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Sample records for alaska oil pipeline

  1. Water quality regulation during construction of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemansky, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The trans-Alaska oil pipeline system (TAPS) was constructed by a consortium including some of the largest oil companies in the world. They had a strong economic incentive in rapid construction of the project, perceiving delay as equivalent to loss of large amounts of profit. State and federal governments had similarly compelling economic, political, and policy reasons to adopt this objective of the oil companies as their own. This dissertation is a retrospective assessment of water quality regulation during construction of the TAPS project (1974 through mid-1977). Its theoretical framework involves the degree to which regulatory redundancy (overlap) produced reliability in achieving compliance with water pollution control requirements. It was found during this research that noncompliance was widespread, frequent, and of a magnitude which was often large. The root cause of this unnecessary noncompliance was the overriding economic interest of the pipeline builders in rapid construction coupled with the failure of regulatory agencies to enforce. There was a greater appearance of regulatory redundancy than was actually the case. The same economic, political, and policy reasons that had led to TAPS project authorization and bureaucratic dynamics resulted in enforcement failure with regard to water pollution control requirements. Under a mandate to facilitate rapid construction, the regulatory agencies demonstrated an inability to accomplish any other objective at the same time. Common-mode failure largely defeated the beneficial potential of what limited regulatory redundancy there was. Additionally, meaningful public participation was prevented by lack of resources, lack of procedural opportunity, and resistance to it from industry and government. The dissertation is concluded with recommendations for improving regulatory performance through strengthened redundancy mechanisms.

  2. Assessment of the impact of a Trans-Alaska Pipeline oil spill on the birds and mammals of the Atigun River system

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An oil spill resulting from a crack in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline was discovered on June 10, 1979 near pipeline mile post 166, on the north side of Atigun Pass....

  3. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  4. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  5. Environmental impact of the proposed Trans-Alaska pipeline on marine mammals in the Beaufort sea: Proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline System potential environmental impact, possible loss of oil

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper describes the Beaufort Sea and how its characteristics would influence the course of fate of oil spills in generally predictable ways: currents would move...

  6. Suriname installing first crude-oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, E.W. (E.W. McAllister Engineering Services, Houston, TX (US))

    1992-04-27

    This paper reports that the first cross country crude-oil pipeline in the south American country of Suriname is currently under construction. The State Oil Co. of Suriname (Staatsolie) is building the 34.4-mile, 14-in. pipeline to deliver crude oil from the Catharina Sophia field (Tambaredjo) to the Tout Lui Faut terminal near the capital, Paramaribo. Crude oil from the Jossi Kreek field will be injected at mile point (MP) 3.4. Oil from these two fields is now being moved to tout Lui Faut by Staatsolie-owned motorized ocean barges. Increased production to meet requirements of a planned refinery near Tout Lui Faut prompted the pipeline.

  7. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  8. China Oil & Gas Pipeline Survey & Design Institute, Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bureau of CNPC; Zhao Surong

    1995-01-01

    @@ China Oil/Gas Pipeline Bureau(P.B) is the only professional organization in China specialized in oil/gas pipelines design and construction since 1980s. It has ever cooperated with certain number of well known companies from Japan,USA, Germany, Canada, as well as Italy in the designs of many large oil/gas pipeline projects, during the course of which, personnel from P.B accumulated much experience in international project designs. During the execution of each particular project, they strictly followed the common-use international codes and standards with computers as the auxiliary design system combined with the self-developed software. All its clients showed their trust in this organization and gave it high praise for its outstanding survey, design and technical service.

  9. Review of Oil and Gas Pipeline Construction in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's pipeline industry has developed for 50 years till 2008. In the past 10 years, more than 50,000 kilometers of long-distance oil and gas pipelines have been constructed,of which gas pipelines reached about 30,000 kilometers,crude oil pipelines about 17,000 kilometers, and product oil pipelines about 7,000 kilometers. Oil and gas pipeline networks across regions have taken shape.

  10. STATUS AND PROSPECT OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the exploration and development of natural gas and the increase of crude oil import, the industry of China's Oil and Gas Pipelines has witnessed rapid development. Especially the gas pipeline industry is entering a peak period of development. Thanks to the completion and operation of large-scale pipeline projects including West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline project,Shanxi-Beijing Gas Pipeline Ⅱ, Ji-Ning Pipeline,Huaiyang-Wuhan Pipeline, Guangdong LNG Pipeline,Western Pipeline and Pearl River Delta Oil Product Pipeline, many trans-regional gas and oil pipeline networks with initial scale have been gradually established and improved in China. Meanwhile, the metallurgy,manufacturing and construction level of pipelines has been greatly developed, achieving world top level. The next five years is still a peak period of development for China's gas and oil pipeline industry which will enjoy a broader prospect.

  11. Alaska Federal Oil and Gas Historical Leases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the outlines for historic (i.e., relinquished or inactive) federal oil and gas leases in the Alaska OCS Region through sale 193. They...

  12. Grooving corrosion of seam welded oil pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    24” pipeline carrying oil was failed in the form of longitudinal crack at the 6 O’clock position resulting in oil spill. The failed pipe was investigated to reveal the main cause of its failure. The procedure of investigation was built on studying the intact pipe, rupture area, parent material, and intact weld. Results of chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the pipe material were confirmed with the specified standard. Cracks were originated from weld defected sites...

  13. KENYA’S OIL PIPELINE AND TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The threat of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on the critical infrastructure (oil pipeline in Kenya has brought to the attention the strategic issue of the energy sector security, highlighting the potential vulnerabilities of this sector. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP should be a key component of the national security especially after the Kenya Defence Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia. The merger of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist groups and the accelerated grenades attack against Kenya in retaliation has become the centre of the debate on terrorism and internal security of the Kenya. The energy resources are strategic assets from the security, political and economic point of view. Kenya as an oil transit country is considered of primary strategic importance at international level. International terrorism has always looked with interest at the oil resource in order to meet its political and economic targets. We argue that Kenya’s oil pipelines are vulnerable to Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attack. In summary, the article looks at the concept of terrorism within the framework of critical infrastructure protection, the dangers of attacks on oil pipelines, Kenya’s government preparedness and recommendations.

  14. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2009,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 75×103 km.The pipelines include 38×103 km of gas pipelines,20×103km of crude oil pipelines and 17×103 km of oil product pipelines,framing a trans-regional pipeline network for the oil and gas delivery.

  15. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  16. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  17. Development Prospect of Oil & Gas Pipelines of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yaorong; Chen Hao; Zhang Jinjun; Zhang Kegang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Technology progress of oil & gas pipelines transportation project of CNPC since the 11th Five-Year Plan period An introduction to oil & gas pipelines transportationproject As a large industrious system, pipelines transportation industry is playing a more and more important role in oil and natural gas industry even in the world economy.Thanks to the efforts of 40 years, substantial progress has been achieved in the oil & gas pipelines construction in China. Till now, long distance oil & gas transportation trunk pipelines with large caliber have been completed one after another, with a total length exceeding 50 thousand kilometers (kin). CNPC boasts a long distancel and oil transportation pipeline of 30 thousand km.

  18. CPECC Contracts Oil Products Pipeline Construction in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong

    2002-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Engineering & Construction Corporation (CPECC), a subsidiary of CNPC, and Pak-Arab Pipeline Company (PARCO) of Pakistan have recently reached an agreement to confirm the US$317-million contract for construction a pipeline for oil products in Pakistan by CPECC. The project is called the white oil pipeline project (WOPP)running from Karachi to Mahmood Kot, the distribution center of oil products in the northwest part of the country.

  19. Development Prospect of Oil & Gas Pipelines of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yaorong; Chen Hao; Zhang Jinjun; Zhang Kegang

    2008-01-01

    Prospect of engineering technologies for pipelines in China In recent years, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has made remarkable achievements in the field of oil and gas transmission pipeline engineering. The demand for oil and gas has increased a lot, along with the rapid development of national economy and the improvement of people's living standard. In the days to come, China will witness an even greater development in the engineering construction of oil and gas transmission pipelines.

  20. Fish and wildlife survey of the Atigun River after the June 10, 1979 Alyeska Pipeline crude oil spill

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A crude oil spill estimated at 60 – 10,000 gallons was discovered at the Alyeska Trans Alaska Pipeline on the north side of Atigun Pass in the Brooks Range on June...

  1. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  2. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  3. Grooving corrosion of seam welded oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hanafy El-Sayed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 24” pipeline carrying oil was failed in the form of longitudinal crack at the 6 O’clock position resulting in oil spill. The failed pipe was investigated to reveal the main cause of its failure. The procedure of investigation was built on studying the intact pipe, rupture area, parent material, and intact weld. Results of chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the pipe material were confirmed with the specified standard. Cracks were originated from weld defected sites, initiated by grooving corrosion, propagated by inertia at the normal designed pressure condition, and stopped when stress relief is attained. It is recommended to use high quality ERW pipe, with its seam weld line positioned around the 12 O’clock during installation, to minimize and decelerate grooving corrosion. It is also important to perform regular or routine inspection, on suitable intervals, determined by past experience.

  4. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average

  5. Major solutes, metals, and alkylated aromatic compounds in high-latitude maritime snowpacks near the trans-Alaska pipeline terminal, Valdez, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Jonathan P; Hood, Eran; Hoferkamp, Lisa A [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Alaska Southeast, 11120 Glacier Highway, Juneau, AK 99801 (United States)], E-mail: jpbower@ucdavis.edu

    2008-10-15

    The chemical constituents within a snowpack can provide information about the atmosphere through which the snow was deposited. Valdez is located in south-central Alaska and has a high-latitude maritime climate, with annual snowfall typically exceeding 8 m within the city limits. Valdez is also the termination point of the trans-Alaska pipeline system, where tankers are loaded with crude oil from the North Slope of Alaska. Integrated samples of the top 1 m of snow were collected at seven sites near Valdez and analyzed for major solutes, lead, and alkylated aromatic compounds, in particular benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). For comparison, sites were also sampled near Juneau, Alaska, which has a similar climate but no petroleum transport infrastructure. Major solute chemistry at all sites was dominated by chloride and was consistent with a marine air mass source of ions in precipitation. Sulfate levels in Valdez were typically on the order of 10 {mu}eq l{sup -1} and significantly higher than found in Juneau snow. Other major solute levels were low in Valdez and Juneau. Lead levels were below detection limits for all sites, with the exception of trace concentrations (<0.4 {mu}g l{sup -1}) reported at two Valdez locations. Alkylated organics were present at all Valdez locations, at levels similar to those documented previously in urban locations. No alkylated organics were detected in Juneau snowpacks.

  6. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  7. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2008,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 6.3×104 km.These pipelines include 3.2×104 km of natural gas pipelines,1.8×104 km of crude oil pipelines and 1.3×104 km of oil products pipelines,laying the foundation for establishing a network of trans-regional oil and gas pipelines.

  8. Continuously Innovating Technology of Oil and Gas Pipeline in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Shihong; Yang Tianbing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Through fifty years' development and effort,oil and gas pipeline industry in China has created a selfdevelopment way under the country's characteristics which relies on scientific and technological innovation and introduction,assimilation and re-innovation.Along with the completion and application of West-East Gas Transmission Pipeline Ⅰ and starting construction of Line West-East Gas Transmission Pipeline Ⅱ,in the main technology field such as design and construction,the whole oil and gas pipeline industry has reached the international advanced level,even some have reached the international top level at present.Thanks to the development process of current economic globalization and technology internationalization,scientific and technological innovation as the inevitable choice to realize continuous,effective,fast and harmonious development of China oil and gas pipeline technology.

  9. China-Russia Oil Pipeline Comes under Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The long-awaited oil pipeline linking Russia's far east to China's northeast is set to start operation by the end of 2010, Zhou Jiping, Vice President of ChinaNational Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) confirmed in Beijing at a conference in late April. The pipeline runs from Skovorodino, Russia to China's northeastern city of Daqing.

  10. Current State and Prospect of China's Oil and Gas Pipeline Deveopment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By the end of 2010, China has completed 85,000 kilometers of oil and gas pipelines in length, of which natural gas pipelines were 45,000 kilometers, crude oil pipelines were 22,000 kilometers, and products pipelines were 18,000 kilometers. An oil and gas

  11. Probable effects of heat advection on the adjacent environment during oil production at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart A. Harris

    2016-01-01

    The latest available data for mean annual air temperature at sites away from the Arctic coast in both Alaska and the Yukon Territory show no significant warming in the last 30~50 years. However, around the Arctic coast of northwest North America centered on Prudhoe Bay, the weather stations show significant warming of both the air and the ocean water, resulting in substantial losses in sea ice west of Prudhoe Bay. These changes appeared shortly after the commencement of shipment of oil through the Trans-Alaska Pipeline in 1977, but have now reached a quasi-stable thermal state. Since more than 17 trillion barrels of oil have passed through the pipeline after being cooled by the adjacent air, which in turn, can then result in the melting of the adjacent sea ice, there appears to be a very strong relationship between these events, and a marked lack of correlation with the changes of the content of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This contrasts with the IPCC interpretation of the available climatic data, which assumes that the maximum climatic warming at Prudhoe Bay is typical of the entire region and is the result of increasing greenhouse gases. Engineers need to consider heat advection by oil or gas from underground when designing pipeline facilities, and to take account of the potential environmental con-sequences that they may cause.

  12. Alaska oil and gas: Energy wealth or vanishing opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Harrison, W.E.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically identify and review (a) the known and undiscovered reserves and resources of arctic Alaska, (b) the economic factors controlling development, (c) the risks and environmental considerations involved in development, and (d) the impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Alaska North Slope Oil Delivery System (ANSODS). 119 refs., 45 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants.

  14. Pipeline design software and the simulation of liquid propane/butane-light oils pipeline operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J. [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive and integrated suite of computer software routines has been developed to simulate the flow of liquids in pipelines. The fluid properties module accommodates Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids or mixtures including corrections for changes in properties with temperature and pressure. The hydraulic model calculates pressure drop in single or looped pipelines based on the diameter, route (length) and profile data provided. For multi-product pipelines the hydraulics module estimates energy loss for any sequence of batches given the size and fluid properties of each batch, and the velocity in the pipeline. When the characteristics of existing or proposed pipeline pumps are included, location and size of pumps can be optimized. The effect of heat loss on pressure drop is predicted by invoking the module which calculates the fluid temperature profile based on operating conditions, fluid properties, pipe and insulation conductivity and soil heat transfer data. Modules, created to simulate heater or cooler operations, can be incorporated to compensate for changes in temperature. Input data and calculated results can be presented in a format customized by the user. The simulation software has been successfully applied to multi-product, fuel oil, and non-Newtonian emulsion pipelines. The simulation and operation of a refinery products pipeline for the transportation of propane, butane, gasline, jet and diesel batches will be discussed. The impact of high vapor pressure batches (i.e., propane and butane) on the operation of the pipeline and on the upstream and downstream facilities will be examined in detail.

  15. Biplastic pipes for high-pressure oil pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoshkin, A. N.; Tashkinov, A. A.; Larionov, A. F.; Pospelov, A. B.

    2000-05-01

    A high-performance, corrosion-resistant biplastic pipe for high-pressure oil pipeline systems is presented. The pipe combines an outer load-carrying layer formed from unidirectionally glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) sublayers by wet multi-circuit winding and an inner sealing layer of high-density polyethylene. Both demountable and permanent joints, tees, and other parts are constructed for these pipes. The biplastic pipes ensure reliable operation of oil pipeline systems under a pressure of up to 200 bar. The experimental results and calculated estimates of the strength of biplastic pipes are presented. The results of using these pipes in oil pipeline systems in the Perm' region are discussed.

  16. Revegetation and Selected Terrain Disturbances Along the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, 1975-1978,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    improved returned to the Bureau of Land Management, quality assurance program (Carson and Milke relieving Alyeska of future liability. 1976, Zemansky ... Zemansky 1976). But experience gained by Aly- required on those sites that 1) have a covering of eska personnel also contributed to improve...Prepared for Alaska Pipeline Office. Zemansky , G. (1976) Symbolic environmental monitoring on Mitchell, W. (1979) Three varieties of native Alaskan

  17. 75 FR 34959 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 342 Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index June... pipeline pricing index established in Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy... beginning July 2001.\\5\\ In its second five-year review of the oil pricing index, the Commission adopted...

  18. MIC in long oil pipelines: diagnosis, treatment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenneman, Gary; Harris, Jennifer; Webb, Robert [ConocoPhillips (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) in long oil pipelines. The presence of inorganic solids, bacteria, gases and organic acids in produced water in the oil pipelines causes MIC, which is hard to detect or test and it does not produce any unique type of corrosion. Chemical analysis of water from pig runs is presented in a tabular form and a graphical analysis of pig sludge solids is shown. From the biometabolite analysis, 23 putative hydrocarbon biometabolites were identified and biometabolites for the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic HC were also detected. Operational considerations include the history of MIC in upstream pipelines, water slugging, and presence of suspended solids, among others. From microbiological, chemical, metallurgical and operational evidence it was suggested that MIC is a likely mechanism. The mitigation program is described and suggestions for successful mitigation measures include removal of oxygen sources, scale inhibitor injection, and increasing CO2 inhibitor concentration.

  19. PEARL RIVER DELTA OIL PRODUCTS PIPELINE ENTERS SHENZHEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ With the strong support of Shenzhen, Huizhou Municipal governments and Shenzhen Petroleum Subsidiary Company, the construction of Shenzhen (Huizhou) section of Pearl River Delta oil products pipeline was started ahead of schedule on Sep.30, 2004,and coordination work for most of Shenzhen section has been completed up to the end of April this year.Presently, the construction of Shenzhen section is carried out smoothly in general, for the pipeline route, 69km for pileline pruging, 60km for pipe laying, 57.7km for welding; for process stations, the removal of Mawan oil storage has been completed by the plan, and the foundation for Dapengwan oil storage tank is under construction.

  20. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company requesting new or changed depreciation rates pursuant to part 347 of this title if the proposed...

  1. Oil Pipelines, Oil pipelines in Coffee County, GA, Published in 2000, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Oil Pipelines dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2000. It is described as 'Oil...

  2. 77 FR 34458 - Pipeline Safety: Requests for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ..., Alaska. The pipeline is intended to transport natural gas from the oil and gas producers on the Alaskan... received from Norgasco, Inc., and BreitBurn Energy Company LP, two natural gas pipeline operators, seeking... permits from two natural gas pipeline operators, Norgasco, Inc., (``NI''), and BreitBurn Energy Company...

  3. Haltenpipe and Troll oil pipeline, technology at the forefront

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaker, F. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    Offshore pipeline technology coprises a spectrum of technologies within seabed mapping, design, materials, construction, inspection and maintenance. This paper deals with some of the recent developments, characterised by achievements within two specific projects on the Norwegian continental shelf. These developments concern the Troll oil pipeline and the Haltenbank projects. These are the use of advanced subsea mapping and position technology, hydraulic flow modelling simulating unique flow conditions inside a deep and narrow fjord, control of multiple free span behaviour by use of advanced design methology, use of strain based criteria to reduce large scale seabed correction works, high precision pipeline installation in deep weater involving guided laying to ensure the correct position of the pipeline across pre-installed gravel burns and at lateral counteracts, and a midline tie-in concept comprising an above-water welded tie-in of a prefabricated bend section and on bottom installation of hydraulic operated mechanical connectors specially developed for diverless repair contingency in deep waters. 10 figs.

  4. 77 FR 14006 - Proposed Development of the Alaska Stand Alone Gas Pipeline Project (ASAP), From the North Slope...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Proposed Development of the Alaska Stand Alone Gas Pipeline... January 20, 2012, issue of the Federal Register (77 FR No. 13), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  5. The oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGrange A.R.

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound Alaska, on March 24, 1989, treatment centres for sea otters were set up at Valdez, Seward and Homer. Otter survival rates were lower at Valdez than at Seward, probably because the animals collected were closer to the spill in time and space, and oil toxicity was at a maximum. Otters collected in Prince William Sound were predominantly female and pregnant or lactating. Weathered oil persists in otter habitats throughout the spill zone - long term studies are underway to assess the effects of this.

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  7. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  8. Compensated Mass Balance Method For Oil Pipeline Leakage Detection using SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaid A. Karim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Having extracting oil from reservoir below the ground surface, and after processing, the products are transported through a network of oil pipelines to oil terminals. Thus, oil pipelines play a major role of the economic structure. However, oil pipelines could be subjected to damage due to many reasons like (i Pipeline corrosion or wear, (ii Operation outside the design limits, (iii Unintentional third-party damage and (iv Intentional damage. As a result of this damage, oil would leak from pipelines, which leads to loss of life and property, cost of lost product and line downtime, environmental cleanup cost, possible fines and legal suits. The biggest challenge in this industry is to come up with a pipeline leak detection method that will accurately detect leaks in a timely fashion. There are several methods which lead to detection of pipeline leakage. In most Yemeni oil fields pipeline leakage is detected by fiber optics sensing method which is expensive or by visual inspection using experienced personnel who walk along a pipeline, looking for unusual patterns near the pipeline. In this paper, we are going to implement a different and cost effective method using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA system. Simulation has been performed using Rockwell Automation Software Products. The results so obtained are presented and discussed.

  9. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  10. China's quest for oil security: oil (wars) in the pipeline?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Pak K.

    2005-01-01

    China's rapidly expanding demand for crude oil in the 1990s has brought about debates about the potential impact of the energy challenges facing China. Within the country, energy as a security issue has seized the attention of its leaders. Outside China, international strategic thinkers have been arguing among themselves over how China's thirst for oil would impact on regional peace and stability.\\ud \\ud This paper sets out to examine the following questions: How and why has the basic need fo...

  11. Dynamical Mechanisms of Effects of Landslides on Long Distance Oil and Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qingwen; WANG Chenghua; KONG Jiming

    2006-01-01

    According to the investigations on the oil and gas pipelines such as the Lan-Cheng-Chong pipeline and the Southwest pipeline, there are two ways of laying pipeline: pipelines paralleling (approximately) to the main slide direction and pipelines perpendicular (approximately) to the main slide direction. If earth-retaining walls have been built for pipelines paralleling to the main slide direction, they will prevent the lands from sliding; On the contrary, without earth-retaining walls, the sharp broken rocks in the backfilling soil will scratch the safeguard of the pipeline when the landslides take place. Pipelines perpendicular to the main slide direction can be classified into four types according to the relative positions between pipelines and landslides: Pipelines over the slide planes, pipelines inside the fracture strips of slide planes, pipelines below the slide planes and pipelines behind the backsides of landslides. The different dynamical mechanisms of the process in which landslide acts against pipelines are analyzed based on whether the pipelines are equipped with fixed frusta, because the sliding resistance depends on whether and how many fixed frusta are equipped and the distance between frusta.

  12. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD 27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This polyline data set contains the locations of oil and gas pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf federal waters that are associated with the oil...

  13. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil

  14. 78 FR 72878 - Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Filing, Indexing and Service by Oil Pipelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Filing, Indexing and Service... the filing, indexing and service procedures used by oil pipelines.\\1\\ Take notice that, effective...: \\2\\ \\1\\ Filing, Indexing and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines, 143 FERC ] 61,137 (2013)...

  15. The analysis of repeated failures of pipelines in Kal'chinskoe oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavlov, E. N.; Brusnik, O. V.; Lukjanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the chemical analysis of oilfield water and hydraulic analysis of the liquid flow in Kal'chinskoe oil field pipeline that allow detecting the causes of the internal corrosion processes. The inhibitor protection is suggested to reduce the corrosion rate in the pipelines of Kal'chinskoe oil field. Based on the analysis of the pipeline failures, it is suggested to replace steel pipes by fiberglass pipes.

  16. 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Attanasi, E.D.; Garrity, C.P.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Pollastro, R.M.; Cook, T.A.; and Klett, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 896 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 53 trillion cubic feet (TCFG) of nonassociated natural gas in conventional, undiscovered accumulations within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent State waters. The estimated volume of undiscovered oil is significantly lower than estimates released in 2002, owing primarily to recent exploration drilling that revealed an abrupt transition from oil to gas and reduced reservoir quality in the Alpine sandstone 15-20 miles west of the giant Alpine oil field. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has been the focus of oil exploration during the past decade, stimulated by the mid-1990s discovery of the adjacent Alpine field-the largest onshore oil discovery in the United States during the past 25 years. Recent activities in NPRA, including extensive 3-D seismic surveys, six Federal lease sales totaling more than $250 million in bonus bids, and completion of more than 30 exploration wells on Federal and Native lands, indicate in key formations more gas than oil and poorer reservoir quality than anticipated. In the absence of a gas pipeline from northern Alaska, exploration has waned and several petroleum companies have relinquished assets in the NPRA. This fact sheet updates U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates of undiscovered oil and gas in NPRA, based on publicly released information from exploration wells completed during the past decade and on the results of research that documents significant Cenozoic uplift and erosion in NPRA. The results included in this fact sheet-released in October 2010-supersede those of a previous assessment completed by the USGS in 2002.

  17. 75 FR 70021 - Environmental Documents Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... (FONSI) prepared for two oil and gas activities proposed on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)...

  18. Oil and Gas Resources of the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province, encompassing all the lands and adjacent Continental Shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald arch, is one of the most petroleum-productive areas in the United States, having produced about 15 billion bbl of oil. Seven unitized oil fields currently contribute to production, and three additional oil fields have been unitized but are not yet producing. Most known petroleum accumulations involve structural or combination structural-stratigraphic traps related to closure along the Barrow arch, a regional basement high, which has focused regional hydrocarbon migration since Early Cretaceous time. Several oil accumulations in stratigraphic traps have been developed in recent years. In addition to three small gas fields producing for local consumption, more than 20 additional oil and gas discoveries remain undeveloped. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Oil and gas were generated from multiple source rocks throughout the region. Although some reservoired oils appear to be derived from a single source rock, evidence for significant mixing of hydrocarbons from multiple source rocks indicates a composite petroleum system. Both extensional and contractional tectonic structures provide ample exploration targets, and recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated a significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite sequences of Jurassic through Tertiary age. Recent estimates of the total mean volume of undiscovered resources in the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Minerals Management Service are more than 50 billion bbl of oil and natural-gas liquids and 227 trillion ft3 of gas, distributed approximately equally between Federal offshore and combined onshore and State offshore areas.

  19. Exchange Flow of Oil and Sea-Water in a Ruptured Submarine Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts var10US mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and seawater is difficult to quantify. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  20. Buoyancy-driven leakage of oil from a ruptured submarine pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts various mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and sea-water is difficult to estimate. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  1. 78 FR 59952 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 and... National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale bid opening for tracts in the National Petroleum... Detailed Statement of Sale for the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2013 will...

  2. 75 FR 39579 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 and... Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale bid opening for tracts in the Northeast Planning Area. The United... Petroleum Reserve- Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2010 will be available to the public immediately...

  3. 77 FR 61022 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and... notifies the public that it will hold a National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale bid... Reserve-- Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 will be available to the public immediately after...

  4. Involvement of thermophilic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidova, Irene A; Duncan, Kathleen E; Perez-Ibarra, B Monica; Suflita, Joseph M

    2012-07-01

    Two thermophilic archaea, strain PK and strain MG, were isolated from a culture enriched at 80°C from the inner surface material of a hot oil pipeline. Strain PK could ferment complex organic nitrogen sources (e.g. yeast extract, peptone, tryptone) and was able to reduce elemental sulfur (S°), Fe(3+) and Mn(4+) . Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the organism belonged to the order Thermococcales. Incubations of this strain with elemental iron (Fe°) resulted in the abiotic formation of ferrous iron and the accumulation of volatile fatty acids during yeast extract fermentation. The other isolate, strain MG, was a H(2) :CO(2) -utilizing methanogen, phylogenetically affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter family. Co-cultures of the strains grew as aggregates that produced CH(4) without exogenous H(2) amendment. The co-culture produced the same suite but greater concentrations of fatty acids from yeast extract than did strain PK alone. Thus, the physiological characteristics of organisms both alone and in combination could conceivably contribute to pipeline corrosion. The Thermococcus strain PK could reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide, produce fatty acids and reduce ferric iron. The hydrogenotrophic methanogen strain MG enhanced fatty acid production by fermentative organisms but could not couple the dissolution Fe° with the consumption of water-derived H(2) like other methanogens.

  5. Community-based oil spill response in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banta, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States); Munger, M. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council are independent, non profit organizations formed in 1989 following the Exxon Valdez oil spill to promote the concept of community-based oil spill response (COSR) in their respective regions. COSR involves local citizens in responding to oil spilled in waters they rely upon for income, recreation and subsistence. The 2 advisory councils recently held a Community Oil Spill Response Forum to review the status of existing COSR teams and to share information about past and future COSR-related efforts. The meeting served as an information exchange process about regulatory programs, COSR variations in communities and harbors, training, and personnel issues. Key groups attending the forum were harbor masters, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, United States Coast Guard, existing COSR teams, oil response organizations, local community governments, and volunteers from the advisory councils. This paper was based on the notes taken from the forum. It was agreed that the current system is inadequate in its response to small spills that are frequently associated with non-tank vessels. It was suggested that improved capacity for community-based response could address the situation. It was also suggested that work groups should meet on an annual or biannual basis to continue to educate responders and communities about oil spill response. 7 refs.

  6. 77 FR 65513 - Filing, Indexing and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 341 Filing, Indexing and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking....

  7. Oil and Gas Pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico from BOEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A line file representing locations of the pipeline infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico associated with the oil and gas industry is presented. These layers were...

  8. Pipeline contribution to the Middle East oil trades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoja, B.A.

    1979-02-01

    The pipelines that physically exist in the Middle East are described. There are 7 pipelines in the Middle East that end in Mediterranean terminals with a total present capacity of 235 million tons annually. Three of the pipelines are out of service, three are being utilized only partially, and one is operating at full capacity. (MCW)

  9. The problem in transportation of high waxy crude oils through submarine pipelines at JV Vietsovpetro oil fields, offshore Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuc, P. D.; Bich, H. V.; Son, T. C.; Hoe, L. D.; Vygovskoy, V. P. [J. V. Vietsovpetro (Viet Nam)

    2003-06-01

    Problems encountered in transporting crude oil with high wax content in a submarine pipeline, built without thermal insulation, are reviewed. The focus is on crystallization and deposition of the wax on the walls, the resulting reduction in pipeline diameter leading to higher pressure drop, and the formation of gelled interlocking structures of wax crystals in the pipeline which can lead to shutdown. Methods to reduce wax deposition and gelling, and modelling to predict restart pressures and flow characteristics to improve the pumpability of Vietsovpetro's high paraffin crude oil are described. 6 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  10. Application of Hilbert-Huang signal processing to ultrasonic non-destructive testing of oil pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yi-mei; QUE Pei-wen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a detection technique for locating and determining the extent of defects and cracks in oil pipelines based on Hilbert-Huang time-frequency analysis is proposed. The ultrasonic signals reflected from defect-free pipelines and from pipelines with defects were processed using Hilbert-Huang transform, a recently developed signal processing technique based on direct extraction of the energy associated with the intrinsic time scales in the signal. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is feasible and can accurately and efficiently determine the location and size of defects in pipelines.

  11. 76 FR 11811 - Environmental Document Prepared in Support of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... of Oil and Gas Activities on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... activities proposed on the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  12. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system composing of pipes, pumps, valves and storage facilities used to transport different types of liquids. Typically, products delivered by pipelines are petroleum of different grades moving either from production facilities to refineries or from refineries to distributors. Time-windows, which are generally used in logistics and scheduling areas, are incorporated in this study. The distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows is modeled as multicommodity network flow structure and mathematically formulated. The main focus of this dissertation is the investigation of operating issues and problem complexity of single-source pipeline problems and also providing solution methodology to compute input schedule that yields minimum total time violation from due delivery time-windows. The problem is proved to be NP-complete. The heuristic approach, a reversed-flow algorithm, is developed based on pipeline flow reversibility to compute input schedule for the pipeline problem. This algorithm is implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. This dissertation also extends the study to examine some operating attributes and problem complexity of multiple-source pipelines. The multiple-source pipeline problem is also NP-complete. A heuristic algorithm modified from the one used in single-source pipeline problems is introduced. This algorithm can also be implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. Computational results are presented for both methodologies on randomly generated problem sets. The computational experience indicates that reversed-flow algorithms provide good solutions in comparison with the optimal solutions. Only 25% of the problems tested were more than 30% greater than optimal values and

  13. Development and Application of Oil-Spill Risk Assessment Model for Offshore Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yan; WANG Jia; WEI Wenpu; YANG Yong; AN Wei

    2014-01-01

    To the potential oil-spill risk caused by offshore pipeline more attention has been paid after the Dalian oil spill incident from oil-pipeline explosion. Since then an issue about how to prevent and control the sudden oil-spill from the offshore pipeline has been raised. In this paper, we proposed an optimized model to analyze the main causes (probability) of spill and the consequence with the fuzzy comprehensive assessment model. Considering the complicated assessment process for oil-spill, the assessment factor system involving the spill probability and consequence was established based on the operative manual and statistic leakage/damage data of offshore pipeline in order to estimate the integrated spill risk score automatically. The evaluated factors of spill probability could be grouped into five aspects:corrosion, fatigue, national damage, third party, and operational fault;the consequence evaluated factors of spill included hazard of oil and impact-controlling capability. With some modifications based on experts’ opinions, each of the evaluated factors in our work was developed with a relative weight and evaluation criterion. A test example for an offshore pipe-line in the Bohai waters was described to show how the model can be used for an actual case in more detail. By using the oil-spill risk assessment model, it is easy to determine the risk level associated with the ongoing activity and management level and hence to take the risk mitigation action immediately.

  14. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LONGITUDINAL SUBMERGED ARC WELDED STEEL PIPES USED FOR GAS PIPELINE OF OFFSHORE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Z. Yang; W. Tian; Q.R. Ma; Y.L. Li; J.K. Li; J.Z. Gao; H.B. Zhang; Y.H. Yang

    2008-01-01

    Since the development of offshore oil and gas, increased submarine oil and gas pipelines were installed. All the early steel pipes of submarine pipelines depended on importing because of the strict requirements of comprehensive properties, such as,anti-corrosion, resistance to pressure and so on. To research and develop domestic steel pipes used for the submarine pipeline, the Longitudinal-seam Submerged Arc Welded (LSAW) pipes were made of steel plates cut from leveled hot rolled coils by both the JCOE and UOE (the forming process in which the plate like the letter "J", "C", "O" or "U" shape, then expansion) forming processes. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the pipe base metal and weld metal were tested, and the results were in accordance with the corresponding pipe specification API SPEC 5L or DNV-OS-F101, which showed that domestic LSAW pipes could be used for submarine oil and gas pipelines.

  15. Bird kills from oil contamination in the Gulf of Alaska, February-March 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Outlines potential solutions for identifying oil threats to Alaska birds. Makes recommendations on activities, partners, research, and plans to undertake to better...

  16. PIPELINE PRODUCTION LOSSES IN THE NIGERIAN OIL INDUSTRY FROM 1999 TO 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. STELLA MADUEME

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This empirical investigation tries to identify the causes and economic costs of pipeline production losses in the Nigerian oil industry from 1999 to 2008. It brings out the total product and value loss within the selected years. It also shows the frequency of occurrence in pipeline incidences as a result of fire outbreak, vandalization and rupture in various areas in Nigeria. Five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and time series data data was collected through archival sources and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Data are presented in tables and graphs. Results show that vandalization has been increasing from 1999 to 2008 with its highest incidences at Port Harcourt pipelines. Production losses due to rupture were less frequent though physical product losses were highest between 1999 to 2006. Fire outbreaks were discovered to unfortunately be a yearly event with its highest evidences at Port Harcourt and Warri pipelines. This led to very high wastages and monetary losses over the years. Some of the recommendations are effective protection guideline policies for oil pipelines to avoid product losses through vandalisation and fire out break regular maintenance of oil pipelines to reduce incidences of rupture and increased participation or partnership with communities where pipelines are located for protection.

  17. Model for the calculation of pressure loss through heavy fuel oil transfer pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luis Laurencio-Alfonso,

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limitations of methodologies and empirical correlations in the evaluation of simultaneous effects produced by viscous and mix strength during the transfer of fluids through pipelines, this article presents the functional relationships that describe the pressure variations for the non-Newtonian fuel oil flowrate. The experimental study was conducted based on a characterization of the rheological behavior of fuel oil and modeling for a pseudoplastic behavior. The resulting model describes temperature changes, viscous friction effects and the effects of blending flow layers; which is therefore the basis of calculation for the selection, evaluation and rationalization of transport of heavy fuel oil by pipelines.

  18. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential

  19. 76 FR 68502 - National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 in the National Petroleum... National Petroleum Reserve- Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 will be available to the public...

  20. 78 FR 33103 - Call For Nominations and Comments for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) oil and gas... Bureau of Land Management Call For Nominations and Comments for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  1. Variation of yield stress of Daqing crude oil with pipelining history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 侯磊; 孙立新

    2008-01-01

    The yield stress of waxy crude oil is a fundamental parameter in the calculation of pipelining technique and analysis of flow safety for the heated oil transported through pipeline.Daqing crude oil was studied and the variation of yield stress with shear history was explored through simulation experiment of pipelining.It is found that the effect of throughput variation or shear rate on yield stress is not obvious.With the decrease of final dynamic cooling temperature,the yield stress of waxy crude oil decreases,but there exists a little increase at the beginning.The prediction model of yield stress for waxy crude oil under the condition of shutdown is developed and it can be used to predict the yield stress of Daqing crude oil at certain heating temperature,final dynamic cooling temperature and measurement temperature.For the 139 groups of yield stress data of Daqing crude oil from the simulation experiment of pipelining,the result of prediction with this model shows that the average relative deviation between the yield stress measured and predicted is 30.27%,and the coefficient of correlation is 0.962 3.

  2. Coal/oil mixture pipeline: a viable alternative coal transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J. B.L.; Petrovic, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Slurry pipeline systems have been promoted as minimizing the environmental and socio-economic impacts of rail transportation and as increasing competition in interstate coal transportation. However, the scarce water resources of the coal rich western states may limit the number and/or capacity of these systems. Furthermore, these systems are not without their own operating and environmental problems. In this paper, a coal transportation system which utilizes coal/oil mixture technology is compared to the coal/water system and to another alternative, coal/methanol system. The primary considerations addressed are the system design considerations and trade-offs, the resource requirements (including capital) and the cost of delivered energy. Considerations such as the system environmental impacts, the status of the technologies, oil quality and supply, and the potential system flexibilities are discussed qualitatively. This qualitative comparison shows that the coal/oil slurry pipeline is an attractive economic, environmental, and technical alternative for transporting coal PROVIDED that oil is available in the region. Coal/water pipelines are a second choice based on economics and, furthermore, are limited by their demands on western water resources. The third choice is coal/oil slurry pipelines using oil generated onsite. The main attraction is the saving of about 1/2 the water requirements. However, the capital costs will be high. Coal/methanol slurry pipelines do not appear to have any economic or environmental advantages. Further secondary considerations must be addressed before a technically and economically viable coal/oil surry pipeline could be implemented.

  3. Development of ecologically safe method for main oil and gas pipeline trenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmedov Asvar Mikdadovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Constructive, technical and technological reliability of major pipeline ensures ecological safety on different stages of life circle - beginning with project preparation activities up to the end of major pipeline operation. Even in the process of transition into new life circle stage, no matter if the pipeline needs major repairs or reconstruction, such technical and technological solutions should be found, which would preserve ecological stability of nature-anthropogenic system. Development of ecology protection technologies of construction, reconstruction and major repairs of main pipelines is of great importance not only for a region, but ensures ecological safety across the globe. The article presents a new way of trenching the main oil and gas pipeline, preservation and increase of ecological safety during its service. The updated technological plan is given in the paper for overhaul of the main oil and gas pipeline using the new technology of pipeline trenching. The suggested technical solution contributes to environment preservation with the help of deteriorating shells - the shells’ material decomposes into environment-friendly components: carbon dioxide, water and humus. The quantity of polluting agents in the atmosphere decreases with the decrease of construction term and quantity of technical equipment.

  4. Effects of Pipeline Construction on Wetland Ecosystems: Russia-China Oil Pipeline Project (Mohe-Daqing Section)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaofei Yu; Guoping Wang; Yuanchun Zou; Qiang Wang; Hongmei Zhao; Xianguo Lu (Key Lab of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Inst. of Geography and Agroecology, Changchun (China)), e-mail: wangguoping@neigae.ac.cn

    2010-07-15

    Although the multiple roles of wetland ecosystems and their value to humanity have been increasingly understood and documented in recent years, the efforts to conserve and restore wetlands are not in harmony with the press for high speed of economy growth. The degradation of wetlands is proceeding, especially in China. Russia- China Oil Pipe-line Project (Mohe-Daqing Section) has already begun in May 2009, and is ongoing. The pipeline runs through four riverine wetlands and two marshlands of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. Although the project has vital significance of mitigating the energy crisis as well as guaranteeing the energy security of China, it will bring a series of ecological and environmental problems, especially for wetland ecosystems

  5. A combined kriging and stochastic method to map paraffin scale growth in oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, R. K.; Novrianto, A. R.; Rahmawati, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Paraffin is a common deposit in oil production pipeline. It occurs when the oil flowing-temperature is under Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) or pour-point temperature. Several prediction models so far only estimatethe location where the paraffin-wax is possibly formed and there is no prediction about paraffin-wax growth over time. Therefore, this paper presents a new mathematical model to accurately predict paraffin-wax growth in oil production pipeline. The proposed model contains stochastic and kriging method. The stochastic model is developed based on Markov and Poisson model and used to describe the generation time and growth of scale. Kriging model is then combined to describe the position of scale along the production pipeline. As the result of the combined model, paraffin-wax thickness can be mapped in space and time. This prediction is important to determine and decide an effective production operation and efficient investment.

  6. From the Silk Road to Chevron: The Geopolitics of Oil Pipelines in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fishelson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the struggle between Iran, Russia, China, and the US over their preferred pipeline routes for Central Asian oil and gas gives a good glimpse as to the world's future geopolitical order. Despite the formidable difficulties in building pipelines, those four powers are converging upon the region with an eagerness that is almost desperate. In previous eras, a country's military was the sole arbiter of her strength, but today her economy has become nearly as important, if not more so, and all industrial economies – and militaries – run on oil and gas. The US and China desire those resources to fuel their power plants, factories, automobiles, aircraft, and armored vehicles. Iran and Russia want the pipelines to go through their territory in order to claim transit fees and use the resources as political tools. For each country wresting control of the Central Asian oil and gas is necessarily a vital part of its grand strategy.

  7. Prediction Model Based on the Grey Theory for Tackling Wax Deposition in Oil Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Wu; Shujuan Qiu; Jianfeng Liu; Ling Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Problems involving wax deposition threaten seriously crude pipelines both economically and operationally. Wax deposition in oil pipelines is a complicated problem having a number of uncertainties and indeterminations. The Grey System Theory is a suitable theory for coping with systems in which some information is clear and some is not, so it is an adequate model for studying the process of wax deposition.In order to predict accurately wax deposition along a pipeline, the Grey Model was applied to fit the data of wax deposition rate and the thickness of the deposited wax layer on the pipe-wall, and to give accurate forecast on wax deposition in oil pipelines. The results showed that the average residential error of the Grey Prediction Model is smaller than 2%. They further showed that this model exhibited high prediction accuracy. Our investigation proved that the Grey Model is a viable means for forecasting wax deposition.These findings offer valuable references for the oil industry and for firms dealing with wax cleaning in oil pipelines.

  8. DISTRIBUTED OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR FOR LONG-DISTANCE OIL PIPELINE HEALTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A fully distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) for monitoring long-distance oil pipeline health is proposed based on optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR). A smart and sensitive optical fiber cable is installed along the pipeline acting as a sensor. The experiments show that the cable swells when exposed to oil and induced additional bending losses inside the fiber, and the optical attenuation of the fiber coated by a thin skin with periodical hardness is sensitive to deformation and vibration caused by oil leakage, tampering,or mechanical impact. The region where the additional attenuation occurred is detected and located by DOFS based on OTDR, the types of pipeline accidents are identified according to the characteristics of transmitted optical power received by an optical power meter. Another prototype of DOFS based on a forward traveling frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) is also proposed to monitor pipeline. The advantages and disadvantages of DOFSs based on OTDR and FMCW are discussed. The experiments show that DOFSs are capable of detecting and locating distant oil pipeline leakages and damages in real time with an estimated precision of ten meters over tens of kilometers.

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  10. Exploring the Feasibility of Robotic Pipeline Surveillance for Detecting Crude Oil Spills in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’tega A. Ejofodomi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have significant negative effects on the environment in which they occur, including damage to aquatic, aerial and terrestrial life. In the oil-producing Niger Delta, oil spillage is largely due to pipeline corrosion and crude oil theft and sabotage. This paper explores the feasibility of utilizing small mobile robots for early detection of ground oil leakage, a methodology defined as Ground Robotic Oil Spill Surveillance (GROSS. GROSS robot was constructed using iRobot Create, element serial Bluetooth Adapter Module (BAM and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG sensor, and programmed using MATLAB to patrol a pipeline route 5 m in length. To simulate oil spills, varying volumes of gasoline - 30, 59, 118, 236, 354, 472, 590, and 708 ml – were placed along the pipeline route prior to the robot‟s patrol. GROSS robot demonstrated capability of detecting spills as little as 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7 liters when running at 100, 200, and 300 mm/s respectively. Detection distance between LPG sensor and spill ranged from 76 – 157 cm. GROSS robots could assist in early detection of oil spills. Future work includes improvement in GROSS robot design and determining the effect of soil absorption and API density on the robot‟s ability to detect spills.

  11. LOWERING UNCERTAINTY IN CRUDE OIL MEASUREMENT BY SELECTING OPTIMIZED ENVELOPE COLOR OF A PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Saadat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowering uncertainty in crude oil volume measurement has been widely considered as one of main purposes in an oil export terminal. It is found that crude oil temperature at metering station has big effects on measured volume and may cause big uncertainty at the metering point. As crude oil flows through an aboveground pipeline, pick up the solar radiation and heat up. This causes the oil temperature at the metering point to rise and higher uncertainty to be created. The amount of temperature rise is depended on exterior surface paint color. In the Kharg Island, there is about 3 km distance between the oil storage tanks and the metering point. The oil flows through the pipeline due to gravity effects as storage tanks are located 60m higher than the metering point. In this study, an analytical model has been conducted for predicting oil temperature at the pipeline exit (the metering point based on climate and geographical conditions of the Kharg Island. The temperature at the metering point has been calculated and the effects of envelope color have been investigated. Further, the uncertainty in the measurement system due to temperature rise has been studied.

  12. Oil Pipelines, This is an ESRI feature class of Enbridge Energy's Rock County crude oil lines., Published in 2005, Rock County Planning, Economic, and Community Development Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Oil Pipelines dataset as of 2005. It is described as 'This is an ESRI feature class of Enbridge Energy's Rock County crude oil lines.'. Data by this publisher...

  13. Leak Detection Modeling and Simulation for Oil Pipeline with Artificial Intelligence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjo Sukarno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leak detection is always interesting research topic, where leak location and leak rate are two pipeline leaking parameters that should be determined accurately to overcome pipe leaking problems. In this research those two parameters are investigated by developing transmission pipeline model and the leak detection model which is developed using Artificial Neural Network. The mathematical approach needs actual leak data to train the leak detection model, however such data could not be obtained from oil fields. Therefore, for training purposes hypothetical data are developed using the transmission pipeline model, by applying various physical configuration of pipeline and applying oil properties correlations to estimate the value of oil density and viscosity. The various leak locations and leak rates are also represented in this model. The prediction of those two leak parameters will be completed until the total error is less than certain value of tolerance, or until iterations level is reached. To recognize the pattern, forward procedure is conducted. The application of this approach produces conclusion that for certain pipeline network configuration, the higher number of iterations will produce accurate result. The number of iterations depend on the leakage rate, the smaller leakage rate, the higher number of iterations are required. The accuracy of this approach is clearly determined by the quality of training data. Therefore, in the preparation of training data the results of pressure drop calculations should be validated by the real measurement of pressure drop along the pipeline. For the accuracy purposes, there are possibility to change the pressure drop and fluid properties correlations, to get the better results. The results of this research are expected to give real contribution for giving an early detection of oil-spill in oil fields.

  14. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramirez

    Full Text Available The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196 were inactive, one-third (1,665 were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration.

  15. 77 FR 28617 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) oil and gas lease sale. Available tracts are within the Northeast and Northwest... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2012 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  16. 76 FR 36145 - Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Reserve--Alaska (NPR-A) oil and gas lease sale. Available tracts are within the Northeast and Northwest... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations and Comments for the 2011 National Petroleum Reserve--Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  17. An ornithological study of alternate gas pipeline routes in Alaska, Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study was an attempt to describe and estimate the numbers of species and relative densities of birds along the two alternate pipeline routes, and to arrive at...

  18. 78 FR 32090 - Filing, Indexing, and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 341 Filing, Indexing, and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines... obligations, the Commission proposed modifying Part 341 of its regulations.\\6\\ \\6\\ Filing, Indexing,...

  19. The strategic priorities of the national oil and gas pipeline transport system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Миколаївна Ісаєва

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of legal documents governing relations between Ukraine, Russia and the European Union as part of their energy policies was performed. The strategic interests of participating countries and the strategic priorities of the governance with national oil and gas pipeline transport system development in particular were designated

  20. Rheology and FTIR studies of model waxy crude oils with relevance to gelled pipeline restart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, J.J.; Guimeraes, K.; Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Venkatesan, R.; Montesi, A. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Gels composed of wax crystals may sometimes form when crude oils are transported in pipelines when ambient temperatures are low. The gels may stop the pipe flow, making it difficult or even impossible to restart the flow without breaking the pipe. Rheology and FTIR techniques were used to study the problem and to characterize transparent model waxy crude oils in pipeline flow experiments. These model oils were formulated without any highly volatile components to enhance the reproducibility of the rheology tests. Results were presented for the time- and temperature-dependent rheology of the model waxy crude oils as obtained in linear oscillatory shear and in creep-recovery experiments. The model oils were shown to exhibit many of the rheological features reported for real crude oils, such as 3 distinct apparent yield stresses, notably static yield stress, dynamic yield stress, and elastic-limit yield stress. It was concluded that of the 3, the static yield stress value, particularly its time dependence, can best be used to predict the restart behaviour observed for the same gel in model pipelines.

  1. Literature Review: Theory and Application of In-Line Inspection Technologies for Oil and Gas Pipeline Girth Weld Defection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshan Feng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Girth weld cracking is one of the main failure modes in oil and gas pipelines; girth weld cracking inspection has great economic and social significance for the intrinsic safety of pipelines. This paper introduces the typical girth weld defects of oil and gas pipelines and the common nondestructive testing methods, and systematically generalizes the progress in the studies on technical principles, signal analysis, defect sizing method and inspection reliability, etc., of magnetic flux leakage (MFL inspection, liquid ultrasonic inspection, electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT inspection and remote field eddy current (RFDC inspection for oil and gas pipeline girth weld defects. Additionally, it introduces the new technologies for composite ultrasonic, laser ultrasonic, and magnetostriction inspection, and provides reference for development and application of oil and gas pipeline girth weld defect in-line inspection technology.

  2. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil plays an important role in providing the energy supply of the world, and pipelines have long been recognized as the safest and most efficient means of transporting oil and its products. However, the transportation process also faces the challenges of asphaltene-paraffin structural interactions, pipeline pressure losses and energy consumption. In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines with a biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses were carried out. The results indicated that heavy oil transportation in the pipeline is remarkably enhanced by creating stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsion with the surfactant additive. The wax appearance temperature (WAT and pour point were modified, and the formation of a space-filling network of interlocking wax crystals was prevented at low temperature by adding a small concentration of the surfactant additive. A maximum viscosity reduction of 70% and a drag reduction of 40% for light crude oil flows in pipelines were obtained with the surfactant additive at a concentration of 100 mg/L. Furthermore, a successful field application of the drag-reducing surfactant in a light crude oil pipeline in Daqing Oilfield was demonstrated. Hence, the use of biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses in oil transportation is a potential method to address the current challenges, which could result in a significant energy savings and a considerable reduction of the operating cost.

  3. Public inquiry concerning stress corrosion cracking on Canadian oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, K.W.; Cote-Verhaaf, A.; Illing, R.

    1996-11-01

    An comprehensive inquiry was conducted into the serious problem of near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Canada`s buried oil and gas pipelines. The inquiry was prompted by evidence of the widespread nature of SCC and awareness that research was producing new insights into the problem. Two major ruptures and fires occurred on the TransCanada system in February and July of 1995. The July rupture was in a location where it was believed SCC could not occur. SCC on pipelines occurs when small cracks develop on the outside surface of the buried pipeline. With time the cracks grow large enough until the pipeline fails or ruptures. SCC results from an interaction of the following three conditions: a potent environment at the pipe surface, a susceptible pipe material, and a tensile stress. Recommendations to resolve the problem included implementation of an SCC management program by pipeline companies, changes to the design of the pipeline, continued research, establishment of an SCC database, improved emergency response practices, and information sharing. 84 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  4. The radial self-positioning algorithm of intelligent ultrasonic probe array in oil/gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Shoupeng; Que Peiwen

    2007-01-01

    The working principle of the pipeline intelligent pig and the structure of ultrasonic probe array used to detect defects in oil/gas pipeline are introduced.The effects of the array'S radial position in pipe on defect resolution are analyzed.The causes leading to radial positioning error are investigated.An algorithm for the radial self-positioning is presented.The experimental results show that the radial self-positioning algorithm can eliminate the array'S space position error effectively and improve the defect resolution.

  5. Influence of heat transfer on two-phase flow behavior in onshore oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldrich Joel Romero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational tools for simulation of multiphase flow in oil pipelines are of great importance for the determination of the technical feasibility of the production in oilfields. The present article presents the mathematical and numerical modeling of the oil biphasic flow in a partially submerged onshore pipeline. The biphasic behavior of the heavy oil of 13,2ºAPI is translated by the Dukler correlation. The oil’s viscosity is regarded as dependent on the temperature and on the API density of the oil by means of the Hossain correlation. The pipeline, of 3,600m and 4 inches (10.16cm in diameter, transports the oil from a collecting station to a storage center and consists of three sections. The first and third sections are above ground and are in contact with the external environment. The intermediate section is sitting on the river bed and is the critical part of the pipeline, once high heat losses are observed. The influence on the type of pipe insulation in the pressure and temperature gradients was analyzed with the aid of commercial 1D software Pipesim®. The results, of this 1D and non-isothermal problem with prescribed outlet pressure, show that the use of isolation when appropriately designed in terms of material quality and thickness is of utmost importance to maintain the heat transfer at low levels, in order to ensure the movement of fluids in long sections without compromising the system operation.

  6. A NEW TECHNIQUE OF OIL TRANSPORTATION IN PIPELINE BY STEAM INJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The direct contact heating of crude oil with steam is promising technique for improving crude oil transportation in pipelines. Crude oil temperature is increased greatly by a small quantity of steam due to the high steam latent heat and direct contact heat transfer. A jet pump was developed for injecting steam into oil in order to get a high efficiency by transferring momentum and energy from a high-velocity jet to ambient fluid. The jet pump was designed based on the free injection principle, which has no rotation parts and no converging mixing chamber, therefore it would not be blocked by the viscous crude oil. The technical feasibility of this method has been tested in the Liaohe Oilfeld, China.

  7. Waterbirds and oil-contaminated ponds at Point Storkersen, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of larger project on effects of Trans Alaskan Pipeline System, report (1) supplements data on bird populations and their selection of habitats, and (2)...

  8. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K. [Biophilia Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  9. Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

  10. Fuzzy Reliability Analysis for Seabed Oil-Gas Pipeline Networks Under Earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 潘斌

    2003-01-01

    The seabed oil-gas pipeline network is simplified to a network w i th stochastic edge-weight by means of the fuzzy graphics theory. With the help o f network analysis, fuzzy mathematics, and stochastic theory, the problem of rel iability analysis for the seabed oil-gas pipeline network under earthquakes is t ransformed into the calculation of the transitive closure of fuzzy matrix of the stochastic fuzzy network. In classical network reliability analysis, the node i s supposed to be non-invalidated; in this paper, this premise is modified by in t roducing a disposal method which has taken the possible invalidated node into a ccount. A good result is obtained by use of the Monte Carlo simulation analysis.

  11. WAVELET TRANSFORM THRESHOLD NOISE REDUCTION METHODS IN THE OIL PIPELINE LEAKAGE MONITORING AND POSITIONING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Chao; Zhou Shanxue

    2010-01-01

    This letter investigates the wavelet transform,as well as the principle and the method of the noise reduction based on wavelet transform,it chooses the threshold noise reduction,and discusses in detail the principles,features and design steps of the threshold method. Rigrsure,heursure,sqtwolog and minimization four kinds of threshold selection method are compared qualitatively,and quantitatively. The wavelet analysis toolbox of MATLAB helps to realize the computer simulation of the signal noise reduction. The graphics and calculated standard deviation of the various threshold noise reductions show that,when dealing with the actual pressure signal of the oil pipeline leakage,sqtwolog threshold selection method can effectively remove the noise. Aiming to the pressure signal of the oil pipeline leakage,the best choice is the wavelet threshold noise reduction with sqtwolog threshold. The leakage point is close to the actual position,with the relative error of less than 1%.

  12. Transnational Pipelines and Naval Expansion: Examining China’s Oil Insecurities in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Naval condominium . The only way for China to gain this capability would be to embark on a very costly and politically dangerous road of building...and Prospects for China’s Oil and Natural Gas, 79. 48 Route distances measured using Google Earth software . Luanda, Angola to Maoming, China via...that travels approximately 15 knots.61 Finally, a critical piece to the safety of pipeline operations is the control station and monitoring software

  13. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  14. Standardization of industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals: TRANSPETRO's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Correa, Marcelo Leal [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO concerning standardization of its industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, preparation and implementation of standards and five corporate operational procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, and consequently the sense of unity and creation of a nucleus consisting of 30 professionals who mobilized a learning network with great capillarity. In this context, the paper presents the results of implementing corporate standards, based on internationally recognized yardsticks such as American Petroleum Institute (API), US Department of Transportation (DOT) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), as well as PETROBRAS standards. It covers the following topics: an overview of the whole process; preparation of corporate operational procedures, which resulted in a total of 5 standards against 60 in the original situation; preparation and implementation of visual quick guides corresponding to the new corporate operational procedures; and proposal of a set of industrial maintenance performance indicators in compliance with operational guidelines established by TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals business segment. (author)

  15. Transnational opposition and negotiation: Challenges to an oil pipeline in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Patricia

    The literature on transnational networks portrays transnational collaborations as advantageous to domestic stakeholders. Yet, the gains of transnational engagement may be accompanied by hardship for domestic groups. This dissertation examines how domestic stakeholders experienced the benefits and burdens of transnational collaboration in challenging the construction of the oil pipeline, the Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados, in Ecuador. Four community cases along the pipeline's route were selected for analysis. Each case varied by the experienced externalities of the oil industry and distributive struggle with the industry and the state. Lago Agrio, an oil town on the edge of the Amazon, represented a community with 30 years of oil saturation that engaged the state to determine just compensation. The capital Quito represented the nation's environmental organizations that sought a role in directing oil-funded conservation efforts. The third site, the eco-tourism community of Mindo, mobilized to reject the pipeline's route near their private reserves and to promote eco-tourism as an economic alternative to oil extraction. The final site was Esmeraldas, a coastal community experienced in tanker loading and oil refining that achieved a collective dignity in pressing for community-determined compensation. To better understand the impacts of transnational activities, this dissertation synthesizes theories of social movements, environmental justice and development. In its longitudinal and case study design, the examination of one project at four sites of contention offers insight into how transnational mobilization drives or hinders environmental justice and how grassroots groups gain or lose a forum for participation. My findings indicate that transnational campaigns benefited locals by providing expert assessments, facilitating international access and influencing international financing policies. However, the unintended consequences included a focus on international concerns

  16. Study on oil-water two-phase flow in horizontal pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao-Xuan [Division of Oilfield Surface Engineering, Petroleum Exploration and Production Research Institute, SINOPEC, 31, Xue yuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2007-10-15

    The simultaneous flow of oil and water in pipelines is a common occurrence in the petroleum industry. Water fractions in the output stream increase materially during the producing life of a well and many wells exist from which economic production can still persist with water volume fractions in the liquid phase in excess of 90%. The presence of water must be properly accounted for when designing and predicting the flow behavior in both wells and pipelines. This paper is aimed at giving a brief review on the research of oil-water pipe flows in the past decade. The contents are divided into three sections: (1) flow pattern identification and its transition; (2) phase inversion modeling; (3) pressure drop prediction. It is obvious that oil-water flow patterns, phase inversion prediction and pressure drop have played a great role in the design and running of oil-water flow systems. This paper critically reviews research achievement and presents the current trend in order to offer a guide in future research of the oil-water pipe flows. (author)

  17. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Div. of Mineral Physics

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs.

  18. Crude Oil Treatment Leads to Shift of Bacterial Communities in Soils from the Deep Active Layer and Upper Permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline Route

    OpenAIRE

    Sizhong Yang; Xi Wen; Liang Zhao; Yulan Shi; Huijun Jin

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ biore...

  19. 78 FR 59715 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Web site at http://www.boem.gov/Oil-and-Gas-Energy-Program/Mapping-and-Data/Alaska.aspx . 4... Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 237 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior..., scheduled to be held in 2016, as included in the Proposed Final OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program...

  20. Controlling internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the corrosion inhibitor selection software (CISS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The internal pitting corrosion of oil and gas pipelines can be effectively controlled through the addition of inhibitors. However, simulation of field operating conditions is necessary because the performance of corrosion inhibitors is influenced by several interacting parameters. This paper reviewed the Corrosion Inhibitor Selection Software (CISS) program. The materials transported in production pipelines are often multiphase, containing oil, aqueous (brine), and gas phases. The corrosion rate and inhibitor performance are influenced by composition, temperature, flow and pressure. Steel composition and structure also influence both the rate and type of corrosion. Improvements in corrosion test methodologies are aimed at simulating field corrosion conditions in the laboratory in a compressed time-scale. The parameters that influence the types of corrosion must be simulated in order for laboratory methodology to be relevant. The variables controlled should be quantifiable. There should also be a correlation between the influence of variables controlled in the laboratory and of the same variables in the field. The CISS program evaluates inhibitors in the following 4 steps: (1) pipeline operating conditions, (2) selection of laboratory methodology, (3) determination of operating conditions for the laboratory methodologies, and (4) selection of corrosion inhibitors. The 7 objectives of the CISS program are to optimize the strategies of inhibitor selection for pipeline applications; determine the hydrodynamic parameters of the pipe from field operating conditions; select appropriate laboratory methodologies for evaluating inhibitors; determine flow conditions for high-shear laboratory methodologies; develop a qualitative relationship between corrosion rates of non-shear laboratory methodologies and of pipelines; evaluate corrosion inhibitors based on results from different laboratory methodologies; and design cost-effective inhibitors for future applications. 47 refs

  1. Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

  2. A root cause analysis approach to risk assessment of a pipeline network for Kuwait Oil Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Ray J.; Alfano, Tony D. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Waheed, Farrukh [Kuwait Oil Company, Ahmadi (Kuwait); Komulainen, Tiina [Kongsberg Oil and Gas Technologies, Sandvika (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    A large scale risk assessment was performed by Det Norske Veritas (DNV) for the entire Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) pipeline network. This risk assessment was unique in that it incorporated the assessment of all major sources of process related risk faced by KOC and included root cause management system related risks in addition to technical risks related to more immediate causes. The assessment was conducted across the entire pipeline network with the scope divided into three major categories:1. Integrity Management 2. Operations 3. Management Systems Aspects of integrity management were ranked and prioritized using a custom algorithm based on critical data sets. A detailed quantitative risk assessment was then used to further evaluate those issues deemed unacceptable, and finally a cost benefit analysis approach was used to compare and select improvement options. The operations assessment involved computer modeling of the entire pipeline network to assess for bottlenecks, surge and erosion analysis, and to identify opportunities within the network that could potentially lead to increased production. The management system assessment was performed by conducting a gap analysis on the existing system and by prioritizing those improvement actions that best aligned with KOC's strategic goals for pipelines. Using a broad and three-pronged approach to their overall risk assessment, KOC achieved a thorough, root cause analysis-based understanding of risks to their system as well as a detailed list of recommended remediation measures that were merged into a 5-year improvement plan. (author)

  3. Identification and characterization of microbial biofilm communities associated with corroded oil pipeline surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Tiffany R; Duncan, Kathleen E; Beech, Iwona B; Sunner, Jan A; Smith, Whitney; Bonifay, Vincent; Biri, Bernadette; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has long been implicated in the deterioration of carbon steel in oil and gas pipeline systems. The authors sought to identify and characterize sessile biofilm communities within a high-temperature oil production pipeline, and to compare the profiles of the biofilm community with those of the previously analyzed planktonic communities. Eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA sequences of DNA recovered from extracted pipeline pieces, termed 'cookies,' revealed the presence of thermophilic sulfidogenic anaerobes, as well as mesophilic aerobes. Electron microscopy and elemental analysis of cookies confirmed the presence of sessile cells and chemical constituents consistent with corrosive biofilms. Mass spectrometry of cookie acid washes identified putative hydrocarbon metabolites, while surface profiling revealed pitting and general corrosion damage. The results suggest that in an established closed system, the biofilm taxa are representative of the planktonic eubacterial and archaeal community, and that sampling and monitoring of the planktonic bacterial population can offer insight into biocorrosion activity. Additionally, hydrocarbon biodegradation is likely to sustain these communities. The importance of appropriate sample handling and storage procedures to oilfield MIC diagnostics is highlighted.

  4. A fast-track preliminary thermo-mechanical design of oil export pipelines from P-56 platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Rafael F.; Mendonca, Salete M. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franco, Luciano D.; Walker, Alastair; El-Gebaly, Sherif H. [INTECSEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The oil export pipelines of Marlim Sul field Module 3, Campus Basin, offshore Brazil, will operate in high pressure and temperature conditions, and will be laid on seabed crossing ten previously laid pipelines along the routes. In terms of thermo-mechanical design, these conditions turn out to be great challenges. In order to obtain initial results and recommendations for detail design, a preliminary thermo-mechanical design of pipelines was carried out as a fast-track design before the bid. This way, PETROBRAS can assess and emphasize the susceptibility of these lines to lateral buckling and pipeline walking behavior. Therefore, PETROBRAS can present a preliminary mitigation strategy for lateral buckling showing solutions based on displacement controlled criteria and by introducing buckle initiation along the pipeline using distribution buoyancy. Besides that, axial displacements and loads at the pipeline ends can be furnished also in order to provide a basis for the detailed design. The work reported in this paper follows the SAFEBUCK JIP methodology and recommendation, which were used to determine the allowable strain and maximum allowable VAS (Virtual Anchor Spacing) considered in the buckling mitigation strategy. The paper presents also the formation of uncontrolled buckles on the seabed and the propensity for pipeline walking in its sections between buckles. The buckling mitigation strategy established in this preliminary design confirms that the oil pipeline specifications are adequate to maintain integrity during design life. (author)

  5. Business process modeling applied to oil pipeline and terminal processes: a proposal for TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Adilson da Silva [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Caulliraux, Heitor Mansur [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ/GPI), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia. Grupo de Producao Integrada; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Felippe, Adriana Vieira de Oliveira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Business process modeling (BPM) using event driven process chain diagrams (EPCs) to lay out business process work flows is now widely adopted around the world. The EPC method was developed within the framework of the ARIS Toolset developed by Prof. Wilhelm-August Scheer at the Institut fur Wirtschaftsinformatik at the Universitat des Saarlandes, in the early 1990s. It is used by many companies to model, analyze and redesign business processes. As such it forms the core technique for modeling in ARIS, which serves to link the different aspects of the so-called control view, which is discussed in the section on ARIS business process modeling. This paper describes a proposal made to TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, which will be jointly developed by specialists and managers from TRANSPETRO and from COPPETEC, the collaborative research arm of Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ). The proposal is based on ARIS business process modeling and is presented here according to its seven phases, as follows: information survey and definition of the project structure; mapping and analysis of Campos Eliseos Terminal (TECAM) processes; validation of TECAM process maps; mapping and analysis of the remaining organizational units' processes; validation of the remaining organizational units' process maps; proposal of a business process model for all organizational units of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais; critical analysis of the process itself and the results and potential benefits of BPM. (author)

  6. The influence of pipeline wettability and crude oil composition on deposition of gas hydrates during petroleum production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspenes, Guro

    2009-07-01

    At specific temperature and pressure conditions, hydrates can sometimes plug production pipelines. It has been shown that some oils contain natural inhibiting compounds (NICs) that prevent hydrate plug formation even though the pressure and temperature are within the hydrate formation conditions. Thus, the hydrate plugging tendency is influenced by the crude oil composition. The mechanisms by which deposition of hydrates occur in a petroleum production system are also likely to be related to pipeline surface properties, e.g. pipeline material, surface free energy and roughness. The ultimate aim of this work is to develop an understanding of the deposition of hydrates on the pipeline wall. Most of the work in this thesis deals with contact angle measurements that determine the wettability of various solids. Different materials and oil compositions have been tested including both model oil systems and crude oil systems. Micromechanical force experiments have been used to determine the adhesion force between hydrates and solids with different amounts of petroleum acids present in the oil phase. The factors that have been identified in this work as most likely influencing deposition of hydrates to the pipeline wall are the presence of free water, surface material and crude oil composition. It may seem as if hydrate deposition will not occur unless free water is present. When the pipeline wall material has a low surface free energy, such as epoxy coated surfaces, deposition seems to be reduced. Crude oils that are assumed as non-plugging and contain high concentrations of acids seems to reduce the probability for deposition to occur. (Author)

  7. Acoustic and sonochemical methods for altering the viscosity of oil during recovery and pipeline transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Vladimir O; Abramova, Anna V; Bayazitov, Vadim M; Mullakaev, Marat S; Marnosov, Alexandr V; Ildiyakov, Alexandr V

    2017-03-01

    Reduction of oil viscosity is of great importance for the petroleum industry since it contributes a lot to the facilitation of pipeline transportation of oil. This study analyzes the capability of acoustic waves to decrease the viscosity of oil during its commercial production. Three types of equipment were tested: an ultrasonic emitter that is located directly in the well and affects oil during its production and two types of acoustic machines to be located at the wellhead and perform acoustic treatment after oil extraction: a setup for ultrasonic hydrodynamic treatment and a flow-through ultrasonic reactor. In our case, the two acoustic machines were rebuilt and tested in the laboratory. The viscosity of oil was measured before and after both types of acoustic treatment; and 2, 24 and 48h after ultrasonic treatment and 1 and 4h after hydrodynamic treatment in order to estimate the constancy of viscosity reduction. The viscosity reduction achieved by acoustic waves was compared to the viscosity reduction achieved by acoustic waves jointly with solvents. It was shown, that regardless of the form of powerful acoustic impact, a long lasting decrease in viscosity can be obtained only if sonochemical treatment is used. Using sonochemical treatment based on ultrasonic hydrodynamic treatment a viscosity reduction by 72,46% was achieved. However, the reduction in viscosity by 16%, which was demonstrated using the ultrasonic downhole tool in the well without addition of chemicals, is high enough to facilitate the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

  8. Economics of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the North Slope of Alaska: Economic Update and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published assessments by geologists of undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations in the North Slope of Alaska; these assessments contain a set of scientifically based estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable quantities of oil and gas in discrete oil and gas accumulations that can be produced with conventional recovery technology. The assessments do not incorporate economic factors such as recovery costs and product prices. The assessors considered undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in four areas of the North Slope: (1) the central North Slope, (2) the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), (3) the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), and (4) the area west of the NPRA, called in this report the 'western North Slope'. These analyses were prepared at different times with various minimum assessed oil and gas accumulation sizes and with slightly different assumptions. Results of these past studies were recently supplemented with information by the assessment geologists that allowed adjustments for uniform minimum assessed accumulation sizes and a consistent set of assumptions. The effort permitted the statistical aggregation of the assessments of the four areas composing the study area. This economic analysis is based on undiscovered assessed accumulation distributions represented by the four-area aggregation and incorporates updates of costs and technological and fiscal assumptions used in the initial economic analysis that accompanied the geologic assessment of each study area.

  9. Coefficients de-noising with wavelet transform for magnetic flux leakage data obtained from oil pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Wenhua; Que Peiwen

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of noise cancellation for the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) data obtained from the inspection of oil pipelines. MFL data is contaminated by various sources of noise, and the noise can considerably reduce the detectability of flaw signals in MFL data. This paper presents a new de-noising approach for removing the system noise contained in the MFL data by using the coefficients de-noising with wavelet transform. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the advantages of this de-noising approach over the conventional wavelet de-noising method.

  10. Standardization process for pipeline right-of-way activities: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipeline and Terminals Business Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra de Morais M.; Goncalves, Bruno Martins [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. concerning the standardization process for its pipeline right-of-way (ROW) activities. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, standardization and implementation of all norms and corporate procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's right-of-way activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, a sense of unity and the creation of a learning network consisting of 60 employees. This paper presents the last phase's results concerning implementation of corporate standards, based upon achievements of previous phases. It covers the following topics: a general view of the whole process by way of introduction; the potential of integration of recent standardization results with TRANSPETRO's corporate management tools and information systems; definition of four performance indicators and their metrics related to pipeline right-of-way management, as well as a corporate standard for the requirements for contracting services related to rights-of-way inspection, maintenance and communication; challenges, barriers and benefits perceived by the team responsible for formulating and implementing standards and procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. (author)

  11. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in six oil-pipeline pumping stations in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-06-01

    Mexico has a very important oil industry, comprehending the exploration, production, transformation, storage and distribution of crude oil and its fractions. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a state-owned monopoly in charge of these activities. Oil and oil-products transport is an extremely crucial operation for the cycle production-transformation-distribution. Pipeline system transport crude oil and sub-products along the country (including liquids, gases and mixtures). It has been reported that more than 30% of the oil ducts in Mexico have been operating for over 30 years, although their lifetime has been calculated in 25-30 years. This work is aimed at characterizing a zone around six oil-pipeline pumping stations located at northern Mexico. The specific places to evaluate soil contamination were (1) the distribution head of the Gomez Palacio (GOPA) pumping station; (2) the north side of the old ditch, the API oil separator and the wastewater zones of the Jimenez (JIM) pumping station; (3) the pumping stations of Ceballos (CE), Peronal (PER), Simon Bolivar (SIBO), and Mayran (MAY). The study comprehended sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils, regarding TPH and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as a priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to the Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the encountered contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. In general, TPHs were found in all the pumping stations analyzed in this study. Regarding maximal TPHs concentrations at the stations, their order of contamination was as follows: SIBO>CE>PER>MAY>JIM>GOPA. PAHs were found only in a few points at concentrations above the detection limit. At the Jimenez, Gomez Palacio, Peronal, and Ceballos stations, only one point, with PAHs values over the

  12. Biodegradation of Alaska North Slope crude oil enhanced by commercial bioremediation agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrett, S.; Bonner, J.S.; Mills, M.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Autenrieth, R.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The biodegradation of crude oil was studied. Tests were conducted in which natural unpolluted seawater was collected and then contaminated with Alaska North Slope crude oil. The oil was weathered by heating it to 521 degrees F to remove the light-end hydrocarbons. A total of 13 different bioremediation agents were tested, each one separately. Three samples per treatment were destructively analysed for petroleum chemistry. The thirteen treatments were analyzed for oil and grease. It was found that microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was enhanced by the addition of bioremediation agents, but it was not possible to identify the intermediate products responsible for the increase of resolved petroleum hydrocarbons through time. It was suggested that caution be used when interpreting results since the protocols used to test the products were prone to uncontrollable variations. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Tug of war for the Eastern Siberian oil pipeline; Touwtrekken om de Oost-Siberische oliepijpleiding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisstoffels, J.H.; Handke, S.

    2007-10-15

    The authors discuss the history and importance of the East-Siberia-Pacific Oil Pipeline (ESPO). This new pipeline is a crucial element of Russia's energy strategy, which calls for the diversification of Russian energy exports by developing East Siberia's oil and gas resources. The authors recall how the Russian state lost its grip on the economy in the 1990s when oligarchs, such as Michail Khodorkovsky, were able to take control over the oil sector, in particular East Siberia's resources. Khodorkovsky bypassed the Moscow government and proposed building a pipeline to China. His plans were only focused on his company's interests, while the Russian state would only get a small share of the revenues. The re-emerging Russian state under president Putin brought a halt to this project and opted for a route that would give Russia the opportunity to export oil to Japan. The struggle for this pipeline and its final route provides an interesting case study of recent political changes in Russia. Furthermore, it illustrates how the Russian state has re-asserted control over the energy industry and which role energy plays in the country's foreign economic policy. Siberia's energy resources can help Russia to participate in the economic rise of the Asia-Pacific region. ESPO is a first step to realize Siberia's potential and to boost Russia's political and economic position in East Asia and beyond. Hence the pipeline is a clear signal of Russia's re-emergence as a powerful player on the Eurasian continent. [Dutch] De auteurs bespreken de geschiedenis en het belang van de Oost-Siberie - Pacific Oil Pipeline (ESPO). Deze nieuwe pijpleiding is een cruciaal onderdeel in de Russische energie-strategie, waarin wordt opgeroepen tot de diversificatie van de Russische energie-export door het ontwikkelen van Oost-Siberische olie- en gasbronnen. De auteurs herinneren eraan hoe de Russische staat zijn greep verloor op de economie in de jaren 1990

  14. OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Withdraw & Moratoria Areas - Alaska Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Areas currently under congressional moratoria or executive (presidential) withdraw from leasing for oil, gas, or minerals within the US Outer Continental Shelf. The...

  15. Visual operations management tools applied to the oil pipelines and terminals standardization process: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the process by which visual operations management (VOM) tools were implemented, concerning standards and operational procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. It provides: a brief literature review of visual operations management tools applied to total quality management and the standardization processes; a discussion of the assumptions from the second level of VOM (visual standards) upon which TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals business processes and operational procedures are based; and a description of the VOM implementation process involving more than 100 employees and one illustrative example of 'Quick Guides' for right-of- way management activities. Finally, it discusses the potential impacts and benefits of using VOM tools in the current practices in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit, reinforcing the importance of such visual guides as vital to implement regional and corporate procedures, focusing on the main operational processes. (author)

  16. Leakage location system for oil pipeline on basis of stress wave detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangfeng WANG; Renwen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    An online monitoring system was developed for rapidly determining the exact location of the holing position in an oil pipeline by monitoring and analyzing the characteristics of the strain wave caused by the hole. The system has a master-slaver computer structure based on a remote wireless network. The master system takes charge of managing and controlling the whole system, identifying the holing stress wave, and calculating the holing position. The slaver system is responsible for sampling the strain wave signal from the pipeline. The characteristics of the strain wave signal are extracted by a Hilbert-Huang trans-form based on a signal processing approach. The exact holing position can be obtained by a time delay locating method with stress wave characteristics. The experimental results of the in-service pipeline show that the average locating error of the system is less than 10 m, the accuracy ratio for the holing alarm is more than 90%, and the time that the system takes to respond to the leakage is less than 10 s.

  17. Controlling external corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the PreCaution program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    Strategies to maintain the integrity of the pipeline coating can be developed using information available from laboratory tests, field operating conditions, above-ground survey, and below-ground measurements. The materials assessment team at Natural Resources Canada has developed a PreCaution software program to predict the external corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) rate of oil and gas pipelines. The PreCaution software program predicts the corrosion rate using the following 4 different input data: (1) projection, based on laboratory evaluation, (2) adaptation, based on field operating conditions, (3) validation, based on above-ground survey, and (4) verification, based on below-ground measurements from field excavation. The four steps are meant to be used in sequence, but can be used independently through certain sections. Within each step, there are 5 categories that consider the most useful properties of pipeline coatings for comparing laboratory test results and field performance. These include adhesion; resistance to soil stresses; chemical and physical stability; resistance to impact; and resistance to cathodic disbonding. Each of these properties are assigned a score based on a specific set of criteria. A category score is then determined from the property scores. The software program can be used to predict the corrosion rate and the lifetime of a pipe. Although a corrosion rate is predicted for each step, only 1 lifetime prediction is made based on the most accurate steps. 18 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. Technical forums as an instrument for knowledge management in oil pipelines and terminals companies: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit regarding an institutionalized knowledge management (KM) process of systematically promoting technical forums focused on: pipeline and terminal operations; industrial maintenance; and right-of-way activities management. This empirical work adds evidence that in the model of cooperative and communicative knowledge management it is necessary to motivate staff to provide the company with their tacit knowledge and to take a proactive part in knowledge management processes, particularly in technical forums. Within this KM perspective, technical forums have been held by TRANSPETRO for the following purposes: to discuss the main barriers and challenges the oil pipelines and terminals unit has to face in the coming years; to share and disseminate good practices concerning oil pipeline and terminal activities; to discuss new processes, methods and equipment developments with potential application in business and operational processes; to establish action plans concerning the main challenges, barriers and opportunities; to disseminate Research and Development (R and D) projects in course, new procedures, methods and equipment and to promote integration among forum attendees. The two year-experience in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit revealed that technical forums have been an important instrument for cooperative and communicative knowledge management, according to evaluations from 173 attendees. (author)

  19. Cold-region environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline and their management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The cold-region eco-environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) in northern Northeast China are in disequilibrium due to the combined influences of pronounced climate warming and intensive anthropogenic activities.This is evidenced by the sharp areal reduction and northward shifting of the boreal forests,shrinking of wetlands,enhancing of soil erosion,accelerating degradation of permafrost and deteriorating of cold-region eco-environments.The degradation of permafrost plays an important role as an internal drive in the eco-environmental changes.Many components of the cold-region eco-environments,including frozen ground,forests,wetlands and peatlands,forest fires and "heating island effect" of rapid urbanization,are interdependent,interactive,and integrated in the boreal ecosystems.The construction and long-term operation of the CRCOP system will inevitably disturb the cold-region environments along the pipeline.Therefore,a mandatory and carefully-elaborated environ-mental impact statement is indispensable for the proper mitigation of the ensued adverse impacts.Proper management,effective protection and practical rehabilitation of the damaged cold-region environments are a daunting,costly and long-term commitment.The recommended measures for protection and restoration of permafrost eco-environments along the pipeline route include adequate investigation,assessment and monitoring of permafrost and cold-region environments,compliance of pipeline construction and operation codes for environmental management,proper and timely re-vegetation,returning the cultivated lands to forests and grasslands,and effective mitigation of forest fire hazards.

  20. Beach geomorphic factors for the persistence of subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuqiang; Boufadel, Michel C

    2011-12-01

    Oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill persists in some of the Prince William Sound (Alaska) beaches and continues to be a potential threat to the fauna. This paper reports a field investigation during the summer of 2008 of groundwater flow and solute transport in a tidal gravel beach in Smith Island, Prince William Sound. The beach contains oil on one side, the left side (facing landward). Field measurements of water table, salinity, and tracer (lithium) concentration were obtained for an approximate duration of 64 h for two transects, the oiled transect and a clean transect (the right transect). It was found that the hydraulic conductivity and the fresh groundwater recharge into the two transects were similar. It was also found that the beach slope of the mid to high tidal zone along the oiled (left) transect was ~7.4% which is considerably smaller than that of the clean (right) transect (~11.8%). This suggests a higher flushing/replenishing of the right transect with nutrients and/or oxygen, which would have enhanced biodegradation of oil on the right transect if that oil was not washed by waves. We also found that the degree of oiling at each location was inversely dependent on the armoring of the beach surface with clasts and boulders. The applied tracer concentration at the left transect was less than 2% of the source or close to the background level at all locations except a seaward well closest to the applied location, indicating that the tracer applied was diluted or washed out from the beach during the application. Thus, in situations where oil biodegradation is limited by the availability of nutrients and/or dissolved oxygen, applying the chemicals on the beach surface would most likely not enhance oil biodegradation as the applied chemicals would be greatly diluted prior to reaching the oil. Thus, deep injection of nutrients and/or dissolved oxygen is probably the only option for enhancing oil biodegradation.

  1. The side effects of the THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) treatment in oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de A.; Lopes, Eduardo Gullo M.; Paiva, Eva M.de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais e Controle de Corrosao; Penna, Monica de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been using THPS biocide since 2000 to control sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and H{sub 2}S generation in FPSO's tanks, storage tanks, seawater injection systems, produced water systems and hydrostatic testings. The advantage of this product over other biocides is to be effective against sessile SRB and to have low environmental impact and low risk to operators' health. Since 2005 the use of THPS was also extended to oil pipelines and has being demonstrating high efficacy in controlling sessile SRB and sulfide formation, even in fluids with very low water cut (BSW < 1%). However, some deleterious effects were observed when THPS (formulated with 75% of active ingredient) was dosed continuously in the produced fluids, in high concentration and/or for long periods. This paper presents the results of THPS treatment in two PETROBRAS' oil pipelines and describes the side effects that were detected during the biocide injection. The actions taken to minimize these harmful effects, without losing the good biocide efficiency were also presented. (author)

  2. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aouadj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA system is a telemetry and control system adapted for particular requirements of an oilfield management. Thanks to its different functions, we take advantage of this system to solve production problems especially those related to oil collecting pipeline network. In fact this network is confronted to some problems, in particular pressure losses which has significant effect on the production. This problem can be taken under control by the awareness of pipeline network operation and all its process data (especially junctions in real time. This will allow online creation of representative and accurate computerized models for the oil collecting pipeline network including producing wells, collecting pipelines, manifolds and others facilities.

  3. Alternatives for operational cost reduction in oil pipelines; Alternativas para reducao de custos energeticos operacionais em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Philipe Barroso; Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Pires, Luis Fernando Goncalves [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (SIMDUT/DEM/ PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecancia. Nucleo de Simulacao Termo-Hidraulica de Dutos

    2012-07-01

    This paper intends to give a brief overview of some cost reduction alternatives in oil pipelines, to optimize the pipeline operation. Four different alternatives are presented, based on previous studies made on existing pipelines, to demonstrate the response obtained with these solutions. Pipeline operation, especially on mature ones, tends to have a high operational cost, be by tradition, the aging of the installation, change of operational characteristics - such as nominal flow, product, or even flow direction - for which the pipeline wasn't originally designed. The alternatives showed allow for an increase survival time of the pipeline, without resorting to major changes, such as replacement of pipes or adding pumping stations to the system. The alternative studied varies from no implementation cost to high installation cost or operational cost increase, depending on the system and the alternative chosen. From changing the pump arrays during operation or changing the products viscosity with different blends, that represent virtually no cost to the pipeline operation, to the use of VFDs, with a high installation cost or DRA, which increase the operational cost. (author)

  4. Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

  5. De-convoluting mixed crude oil in Prudhoe Bay Field, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Scott, Ramos L.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Bird, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-four crude oil samples from the Barrow arch on the North Slope of Alaska were studied to assess the relative volumetric contributions from different source rocks to the giant Prudhoe Bay Field. We applied alternating least squares to concentration data (ALS-C) for 46 biomarkers in the range C19-C35 to de-convolute mixtures of oil generated from carbonate rich Triassic Shublik Formation and clay rich Jurassic Kingak Shale and Cretaceous Hue Shale-gamma ray zone (Hue-GRZ) source rocks. ALS-C results for 23 oil samples from the prolific Ivishak Formation reservoir of the Prudhoe Bay Field indicate approximately equal contributions from Shublik Formation and Hue-GRZ source rocks (37% each), less from the Kingak Shale (26%), and little or no contribution from other source rocks. These results differ from published interpretations that most oil in the Prudhoe Bay Field originated from the Shublik Formation source rock. With few exceptions, the relative contribution of oil from the Shublik Formation decreases, while that from the Hue-GRZ increases in reservoirs along the Barrow arch from Point Barrow in the northwest to Point Thomson in the southeast (???250 miles or 400 km). The Shublik contribution also decreases to a lesser degree between fault blocks within the Ivishak pool from west to east across the Prudhoe Bay Field. ALS-C provides a robust means to calculate the relative amounts of two or more oil types in a mixture. Furthermore, ALS-C does not require that pure end member oils be identified prior to analysis or that laboratory mixtures of these oils be prepared to evaluate mixing. ALS-C of biomarkers reliably de-convolutes mixtures because the concentrations of compounds in mixtures vary as linear functions of the amount of each oil type. ALS of biomarker ratios (ALS-R) cannot be used to de-convolute mixtures because compound ratios vary as nonlinear functions of the amount of each oil type.

  6. Noise impact assessment methodology for a crude oil pipeline's facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: pascal.everton@hfpacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    The paper focuses on the construction of a crude oil pipeline from Alberta, Canada, to Illinois, USA, and reviews the methodology used to quickly and easily assess the noise emission of each of the 47 pump stations relative to topography, weather, and local regulations, and to predict mitigation costs for each pump. Instead of creating a time-consuming and non-versatile computer noise model for each pump, a spreadsheet tool with graphic user interface was designed, incorporating source noise levels and sound propagation calculations. An order-ranked list of noise sources for each station and noise mitigation corrections were applied, resulting in an easy-to-use, versatile tool, capable of predicting rapidly what noise control corrections are needed for each site. The spreadsheet results were validated by comparing the results with noise model predictions for specific locations. Use of this tool increased flexibility and cost-efficiency and it can be easily reconfigured for similar projects.

  7. Hybrid heuristic and mathematical programming in oil pipelines networks: Use of immigrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DE LA CRUZ J.M.; HERR(A)N-GONZ(A)LEZ A.; RISCO-MART(I)N J.L.; ANDR(E)S-TORO B.

    2005-01-01

    We solve the problem of petroleum products distribution through oil pipelines networks. This problem is modelled and solved using two techniques: A heuristic method like a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm and Mathematical Programming. In the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm, several objective functions are defined to express the goals of the solutions as well as the preferences among them. Some constraints are included as hard objective functions and some are evaluated through a repairing function to avoid infeasible solutions. In the Mathematical Programming approach the multiobjective optimization is solved using the Constraint Method in Mixed Integer Linear Programming. Some constraints of the mathematical model are nonlinear, so they are linearized. The results obtained with both methods for one concrete network are presented. They are compared with a hybrid solution, where we use the results obtained by Mathematical Programming as the seed of the evolutionary algorithm.

  8. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Dayalan model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) must be determined when designing oil and gas pipelines. This paper presented a newly developed computational procedure and a computer program for predicting corrosion rates of carbon steel pipelines carrying CO{sub 2}-containing flowing fluids in oil and gas field conditions. The computational procedure is based on a mechanistic model for CO{sub 2} corrosion. The model is based on the current knowledge of the CO{sub 2} corrosion mechanism and the kinetics of electrochemical reactions, chemical equilibrium reactions, and mass transfer. Initially the model was developed for predicting uniform CO{sub 2} corrosion rates in the absence of scale on the metal surface. A mechanistic model for scale formation was then developed to extend the model to conditions where FeCO{sub 3} layer formation occurs. The 3 species that undergo reduction on the metal surface and contribute to corrosion are hydrogen ions, H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ions and HCO{sub 3} ions. The iron dissolution reaction is the corresponding anodic reaction. The general corrosion process involves 4 major steps, notably dissolution of CO{sub 2} in the aqueous solution to form the various reactive species which take part in the CO{sub 2} corrosion reaction; transportation of these reactants to the surface of the metal; cathodic and anodic electrochemical reactions taking place at the metal surface; and transportation of the products of the corrosion reaction to the bulk of the solution. The overall rate of the corrosion process depends on the rate at which each of these individual steps take place under a given set of conditions. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Metabolomic and Metagenomic Analysis of Two Crude Oil Production Pipelines Experiencing Differential Rates of Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifay, Vincent; Wawrik, Boris; Sunner, Jan; Snodgrass, Emily C.; Aydin, Egemen; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Callaghan, Amy V.; Oldham, Athenia; Liengen, Turid; Beech, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion processes in two North Sea oil production pipelines were studied by analyzing pig envelope samples via metagenomic and metabolomic techniques. Both production systems have similar physico-chemical properties and injection waters are treated with nitrate, but one pipeline experiences severe corrosion and the other does not. Early and late pigging material was collected to gain insight into the potential causes for differential corrosion rates. Metabolites were extracted and analyzed via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in both positive and negative ion modes. Metabolites were analyzed by comparison with standards indicative of aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism and by comparison to predicted masses for KEGG metabolites. Microbial community structure was analyzed via 16S rRNA gene qPCR, sequencing of 16S PCR products, and MySeq Illumina shotgun sequencing of community DNA. Metagenomic data were used to reconstruct the full length 16S rRNA genes and genomes of dominant microorganisms. Sequence data were also interrogated via KEGG annotation and for the presence of genes related to terminal electron accepting (TEA) processes as well as aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation. Significant and distinct differences were observed when comparing the ‘high corrosion’ (HC) and the ‘low corrosion’ (LC) pipeline systems, especially with respect to the TEA utilization potential. The HC samples were dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and archaea known for their ability to utilize simple carbon substrates, whereas LC samples were dominated by pseudomonads with the genetic potential for denitrification and aerobic hydrocarbon degradation. The frequency of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation genes was low in the HC system, and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation genes were not detected in either pipeline. This is in contrast with metabolite analysis, which

  10. PCE-1 oil pipeline/point A24 inch : inspection alternatives for a non-piggable pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, A.R.; Bueno, S.I.O. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Camerini, C.S. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, J.A.P. [Pipeway Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vinicius, C.L. [Pontifica Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of flexpigs designed to both clean and inspect a 24 inch pipeline in Brazil. Originally built to be piggable, the pipeline had several areas with internal diameter restrictions. Small electronic devices were attached to the pigs in order to survey thermal profiles, pressure profiles and to locate areas with wax depositions. Additional corrosion detection instrumentation was also added to the flexpig due to its success in locating geometric obstructions. A differential magnetic coil (DMC) consisted of 2 coils with a core containing 2 permanent neodymium-iron-boron magnets. The DMC magnets generated a magnetic flux proportional to the quantity of material at the extremities of its poles. Corrosion defects caused imbalances in magnetic flux, which caused signals generated by the sensors to be amplified. The DMC sensors were mounted along the perimeter of the pig, while 2 odometers were fixed on the pig's rear flange. Initial trials of the pig resulted in damage to approximately 30 per cent of the sensors. Later attempts resulted in the successful identification of areas of corrosion along an 800 meter section of the pipeline. The areas were then excavated. Field verifications showed that the pig correctly identified areas of corrosion. Both the length and width of corrosion areas in the images obtained from the flexpig were identical to images recorded by an automatic ultrasonic tool. It was concluded that the modified flexpig is ideal for the inspection of non piggable pipelines. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Controlling internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the systematic treatment of pitting sequence (SToPS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Chu, F.Y.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The oil and gas pipeline industry relies on the use of carbon and low-alloy steels. As such, there is a need to predict the corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) when designing production equipment and transportation facilities. A true industry-standard approach to predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion does not exist, but there are similarities in existing approaches and models. This paper reviewed the Systematic Treatment of Pitting Sequence (SToPS) software program developed by the materials assessment team at Natural Resources Canada to predict the internal pitting corrosion rate of multiphase, oil producing, gas producing, oil transmission, and gas transmission pipelines. The main output of SToPS is the prediction of how long the pipe is safe. SToPS considers the pipeline to be safe until the depth of the deepest pit is 50 percent of the pipe wall thickness. In addition, SToPS predicts pH, wall shear stress, flow regime, as well as the probability of pitting corrosion. SToPS requires details about pipeline properties, production conditions of the pipeline and gas composition in order to accurately predict the pitting corrosion. SToPS calculates the pitting corrosion rate by combining the effect of 11 different operational parameters. This paper explained how each of these components affects the pitting corrosion rate and how to calculate their individual corrosion rates. The paper showed that each operational parameter can alter the pitting corrosion rate. There are currently 2 versions of SToPS, notably SToPS v1.1, and SToPS v2.0 which produces 7 different graphs to help the user understand the corrosion occurring in their pipeline over the production periods. 16 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  12. Progress in Spiral Saw Steel Pipe Manufacturing Technology Promotes Construction of Oil/Gas Long-Distance Pipelines in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Since the tremendous development of oil and gas exploration achieved in West China at the beginning of 1990's, it is demanded to build several long-distance oil/gas pipelines to transmit the crude oil and natural gas from Tarimu Basin, Tuha Basin, Junggar Basin as well as Shaan-Gan-Ning Basin to the cities of Urumuqi,Klamayi, Xi'an and Beijing (details see Table 1). The total length of pipelines is more than 3 200 km, and the natural conditions along the pipelines are very harsh. This raises a challenge to the Chinese pipe manufacturing industry.

  13. Treatment screening for internal corrosion control of PETROBRAS oil pipelines; Selecao de tratamento para controle da corrosao interna de oleodutos da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de Azevedo; Muller, Eduardo Gullo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Antunes, Warlley Ligorio; Shioya, Nilce Hiromi; Salvador, Angelica Dias [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2005-07-01

    The use of corrosion inhibitors is spread out in oil and gas industry and is the most common methodology to control pipeline internal corrosion. However, their effectiveness depends on the pipeline material, inhibitor composition, flow type and scale characteristics. When a pipeline has heavy scale deposits, thick bacterial biofilm, or oxygen contamination, the corrosion control via filmic inhibitors is not effective. So, the only way to control internal corrosion of an oil pipeline is to primary identifies the corrosive agent and the main corrosion mechanism. The monitoring of the inhibitor efficiency and the determination of minimal residual concentration to prevent corrosion, are also fundamental. In this paper, is presented the criteria used to identify the main corrosion mechanism of oil pipelines, the treatment proposed in each case and the techniques employed in real time corrosion monitoring. (author)

  14. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...

  15. Effects of oil pipeline explosion on ambient particulate matter and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Que, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the oil pipeline explosion on PM(2.5)-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their substituted (alkylated, nitrated, oxygenated, hydroxyl and chlorinated) derivatives are assessed near the accident scene of Qingdao, China. Compared with those in TSP-PM(2.5), gaseous phase, burn residue and unburned crude oil, eighty-nine PAHs in PM(2.5) are identified and quantified to investigate the composition, temporal and spatial distribution, and sources. The concentrations of PM(2.5)-associated parent PAHs increase approximately seven times from the non-explosion samples to the explosion samples (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 2 vs 764 ± 15 ng/m(3)), while some substituted products (nitro- and oxy-) increase by two orders of magnitude (3117 ± 156 pg/m(3) vs 740 ± 37 ng/m(3)). The toxicity evaluation indicates the BaP equivalent concentrations (based on the US EPA's toxicity factors) in PM(2.5) are much higher than those in the other phases, especially for a long duration after the tragic accident.

  16. Using finite element method in the processof strength calculation for the pipeline supports in above-groundarea of "Zapolyar'e — NPS "PUR-PE" oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies a procedure of calculating the strength of pipeline support constructions of the above-ground oil trunk pipeline system «Zapolyar'e — oil pumping station «Pur-pe». The calculations of the supports stress-strain state are performed with the use of computer complex Ansys v13, which applies the finite element method. The article provides a short description of the construction of fixed, linear-sliding and free-sliding supports of the oil pipeline of above-ground routing, developed for the installation in complex climatic and geologic conditions of the far north. According to the operation specification for design — the support constructions have to maintain the resistance power and bearing capacity under the influence of the pipeline stress without sagging and considering the possible sagging of the neighboring support. The support constructions represent space structures with a complex geometry. Together with the complex geometry, contacting elements are present in the construction of the supports. There is also an interaction of the pile foundation and the nonhomogeneous foundation. The enumerated peculiarities of the construction and operating conditions of the supports considerably complicate the strength calculations by engineering methods. The method of numerical modeling (finite element method used in the article for the analysis of the supports’ operation under the stress is widely applied at the present time for calculations of space structures with a complex geometry. For the first time, while performing the supports’ strength calculations, the article considers the mutual deformation of the support, foundation grill and pile foundation in the ground, thus making it possible to consider real operation of the construction altogether. The main development stages of the calculation model “support — pile foundation — ground” in ANSYS, calculation and testing of the static strength of the support

  17. Corrosion rate of API 5L Gr. X60 multipurpose steel pipeline under combined effect of water and crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jian; Wang, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Multipurpose pipeline is often seriously corroded during its service life, and the phenomenon is more prominent once the transportation medium is changed. Electrochemical polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy of the API 5L Gr. X60 steel pipeline's corrosion process in sedimentary water with different ion types and their concentrations have been studied in this work. The results showed that the corrosion rates were found to be 0.00418 and 0.00232 mm/a for pure water and crude oil, respectively. However, for the mixtures of water and crude oil (with water content increased from 0.2 vol% to 10 vol%), the corrosion rate increased consistently and reached a maximum value of 0.15557 mm/a for 10 vol% water in crude oil. The effect of the concentration of various ions, namely, chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate in (oil/water) mixtures on the corrosion rate was characterized by weight-loss method. The results showed that with increasing the ions' concentrations, the corresponding exchange current density increased significantly. The results were further supported by the observations of corrosion morphology using scanning electron microscopy and are helpful in devising guidelines which would help in reducing corrosion in multipurpose transport pipelines involving a change of transported medium during their service life.

  18. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  19. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Renxing; Grizzle, Robert S; Duncan, Kathleen E; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55°C. Most-probable number (MPN) analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy) was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy), while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm(2), while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens.

  20. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxing eLiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55 oC. Most-probable number (MPN analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy, while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm2, while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens.

  1. What happened to Fairbanks: the effects of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline on the community of Fairbanks, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, M.

    1978-01-01

    Fairbanks failed to prepare for the deluge of construction-related equipment and personnel and its consequences. This book includes many effects, including prostitution, and rent gouging. The author presents community alternatives that were ignored. The author attempts to evaluate the impact of rapid growth and suggests that industry pay the social cost of disruption to the community. (DP)

  2. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krummel, John R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hlava, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moore, H. Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Orr, Andrew B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, Scott O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-21

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines.

  3. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  4. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

  5. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    OpenAIRE

    M. Aouadj; F. Naceri; M. Touileb; D. Sellami; M. Boukhatem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA sys...

  6. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  7. Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure : activity 2 progress report : information of SCADA systems and other security monitoring systems used in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2007-12-15

    Many pipelines are located in remote regions and subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Damage to pipelines can have significant economic and environmental impacts. This paper discussed the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to monitor and control oil and gas pipeline infrastructure. SCADA systems are a real time, distributed computerized system with an intelligent capability for condition identification and fault diagnosis. SCADA systems can be used to capture thousands of miles of pipeline system process data and distribute it to pipeline operators, whose work stations are networked with the SCADA central host computer. SCADA architectures include monolithic, distributed, and networked systems that can be distributed across wide area networks (WANs). SCADA security strategies must be implemented to ensure corporate network security. Case studies of SCADA systems currently used by oil and gas operators in Alberta were also presented. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no

  9. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Nesic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    When designing oil and gas pipelines and production equipment, it is necessary to predict the corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-containing brines since they are a major cause of corrosion damage in carbon and low-alloy steels. This paper presented a model developed by Nesic in which a theoretical approach was taken to model individual electrochemical reactions occurring in an acidic water-CO{sub 2} system. The model considers the electrochemical reactions at the metal surface and the transport process of all the species in the system such as H+, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Fe++. In this study, transport processes were simplified by assuming independent diffusion of the species and by using well-established mass transfer coefficients for a rotating cylinder and pipe flow. Temperature, pH, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, oxygen concentration, steel, and flow geometry are the inputs needed for the Nesic model. Performance of the model was validated by comparing the predictions with results from glass loop experiments. It was concluded that the model contributes to a better understanding of the complex processes taking place during corrosion in the presence of surface films. 4 refs.

  10. Ocean Observing System Demonstrated in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, G. Carl; Chao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the utility of an ocean observing and forecasting system with diverse practical applications—such as search and rescue, oil spill response (perhaps relevent to the current Gulf of Mexico oil spill), fisheries, and risk management—a unique field experiment was conducted in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in July and August 2009. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the performance of numerical models developed for the sound with an array of fixed and mobile observation platforms (Figure 1). Prince William Sound was chosen for the demonstration because of historical efforts to monitor ocean circulation following the 1989 oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker. The sound, a highly crenulated embayment of about 10,000 square kilometers at approximately 60°N latitude along the northern coast of the Gulf of Alaska, includes about 6900 kilometers of shoreline, numerous islands and fjords, and an extensive system of tidewater glaciers descending from the highest coastal mountain range in North America. Hinchinbrook Entrance and Montague Strait are the two main deep water connections with the Gulf of Alaska. The economic base of communities in the region is almost entirely resource-dependent. For example, Cordova's economy is based on commercial fishing and Valdez's economy is supported primarily by the trans-Alaska oil pipeline terminal.

  11. Ultra-sonic PIG inspection in crude oil pipeline on deep waters; Inspecao com PIG ultra-sonico em oleodutos de aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Aldo Renato; Melo, Francimario da Silva Vieira; Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Morais, Ricardo Pereira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Nowadays, Marlin field is one of the biggest oil production fields in Campos Basin. This field is compound by platforms that produce, storage and export natural gas and crude oil through sub sea pipelines. The pipeline integrity must be assured for operation continuity and safety of the people and environment. The use of smart pigs is a technique applied to verify corrosion and wall thickness loss in PETROBRAS' sub sea pipelines. The crude oil pipelines inspection from a platform to a FPSO was a big challenge due to the high wall thickness, high export temperature, high BSW (Basic Sediments and Water) and wax. This paper presents solutions for the success of this inspection using smart pigs (author)

  12. Evolutionary algorithm for the problem of oil products distributions on oil pipeline network; Algoritmo evolucionario para distribuicao de produtos de petroleo por redes de polidutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, Eduardo; Goldbarg, Elizabeth; Goldbarg, Marco; Cunha, Thatiana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A major problem about the planning of production in refinery is the determination of what should be done in each stage of production as a horizon of time. Among such problems, distribution of oil products through networks of pipelines is a very significant problem because of its economic importance. In this work, a problem of distribution of oil through a network of pipelines is modeled. The network studied is a simplification of a real network. There are several restrictions to be met, such as limits of storage, transmission or receipt of limits and limitations of transport. The model is adopted bi-goal where you want to minimize the fragmentation and the time of transmission, given the restrictions of demand and storage capacity. Whereas the occupancy rate of networks is increasingly high, is of great importance optimize its use. In this work, the technique of optimization by Cloud of particles is applied to the problem of distribution of oil products by networks of pipelines. (author)

  13. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, G.V. [United States Geological Survey , Anchorage, AK (United States); Mann, D.H. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Institute of Arctic Biology; Short, J.W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Fisheries Laboratory

    2006-09-15

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by 'oil mousse', which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulder. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. (author)

  14. Safety enhancement of oil trunk pipeline crossing active faults on Sakhalin Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkina, E.; Antropova, N.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    The article explores the issues concerning safety enhancement of pipeline active fault crossing on Sakhalin Island. Based on the complexity and analysis results, all the faults crossed by pipeline system are classified into five categories - from very simple faults to extremely complex ones. The pipeline fault crossing design is developed in accordance with the fault category. To enhance pipeline safety at fault crossing, a set of methods should be applied: use of pipes of different safety classes and special trench design in accordance with soil permeability characteristics.

  15. How to increase crude oil pipelines transfer capacity; Como aumentar a capacidade de transferencia de petroleos em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Roberto Carlos Goncalves de; Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Monteiro de; Oliveira, Marcia Cristina Khalil de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: rcgo@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; chmc@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; macris@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    Flow problems associated to increased of the crude oil viscosity are well known by the oil companies. Part of these problems are related to the pour point; while others have to do with the presence of water in oil emulsions. In some cases these problems may also be associated with organic deposition in the transfer lines. Identifying the problem is therefore the key to find a solution for the problem. This paper describes a practical case where proper identification of the problem led to its solution means of adding chemical additives. The problem in question consisted of the need to increase the capacity to transfer crude oil from a certain export pipeline located on the Brazilian continental platform. Increasing the transferring capacity of this pipeline was complicated by construction limitations and the rheological characteristics of the fluid to be transferred. The experimental philosophy adopted in this paper can be put to use in other scenarios. It can be useful in many production systems specially in those which operate in high bathymetric levels. (author)

  16. Studying the rheological properties and the influence of drag reduction on a waxy crude oil in pipeline flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hassanean

    2016-03-01

    The rheological behaviors of tested waxy crude oil were studied at different temperatures (varies from 67 to 102 °F and different DRA concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 ppm. The results showed that at all constant DRA concentrations, the viscosity highly decreased until 80 °F (above pour point by 15 °F. However, by increasing the DRA concentration, the viscosity is increased at temperatures lower than 80 °F. This is because the DRA is a high molecular weight polymer which participates in increasing viscosity by increasing its concentration. After 80 °F, the DRA concentration has an insignificant effect on viscosity. So the effect of the DRA is not in reducing viscosity but mainly in reducing the degree of turbulence energy. The field studies were performed at a normal temperature of tested pipeline sections (100 °F. The tested DRA has an improving effect on reducing the pressure drop of pipeline which leads to reduction in crude oil pumping energy or an increase in the pipeline capacity with a high efficiency of the DRA.

  17. Research on the Pipeline Technology of Heavy Crude Oil%稠油管道输送技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹帅; 吴明; 刘佳春

    2014-01-01

    高粘的稠油使得输送成为管道从业者的一个难题,尤其是发生凝管事故后的再启动问题。对稠油高粘的实质迚行研究发现,决定稠油粘度的实质为原油体系中沥青质分子和非沥青质分子相互作用所形成的大分子胶束聚集体所致。国内外稠油输送方法有加热法、裂解降粘法、掺稀输送法、添加改性剂法、低粘液环输送法、微生物法、超声波法和超临界CO2输送法。各方法各具优缺点,没有一种方法适用于所有稠油,另外还需要考虑经济性问题。目前国内最常用的输送方法为加热法和掺稀法。在实际中,针对不同稠油要迚行一定的技术分析和研究才能决定选择何种输送技术。%The pipeline transportation of heavy crude oil with high viscosity has become a difficult problem to operators of pipelines, especially restarting of the pipeline transportation after the pipeline congelation accident. Through research on properties of heavy crude, it’s concluded that the high viscosity of heavy crude depends on macromolecule micelles aggregates formed by interaction between asphaltene molecules and non-asphaltene molecules in the system of crude oil. There are some pipeline processes at home and abroad, such as heating, pyrolytic decomposition, blending method, adding modifiers, ultrasonic method, microbiological process and supercritical CO2 transport method. Every method has its advantages and disadvantages, and none can fit all kinds of heavy crude oil. At present, heating and blending methods are the most common at home and abroad. In the practical condition, the most suitable process should be chosen based on analysis and research on the heavy crude oil.

  18. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the de Waard - Milliams model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    Predicting the corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO-)2-containing brines is necessary when designing oil and gas production equipment and transportation facilities. De Waard and Milliams have played a role towards establishing standard guidelines for predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion. The de Waard equation determines the relationship between potential corrosivity of aqueous media for a given level of dissolved CO{sub 2}, defined by its partial pressure, at any given temperature. The model is widely used because of its relative simplicity, but input of inspection and monitoring data may be needed to refine the models' accuracy or field and well specificity. The de Waard model is the most frequently referenced model. The first version developed in 1975 was based on temperature and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} only. The model has been revised many times. The 1971 version considered the corrosion factors for the effect of hydrocarbon liquid, pH and scale. The 1993 version considered the effect of flow, notably mass transport and fluid velocity. A revised version that included steel composition was published in 1995. This model represents a best fit for various flow loop data generated. The de Waard Milliams model gives a good description of experimental CO{sub 2} corrosion rates and the effect of liquid velocity for conditions where protective films are not formed. It explains many of the observations and features of older models. It was concluded that in order to predict corrosion rates in practical situations, such as in multiphase pipelines, the model should only be used while taking the effect of dissolved iron and FeCO{sub 3} precipitation kinetics into consideration. Carbide films left behind as a result of corrosion can have a pronounced influence on the CO{sub 2} corrosion rate. 5 refs.

  19. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  20. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizhong Yang

    Full Text Available The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  1. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M.E. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV. The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV and scaled distance (SD relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD−1.225 in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD−0.071 in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  2. Intelligent leak detection system for oil pipelines; Sistema inteligente para deteccao de vazamentos em dutos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Dantas Gadelha de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in an oil field is implementation of a software-based leak detection system on a multi-phase flow pipeline. This paper will discuss implementation of a leak detection system in a particular oil field using state-of-the-art signal processing techniques to apply to the data collected in a oil pipeline. This leak detection system is still in development and uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system. Windowing, joint time-frequency analysis and wavelets were considered to develop methods of detecting leaks by watching for the wavefront. The idea behind these techniques is to cut the signal of interest into several parts and then analyze the parts separately. It is impossible to know the exact frequency and the exact time of occurrence of the leak frequency in a signal. In other words, a leak signal can simply not be represented as a point in the time-frequency space. It is very important how one cuts the signal to implement the analysis. The wavelet transform or wavelet analysis is probably the most recent solution to overcome the shortcomings of the Fourier transform. So, this paper shows some tests and how these techniques are being implementing during the development of the system. (author)

  3. Modeling Hydrodynamic State of Oil and Gas Condensate Mixture in a Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Based on the developed model a calculation method was obtained which is used to analyze hydrodynamic state and composition of hydrocarbon mixture in each ith section of the pipeline when temperature-pressure and hydraulic conditions change.

  4. Risk assessment in gas and oil pipelines based on the fuzzy Bow-tie technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Heyrani

    2016-04-01

      Conclusion: Considering the recognized factors leading to destruction of pipelines and their most notable outcomes, instructions on how to control and reduce the potential consequences were suggested, with emphasis on the removal of the most probable causes.

  5. 中俄油气管道运行标准差异分析%Analysis on difference between Chinese and Russian oil and gas pipeline operation standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟平; 张晓明; 刘士超; 潘腾; 吴凯旋; 曹燕; 张妮

    2013-01-01

    To ensure safe operation of the Russia-China Oil Pipeline, Russian oil and gas pipeline operation standards are sorted comprehensively. The difference between Chinese and Russian pipeline operation standards is studied deeply from four aspects such as pipe pressure testing, crude oil, product oil and natural gas pipeline operation technology. In addition, advancements in Russian standards are systematically described, including pressure re-testing in the case of pipeline operation delay, mandatory pressure testing and periodic pressure testing of operating pipeline, pigging operation, emergency shutdown principle of pumping station, contamination cutting and blending, operating procedures of compressors under abnormal conditions and auxiliary equipment inspections. Finally, it is recommended to revise Chinese oil and gas pipeline operation standards in accordance with Russian standards.%为保障中俄原油管道安全运行,全面梳理了俄罗斯油气管道运行标准.从管道试压及原油、成品油、天然气管道运行技术4个方面,深入研究了中国和俄罗斯管道运行标准的差异.系统阐述了俄罗斯标准的先进性,包括管道投产延迟条件下重新试压、运行管道强制性试压和周期性试压、清管作业、输油站紧急停输准则、混油控制切割和掺混、压缩机异常条件操作程序和辅助设备检验等.建议借鉴俄罗斯标准对我国油气管道运行标准进行修订.

  6. Wave propagation versus transient ground displacement as a credible hazard to buried oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The cause of damage to a natural gas pipeline during the 1994 Northridge earthquake in the San Fernando Valley in California was examined in a collaborative effort by Southern California Gas Co., Pacific Gas and Electric Co., and with support from Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas and Toho Gas. Extensive field and laboratory studies were conducted on a 1925 gas pipeline that suffered several girth weld failures in Potrero Canyon where significant ground displacement was observed. Ground cracking and sand boils were observed in the area following the earthquake but there were few other signs of permanent ground deformation near the pipeline damage. Damage consisted mostly of girth weld tensile failure and two cases of buckling of the pipe wall. Initial evidence suggested that the damage may have been caused by wave propagation, but a detailed study has shown that wave propagation effect was not a significant factor in the pipeline damage. A simple analytical model was developed to determine the transient ground deformation that might have occurred in the area of the pipeline damage. The model also provides clues regarding the cause of the ground cracking observed at the margins of the canyon. It also provides approximate magnitudes of differential ground displacements resulting from the earthquake. The model also considers the reasons for spatial distribution of pipeline damage. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  7. Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

  8. Shoreline type and subsurface oil persistence in the Exon Valdez spill zone of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D. [Exponent Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Neff and Associates, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The grounding of the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska in the spring of 1989 resulted in the release of 258,000 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil into the marine environment. Nearly 800 km of shoreline were oiled to some degree. There was an unprecedented oil spill cleanup effort following the spill. The shoreline surveys of the spill zone were synthesized in this paper in an effort to demonstrate the relationship between shoreline type and persistence of subsurface oil (SSO) residues. Shoreline surveys of surface and SSO indicate rapid initial oil loss with a decline from about 800 linear km of PWS shoreline in 1989 to about 10 km of oiled shoreline in 1992. The period of rapid loss was attributed to natural physical process, biodegradation and cleanup activities that removed accessible spill remnants from shorelines. This was followed by a slower natural average loss rate for less accessible surface and SSO deposits of about 22 per cent per year for the period 1992-2001. This paper emphasized that shoreline type plays a key role in determining SSO persistence. The geology of PWS is complex. Many of the shorelines where SSO persists have armouring layers composed of hard, dense clasts, such as the quartzite boulders and cobblestones that can protect SSO deposits. Eighteen years after the spill, persistent SSO deposits in PWS shorelines remain protected from tidal water-washing and biodegradation by a surface boulder/cobble armour and low sediment porosity. The SSO deposits are in a physical/chemical form and location where they do not pose a health risk to intertidal biological communities and animals. The surveys continue to substantiate that remaining SSO deposits in PWS continue to degrade and go away slowly. 37 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Northern Alaska Gas Hydrate Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  10. Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Crude Oil Pipeline System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawotola, A.W.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A model is constructed for risk management of crude pipeline subject to rupture on the basis of a methodology that incorporates structured expert judgment and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The risk model calculates frequency of failure and their probable consequences for different segments of cr

  11. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M; Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 years after the spill. Spilled oil has persisted in PWS for two decades as surface oil residues (SOR) and subsurface oil residues (SSOR) on the shore. The rare SOR are located primarily on the upper shore as inert, nonhazardous asphaltic deposits, and SSOR are confined to widely scattered locations as small patches under a boulder/cobble veneer, primarily on the middle and upper shore, in forms and locations that preclude physical contact by wildlife and diminish bioavailability. Sea otters and harlequin ducks consume benthic invertebrates that they collect by diving to the bottom in the intertidal and subtidal zones. Sea otters also dig intertidal and subtidal pits in search of clams. The three plausible exposure pathways are through the water, in oil-contaminated prey, or by direct contact with SSOR during foraging. Concentrations of PAH in near-shore water off oiled shores in 2002 to 2005 were at background levels (<0.05 ng/L). Median concentrations of PAH in five intertidal prey species on oiled shores in 2002 to 2008 range from 4.0 to 34 ng/g dry weight, indistinguishable from background concentrations. Subsurface oil residues are restricted to locations on the shore and substrate types, where large clams do not occur and where sea otters do not dig foraging pits. Therefore, that sea otters and harlequin ducks continue to be exposed to environmentally significant amounts of PAH from EVOS 20 years after the spill is not plausible.

  12. Quantitative Assessment of Current Risks to Harlequin Ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Parker, Keith R.; Murphy, Stephen M.; Day, Robert H.; Bence, A. Edward; Neff, Jerry M.; Wiens, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) were adversely affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, and some have suggested effects continue two decades later. We present an ecological risk assessment evaluating quantitatively whether PWS seaducks continue to be at-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residual Exxon Valdez oil. Potential pathways for PAH exposures are identified for initially oiled and never-oiled reference sites. Some potential pathways are implausible (e.g., a seaduck excavating subsurface oil residues), whereas other pathways warrant quantification. We used data on PAH concentrations in PWS prey species, sediments, and seawater collected during 2001–2008 to develop a stochastic individual-based model projecting assimilated doses to seaducks. We simulated exposures to 500,000 individuals in each of eight age/gender classes, capturing the variability within a population of seaducks living in PWS. Doses to the maximum-exposed individuals are ∼400–4,000 times lower than chronic toxicity reference values established using USEPA protocols for seaducks. These exposures are so low that no individual-level effects are plausible, even within a simulated population that is orders-of-magnitude larger than exists in PWS. We conclude that toxicological risks to PWS seaducks from residual Exxon Valdez oil two decades later are essentially non-existent. PMID:23723680

  13. 基于GPRS的输油管道实时监控系统%The Design of Oil Pipeline Monitoring System Based on GRRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗会玖

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure the security of the Oil Pipeline, An oil pipeline monitoring system based on GRRS is designed in this paper, the system mainly adopts a "negative pressure wave" method for Leakage detection and localization, through the RTU control unit samples the signal, the data is transmitted through GPRS wireless, the data is analyzed on PC monitoring system, and then locate the pipeline leaks.%为了确保输油管道的安全运行,设计了基于GPRS的输油管道实时监控系统,系统采用“负压波”法进行泄露检测,通过RTU控制数据采集,利用GPRS无线传输通信实现现场RTU与监控室数据通信,从而完成对输油管道实时监控功能.

  14. Experimental study of oil-water with paraffin precipitation in submarine pipelines; Estudo experimental do escoamento oleo-agua com precipitacao de parafinas em dutos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Sergio N.; Oliveira, Rafael de Castro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo], e-mail: bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: rafael@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The deposition of paraffins in submarine pipelines poses a serious problem for the offshore petroleum production. Paraffins precipitate off oily solutions due to a temperature decrease according to the phase equilibrium conditions of the liquid-solid system. After some time, the continuous precipitation leads to deposits in the internal walls of the pipe, clogging the lines and promoting an increase in the head loss of the flow. Consequently, there is an increase in the pressure gradient required to maintain the flow, and the flow rate is reduced. A complete obstruction of the pipeline may occur. In the present work, this phenomenon was studied in a simulation of the subsea operational conditions, where the oil pipelines laying on the seabed are subjected to low temperatures, just a little above the freezing point of water. The pipeline behaves as a heat exchanger and the hot oil from the underground reservoir emerging from the wellhead is effectively cooled down to the point where paraffin precipitation occurs somewhere along the line. An experimental apparatus was built for a 25.4 mm (1 in) diameter pipe-flow model with 13 m of length, submerged in a chilling bath of near frozen water. Stream wise pressure and temperature gradients were measured, in order to evaluate the differences in the behavior of paraffin deposition between one-phase oil flow and two-phase oil-water flow. (author)

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: geologic assessment of undiscovered gas hydrate resources on the North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    USGS AK Gas Hydrate Assessment Team: Collett, Timothy S.; Agena, Warren F.; Lee, Myung Woong; Lewis, Kristen A.; Zyrianova, Margarita; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have completed the first assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable gas hydrate resources beneath the North Slope of Alaska. This assessment indicates the existence of technically recoverable gas hydrate resources—that is, resources that can be discovered, developed, and produced using current technology. The approach used in this assessment followed standard geology-based USGS methodologies developed to assess conventional oil and gas resources. In order to use the USGS conventional assessment approach on gas hydrate resources, three-dimensional industry-acquired seismic data were analyzed. The analyses indicated that the gas hydrates on the North Slope occupy limited, discrete volumes of rock bounded by faults and downdip water contacts. This assessment approach also assumes that the resource can be produced by existing conventional technology, on the basis of limited field testing and numerical production models of gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. The area assessed in northern Alaska extends from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska on the west through the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on the east and from the Brooks Range northward to the State-Federal offshore boundary (located 3 miles north of the coastline). This area consists mostly of Federal, State, and Native lands covering 55,894 square miles. Using the standard geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated that the total undiscovered technically recoverable natural-gas resources in gas hydrates in northern Alaska range between 25.2 and 157.8 trillion cubic feet, representing 95 percent and 5 percent probabilities of greater than these amounts, respectively, with a mean estimate of 85.4 trillion cubic feet.

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector arcs in this data set represent species...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  19. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  20. Influence of Partitioning Process on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Deformability Oil-Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase structure of bainite and M/A constituent can be obtained for X80 oil-gas pipeline through a novel heat online partitioning (HOP technology. The effects of partitioning temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the experimental steels were researched by means of mechanical properties test, microscopic analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that with the increase of the partitioning temperature, the strength of the experimental steel decreases and the ductility increases because of the increase of bainite lath width, the decrease of dislocation density, the increase of retained austenite content, and carbides coarsening. The decrease of the volume content and stability of retained austenite is the key factor, which leads to the increase of strength and the decrease of plasticity in a high range of partitioning temperature.

  1. Corrosion of New-Generation Steel in Outer Oil Pipeline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Kish, J. R.; Alfantazi, Akram

    2017-01-01

    New-generation high-strength pipeline steels are susceptible to corrosion attacks at their outer surfaces, from bicarbonate and carbonate in the hydrated soils in which pipelines are buried. The nature of the corrosion attacks requires implementing modified electrochemical methods by which the corrosion reactions can be studied comprehensively. From that, the findings can be linked to the alloying elements of the new pipeline materials, to modify them from both the strength and corrosion resistance perspectives. This paper presents an electrochemical study on the corrosion of API-X100 steel, in aerated bicarbonate-carbonate solutions, with cyclic voltammetry. At a fast 10 mV/s scan, over ten cycles, the passive films appeared as transparent layers, regardless of bicarbonate and carbonate concentrations. The surface controlled the reactions more than the passive films. The passive films showed evidence of forming gradually with increased cycling. Carbonate competed with bicarbonate during dissolution, decreasing its rate and making passivation faster. Bicarbonate in carbonate solutions catalyzed dissolution and disrupted passivation. The passive films with increased bicarbonate concentrations had higher transpassivation potentials.

  2. Energy Equation Derivation of the Oil-Gas Flow in Pipelines Dérivation de l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans des pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan J.M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the simulation of oil-gas pipeline multiphase flow, thermodynamic computation is an important process interacting with the hydraulic calculation and it influences the convergence of the program and the accuracy of the results. The form of the energy equation is the key to the thermodynamic computation. Based on the energy equation of oil-gas flow in pipeline, the Explicit Temperature Drop Formula (ETDF is derived for oilgas steady state temperature calculation. This new energy equation has considered many factors, such as Joule-Thomson effect, pressure work, friction work and impact of terrain undulation and heat transfer Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Rev. IFP Energies nouvelles with the surroundings along the line. So it is an overall form of energy equation, which could describe the actual fact of multiphase pipeline accurately. Therefore, some standpoints in literatures on the temperature calculation of oil-gas two-phase flow in pipelines are reviewed. Elimination of temperature iteration loop and integration of the explicit temperature equation, instead of enthalpy energy equation, into the conjugated hydraulic and thermal computation have been found to improve the efficiency of algorithm. The calculation applied to both the component model, also applied to the black-oil model. This model is incorporated into the component model and black-oil model, respectively, and two simulations are carried out with two practical pipeline Yingmai-Yaha and Lufeng multiphase pipeline and the temperature results are compared with the simulation calculated by the OLGA and the measured. It is shown that this model has simulated the temperature distribution very well. Finally, we analyzed the influence of the specific heat capacity of oil and gas on the temperature of the mixture of fluids and the influence of the Joule-Thomson effect on the temperature distribution on the pipeline. It is shown that the Joule-Thomson coefficient is a key factor to

  3. Countermeasures and Suggestions of Environmental Management of oil and gas Pipeline Disposal%油气管道弃置环境管理对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爽

    2014-01-01

    在对我国油气废弃管道进行潜在环境影响分析的基础上,借鉴欧美发达国家油气废弃管道环境管理经验,指出了我国老旧管道环境管理存在的老旧管道现状不清、环境风险隐患大,管道弃置环境管理缺失,管道弃置技术薄弱、基础研究不足等问题,提出了开展现状调查、摸清底数、评估风险,明确主体责任、建立管道环境管理机制,开展相关试点研究、建立弃置管理技术规范,开展管道规划,优化新线路由等对策建议。%On the basis of potential environmental impact analysis of waste oil and gas pipeline in our country,Learning from the developed countries in Europe and America oil and gas waste pipeline environment management experience, the Article point out the existing problerm that environmental situation of the old pipeline is not clear, the hidden environmental risks is bigger, environmental management of disposed pipeline is deficiencied, disposal technology of pipeline is weak, basic research is lack. So the Article proposes countermeasures and suggestions that the development present situation investigation, find out the real situation, assess the risk, define the main body of responsibility, establish the pipeline environment management mechanism and Pilot study, establish related disposal management technical specification, developing the pipeline planning, new routing optimization and so on.

  4. Effect of the Stray Current on Oil Pipeline of Linghai Station in Tieqin Pipeline%杂散电流对铁秦线凌海站输油管道的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蕾; 申龙涉; 李岩; 孙浩; 李亮; 李武华; 牛辰瑞; 刘畅

    2013-01-01

    杂散电流在土壤中的强度和方向是变化不定的,它们来自多种多样的杂散电流源。电气化铁路、以接地为回路的输电系统等的客观存在,不可避免地会产生杂散电流,并使埋地管道因杂散电流而产生腐蚀。通过对铁秦线凌海站输油管道电位的测量,对比了凌海站全年不同月份的电位图,从而进一步分析杂散电流对输油管道的影响及在不同温度下对杂散电流的变化情况。%The intensity and direction of stray currents in the soil are volatile, they come from a variety of stray current sources. Electrified railways and power transmission systems with ground-loop will inevitably produce stray currents, and the stray current can cause buried pipelines corrosion. In this article, through measuring the potential of oil pipeline of Linghai station in Tieqin pipeline, potential maps of the oil pipeline of Linghai station in different months in whole year were compared, and effects of the stray current on the pipeline were analyzed as well as the change rule of the stray current with temperature.

  5. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF Fe–Al/Al2O3 DUPLEX COATING ON PIPELINE STEEL X80 IN SIMULATED OIL AND GAS WELL ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    MIN HUANG; YU WANG; PING-GU WANG; QIN-YI SHI; MENG-XIAN ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion resistant Fe–Al/Al2O3 duplex coating for pipeline steel X80 was prepared by a combined treatment of low-temperature aluminizing and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). Phase composition and microstructure of mono-layer Fe–Al coating and Fe–Al/Al2O3 duplex coating were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Corrosion resistance of the coated pipeline steel X80 in a simulated oil and gas well condition was also investig...

  6. Crossing conflict: The in-service lowering of a 34-in. crude oil pipeline for the construction of the Owen flood diversion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, C.A.; Fridel, T.W. [Lakehead Pipe Line Co., Inc., Duluth, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Lakehead Pipe Line Company, Inc. (LPL) was involved in a collaborative effort with State, local, and private agencies to solve a major crossing conflict in Owen, Wisconsin. This report describes the analysis and design of an in-service lowering of a 34-in. crude oil pipeline. An integrity assessment was performed using internal smart pig data and magnetic particle and ultrasonic inspections. The pipeline lowering design was based on maximum allowable pipe bending moments and included a coating replacement program and river weight installation. The paper describes design options, right-of-way agreement, contracts, pipe repair techniques and construction.

  7. Pipelines. Economy's veins; Pipelines. Adern der Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizlmayr, Adolf; Goestl, Stefan [ILF Beratende Ingenieure, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    According to the existing prognoses more than 1 million km of gas pipelines, oil pipelines and water pipelines are built up to the year 2030. The predominant portion is from gas pipelines. The safe continued utilization of the aging pipelines is a large challenge. In addition, the diagnostic technology, the evaluation and risk assessment have to be developed further. With the design of new oil pipelines and gas pipelines, aspects of environmental protection, the energy efficiency of transport and thus the emission reduction of carbon dioxide, the public acceptance and the market strategy of the exporters gain in importance. With the offshore pipelines one soon will exceed the present border of 2,000 m depth of water and penetrate into larger sea depths.

  8. Phase Behavior, Solid Organic Precipitation, and Mobility Characterization Studies in Support of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery on the Alaska North Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    The medium-heavy oil (viscous oil) resources in the Alaska North Slope are estimated at 20 to 25 billion barrels. These oils are viscous, flow sluggishly in the formations, and are difficult to recover. Recovery of this viscous oil requires carefully designed enhanced oil recovery processes. Success of these recovery processes is critically dependent on accurate knowledge of the phase behavior and fluid properties, especially viscosity, of these oils under variety of pressure and temperature conditions. This project focused on predicting phase behavior and viscosity of viscous oils using equations of state and semi-empirical correlations. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the phase behavior and physical properties of viscous oils from the Alaska North Slope oil field. The oil samples were compositionally characterized by the simulated distillation technique. Constant composition expansion and differential liberation tests were conducted on viscous oil samples. Experiment results for phase behavior and reservoir fluid properties were used to tune the Peng-Robinson equation of state and predict the phase behavior accurately. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to compile available compositional viscosity models and their modifications, for application to heavy or viscous oils. With the help of meticulously amassed new medium-heavy oil viscosity data from experiments, a comparative study was conducted to evaluate the potential of various models. The widely used corresponding state viscosity model predictions deteriorate when applied to heavy oil systems. Hence, a semi-empirical approach (the Lindeloff model) was adopted for modeling the viscosity behavior. Based on the analysis, appropriate adjustments have been suggested: the major one is the division of the pressure-viscosity profile into three distinct regions. New modifications have improved the overall fit, including the saturated viscosities at low pressures. However, with the limited

  9. Oil Pipelines, Politics and International Business : The Rotterdam Oil Port, Royal Dutch Shell and the German Hinterland, 1945-1975

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boon (Marten)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractThe dissertation questions how and why the transition from coal to oil affected the economic relations between the Port of Rotterdam and its German hinterland between 1945 and 1975. From the 1880s onwards, Rotterdam had become the main seaport of the German industrial heartland in th

  10. Air-cushion tankers for Alaskan North Slope oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for transporting oil from the Arctic to southern markets in 10,000-ton, chemically fueled air-cushion vehicles (ACV's) configured as tankers. Based on preliminary cost estimates the conceptual ACV tanker system as tailored to the transportation of Alaskan North Slope oil could deliver the oil for about the same price per barrel as the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline with only one-third of the capital investment. The report includes the description of the conceptual system and its operation; preliminary cost estimates; an appraisal of ACV tanker development; and a comparison of system costs, versatility, vulnerability, and ecological effect with those of the trans-Alaska pipeline.

  11. Corrosion Mechanism of Buried Oil Pipelines and Protection%埋地油气管道腐蚀机理研究及防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林新宇; 吴明; 程浩力; 龙世华; 王鹏

    2011-01-01

    埋地油气管道的腐蚀一直是油气储运及集输工程的一个重要问题.分析了埋地油气输送管道腐蚀的各种形式及主要腐蚀机理.针对输油管道的腐蚀问题,从土壤微生物、理化性质以及交流电对管道的腐蚀影响等方面进行了分析.介绍了埋地油气混输管道腐蚀防护的方法:加缓蚀剂、外涂层、内涂层和衬里保护、阴极保护法、杂散电流排流保护等.提出要提高油气输送管道的使用寿命,就应在合理选择防腐护方法的同时,加强防腐管道的维护和保养,这些是管道防腐工作的的重中之重.%The corrosion of buried oil and gas pipeline has always been a problem for oil and gas storage and transportation and oil-gas gathering. In this paper, main corrosion forms of buried pipelines and the corrosion mechamsm were analyzed. Then effects of soil microorganism, soil physical and chemical properties and alternating current on pipeline corrosion were also analyzed. Some methods of corrosion protection were introduced, such as adding inhibitor, external coating, internal coating and lining protection, cathodic protection, stray current protection and so on. To solve the corrosion problem, the methods of corrosion protection must be selected reasonably, and maintenance of the pipeline must be strengthened, which is the key work in pipeline anticorrosion.

  12. New test for oil soluble/water dispersible gas pipeline inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmann, D.W.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The wheel test provides good mixing of the condensate and water phases, the coupons are exposed to both phases. Therefore, the wheel test cannot distinguish between inhibitors that need continuous mixing of the these phases to maintain a water dispersion of the inhibitor and inhibitors that will self disperse into the water. This concept becomes important for pipelines in stratified flow where the water can settle out. In these cases with low turbulence, the inhibitor must self disperse into the water to be effective. The paper describes a test method to measure the effectiveness of an inhibitor and its ability to self disperse. The effectiveness of several inhibitors as predicted by the new test method is discussed relative to data from the wheel test and breaker tests. Field performance of these inhibitors in a gas gathering line, with liquids in stratified flow, are cities and compared with the results of the various laboratory tests.

  13. The value analysis of oil-gas currents' flowing process in pipeline%气液两相流在管内流动的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢黎明; 朱绪胜; 王岩

    2011-01-01

    Through the flow field computation model in the Fluent, it can simulate the transportation process of the oil-gas lubrication system in pipeline. To identify the influence of Reynold's number regarding two phase currents in the oil dripping size, and whether the oil dripping is continuous. Through simulation,when the Reynold's number value is reasonable, it forms continual oil-gas mixture in the pipeline,futhemore, the lubricating oil turns to dripping shape. All of the above conforms to the oil gas lubrication specification.%通过在Fluent建立流场计算模型,对油气润滑系统中润滑油在管道中的输送过程进行数值计算,对雷诺数在两相流中对油滴大小的影响及油滴是否连续的影响进行研究.通过模拟发现,当雷诺数取值合理时,在管道中形成连续的油气混合物,且润滑油被离散为油滴状,符合油气润滑的技术要求.

  14. A progress report on fishery surveys along the route of the proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline between the Yukon River and Atigun Pass during 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report represents a summary of findings of the field work conducted by USFWS during the summer of 1971 along the route of the proposed Trans-Alaska...

  15. Pumping propagation and influence of oil derivatives transport in a pipeline network; Propagacao e influencia de bombeamento no transporte de derivados de petroleo em uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Camila Baldissera de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kluppel, Liege Bauer; Neves Junior, Flavio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the work developed on a pipeline network that transports oil derivatives. The transport occurs in batches of a specific product, each one having a defined route: the pumping origin, a destination for its receipt and the pipelines which the product is moved through. The network studied has a total of thirty pipelines connected by fourteen possible areas of pumping and/or receiving, this makes it not trivial to obtain the batches order in the pipeline. In order to obtain the passage of batches ordered list in the pipeline network, was developed an algorithm capable of propagating a batches list that only have route, start time and end time of pumping in the origin. This algorithm is part of a larger project whose goal is to obtain a tool to aid the process of operational decision making in a real pipeline network. The developed module can also generate the entry and exit times of each batch for each pipe through which it passes. With this information, analysis and/or validations can be made. At the end of the process, the result is a list of all the pumped batches in all pipes where it must go by. Thus, it is made a small pos-processing where the list is sorted, first by pipeline and then by start time of entry into the duct, which naturally causes the passage of the batches list in the ducts to be obtained. This work is based on the development presented by Czaikowski et al (2008). (author)

  16. 油气管道机器人技术研发进展%Research and development progress in oil and gas pipeline robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建树; 林立; 李杨; 李魁龙

    2013-01-01

    Pipeline robots integrated with smart mobile carrier and pipeline defect nondestructive testing technology are mainly used for detection, coating spraying, joint welding, foreign material removal and other maintenances of industrial pipelines such as oil and gas pipelines. Mode of motion is core technology of the pipeline robots, including active and passive modes. This paper elaborates technical features and difficulties of the pipeline robots using active motion modes such as bionic type, crawler type, screw driven type, vehicle type and supporting wheel type and those using passive motion mode are elaborated and enumerates products and technologies at home and overseas. Based on the above technology, a comparative analysis is carried out for overall performance of various technologies and key technical problems required to resolve for R&D of pipeline robots are proposed.%管道机器人综合了智能移动载体技术和管道缺陷无损检测技术,主要用于输油气管道的检测、喷涂、接口焊接、异物清理等检修维护作业.运动方式是管道机器人的技术核心,包括主动运动方式和被动运动方式两大类.系统阐述了仿生式、履带式、螺旋驱动式、车型式和支撑轮式等5种主动运动方式管道机器人及被动运动方式管道机器人PIG的技术特点和难点,例举了国内外现有产品和技术.对比分析了各种技术的综合性能,提出了管道机器人研发需要重点解决的技术问题.

  17. Engineering Calculation Method of Electromagnetic Effect on Oil/Gas Pipelines from 1 000 kV AC Transmission Line Having Single-phase Ground Fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenliang; JIANG Jun; GUO Jian; LU Jiayu

    2012-01-01

    There will be more and more AC transmission lines near oil/gas pipelines in the future.So in order to determine the safe distance between them,simple and effective methods are required for engineers to efficiently evaluate the electromagnetic effect on oil/gas pipelines due to faults of AC transmission lines.In this paper,an easily handled fitting formula is obtained based on multiple calculation results,which is the maximum voltage on the pipeline anticorrosive coating produced by 1 000 kV AC transmission line under single phase ground fault.Although the calculation results obtained from the fitting formula differ from those gained by precise calculation with softwares,the verification of the formula shows that it is applicable for engineering calculation.This research could be applied to evaluate the electromagnetic effect of 1 000 kV AC transmission line under single-phase ground fault on nearby pipelines,as well as to determine the safe distance or the maximum parallel length.

  18. Temperature profile data from moored buoy in the Gulf of Alaska as part of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System project, from 1989-06-10 to 1989-10-25 (NODC Accession 9900193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using moored buoy in the Gulf of Alaska from June 10, 1989 to October 25, 1989. Data were submitted by Dr. Chirk Chu from the...

  19. Introduction and development of soil thermal stabilization technologies at the objects of oil pumping station-2 (OPS-2 of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapsay Aleksey Nikolaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the questions of designing the foundations for the Oil Pumping Station-2 site of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline. The problems of choice and grounds for technical solutions are considered basing on the results of complex thermotechnical calculations. The construction territory of OPS-2 site of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline is characterized by complex engineering and geocryological conditions: 1 presence of permafrost soil on 80 % of the site area; 2 absence of sufficiently widespread rocky soils under designed buildings and constructions; 3 transition of loamy grounds into yield during thawing. The buildings and facilities are designed on the basis of pile foundation type with high rigid foundation grill. The piles’ diameter is 325 mm and 426 mm, the total length of piles is 9-12 m. The full designed vertical loading, transferred to the pile, is ranging from 10.6 to 50.4 tf. According to the results of the calculations, in order to provide the necessary bearing capacity of piles, securing the perception of transmitted designed loadings, the equivalent temperature of the soil along the side surface of piles ( e should not be higher than -0,5 °C. Taking into account that the soil temperatures on the projected site mainly range from -0.1 to -0.3 °C, in order to lower their temperatures to the calculated values ventilated underground areas are arranged under the buildings and facilities and seasonally active cooling devices (soil thermal stabilizers are installed. Assembly technique and construction of ventilated underground areas with application of soil thermal stabilizers were developed earlier while designing the pipeline system "Zapolyarye - Oil Pumping Station Purpe". For confirmation of the accepted decisions forecasting thermotechnical calculations were performed with the use of a special computer program TermoStab 67-87, which allows simulating the changes of temperature regimes of the permafrost

  20. 水下输油管道泄漏数值研究%Numerical Study on Crude Oil Leakage of Underwater Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫强; 李朝阳; 马贵阳; 刘亮; 王浩丽

    2011-01-01

    Leakage of oil conveying pipeline not only causes huge economic loss, but also bring serious environmental pollution, even poses potential threat to life. Up till now, there have been many pipeline leakage diffusion model research about buried and aerial gas pipes but rare ones on underwater pipeline leakage diffusion issues. Adopting the finite volume method to establish the underwater pipeline leak diffusion multi -phase ( VOF) model, using CFD software to simulate the influencing factors of crude oil diffusion , by comparing we found: with leakage at the same rate, water to oil phase movement is gradually strengthenning, but buoyancy effect on the oil droplets is abating, the movement distance of spilling oil increases; when the leakage velocity increases, the movement distance of spilling oil decreases, horizontal distance on hydrosphere interface to the oil leakage point decreases; when leakage velocity decreases, because of its underwater extended range, the surface oil film area is relatively larger.%输油管道泄漏后不仅造成巨大的经济损失,还会带来严重的环境污染,对生命造成潜在的威胁.目前关于管道泄漏扩散模型的研究多适用于埋地管道及架空输气管道,对于水下管道泄漏扩散问题的研究还很少.基于有限容积法建立水下输油管道泄漏扩散多相流(VOF)模型,借助CFD软件数值计算了影响原油扩散的因素,通过对比发现:当泄漏速度相同,水流对油相运动影响逐渐增强,而浮力对油滴作用减弱,溢油将在河底运动距离变大;随着泄漏速度增大,溢油在水下水平移动距离变小,在水气界面位置距离漏油点的水平距离变小;当泄漏速度较小时,由于其水下扩展范围广,形成水面油膜面积相对变大.

  1. Four years of oil-free full-metal shut-off slides for gas pipelines; Vier Jahre oelfreie rein metallisch dichtende Gasabsperrschieber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linstedt, Holger; Seewald, Gerhard; Fugmann, Kay [TEC artec valves GmbH und Co. KG, Oranienburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    After several years of operation, oil-filled shut-off slides will slowly have soiled gas pipelines. Oil-free full-metal shut-off slides are advantageous both from an ecological and technical view. Serial production will reduce the cost and shorten delivery times. The slide presented in this contribution also enables double block and bleed testing after installation. Horizontal slides open up new fields of application. Complete cross-joint slides have a particularly high cost reduction effect. Radio monitoring and control is possible in remote areas. (orig.)

  2. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Srinivasan model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO-)2-containing brines must be predicted when designing oil and gas production equipment and transportation facilities. De Waard and Milliams have played a role towards establishing an industry-standard approach to predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion. The de Waard equation was developed as an engineering tool to determine the relationship between potential corrosivity of aqueous media for a given level of dissolved CO{sub 2}, defined by its partial pressure, at any given temperature. The relative simplicity of this approach and its ease of use have contributed to its broad acceptance. However, input of inspection and monitoring data may be needed to refine the models' accuracy or field and well specificity. This paper presented the Predict TM2 model developed by Srinivasan. The basis for this software tool is the de Waard-Milliams relationship for CO{sub 2} corrosion, but other correction factors are also used. A flow chart delineating the hierarchical reasoning structure of the predictive model was included in this paper. The following factors are considered when determining corrosivity: H2{sub S} partial pressure; maximum operating temperature; dissolved chlorides; gas-to-oil ratio; water-to-gas ratio/water cut; oil type and its persistence; elemental sulfur/aeration; fluid velocity; type of flow; inhibition type and efficiency. This paper also reviewed the effects of the following parameters on corrosivity: pH and CO{sub 2}; layer formation; role of H{sub 2}S; temperature effects; chlorides; bicarbonates; velocity; water/gas/oil ratio; and aeration sulphur. The paper also explained why it is necessary to examine the parameter interactions before capturing the synergistic effects of these parameters on corrosion. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Leak detector PIG for oil pipelines; PIG detector de vazamentos em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerini, Daniel Almeida; Weid, Jean Pierre von der [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Telecomunicacoes; Camerini, Claudio Soligo; Maia, Carlos Eduardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    The leakage detector pig was created with the purpose of detect and locate leakages in a preventive way. The fast detection of small leakages decreases the probability of larger leakages. By means of a differential pressure system based on pressure data acquired through the pig's running, using pressure sensors installed on the pig's vessel, small leakages are identified and its positions registered. This allows a quick intervention at the identified location. The working principle is based on the pressure difference caused by the leakage, which is read by the sensors. The polyurethane cups responsible by the pig's propulsion are of a special kind capable of sealing a constant volume of product among them. So, when the pig passes through a leakage, the pressure in the middle drops compared to those in front and hear, generating a characteristic signal thus permit identification. The first prototype was tested intensively at laboratory facilities, and in a test pipeline showing excellent results locating precisely all the simulated leakages. Defects from different sizes with different flow where simulated and measured. This work has the objective to present the tool, its potential, the test results, to discuss its efficiency in detect and locate leakages and the possibilities for the future. (author)

  4. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  5. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  6. Predictive modeling of subsurface shoreline oil encounter probability from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-04-07

    To better understand the distribution of remaining lingering subsurface oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) along the shorelines of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, we revised previous modeling efforts to allow spatially explicit predictions of the distribution of subsurface oil. We used a set of pooled field data and predictor variables stored as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data to generate calibrated boosted tree models predicting the encounter probability of different categories of subsurface oil. The models demonstrated excellent predictive performance as evaluated by cross-validated performance statistics. While the average encounter probabilities at most shoreline locations are low across western PWS, clusters of shoreline locations with elevated encounter probabilities remain in the northern parts of the PWS, as well as more isolated locations. These results can be applied to estimate the location and amount of remaining oil, evaluate potential ongoing impacts, and guide remediation. This is the first application of quantitative machine-learning based modeling techniques in estimating the likelihood of ongoing, long-term shoreline oil persistence after a major oil spill.

  7. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  8. Avaliação do processamento a baixas temperaturas do óleo de fígado de Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma Evaluation of low temperature rendering of Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma liver oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Amaral Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pela produção de óleo de pescado para consumo humano é crescente. No Alasca, EUA, uma grande quantidade de subprodutos tem sido usada como matéria-prima. Entre os subprodutos, o fígado de Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma apresenta interesse particular em razão de seu alto teor de lipídios. Normalmente, a temperatura usada para extração do óleo de pescado é elevada e potencialmente incompatível com a estabilidade lipídica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o processamento do óleo de fígado de Alaska pollock, extraído a baixas temperaturas. Como confirmado, a matéria-prima obtida na primavera (40% apresentou um conteúdo lipídico menor que a de outono (50%. A extração foi realizada cinco vezes para quatro combinações de tempo (15 e 30 minutos e temperatura (50 e 60 ºC. Foram analisadas duas bateladas de óleo de fígado e vísceras de pollock, produzido em navio processador. O rendimento do processo foi semelhante (aproximadamente 52%, os óleos de fígado produzidos se apresentaram mais claros, com coloração amarela, comparados aos de vísceras de pollock produzidos no outono. Os ácidos graxos livres foram similares para óleos de fígado e de vísceras nas duas estações, atingindo, no máximo, 0,4%; o índice de peróxidos, o valor de anisidina e o valor de ácido tiobarbitúrico determinados nos óleos apresentaram 2-14 meq.kg-1, 20-26 e 0,4-0,6 mg dialdeído malônico.kg-1, respectivamente. Todos os óleos investigados foram compostos principalmente por triacilgliceróis (88-100%, com o conteúdo de fósforo não excedendo, em média, 15 ppm.The demand for edible fish oils is growing. In Alaska, USA, large quantities of fishery byproducts are being used as raw materials, amongst which, Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma livers are of particular interest due to their high lipid contents. The temperature normally used for the extraction of fish oils is high and potentially incompatible with

  9. 我国周边跨界油气管道运营安全威胁及对策%The Security Threats Faced by Cross-border Oil and Gas Pipeline Operations around China and the Countermea―sures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨曦

    2015-01-01

    Four major onshore oil and gas transportation corridors have formed around China, including China-Central Asia natural gas pipeline (ABC line), China-Russia oil pipeline, China-Kaza-khstan oil pipeline and China-Myanmar oil and gas pipeline, and China-Russia natural gas pipeline at the east section and Chi-na-Central Asia natural gas pipeline (D line) are under construc-tion. The security of pipeline operations includes supplying and maintaining reasonable transportation costs and the implementa-tion of projects under construction. Its influencing factors include politics and diplomacy, security, economy, international laws, technology, natural geography and so on. We should eliminate the one-way dependence on transit countries, establish pipeline e-mergency maintenance mechanism, carry out preventative diplo-matic activities, and include pipeline security into regional coop-eration framework.%我国周边已形成中国-中亚天然气管道(ABC线)、中俄石油管道、中哈石油管道、中缅油气管道四大陆上油气运输通道,并在建中俄东段天然气管道和中国-中亚天然气管道(D线).管道运营安全包括稳定供应、维护合理运输成本和在建项目实施.其影响因素包括政治与外交、安全、经济、国际条法、技术及自然地理等.我国应改变对过境国单向依赖,建立管道应急维修机制,开展预防性外交,并将管道安全纳入区域合作框架.

  10. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  11. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : miscellaneous models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    There is a need to predict the corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) when designing production equipment and transportation facilities because CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion of carbon and low-alloy steels is a major cause of corrosion damage in oil and gas field operations. This paper presented eight CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S prediction models that have been developed by oil companies and research institutions. The Mishra Model derives a corrosion rate equation on the basis of the fundamental reaction rate theory and compares it with empirically determined relationships reported in the literature. The predictive equation is developed as a function of pH, partial pressure of CO{sub 2} and temperature. The Anderko Model combines a thermodynamic model that provides realistic speciation of aqueous systems with an electrochemical model for partial cathodic and anodic processes on the metal surface. The partial processes taken into account by the model include the oxidation of iron and reduction of hydrogen ions, water, carbonic acid and H{sub 2}S. The Oddo Model takes into consideration the protective films that form by the deposition of mineral scales and which reduce or eliminate corrosion. The Pots Model predicts the CO{sub 2} corrosion rate on the basis of mechanistic modelling that considers the effect of fluid flow. The Limiting Corrosion Rate (LCR) model provides a theoretical upper limit for the corrosion rate based on the assumption that the rate-determining steps are the transport and production of protons and carbonic acid in the diffusion and reaction boundary layers. The LIPUCOR Model calculates corrosion rates based on temperature, CO{sub 2} concentration, water chemistry, flow regime, flow velocity, characteristics of the produced fluid, and material composition. The SSH Model is a worst case-based model derived primarily from laboratory data at low temperature and a combination of laboratory and field data at

  12. Mammoth prefab modules speed Alaskan oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    Modularization on a scale never before attempted was achieved in a project so mammoth in terms of materials, equipment and people that its only rival in size is the TransAlaska Pipeline itself. Built to serve that pipeline the oil and gas production facilities at Alaska's Prudhoe Bay are notable, too, for the fact that they were completed ahead of time and within budget. Principal elements of the project are manifolds and well test facilities at 10 drill sites; three oil and gas separation centers producing a total of 600,000 barrels per day of dewatered, degasified crude for transport via the pipeline and 1.76 billion ft/sup 3/ per day of oil-associated gas; a central compression plant to reinject this gas (plus that of adjacent leases) into the formation for storage pending construction of a gas pipeline; and a field fuel gas plant to serve the complex and four of the crude oil pumping stations. Included in the project was the construction of two bridges; approximately 19 mi of oil and gas gathering, fuel gas and injection gas pipelines; camps for up to 2,600 people, and maintenance shops and warehouses (winterized for shelter against snow and temperatures as low as -50 to -60 degrees F. All major elements were designed for prefabrication in the lower 48 states (mostly the Seattle-Tacoma, Wash. area) as interlocking modules to be transported by barges to Prudhoe Bay. Modules at the site were installed some 40 ft apart and parallel to one another atop piles which were sunken 20 to 30 ft deep into the arctic tundra and anchored with a sand and water slurry that freezes concrete-hard. Barge shipments of the prefab modules took place in 1975 and 1976. About nine barges are set to carry the 30 large modules, 19 connecting buildings, and tons of cargo and piping.

  13. Crude Oil Pipeline Integrity Management System and Its Application%输油管道完整性管理体系及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福众; 帅健

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the integrity management system was constructed for crude oil pipeline. Management model was presented, based on plan-do-check-action cycle. The implementation essentials of the pipeline integrity management system were outlined. A pipeline integrity management information platform was developed and its functions with data management, high consequence identification, risk assessment, integrity evaluation and activity planning. Integrity management activities, such as data integration, hazard identification, risk assessment, internal inspection, external corrosion direct assessment and maintenance, were conducted. Simultaneously, the problems in pipeline integrity management system construction and application were pointed out, and the suggestion of improving pipeline integrity management system was raised.%构建了输油管道完整性管理体系,提出了基于“计划-实施-检查-改进”循环的管理模式,总结了管道完整性管理体系的实施要点,研制开发了具有数据管理、高后果区识别、风险评价、完整性评价及活动管理的输油管道完整性管理信息平台。开展了数据收集与整合、危害因素识别与风险评价、管道内检测、外腐蚀直接评价以及维修维护等完整性管理活动。同时,指出管道完整性管理体系构建与应用中的问题,提出了进一步改进和完善管道完整性管理体系的建议。

  14. 2017-2022 OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Proposed Program - Alaska Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This file represents the program areas of the Outer Continental Shelf that have been included in the 2017-2022 Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Proposed...

  15. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Alaska Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Surface Locations of Boreholes drilled for exploration or oil and gas production. Dataset is maintained by Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. Please note: older well...

  16. Modeling of the re-starting of waxy crude oil flows in pipelines; Modelisation du redemarrage des ecoulements de bruts paraffiniques dans les conduites petrolieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinay, G.

    2005-11-15

    Pipelining crude oils that contain large proportions of paraffins can cause many specific difficulties. These oils, known as waxy crude oils, usually exhibit high 'pour point', where this temperature is higher than the external temperature conditions surrounding the pipeline. During the shutdown, since the temperature decreases in the pipeline, the gel-like structure builds up and the main difficulty concerns the issue of restarting. This PhD attempts to improve waxy crude oil behaviour understanding thanks to experiment, modelling and numerical simulation in order to predict more accurately time and pressure required to restart the flow. Using various contributions to the literature, waxy crude oils are described as viscoplastic, thixotropic and compressible fluid. Strong temperature history dependence plays a prevailing role in the whole shutdown and restart process. Thus, waxy crude oils under flowing conditions correspond to the non-isothermal flow of a viscoplastic material with temperature-dependent rheological properties. Besides, the restart of a waxy crude oil is simulated by the isothermal transient flow of a weakly compressible thixotropic fluid in axisymmetric pipe geometry. We retain the Houska model to describe the thixotropic/viscoplastic feature of the fluid and compressibility is introduced in the continuity equation. The viscoplastic constitutive equation is involved using an augmented Lagrangian method and the resulting equivalent saddle-point problem is solved thanks to an Uzawa-like algorithm. Governing equations are discretized using a Finite Volume method and the convection terms are treated thanks to a TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) scheme. The Lagrangian functional technique usually used for incompressible viscoplastic flows, is adapted to compressible situations. Several numerical results attest the good convergence properties of the proposed transient algorithm. The non-isothermal results highlight the strong sensitivity of

  17. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Crolet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The oil and gas industry relies heavily on the use of carbon and low-alloy steels for production equipment. Predicting the corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-containing brines is therefore necessary when designing wells. This paper presented Crolet's CORMED model which predicts the probability of corrosion in wells. The model, which is based on a detailed analysis of field experience on CO{sub 2} downhole corrosion, can predict low, medium or high risk for tubing perforation within 10 years. The 3 complementary conditions required for local attack are that water must be present in contact with the metal; the water must have a sufficient potential corrosivity (PC); and the conditions must be favourable for corrosion to develop locally. The model consists of approximately 20 equations that take into account parameters such as pH, H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, acetic acid, temperature and flow rate. Of all parameters relating to CO{sub 2} corrosion, PC is the simplest to measure experimentally. The model requires the following input data: reservoir data; production water, with concentrations of all major cation and anion species; gas content; production data; type of gas lift and nature of well equipment; corrosion data; observed damage; and time elapsed since attainment of a significant water-cut. Based on the input data, the model calculates the following parameters of a well: CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the conditions where the corrosion is severe; the minimum in-situ pH of the production water; the in-situ acetic concentration, under the conditions of maximum acidity; and the maximum PC corresponding to the production conditions. The model describes the character of the wells qualitatively, as either corrosive, with a lifetime of less than 2 to 3 years; possibly corrosive where the absence of problems is not definitive; and non-corrosive where no corrosion problems have been encountered over a period of at least eight years, despite significant water

  18. Real-time monitoring and control of the oil pipeline networks; Monitoramento e controle inteligentes e em tempo real de redes de escoamento de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, F.; Galvao, C.; Brasileiro, E.; Catao, B.; Souto, C.; Machado, E.; Muniz, M.; Souza, A.; Gomes, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)]. E-mail: fubica@dsc.ufcg.edu.br; Aloise, D. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Oliveira, A.; Gomes, C.; Rolim, T.; Boquimpani, C. [PETROBRAS S.A. (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Real-time monitoring and control of complex and large-scale oil pipeline networks is complicated by several requirements, among them: reliability of data acquisition and communication systems; strict time limits between data acquisition and decision of control action; operational constraints of a large number of pipeline devices and multi-objective control, involving economic, operational, environmental and institutional objectives and constraints. The MDTP system was designed for meeting such requirements. A simulation-optimization approach is the strategy adopted for the network state prediction and control. The simulation module is based on the quasi-steady state hydraulics of oil-water flow. The control is centered on the pumping systems, respecting operational constraints of tanks and pipes, without reducing the oil production targets. For real-time control, an optimization scheme generates multiple operational scenarios, the optimum of them being selected by means of a meta-heuristics approach. To meet the strict time limits for deciding the control strategy, a grid computing architecture was adopted, instead of conventional dedicated high-performance computers. (author)

  19. Numerical Simulation for Temperature Drop of the Waxy Oil Submarine Pipeline during Shutdown%海底含蜡原油管道停输降温过程的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳波; 马贵阳; 曹先慧; 齐浩; 杜义朋

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the temperature drop process of submarine waxy oil pipeline is researched. It is of great significance to avoid the accident of solidifing pipeline. According to the characteristics of service environments of submarine waxy oil pipeline, unsteady - state heat transfer model is established for sub marine pipeline during shutdown. Regularity of change of waxy oil temperature is simulated in submarine pipeline during shutdown with time by the CFD software. The factors of effecting, such as diameter of pipeline and temperature of mud around the pipeline and so on, are analyzed, which decide a optimum time for shutdown and provides a theoretical guidance for safe submarine waxy oil pipeline startup.%研究海底含蜡原油管道的停输降温过程,对避免“凝管”事故的发生起着重要的作用.针对海底含蜡原油管道运行环境的特点,建立海底管道停输时的非稳态传热模型,利用CFD软件模拟海底管道停输过程中温度随时间的变化规律,分析管径、管道周围海泥温度等因素对停输温降的影响,从而确定最佳停输时间,为海底含蜡原油管道制定再启动方案提供理论依据.

  20. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halambage Upul Deepthike; Robin Tecon; Gerry van Kooten; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Hauke Harms; Mona Wells; Jeffrey Short [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2009-08-15

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content, technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF

  3. 75 FR 2126 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre... season for an Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being hosted by the Alaska... capacity on Alaskan natural gas transportation projects. Both Denali--The Alaska Gas Pipeline LLC and...

  4. The Fate and Effects of Crude Oil Spilled on Subarctic Permafrost Terrain in Interior Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    nalkanes by McCown, B.H., F.J. Deneke, W.E. Rickard and L.L. Tieszen Cladosporium resinae Applied Microbiology, vol 25, p (197 t) The response of...alkanes.on Impact of Oil Resource Deselopment on Northern Plant Com- Cladosporium resinae Canadian Journal of Microbiology. vol munities University of

  5. Fluid and Rock Property Controls On Production And Seismic Monitoring Alaska Heavy Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Herring, Andy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Prasad, Manika [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Dorgan, John [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Batzle, Mike [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-10-30

    The goal of this project is to improve recovery of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) heavy oil resources in the Ugnu formation by improving our understanding of the formation's vertical and lateral heterogeneities via core evaluation, evaluating possible recovery processes, and employing geophysical monitoring to assess production and modify production operations.

  6. Application of Pipeline Helium Nitrogen Test in Offshore Oil Engineering%管线氦氮试验在海洋石油工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海萍

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline helium nitrogen test is a kind of high sensitivity leak test method. At present, it has been widely used in offshore oil engineering at home and abroad. In this paper, the general practice of pipeline helium nitrogen test was introduced and described, including determination of the test pressure, division of the test pack, and determination of the pressure relief path. At the same time, the implementation steps of helium nitrogen test in pipeline were introduced.%管线氦氮试验是一种高灵敏度测漏试验,目前在国内外海洋石油工程中得到了广泛的应用。对管线氦氮试验的通用做法进行了介绍和阐述,包括试验压力的确定、试验包的划分、超压泄压路径的确定等,同时详细介绍了管线氦氮试验的实施步骤,对现场施工起到了指导性作用。

  7. The Course of the Operation of the Crude Oil Pipeline Oil Program%原油运作过程中输油管道输油方案的研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 白丽平

    2013-01-01

    Refinery production planning is a hierarchical mode of operation. In the development of oil refining production plan,according to market demand and existing production environment to identify a target refining plans, and then based on this goal refinery plan a detailed refining plans. However, the detailed refinery plan is recorded in the pipeline, but did not give the order of oil, oil pipeline order,and each time the volume of transportation of crude oil this article is based on a detailed production plan.%炼油企业生产计划是一种递阶的运作模式。在制定炼油生产计划的时候,首先根据市场需求以及现有生产环境来确定一个目标炼油计划,然后再根据这个目标炼油计划得出一个详细炼油计划。然而,这个详细炼油计划只是记录了相关的输油管道的信息,但没有给出输油顺序,针对此情况,根据详细生产计划得出输油管道的输油顺序,并计算出每次输送原油的体积。

  8. Transportation of coal by pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Canada's coal resources, technology of long distance coal slurry pipelines, existing and planned coal slurry pipelines, their economics, liquid carbon dioxide, methanol and crude oil instead of water as carrier fluid, and coal slurry research in Canada.

  9. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  10. 埋地热油管道投产方案模拟分析%Simulation analysis of commission process of a buried hot oil pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛

    2016-01-01

    In order to get an economic scheme of preheating pipeline,pipeline simulation software SPS is used to analyse the preheating process.According to the result calculated by SPS,the fluid temperature is firstly increased and then decreased to a stable temperature,with the increase of preheating.The fluid density goes steadly at first and then decreases a lot to a new stable value.The economic scheme is determined by choosing the reasonable oil condensation point as 3℃ higher than the temperature of oil/water mixture at the end of the pipeline.Considering preheating time and the amount of hot water,the optimal and economic scheme is finally screened out.%为获得原油预热投产的经济环保方案,对某即将投产管线进行热力学仿真计算.通过建立SPS仿真模型并分析计算结果后发现,在投产过程中,末端流体温度随着预热投产时间先上升而后下降至平稳温度,末端流体密度先保持平稳而后迅速下降至稳定.选取油水混合物进站温度高于原油凝点3℃为边界条件,且综合考虑预热时间、用水量后确定了最优的投产方案,为现场操作提供技术支持.

  11. Protecting a pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.H (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Garcia-Lopez, M. (Ingenieria y Geotecnia Ltda., Santafe de Bogota (Colombia))

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  12. Research on Paraffin Removal and Control Techniques for Oil Pipelines%输油管道清防蜡技术研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官琳悦; 王卫强

    2014-01-01

    产自我国的原油大多属于石蜡基原油,在输送过程中,原油中的蜡不断结晶析出,沉积在管道内壁上,结蜡层厚度逐渐增加,导致管道内的有效通流截面减小,使输油过程变得困难,这不仅会降低输量,而且严重时还会堵塞管道,存在一定的安全隐患。在本文中,根据影响蜡沉积的因素,并结合油田清防蜡措施,总结了几种有关输油管道的清、防蜡技术。%Most of the crude oil produced in China is paraffin-base d oil. In its transportation process, wax in the crude oil crystallizes and separates out from the crude oil continuously, and deposits on the pipe wall, the wax layer thickness is increasing gradually, which reduce the pipe effective flowing cross-section, so that the oil transportation process becomes difficult, which will not only reduce the transportation quantity, but also stop up the pipe when it’s serious, so there are some security risks. In this paper, based on the factors affecting the wax deposition, combined with measures of paraffin removal and control in the oil field, several techniques of paraffin removal and control for the crude oil pipeline were summed up.

  13. 国外成品油管道运输发展现状与启示%The Current Situation of Pipeline Transportation of Overseas Refined Oil and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆吉; 欧毅; 李应晓

    2012-01-01

    The pipeline transportation of the refined oil has many advantages.At the present stage,although the pipeline transportation network of the refined oil is gradually matured,there still exist aspects to be improved.Based on the research of the distribution of the overseas pipeline transportation of the refined oil,the paper puts forward a scientific and reasonable suggestion to map out the construction of the pipeline transportation of the refined oil in the future,which can better improves the productive and marketing efficiency of our refined oil.The study is of profound significance.%成品油管道运输有诸多明显优势,现阶段我国成品油运输管网正逐步走向成熟,但仍有部分不完善之处。本文通过对国外成品油管道运输分布情况的研究,提出科学合理规划我国未来成品油管网建设的建议,可更好地提高我国成品油的生产、销售等环节效率,研究内容具有重要而长远的意义。

  14. Risk Management and Emergency Response of Oil Pipeline Based on Web GIS%基于Web GIS的输油管道风险管理与应急响应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫强; 范开峰; 吴玉国; 赵鹏; 刘向光

    2011-01-01

    The research on the risk management based on Web GIS is being considered to improve safety management of oil pipeline. An information management system for oil pipeline based on Web GIS has been established. According to the collected practical pipeline data and an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) , the latent risk of oil pipeline was quantified based on the modified Muhlbauer W K method, the risk grading of oil pipeline was devised and daily maintenance was emphasized. The orientation system of leakage in the oil pipeline was devised based on negative pressure, and the best emergency rescue paths was decided based on improved Dijkstra arithmetic. Finally, it was demonstrated with examples that this system of the risk management and emergency response based on Web GIS is more veracious and easier to apply.%基于Web GIS的管理系统研究能够提升输油管道安全管理水平.采用GIS软件,构建了基于WebGIS的长距离输油管道信息管理系统;根据采集的管道沿线相关数据,基于修正的Muhlbauer W K的风险评分法,结合层次分析法,量化管道潜在风险,设定管道风险等级,加强日常维护与管理;基于负压波原理,开发了输油管道泄漏点定位系统;结合改进的Dijkstra算法,提出了最佳应急响应救援路径确定方法.实例表明:基于Web GIS的风险管理与应急响应系统更准确、实用.

  15. Optical Fiber Pipeline Security Forewarning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qishan; Ren Ruijun; Ren Peikui

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of China's economy,such incidents occurring to oil & gas pipelines as industrial and agricultural production,natural disasters,oil stealing,etc.have been prevailing and brought negative influences to the normal operation of pipelines.On account of all such destructive activities,firstly the soil around the pipeline should be vibrated,and then the cable laid in the pipe trench could respond to the vibration.Using this technology,the Department of Science & Technology of CNPC has embarked on the research of relevant equipment to monitor pipeline activities along the pipeline since 2001.

  16. Evaluation of the biodegradation of Alaska North Slope oil in microcosms using the biodegradation model BIOB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish eTorlapati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the details of a numerical model, BIOB that is capable of simulating the biodegradation of oil entrapped in the sediment. The model uses Monod kinetics to simulate the growth of bacteria in the presence of nutrients and the subsequent consumption of hydrocarbons. The model was used to simulate experimental results of Exxon Valdez oil biodegradation in laboratory columns (Venosa et al. (2010. In that study, samples were collected from three different islands: Eleanor Island (EL107, Knight Island (KN114A, and Smith Island (SM006B, and placed in laboratory microcosms for a duration of 168 days to investigate oil bioremediation through natural attenuation and nutrient amendment. The kinetic parameters of the BIOB model were estimated by fitting to the experimental data using a parameter estimation tool based on Genetic Algorithms (GA. The parameter values of EL107 and KN114A were similar whereas those of SM006B were different from the two other sites; in particular biomass growth at SM006B was four times slower than at the other two islands. Grain size analysis from each site revealed that the specific surface area per unit mass of sediment was considerably lower at SM006B, which suggest that the surface area of sediments is a key control parameter for microbial growth in sediments. Comparison of the BIOB results with exponential decay curves fitted to the data indicated that BIOB provided better fit for KN114A and SM006B in nutrient amended treatments, and for EL107 and KN114A in natural attenuation. In particular, BIOB was able to capture the initial slow biodegradation due to the lag phase in microbial growth. Sensitivity analyses revealed that oil biodegradation at all three locations were sensitive to nutrient concentration whereas SM006B was sensitive to initial biomass concentration due to its slow growth rate. Analyses were also performed to compare the half-lives of individual compounds with the decay rate of the overall PAH.

  17. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product.

  18. Sinopec: Pipeline Goes Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ye

    2002-01-01

    @@ Asia's largest refinery, Sinopec Corp, will proceed with a 1,600-kilometre oil pipeline across southern provinces of China, although speculation continues to linger that the company will scrap the plan due to a postponement of the multi-million-dollar project.

  19. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy; Russie: la diplomatie du pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdillon, Y

    2005-01-15

    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  20. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the

  1. Preliminary stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation, including a brief summary of newly discovered oil stain, upper Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, Marwan A.; Decker, Paul L.; Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys has an ongoing program aimed at evaluating the Mesozoic forearc stratigraphy, structure, and petroleum systems of lower Cook Inlet. Most of our field studies have focused on the Jurassic component of the petroleum system (this report). However, in late July and early August of 2012, we initiated a study of the stratigraphy and reservoir potential of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation. The Kaguyak Formation is locally well exposed on the upper Alaska Peninsula (fig. 25) and was named by Keller and Reiser (1959) for a sequence of interbedded siltstone and sandstone of upper Campanian to Maastrichtian age that they estimated to be 1,450 m thick.Subsequent work by Detterman and Miller (1985) examined 900 m of section and interpreted the unit as the record of a prograding submarine fan.This interpretation of deep-water deposition contrasts with other Upper Cretaceous rocks exposed along the Alaska Peninsula and lower Cook Inlet that are generally described as nonmarine to shallow marine (Detterman and others, 1996; LePain and others, 2012).Based on foraminifera and palynomorphs from the COST No. 1 well, Magoon (1986) concluded that the Upper Cretaceous rocks were deposited in a variety of water depths and environments ranging from upper bathyal to nonmarine. During our recent fieldwork west and south of Fourpeaked Mountain, we similarly encountered markedly varying lithofacies in the Kaguyak Formation (fig. 25), and we also found oil-stained rocks that are consistent with the existence of an active petroleum system in Upper Cretaceous rocks on the upper Alaska Peninsula and in lower Cook Inlet. These field observations are summarized below.

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, walruses, polar bears, and Steller sea lions in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points and lines representing human-use resource data for airports, marinas, and mining sites in Northwest Arctic, Alaska....

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions and polar bears in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent muskoxen...

  6. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region...) announces the availability of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for...

  7. Pipeline Protection Has Its Own Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines (hereinafter called "the Law") will be implemented officially on October 1 this year.This is the first time that oil and natural gas pipelines were protected and managed on legal basis.

  8. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  9. Fatty acid signatures of stomach oil and adipose tissue of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in Alaska: Implications for diet analysis of Procellariiform birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.W.; Iverson, S.J.; Springer, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.

    2007-01-01

    Procellariiforms are unique among seabirds in storing dietary lipids in both adipose tissue and stomach oil. Thus, both lipid sources are potentially useful for trophic studies using fatty acid (FA) signatures. However, little is known about the relationship between FA signatures in stomach oil and adipose tissue of individuals or whether these signatures provide similar information about diet and physiology. We compared the FA composition of stomach oil and adipose tissue biopsies of individual northern fulmars (N = 101) breeding at three major colonies in Alaska. Fatty acid signatures differed significantly between the two lipid sources, reflecting differences in dietary time scales, metabolic processing, or both. However, these signatures exhibited a relatively consistent relationship between individuals, such that the two lipid sources provided a similar ability to distinguish foraging differences among individuals and colonies. Our results, including the exclusive presence of dietary wax esters in stomach oil but not adipose tissue, are consistent with the notion that stomach oil FA signatures represent lipids retained from prey consumed during recent foraging and reflect little metabolic processing, whereas adipose tissue FA signatures represent a longer-term integration of dietary intake. Our study illustrates the potential for elucidating short- versus longer-term diet information in Procellariiform birds using different lipid sources. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  10. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  11. 油气长输管道风险管理技术探讨%Discussion on risk management technology of oil and gas long pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翔宇; 董兰凤; 王生新

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the necessity of oil and gas long pipeline risk management, introduced the basic concepts and method steps of risk management, focus described the indicator grading method widely used in current risk evaluation method, and pointed out the deficiencies in the current risk management methods, proposed the applied GIS technology and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to long pipeline risk management.%阐述了油气长输管道风险管理的必要性,介绍了风险管理的基本概念和方法步骤,重点描述了现行风险评价方法中应用较广的指标评分法,并指出了现行风险管理方法中的不足,提出了将GIS技术和模糊综合评判法应用于长输管道风险管理之中。

  12. Reliability of non-destructive test techniques in the inspection of pipelines used in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, A.A. [Science Technological Center, University of Fortaleza, UNIFOR, Av. Washington Soares, 1321, Edson Queiroz, CEP: 60, 811-905 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)], E-mail: alves@metalmat.ufrj.br; Rebello, J.M.A.; Souza, M.P.V. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, CEP: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sagrilo, L.V.S. [Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE/UFRJ, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Soares, S.D. [Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, CEP: 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the reliability of non-destructive test (NDT) techniques for the inspection of pipeline welds employed in the petroleum industry. Radiography, manual and automatic ultrasonic techniques using pulse-echo and time of flight diffraction (TOFD) were employed. Three classes of defects were analyzed: lack of penetration (LP), lack of fusion (LF) and undercut (UC). The tests were carried out on specimen made from pipelines containing defects, which had been artificially inserted on laying the weld bead. The results showed the superiority of the automatic ultrasonic tests for defect detection compared with the manual ultrasonic and radiographic tests. Additionally, artificial neural networks (ANN) were used in the detection and automatic classification of the defects.

  13. Environmental management of the OSBAT 24'' oil pipeline: methodological and conceptual innovations; Gestao ambiental do Oleoduto OSBAT 24{sup :} inovacoes metodologicas e conceituais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Martiniano, Flavio [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil); Masumoto, Cinthia; Frazao, Luciana Rocha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present considerations about the design, systematic and methodology used for conducting the environmental management of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, what is located in the stretch between Sao Sebastiao City (center) and Camburi district, in Sao Paulo State. It presents a set of criteria, concepts, techniques, ideas and practices that stand out for its innovative character, and contribute effectively to the challenge of sustainable development, and new techniques of conciliation between environmental responsibility and investment in oil sector and gas. The general direction of the article is to reflect on the experience, seeking to broadcast both conceptual and methodological aspects responsible for the successes of OSBAT 24'' environmental management, and point out obstacles found in it's implementation. (author)

  14. 输油管线铺设的优化模型%Optimization model about laying of oil pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2012-01-01

    The problem C of CUMCM in 2010, Oilfield design institute the establishment of pipeline construction cost the province general mathematical model and method, Cost unit cost of pipeline length, In some cases the unit cost, pipeline laying length is short, the cost of the total cost of less,the real problem is converted in the plane to find a point made the point to the two refinery distance and the ordinate is the minimum problems in plane geometry.The thesis based on the vocational students" level and specialty, the geometric derivative and seek the most value algebra method of combining, show the basic knowledge of mathematics in the solution of practical problems charm.%通过用几何方法与导数求最小值方法相结合,结合建立输油管线辅设最少费用的一般数学模型,得到费用最小值,解决了管道辅设的最短路径问题。

  15. Decommissioning end of life oilfield facilities and pipelines : the first step to the safe and efficient remediation of oil and gas sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, J.; Thygesen, S. [JSK Consulting Ltd., Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Environmentally sound decommissioning practices in the remediation and reclamation process were reviewed, with reference to abandoned oil and gas facilities and pipelines. There are inherent dangers associated with aged infrastructure, and decommissioning companies should be the first service on site to ensure that all facilities have been located, removed and cleaned. All licensed, unlicensed and on-lease pipelines are required to be properly abandoned. Site research is needed to identify any industry or government regulated requirements that may impact the decommissioning process. Decommissioning companies are also responsible for recording all relevant site information so that it can be conveyed to remediation and reclamation companies. A knowledge of landowner sensitivities, weather affected access, unlicensed facilities and locations of historic contamination are crucial to all parties involved. Additional documentation, such as photographs and survey drawings, can assist remediation and reclamation companies in locating areas of concern. Once a well has been abandoned in Alberta, surface equipment, cement pads, debris and produced liquids associated with the well license must be removed within 12 months of the cutting and capping operation. Records of the removal and cleanup activities must be retained by the licensee. Many sites have been sitting dormant for several years and can be harboring dangerous production fluids, asbestos, Hantavirus and other hazardous materials. All equipment must be steam-cleaned by qualified personnel and all production fluids and contaminated water from the cleaning process must be captured and transported to a waste facility. All equipment that is deemed re-usable can be returned to inventory or re-used. Equipment that can not be salvaged is sold for recycling at a steel mill. All pipelines are required to be cleaned of hydrocarbons, purged and left with a medium of inert gas or atmospheric air. Residual fluids left in a

  16. 分布式光纤油气长输管道泄漏检测及预警技术%Distributed fiber oil and gas pipeline leak detection and warning technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富斌

    2015-01-01

    管道用于油气运输有着独特的优势,因此成为了运输油气的主要手段。在实际油气的运输过程中因为人为因素和自然因素等原因,经常会导致运输油气的管道发生泄漏事故,这不仅造成环境污染,而且会威胁到人们的生命财产安全。本文介绍了分布式光纤油气长输管道泄漏检测及预警技术在油田的应用。%For oil and gas transportation pipeline has a unique advantage, it became the primary means of transportation of oil and gas. In the actual transportation of oil and gas, man-made and natural factors and other reasons often resulted the transport of oil and gas pipeline leak accident, which not only affected environmental pollution, but also threatened people’s life and property safety.This article introduced distributed fiber oil and gas pipeline leak detection and warning technology.

  17. Field Oil Pipeline Design and Implementation of Geographic Information System%机动输油管线地理信息系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翔; 于承浩; 张伟明; 王峰

    2014-01-01

    The current file classification management method of fiel d oil pipeline survey and design data has such drawbacks as failing to manage the relationship between data and present the relationship of graphic data and attribute data on the map. In or-der to improve the combat readiness and management capabilities of field oil pipeline route and establish an efficient management and assistant decision-making system, ArcSDE database engine and SQL Server database technology are employed to manage the pi-pleline data with ArcGIS as a development platform and the overall development of the function of the system module and applica-tion interface is conducted with ArcEngine components and Visual C#. The direction of the line and visualization of line resource management are standardized, the intelligent-aided generation of the line process plan and configuration plan can be achieved as as to improve the management level of combat readiness of pipelines.%当前机动输油管线勘察与设计资料采用的文件夹分类管理方式,难以管理各类资料间的关联关系,也难以在地图上进行图形数据与属性数据的关联呈现。为了提高机动输油管线战备线路管理能力,建立了管理与辅助决策系统,以ArcGIS作为GIS平台,利用ArcSDE数据库引擎和SQL Server数据库统一管理管线数据,通过ArcEngine组件库和Visual C#对系统的功能模块和应用界面进行整体开发,实现了线路走向、线路资源可视化的规范管理和线路工艺方案、人装配置方案的智能辅助生成,提高了部队战备线路管理水平。

  18. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eric J; Adkison, Milo; Couture, Jessica; Dressel, Sherri C; Litzow, Michael A; Moffitt, Steve; Hoem Neher, Tammy; Trochta, John; Brenner, Rich

    2017-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1) density dependence, (2) the EVOS event, (3) changing environmental conditions, (4) interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5) predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the interactions between

  19. 海底热油管道悬空段停输温降过程的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation for Temperature Drop of the Suspended Sector of Submarine Oil Pipeline during Shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳波; 马贵阳; 姚尧; 曹先慧; 王雷

    2012-01-01

    海底热油管道的悬空段由于没有周围泥沙的保温蓄热作用,停输之后管内温降比埋入海底泥沙中的管段快得多,故而其温降成为停输过程的关键.针对海底管线悬空段的热力特性,考虑原油凝固潜热对停输温降的影响,利用CFD软件,对其停输温降过程进行数值模拟.分析温降变化规律、不同海水温度对温降的影响,从而确定最佳停输时间,为海底热油管道制定再启动方案提供理论依据.%With no heat preservation effect of the sediment around the oil pipeline, temperature drop of the suspended sector of submarine oil pipeline is faster than the temperature of the sector embedded in the submarine sediment. So the temperature drop process becomes the key of stopping transportation. According to the thermal characteristics of the suspended sector of submarine oil pipeline, considering the impact of solidified the latent heat, temperature drop is simulated in submarine pipeline during shutdown with time by the CFD software. Change rule of temperature drop and the influence of the temperature of seawater are analyzed, which decide optimum time for shutdown and provides a theoretical guidance for safe submarine oil pipeline startup.

  20. Differences Analysis on Domestic and Foreign Process Pipeline Pressure Testing Standards for Oil and Gas Transportation Stations%国内外输油气站工艺管道试压标准差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余运复; 张继霞; 吴俊松; 于宏庆

    2014-01-01

    Domestic process pipeline pressure testing standards for oil and gas transportation stations were classified and assessed, with prompting the idea of adopting foreign standards to improve the domestic design and operating level of oil and gas transportation stations. The advancement of foreign process pipeline pressure testing standards for oil and gas transportation stations were systematacially expounded, including integration strength testing and leakage testing, or leakage testing alone for low operating pressure pipeline, and classification principle of process pipeline, and air inspection method and pressure reducing procedure during pressure testing, and pressure testing periods of process pipeline. In addition, advanced technology and construction cases of domestic and foreign process pipeline pressure testing for oil and gas transportation stations were also introduced, such as the determination of reasonable sustaining time based on leakage mathematical model, and the determination of air pressure testing damage radius based on high pressure air explosion energy calculation method, etc. Finally, by means of learning foreign standards, recommendations are made to raise the level of Chinese process pipeline pressure testing standards for oil and gas transportation stations.%梳理评价了国内输油气站工艺管道试压标准,提出了借鉴国外标准的先进理念,提高国内输油气站设计和运行水平的思路。国外输油气站工艺管道试压标准的先进性主要体现在以下几个方面:管道运行压力较低,强度试验和严密性试验合并进行,或者仅进行严密性试验;工艺管道划分原则;试压过程空气含量检测方法和降压程序;工艺管道试压周期等。此外还介绍了国内外关于输油气站工艺管道试压的先进技术和施工实例,包括利用严密性数学模型确定合理稳压时间;利用高压气体爆炸能量计算方法确定气试压损伤半径

  1. 深挖沟铺管技术在渤西南联网供气项目上的应用%Application of the Pipeline-Laying Technology for Deep Trenching on the Gas Pipeline Network System of Boxi & Bonan Oil/Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲玉成

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of methods in the submarine pipeline-laying, methods adopted are different from each other due to the various situations of seawater depth, geological conditions and so on. In order to avoid the damage by any kind of vessel anchoring at anchorage, and to ensure the safety of submarine pipelines, The project of the Gas Pipeline Network System of Boxi & Bonan Oil/gas Fields is carried out by Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd. (COOEC) and Tianjin Junhao Offshore Engineering Co., Ltd. (JHHG) by the use of the contact type submersible jet flow spray gas lift type trenching machine (it's the patent facility), the submarine pipeline-laying and post-trenching works are first successfully completed with burial depth up to 4m for domestic deep trenching operation pipeline with. It is shown that the initiate procedure could be applied to more deep trenching works of the submarine pipeline in the future through this methodological description of the deep trenching, as well as could be recommended to that the submarine pipeline crossing sea-routes or the anchorage and the similar pipeline constructions which not only be able to protect pipelines but also have to ensure the sea-route unobstructed.%海底管道的铺设有很多种挖沟方法,因海水深度,地质条件等情况的不同,采用的方法也不相同.渤西南联网供气项目为避免锚地的各类船只抛描破坏,保证海管的安全,海洋石油工程股份有限公司和天津俊昊海洋工程有限公司在海底管道铺设和后挖沟施工中进行合作,采用接触武潜水射流喷冲气举式挖沟机(此系专利设备),首次成功完成了国内海管埋深达到4米的深挖沟作业.通过这次深挖沟埋管的实施,证明这种新的工艺,可以应用到更多的海底管道深挖沟埋管工程中,也可以应用到海管穿越航道、锚地等类似的既要保护管道又要保证通航安全的管道施工工程中.

  2. Challenges for the heavy oil exportation though pipelines in deep waters; Desafios da exportacao de oleos pesados atraves de oleodutos em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreolli, Ivanilto; Borges Filho, Jonas P.; Gaspari, Eduardo F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the high pressures, low temperatures, and high viscosities involved, the heavy oil exportation in deep waters through pipelines imposes a number of challenges to be feasible. The viscosities involved in such scenarios are usually very high, which brings most of the system to a laminar flow even for the higher flow rates. In a laminar flow the viscosity is linearly and directly related to the frictional pressure drop and so its precise determination is crucial for the correct results from simulations in transient or in steady state, including the modeling thermal. This work presents some results in steady state and transient simulations of heavy oil of deg API around 16 and pipe length of approximately 20km. For the analyses in the steady state was concluded that in low outflows the required pressures can surpass the pressures in high outflows. In the transient regimen was concluded that in case of long stop, the return to the full outflow surpasses 6 days and the replacement of the fluids from the pipe by diesel is a solution to reduce significantly this time. (author)

  3. The history and future of thermal sprayed galvanically active metallic anticorrosion coatings used on pipelines and steel structures in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodijnen, Fred van [Sulzer Metco, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Since its invention by M. U. Schoop in the beginning of the 20th century, thermal spray has been used for corrosion protection applications in naval, on-shore, submerged and atmospheric environments. Thermally sprayed coatings of zinc, zinc alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys are currently the most popular materials used for active corrosion protection of steel and concrete, which can be applied using either of the widely known thermal spray processes of combustion wire or electric arc wire. In the oil and gas exploration and production industry, corrosion protection applications using these technologies have evolved since the early sixties. Thermal spray technology has successfully been used to protect steel-based materials from corrosion in many different fields of application like platforms and pipelines. The most used material in the oil and gas industry is TSA (Thermally Sprayed Aluminum) coating. TSA coatings, with a lifetime of 25 to 30 years, require no maintenance except for cosmetic reasons when painted. The surface temperature of a TSA can go as high as 480 deg C. Although TS (Thermal Spray) is an older process, the number of applications and the number of m{sup 2} it is applied to is still increasing resulting from its maintenance-free and reliable active corrosion-protection features. (author)

  4. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  5. Batch sequencing of oil derivates in pipeline networks; Sequenciamento de bateladas de derivados leves de petroleo numa rede dutoviaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacin, Mario Vicente; Oliveira, Daniel Rossato de; Czaikowski, Daniel Irineu; Polli, Helton Luis; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio Leandro; Neves Junior, Flavio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a computational tool to assist the operational scheduling of a pipeline network. In this network, transfer of products is carried out by batches, from a source to a destination. This tool implements a proposal to determine priorities of the outgoing batches as well as alternatives for sequencing them fulfilling the stated periods stipulated. This proposal uses an analysis of production and demand plans, stockage, products draining in terminals, as well as operational restrictions of the pipeline network, looking for optimizing the use of resources such as pipes, bombs and tanks. The scenario in study is composed by 14 areas (4 refineries, 2 harbours, 6 distribution centres and 2 costumers) and 29 pipes. Prioritizing the attendance to the areas of source or demand, the algorithm carries choices between routes and possible batches volumes, considering calculations of time windows, that determine the limited interval when transference operations must occur. Moreover, operations called 'lung' are also treated, which involve flow changes during the movement. (author)

  6. Gas elephants: Arctic projects revived by expanding markets and pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-03

    The revival of interest in Arctic natural gas and the developing competition to extend the pipeline grid to Alaska and the Yukon and the Northwest territories are the subject of this report. Substantial agreement between competing interest groups is reported with respect to the need for Arctic gas and the willingness of the market to pay for bringing it south to consumers. The discussion centers on the construction of the Alliance Pipeline Project that will reportedly bring two billion cubic feet per day of excess capacity to transport natural gas from northeastern British Columbia to Chicago, and the 2,400 km long Foothills Pipelines System that carries about one-third of Canadian gas exports to middle-western states and California. Plans are to extend the line to 5,240 km by laying pipe in a giant Y pattern between Prudhoe Bay and the Mackenzie delta in the north, and the start of the Foothills System at Caroline in central Alberta. The estimated cost of the line is about $US 6 billion, using a 36-inch diameter line at increased pressures in place of the 56-inch diameter pipe used in the 1970s. Construction plans are similar for the rest of the big Y, the Dempster Lateral beside the Dempster Highway between Whitehorse and Inuvik. A competing project, the Northern Gas Pipeline Project is also discussed. This line would run east of Prudhoe Bay under the Beaufort Sea to the Mackenzie Delta; then south along the Mackenzie Valley to Alberta. Cost of this line is also estimated at $US 6 billion, however, it would have a capacity of four billion cubic feet per day, including 2.5 billion cubic feet from Alaska and 1.5 billion cubic feet from Canada. Strong revival of interest is also reported from the supply side, with BP Amoco, ARCO, Chevron Canada Resources, Ranger 0il Ltd., Paramount Resources, Berkley Petroleum Corporation, Canadian Forest Oil, Alberta Energy Company, Petro-Canada, Anderson Resources, and Poco Petroleum Ltd., all showing interest to mount new

  7. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ..., Alaska 99503-5823. Requests for proposed exclusion areas or general proposed inclusion areas (absent a... inclusion or exclusion of acreage, temporal deferrals, and/or mitigation from the Five Year Program stage... inclusion in the sale must provide a detailed explanation of the basis for classifying each nominated...

  8. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 μSv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  9. Development of hot-pressed plugging T-joint for oil and gas pipelines%油气管道热压封堵三通的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞利; 勾冬梅; 夏国发; 陶伟莉; 贾世民

    2013-01-01

    管道封堵三通是对管道进行开孔封堵作业必备的维修机具,其承压安全性直接关系主管道的运行安全.为了满足高压大口径油气管道维抢修的需要,结合有限元分析方法,开发了一种新型φ1 016大口径X70管线钢热压封堵三通.选定X70高强度材质作为三通护板,相比Q345R材质减轻了三通质量,提高了焊接效率,降低了焊接应力.管道封堵三通消除了相贯线焊缝,解决了传统焊接式封堵三通相贯线焊缝无法检测的技术难题,提高了封堵三通的使用安全,并首次利用应力应变测试仪器进行了三通带压模拟应用监测,采集数据具有较好的重复性和规律性,为今后同类产品的设计、制造、质量监控工作积累了宝贵经验.(图5,参4)%Plugging T-joint is a maintenance tool required for hole plugging operations on pipeline,and its safety under pressure directly determines operational safety of the main pipeline.To meet the needs for maintenance and emergency repair of high-pressure large-diameter oil and gas pipelines,a new type of φ 1016 large-diameter X70 pipeline hotpressed plugging steel T-joint is developed using the finite element analysis method.The X70 high-strength material is used as the T-joint back plate,so that the T-joint weight is reduced,welding efficiency is improved and welding stress is decreased in contrast to Q345R.Eliminating intersecting welding seams,such pipeline plugging T-joint has overcome the technical challenge in traditional welded plugging T-joints that intersecting welding seams can not be detected,improved the operational safety of plugging T-joints,and utilized the stress/strain testing instrument for the first time to conduct pressurized T-joint simulated application monitoring.Valuable experiences have been gathered for future design,manufacture and quality control of similar products,because the data collected offer good reproducibility and regularity.(5 Figures,4 References)

  10. Analysis of rockfall impact on buried oil pipeline at Yangba%阳坝落石对输油管道的冲击分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东源; 赵宇; 王成华

    2013-01-01

    Lanzhou-Chengdu-Chongqing end product oil pipeline suffered serious rockfall disaster in the section of Kangxian County,Gansu Province.Yangba rockfall triggered in 2008 Wenchuan earthquake seriously damaged the pipeline and brought about enormous property loss.Based on the investigation of rockfalls,this study provided an analysis method and theoretical basis for the prevention of rockfall disasters.In this paper,five calculation methods of rock fall impact force commonly used at home and abroad were systematically compared and analyzed,and the most realistic algorithms were recommended.Through field investigation and laboratory experiments,the mechanical strength parameters of the soil were obtained.Then the experimental data and empirical data recommend in engineering geological manuals were compared,and the most suitable parameters were selected to calculate.The trench pipe vertical sold pressure calculation model proposed by Marston was used to analyze pipeline's stress and deformation.Results show that:first,the pipe strength and deformation are not enough to resist the intensive impact of falling rocks,which would cause the stress and deformation failure and pipeline damage; second,the method recommended by the Japanese Road Association is advised to calculate the maximum rock fall impact force in collapse zone; third,collapse hazard of the pipeline is likely to occur again in Kangxian County,and investigation of collapse hazard points in the region is necessary for take effective protection measures in advance.%兰成渝成品油管道在甘肃康县段遭受了严重的落石灾害,其中08年汶川地震触发的阳坝落石造成管道破坏和巨大经济损失.根据对阳坝落石现场的调查和管道遭受落石冲击的分析,为管道在康线段的减灾防灾提供理论依据和分析方法.系统对比分析了国内外普遍采用的5种落石冲击力算法,并推荐了最出符合实际的算法.通过现场取样和室内实验获取土

  11. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  12. 77 FR 18260 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Cook Inlet Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Sale 244 in 2013 in the Cook Inlet Planning Area, whether focused on a few blocks or prospects, or on a... Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 244 for OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau... Proposed OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 (Proposed Program) identifies Sale 244 as...

  13. Research Progress of Material Selection and Protection Technology on Oil and Gas Pipeline%油气管道选材及防护技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙方红; 马壮; 宋晓龙; 刘应瑞; 李福永

    2013-01-01

    The research progress of common materials on the oil and gas pipeline was summarized. The research results of macromolecular compound coating, glass coating, metal coating, corrosion inhibitor and cathodic protection were reviewed. The merits and demerits of different protection technologies were analyzed. The development trends of material selection and protection technology on oil and gas pipeline were proposed.%叙述了油气管道常用材料的研究现状;介绍了高分子化合物涂料、玻璃涂层和金属镀层、缓蚀剂、阴极保护等防护措施的研究成果;分析了各种防护技术的优缺点;展望了今后油气管道选材和防护措施的发展方向.

  14. 油气管道CO2/H2 S腐蚀及防护技术研究进展%Research Progress of CO2/H2 S Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines and the Protection Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 袁世娇; 吴小卫; 谢飞; 赵启慧; 杨帆; 程贵鑫

    2016-01-01

    CO2和H2 S是油气管道中主要的腐蚀介质,两者往往同时存在于原油和天然气之中,是造成油气输送管道内腐蚀发生的主要原因之一,甚至会导致管道失效、穿孔、泄漏、开裂等现象,严重威胁了管网的安全运行及正常生产。因此CO2和H2 S引起的管道腐蚀问题,已成为当前研究的热点问题。针对油气管道日益严重的CO2和H2 S腐蚀问题,综述了CO2单独存在、H2 S单独存在以及CO2和H2 S共同存在三种体系中油气管道的腐蚀过程,得出了在这三种腐蚀体系下油气管道出现的主要腐蚀行为规律以及腐蚀机理。阐述了CO2和H2 S共同存在体系下,缓蚀剂、耐蚀性管材、电化学防腐技术、管道内涂层技术等先进的油气管道腐蚀防护技术,并剖析了这些防护措施各自的特点及在实际工程使用中的优势和局限性。最后,展望了CO2和H2 S共存体系的进一步研究方向以及更经济、更有效的防腐措施发展前景。%ABSTRACT:CO2 and H2 S are the major corrosion media in oil and gas pipeline, often existing in both crude oil and natural gas. Their presence is one of the main causes for internal corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and even leads to pipeline failure, perfora-tions, leaks and cracks. It′s a serious threat to the safe operation of the pipeline network and normal production. So pipeline corro-sion problems caused by CO2 and H2 S have become a hot issue of current research. For the growing oil and gas pipeline corrosion problems caused by CO2 and H2 S, the corrosion behaviors of oil and gas pipelines in CO2 alone, H2 S alone and the co-existence of CO2 and H2 S system were systematically compared in this paper. The law and mechanism of pipeline corrosion behavior in these three corrosion systems were obtained. And the protection techniques against oil and gas pipeline corrosion were listed, such as cor-rosion inhibitors, corrosion resistant pipes

  15. The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

  16. Trends in sea otter population abundance in western Prince William Sound, Alaska: Progress toward recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Esslinger, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea otters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS) and elsewhere in the Gulf of Alaska suffered widespread mortality as a result of oiling following the 1989 T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill. Following the spill, extensive efforts have been directed toward identifying and understanding long-term consequences of the spill and the process of recovery. We conducted annual aerial surveys of sea otter abundance from 1993 to 2009 (except for 2001 and 2006) in WPWS. We observed an increasing trend in population abundance at the scale of WPWS through 2000 at an average annual rate of 4 percent: however, at northern Knight Island where oiling was heaviest and sea otter mortality highest, no increase in abundance was evident by 2000. We continued to see significant increase in abundance at the scale of WPWS between 2001 and 2009, with an average annual rate of increase from 1993 to 2009 of 2.6 percent. We estimated the 2009 population size of WPWS to be 3,958 animals (standard error=653), nearly 2,000 animals more than the first post-spill estimate in 1993. Surveys since 2003 also have identified a significant increasing trend at the heavily oiled site in northern Knight Island, averaging about 25 percent annually and resulting in a 2009 estimated population size of 116 animals (standard error=19). Although the 2009 estimate for northern Knight Island remains about 30 percent less than the pre-spill estimate of 165 animals, we interpret this trend as strong evidence of a trajectory toward recovery of spill-affected sea otter populations in WPWS.

  17. Introduction to heavy oil pipeline transportation%浅谈重质原油管道输送方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬

    2016-01-01

    本文主要介绍了目前重油输送的常用方法,如加热输送、加剂输送等,以及在研究的但还没有应用于工业生产的方法,如水环输送、微生物降粘输送等,旨在降低重油在输送过程中的摩阻损失,增大流动性。%This paper introduces the technologies used for heavy oil transportation,such as heat transferring,agent transportation,and those that have not been applied to industrial production,such as water ring,microbial viscosity reduction transportation to reduce the friction loss and increase liquidity in heavy oil transportation.

  18. Leak detection technologies for oil and gas pipelines; Tecnologias para deteccao e localizacao de vazamento em dutos de oleo e ou gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio R. [MTT Aselco Automacao Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Two concepts are available for leak detection in oil and/or gas pipelines: On-line leak detection system and off-line leak detection technique. The off-line leak detection technique is, usually, portable and does net configure a 'system'. This technique includes hydro-test, acoustic emission of high frequency, tracer of chemical substances, ultrasonic flow meter (UT), thermographic infra-red mapping, electromagnetic offset registration, etc. Since most of those methods requests stop of the system or depend on direct and detailed inspection of the whole monitored piping they are limited to the off-line inspection. In the current days there are only two technologies applied to detect and locate leaks on-line: The acoustic Leak Detection System and the modeling of computerized simulation also called as RTM (Real Time Modeling), RTTM or Mass Balance. There are still other techniques in the market, as acoustic emission, pressure analysis (PPA) beyond other rough techniques, without good results. Even some of these techniques are working without success, they are still used to accomplish with government standards. (author)

  19. China Pins Hopes on Pipeline with Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China still has faith in the gigantic Sino-Russia oil pipeline, despite reports which said that Russia is inclined to build a competing pipeline in favor of Japan. CNPC, the company representing China to negotiate with Russia on the project, is reported to continue its preparation work to receive Russian crude.

  20. Mussels document loss of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the return to baseline conditions for oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D.; Brown, J.S. [Exponent, Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Battelle, MA (United States); Burns, W.A. [W.A. Burns Consulting Services, Houston, TX (United States); Bence, A.E. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co. Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected between 1990 and 2002 from 11 sites on the shores of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, that were heavily oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). This study, utilizing the methods of the NOAA Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program, found that concentrations of PAH released from spill remnants have decreased dramatically with time and by 2002 were at or near the range of total PAH (TPAH) of 3-355 ng/g dry weight obtained for mussels from unoiled reference sites in PWS. Time-series TPAH data indicate a mean TPAH half-life in mussel tissues of 2.4 years with a range from 1.4 to 5.3, yielding an annual mean loss of bioaccumulated TPAH of 25%. The petroleum-derived TPAH fraction in mussel tissues has decreased with time, reflecting the decreasing release of EVOS residues in shoreline sediments. These results show that PAH from EVOS residues that remain buried in shoreline sediments after the early 1990s are in a form and at locations that have a low accessibility to mussels living in the intertidal zone. (author)

  1. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  2. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the

  3. Observations of the surge-type Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska, during a quiescent period, 1970-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Thomas A.; Mayo, L.R.; Trabant, D.C.; March, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents 23 years (1970 to 1992) of observations of Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. Black Rapids Glacier is a surge-type glacier which most recently surged in 1936-37, and is currently in its quiescent phase. This glacier is of special interest because it is a potential hazard to the trans-Alaska oil pipeline. Ten sites on the glacier were monitored from 1972 to 1987, and three sites were monitored from 1988 to 1992. The measurement program presented here includes observations of surface mass balance, ice velocity, and surface altitude made twice each year. Additional one-time data include observations of ice thickness, previously unreported observations of the 1936-37 surge, establishment of the geodetic control monuments, and a new map of Black Rapids Glacier.

  4. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  5. In Fair Weather Prepare for Foul ---In-service integrity inspection of oil/gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangZhaotian; XiongXiaoyun

    2003-01-01

    Pipeline transportation is one of the major ways for the oil/gas transmission. To ensure the safety of oil/gas transmission pipeline is very important because of its primary role in national economic development and people' s life quality improvement. In China, 20 000km of oil/gas pipelines are at work and 10 000km pipelines are being or will be constructed.

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Brookian Coalbed Gas Composite Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. 腐蚀坑形貌对油气管道失效压力的影响%Corrosion pit morphology on the impact of oil and gas pipeline failure pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔铭伟; 曹学文; 封子艳

    2014-01-01

    ASME B 31G规范把复杂的腐蚀坑剖面曲线简化成矩形或抛物线投影,是造成ASME B 31G规范预测结果出现保守和不稳定性的重要原因。文章采用非线性有限元方法,综合分析了腐蚀坑剖面面积和腐蚀坑形状系数对腐蚀管道失效压力的影响,提出一种新的以腐蚀坑剖面面积和腐蚀坑形状系数描述腐蚀坑形貌的B31G修正公式,实际算例表明新提出的B31G修正公式的预测结果保守性低,预测误差稳定。%The failure pressure of oil and gas pipeline with different morphology of corrosion pits was anal-ysed by using the nonlinear finite element method. The impact of the cross-section area of corrosion pit on pipeline failure pressure with the axial and circumferential corrosion was researched. The analysis showed that the cross-section area of corrosion pits seriously influenced the failure pressure of pipeline with axial corrosion, however, which was not enough to fully describe the effects of the morphology of corrosion pits on pipeline failure pressure. The research considered the effects of the morphology of corrosion pits by us-ing the cross-section area of corrosion pit and form factor of corrosion pit to descripe on pipeline failure pressure, and proposed a new B31G correction formula. The results show that forecast error and the fluctu-ation range of the error are little using the formula.

  8. China Shows Concerns Over Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Russia's news media reported on September 3 that the Russian Natural Resources would finally give up the plan raised by Yugos,Russia's private oil producer, to construct the crude oil pipeline from Russia's Angarsk to China's Daqing. The Russian segment of the pipeline is about 1450 kilometers while the Chinese segment is 795 kilometers.

  9. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Zhuang; Yang Li; Wei Su

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emerge...

  10. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... gallons of crude oil into the Yellowstone River. The rupture was caused by debris washing downstream in... structure and by impact and/or waterborne forces. Washouts and erosion may result in loss of support for both buried and exposed pipelines. The flow of water against an exposed pipeline may also result...

  11. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Johnson, Charles B.; Garshelis, David L.; Parker, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001–2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI. PMID:20862194

  12. Local scour at submarine pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yee-Meng Chiew

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of offshore oil_fields has increased the number of submarine pipelines being constructed for the transport of crude oil to onshore refineries.Interactions between the pipeline and an erodible bed under the influence of current and waves often lead to local scouring around the structure.When this occurs, the pipeline may be suspended on the seabed resulting in the formation of a span.If the free span is long enough, the pipe may experience resonant flow-induced oscillations,leading to structural failure.This study examines the complex flow-structure-sediment interaction leading to the development of local scour holes around submarine pipelines.It reviews published literature in this area,which primarily is confined to the development of 2-dimensional scour holes.Despite the abundance of such research studies,pipeline-scour in the field essentially is 3-dimensional in nature.Hence, most of these studies have overlooked the importance of the transverse dimension of the scour hole,while emphasizing on its vertical dimension.This dearly is an issue that must be re-examined in light of the potential hazard and environmental disaster that one faces in the event of a pipeline failure.Recent studies have begun to recognize this shortcoming,and attempts have been made to overcome the deficiency.The study presents the state-of-the-art knowledge on local scour at submarine pipelines,both from a 2-dimensional as well as the 3-dimensional perspective.

  13. An analysis of the potential for oil spill effects on the herring population of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.H.; Elston, R.A.; Bienert, R.W.; Drum, A.S.; Antrim, L.D. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the herring population in Prince William Sound, was studied. Following the incident in 1989, there was no commercial harvest of herring. However, 1990 through 1992 proved to have above average, record harvests. This was followed by a dramatic decline in 1993 which was generally attributed to the oil spill. An examination of the scientific data was conducted. The main hypotheses for the decline were tested. These hypotheses attributed the decline to: (1) the oil spill itself, (2) a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply, (3) disease, and (4) other natural stochastic processes. Based on the review of the data and the analysis of the four alternative hypotheses, it was concluded that the population decline of 1993 was the result of a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply. No connection to the Exxon Valdez incident was evident. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Anchor Loads on Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Anchor hooking on a subsea pipeline has been investigated in this thesis. Anchor loads on pipelines is in general a rarely occurring event, however, the severity when it occurs could easily jeopardize the integrity of any pipeline. It is considered as an accidental load in the design of pipelines. Pipeline Loads, limit state criteria and anchor categories are defined by the DNV standards. For pipeline, DNV-OS-F101 (08.2012), Submarine Pipeline Systems is adopted. Offshore standard DNV-RP...

  15. 聚驱油气水三相流混输管道压降修正计算方法%The Modified Calculation of Oil- Gas- Water Mixed Transportation Pipeline Pressure Drop in Polymer Flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董喜贵; 刘书孟; 吴新勃

    2016-01-01

    油气水三相混输管道的水力计算是油气管道设计和生产运行方案制定的基础。采用Beggs-Brill模型进行聚驱采出液油气水三相流混输管道水力计算时误差较大,平均相对误差为33.26%。为了提高模型的计算精度,以拟合优度最大为目标研究建立了Beggs-Brill水力修正计算模型,并以萨南油田聚驱采出液油气水三相混输管道生产运行数据为样本进行了验证,结果表明,修正后模型的平均相对误差比修正前降低了21.64%,计算精度大幅度提高。%The hydraulic calculation of oil-gas-water mixed transportation pipeline is the foundation of oil-gas pipeline design and production running. Beggs-Brill Model leads to serious errors which average value could reach 33.26%, when it was used for calculation of oil-gas-water mixed transportation pipeline pressure drop in polymer flooding. In order to improve the calculation accuracy, a modified mode aiming for maximum goodness of fit was founded.The modified Beggs-Brill model was tested by the production data of South-Saer-tu Oilfield. The result indicated that calculation accuracy of modified model has been im-proved remarkably,the average value decreased 21.64% than that of the original model.

  16. 原油工艺管道内腐蚀检测技术及方法%The Technology and Method of Inner Corrosion Testing of Crude Oil Process Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩烨; 薛正林; 陈波; 王志刚; 骆苏军

    2016-01-01

    介绍了原油工艺管道的结构、状态和应用环境,系统分析了常用原油工艺管道无损检测方法的技术特点及其局限性,提出了由远及近、由粗到精的管道检测原则,使用多种不同的无损检测方法对不同区段和不同应用环境下的管道进行检测。通过采用低频导波远距离筛查、高频导波近距离定位、磁记忆接触式快速排查、超声波相控阵测厚和 C 扫描成像精确定量等技术,能够实现原油工艺管道快速、高效、精确、可靠的检测。%Because of the crude oil medium,big diameter,insulating layer and complex constructure,the oil process pipeline couldn’t be inspected rapidly by traditional NDT methods.This article demonstrated the process of experimental Process Pipeline testing in a large oil transport station of SINOPEC and proposed the principle of from distance to contact and from rough screening to exact testing,by using the technologies of Low Frequency Guided Wave,High Frequency Guided Wave,Magnetic Stress,Phased Array,UT C-Scan testing.At last,this article summarized the suitability and limitation of those technologies in Process Pipeline testing.

  17. P208泵预热油浆管线泄漏原因与对策%The leakage reason and countermeasure of P208 pump oil warm-up pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元华; 王家祥; 奚蔚; 秦玉尧; 萧前

    2001-01-01

    The “L”“T” type joints of P208 pump oil warm-up pipeline were scoured by the vortexing,and the evorsion led to crack in weld.The leakage reason and countermeasure were discussed.%分析了炼油装置P208泵预热油浆管线L、T型接头的涡流冲蚀导致焊缝开裂泄漏的原因,提出了工艺结构改进措施。

  18. 用改进ECT技术测定油气两相流中空泡分数的测量研究%Void Fraction Measurement in Oil-Gas Transportation Pipeline Using an Improved Electrical Capacitance Tomography System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛刚; 贾志海; 王经

    2004-01-01

    To measure the void fraction online in oil-gas pipeline, an improved electrical capacitance tomography(ECT) system has been designed. The capacitance sensor with new structure has twelve internal electrodes and overcomes the influence of the pipe wall. The data collection system is improved by using high performance IC(integrated circuit). Static tests of bubble flow, stratified flow and annular flow regime are carried out. Measurements are taken on bubble flow, stratified flow and slug flow. Results show that the new ECT system performs well on void fraction measurement of bubble flow and stratified flow, but the error of measurement for slug flow is more than 10%.

  19. Comparative analysis on emergency management for leakage explosion accidents of urban oil and gas pipeline%城市油气管道泄漏爆炸重大案例应急管理对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 朱渊; 陈国明; 李修峰

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary serious accident of Dongying-Huangdao oil pipeline leakage explosion in Qingdao , Shandong, has aroused public concern nationwide about urban oil and gas pipeline safety .In recent years, acci-dents in urban oil and gas pipeline frequently occurred , which seriously indicate the major problems existed in se-curity management .Comparative analysis was carried out based on similar accident investigation , between sewer network explosion in Guadalajara Mexico and Dongying-Huangdao oil pipeline leakage explosion in Qingdao Shang-dong .According to the accident-causing theory , the developing trend of accident was explored and chain model was established .Combined the concept of emergency management , common issues were analyzed during the process from pre-warning and pre-control , emergency disposal , assessment and recovery .Control measures were proposed in each stage of emergency management , by learning from the lessons of accidents , in order to reduce the probabili-ty of accidents and enhance the capability of emergency manage .%青岛东黄输油管道泄漏爆炸特别重大事故,引起公众对城市油气管道安全的普遍关注。近年来,城市油气管道事故频繁发生,反映出我国在城市地下管道安全管理方面存在较大问题。基于国内外管道相似事故调研,选取墨西哥瓜达拉哈拉管道泄漏爆炸事故和青岛东黄输油管道泄漏爆炸事故进行对比分析。基于事故致因理论,探究事故发展模式,建立事故链模型。结合应急管理思想,从预警预控、应急处置、评估恢复角度分析事故应急管理过程的共性失误。最后,针对应急管理各阶段共性失误提出防范措施,对提高类似事故的应急管理能力具有一定的参考意义。

  20. Architecture of a corporate system to aid the scheduling of a oil derivatives transport in a pipeline network; Arquitetura de um sistema corporativo para auxilio a programacao do transporte de derivados de petroleo em redes dutoviarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Guilherme R.; Polli, Helton L.; Esser, Eduardo M.; Lueders, Ricardo; Neves Junior, Flavio; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This paper addresses the development and the architecture of a corporative package to aid the operational decision-making of the scheduling activities in a real-world pipeline network for oil derivatives. The system was developed based on a service-oriented architecture, allowing the development of Web applications to define the network scheduling, as well as graphic display of the movements. The solution of the scheduling is generated by an optimization block as a service of this application. However, this paper emphasizes the description of the architecture and its functionalities, which was defined with the help of experienced programmers. (author)

  1. Vulnerability of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-01

    Although pipelines may be damaged due to natural sources such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), most pipeline damages are a result of third-party interference, such as unauthorized construction in a right of way. Pipelines are also among the prime targets for sabotage because interruptions in energy distribution can render large segments of a population debilitated. The importance of protecting critical infrastructure was emphasized in this theme issue which disseminated information on vulnerability of pipelines due to third-party intrusions, both intentional and unintentional. It summarized the 10 presentations that were delivered at a pipelines security forum in Calgary, Alberta, addressing Canadian and U.S. government and industry approaches to oil and natural gas pipeline security. The opening keynote address remarked on the evolution of international terror networks, the targeting of the energy sector, and the terrorist threat and presence in Canada. Policies towards critical energy infrastructure protection (CIP) were then examined in light of these threats. A policy shift away from traditional defensive protective security towards an offensive intelligence-led strategy to forestall terrorist threats was advocated. Energy sector representatives agreed that Canada needs an effective national lead agency to provide threat assessments, alert notification, and coordination of information pertaining to CIP. It was agreed that early warning information must come from Canadian as well as U.S. sources in order to be pertinent. The conference session on information collection concentrated on defining what sort of threat information is needed by the energy sector, who should collect it and how should it be shared. It was emphasized that government leadership should coordinate threat reporting and disseminate information, set standards, and address the issues of terrorism risk insurance. Concern was raised about the lack of

  2. Oil pipelines inspection with high wall thickness using MFL tool - Campos Basin experience; Inspecao de oleoduto com paredes espessas com ferramenta MFL - a experiencia da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Aldo; Camerini, Claudio; Bueno, Sergio I.O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franca, Andre; Miranda, Ivan V. Janvrot; Silva, Jose A.P.; Lima, Vinicius [PipeWay Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Campos Basin deep water pipelines are designed to out stand internal pressure, launching loads and buckling witch demands high wall thickness up to 1 inch. On the other hand, operational conditions require high pumping temperatures to meet requirements of flow assurance. This scenario becomes difficult internal survey specially MFL tools. The present work describes PETROBRAS effort, with PipeWay partnership, looking for alternatives for internal inspection on those pipelines using MFL specially designed, showing details and results from a recent survey. (author)

  3. Observations of the vegetation of the Atigun River floodplain as affected by the crude oil spill from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of botanical investigation conducted along the Atigun River, associated side channels and tributaries during the period 26 –...

  4. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline-soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West-East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements.

  5. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  6. Study on Heating Process of Induction Bend for Oil and Gas Pipeline%油气管道用弯管感应加热工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池强; 刘腾跃; 燕铸; 李小波

    2012-01-01

    Three kinds of induction heating processes of induction bends for oil and gas pipeline were researched, which included the local heating process, continuous whole heating process and multiple-steps whole heating process. The results show that the X70 grade pipe can be bent via the local heating process, which provides a high processing efficiency. For the bending of X80 grade pipe, the whole heating process shall be adopted, which can improve effectively the toughness of tangent of bend, reduce the strength and yield ratio of tangent in a certain extent, and the match of property between the tangent and the bend part is reasonable. The multiple-step whole heating process can receive the similar result of the continuous whole heating process. The property of intermediate zone by double quenching has not any clear change. This kind of process is suit to the pipe-bending machine that can not realize continuous whole induction heating process.%针对油气管道用感应加热弯管,研究了3种感应加热工艺,包括局部加热工艺、连续式整体加热工艺和分布式整体加热工艺.研究结果表明,对于X70级别钢管,可采用局部加热工艺进行弯制加工,提高加工效率;对于X80级别钢管,适于采用整体加热工艺,可改善弯管直管段焊缝的韧性,并在一定程度上降低直管段的强度和屈强比,使得弯管整体的强韧性匹配更加合理.分布式整体加热工艺与连续式整体加热工艺效果相似,二次淬火过渡段性能未出现明显变化,此工艺适合于不能进行连续式整体加热工艺的弯管设备.

  7. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  8. 油区地热资源用于管道伴热系统的技术研究%Technical Research on Application of Oil Region Geothermal Resources in Pipeline Heat Tracing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓姝; 秦威; 姚尧; 王雷; 贾冯睿

    2013-01-01

      针对油田油区大量地热低温资源问题,提出了油区地热资源用于油田集输系统伴热管道输送的工艺,建立了原油管道伴热系统能量平衡分析模型,运用CFD软件对该工艺管道伴热系统进行了数值模拟,分析了该工艺带来的社会效益。研究结果表明,利用油田丰富的地热资源代替部分燃油节能降耗,是完全可行的。在大排量提液后,开采的地热水经换热后能满足油田集输系统加热要求,可以利用地热伴热完全替代加热炉。在此基础上,所建立的系统模型每年可有效减少因加热炉伴热而排放的污染物。%2. College of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Liaoning Fushun 113001, China) According to the problem of a large number of low temperature terrestrial heat resources in the oil field, the technology of applying terrestrial heat of the oil field in heavy oil heat tracing pipelines was put forward. The model of energy balance analysis about crude oil pipeline heat tracing system was established. The technology of pipeline heat tracing system was simulated by CFD software, and social benefits of this technology were analyzed. The results show that using geothermal resources of oil field to replace part of the fuel can realize energy saving and consumption reduction, is completely feasible. In large displacement solution, the exploitation of the geothermal water after heat exchange can satisfy the requirement of oilfield gathering system heating, can make use of geothermal heating entirely replace heating furnace. On this basis, the model of the system can effectively reduce pollutants from heating furnace emissions so the system has large economic and environmental benefits.

  9. Temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and photoenhanced toxicity risks of spilled oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G; Vivian, Deborah; Yee, Susan H; Diamond, Steve A

    2008-03-01

    Solar irradiance (W/m2) and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd; 1/m) were determined in several locations in Prince William Sound (AK, USA) between April 2003 and December 2005 to assess temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and the risks of photo-enhanced toxicity from spilled oil. Weekly irradiance measurements of surface visible light, ultraviolet B (UVB), and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation in Valdez (AK, USA) followed expected trends of maximum solar irradiance at each summer solstice and minimum values at each winter solstice. Variation from weekly maximum expected surface irradiances was attributed to large variations in environmental conditions over the 142-week monitoring period. Season and proximity to glacial meltwater were significant determinants of Kd, with 1% attenuation depths ranging from 0.4 to 15 m (UVB and UVA) and from 0.5 to 28 m (visible light). The probability of photo-enhanced toxicity risks estimated from UVA dosimetry decreased with increasing water depth, with higher risks during spring and summer and lower risks during fall and winter. These results demonstrate substantial temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation in Prince William Sound and the potential for significant season- and location-specific photo-enhanced toxicity risks from spilled oil.

  10. Pitting growth modelling in buried oil and gas pipelines using statistical techniques; Modelado del crecimiento de picaduras en tuberias enterradas que transportan hidrocarburos utilizando tecnicas estadisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, J. C.; Caleyo, F.; Valorm, A.; Hallen, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    New deterministic and stochastic predictive models are proposed for external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The deterministic model takes into consideration the local chemical and physical properties of the soil as well as the pipeline coating to predict the time dependence of pitting depth and rate in a range of soils. This model, based on results from a field study, was used to conduct Monte Carlo simulations that established the probability distribution of pitting depth and growth rate in the studied soils and their evolution over the life of the pipeline. In the last stage of the study, an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model was developed for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. (Author) 18 refs.

  11. Oil transport scheduling in a pipeline with a characteristic operation; Otimizacao das operacoes de transporte de derivados em um poliduto com multiplas sangrias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Guilherme; Magatao, Leandro; Arruda, Lucia Valeria Ramos; Silva, Marcos Henrique da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lara, Lucas El Ghoz [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This work presents an optimization structure to support the operational decision making of scheduling activities in a multi product pipeline with multiple deliveries. This pipeline connects, in sequence, 6 operational areas: one is the main refinery, and the 5 remaining are distribution centers, each one with specific capacity of storage. Basically, the refinery pumps derivatives, such as diesel and gasoline, in a unidirectional flow to distribution centers, in a way to supply their demands. The solution kernel is underlined in a hybrid structure, using heuristics and Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) modeling, executed iteratively. Details of storage curves and flow rate of pipelines are obtained in the proposed approach, expanding the results of Kira et al. (2010). Additionally, the proposed approach is able to deal with discrete demands along the scheduling horizon. Thus, this hybrid structure makes possible to obtain operational scheduling solutions at a low CPU times (few minutes), using real data scenarios, whose horizon length has at least 30 days. (author)

  12. Developing Pipeline Transportation in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chenghan; Wang Wei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the late 1980s, focus of exploration and development for oil & gas has been diverted to thewest of China, resulting in the discovery and development of Shaanbei gas field followed by large-scale exploration and development of Tarim,Turpan and Hami basins. Responding to this situation, pipeline construction focus has also been transferred to west China where large-scale development of pipeline transportation, an opportunity as well as a challenge, is expected.

  13. 基于属性识别理论的油气管道施工质量风险评价%Risk assessment on constructing quality of oil & gas pipeline based on attribute recognition theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜涛; 姚安林; 李熠辰; 万甫; 周旭

    2015-01-01

    In order to realistically evaluate the risk on construction quality of oil &gas pipelines, a risk evaluation method was put forward based on attribute recognition model.Firstly, the attribute space matrix was established and orderly divided.The combination weight assigning of entropy weight method with objective weight assigning and G1 method with subjective weight assigning was applied to determine the weight and attribute measurement of each e-valuation index.The confidence criterion was used to recognize the model and obtain the possibility level of quality reduction in pipelines construction.Finally, the result of quality reduction in pipelines construction was evaluated, and the risk grade was obtained by risk matrix.The given example showed that the construction quality of oil&gas pipelines is greatly affected by the quality and wrong behaviors of personnel, construction technology and manage-ment method.The possibility that the construction quality of oil&gas pipelines will reduce in section S4 and S5 is higher.There is a high level of risk in section S4 and S5 by risk matrix.Therefore, attention and concern should be paid to manage and control the risk factors in section S4 and S5 by pipeline company and construction company..%为了贴近客观实际地评价油气管道施工质量风险,提出了基于属性识别模型的风险评价方法。首先建立属性空间矩阵并进行有序分割,采用客观赋权的熵权法和主观赋权的G1法组合赋权确定各评价指标权重和属性测度,利用置信度准则对模型进行识别,得到管道施工质量降低可能性等级。然后评价管道施工质量降低的后果,依据风险矩阵得到施工质量风险等级。算例表明:人员的素质、错误行为、施工工艺方法和管理方法对油气管道施工质量的影响较大。管段S4、S5发生油气管道施工质量降低的可能性偏高,通过风险矩阵得到管段S4、S5的风险等级

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Northwest Arctic, Alaska classified according to the...

  15. Introduction to Special Section: The Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) Across Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafker, George; Mooney, Walter D.

    1997-01-01

    This special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research addresses the composition and structural evolution of the lithosphere in northern Alaska. Investigations reported in this section were mainly undertaken as part of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT), an integrated geological and geophysical transect of the entire Alaskan lithosphere along a north-south corridor undertaken from 1984 to 1992 (Figure 1). The onshore segment of the transect approximately follows along the route of the trans-Alaskan pipeline; the offshore segment extends across the continental margin in the Gulf of Alaska to the Pacific plate. The TACT line is unique in that it provides a coordinated onshore/offshore geological and geophysical traverse of the North American plate in Alaska from the active convergent Pacific margin to the passive Arctic margin of the continent.

  16. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  17. 移动式输油管线选线及工艺设计辅助设计系统的研究%Study on Reconnaissance and Technological Design CAD System of mobile oil pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖微; 徐小明; 戴健; 彭向军; 杨廷欣

    2011-01-01

    Mobile oil pipeline,which has many excellent characteristics including mobility,flexibility,and high delivery capacity,has been one of the important equipments of petroleum support in special districts.At present,the design of movable pipeline route and design depends only on pure manual operations,so that it needs two or three months and a lot of money and manpower to develop a complete mobile pipeline program.The research program aims to use the technologies of GPS,geographic information,fluid mechanics,operational research and mathematical modeling to establish a set of systematic,reliable route survey and pipeline design models.It aims to put forward a complete automation and intelligent design solution for the design of equipments structure and delivery power.And the final goal of the program is to improve the efficiency of route survey and pipeline design in the future to meet the petroleum support requirements in special environments.%移动式管线油料保障因其机动、灵活、输送流量大等特性成为特殊环境下油料保障的重要组成部分。现阶段,特殊环境的输油管线选线及工艺设计方案的制定采用纯手工作业的方式,制定一套完整的方案需要两至三个月的时间,同时消耗了大量的人力物力。通过利用GPS全球定位、地理信息、流体力学、运筹学、数学建模等技术,构建一套完整、可靠、符合实际需要的移动式管线选线及设计模型,提出整套自动化解决方案,实现快捷高效的输油管线工艺、装备的智能化设计,从而提高输油管线选线设计与展开铺设的效率,适应特殊环境下输油管线选线设计与展开的要求。

  18. Sino-Kazakh Crude Pipeline Starts Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Sino-Kazakh Crude Oil Pipeline financed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and KazMunaiGaz, the state oil company of Kazakhstan,was launched on December 15, 2005, thanks to the commitments and endeavors of governments and constructors of both countries. The pipeline, with diameter of 813 mm, the total length of 962.2 km running from the Kazakhstan Atasu in the west to China's Alashankou in the east, with the phase I designed annual capacity up to 10 million tons. The launch of the pipeline is a milestone of the China-Kazakhstan energy cooperation, having great importance to the countries' economic growths, China's energy security strategy and the diversification of Kazakh oil exports.

  19. Oil Pipeline Security System Based on Fiber-optic Vibration Sensor and FPGA%基于光纤振动传感器与FPGA的石油管道安防系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晖; 吕宏伟; 冯进良; 才存良

    2016-01-01

    针对石油管道铺设于土壤中发生泄漏难以检测的问题,结合光纤振动传感器高灵敏度与FPGA高扫描速度的特点,设计了基于FPGA和光纤振动传感器的石油管道安防系统。首先采用光纤传感器检测故障点振动,再通过计算由振动调制的信号传到两端基站的时间差确定管道泄漏点。系统采用雷达辐射信号分选算法在FPGA中实现信号的筛选,采用授时精度高达15ns的U-blox授时芯片保证不同基站的时间一致,采用“双基站源-双向定位”方式有效平均定位误差。结果表明,系统可对5.5km范围内管道的泄漏事件进行有效报警定位,定位误差在30mm范围内。%According to the fact that it’s hard to detect the oil spill if the pipeline is laid in the soil. Combined with the high sensitivity of fiber-optic vibration sensor and high scanning speed of FPGA,this paper designs the oil pipeline security system based on FPGA and fiber-optic vibration sensor. Firstly, fiber-optic sensor is adopted to detect spill point. Then the oil spill point is determined by calculating the time difference of the vibratory modulation signals be-tween base station at both ends. The system adopts the algorithm of radar radiation signal sorting to filter signal in the FPGA,uses 15ns U-blox timing chips to ensure timing accuracy of different base stations and “source of twin-sta-tion-bi-directional positioning” mode to average location error effectively. The results indicate that the system can ef-fectively alert the position of pipeline spill in 5.5km,and the position error range is in 30mm.

  20. 77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  1. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-04-21

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  2. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sahli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less. This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs. The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  3. Study on Defect Detect of Oil and Gas Pipeline by Metal Magnetic Memory Testing Technology Based on Wavelet Analysis%基于小波分析的油气管道缺陷磁记忆检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书俊; 李著信; 龚利红; 郭联欢

    2011-01-01

    金属磁记忆检测技术是目前唯一能对铁磁性构件早期损伤进行诊断的无损检测手段,能检测识别油气管道早期损伤以及以应力集中为特征的裂纹缺陷.小波分析由于具有良好的时频局部性,能很好地克服傅里叶变换的不足,得到广泛的应用.针对目前金属磁记忆检测技术以过零点作为缺陷判定准则存在的不足,利用小波尺度谱和再分配的尺度谱对磁记忆信号进行分析.试验结果表明,小波再分配尺度谱能有效应用于管道缺陷的磁记忆检测之中.%Metal magnetic memory testing (MMMT) technology is the only feasible NDT method in the aspect of early diagnosis till now, which can detect and recognize the early damnification and oil and gas pipeline crack in the character of stress concentration. Wavelet is widely applied for it has good time-frequency location character and can get over the deficiency of Fourier transform. Aiming at the deficiency of using MMMT to recognize pipeline defect, the reassigned wavelet scalogram analysis method was put forward to analyze the MMMT signal. The experimental result proves that the reassigned wavelet scalogram is effective in pipeline defect recognition by MMMT.

  4. 连续管线管在青海油田地面集输管线的应用%Coiled Tubing Application in Qinghai Oil Field Ground Gathering Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏强; 王琪; 秦跃平; 张阿军

    2013-01-01

    针对目前油田地面集输管线采用无缝管单根焊接方式造成的焊口多、空气污染严重、劳动强度高等问题,使用连续管线管替代无缝管进行地面集输管线项目试验.介绍了试验用连续管线管的拉伸性能,以及试验现场布管、焊接、焊后水压试验、防腐层补伤等工艺过程.试验结果表明,与无缝管相比,连续管线管用作地面集输管线具有施工效率高、安全性及质量可靠等优点.%Aiming at some problems occurred in adopting seamless steel pipe to conduct each single pipe welding in oil field ground gathering pipeline, such as many welded junction, serious air pollution, high labour intensity and so on. It adopted coiled tubing to replace seamless steel pipe to carry out ground gathering pipeline trial project, introduced the tensile performance of coiled tubing used in experiment, layout pipe in field, welding, hydrostatic test after welding, coating repaire and other process. The test results indicated that compared with seamless steel pipe, coiled tubing used for ground gathering pipeline is with high construction efficiency, high safety, reliable quality and etc.

  5. Stress Detection System for Oil Pipeline Based on Rectangular Rosette%基于直角应变花的输油管道应力监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军凯; 陈彦; 王护利

    2015-01-01

    For monitoring the deformation, fracture and other security risks of long oil pipeline affected by various factors, design a stress detection system. Through the acquisition of resistance change which is the result of pipe deformation, of the resistance rosette pasted in pipeline surface, making sure the direction and size of strain, and through the GSM to transfer data remotely, it can realize the real-time monitoring of the pipe stress. The results showed that the system is reliable, easy to install and debug and its low cost, which can apply to the system such as long pipeline stress monitoring in large scale and unattended situation, and natural gas long-distance transmission system.%为监测长输油管线受各种因素影响而产生的管道形变、断裂等安全隐患,研制一种应力检测系统。通过采集粘贴在管道表面的电阻应变花随管道变形而产生的电阻变化,确定主应力方向及应力大小,并通过GSM网络远程传输数据到主控中心,实现对管道应力的实时监测。结果表明:该系统稳定可靠、安装调试方便、成本低廉,适用于大规模野外无人值守情况下的长输油管道应力检测和天然气的远距离传输系统中。

  6. Oil pipeline leakage detection and positioning system based on PC104%基于PC104的输油管道泄漏检测定位系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓士伟; 李一博; 李健

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the shortage of large power consumption, unreliable network communication and different system time on pipeline online monitoring, a new oil pipeline leakage detection and positioning system based on embedded PC104 is designed. Use the GPS time service technology and LAN between central PC and remote terminal unit. The detection principle, hardware structure and software design of the system are introduced in detail. The test and actual application show that the system operates stably,and its power consumption is low and integrity, reliability and real-time performance of remote data transmission is guaranteed. It is able to correctly identify the pipeline leakage, and make accurate positioning.%针对目前管道在线监测用电功率大、网络通信不稳定和系统时间不同一的缺陷,设计了一种基于嵌入式PC104的管道泄漏检测定位系统.应用GPS授时技术和局域网连接中心PC与远程监测终端,详细分析了其系统检测原理、硬件结构和软件设计方案.通过实际测试和应用表明:该系统运行稳定,低功耗,且保证了远距离数据传输的完整性、可靠性和实时性,能够对管道泄漏进行正确的识别,并做出准确的定位.

  7. 政府宏观调控对油气管道共建共享影响的博弈研究%Game Theory on the Influence of Governmental Macroeconomic Regulations and Controls on Joint Construction and Sharing of Oil and Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚建岗

    2016-01-01

    An analysis on feasibility of solving repeated construction issues of pipelines by taking govern-mental macroeconomic regulations and controls is conducted based on building two-stage dynamic game model between government and oil and gas company.The research indicates that if government lists the de-gree of joint construction and sharing of company pipelines into the calculation scope of corporate income tax rate which is regarded as rewards and punishments to stimulate oil and gas company to conduct joint construction and sharing of pipelines,there is a negative correlation between the degree of joint construc-tion and sharing of pipelines of oil and gas company and basic tax rate of corporate income tax collected by government,a positive correlation between the degree of joint construction and sharing of pipelines of oil and gas company and the degree of joint construction and sharing of pipelines formulated by the govern-ment,a negative correlation between the degree of joint construction and sharing of pipelines of oil and gas company and cost coefficient of joint construction and sharing of pipelines of the company,and a positive correlation between the degree of joint construction and sharing of pipelines of oil and gas company and cost coefficient of joint construction and sharing of pipelines of the other companies.Therefore,governmen-tal macroeconomic regulations and controls are effective in the process of solving repeated construction is-sues of pipelines of oil and gas industry.Besides,an effective and macroeconomic regulation and control pol-icies has to consider the opportunity cost of different companies participating in the joint construction and sharing of pipelines.The"one size fits all"policies of regulation and control shall not be adopted.%通过建立政府-油气企业两阶段动态博弈模型,对政府采用宏观调控手段解决管道重复建设问题的可行性进行分析.研究表明:如果政府将企业管道共建共享程度

  8. 长输油气管道焊缝无损检测标准分析%Analysis of NDT Standard for Long Distance Oil and Gas Pipeline Weld Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景人; 王晓桥; 夏锋社

    2014-01-01

    通过对现行的长输管道无损检测验收标准对比分析,认为 SY/T 4109比 JB/T 4730在射线检测验收时,未熔合、未焊透和条形缺陷级别评定上要求宽松;而在超声波检测时灵敏度要求过低,且缺陷等级评定时也明显低于 JB/T 4730的要求,不利于提高长输管道的本质安全,并提出相应的建议。%The level of radiographic testing evaluation about the incomplete fusion, lack of penetration and bar defects of the weld joint in the SY/T 4109 is not as strict as that in the JB/T 4730,through comparison of the current long distance pipeline analysis of NDT methods and acceptance standard. The sensitivity requirement and defect rating are improper comparing to the JB/T 4730.This is not conducive to improve the security of long distance oil and gas pipeline, and the corresponding suggestion is put forward.

  9. Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure : activity 2 final report : information on SCADA systems and other security monitoring techniques used in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P.; Revie, R.W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2008-03-15

    This study evaluated various technologies for monitoring the security of remote pipeline infrastructure. The technologies included flow, pressure and mass variations; negative pressure waves; dynamic and statistical modelling; hydrocarbon-sensitive cables; fiber optic systems; infrared thermography; spectral imaging; and synthetic aperture radar and radio frequency identification methods. A brief outline of the technologies was provided, along with suggestions for integrating the technology with other commercially available tools designed to manage security and reduce risk. The study demonstrated that many monitoring technologies are suitable for detecting pipeline leaks and identifying third party intrusions. A combination of different methods may provide optimal security and accuracy in leak detection and location. Automatic range and plausibility checks can be used to enhance system security and to recognize invalid changes in measuring devices and poorly parameterized media. Detailed reviews of the technologies were included in 2 appendices. 28 refs., 2 appendices.

  10. Qualification of the system for thermal coating rehabilitation in situ of oil pipeline in operation; Qualificacao de sistema de reabilitacao in situ de revestimento termico para oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebsch, Andre; Correa, Anyr Rosa; Cabral, Glaucia Brazuna; Castanheiras Junior, Wilson Gil [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliver, Joao Hipolito de Lima; Pinto, Mucio Eduardo Amarante Costa [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The transfer of some derived products of petroleum with high viscosity is accomplished with the same ones heated up. These buried pipelines are provided of Thermal Isolation System (TIS). Those TIS are composed with a polyurethane foam layer (PU) that is externally protected by polyethylene layer (PE). The acids production was generated by the deterioration of TIS. This associated with an absence of anticorrosive coating on the pipeline cause the corrosion with its thickness loss and consequently it's endangered. The rehabilitation of the existent TIS was done necessary to control this corrosive process, by reason of the Cathodic Protection System usually used in complement to the anticorrosive coating does not work on this TIS. A TIS rehabilitation process with the pipeline in operation was specified by PETROBRAS - ENGINEER and TRANSPETRO. It's qualified and was composed by two stages: Pre-qualification: tests in factory using pipes with original TIS and operating with hot water to 85 deg C. This stage was composed by the removal of original TIS, pipe surface preparation, application and tests on the anticorrosive coating, application and tests of the PU foam and application and tests of the PE casing. Qualification: stage composed by the application in field of the new TIS in a thousand meters of the pipeline OBATI-SP, operated by TRANSPETRO, and tests of the pipe assembly. This work presents the results of the Qualification for the rehabilitation of the thermal coating. It achieves the quality level demanded by PETROBRAS - Engineer and TRANSPETRO. (author)

  11. 基于AMESim的某混凝土泵液压回油管路分析%Analysis of Hydraulic Oil Return Pipeline of One Concrete Pump Based on AMESim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫

    2011-01-01

    介绍了某混凝土泵液压系统回油管路的设计,分析了减小该液压系统振荡、保护关键液压元件的方法.采用AMESim软件对该液压系统进行建模与仿真,得出了该回油路优化设计的参数.%The design of hydraulic oil return pipeline of one concrete pump was introduced.How to decrease the vibration of hydraulic system and defend the key hydraulic components of the system were analyzed.Modeling and simulation of the hydraulic system were done on AMEsim, and the optimized parameters were gained.

  12. 75 FR 36677 - Notice of Relocation/Change of Address for the Bureau of Land Management, Office of Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation/Change of Address for the Bureau of Land Management, Office of Pipeline Monitoring, Alaska State Office AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Office of Pipeline Monitoring, located at 411...

  13. Comparative analysis of domestic and foreign labor protection standards for oil and gas pipeline%国内外油气管道劳动防护标准对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云峰; 刘冰; 马伟平; 税碧垣

    2013-01-01

    从头部防护、眼面部防护、身体防护、足部防护、手部防护、听觉器官防护、呼吸器官防护、防坠落保护8个方面对比分析了国内外油气管道领域劳动防护标准.剖析了我国标准的现状及与国外标准的差异,比如我国目前在听觉器官防护方面尚无相关标准,有待及早制定;指出了国外相关标准值得借鉴学习的内容,比如在防坠落保护方面,国外企业要求同时采取两种独立的防坠落保护措施,进行双重防坠落保护.研究成果对于完善我国油气管道劳动防护标准体系具有重要意义.%Comparative analysis of domestic and foreign labor protection standards for oil and gas pipeline is conducted from 8 aspects such as head protection, eye and face protection, body protection, foot protection, hand protection, hearing protection, respiratory organ protection and fall prevention. Status of Chinese standards and difference from foreign standards are analyzed. For example, China provides no relevant standard for hearing protection, so the standard shall be formulated as soon as possible. In addition, foreign standard contents worthy of learning are pointed out. For example, foreign enterprises are required to take two separate fall prevention measures to achieve dual protection. Research results are of great importance in improving China's labor protection standards for oil and gas pipeline.

  14. A study of landslide risk assessment expert system along the oil and gas pipeline routes%油气长输管道滑坡地质灾害危险性评价专家系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方浩; 高姣姣

    2012-01-01

    Based on the running oil and gas pipelines, this paper got the main factors triggering landslide and controling slope stability by abundant existing data, then analyzed a large number of landslides cases. On the basis of the factors, this paper established the landslide hazard evaluation index system. The long - distance pipe lines landslide risk assessment expert system is established by using the research method of expert system. The risk assessment expert system was used to assess an actual engineering and make a good perform. It can provide technical support for the oil and gas pipeline engineering geological hazards disaster prevention and reduction.%以运营的油气长输管道工程为依托,在收集、整理、综合分析既有资料基础上,通过对大量滑坡案例进行分析,明确了滑坡地质灾害的主要诱发因素与稳定性控制指标,建立了滑坡危险性评价指标体系.应用专家系统研究方法,建立油气长输管道线路滑坡地质灾害危险性评价专家系统,并对具体工程进行了地质灾害危险性评估,结果符合实际,可为油气长输管道工程地质灾害减灾防灾提供技术支撑.

  15. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  16. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  17. Physical data from CTD and bottle casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX in the Gulf of Alaska by the University of Alaska; Institute of Marine Science (UAK/IMS) in support of the Exxon Oil Spill Monitoring Program and the Gulf of Alaska Recirculation Project from 05 May 1989 to 28 May 1989 (NODC Accession 8900171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and sigma-t profiles from CTD and bottle casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX. Data were collected in the Gulf of Alaska by the University of...

  18. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... criteria and procedures for determining the adequacy of state pipeline excavation damage prevention...

  19. Marine bird populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Marine bird populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, were censused in the winter and summer of 1972 and 1973 to assess the potential impact of oil transport...

  20. A New Opportunity Facing the Pipeline Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Changpu

    2001-01-01

    @@ According to the State and CNPC programs for development,the nation's oil/gas pipeline sector is faced with an unprecedented historic opportunity, about to enter its golden period of development.The three major pipelines () SeNing-Lan (from Sebei of Qinghai Province to Lanzhou by way of Xining) for natural gas, LanCheng-Yu (from Lanzhou to Chengdu extending to Chongqing) for finished oils, and Zhong-Wu (from Zhongxian County of Chongqing to Wuhan)for natural gas, either under construction or planned to be constructed, have all been listed as the national priority projects of infrastructure construction. And the double-line project of the existing Shaan-Jing (Shaanxi Province to Beijing) gas pipeline has finished the procedure for establishment.

  1. Risk rank evaluation on AC corrosion of buried oil pipeline%埋地石油管道交流腐蚀风险等级评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    生迎夏; 曾晓; 王益敏; 陶刚

    2012-01-01

    With the acceleration of modernization process in China, the construction of pipeline and power facilities present rapid development. However, it must pay close attention to the serious interference corrosion of buried pipeline in high voltage current, direct current electric power facilities, and so on. For pipeline accident by 80% occurring in underground, on the basis of full understanding of corrosion mechanism, the orthogonal design method was applied, focusing concern effect factors of AC corrosion on buried pipeline , and obtained its mutual mathematics relationship. Then, combining corrosion mechanism and orthogonal experimental results , the main factors , secondary factors, and less impact factor were determined by the orthogonal experiment screening process, choose the reasonable indicators, while by using fault tree analysis, expert advice, and secondary data analysis, as well as reference to the study summarization both at home and abroad, comprehensive absorption, induction, reorganization, additions and deletions were conducted on existing evaluation indicators, those little influance factors were deleted to establish risk grade assessment index system of AC corrosion on buried pipeline, and comprehensive e-valuation method of fuzzy mathematics was applied on systematic evaluation of AC corrosion risk grade, in order to provide reliable data for security management of duried pipeline.%随着我国现代化进程的加快,管道建设与电力设施的建设呈现出高速发展的局面.然而,高压交流、直流电力设施对埋地管道存在着严重的干扰腐蚀情况.采用正交实验的方法,重点关注交流腐蚀对埋地管道的影响因素,并得出其相互间的数学关系,然后综合腐蚀机理以及正交实验结果,通过正交实验的筛选过程确定主要因素、次要因素以及影响较小的因素,选择合理的指标,运用故障树分析、专家咨询以及二手资料的分析法,并参考国内外的研究

  2. Quantitative risk analysis in two pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Euclides [Centro Universitario FIB, Salvador , BA (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Transportation risk analysis techniques were used to study two pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO. The Pipeline A is for the simultaneous transportation of diesel, gasoline and LPG and comprises three parts, all of them crossing rural areas. The Pipeline B is for oil transportation and one of its ends is located in an area of a high density population. Both pipelines had their risk studied using the PHAST RISK{sup R} software and the individual risk measures, the only considered measures for license purposes for this type of studies, presented level far below the maximum tolerable levels considered. (author)

  3. Foreign Giants Take Gas Pipeline Stake Equally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ye

    2002-01-01

    @@ Oil giants Royal/Dutch, ExxonMobil and Russia's Gazprom have agreed to take 15 percent stakes each in China's US$5.6 billion natural gas pipeline project,clearing away the final obstacles blocking the kickoff of the repeatedly delayed project, according to the latest reports from news media in early July.

  4. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  5. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN SOLAR RADIATION AND PHOTO-ENHANCED TOXICITY RISKS OF SPILLED OIL IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar irradiance (W/m2) and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd; m-1) were determined in several locations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, between April 2003 and December 2005 to assess temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and the risks of photoenh...

  6. 一种新的界面检测方法在成品油管道上的应用%The Application of A New Batch Interface Detection Method on Product Oil Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 赵天根; 翟培君; 杨滔; 毛振宇; 赵坤

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of batch interface detection in product oil pipe-lines combined with physical acoustics theory(sounds speed in different kinds of oil were not the same), the existing ultrasonic flowmeters were used in station to upload the collected ve-locity values of fluid in the pipeline, then the remote transmission of data was completed, and the interface was detected finally. The values of density, sound velocity and OID curves of the batch interface were drawn in the same time axis when it got into Zhengzhou oil station. The axis showed that the density and velocity values changed basically the same, while the OID trend was contrary. The curve of the sonic value changing with the density value showed that the relationship of the above two was linear which indicates that the sonic value is equivalent to the density value in the batch interface detection.%为了提高成品油管道中批次界面检测的准确性,结合物理声学理论(声音在不同种类油品中其传播速度不同),并将站场现有的超声波流量计采集的管道内流体声速值进行上传,完成该数据的远传,最终达到界面检测目的。通过数据处理软件,将郑州站批次界面进站时密度值、声速值及OID数值变化曲线绘制在同一时间轴下,可以看到三者基本同步变化,密度值与声速值变化趋势基本相同,而OID趋势变化相反。研究声速值随密度变化曲线可知,二者变化呈线性关系,这表明在检测批次界面时,使用声速值与密度值是等效的。

  7. The kinematic viscosity influence on energetic cost of oil pipeline flow; Influencia da viscosidade cinematica sobre o custo energetico no escoamento de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Kennedy F.M. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Paraiba (CEFET-PB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Torres, Euriclides G.; Lacerda, Ivonaldo de S.; Machado, Erica C.M.N. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the petroleum pipelines flow the objective of the maximum production with the minor cost is desired, considering the techniques, operational and administrative restrictions. One of the biggest difficulties in the pipelines flow is related to increase of viscosity that the fluids produced can present and to the variations during the transport. In this study had been analyzed through computational simulations, using Smart Pumping software, the hydraulic behavior of the network and the operational cost with energy consumption, in function of the variation of the viscosity. Two scenes had been simulated, using a initial kinematic viscosity of 3,029x10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/s, that it was reduced gradually until the minimum limit of 10% of initial viscosity, remaining the too much constant the fluid properties. In scene 1 it was verified that the reduction of viscosity implied in the reduction of the energy cost in up to 14,53%, increase of the daily production in up to 3,88% and the reduction in the cost for m3 flowed off in up to 17,73%, without alterations in the operations. Scene 2 presented similar behavior to scene 1, however, had been necessary interventions to get operations that did not violate the restrictions. The results had ratified the interference of viscosity in the operations and the system petroleum flow costs. (author)

  8. Prediction of response and damaged length of a subsea pipeline after a full bore rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Mashayekh, Kourosh

    2012-01-01

    The combination of oil and gas reservoirs in sea areas with high shipping traffic brings some challenges for engineers. One of these challenges is related to subsea pipeline systems specially where water depth is classified as shallow or intermediate. Due to large number of vessels passing the area with shallow water depth, interaction between anchors of these vessels and the offshore pipeline can occur. If a dragging anchor hits and subsequently hooks the pipeline, the pipeline could be rupt...

  9. Study on oil pipeline scaling of ASP flooding and descaling effect of Daqing No.6 Oil Production Plant%大庆采油六厂三元复合驱油井输油管道结垢原因及除垢效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜伟; 苑丹丹; 董晶; 朱丽娜; 邵海倩

    2013-01-01

    随着采油技术的发展,尤其是三元复合驱采油技术在油田开发过程中的应用,由于温度、压力和油气水平衡状态的变化,会导致在采油井井筒、套管、生产油管发生无机盐类的沉积,生成垢.结垢不仅对产层造成伤害、降低原油采收率,还导致原油成本上升,使产能降低,能耗增大,不能正常连续操作,甚至停产[1].本文以大庆采油六厂输油管道垢样及水样为研究对象,对垢样进行成分分析,对水样进行离子组成分析,并根据分析结果,提出结垢机理.结果表明:输油管道严重结垢被堵塞,垢的主要成分是有机物、碳酸盐和硅酸盐.%With the development of production technology, especially the ASP flooding oil production technology was used in oil field development , scale generating come out because of inorganic salts depositing in production shaft, casing, production tubing,which is the result of the temperature, pressure and oil and gas water balance changing . Scaling not only damaged the reservoir and reduced the oil recovery, but also lead to a rise in the cost of crude oil and reduced energy consumption, which increased productivity, the operation can't continue and even make production suspended .Basing on the Daqing six oil pipeline plant scale samples and water sample. This paper analyzed the component of scale sample and the ionic composition of water sample, then put forward the scaling mechanism by the analysis results. The results showed that oil pipeline serious scaling is congested, and the main components of the scale are organic, carbonate and silicate.

  10. Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents

  11. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  12. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  13. 半埋热油管道传热研究%Study on Heat Transfer of Partially Buried Hot Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 李清平; 宫敬; 宇波

    2012-01-01

    受飓风、暴雨、泥石流等恶劣天气的影响,埋地管道可能局部处于半掩埋状态.目前半埋管道传热计算多采用“线性插值”模型.建立了半埋热油管道的流(空气水)-管-土耦合传热机理模型,并利用数值模拟手段对不同条件下管道的传热特性进行了研究.结果表明,管道的总传热系数、出口温度和土壤蓄热量与管道的相对埋入面积呈明显的非线性关系;线性模型与机理模型的计算结果在趋势与数值方面均具有较大偏差;管道刚好完全掩埋时与完全不掩埋时相比,总传热系数出口温度的差异较大,且管径越大,差异越显著;当环境流体的温度较低时,管道出口温度对相对埋入面积更敏感.%As a result of bad weather, such as hurricane, storm or landslide, some part of buried pipeline may be in a semi-buried state. Currently the "linear interpolation" model is used to calculate the heat loss of partially buried pipe. A mechanism model of heat transfer of fluid (air/water)-pipe-soil coupling is developed, and the thermal behaviors of pipeline are studied by numerical simulation. The results show that the changes of the overall heat transfer coefficient, outlet temperature and soil heat storage of pipeline with the fraction of outside surface of pipe in touch with soil have obvious non-linear characters, both the trend and value of the linear model deviate from that of the mechanism model greatly. There are significant differences in the overall heat transfer coefficients/outlet temperatures between the pipe completely exposed to the surrounding fluid and that just covered by soil. The bigger the pipe diameter is, the greater the differences are. When the temperature of the surrounding fluid is lower, the outlet temperature is more sensitive to the fraction of outside surface of pipe covered by soil.

  14. Research and Analysis of Water Hammer Problem of Crude Oil Terminal Pipeline%原油码头管道输送水击问题的研究与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振智; 王为民; 李卫卫; 郑翔文; 王有龙

    2013-01-01

    原油码头卸船、原油库区装船过程当中很容易出现原油不稳定流动的现象,因此造成水击,水击对原油管道产生很严重的破坏性影响。针对大连长兴岛油船发生水击的现象进行了分析,阐述了产生水击的原因,水击的危害。提出了水击波的流速公式和不同工况时冲击压力的计算公式。最后针对工程的实际情况,从设计、施工、管理三方面提出了预防水击的措施。%Instable flow of crude oil appears very easily during crude oil ship unloading or loading, which can result in the phenomenon of water hammer, water hammer for crude oil pipeline is a devastating impact. In this paper, according to the tanker water hammer phenomenon occurred in Dalian Changxing island, reasons to cause the water hammer were analyzed as well as harms of water hammer. The velocity formula of water hammer wave was put forward as well as impact pressure calculation formula under different conditions. Finally, according to the actual situation of project, the prevention measures of water hammer were put forward from three aspects of design, construction and management.

  15. Trace Software Pipelining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; AndreasKrall; 等

    1995-01-01

    Global software pipelining is a complex but efficient compilation technique to exploit instruction-level parallelism for loops with branches.This paper presents a novel global software pipelining technique,called Trace Software Pipelining,targeted to the instruction-level parallel processors such as Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) and superscalar machines.Trace software pipelining applies a global code scheduling technique to compact the original loop body.The resulting loop is called a trace software pipelined (TSP) code.The trace softwrae pipelined code can be directly executed with special architectural support or can be transformed into a globally software pipelined loop for the current VLIW and superscalar processors.Thus,exploiting parallelism across all iterations of a loop can be completed through compacting the original loop body with any global code scheduling technique.This makes our new technique very promising in practical compilers.Finally,we also present the preliminary experimental results to support our new approach.

  16. Validation of pig operations through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, pigging operations in pipelines have been largely applied for different purposes: pipe cleaning, inspection, liquid removal and product separation, among others. An efficient and safe pigging operation requires that a number of operational parameters, such as maximum and minimum pressures in the pipeline and pig velocity, to be well evaluated during the planning stage and maintained within stipulated limits while the operation is accomplished. With the objective of providing an efficient tool to assist in the control and design of pig operations through pipelines, a numerical code was developed, based on a finite difference scheme, which allows the simulation of two fluid transient flow, like liquid-liquid, gas-gas or liquid-gas products in the pipeline. Modules to automatically control process variables were included to employ different strategies to reach an efficient operation. Different test cases were investigated, to corroborate the robustness of the methodology. To validate the methodology, the results obtained with the code were compared with a real liquid displacement operation of a section of the OSPAR oil pipeline, belonging to PETROBRAS, with 30'' diameter and 60 km length, presenting good agreement. (author)

  17. 东辛输油管道总传热系数测试与分析%Test and Analysis of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient of Dongxin Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安家荣; 刘绍亮

    2000-01-01

    介绍了东辛输油管道总传热系数的测试情况。根据运行参数测试结果计算了东辛管道沿线一年中不同月份的总传热系数,分析了各种因素对总传热系数测试结果的影响,指出管道运行工况的稳定程度、站间温降的大小以及进出站温度和地温的测量精度是影响总传热系数测试结果的主要因素,摩擦热对总传热系数计算结果具有显著影响,不可忽略。根据输油管道目前存在的问题,提出了如何提高管道总传热系数测试精度的建议。%This article covers a brief introduction about the test of overall heat transfer coefficient of Dongxin oil pipeline.Based on the pipeline operation parameters measured from the test,the overall heat transfer coefficients in each month of a year are calculated.The influences of various factors upon test results of overall heat transfer coefficient are analyzed.It is pointed out that the stability of pipeline operation conditions,temperature drops between heater stations,and measuring accuracy of temperatures are main factors affecting the test results,and frictional heat can significantly influnce calculation results of the overall heat transfer coefficient and can not be neglected.Some proposals for improving the test precision are put forward.

  18. Research on Improving Corrosion Resistance Property of Welded Joints of 13XΦA Steel Oil Pipeline%13XΦA钢石油管道焊接接头耐蚀性能改善的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许贵芝

    2013-01-01

    In this article, it introduced a kind of method to produce 13XΦA steel oil pipeline by high frequency welding and tempering treatment after 720 ℃. The results showed that welded joint possess ferrite-pearlite structure, the met allograph ic structure and mechanical performance are close to base metal, and is with high anti-corrosion stability. Based on a lot of tests, combined with the highest corrosion resistance property and the metallographic structure of mechanical performance specimen, the structure standard sample of 13XΦA steel pipeline welded joint was developed, which can quickly assess whether the corrosion resistance is reliable, and this kind of assessment method is quick and simple.%介绍了一种采用高频焊接、焊后720℃回火热处理工艺生产13XΦA钢石油管道的方法.研究结果表明,焊接接头具有铁素体-珠光体组织,其金相组织、力学性能与母材接近,并具有较高的耐蚀稳定性.在大量试验研究的基础上,综合最高耐蚀性能和力学性能试样的金相组织,研制出能迅速评估焊接接头耐蚀性是否可靠的13XΦA钢管道焊接接头组织标样,为石油管道的安全使用提供了一种快速简便的对照评估方法.

  19. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  20. Expert systems for integrity management in a crude oil pipeline; Sistemas expertos para gestion de integridad en sistemas de transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.P.; Pini, J. [Oldelval S.A., General Roca RN (Argentina)]. E-mail: mmartine@oldelval.com.ar; jpini@oldelval.com.ar; Rossi, J.P.; Pellicano, A. [Sintec S.A., Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: icesing@infovia.com.ar

    2003-07-01

    The study and modeling of corrosion processes aim at the accomplishment of three primary objectives: to increase safety operation margins, to reduce maintenance costs and to optimize available resources. The Integrity Expert System is based on a statistical propagation model of defects reported by high resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), fed with the information provided by corrosion sensors, repair interventions, field surveys and future inspections. As model results, defect depth, remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established: a medium term repair plan, an internal inspection program and both monitoring and mitigation technologies. System implementation in OLDELVAL was translated into two major effects of importance for the company integrity program: reduction in the pipeline probability of failure by corrosion by means of programmed repairs and optimization of the internal inspection investment plan by mans of an alternative programming. (author)

  1. Green pipeline dreams; Gruene Pipeline-Traeume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-11-15

    In theory, Germany and the other EU states would be able to cover their natural gas demand completely with pipeline-supplied biomethane. But will this be really possible in practice? The contribution takes a closer look. (orig.)

  2. Ultrasound monitoring of pipelines; Ultraschallueberwachung an Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kircher, W.; Skerra, B.; Kobitsch-Meyer, S. [SONOTEC Ultraschallsensorik, Halle GmbH (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Pipelines are the most modern, effective and safest transport system, which is world widely spread in a network of millions km length and is annually enlarged about thousands of km. It is sure that these systems, if they should stay save and effective, must be maintained adequately. A technique, which provides accurate and reliable measurement data without interrupting the pipeline operation, ''through the wall'', is the ultrasonic technology. This non-intrusive technology provides data for pig detection as well as it is used for recognising products in pipelines, detecting levels or full/empty states and accomplishment of sediment measurement, distance measurements, position detections and leak search. The article gives a review and describes some applications of ultrasonic technology in pipeline technique. (orig.)

  3. Impact Assessment Technology Research of Oil and Gas Pipeline Cathodic Protection%油气管道阴极保护效果评估技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利琼; 李卫杰; 孙磊

    2013-01-01

    阴极保护技术和防腐层联合防护是国内外公认且经济有效的油气管道防腐蚀措施。本文主要介绍了油气管道阴极保护技术的基本原理,重点阐述了油气管道阴极保护判据准则现状和阴极保护效果评估常用方法,分析了几种电位准则评估方法的优缺点,并对油气管道阴极保护效果评估技术的发展提出了一些展望。%The combination of cathodic protection technology and corrosion protective covering is authorized , economical and effective corrosion protection measure of oil and gas pipe at home and abroad .The paper mainly introduces fundamental principle of cathodic protection technology of oil and gas pipe , stressly expounds present situation of cathodic protection criterion of oil and gas pipe and general methods of cathodic protection effect evaluation, analyses the advantages and disadvantages of several potential criterion evaluation methods, Finally the development trend of cathodic protection effect evaluation technology of oil and gas pipe is summarized.

  4. Multinational Gas Pipeline Hopeful on Schedule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Kovykta project, which will transport natural gas from Russia's Eastern Siberia to China and Republic of Korea, might come out ahead over the Sino-Russian oil pipeline project. China and Russia are negotiating the price of the piped gas and the result of negotiations will likely be seen in three to four months, TNK-BP President and Chief Executive Officer Robert Dudley recently said,adding that he is confident that natural gas from Kovykta will start flowing through the pipeline by the end of 2008 as planned.

  5. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  6. Two Submarine Pipelines To Be Built in Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ To ensure the second step forward of CNOOC on oil/gas output for the Ninth -Five-Year Plan period, a transcentury project embarked upon its implementation in an all-round way at the beginning of this year by Bohai Company, i.e. two submarine oil/gas pipelines are going to be built across the Bohai Seabed. The two pipelines are of remarkably strategic significance for delivering the abundant resources of oil and gas developed in the Bohai Sea waters to the coastal cities in support of local economic construction and, in a couple of years, they will become "energy corridors" with great economic expectation.

  7. 石油管道水击压力数值模拟研究%Numerical Simulation of Water Hammer Pressure of Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄腾龙; 李清斌; 潘振; 陈保东; 金春旭; 李丹; 郑舟

    2013-01-01

    作为有压管路中最常见的不稳定流动现象,水击是运动的流体突然停止流动而产生的。针对水击现象,本文分析说明了产生水击的原因和危害,提出了减小水击的措施,通过使用特征线法求解水击问题,并编制相应的计算程序,与理想水击过程进行对比,阐明了计算结果的科学性和合理性。%As the most common unstable flow in the pressure pipeline, the water hammer is caused by sudden stop of the fluid flow in the movement. In this paper, aiming at the phenomenon of the water hammer, causes and harms of the water hammer were analyzed, the measures to reduce the water hammer were put forward. The water hammer problem was solved by using the method of characteristic line, and the corresponding program was compiled. Compared with the ideal water hammer process, the scientificalness and rationality of the results were proven.

  8. Environmental management of the OSBAT 24'' oil pipeline: reached practical results; Gestao ambiental do Oleoduto OSBAT 24{sup :} resultados praticos alcancados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Ricardo N.; Garibaldi, Celia M.; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Maira B.; Oliveira, Flavio M. de; Perim, Leandro A. [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil); Baptista, Sidney L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of this article is to present considerations about the practical results obtained over the implementation of specialized technical services for environmental monitoring and control of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' pipeline, located in a stretch of about 32 km from the Aquatic Terminal of Sao Sebastiao - SP (TASSE) to the district Camburi. This area is characterized by intense environmental complexity by the presence of the Serra do Mar State Park, under enormous natural diversity of preserved Mata Atlantica forest, contrasting with a considerable pole of urban sprawl whose population growth rates (4.66% pa) and economic they are above the average for the Sao Paulo State. The presentation of results considers the practical implementation of the package of environmental management tools used and seek verification of the scope and quality of the following items: general Review of care as environmental registers occurred at different periods (eg monthly, bimonthly, half, etc.); survey of the nature of environmental registers; environmental registers recovered; cases of non-compliance and the main control measures implemented; evaluation of environmental performance; recommendations and learning. (author)

  9. PLASTIC LIMIT LOAD ANALYSIS OF DEFECTIVE PIPELINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenGang; LiuYinghua; XuBingye

    2003-01-01

    The integrity assessment of defective pipelines represents a practically important task of structural analysis and design in various technological areas, such as oil and gas industry, power plant engineering and chemical factories. An iterative algorithm is presented for the kinematic limit analysis of 3-D rigid-perfectly plastic bodies. A numerical path scheme for radial loading is adopted to deal with complex multi-loading systems. The numerical procedure has been applied to carry out the plastic collapse analysis of pipelines with part-through slot under internal pressure, bending moment and axial force. The effects of various shapes and sizes of part-through slots on the collapse loads of pipelines are systematically investigated and evaluated. Some typical failure modes corresponding to different configurations of slots and loading forms are studied.

  10. Alaska Radiometric Ages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Radiometric Age file is a database of radiometric ages of rocks or minerals sampled from Alaska. The data was collected from professional publications...

  11. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    loss exceedance probability curve used by insurers to address their solvency and manage their portfolio risk. We analyze risk profile changes in areas with large population density and for structures of economic and financial importance: the Trans-Alaska pipeline, industrial facilities in Valdez, and typical residential wood buildings in Anchorage, Fairbanks and Juneau.

  12. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI...

  13. 油气输送管道止裂器的开发%Development of Crack Arrestors for Oil and Gas Transportation Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宏(编译); 刘会利(编译)

    2014-01-01

    对管线钢管的全尺寸和小尺寸试验均证明了纤维增强材料可以用于X100等超高强度管道止裂器的制作。在所有情况下止裂器都能够吸收断裂能量,阻止、延迟断裂并使断裂扩展停止。为了检查纤维包裹增强止裂器的力学性能和复合构件的服役行为,开展了进一步的试验。附加的试验将有助于纤维增强止裂器的优化。欧洲钢管公司已经计划在其钢管生产中加入纤维增强止裂器。%Full-and small-scale tests have demonstrated the usability of fibre reinforcements as crack arrestors for steel pipelines of higher-strength grades such as X100. In all cases the crack arrestors were able to absorb the energy of the crack to such an extent that the crack was stopped at the crack arrestor or retarded and arrested behind the crack arrestor. Further experiments have been carried out in order to examine the mechanical characteristics of fibre-wrapped reinforcements of the crack arrestor and the behaviour of such composite components during service. Additional experiments will help to optimise the application of fibre reinforcements. Europipe is now ready to include fibre reinforced crack arrestors in its production program.

  14. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded

  15. Online Slug Detection in Multi-phase Transportation Pipelines Using Electrical Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Mai, Christian; Hansen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Slugging flow in offshore oil & gas multi-phase transportation pipelines cause big challenges as the flow regime induces flow and pressure oscillations in the multi-phase pipelines. The negative impacts of the most severe slugs are significant and thus the elimination of slugging flow in the pipe......Slugging flow in offshore oil & gas multi-phase transportation pipelines cause big challenges as the flow regime induces flow and pressure oscillations in the multi-phase pipelines. The negative impacts of the most severe slugs are significant and thus the elimination of slugging flow...

  16. Holdup Measurement of Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Wen-guang; XU; Zheng

    2015-01-01

    This research mainly adopts gamma spectroscopy to detect the pipeline retention.The calculation of retention of uranium has been obtained based on the intensity of gamma rays of 185.715 keV emitted by 235U,and the analysis method for the pipeline retention has been established.

  17. Energy study of pipeline transportation systems. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-12-31

    The basic objectives of the overall study were to (1) characterize the pipeline industry and understand its energy consumption in each of the five major pipeline-industry segments: gas, oil, slurry, fresh water, and waste water; (2) identify opportunities for energy conservation in the pipeline industry, and to recommend the necessary R, D, and D programs to exploit those opportunities; (3) characterize and understand the influence of the Federal government on introduction of energy conservative innovations into the pipeline industry; and (4) assess the future potential of the pipeline industry for growth and for contribution to the national goal of energy conservation. This project final report is an executive summary presenting the results from the seven task reports.

  18. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  19. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  20. 基于遗传算法的成品油树状管网优化布置%Product Oil Pipeline Network Optimum Layout Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岳; 付晓东

    2011-01-01

    考虑到成品油管网各参数的波动,采用多目标加权法,以生命周期内管道与罐区的投资与维护费用现值、能耗费用现值及混油处理费用现值之和为目标函数,管网布置情况为决策变量,建立了成品油树状管网优化布置的数学模型,并采用遗传算法进行求解.该算法原理清晰,能快速搜索到令人满意的有效解.计算结果表明:利用遗传算法所得的最优解比Kruskal或Prim算法更经济.成品油管网各参数的设定要严格准确,若参数波动范围较大,则可通过变换权重系数的方法生成多种设计方案以供选择.MATLAB提供的遗传算法工具箱界面友好、设置简便,适于工程应用.%Considering the parameter fluctuations, using multi -objective weighting method, the present value sum of pipe and tank investment and maintenance, energy costs and mixed oil processing costs in life-cycle as the objective function, network layout situation as the decision variables, a product pipeline network optimal layout model was established. Use the genetic algorithm to solve it. This method is clear, fast and effective which leads to a satisfactory solution. Calculation results show that the optimal solution calculated by GA is more economic than the Kruskal or Prim algorithm, and product pipeline network parameter must be strictly set. If the parameters have a larger range, change the weight coefficients can generates a variety of designs for choosing. MATLAB genetic algorithm toolbox provides a friendly interface and easy to set which is convenient for engineering applications.

  1. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  2. West-East Gas Pipeline Starts Trial Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The eastern section of the West-East gas pipeline, which is from Jingbian County in Shaanxi Province to Shanghai, started trial operation on October 1, warming up for the commercial operation of the pipeline slated on January 1, 2004. PetroChina held a grand ceremony to celebrate the trial operation in Jingbian, a major gas production base of PetroChina Changqing Oil Field Company.

  3. Automated Monitoring of Pipeline Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Chard Ritchie

    2010-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the Pipeline Research Council International, Inc. have partnered in the formation of a research program to identify and develop the key technologies required to enable automated detection of threats to gas and oil transmission and distribution pipelines. This presentation describes the Right-of-way Automated Monitoring (RAM) program and highlights research successes to date, continuing challenges to implementing the RAM objectives, and the program's ongoing work and plans.

  4. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  5. North to Alaska: The Geostrategic Importance of the Last Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Strategic Possibilities of Alaska: 1934-1935. Captain Arthur W. Vanaman, Captain Muir S. Fairchild, Lieutenant Hoyt S. Vandenberg, and Lieutenant Laurence ...Rare Earth Minerals: over 150 occurrences67 Alaska contains in-demand rare earth elements ( REE ), which are valuable strategic minerals. REEs are...webpubs/dggs/sr/text/sr065.PDF (accessed 24 April 2012). 67 Sullivan, “Testimony,” 2. 58 vehicles).”68 REEs transform crude oil into gasoline

  6. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  7. Fermentative hydrogen production by two novel strains of Enterobacter aerogenes HGN-2 and HT 34 isolated from sea buried crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghearachchi, H.S.; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Singh, Sneha; Mandal, Ajay K.; Lal, Banwari [Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology Division, The Energy and Resource Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003 (India); Aginihotri, Anil [Corporate HSF, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, New Delhi (India)

    2009-09-15

    Present study investigated fermentative hydrogen production of two novel isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes HGN-2 and HT 34 isolated from oil water mixtures. The two isolates were identified as novel strains of E. aerogenes based on 16S rRNA gene. The batch fermentations of two strains from glucose and xylose were carried out using economical culture medium under various conditions such as temperature, initial pH, NaCl, Ni{sup +}/Fe{sup ++}, substrate concentrations for enhanced fermentation process. Both the strains favoured wide range of pH (6.5-8.0) at 37 C for optimum production (2.20-2.23 mol H{sub 2}/mol-glucose), which occurred through acetate/butyrate pathway. At 55 C, both strains favoured 6.0-6.5 and acetate type fermentation was predominant in HT 34. Hydrogen production by HT 34 from xylose was highly pH dependant and optimum production was at pH 6.5 (circa 1.98 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-xylose) through acetate pathway. The efficiency of the strain HGN-2 at pH 6.5 was 1.92-1.94 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-xylose, and displayed both acetate and butyrate pathways. At 55 C, very low hydrogen production was detected (less than 0.5 m mol/mol-xylose). (author)

  8. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Pipelines-This data set represents the oil and gas transmission pipelines in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada and New Mexico that appear on the 1:100,000 scale topographical map series from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 2001, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described as...

  9. The North Slope of Alaska and Tourism: Potential Impacts on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, L. R.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrocarbon industry of Alaska is currently the leading producer of revenue for the Alaskan state economy. Second only to hydrocarbons is the tourism industry. Tourism has been a viable industry since the 1890's when cruises touted the beauty of glaciers and icebergs along the Alaskan coastline. This industry has seen a steady growth for the past few decades throughout the state. The North Slope of Alaska, particularly Prudhoe Bay and the National Petroleum Reserve, has long been associated with hydrocarbon development and today displays a landscape dotted with gravel drill pads, gas and oil pipelines and housing for the oil workers. While tourism is not usually considered hand in hand with the hydrocarbon industry, it has mimicked the development of hydrocarbons almost since the beginning. Today one not only sees the effects of the oil industry on the North Slope, but also the tourist industry as planes unload dozens of tourists, or tour buses and private vehicles arrive daily via the Dalton Highway. In Deadhorse, hotels that once only housed the oil workers now welcome the tourist, offering tours of the oil fields and adjacent areas and have become jumping off sites for wilderness trips. Tourism will create jobs as well as revenue. However, at present, there are few restrictions or guidelines in place that will deal with the potential impacts of increased tourism. Because of this there are many concerns about the possible impacts tourism and the infrastructure development will have on the North Slope. To list several concerns: (1) What are the impacts of increased tourism and the infrastructure development? (2) What will the impacts be on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), which sits a mere 60 miles to the east of Deadhorse? (3) Will hydrocarbon development in ANWR and the associated infrastructure exacerbate potential impact by encouraging greater use of the Refuge by tourists? (4) Will tourism itself have a negative impact on this fragile

  10. 原油长输老管线管体检测案例与综合分析%A Case of Crude Oil Long-distance Pipeline Testing and Comprehensive Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁

    2012-01-01

    某净化油长输管道已服役36年,经前期外防腐蚀完整性检测评价确认,该管道外防腐蚀层存在大量破损点,且管道部分区段阴极保护处于欠保护状态。为进一步了解该管道管体的腐蚀与安全现状,利用瞬变电磁技术对该管道的管体腐蚀剩余平均壁厚实施了非开挖外检测,并对局部更换后的老管段样品进行了理化性能分析。结果表明,该管道管体腐蚀状况轻微,材质未发生劣化,管道服役前期性能良好的外防腐蚀层和管道服役中后期有效的阴极保护系统对抑制管道腐蚀起到了关键作用。%The outside anti corrosion integrity test was used to assess a long-distance pipeline of oil purification which had worked for thirty-six years. The results showed that there were many leaking points and parts of pipe were in under-protection. In order to further understand the corrosion and safety situation of pipe body, transient electric magnetic technology was used to inspect the average thickness of pipe body, and physical and chemiscal analyses were used for the old pipe. The results indicated that slight corrosion was observed, both the outside anti-corrosion and effective cathodic protection were very important.

  11. 磨料射流在输油气管道切割中的应用%Application of abrasive jet for pipe cutting of oil and gas pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童胜宝; 王春晖; 范原博

    2013-01-01

    Feasibility study on oil and gas pipelines by abrasive jet cutting is conducted through laboratory experiments, to obtain the law for impacts of operating parameters such as pump pressure, nozzle diameter, abrasive concentration, nozzle traverse speed and injection angle on abrasive water jet cutting depth, that is, the abrasive jet cutting depth is proportional to the pump pressure and inversely proportional to the nozzle movement speed and the nozzle diameter, abrasive fraction and injection angle all have optimal values. Genetic algorithms are used to determine and optimize undetermined parameters in the abrasive jet cutting model so as to obtain the cutting depth calculation mode. This model can be used to predict the abrasive jet cutting depth with the maximum error of 16% and minimum error of 1.5%, which complies with engineering requirements.%通过室内实验对磨料射流切割改造输油气管道的可行性进行研究,得到泵压、喷嘴直径、磨料浓度、喷嘴横移速度、喷射角度等工作参数对磨料射流切割深度的影响规律:磨料射流切割深度与泵压成正比,与喷嘴的移动速度成反比,喷嘴直径、磨料分数以及喷射角度均存在最优值.利用遗传算法确定并优化磨料射流切割模型中的未知参数,得出切割深度计算模型,利用该模型预测磨料射流切割深度,最大误差为16%,最小误差为1.5%,符合工程要求.

  12. Integrity management program for geo-hazards in the OCENSA pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Hugo; Nieves, Carlos; Colonia, Juan Diego [Oleoducto Central S.A (Colombia)

    2010-07-01

    In the hydrocarbon sector, transportation and distribution are mainly done through onshore steel pipelines which are confronted with various geological and hydrological formations along their routes. These specificities have to be taken into account to ensure the integrity of the pipeline and the aim of this paper is to present the comprehensive right of way (ROW) program implemented for the OCENSA pipeline. This pipeline, constructed in 1997, transports crude oil from the Andes to the Caribbean Coast. The ROW program was implemented right from the design phase and is now used in the 'Plan, Do, Verify and Adjust' continuous improvement cycle. This methodology has been successful in monitoring the pipeline's behaviour and has enabled the adoption of a maintenance strategy in accordance with changes in the environment. Thanks to the implementation of this strategy, no ruptures due to natural hazards have occurred in the OCENSA oil pipeline.

  13. 78 FR 66066 - Proposed Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request: Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...: Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the Outer Continental Shelf and Pipeline Rights of Way ACTION: 60-day... paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR 556, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the OCS; 30 CFR 550, Subpart J, Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way; and 30 CFR 560, OCS Oil and Gas...

  14. Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Natural gas interstate and intrastate pipelines in the United States. Based on a variety of sources with varying scales and levels of accuracy and therefore accuracy...

  15. Nearshore Pipeline Installation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    179. 5. Aldridge, R. G., and Bomba , J. G., "Deep Water Pipelines - Interdependence of Design and Construction", ASCE Paper. 6. American Society Civil...October 13, 1967. 24. Bomba , J. G. and Seeds, K. J., "Pipelining in 600 feet of water .... A Case Study of Washington Natural Gas Company’s Puget Sound...Crossing", Offshore Technology Conference, paper OTC 1188, 1970. 25. Bomba , J., "Submarine Pipe Construction Methods", Petroleum Engineer, Vol. 32

  16. Another Oil Disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ More than 800 fishing boats in Dalian,a coastal city in northeast China's Liaoning Province,joined the effort on July 20 to clean up crude oil that gushed into the sea after two oil pipelines exploded at Dalian Xingang Harbor four days earlier.

  17. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  18. Effect of soil restraint on the buckling response of buried pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi Amiri, H.; Kenny, Shawn [Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada); Phillips, Ryan [C-CORE (Canada); Popescu, Radu [URS Corporation (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In the oil and gas sector, transportation and distribution are mainly done suing onshore buried steel pipelines. These pipelines are subjected to numerous geohazards which can provoke significant deformations and it is thus important to evaluate the pipeline strain capacity. Common practice is to use a model developed using the pipeline mechanical response for in-air conditions; however, this does not account for the soil effect and the authors have developed a criterion for pipelines buried in stiff clay. The aim of this paper is to compare both methods and evaluate the effect of soil restraint on local buckling response. Results of the investigations showed that the in-air based criteria provide lower critical strain values than the developed criterion; they also showed that the soil has a restraining effect, which increases the pipeline bending resistance. This paper demonstrated that the soil effect should be considered when calculating the strain capacity of a buried pipeline.

  19. Pipeline coating comparison methods for northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection, Calgary, AB (Canada); Purves, G.A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Two high-quality pipe coatings designed for northern environments were compared for their relative costs and suitability for the conditions that will be encountered in the field. Coating selection should consider local conditions to achieve the optimum life-cycle costs for the system. Some of the key factors affecting the integrity of the protective coating on a pipe include the effects of cold temperature and soil types. In this study, both Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) and High Performance Composite Coatings (HPCC) were evaluated for an entire pipeline installation in a northern environment, from the coating plant to the pipe trench. The evaluation focused on the advantages of better abrasion resistance of the HPCC coating. This was compared against the incremental cost of HPCC coating over FBE on large diameter NPS 30 to NPS 48 pipelines. The following parameters influenced the choice of coating: storage, transportation and handling; bending ability under cold weather conditions; pipe installation and backfilling; weld joint coatings; coating repair and cathodic protection and pipeline integrity. Some of the construction costs that are indirectly affected by the choice of pipe coating include right-of-way preparation and restoration; trenching; supervision, service and downtime and specialist crossings. It was concluded that HPCC has better resistance to abrasion than FBE and is more flexible in extremely cold temperatures. Standard FBE is about 10 per cent less expensive than HPCC. In general HPCC will require less coating protection than FBE, depending on site conditions. 3 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Pargo/Garoupa 22'' crude oil pipeline from reconstruction to inspection: stages of the pipeline rehabilitation into the standard of guarantee of structural integrity; Oleoduto Pargo/Garoupa 22'' da reconstrucao a inspecao: etapas de re-habilitacao de um duto ao padrao de garantia de integridade estrutural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Aldo Renato; Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Medeiros, Carlos Eduardo Amosso; Mori, Eduardo Teruo; Melo, Francimario da Silva Vieira de; Ribeiro, Jussara Carvalho; Moura Neto, Rodolfo Jose de [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2003-07-01

    The Pipeline Pargo/Garoupa 22'' is 17 km long transfers the production of six platforms of the Northeast Pole for the Garoupa Central platform in Campos' Basin. This pipeline works with a flowrate of 450 m{sup 3}/h and it began to operate in 1987. The existence of a non-piggable sub sea manifold 500 meters down stream PGP-1 allied with receiver's absence impeded the passage of any type of pigs. The strategic importance of the pipeline allied with the need of operational safety assurance took PETROBRAS/UN-BC to the decision of building a pigs receiver in PGP-1 and to reestablish pig ability assembling a new riser and a new sub sea pipeline covering 500 meters, both in the diameter of 22 inches. After the conclusion, it was carried out a long campaign of cleaning, with emphasis in the development new drawings of specific pigs for the removal of the internal debris accumulated since the beginning of the operation. Several accessories were developed in order to improve the removal and arresting of wax and barium sulfate scale. Finally, the pipeline was inspected with a high resolution MFL pig. The present work describes all the stages of this pipeline rehabilitation, from the adaptation of the submarine facilities and of surface, going by the extensive campaign of cleaning and culminated with the inspection and the evaluation of the integrity. (author)

  1. Improved, Low-Stress Economical Submerged Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study has shown that the use of a high-strength composite fiber cloth material may greatly reduce fabrication and deployment costs of a subsea offshore pipeline. The problem is to develop an inexpensive submerged pipeline that can safely and economically transport large quantities of fresh water, oil, and natural gas underwater for long distances. Above-water pipelines are often not feasible due to safety, cost, and environmental problems, and present, fixed-wall, submerged pipelines are often very expensive. The solution is to have a submerged, compliant-walled tube that when filled, is lighter than the surrounding medium. Some examples include compliant tubes for transporting fresh water under the ocean, for transporting crude oil underneath salt or fresh water, and for transporting high-pressure natural gas from offshore to onshore. In each case, the fluid transported is lighter than its surrounding fluid, and thus the flexible tube will tend to float. The tube should be ballasted to the ocean floor so as to limit the motion of the tube in the horizontal and vertical directions. The tube should be placed below 100-m depth to minimize biofouling and turbulence from surface storms. The tube may also have periodic pumps to maintain flow without over-pressurizing, or it can have a single pump at the beginning. The tube may have periodic valves that allow sections of the tube to be repaired or maintained. Some examples of tube materials that may be particularly suited for these applications are non-porous composite tubes made of high-performance fibers such as Kevlar, Spectra, PBO, Aramid, carbon fibers, or high-strength glass. Above-ground pipes for transporting water, oil, and natural gas have typically been fabricated from fiber-reinforced plastic or from more costly high-strength steel. Also, previous suggested subsea pipeline designs have only included heavy fixed-wall pipes that can be very expensive initially, and can be difficult and expensive

  2. Pipelines from the north : a U.S. perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slutz, J. [United States Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The United States will continue to look to Canada and Alaska for a significant part of its natural gas supply in an effort to meet its growing demand for energy. The United States depends on Canadian gas as a reliable and secure supply of energy, and is therefore examining natural gas markets and the wide range of supply opportunities. This presentation highlighted changes in cross border natural gas trade in North America and noted that 94 per cent of natural gas going to the United States from Canada is shipped via pipeline. On the liquefied natural gas (LNG) front, U.S. exports to Mexico now exceed imports, but import volumes from Trinidad and Nigeria are increasing as expected. Total import volumes in 2001 surpassed the previous year. A look at the infrastructure of LNG in the United States was also presented along with the advantages and limitations of each option. Cost comparisons were also presented. It was noted that any import or LNG project would result in unique economics. LNG projects are now cheaper because of better engineering, economies of scale and better pipeline economics. The U.S. National Energy Policy recommends that the pipeline to bring Alaskan gas to U.S. markets should be constructed as soon as possible. It was emphasized that any project to ship natural gas from Alaska to the lower 48 will need to work closely with Canada in order to be successful. 15 figs.

  3. Thermohydraulics analysis for pipeline increase capacity; Estudo termohidraulico para ampliacao de capacidade de oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Krause, Philipe Barroso; Pires, Luis Fernando G. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos - SIMDUT; Souza, Antonio Geraldo de [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper intent to assist the development of a oil pipeline expansion study. It will show that each pipeline has its own solution, because it has several variables of technical, economical and environmental order, as well as several ones of political nature. (author)

  4. 低温包埋渗铝及其在石油管材防腐蚀应用中的研究进展%Research Progress of Low-temperature Pack Aluminizing and Its Potential Application on Oil-casing Steel and Pipeline Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敏; 王宇

    2012-01-01

    慨述了钢基表面低温包埋渗铝的原理,分析了通过添加稀土元素、调整活性剂种类、在渗剂中添加合金、表面机械能助渗、基材表面自身纳米化预处理等实现低温渗铝的研究现状和优缺点.同时,针对高力学性能石油管材,提出了将表面自身纳米化技术与含锌的低温渗剂相结合的石油管材表面低温复合包埋渗铝技术,并对该技术在石油管材耐腐蚀保护方面的应用进行了展望,认为复合低温包埋渗铝技术在石油管材耐腐蚀处理中的应用具有广阔前景.%The main principle of low-temperature pack aluminizing of carbon steel was described. The present research situation and different characteristics of low-temperature pack aluminizing processing were analyzed by the addition of rare earth element, the adjustment of active agent type, the addition of alloy dement, the assistance of surface mechanical energy and the surface selmanocrystallization treatment of steel substrate. For oil-casing steel and pipeline steel with high mechanical properties, a combined low-temperature pack aluminizing for oil-casing steel and pipeline steel with surface nano-crystallization structure packed by powdeT with the addition of zinc was proposed. On the basis pf the potential corrosion resistance improvement of aluminized oil-casing steel and pipeline steel by combined low-temperature pack aluminizing, it can be concluded that the as-mentioned combined low-temperature pack aluminizing is hopeful for the wide application of aluminizing for the corrosion protection of oil-casing steel and pipeline steel.

  5. Ecology of wolverines in northwest Alaska: Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In response to proposed oil and gas exploration and development activities in the National Petroleum Reserve- Alaska (NPR-A), a study of wolverine ecology was...

  6. A raptor survey of the Canning and Kongakut Rivers, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) directs the Department of the Interior to assess the potential for oil and natural gas resources of the...

  7. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson Pender... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  8. G IS 在油气管道工程全生命周期中的应用%The Application of GIS in the Life Cycle of Oil and Gas Pipeline Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏振生; 杨琪; 吴旭阳; 吉晓峰; 顾珂

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the existing pipeline life cycle and integrated with the construction process of a gas pipe -line, we analyzed and studied the application of GIS in the management of pipeline life cycle .This paper introduces a pipeline life cy-cle management system which is built and centered on management .Pipeline life cycle management contains the whole process of pipeline design, construction, operation, maintenance and scarping .The system provides strong data support for pipeline construc-tion, operation and management , therefore it can facilitate decision -making and improve the level of operation , management and safe production.%针对当前管道全生命周期管理的特点,结合某天然气管道信息化建设过程,分析与研究GIS在管道全生命周期管理中的应用。本文介绍基于SuperMap GIS为核心搭建的管道全生命周期管理系统,内容涉及管道设计、施工、运行维护到报废的全过程。本系统为管道建设、运营管理提供强大的数据支持,辅助决策分析,从而提高管道运行管理水平、安全生产水平。

  9. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes in operation. The research was conducted using two operating laboratory models imitated a part of the operating pipeline. The results of finite-element modeling, identification of pipe natural modes and its modification under the influence of virtual failure are discussed. The work considers the results of experimental research of dynamic behavior of the operating pipe models using one of OMA techniques and comparing dynamic properties with the modeled data. The study results demonstrate sensitivity of modal shape parameters to modification of operating pipeline technical state. Two strategies of pipeline repair – with continuously condition-based monitoring with proposed technology and without such monitoring, was discussed. Markov chain reliability models for each strategy were analyzed and reliability improvement factor for proposed technology of monitoring in compare with traditional one was evaluated. It is resumed about ability of operating pipeline condition monitoring by measuring dynamic deformations of the operating pipe and OMA techniques application for dynamic properties extraction.

  10. The calculation method of mixing volume in a products pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jing; Wang, Qim [China University of Petroleum, Beijing, (China); Wang, Weidongn [Sinopec South China Sales Company, (China); Guo, Yi [CNPC Oil and Gas pipeline control center, (China)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigated calculation methods of mixing volume on a pipeline. A method of simulation was developed by combining the Austin-Palfrey empirical formula and field data. The field data were introduced to improve the accuracy of the Austin-Palfrey formula by including other factors such as the terrain, the structure of the pipeline, the characteristics of mixed oil products in pumping stations and the distribution of products along the pipeline. These other factors were collected from field data and analyzed statistically to deduce coefficients. The comparison with field results showed that the formula developed for contamination provided accurate values. The formula achieved more accurate results using the characteristics of the field pipeline. This formula could be used for field application.

  11. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process...

  12. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under the Federal... Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  13. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  14. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J. (comps.)

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  15. The Best of Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑钧

    2011-01-01

    Nothing awakes Alaska like a whale exploding out of the water or an eagle (鹰) pulling a silver fish from the river. Combine these images with high mountains, brilliant icebergs and wonderful meals and you really do have the best of Alaska!

  16. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  17. Terrorism impact on the security of international pipelines; L'impact du terrorisme sur la securite des pipelines internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, L. [Ministere de la Defense, Dir. des Affaires Juridiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-03-15

    International pipelines, sometimes several thousands of km long, are today more and more the target of terror attacks. The sabotage of oil pipelines has been a recurrent problem in the history of Middle-East, but this risk has been enhanced after the September 11, 2001 event. From Africa to China, Caucasus and Central Asia, no pipeline can escape this threat. In front of this challenge, with strong consequences for consuming countries and investors, the crossed countries cannot find reliable solutions. Regional initiatives have been proposed to ensure pipelines protections but they remain insufficient to reassure the international community. For this reason, the consuming countries are tempted to ensure themselves this protection through NATO interventions or by interference-like unilateral actions. (J.S.)

  18. China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP), which belongs to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), authorizes China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Corporation (CPPE) a subsidiary of CPP, to perform Overseas Business on behalf of it.

  19. The TROBAR pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanon, Mauro

    TROBAR is a 60cm robotic telescope installed at the Observatrio de Aras de los Olmos (OAO), approximately 100km north-west of Valencia (Spain). It is currently equipped with a 4K×4K optical camera covering a FoV of 30×30 arcmin^2. We are now implementing a pipeline for the automatic reduction of its data. In this paper we will present the main features of the pipeline, with particular care to some of the algorithms implemented to assess the quality of the produced data and showing their application to synthetic images.

  20. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  1. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction

  2. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in…

  3. Distributed acoustic sensing for pipeline monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, David; McEwen-King, Magnus [OptaSense, QinetiQ Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Optical fibre is deployed widely across the oil and gas industry. As well as being deployed regularly to provide high bandwidth telecommunications and infrastructure for SCADA it is increasingly being used to sense pressure, temperature and strain along buried pipelines, on subsea pipelines and downhole. In this paper we present results from the latest sensing capability using standard optical fibre to detect acoustic signals along the entire length of a pipeline. In Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) an optical fibre is used for both sensing and telemetry. In this paper we present results from the OptaSense{sup TM} system which has been used to detect third party intervention (TPI) along buried pipelines. In a typical deployment the system is connected to an existing standard single-mode fibre, up to 50km in length, and was used to independently listen to the acoustic / seismic activity at every 10 meter interval. We will show that through the use of advanced array processing of the independent, simultaneously sampled channels it is possible to detect and locate activity within the vicinity of the pipeline and through sophisticated acoustic signal processing to obtain the acoustic signature to classify the type of activity. By combining spare fibre capacity in existing buried fibre optic cables; processing and display techniques commonly found in sonar; and state-of-the-art in fibre-optic distributed acoustic sensing, we will describe the new monitoring capabilities that are available to the pipeline operator. Without the expense of retrofitting sensors to the pipeline, this technology can provide a high performance, rapidly deployable and cost effective method of providing gapless and persistent monitoring of a pipeline. We will show how this approach can be used to detect, classify and locate activity such as; third party interference (including activity indicative of illegal hot tapping); real time tracking of pigs; and leak detection. We will also show how an

  4. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-24

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2)). Projected production estimates of U.S. crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects U.S. domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  5. Modeling and monitoring - important elements in a pipeline integrity management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Roy; Gartland, Per O. [Force Technology (Norway); Baxandall, Daryl [Force Technology (Canada); Souza Junior, Helio A. de [Corrocean do Brasil Ltda., RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A unique model for prediction of corrosion profiles in oil and gas pipelines has been created. The model is based on multiphase flow modeling, water wetting predictions, pH calculations and models of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S corrosion. The input data are typically the pipeline profile, fluid composition data, production rates and data on injected chemicals. It is possible to combine the model with inspection or monitoring data. Based on the uncertainty related to the model and the available data, a probability distribution for the corrosion predictions is established. The result is combined with existing codes for the allowable corrosion attack in pressurized pipes and used to assess the need for pipeline inspection based on the risk of pipeline failure. Detailed example is given for a crude oil pipeline. (author)

  6. Automated least-cost pipeline route development in Niger using remotely-sensed imagery and GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slayter, David L.; Hitchcock, Christopher S. [Fugro William Lettis and Associates, Inc., Walnut Creek, California (United States); Oehlers, Mike; Chiles, Richard [Fugro NPA Ltd., Crockham Park, Edenbridge, Kent (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Fugro William Lettis and Associates, Inc. (Fugro WLA) was engaged to select the best crude oil transmission pipeline route between the Agadem oil field and the Zinder refinery in south-central Niger. In order to do so, geological hazards and anthropogenic features had to be identified along any proposed route. The aim of this paper is to present the methodology they undertook to determine the pipeline route. The assessment of potential pipeline routes was carried out through review and analysis of satellite imagery; the development of a hazard raster integrating total elevation change and exposure to geological hazards and man-made development; and the selection of a recommended pipeline minimizing the risks and providing the safest and shortest route. This study showed that a proper assessment of the optimal pipeline route can be obtained using a combination of multispectral imagery, trained professional inputs and an adequate methodology.

  7. Pipeline Bending Strain Measurement and Compensation Technology Based on Wavelet Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines may lead to instability of the pipeline and failure of materials, which seriously deteriorates the transportation security of oil and gas. To locate the position of the bending strain for maintenance, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU is usually adopted in a Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG. The attitude data of the IMU is usually acquired to calculate the bending strain in the pipe. However, because of the vibrations in the pipeline and other system noises, the resulting bending strain calculations may be incorrect. To improve the measurement precision, a method, based on wavelet neural network, was proposed. To test the proposed method experimentally, a PIG with the proposed method is used to detect a straight pipeline. It can be obtained that the proposed method has a better repeatability and convergence than the original method. Furthermore, the new method is more accurate than the original method and the accuracy of bending strain is raised by about 23% compared to original method. This paper provides a novel method for precisely inspecting bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines and lays a foundation for improving the precision of inspection of bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines.

  8. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  9. Estimating the impacts of oil spills on polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2000-01-01

    The polar bear is the apical predator and universal symbol of the Arctic. They occur throughout the Arctic marine environment wherever sea ice is prevalent. In the southern Beaufort Sea, polar bears are most common within the area of the outer continental shelf, where the hunt for seals along persistent leads and openings in the ice. Polar bears are a significant cultural and subsistence component of the lifestyles of indigenous people. They may also be one of the most important indicators of the health of the Arctic marine environment. Polar bears have a late age of maturation, a long inter0brth period, and small liter sizes. These life history features make polar bear populations susceptible to natural and human perturbations.Petroleum exploration and extraction have been in progress along the coast of northern Alaska for more than 25 years. Until recently, most activity has taken place on the mainland or at sites connected to the shore by a causeway. In 1999, BP Exploration-Alaska began constructing the first artificial production island designed to transport oil through sub-seafloor pipelines. Other similar projects have been proposed to begin in the next several years.The proximity of oil exploration and development to principal polar bear habitats raises concerns, and with the advent of true off-shore development projects, these concerns are compounded. Contact with oil and other industrial chemicals by polar bears, through grooming, consumption of tainted food, or direct consumption of chemicals, may be lethal. The active ice where polar bears hunt is also where spilled oil may be expected to concentrate during spring break-up and autumn freeze-up. Because of this, we could expect that an oil spill in the waters and ice of the continental shelf would have profound effects on polar bears. Assessments of the effects of spills, however, have not been done. This report described a promising method for estimating the effects of oil spills on polar bears in the

  10. Fault detection using artificial neural networks in pipelines for transport of oil and gas; Deteccao de falhas utilizando redes neurais artificiais em dutos para transporte de petroleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guia, Jose G.C. da; Araujo, Adevid L. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Irmao, Marcos A. da Silva [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Processos; Silva, Antonio A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2003-07-01

    The condition monitoring and diagnostic of structural faults in pipelines are an important problem for the petroleum's industry, being necessary to develop supervisory systems for detection, prediction and evaluation of a fault in the pipelines to avoid environmental and financial damages. In this work, three types of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are reviewed and used to detect and locate a fault in a simulated pipe. The simulated pipe was modeled through the Finite Elements Method. In Neural Networks' analysis, the first six natural frequencies of the pipe are used as networks' inputs. The used ANNs were the Multi-Layer Perceptron Network with backpropagation, the Probabilistic Neural Network and the Generalized Regression Neural Network. After the analysis, it was concluded that the ANN are a good computational tool in problems of faults detection on pipelines with a great precision. In the localization of the faults were obtained errors smaller than 5%. (author)

  11. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  12. Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Riley [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Farnsworth, David [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.

  13. PRODUT - a pipeline technological program to face the challenges in the oil and gas transportation in Brazil; PRODUT - um programa tecnologico de dutos para enfrentar os desafios do transporte de oleo e gas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Ney Goncalves [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    Following the international tendency of the pipeline companies, PETROBRAS has been investing relevant resources in new technologies, with the objective of increasing reliability and life span, and decreasing the cost and the risk of leakage. PETROBRAS created in 1998 the pipeline technological program, PRODUT, to be responsible for coordinating the development of the company R and D projects. This paper will present PRODUT and the good results obtained in order to increase reliability and competitiveness of transportation systems, essential for global performance of the petroleum industry. (author)

  14. Alaska geology revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  15. The NOAO Pipeline Data Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriart, R.; Valdes, F.; Pierfederici, F.; Smith, C.; Miller, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Data Manager for NOAO Pipeline system is a set of interrelated components that are being developed to fulfill the pipeline system data needs. It includes: (1) management of calibration files (flat, bias, bad pixel mask and xtalk calibration data.); (2) management of the pipeline stages' configuration parameters; and (3) management of the pipeline processing historic information, for each of the data products generated by the pipeline. The Data Manager components uses a distributed, CORBA based architecture, providing a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, capable of accommodating the present and future pipeline data requirements. The Data Manager communicates with the pipeline modules, with internal and external databases, and with other NOAO systems such as the NOAO Archive and the NOAO Data Transport System.

  16. 300,000-tonnage Crude Oil Dock Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aproject of Jointly establishing 300,000-tonnage crude oil dock of Tianjin Port has been put into operations, thanks to its outut grid successfully connected with oil pipeline of Sinopec Tanggu reservior.

  17. Technology of Ultrasonic Treatment of High-Viscosity Oil from Yarega Oilfield to Improve the Rheological Properties of Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkov, Y. D.; Zemenkova, M. Y.; Berg, V. I.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2016-10-01

    The article investigates the possibility of applying ultrasonic treatment oil from Yarega oilfield to improve of rheological properties, reduce oil viscosity in Russian pipeline transportation system, and increase its efficiency and performance. Created laboratory test bed of ultrasonic waves.

  18. Bibliography on Alaska estuaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This bibliography was compiled to assist in working up “profiles” for the estuaries in Alaska. The purpose of the profiles is to list in a narrative form the...

  19. Alaska waterfowl production, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Alaska during 1964. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  20. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for aquaculture facilities, boat ramps, set nets (for commercial fishing), oil facilities, pipelines, platforms, State...

  1. Products pipeline network plans set out for North Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venus, C.

    1984-02-13

    The growth of oil-products demand in future years is leading the Yemen Arab Republic (Y.A.R.) to improve the distribution network for the products by constructing a pipeline system. Petroleum products are currently distributed by road tankers only between the receiving terminals and the main cities, which represent the most important consumption centers, together with new industrial plants such as cement factories, power plants, etc. The technical design and economic and financial feasibility study of the project was entrusted to Omnium Technique des Transports par Pipelines (OTP). The scope covers the setting up in the Y.A.R. of the basic equipment for the supply, storage, and land transportation of petroleum products with a view to: Meeting the national demand for the next 25 years. Providing an adequate strategic reserve of petroleum products with a total storage capacity amounting to 3 months of consumption. The only exception in the transportation of the petroleum products will involve heavy fuel oil which will continue to be transported by road tankers. This article describes the basic facilities which have to be installed before the start-up of the projected network. The project includes a marine terminal in Salif and a pipeline to Sana'a with the related storage, truck loading, and pumping facilities for white products and gas oil which will be transported by pipeline.

  2. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  3. Pipeline ADC Design Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Demand for high-performance analog-to-digital converter (ADC) integrated circuits (ICs) with optimal combined specifications of resolution, sampling rate and power consumption becomes dominant due to emerging applications in wireless communications, broad band transceivers, digital-intermediate frequency (IF) receivers and countless of digital devices. This research is dedicated to develop a pipeline ADC design methodology with minimum power dissipation, while keeping relatively high speed an...

  4. Global lateral buckling analysis of idealized subsea pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘润; 刘文彬; 吴新利; 闫澍旺

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the curing effects of paraffin on the transport process and reduce the transport difficulty, usually high temperature and high pressure are used in the transportation of oil and gas. The differences of temperature and pressure cause additional stress along the pipeline, due to the constraint of the foundation soil, the additional stress can not release freely, when the additional stress is large enough to motivate the submarine pipelines buckle. In this work, the energy method is introduced to deduce the analytical solution which is suitable for the global buckling modes of idealized subsea pipeline and analyze the relationship between the critical buckling temperature, buckling length and amplitude under different high-order global lateral buckling modes. To obtain a consistent formulation of the problem, the principles of virtual displacements and the variation calculus for variable matching points are applied. The finite element method based on elasto-plastic theory is used to simulate the lateral global buckling of the pipelines under high temperature and pressure. The factors influencing the lateral buckling of pipelines are further studied. Based upon some actual engineering projects, the finite element results are compared with the analytical ones, and then the influence of thermal stress, the section rigidity of pipeline, the soil properties and the trigging force to the high order lateral buckling are discussed. The method of applying the small trigging force on pipeline is reliable in global buckling numerical analysis. In practice, increasing the section rigidity of a pipeline is an effective measure to improve the ability to resist the global buckling.

  5. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  6. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  7. Effects of petroleum exposure on the breeding ecology of the Gulf of Alaska herring gull group (Larus argentatus x Larus glaucenscens) and reproductive ecology of large gulls in the northeastern Gulf of Alaska: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is an investigation of primary and potential secondary effects of gas and oil development on large gulls (Larsus) in the northeast Gulf of Alaska. Our...

  8. Biological, chemical, optical, and physical observations collected aboard the Alaska marine highway system ferry TUSTUMENA in the Gulf of Alaska from September 15, 2004 through November 6, 2008 (NODC Accession 0070122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An oceanographic measurement system aboard the Alaskan ferry Tustumena operated for four years in the Alaska Coastal Current with funding from the Exxon Valdez Oil...

  9. Stochastic numerical simulation on oil temperature fluctuations of hot crude pipelines and sensitivity analysis to related factors%热油管道油温波动随机数值模拟及影响因素敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文柯; 张劲军; 宇波

    2011-01-01

    An efficient numerical algorithm, which employed the finite volume , finite difference , Monte Carlo and proper orthogonal decomposition ( POD) method, was proposed to simulate the stochastic fluctuation of oil temperatures. The effects of outlet oil temperature, flow rate, pressure, buried depth, soil temperature. soil thermal conductivity, oil viscosity and oil density on the stochastic fluctuation of oil temperatures were investigated through Sobol global sensitivity induces. The results show that the deviations of the mean oil temperatures between numerical simulations and field measurements were lower than 0. 1 ℃ , and the standard deviations vary from 0. 006 ℃ to 0.023 ℃ . When considered the following 4 factors: outlet oil temperature, throughput, soil temperature and oil viscosity, case studies on the China West crude pipeline show that the sum of first order global sensitivity achieved as 77. 44% on Sipu station and 80. 86% on Hexi station. Therefore, it is acceptable to consider these 4 factors when simulating the fluctuation of inlet oil temperatures.%综合采用有限容积法、有限差分法、Monte Carlo算法和POD算法建立埋地热油管道沿线油温的随机数值模拟算法,使用Sobol全局敏感性指标进行敏感性分析,综合评价出站油温、流量、压力、埋深、埋深处自然地温、土壤导热系数、油品黏度和密度的随机波动对管道沿线油温波动的影响.计算结果表明:进站油温模拟结果与现场油温均值偏差在0.1℃以内,标准差的偏差为0.006~0.023℃;出站油温、流量、埋深处地温和油品黏度4个参数的不确定性对四堡进站油温波动的敏感性指标之和为77.44%,河西站的该指标为80.86%,进站温度的随机数值模拟中主要考虑这4个参数的不确定性即可.

  10. A closed solution for the collapse load of pressurized pipelines in free spans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Luciano M. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Murray, David W.; Xuejun Song [University of Alberta (Canada). Civil Engineering Dept.

    2005-07-01

    Submarine pipelines for oil exploitation, generally, are under internal pressure and compressive thermal loading. Due to rough see-bottom terrains, these pipelines may be supported only intermittently and span freely. The collapse of such pipelines may produce oil leakage to the environment. A common engineering practice for the determination of the collapse load of such pipelines is the use of finite element modeling. This paper presents an analytical method for the determination of the collapse load of pressurized pipelines extended over free spans. The formulation also takes into account the internal pressure and initial imperfection, generally present in these pipelines. Collapse load is determined from a deduced transcendental equation. Results of the presented formulation are compared with sophisticated finite element analyses. While sophisticated finite element analysis requires hours of computer processing, the present formulation takes practically no time to assess a good approximation for the collapse load of pressurized free span pipelines under compression. The present paper is not intended to substitute the more precise finite element analyses but to provide an easier, faster, and practical way to determine a first approximation of the collapse load of pressurized free span pipelines. (author)

  11. Analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines; Analise de integridade e risco para dutos onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marco Aurelio [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The increasing expansion of the oil and gas industry in Brazil, the current legal requirements relating to security, health and environment in the industrial installations, is necessary that the companies, responsible by the operation of pipelines for oil and gas transport, adopt efficient techniques to assure the operational continuity of these of trustworthy form and insurance. To fulfill this important function it is important that the companies implement a management program to control and register the integrity of the pipelines during the all operational life cycle. Inside of this context of management of the integrity of pipelines, the DNV developed the software ORBIT Pipeline with the intention to serve as an important tool to monitor the technique and security condition of the pipeline, to define the frequency and content technician of the inspection program and to recommend the work of intervention or repair in pipeline when necessary. Additionally to these activities that are carried through directly in the ORBIT Pipeline, also an evaluation of the activity of third part and the land/soil movement is made inside of the systematic for analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines performed by DNV. (author)

  12. Tariffs Formation on oil transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu. V.; Grivtsova, I. S.; Dmitrieva, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Oil transportation via trunk pipelines is an important part of the oil industry's activity. The main instrument of tariff regulation is the method of tariffs formation. Three methods of tariffs formation such as the method of economically justified costs (the Cost plus method), the method of economically justified return on investment capital (the RAB method), and the method of tariffs indexation were considered.

  13. An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable

  14. Pipeline integrity : control by coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.

  15. Uncertainties in pipeline water percentage measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bentley N.

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of the quantity, density, average temperature and water percentage in petroleum pipelines has been an issue of prime importance. The methods of measurement have been investigated and have seen continued improvement over the years. Questions are being asked as to the reliability of the measurement of water in the oil through sampling systems originally designed and tested for a narrow range of densities. Today most facilities sampling systems handle vastly increased ranges of density and types of crude oils. Issues of pipeline integrity, product loss and production balances are placing further demands on the issues of accurate measurement. Water percentage is one area that has not received the attention necessary to understand the many factors involved in making a reliable measurement. A previous paper1 discussed the issues of uncertainty of the measurement from a statistical perspective. This paper will outline many of the issues of where the errors lie in the manual and automatic methods in use today. A routine to use the data collected by the analyzers in the on line system for validation of the measurements will be described. (author) (tk)

  16. Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline in Interests of Two Countries - CNPC Boss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In an interview by reporters from ITAR-TASS and Russian News Agency on February 10, President of CNPC Ma Fucai answered the questions concerning the Chinese-Russian crude oil pipeline project and the prospect for oil and gas cooperation with five Central Asian countries.

  17. Physical properties of wax deposits on the walls of crude pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qiyu; Wang Jifeng; Zhang Jinjun

    2009-01-01

    Wax deposits on the wall of a crude oil pipeline are a solid wax network of fine crystals, filled with oil, resin, asphaitene and other impurities. In this paper, a series of experiments on wax deposition in a laboratory flow loop were performed under different conditions (flow rate, temperature differential between crude oil and pipeline wall, and dissolved wax concentration gradient), and the wax deposits were analyzed, so quantitative relationships among wax content, wax appearance temperature (WAT), shear stress, and radial concentration gradient of dissolved wax at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. Finally, a model was established to predict WAT and the wax content of the deposit.

  18. Logistics aspects of pipeline transport in the supply of petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial transportation of crude oil and petroleum products by pipeline is receiving increased attention in South Africa. Transnet Pipeline Transport has recently obtained permission from the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa to construct and operate a new petroleum products pipeline of 60 cm diameter from Durban to Gauteng. At an operating speed of 10 km/h the proposed 60 cm Transnet pipeline would be able to deliver 3,54 million litres of petroleum product per hour. This is equivalent to 89 deliveries per hour using road tank vehicles with an average carrying capacity of 40 000 litres of fuel per vehicle. This pipeline throughput is also equivalent to two trains departing per hour, each consisting of 42 petroleum tank wagons with an average carrying capacity of 42 500 litres of fuel per wagon. Considering that such road trucks and rail wagons return empty to the upstream refineries in Durban, it is clear that there is no tenable long-term alternative to pipeline transport:pipeline transport is substantially cheaper than road and rail transport;pipeline transport is much safer than rail and especially road transport; andpipeline transport frees up alternative road and rail transport capacity.Pipeline transport is a non-containerised bulk mode of transport for the carriage of suitable liquids (for example, petroleum commodities, which include crude oil, refined fuel products and liquid petro-chemicals, gas, slurrified coal and certain water-suspended ores and minerals. InSouth Africa, petroleum products account for the majority of commercial pipeline traffic, followed by crude oil and natural gas. There are three basic types of petroleum pipeline transport systems:Gathering pipeline systemsCrude oil trunk pipeline systemsRefined products pipeline systems Collectively, these systems provide a continuous link between extraction, processing, distribution, and wholesalers’ depots in areas of consumption. The following

  19. Use of FBG sensors for health monitoring of pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, Ferdinando; Paolozzi, Antonio; Vendittozzi, Cristian; Paris, Claudio; Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The infrastructures for oil and gas production and distribution need reliable monitoring systems. The risks for pipelines, in particular, are not only limited to natural disasters (landslides, earthquakes, extreme environmental conditions) and accidents, but involve also the damages related to criminal activities, such as oil theft. The existing monitoring systems are not adequate for detecting damages from oil theft, and in several occasion the illegal activities resulted in leakage of oil and catastrophic environmental pollution. Systems based on fiber optic FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) sensors present a number of advantages for pipeline monitoring. FBG sensors can withstand harsh environment, are immune to interferences, and can be used to develop a smart system for monitoring at the same time several physical characteristics, such as strain, temperature, acceleration, pressure, and vibrations. The monitoring station can be positioned tens of kilometers away from the measuring points, lowering the costs and the complexity of the system. This paper describes tests on a sensor, based on FBG technology, developed specifically for detecting damages of pipeline due to illegal activities (drilling of the pipes), that can be integrated into a smart monitoring chain.

  20. Simulation of pipeline in the area of the underwater crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, P.; Chernyavskiy, D.; Burkova, S.; Konan, E. C.

    2014-08-01

    The article studies stress-strain behavior of the main oil-pipeline section Alexandrovskoye-Anzhero-Sudzhensk using software system Ansys. This method of examination and assessment of technical conditions of objects of pipeline transport studies the objects and the processes that affect the technical condition of these facilities, including the research on the basis of computer simulation. Such approach allows to develop the theory, methods of calculations and designing of objects of pipeline transport, units and parts of machines, regardless of their industry and destination with a view to improve the existing constructions and create new structures, machines of high performance, durability and reliability, maintainability, low material capacity and cost, which have competitiveness on the world market.

  1. Effect of the welding process on the microstructure and microhardness of API 5L X80 steel welded joint used for oil transportation pipeline; Efeito do processo de soldagem sobre a microestrutura e a microdureza de juntas soldadas de aco API 5L X80 usado em tubulacoes para transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, R.T.P.; Albuquerque, S.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Maciel, T.M.; Almeida, D.M.; Santos, M.A.

    2008-07-01

    This study had as objective to evaluate the microstructure and microhardness of API 5L X80 steel welded joints, used for pipelines to transport oil and gas, using the Shield Metal Arc Welding process with pre- heating temperature of 200 deg C and 400 deg C and the AWS E8010G electrode as filler metal. For this, besides the microhardness of the welded joint, the weld metals percentiles of micro-constituents and of columnar and regenerated grains and the medium size and extension of the heat affected zone were evaluated. The percentage of acicular ferrite in weld metal ranged from 13% to 33% which generated values of microhardness from 114 HV to 309 HV. (author)

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  3. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086) PHMSA published in the Federal Register an Advance Notice of Proposed... by email at mike.israni@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086), PHMSA... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline...

  4. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Gulf of Mexico and their onshore impacts. Gulf of Mexico summary report, October 1984-June 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, C.W.; Risotto, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    This report provide a brief but comprehensive overview of oil and gas activites offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. While the reports focus on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) and the onshore impacts of operations in federal waters, information also is included on development in state waters and on how significant national issues affect Gulf Coast States. In addition, this sumary report includes a chapter that considers in detail wetland loss in Louisiana resulting from marshland development by the petroleum and other industries. The northern Gulf of Mexico continues to be a world leader in the production of offshore oil and gas, with a cumulative total of over 6 million barrels of crude oil and 67 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Between December 1983 and the end of 1984, the number of identified oil and gas fields in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf increased from 572 to 621. The 1983 advent of areawide leasing in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Region resulted in the leasing of more than 10.5 million acres by the oil. The vast number of tracts industry has leased, but not yet explored, leads to expectations of greater exploration activity in the next 3 to 4 years. The Gulf's offshore pipeline network is the most extensive in the world, totaling over 14,000 miles of pipe on the regions's Outer Continental Shelf. Postproduction facilities in the Gulf region have advanced in technology and flexibility in recent years. Major new discoveries in the Gulf augur well for area refineries and processors, as do plans for west-to-east pipelines bringing crude oil from California and Alaska. (DMC)

  5. Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjertveit, Erling

    2010-07-01

    On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

  6. Assessment of pipeline stability in the Gulf of Mexico during hurricanes using dynamic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Tian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines are the critical link between major offshore oil and gas developments and the mainland. Any inadequate on-bottom stability design could result in disruption and failure, having a devastating impact on the economy and environment. Predicting the stability behavior of offshore pipelines in hurricanes is therefore vital to the assessment of both new design and existing assets. The Gulf of Mexico has a very dense network of pipeline systems constructed on the seabed. During the last two decades, the Gulf of Mexico has experienced a series of strong hurricanes, which have destroyed, disrupted and destabilized many pipelines. This paper first reviews some of these engineering cases. Following that, three case studies are retrospectively simulated using an in-house developed program. The study utilizes the offshore pipeline and hurricane details to conduct a Dynamic Lateral Stability analysis, with the results providing evidence as to the accuracy of the modeling techniques developed.

  7. Experimental Study on the Distribution of Velocity and Pressure near a Submarine Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yan; SHI Bing; REN Xingyue; JING Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    As a transport means of oil and gas the submarine pipeline has many merits, such as continuous delivery, large conveying capacity, convenient management, etc. A tube was chosen in our study to simulate the submarine pipeline in the experiments. A high accuracy instrument ADV and high precision point-type pressure sensors were used to measure the parameters of the flow field, including the pressure distribution, velocities at seven cross sections near the submarine pipeline with five different clearance ratios, and twelve dynamic pressure values around the pipeline. The pressure distributions and velocity changes around the pipe under different flow velocities and clearance ratios were analyzed. These results might be useful for further study of submarine pipeline erosion and protection.

  8. Study on Interaction Relationship for Submarine Pipeline with Axial Corrosion Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-fei; LI Xin; ZHOU Jing; GUAN Jiong

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the main reasons to cause the operation accident of submarine oil and gas transmission pipelines. As the major corrosion pattern in submarine pipelines, the effects of corrosion clusters consisting of the adjacent corrosion defects on failure pressure are investigated through non-linear large-deformation finite element method. Typically, the failure behavior and limit strength of submarine pipeline with axial groove-groove corrosion defect pair exposed to internal pressure are analyzed. The effects of corrosion depth and axial spacing between a pair of corrosion defects on failure pressure are concluded. An interaction relationship for corrosion defects in pipelines, as well as prediction formulations for assessing the remaining strength of corroded pipelines are proposed. The expressions based on the proposed interaction relationship give more accurate results than the methods used in the existing design guidelines.

  9. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that they must make their pipeline emergency response...

  10. Scientific Research of Hebei Heng An Tai Pipeline Co., Ltd. Stepped into a New Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Fanjing

    2012-01-01

    The submarine pipeline production, technology research subject undertaken by Hebei Heng An Tai Pipeline Co., Ltd., namely the 2011 National 863 Technical Project during the "12th Five-year Plan", has produced some products recently, which are being tested and examined. The successful development of this project will completely break foreign countries" years of technical block and product monopoly in this field, realizing completely independent development of China's offshore oil and gas resources, and creating great economic benefits for enterprises.

  11. Life Cycle Analysis of Bitumen Transportation to Refineries by Rail and Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimana, Balwinder; Verma, Aman; Di Lullo, Giovanni; Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Canter, Christina E; Olateju, Babatunde; Zhang, Hao; Kumar, Amit

    2017-01-03

    Crude oil is currently transported primarily by pipelines and rail from extraction sites to refineries around the world. This research evaluates energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for three scenarios (synthetic crude oil and dilbit with and without diluent return) in which 750 000 bpd of Alberta's bitumen is transported 3000 km to determine which method has a lower environmental impact. Each scenario has a pipeline and rail pathway, and the dilbit without diluent return scenario has an additional heated bitumen pathway, which does not require diluent. An Excel based bottom-up model is developed using engineering first-principles to calculate mass and energy balances for each process. Results show that pipeline transportation produced between 61% and 77% fewer GHG emissions than by rail. The GHG emissions decreased by 15% and 73% for rail and pipelines as the capacity increased from 100 000 to 800 000 bpd. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to determine the uncertainty in the emissions and found that the uncertainty was larger for pipelines (up to ±73%) and smaller for rail (up to ±28%). The uncertainty ranges do not overlap, thus confirming that pipelines have lower GHG emissions, which is important information for policy makers conducting pipeline reviews.

  12. Rehabilitation of underwater pipeline with liner; Reabilitacao de aqueduto submarino com liner: multiplas vantagens e aplicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Jose N. de; Urtiga, Rogerio L.; Witt, R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The system of water injection in XAREU oil production field has an water pipeline sizing 4'' of diameter, between the offshore platform PXA-1 and another PXA-2, that it transfers 165 m{sup 3}/d of salt water for pressurization of the reservoir through the injection well Xareu-23. This water pipeline always presented high degree of corrosion needing frequently installation of cramps to eliminate leakages. After evaluating the costs we conclude that the more attractive it would be the installation of a liner than the launching of a new water pipeline. For the installation of a new water pipeline we would need the approval of IBAMA and of a great number of resources for the substitution of that pipeline. In spite of treating of an unpublished service between two offshore platforms we chose for the installation of a liner, because we had a great technological domain in this service in onshore oil production facilities with many pipelines recovered with this technique. We had to revise all of the procedures so that there was not any surprise to make unfeasible this service. The installation of the system liner, consisted of an internal coating 'in situ' through the insert of plastic tubes(high density polyethylene-HDPE), that it forms a barrier between the pipeline and the transported fluid. (author)

  13. Design check against the construction code (DNV 2012) of an offshore pipeline using numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, L. C.; Călimănescu, I.; Velcea, D. D.

    2016-08-01

    The production of oil and gas from offshore oil fields is, nowadays, more and more important. As a result of the increasing demand of oil, and being the shallow water reserves not enough, the industry is pushed forward to develop and exploit more difficult fields in deeper waters. In this paper, there will be deployed the new design code DNV 2012 in terms of checking an offshore pipeline as compliance with the requests of this new construction code, using the Bentley Autopipe V8i. The August 2012 revision of DNV offshore standard, DNV- OS-F101, Submarine Pipeline Systems is supported by AutoPIPE version 9.6. This paper provides a quick walk through for entering input data, analyzing and generating code compliance reports for a model with piping code selected as DNV Offshore 2012. As seen in the present paper, the simulations comprise geometrically complex pipeline subjected to various and variable loading conditions. At the end of the designing process the Engineer has to answer to a simple question: is that pipeline safe or not? The pipeline set as an example, has some sections that are not complying in terms of size and strength with the code DNV 2012 offshore pipelines. Obviously those sections have to be redesigned in a manner to meet those conditions.

  14. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska; 1981 programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Katherine M.; Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1981-01-01

    This Circular describes the 1981 programs and projects of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each office and division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The largest program at present is related to oil and gas exploration, but programs also include mineral appraisal, water-resource studies, volcanic and seismic programs, topographic mapping, glaciological and geohazard studies, and many other activities. Alaska is the largest and the least populated, least explored, and least developed of the Nation 's States. The land area contains 375 million acres and comprises 16 percent of the onshore land and more than half of the Outer Continental Shelf of the Nation. After Native and State of Alaska land selections of 44 million acres have been made, approximately 60 percent, 225 million acres, of Alaska land will remain under Federal jurisdiction. Federal lands in Alaska then will comprise approximately 30 percent of all onshore land in the Nation 's public domain. (USGS)

  15. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  16. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  17. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  18. Pipeline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariyawasam, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Weir, D. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Risk assessments and risk analysis are system-wide activities that include site-specific risk and reliability-based decision-making, implementation, and monitoring. This working group discussed the risk management process in the pipeline industry, including reliability-based integrity management and risk control processes. Attendants at the group discussed reliability-based decision support and performance measurements designed to support corporate risk management policies. New developments and technologies designed to optimize risk management procedures were also presented. The group was divided into 3 sessions: (1) current practice, strengths and limitations of system-wide risk assessments for facility assets; (2) accounting for uncertainties to assure safety; and (3) reliability based excavation repair criteria and removing potentially unsafe corrosion defects. Presentations of risk assessment procedures used at various companies were given. The role of regulators, best practices, and effective networking environments in ensuring the success of risk assessment policies was discussed. Risk assessment models were also reviewed.

  19. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without