ichthyophonus in black rockfish S. melanops has been expanded northward to include southcentral Alaska. Among all species surveyed, the infection prevalence was highest (35%, n = 334) in Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis. There were no gross indications of high-level infections or clinically diseased individuals. These results support the hypothesis that under typical conditions Ichthyophonus can occur at high infection prevalence accompanied with low-level infection among a variety of fishes throughout the eastern North Pacific Ocean, including southcentral Alaska.

  3. Ichthyophonus in sport-caught groundfishes from southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradley P.; Webster, Sarah R.; Wolf, Nathan; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This report of Ichthyophonus in common sport-caught fishes throughout the marine waters of southcentral Alaska represents the first documentation of natural Ichthyophonus infections in lingcod Ophiodon elongates and yelloweye rockfish Sebastes ruberrimus. In addition, the known geographic range of Ichthyophonus in black rockfish S. melanops has been expanded northward to include southcentral Alaska. Among all species surveyed, the infection prevalence was highest (35%, n = 334) in Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis. There were no gross indications of high-level infections or clinically diseased individuals. These results support the hypothesis that under typical conditions Ichthyophonus can occur at high infection prevalence accompanied with low-level infection among a variety of fishes throughout the eastern North Pacific Ocean, including southcentral Alaska.

  4. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  5. A new tectonic model for southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    S Alaska consists of a complex tectonic boundary that is gradational from subduction of Pacific Plate (PAC) beneath N American Plate (NA) in the W to a transform fault between these two plates in the SE. Adding complexity, the Yakutat Plate (YAK) is in between. The YAK is exposed in NE Gulf of Alaska and has been well mapped (Plafker, 1987). It is bound by the NA to the E at the Fairweather fault and by the PAC to the S. Relative to NA, YAK is moving 47 mm/yr N30°W and PAC is moving 51 mm/yr N20°W (Fletcher & Freymueller, 2003). The YAK and deeper PAC extend NW beneath the NA as flat slabs (Brocher et al., 1994). They subduct to the W and NW in Cook Inlet region (Ratchkovsky et al., 1997), resulting in the Cook Inlet volcanic arc. They also subduct farther NNW toward the Denali volcanic gap and fault. The subducted part of the YAK is split by a transform fault exposed at Montana Creek (MC) at 62°06'N to 62°10'N at 150°W. It extends S60°W toward the most N Cook Inlet volcano, Hayes, and extends N60°E beyond Talkeetna Mts. Right-lateral WSW motion and thick fault gauge have been documented by McGee (1978) on MC and a S60°W fault scarp cutting Quaternary deposits has been mapped (Reed & Nelson, 1980). Fuis et al. (2008) seismically recognized 110 km of missing YAP NW of Talkeetna Mts, which he thought was due to a 'tear' in the YAK to the far S. Nikoli Greenstone has been found in the Talkeetna Mts just S of this transform (Schmidt, 2003) that is 70 km SW of any other mapped Nikoli. This fault offset is also shown by 7.8 km/sec Vp depth contours, which represent the YAK (Eberhart-Phillips et al., 2006), as 110 km at N60°W. Based on magnetic data (Csejtey & Griscom, 1978; Saltus et al., 2007), the fault is regionally recognized as a 10× km zone on the WSW margin of the large S Alaska magnetic high. The fault zone has narrow WSW magnetic highs and depressions. This fault is also recognized on digital relief (Riehle et al., 1996); but, another pronounced N60

  6. Receiver Function Imaging of Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities Beneath Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Haider Hassan Faraj

    Subduction of tectonic plates is one of the most important tectonic processes, yet many aspects of subduction zone geodynamics remain unsolved and poorly understood, such as the depth extent of the subducted slab and its geometry. The Alaska subduction zone, which is associated with the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North America plate, has a complex tectonic setting and carries a series of subduction episodes, and represents an excellent target to study such plate tectonic processes. Previous seismological studies in Alaska have proposed different depth estimations and geometry for the subducted slab. The Mantle transition zone discontinuities of the 410km and the 660 km provide independent constraints on the depth extent of the subducted slabs. We conducted a receiver function study to map the topography of the 410 km and the 660 km discontinuities beneath Alaska and its adjacent areas by taking advantage of the teleseismic data from the new USArray deployment in Alaska and northwestern Canada. Stacking over 75,000 high-quality radial receiver functions recorded in Alaska with more than 40 years of recording period, the topographies of the 410 km and 660 km are mapped. The depths of both d410 and d660 show systematic spatial variations, the mean depth of d410 and d660 are within 6 km and 6 km from the global average, respectively. The mean MTZ thickness of the entire study area is within -2 km from the global average of 250 km, suggesting normal MTZ conditions on average. Central and south-central Alaska are characterized by a larger than normal MTZ thickness, suggesting that the subducting Pacific slab is thermally interacted with the MTZ. This study shows that lateral upper mantle velocity variations contribute the bulk of the observed apparent undulations of the MTZ discontinuities.

  7. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  8. Arktocara yakataga, a new fossil odontocete (Mammalia, Cetacea from the Oligocene of Alaska and the antiquity of Platanistoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra T. Boersma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversification of crown cetacean lineages (i.e., crown Odontoceti and crown Mysticeti occurred throughout the Oligocene, but it remains an ongoing challenge to resolve the phylogenetic pattern of their origins, especially with respect to stem lineages. One extant monotypic lineage, Platanista gangetica (the Ganges and Indus river dolphin, is the sole surviving member of the broader group Platanistoidea, with many fossil relatives that range from Oligocene to Miocene in age. Curiously, the highly threatened Platanista is restricted today to freshwater river systems of South Asia, yet nearly all fossil platanistoids are known globally from marine rocks, suggesting a marine ancestry for this group. In recent years, studies on the phylogenetic relationships in Platanistoidea have reached a general consensus about the membership of different sub-clades and putative extinct groups, although the position of some platanistoid groups (e.g., Waipatiidae has been contested. Here we describe a new genus and species of fossil platanistoid, Arktocara yakataga, gen. et sp. nov. from the Oligocene of Alaska, USA. The type and only known specimen was collected from the marine Poul Creek Formation, a unit known to include Oligocene strata, exposed in the Yakutat City and Borough of Southeast Alaska. In our phylogenetic analysis of stem and node-based Platanistoidea, Arktocara falls within the node-based sub-clade Allodelphinidae as the sister taxon to Allodelphis pratti. With a geochronologic age between ∼29–24 million years old, Arktocara is among the oldest crown Odontoceti, reinforcing the long-standing view that the diversification for crown lineages must have occurred no later than the early Oligocene.

  9. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.; Kachadoorian, Reuben; Coulter, Henry W.; Migliaccio, Ralph R.; Waller, Roger M.; Stanley, Kirk W.; Lemke, Richard W.; Plafker, George; Eckel, Edwin B.; Mayo, Lawrence R.

    1969-01-01

    This is the second in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 542, in 7 parts, describes the effects of the earthquake on Alaskan communities.

  10. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steven Konkel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW by January 2012. Method . This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1. (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984. It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results . Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion . State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers: a. changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska

  11. Checklist of beetles (Coleoptera of Canada and Alaska. Second edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bousquet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All 8237 species-group taxa of Coleoptera known to occur in Canada and Alaska are recorded by province/territory or state, along with their author(s and year of publication, in a classification framework. Only presence of taxa in each Canadian province or territory and Alaska is noted. Labrador is considered a distinct geographical entity. Adventive and Holarctic species-group taxa are indicated. References to pertinent identification keys are given under the corresponding supraspecific taxa in the data archive.

  12. A survey of radioactive fallout data in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePhillips, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Considerable attention has been directed by the scientific community to assessing the levels and fate of radionuclides in Arctic ecosystems. The following text and tables present available data and discussion of radionuclide fallout in Alaska. A literature search of 23 on-line databases (Table 1) using Alaska, Strontium (Sr), Cesium (Cs), Plutonium (Pu) and Radionuclide as constraint terms responded with 177 possible citations. After eliminating duplicate citations, 31 articles were available: 17 were relevant to the subject matter; the remainder addressed geologic issues. All of the cited literature addressed 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu as a result of radionuclide fallout from nuclear testing or accidental release

  13. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, R Steven

    2013-01-01

    In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. This article reviews data and conclusions presented in "Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment" (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards--$202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding--along with numerous energy conservation programs--are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers: changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages, impacts associated with climate change on human health, progress in

  14. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated

  15. Shelf break circulation in the Northern Gulf of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebauer, H.J.; Roberts, J.; Royer, T.C.

    1981-05-20

    Current observations from a mooring on the continental shelf near the shelf break in the Gulf of Alaska, with supporting hydrographic and metorological data, are discussed for the period 1976 to March 1977. The described features suggest strong influence by the cyclonic Alaska Gyre for the periods April--June 1976 and October 1976 to March 1977. From July--September 1976 there is evidence of current veering and rotation. It is hypothesized that these current fluctuations are eddies which are important in mixing processes across the shelf.

  16. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on hydrologic regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Roger M.; Coble, R.W.; Post, Austin; McGarr, Arthur; Vorhis, Robert C.

    1966-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 544, in 5 parts, describes the effects on hydrologic regimen.

  17. High value of ecological information for river connectivity restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; O'Hanley, Jesse R.; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua; Bradley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    ContextEfficient restoration of longitudinal river connectivity relies on barrier mitigation prioritization tools that incorporate stream network spatial structure to maximize ecological benefits given limited resources. Typically, ecological benefits of barrier mitigation are measured using proxies such as the amount of accessible riverine habitat.ObjectivesWe developed an optimization approach for barrier mitigation planning which directly incorporates the ecology of managed taxa, and applied it to an urbanizing salmon-bearing watershed in Alaska.MethodsA novel river connectivity metric that exploits information on the distribution and movement of managed taxon was embedded into a barrier prioritization framework to identify optimal mitigation actions given limited restoration budgets. The value of ecological information on managed taxa was estimated by comparing costs to achieve restoration targets across alternative barrier prioritization approaches.ResultsBarrier mitigation solutions informed by life history information outperformed those using only river connectivity proxies, demonstrating high value of ecological information for watershed restoration. In our study area, information on salmon ecology was typically valued at 0.8–1.2 M USD in costs savings to achieve a given benefit level relative to solutions derived only from stream network information, equating to 16–28% of the restoration budget.ConclusionsInvesting in ecological studies may achieve win–win outcomes of improved understanding of aquatic ecology and greater watershed restoration efficiency.

  18. Preserving the Dnipro River

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Humanity inherited the true sense of proportion, synergy, and harmony from the natural environment. ..... In Ukraine, the middle and lower sections of the Dnipro have a drainage ... The following large cities are located in the Dnipro basin: in Russia, .... In Kherson Oblast and in river basins of some small rivers it is as high as ...

  19. The Triassic upwelling system of Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, I.; Graham, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle to Upper Triassic Shublik Formation of Arctic Alaska is a laterally and vertically heterogeneous rock unit that has been analyzed both in outcrop and in the subsurface. The Shublik Formation sediments are distinguished by a characteristic set of lithologies that include glauconitic, phosphatic, organic-rich, and cherty facies consistent with a coastal upwelling zone deposition interpretation. It is often recognized by abundance of impressions and shells of distinctive Triassic bivalves. To understand main controls on lithofacies distributions, this study reviews and refines lithologic and paleoenvironmental interpretations of the Shublik Formation, and incorporates the newly acquired detailed geochemical analyses of two complete Shublik cores. This work focuses on organic geochemistry (analyses of biomarkers and diamondoids), chemostratigraphy (hand-held XRF), and iron speciation analysis to reconstruct paleoproductivity and redox conditions. Based on the available evidence, during Shublik deposition, an upwelling-influenced open shelf resulted in high nutrient supply that stimulated algal blooms leading to high net organic productivity, reduced water transparency, oxygen deficiency, and water column stratification. Evidence of such eutrophic conditions is indicated by the lack of photic benthic organisms, bioturbation and trace fossils, and dominance of the monospecific light-independent epibenthic bivalves. The flat, subcircular, thin shells of these carbonate-secreting organisms allowed them to adapt to dysoxic conditions, and float on soft, soupy, muddy substrate. The distinctive clay- and organic-rich facies with abundant bivalves occurred on the mid to outer stable broad shelf, and were deposited when organic productivity at times overlapped with periods of increased siliciclastic input controlled by sea level and changes in local sediment dispersal systems, and therefore are more spatially and temporally localized than the widespread clay

  20. Cancer survival among Alaska Native people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sarah H; Meisner, Angela L W; Zimpelman, Garrett L; Barry, Marc; Wiggins, Charles L

    2018-03-26

    Recent cancer survival trends among American Indian and Alaska Native (AN) people are not well understood; survival has not been reported among AN people since 2001. This study examined cause-specific survival among AN cancer patients for lung, colorectal, female breast, prostate, and kidney cancers. It evaluated whether survival differed between cancers diagnosed in 1992-2002 (the earlier period) and cancers diagnosed in 2003-2013 (the later period) and by the age at diagnosis (<65 vs ≥65 years), stage at diagnosis (local or regional/distant/unknown), and sex. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate univariate and multivariate-adjusted cause-specific survival for each cancer. An improvement was observed in 5-year survival over time from lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for the later period vs the earlier period, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.97), and a marginally nonsignificant improvement was observed for colorectal cancer (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-1.01). Site-specific differences in survival were observed by age and stage at diagnosis. This study presents the first data on cancer survival among AN people in almost 2 decades. During this time, AN people have experienced improvements in survival from lung and colorectal cancers. The reasons for these improvements may include increased access to care (including screening) as well as improvements in treatment. Improving cancer survival should be a priority for reducing the burden of cancer among AN people and eliminating cancer disparities. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  1. Spatial Variation of Slip Behavior Beneath the Alaska Peninsula Along Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2018-04-01

    We resurveyed preexisting campaign Global Positioning System (GPS) sites and estimated a highly precise GPS velocity field for the Alaska Peninsula. We use the TDEFNODE software to model the slip deficit distribution using the new GPS velocities. We find systematic misfits to the vertical velocities from the optimal model that fits the horizontal velocities well, which cannot be explained by altering the slip distribution, so we use only the horizontal velocities in the study. Locations of three boundaries that mark significant along-strike change in the locking distribution are identified. The Kodiak segment is strongly locked, the Semidi segment is intermediate, the Shumagin segment is weakly locked, and the Sanak segment is dominantly creeping. We suggest that a change in preexisting plate fabric orientation on the downgoing plate has an important control on the along-strike variation in the megathrust locking distribution and subduction seismicity.

  2. Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassi, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river

  3. Measuring fuel moisture content in Alaska: standard methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Norum; Melanie. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Methods and procedures are given for collecting and processing living and dead plant materials for the purpose of determining their water content. Wild-land fuels in Alaska are emphasized, but the methodology is applicable elsewhere. Guides are given for determining the number of samples needed to attain a chosen precision. Detailed procedures are presented for...

  4. Native Cultures and Language: Challenges for Land Managers in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Gallagher

    1992-01-01

    Many of the Aleuts, Inuits, and Indians of Alaska continue to live a traditional lifestyle. Eighty-eight percent of the land they use for subsistence activities, however, is managed by federal or state agencies. Clear communication across cultures is essential if Native people are to be represented in agency land management decisions. Problems in communication relate...

  5. Environmental assessment: Kotzebue Wind Installation Project, Kotzebue, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The DOE is proposing to provide financial assistance to the Kotzebue Electric Association to expand its existing wind installation near Kotzebue, Alaska. Like many rural Alaska towns, Kotzebue uses diesel-powered generators to produce its electricity, the high cost of which is currently subsidized by the Alaska State government. In an effort to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce dependence on diesel fuel, and reduce air pollutants, the DOE is proposing to fund an experimental wind installation to test commercially available wind turbines under Arctic conditions. The results would provide valuable information to other Alaska communities experiencing similar dependence on diesel-powered generators. The environmental assessment for the proposed wind installation assessed impacts to biological resources, land use, electromagnetic interference, coastal zone, air quality, cultural resources, and noise. It was determined that the project does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE has issued a Finding of No Significant Impact

  6. Synoptic-scale fire weather conditions in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi L.; Bieniek, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Recent concurrent widespread fires in Alaska are evaluated to assess their associated synoptic-scale weather conditions. Several periods of high fire activity from 2003 to 2015 were identified using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) hotspot data by considering the number of daily hotspots and their continuity. Fire weather conditions during the top six periods of high fire activity in the fire years of 2004, 2005, 2009, and 2015 were analyzed using upper level (500 hPa) and near surface level (1000 hPa) atmospheric reanalysis data. The top four fire-periods occurred under similar unique high-pressure fire weather conditions related to Rossby wave breaking (RWB). Following the ignition of wildfires, fire weather conditions related to RWB events typically result in two hotspot peaks occurring before and after high-pressure systems move from south to north across Alaska. A ridge in the Gulf of Alaska resulted in southwesterly wind during the first hotspot peak. After the high-pressure system moved north under RWB conditions, the Beaufort Sea High developed and resulted in relatively strong easterly wind in Interior Alaska and a second (largest) hotspot peak during each fire period. Low-pressure-related fire weather conditions occurring under cyclogenesis in the Arctic also resulted in high fire activity under southwesterly wind with a single large hot-spot peak.

  7. A scoping review of traditional food security in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Amanda; Bersamin, Andrea; Loring, Philip; Johnson, Rhonda; Tholl, Melissa

    2018-12-01

    Food insecurity is a public health concern. Food security includes the pillars of food access, availability and utilisation. For some indigenous peoples, this may also include traditional foods. To conduct a scoping review on traditional foods and food security in Alaska. Google Scholar and the High North Research Documents were used to search for relevant primary research using the following terms: "traditional foods", "food security", "access", "availability", "utilisation", "Alaska", "Alaska Native" and "indigenous". Twenty four articles from Google Scholar and four articles from the High North Research Documents were selected. The articles revealed three types of research approaches, those that quantified traditional food intake (n=18), those that quantified food security (n=2), and qualitative articles that addressed at least one pillar of food security (n=8). Limited primary research is available on food security in Alaskan. Few studies directly measure food security while most provide a review of food security factors. Research investigating dietary intake of traditional foods is more prevalent, though many differences exist among participant age groups and geographical areas. Future research should include direct measurements of traditional food intake and food security to provide a more complete picture of traditional food security in Alaska.

  8. Modeling Alaska boreal forests with a controlled trend surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Jingjing Liang

    2012-01-01

    An approach of Controlled Trend Surface was proposed to simultaneously take into consideration large-scale spatial trends and nonspatial effects. A geospatial model of the Alaska boreal forest was developed from 446 permanent sample plots, which addressed large-scale spatial trends in recruitment, diameter growth, and mortality. The model was tested on two sets of...

  9. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Alaska. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  10. Climate change and health effects in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brubaker

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities.In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects.The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses.The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska.Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate.The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures.

  11. Regional biomass stores and dynamics in forests of coastal Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaill A. Yatskov; Mark E. Harmon; Olga N. Krankina; Tara M. Barrett; Kevin R. Dobelbower; Andrew N. Gray; Becky Fasth; Lori Trummer; Toni L. Hoyman; Chana M. Dudoit

    2015-01-01

    Coastal Alaska is a vast forested region (6.2 million ha) with the potential to store large amounts of carbon in live and dead biomass thus influencing continental and global carbon dynamics. The main objectives of this study were to assess regional biomass stores, examine the biomass partitioning between live and dead pools, and evaluate the effect of disturbance on...

  12. Economics of wild salmon ecosystems: Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Duffield; Christopher J. Neher; David A. Patterson; Oliver S. Goldsmith

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of the economic value of wild salmon ecosystems in the major watershed of Bristol Bay, Alaska. The analysis utilizes both regional economic and social benefit-cost accounting frameworks. Key sectors analyzed include subsistence, commercial fishing, sport fishing, hunting, and nonconsumptive wildlife viewing and tourism. The mixed cash-...

  13. Environmental assessment: Kotzebue Wind Installation Project, Kotzebue, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The DOE is proposing to provide financial assistance to the Kotzebue Electric Association to expand its existing wind installation near Kotzebue, Alaska. Like many rural Alaska towns, Kotzebue uses diesel-powered generators to produce its electricity, the high cost of which is currently subsidized by the Alaska State government. In an effort to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce dependence on diesel fuel, and reduce air pollutants, the DOE is proposing to fund an experimental wind installation to test commercially available wind turbines under Arctic conditions. The results would provide valuable information to other Alaska communities experiencing similar dependence on diesel-powered generators. The environmental assessment for the proposed wind installation assessed impacts to biological resources, land use, electromagnetic interference, coastal zone, air quality, cultural resources, and noise. It was determined that the project does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE has issued a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  14. Current Conditions in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    The school experience of American Indian and Alaska Native children hinges on the context in which their schooling takes place. This context includes the health and well-being of their families, communities, and governments, as well as the relationship between Native and non-Native people. Many Native children are in desperate straits because of…

  15. Staff - Kenneth R. Papp | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveys Home About Us Director's Office Alaska Statutes Annual Reports Employment Staff Directory and Facilities Staff Seismic and Well Data Data Reports Contact Us Frequently Asked Questions Ask a Facebook DGGS News Natural Resources Geological & Geophysical Surveys Staff - Kenneth R. Papp main

  16. Edge-glued panels from Alaska hardwoods: retail manager perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner; Valerie Barber

    2010-01-01

    In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) are both lesser-known hardwoods grown, harvested, and manufactured into appearance products, with potential for increased utilization. The production of edgeglued panels from red alder and paper birch offers one expansion opportunity for wood...

  17. Estimating wildfire response costs in Alaska's changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is altering wildfire activity across Alaska, with increased area burned projected for the future. Changes in wildfire are expected to affect the need for management and suppression resources, however the potential economic implications of these needs have not been ...

  18. Modeling population dynamics and woody biomass of Alaska coastal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy L. Peterson; Jingjing Liang; Tara M. Barrett

    2014-01-01

    Alaska coastal forest, 6.2 million ha in size, has been managed in the past mainly through clearcutting. Declining harvest and dwindling commercial forest resources over the past 2 decades have led to increased interest in management of young-growth stands and utilization of woody biomass for bioenergy. However, existing models to support these new management systems...

  19. Changing Forest Disturbance Regimes and Risk Perceptions in Homer, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney G. F1int

    2007-01-01

    Forest disturbances caused by insects can lead to other disturbances, risks, and changes across landscapes. Evaluating the human dimensions of such disturbances furthers understanding of integrated changes in natural and social systems. This article examines the effects of changing forest disturbance regimes on local risk perceptions and attitudes in Homer, Alaska....

  20. Alaska's timber harvest and forest products industry, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff M. Halbrook; Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; Charles E. Keegan; Thale Dillon; Tara M. Barrett

    2009-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in Alaska during calendar year 2005, describes the composition and operations of the state's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in timber harvest, production, and sales of primary wood products....

  1. Alcohol Problems in Alaska Natives: Lessons from the Inuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Spence, John

    2006-01-01

    In this Alaska Native study, cultural "insiders" analyzed problems associated with increased alcohol availability, factors which have reduced alcohol-related problems, and ideas for improving treatment in an Inuit community. Participants described frequent bingeing, blackouts, family violence, suicide, loss of child custody, and feelings…

  2. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 5. Soil mass movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas N. Swanston

    1974-01-01

    Research in southeast Alaska has identified soil mass movement as the dominant erosion process, with debris avalanches and debris flows the most frequent events on characteristically steep, forested slopes. Periodically high soil water levels and steep slopes are controlling factors. Bedrock structure and the rooting characteristics of trees and other vegetation exert...

  3. Application of geotechnical data to resource planning in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.L. Schroeder; D.N. Swanston

    1987-01-01

    Recent quantification of engineering properties and index values of dominant soil types in the Alexander Archipelago, southeast Alaska, have revealed consistent diagnostic characteristics useful to evaluating landslide risk and subgrade material stability before timber harvesting and low-volume road construction. Shear strength data are summarized and grouped by Soil...

  4. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 8. Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald C. Schmiege; Austin E. Helmers; Daniel M. Bishop

    1974-01-01

    One of the most striking characteristics of southeast Alaska is the abundance of water. Large glaciers, icefields, and thousands of streams result from heavy precipitation throughout the year. Published and unpublished data on water regimen, temperature, sedimentation, and chemistry are combined. These serve as a basis for understanding how this valuable resource may...

  5. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, P. M.; Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Cubley, J. F.; Samolczyk, M. A.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthScope Transportable Array is deploying about 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of the University of Alaska's Geophysical Institute, and Yukon College to spread awareness of earthquakes in Alaska and western Canada and the benefits of the Transportable Array for people living in these regions. We provide an update of ongoing education and outreach activities in Alaska and Canada as well as continued efforts to publicize the Transportable Array in the Lower 48. Nearly all parts of Alaska and portions of western Canada are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska, in particular, requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaskan and western Canadian villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Meetings and interviews with Alaska Native Elders and tribal councils discussing past earthquakes has led to a better understanding of how Alaskans view and understand earthquakes. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska and the Yukon. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor emphasizes the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offers not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan and Canadian understanding of the seismic hazard and

  6. Publications - GMC 234 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov (United States)

    following North Slope wells: Itkillik River Unit #1, Nora Fed #1, Toolik Fed #1, Kemik Unit #1, Lupine Unit following North Slope wells: Itkillik River Unit #1, Nora Fed #1, Toolik Fed #1, Kemik Unit #1, Lupine Unit

  7. Spatiotemporal remote sensing of ecosystem change and causation across Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastick, Neal J; Jorgenson, M Torre; Goetz, Scott J; Jones, Benjamin M; Wylie, Bruce K; Minsley, Burke J; Genet, Hélène; Knight, Joseph F; Swanson, David K; Jorgenson, Janet C

    2018-05-28

    Contemporary climate change in Alaska has resulted in amplified rates of press and pulse disturbances that drive ecosystem change with significant consequences for socio-environmental systems. Despite the vulnerability of Arctic and boreal landscapes to change, little has been done to characterize landscape change and associated drivers across northern high-latitude ecosystems. Here we characterize the historical sensitivity of Alaska's ecosystems to environmental change and anthropogenic disturbances using expert knowledge, remote sensing data, and spatiotemporal analyses and modeling. Time-series analysis of moderate-and high-resolution imagery was used to characterize land- and water-surface dynamics across Alaska. Some 430,000 interpretations of ecological and geomorphological change were made using historical air photos and satellite imagery, and corroborate land-surface greening, browning, and wetness/moisture trend parameters derived from peak-growing season Landsat imagery acquired from 1984 to 2015. The time series of change metrics, together with climatic data and maps of landscape characteristics, were incorporated into a modeling framework for mapping and understanding of drivers of change throughout Alaska. According to our analysis, approximately 13% (~174,000 ± 8700 km 2 ) of Alaska has experienced directional change in the last 32 years (±95% confidence intervals). At the ecoregions level, substantial increases in remotely sensed vegetation productivity were most pronounced in western and northern foothills of Alaska, which is explained by vegetation growth associated with increasing air temperatures. Significant browning trends were largely the result of recent wildfires in interior Alaska, but browning trends are also driven by increases in evaporative demand and surface-water gains that have predominately occurred over warming permafrost landscapes. Increased rates of photosynthetic activity are associated with stabilization and recovery

  8. H08032: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Taku River to Flat Point, Alaska, 1952-07-25

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. 78 FR 924 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alaska: Eagle River PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ....regulations.gov or email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA... docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you.... Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly...

  10. H12164: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Kuskokwim River, Alaska, 2010-07-25

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. H12167: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Kuskokwim River, Alaska, 2009-08-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. H12326: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Kuskokwim River, Alaska, 2011-09-16

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. Arctic Tundra Flux Study in the Kuparuk River Basin (Alaska), 1994-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: CO2 and water vapor fluxes and ecosystem characteristics were measured at 24 sites along a 317-km transect from the Arctic coast to the latitudinal...

  14. Long-term comparison of Kuparuk Watershed active layer maps, northern Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, K. E.; Queen, C.; Nelson, F. E.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Klene, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    The active layer, or the uppermost soil horizon that thaws seasonally, is among the most dynamic components of the permafrost system. Evaluation of the thickness and spatial variation of the active layer is critical to many components of Arctic research, including climatology, ecology, environmental monitoring, and engineering. In this study we mapped active-layer thickness (ALT) across the 22,278 sq. km Kuparuk River basin on Alaska's North Slope throughout the summer of 2016. The Kuparuk River extends from the Brooks Range through the Arctic Foothills and across the Arctic Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, and drains into the Beaufort Sea. Methodology followed procedures used to produce an ALT map of the basin in 1995 accounting for the effects of topography, vegetation, topoclimate, and soils, using the same spatial sampling scheme for direct ALT and temperature measurement at representative locations and relating these parameters to vegetation-soil associations. A simple semi-empirical engineering solution was used to estimate thaw rates for the different associations. An improved lapse-rate formulation and a higher-resolution DEM were used to relate temperature to elevation. Three ALT maps were generated for the 2016 summer, combining measured thaw depth, temperature records, the 25 m ArcticDEM, high resolution remote sensed data, empirical laps rates, and a topoclimatic index through the thaw solution. These maps were used to track the spatial progression of thaw through the 2016 summer season and estimate a total volume of thawed soil. Maps produced in this study were compared to the 1995 map to track areas of significant geographic changes in patterns of ALT and total volume of thawed soil.

  15. Using dissolved organic matter age and composition to detect permafrost thaw in boreal watersheds of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Aiken, George R.; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Raymond, Peter A.; Butler, Kenna D.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Heckman, Katherine

    2014-11-01

    Recent warming at high latitudes has accelerated permafrost thaw, which can modify soil carbon dynamics and watershed hydrology. The flux and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils to rivers are sensitive to permafrost configuration and its impact on subsurface hydrology and groundwater discharge. Here, we evaluate the utility of DOM composition and age as a tool for detecting permafrost thaw in three rivers (Beaver, Birch, and Hess Creeks) within the discontinuous permafrost zone of interior Alaska. We observed strong temporal controls on Δ14C content of hydrophobic acid isolates (Δ14C-HPOA) across all rivers, with the most enriched values occurring during spring snowmelt (75 ± 8‰) and most depleted during winter flow (-21 ± 8‰). Radiocarbon ages of winter flow samples ranged from 35 to 445 yr BP, closely tracking estimated median base flow travel times for this region (335 years). During spring snowmelt, young DOM was composed of highly aromatic, high molecular-weight compounds, whereas older DOM of winter flow had lower aromaticity and molecular weight. We observed a significant correlation between Δ14C-HPOA and UV absorbance coefficient at 254 nm (α254) across all study rivers. Using α254 as an optical indicator for Δ14C-HPOA, we also observed a long-term decline in α254 during maximum annual thaw depth over the last decade at the Hess Creek study site. These findings suggest a shift in watershed hydrology associated with increasing active layer thickness. Further development of DOM optical indicators may serve as a novel and inexpensive tool for detecting permafrost degradation in northern watersheds.

  16. Uranium in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.; Edmond, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 x 10 7 mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load

  17. Streambed scour evaluations and conditions at selected bridge sites in Alaska, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebee, Robin A.; Schauer, Paul V.

    2015-11-19

    Streambed scour potential was evaluated at 18 river- and stream-spanning bridges in Alaska that have unknown foundation details or a lack of existing scour analysis. All sites were evaluated for stream stability and long-term scour potential. Contraction scour and abutment scour were calculated for 17 bridges, and pier scour was calculated for 7 bridges that had piers. Vertical contraction (pressure flow) scour was calculated for sites with overtopping floods (where the modeled water surface was higher than the superstructure of the bridge). In most cases, hydraulic models of the 1- and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability floods (also known as the 100- and 500-year floods, respectively) were used to derive hydraulic variables for the scour calculations. Alternate flood values were used in scour calculations for sites where smaller floods overtopped a bridge or where standard flood-frequency estimation techniques did not apply. Scour was also calculated for large recorded floods at several sites. Equations for scour in cohesive soils were used for sites where streambed sediment was silt-sized or smaller.

  18. Early and late Holocene glacial fluctuations and tephrostratigraphy, Cabin Lake, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Paul D.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Kuehn, Stephen C.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Marked changes in sediment types deposited in Cabin Lake, near Cordova, Alaska, represent environmental shifts during the early and late Holocene, including fluctuations in the terminal position of Sheridan Glacier. Cabin Lake is situated to receive meltwater during periods when the outwash plain of the advancing Sheridan Glacier had aggraded. A brief early Holocene advance from 11.2 to 11.0 cal ka is represented by glacial rock flour near the base of the sediment core. Non-glacial lake conditions were restored for about 1000 years before the water level in Cabin Lake lowered and the core site became a fen. The fen indicates drier-than-present conditions leading up to the Holocene thermal maximum. An unconformity spanning 5400 years during the mid-Holocene is overlain by peat until 1110 CE when meltwater from Sheridan Glacier returned to the basin. Three intervals of an advanced Sheridan Glacier are recorded in the Cabin Lake sediments during the late Holocene: 1110–1180, 1260–1540 and 1610–1780 CE. The sedimentary sequence also contains the first five reported tephra deposits from the Copper River delta region, and their geochemical signatures suggest that the sources are the Cook Inlet volcanoes Redoubt, Augustine and Crater Peak, and possibly Mt Churchill in the Wrangell Volcanic field.

  19. Nesting ecology of tundra swans on the coastal Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, C.A.; Fowler, A.C.; Ely, Craig R.

    2002-01-01

    Nesting ecology of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) was studies the Kashunuk River near Old Chevak (61A?26a??N, 165A?27a??W), on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of western Alaska from 1988-2000. Annual variation in snow-melt chronology, nesting phenology, nesting density, clutch size and nest success was examined. The same area (approximately 23 kmA?) was searched each year and nests were found as early as possible in the laying period. Laying initiation dates ranged from 1-27 May and hatch dates from 12 June a?? 4 July among pairs and years of study. The peak arrival of Tundra Swans and the phenology of nest initiation and hatch were highly correlated with the progression of ice and snow melt in spring. Nest density averaged 0.71 kmA? and 89% of nesting pairs hatched at least one egg. Incubation period ranged from 26 to 33 days with a median of 30 days. Clutch size varied significantly among years, driven by a low mean value of 3.4 eggs in 1999. Clutch sizes were generally larger than found in previous investigations on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and nearly one egg larger than reported for clutches from Alaskaa??s North Slope (=70A?N). There was no indication of reduced clutch size in years of late spring snow melt, although nesting density tended to be lower.

  20. Measuring perceptions of climate change in northern Alaska: pairing ethnography with cultural consensus analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Carothers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given current and projected warming trends in the Arctic and the important role played by subsistence hunting and fishing in the life of northern rural communities, it is increasingly important to document local observations of climate change and its impacts on livelihood practices. We describe ethnographic research exploring local observations of climate changes and related impacts on subsistence fisheries in three Iñupiat communities in northwest Alaska and six Athabascan communities in the Yukon River drainage. We found consistent agreement among perceptions concerning a broad range of environmental changes affecting subsistence practices in these communities. These observations of environmental changes are not experienced in isolation but within the context of accompanying social changes that are continually reshaping rural Alaskan communities and subsistence economies. In this paper we reflect on our research approach combining multiple methods of inquiry. Participant observation and semidirected interviews provided the conceptual framework for broadening our focus from climate and environmental change to community residents' understanding of climate change in the context of their holistic human-environment worldview. Cultural consensus analysis allowed us to assess the extent to which perceptions of change are shared among hunters and fishers within and between villages and regions and to identify those phenomena occurring or experienced at smaller scales. Reflecting on this multimethods approach, we highlight important questions that have emerged about how we understand, synthesize, and represent local knowledge, especially as it is used in regulatory or management arenas.

  1. Cycling of modern autochthonous organic matter dominates carbon flow in lakes of north central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, M.; Striegl, R. G.; Holtgrieve, G. W.; Kuhn, C.; Dornblaser, M.; Butman, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal and subarctic regions of the world are warming faster than anywhere else on earth, and undergoing rapid climatic and hydrologic changes. Much of this landscape is underlain by organic carbon (OC)-rich permafrost, and it is hypothesized that climate-induced environmental changes could positively reinforce climatic shifts via an increased delivery of terrestrial OC to aquatic networks. Increased OC terrestrial OC export could potentially result in greater aquatic OC mineralization and greenhouse gas production. Currently, a lack of ecosystem-level data precludes our understanding of aquatic OC processing for the vast majority of this remote northern area. To address this knowledge gap, we quantified whole-lake metabolism, limnological-, and hydrological characteristics across multiple seasons in a diverse set of lakes in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska. Intense gross primary production (GPP) and autotrophic net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP - respiration [R]) was common across lakes in spring, followed by a spatially synchronous shift toward heterotrophy (NEP origin, suggesting shifts in NEP were fueled by the recently fixed, lake OC. By scaling our metabolic estimates to the entire YRB, we found mineralization of terrestrial OC in lakes likely accounts for < 1% of terrestrial net primary production on an annual scale. We conclude that flows of autochthonous OC drive C cycling in most YRB lakes, that ancient permafrost-OC currently contributes little to heterotrophic processes in YRB lakes, and that the lakes play little role in remineralizing terrestrial organic material at the whole-catchment scale.

  2. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.

    1984-03-01

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  3. 76 FR 15826 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska License Limitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Islands (AI); Southeast Outside District (SEO); Central Gulf of Alaska (CG), which includes the West... LLP licenses could resume fishing under the licenses in the future and thereby adversely affect active... BS or AI regulatory areas because a Pacific cod endorsement requirement has already been established...

  4. 75 FR 43118 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska License Limitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...: The Bering Sea (BS), Aleutian Islands (AI); Southeast Outside District (SEO); Central Gulf of Alaska... holders of latent fixed-gear endorsed LLP licenses could resume fishing under the licenses in the future... how fishery effort may shift in the future, but a large number of latent LLP licenses do exist, and...

  5. 75 FR 11749 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Final 2010 and 2011 Harvest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ...: Effective at 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), March 12, 2010, through 2400 hrs, A.l.t., December 31...). The apportionment of TAC amounts among gear types, processing sectors, and seasons is discussed below... data reflecting catch-per-unit-effort provides rational input for stock distribution assessments. NMFS...

  6. 75 FR 76352 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Gulf of Alaska; Proposed 2011 and 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... season (July 1-September 1) deep-water category halibut PSC apportionment. At this time, this amount is... through a single source such as the Alaska Fisheries Information Network. The development of this data... information is currently available and will be incorporated into the final 2010 SAFE report, the development...

  7. Hunting camp. River Murray

    OpenAIRE

    ? Bayliss, Charles, 1850-1897, photographer

    2003-01-01

    200 x 149 mm. A good photograph showing a group of aborigines (in European clothes) with two hunting dogs, holding spears and standing in front of rough wooden cabins; with the river in the background. Photograph unknown, possible Charles Bayliss.

  8. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  9. Increasing Insect Reactions in Alaska: Is this Related to Changing Climate?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Demain; Bradford Gessner; Joseph McLaughlin; Derek Sikes; Timothy Foote

    2008-01-01

    During the summer of 2006, Fairbanks Alaska experienced its first two known cases of fatal anaphylaxis as a result of Hymenoptera stings, presumably from yellowjackets. An increase in insect bites and stings has been observed throughout the state.Has there been an increased incidence of medical visits due to insect bites and stings in Alaska in recent years? We conducted a retrospective review of three independent patient databases in Alaska to identify trends of patients seeking medical care...

  10. Blood politics, ethnic identity, and racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haozous, Emily A; Strickland, Carolyn J; Palacios, Janelle F; Solomon, Teshia G Arambula

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity.

  11. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Alaska Vegetation, Geobotanical, Physiographic Data, 1993-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the spatial distributions of vegetation types, geobotanical characteristics, and physiographic features for the Arctic tundra region of Alaska...

  12. Geomorphic consequences of volcanic eruptions in Alaska: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    Eruptions of Alaska volcanoes have significant and sometimes profound geomorphic consequences on surrounding landscapes and ecosystems. The effects of eruptions on the landscape can range from complete burial of surface vegetation and preexisting topography to subtle, short-term perturbations of geomorphic and ecological systems. In some cases, an eruption will allow for new landscapes to form in response to the accumulation and erosion of recently deposited volcaniclastic material. In other cases, the geomorphic response to a major eruptive event may set in motion a series of landscape changes that could take centuries to millennia to be realized. The effects of volcanic eruptions on the landscape and how these effects influence surface processes has not been a specific focus of most studies concerned with the physical volcanology of Alaska volcanoes. Thus, what is needed is a review of eruptive activity in Alaska in the context of how this activity influences the geomorphology of affected areas. To illustrate the relationship between geomorphology and volcanic activity in Alaska, several eruptions and their geomorphic impacts will be reviewed. These eruptions include the 1912 Novarupta–Katmai eruption, the 1989–1990 and 2009 eruptions of Redoubt volcano, the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, and the recent historical eruptions of Pavlof volcano. The geomorphic consequences of eruptive activity associated with these eruptions are described, and where possible, information about surface processes, rates of landscape change, and the temporal and spatial scale of impacts are discussed.A common feature of volcanoes in Alaska is their extensive cover of glacier ice, seasonal snow, or both. As a result, the generation of meltwater and a variety of sediment–water mass flows, including debris-flow lahars, hyperconcentrated-flow lahars, and sediment-laden water floods, are typical outcomes of most types of eruptive activity. Occasionally, such flows can be quite

  13. Hydrogeochemical exploration: a reconnaissance study on northeastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Chapter A in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, vol. 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth E.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Buckley, Steve

    2015-01-01

    A reconnaissance hydrogeochemical study employing high-resolution/high-sensitivity inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of stream and seep water samples (n= 171) was conducted in an area of limited bedrock exposure on the northeastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Sampling was focused in drainages around four main areas—at the Anugi Pb-Zn-Ag occurrence and in streams upstream of historically and currently mined placer gold deposits in the Candle Creek, Utica, and Monument Mountain areas. The objective of the study was to determine whether distribution of elevated metal concentrations in water samples could “see” through sediment cover and provide evidence of bedrock sources for base metals and gold. Some observations include (1) elevated Ag, As, Pb, and Zn concentrations relative to the study area as a whole in stream and seep samples from over and downstream of part of the Anugi Pb-Zn-Ag prospect; (2) abrupt downstream increases in Tl and Sb ± Au concentrations coincident with the upstream termination of productive placer deposits in the Inmachuk and Old Glory Creek drainages near Utica; (3) high K, Mo, Sb, and F throughout much of the Inmachuk River drainage near Utica; and (4) elevated As ± base metals and Au at two sites along Patterson Creek near the town of Candle and three additional contiguous sites identified when an 85th percentile cut-off was employed. Molybdenum ± gold concentrations (>90th percentile) were also measured in samples from three sites on Glacier Creek near Monument Mountain. The hydrogeochemistry in some areas is consistent with limited stream-sediment data from the region, including high Pb-Zn-Ag-As concentrations associated with Anugi, as well as historical reports of arsenopyrite-bearing veins upstream of placer operations in Patterson Creek. Chemistry of samples in the Inmachuk River-Old Glory Creek area also suggest more laterally extensive stibnite- (and gold-?) bearing veining than is currently known in the Old

  14. Evidence and implications of recent and projected climate change in Alaska's forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, Jane M.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Rupp, T. Scott; Chapin, Stuart III; Trainor, Sarah F.; Barrett, Tara M.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; McGuire, A. David; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Hennon, Paul E.; Beever, Erik A.; Conn, Jeff S.; Crone, Lisa K.; D'Amore, David V.; Fresco, Nancy; Hanley, Thomas A.; Kielland, Knut; Kruse, James J.; Patterson, Trista; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Verbyla, David L.; Yarie, John

    2011-01-01

    The structure and function of Alaska's forests have changed significantly in response to a changing climate, including alterations in species composition and climate feedbacks (e.g., carbon, radiation budgets) that have important regional societal consequences and human feedbacks to forest ecosystems. In this paper we present the first comprehensive synthesis of climate-change impacts on all forested ecosystems of Alaska, highlighting changes in the most critical biophysical factors of each region. We developed a conceptual framework describing climate drivers, biophysical factors and types of change to illustrate how the biophysical and social subsystems of Alaskan forests interact and respond directly and indirectly to a changing climate. We then identify the regional and global implications to the climate system and associated socio-economic impacts, as presented in the current literature. Projections of temperature and precipitation suggest wildfire will continue to be the dominant biophysical factor in the Interior-boreal forest, leading to shifts from conifer- to deciduous-dominated forests. Based on existing research, projected increases in temperature in the Southcentral- and Kenai-boreal forests will likely increase the frequency and severity of insect outbreaks and associated wildfires, and increase the probability of establishment by invasive plant species. In the Coastal-temperate forest region snow and ice is regarded as the dominant biophysical factor. With continued warming, hydrologic changes related to more rapidly melting glaciers and rising elevation of the winter snowline will alter discharge in many rivers, which will have important consequences for terrestrial and marine ecosystem productivity. These climate-related changes will affect plant species distribution and wildlife habitat, which have regional societal consequences, and trace-gas emissions and radiation budgets, which are globally important. Our conceptual framework facilitates

  15. New Inversion and Interpretation of Public-Domain Electromagnetic Survey Data from Selected Areas in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. D.; Kass, A.; Saltus, R. W.; Minsley, B. J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Bloss, B. R.; Burns, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Public-domain airborne geophysical surveys (combined electromagnetics and magnetics), mostly collected for and released by the State of Alaska, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), are a unique and valuable resource for both geologic interpretation and geophysical methods development. A new joint effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the DGGS aims to add value to these data through the application of novel advanced inversion methods and through innovative and intuitive display of data: maps, profiles, voxel-based models, and displays of estimated inversion quality and confidence. Our goal is to make these data even more valuable for interpretation of geologic frameworks, geotechnical studies, and cryosphere studies, by producing robust estimates of subsurface resistivity that can be used by non-geophysicists. The available datasets, which are available in the public domain, include 39 frequency-domain electromagnetic datasets collected since 1993, and continue to grow with 5 more data releases pending in 2013. The majority of these datasets were flown for mineral resource purposes, with one survey designed for infrastructure analysis. In addition, several USGS datasets are included in this study. The USGS has recently developed new inversion methodologies for airborne EM data and have begun to apply these and other new techniques to the available datasets. These include a trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, laterally-constrained regularized inversions, and deterministic inversions which include calibration factors as a free parameter. Incorporation of the magnetic data as an additional constraining dataset has also improved the inversion results. Processing has been completed in several areas, including Fortymile and the Alaska Highway surveys, and continues in others such as the Styx River and Nome surveys. Utilizing these new techniques, we provide models beyond the apparent resistivity maps supplied by the original

  16. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Overview of scientific and technical program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.; Digert, S.A.; Pospisil, G.; Baker, R.; Weeks, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was drilled within the Alaska North Slope (ANS) Milne Point Unit (MPU) from February 3 to 19, 2007. The well was conducted as part of a Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) project co-sponsored since 2001 by BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BPXA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help determine whether ANS gas hydrate can become a technically and commercially viable gas resource. Early in the effort, regional reservoir characterization and reservoir simulation modeling studies indicated that up to 0.34 trillion cubic meters (tcm; 12 trillion cubic feet, tcf) gas may be technically recoverable from 0.92 tcm (33 tcf) gas-in-place within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation near industry infrastructure within ANS MPU, Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), and Kuparuk River Unit (KRU) areas. To further constrain these estimates and to enable the selection of a test site for further data acquisition, the USGS reprocessed and interpreted MPU 3D seismic data provided by BPXA to delineate 14 prospects containing significant highly-saturated gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The "Mount Elbert" site was selected to drill a stratigraphic test well to acquire a full suite of wireline log, core, and formation pressure test data. Drilling results and data interpretation confirmed pre-drill predictions and thus increased confidence in both the prospect interpretation methods and in the wider ANS gas hydrate resource estimates. The interpreted data from the Mount Elbert well provide insight into and reduce uncertainty of key gas hydrate-bearing reservoir properties, enable further refinement and validation of the numerical simulation of the production potential of both MPU and broader ANS gas hydrate resources, and help determine viability of potential field sites for future extended term production testing. Drilling and data acquisition operations demonstrated that gas hydrate

  17. 75 FR 48298 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... exclusion memorandum may be obtained from the Alaska Region website at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov... 680-SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 1. The authority citation for part...

  18. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-10-01

    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.

  19. Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Pieter S A; Juday, Glenn P; Alix, Claire; Barber, Valerie A; Winslow, Stephen E; Sousa, Emily E; Heiser, Patricia; Herriges, James D; Goetz, Scott J

    2011-04-01

    Global vegetation models predict that boreal forests are particularly sensitive to a biome shift during the 21st century. This shift would manifest itself first at the biome's margins, with evergreen forest expanding into current tundra while being replaced by grasslands or temperate forest at the biome's southern edge. We evaluated changes in forest productivity since 1982 across boreal Alaska by linking satellite estimates of primary productivity and a large tree-ring data set. Trends in both records show consistent growth increases at the boreal-tundra ecotones that contrast with drought-induced productivity declines throughout interior Alaska. These patterns support the hypothesized effects of an initiating biome shift. Ultimately, tree dispersal rates, habitat availability and the rate of future climate change, and how it changes disturbance regimes, are expected to determine where the boreal biome will undergo a gradual geographic range shift, and where a more rapid decline. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Subsurface temperatures and geothermal gradients on the North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    1989-01-01

    Geothermal gradients as interpreted from a series of high-resolution stabilized well-bore-temperature surveys from 46 North Slope, Alaska, wells vary laterally and vertically throughout the near-surface sediment (0-2,000 m). The data from these surveys have been used in conjunction with depths of ice-bearing permafrost, as interpreted from 102 well logs, to project geothermal gradients within and below the ice-bearing permafrost sequence. The geothermal gradients calculated from the projected temperature profiles are similar to the geothermal gradients measured in the temperature surveys. Measured and projected geothermal gradients in the ice-bearing permafrost sequence range from 1.5??C/100m in the Prudhoe Bay area to 5.1??C/100m in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA).