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Sample records for alaska oil pipeline

  1. Response and management strategies utilized during the Kenai pipeline crude oil spill, Nikiski, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oil tanker deballasting pipeline ruptured at the Kenai Pipeline Company dockside facilities at Nikiski, Alaska on January 4, 1992, spilling 1,006 bbl of a water/crude oil mixture into Cook Inlet. The release, containing an estimated 100-400 bbl of oil, occurred at flood tide, causing the spill to move southwest. By January 6, the oil had been recovered or dissipated through work performed under a coordinated command system. Evaluations conducted after the spill indicated that the greatest success during the spill occurred in the area of spill management. Strategies utilized for this spill are discussed, including the formation of an oil spill response cooperative in Cook Inlet. A key element in the spill management was pre-planning, including contingency plans and oil spill drills. The responding parties were organized using an incident command system and a coordinated command structure that integrated the pipeline company and federal and state agencies. A 210 foot spill response vessel with two skimmer systems on board was on 24 hour standby and was the first to respond to the spill. Centrally located facilities assisted greatly in spill management. 7 refs., 2 figs

  2. Alaska highway pipeline inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyk, K.M.; Bohmer, E.E.; Phelps, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A public enquiry was held to determine the social and economic impacts associated with the proposed Alaska Highway pipeline. The pipeline was proposed to carry natural gas from Prudhoe Bay to the continental United States. The pipeline would follow the trans-Alaskan pipeline to Fairbanks, and follow the Alaska Highway through southern Yukon into northern British Columbia. The 48 inch pipe would operate at a pressure of 1,260 psi and would carry 2.4 billion cubic feet of gas per day, and could operate at that level for at least 25 years. Issues considered included alternative routes, employment and training, economic impact, social impact, the Yukon Indian land claim, the Dempster Lateral pipeline, planning and regulation, and compensation. The enquiry concluded that the government of Canada should not give approval in principle to the proposed pipeline through the southern Yukon without resolving the issues of an advanced payment towards the settlement of the Yukon Indian land claim, of compensation from the pipeline company, the establishment of a planning and control agency, and the deferral of the commencement of construction of the pipeline. 8 figs.

  3. Assessment of the impact of a Trans-Alaska Pipeline oil spill on the birds and mammals of the Atigun River system

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An oil spill resulting from a crack in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline was discovered on June 10, 1979 near pipeline mile post 166, on the north side of Atigun Pass....

  4. BC Alaska-Canada gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, K. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada). BP Alaska Canada Gas Pipelines

    2006-07-01

    The Alaska natural gas pipeline project was discussed in relation to the Canadian oil and gas industry and pipeline infrastructure. Total project costs for the pipeline were estimated at approximately $20 billion. Options out of Alberta include increasing existing capacity to the west coast, as well as expanding pipeline capacity to supply midwest and east coast markets. Existing pipeline systems will be expanded, and a new pipeline from Alaska to Chicago has been proposed. The gas pipeline project is expected to be the largest private construction project in the history of North America, and will provide 6500 jobs in both the United States and Canada. Project challenges to date have included the development of relationships with Aboriginals and First Nations groups in Canada and the United States, as well as ensuring access to efficient, competitive market-based regulatory processes. Project risks to date have included capital and operating cost over-runs, regulatory and legal delays, completion risks, and commodity price risks. Stranded gas act processes were discussed, as well as fiscal contracts related to the legislative and public process. Elements of the fiscal contract were provided, as well as details of First Nations relationships and Crown consultation processes. tabs., figs.

  5. Damages in Master Oil Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Domínguez Domínguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an approach to the study of chemical causes responsible for deep damages in oil pipeline in the last few years. These phenomena are responsible for significant direct and indirect economical enterprise loses and cause extensive environmental damage along thetrace. Leaning on laboratory and field tests about fluid properties, characteristic of surrendersoils and pipeline state, performed by several recognize national a foreign institutions the physicochemical causes of the damages, basic corrosion mechanism and main wear direction were proposed. It‘s quite evident the under deposit localized corrosion phenomenon with lowor medium penetration degree, along the tube bottom for firsts 30 km of the installation. Continuous emulsified water segregation from oil phase becomes the main cause of the strongmetal losses. This study followed by technological, mechanical and anti-corrosion evaluations will allow to fine proper solutions for this problem.

  6. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  7. Environmental impact of the proposed Trans-Alaska pipeline on marine mammals in the Beaufort sea: Proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline System potential environmental impact, possible loss of oil

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper describes the Beaufort Sea and how its characteristics would influence the course of fate of oil spills in generally predictable ways: currents would...

  8. The trans-Alaska pipeline controversy: Technology, conservation, and the frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline was the object of perhaps the most passionately fought conservation battle in the U.S. Although numerous authors documented the pipeline construction during its construction, there is, surprisingly, no previous scholarly treatment of this event written by an historian. Coates is an environmental historian who views the most interesting aspect of the controversy to be open-quote its relationship to earlier engineering projects and technological innovations in Alaska and the debates that accompanied them.close quotes Thus, he describes how the conservationist and environmental ideas arose during numerous earlier major Alaskan projects and controversies, including the Alaska Highway (1938-41), Canol Pipeline (1943-45), exploration of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number Four (Pet 4, 1944-1953), DEWline (1953-57), oil development in the Kenai National Moose Range (1957-58), statehood (1958), the creation of the Arctic Wildlife Refuge (1960), Project Chariot (1958-63), and Rampart Dam (1959-67). The history starts with the acquisition of Alaska in 1867 and finishes about the time of the Valdez oil spill in 1989

  9. A comparison : Impact studies and Trans-Alaska Pipeline : Working Paper No. 6.1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using data of tariff rates from Industry Canada (IC) and the Yukon Government (YK). The IC impact spans 8 years from 2001 to 2008 with peak investment of $2.4 billion in 2005. The YK impact spans 10 years from 2002 to 2012 and peaks at nearly $2.0 billion in 2006. For the IC impact, the construction phase peaks in 2005 at 0.2 per cent impact on the Canadian Gross Domestic Product. For the YK impact, different government policy assumptions were used to produce 2 different scenarios for the AHPP impact. The first scenario is comparable to the IC impact, because the fiscal policy assumptions are similar. In the second scenario, Gross Domestic Product impacts peak at 0.25 per cent impact on the Canadian economy in 2006 with long-term impacts of nearly 0.13 per cent. The direct effects of both the IC impact and the YK impact are very similar in magnitude and the methodology used in the IC impact and scenario 1 is similar. This report presented a comparison of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) with the AHPP. TAPS is probably the closest pipeline in magnitude to the AHPP, but TAPS is an oil pipeline which results in variations in construction methods and materials. TAPS spans 800 miles and was built in 1970 to carry crude oil from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska. The basic difference between the two lines is that TAPS has to maintain the oil at a high temperature so it will flow, and most of the pipeline has to be suspended above ground, while AHPP can be buried underground and operated at low temperatures. The construction costs per mile are expected to be much lower for the AHPP. 7 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Alaska-Washington effects on northern oil and gas projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persily, L. [Alaska Dept. of Revenue, Juneau, AK (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a review of a natural gas project proposal for Alaska. The proven reserves of the Alaskan North Slope total 35 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of natural gas. Potential gas reserves are estimated at about 100 tcf, but the gas is stranded and far from markets. The challenge of developing the resource lies in the development and construction of a pipeline to Alberta. While many companies have expressed interest in the project, investors believe the risk is too high for the multi-billion-dollar construction cost. In 1977, the government of Alaska created an oil-wealth savings account from the profits of the Prudhoe Bay oil discovery. The author suggested that instead of using the account for paying dividends to Alaskans as is currently done, the government should consider using the money to help reduce the risk and encourage private investors. BP and ConocoPhillips have indicated that they want risk-sharing help from the U.S. Treasury to build the pipeline. The author explained why gas price risk is such a concern and why North Slope producers are asking for financial assurances. Some Alaskans would prefer that a public corporation build, own and operate a gas project. Instead of building a pipeline to Alberta, they would prefer to build and operate a pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to a coastal liquefaction plant where a fleet of tankers would bring the refined LNG product to markets. The Alaska Native concern is another issue that requires attention. The issues which are important to Alaska natives include maintaining local control over taxation, social issues, and a financial stake in the project. Several Native corporations have formed a partnership and hope to buy into the Alaska gas project.

  11. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  12. China Oil & Gas Pipeline Survey & Design Institute, Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bureau of CNPC; Zhao Surong

    1995-01-01

    @@ China Oil/Gas Pipeline Bureau(P.B) is the only professional organization in China specialized in oil/gas pipelines design and construction since 1980s. It has ever cooperated with certain number of well known companies from Japan,USA, Germany, Canada, as well as Italy in the designs of many large oil/gas pipeline projects, during the course of which, personnel from P.B accumulated much experience in international project designs. During the execution of each particular project, they strictly followed the common-use international codes and standards with computers as the auxiliary design system combined with the self-developed software. All its clients showed their trust in this organization and gave it high praise for its outstanding survey, design and technical service.

  13. Review of Oil and Gas Pipeline Construction in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's pipeline industry has developed for 50 years till 2008. In the past 10 years, more than 50,000 kilometers of long-distance oil and gas pipelines have been constructed,of which gas pipelines reached about 30,000 kilometers,crude oil pipelines about 17,000 kilometers, and product oil pipelines about 7,000 kilometers. Oil and gas pipeline networks across regions have taken shape.

  14. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  15. Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental regulations.

  16. Alaska Federal Oil and Gas Historical Leases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the outlines for historic (i.e., relinquished or inactive) federal oil and gas leases in the Alaska OCS Region through sale 193. They...

  17. Hazard identification studies applied to oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savio, Augusto; Alpert, Melina L. [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: asavio@tecna.com, e-mail: malpert@tecna.com

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess risks inherent to an Oil Pipeline, it is imperative to analyze what happens 'outside the process'. HAZID (HAZard IDentification) studies are mainly carried out for this purpose. HAZID is a formal study which identifies hazards and risks associated to an operation or facility and enable its acceptability assessment. It is a brainstorming exercise guided by a typical 'Checklist', divided into four Sections: External, Facilities and Health Hazards and Issues pertaining to Project Execution, which are further subdivided into Hazard Categories. For each Category, there are 'Guide-words' and 'Prompts'. Even if an Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment can be performed by means of the above referred 'Checklist', carrying out the actual process can become lengthy and annoying due to the lack of specificity. This work aims at presenting the most suitable 'Checklist' for the identification of Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment, although it could be used for Gas Pipeline Risk Assessment too. Prepared ad hoc, this list, is based on the spill causes established by CONCAWE (CONservation of Clean Air Water in Europe). Performing Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment by means of specially formulated Checklist enables the Study Team to easily identify risks, shortens execution time and provides both accuracy and specificity. (author)

  18. Pipeline capacity and heavy oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspects of transporting heavy crude to markets from Canadian sources are discussed, with reference to pipeline expansion, western Canadian crude supply, and exports to various Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) in the USA. Pipeline expansions have been proposed by Interprovincial Pipeline, Trans Mountain Pipeline, Rangeland, and Wascana, and some of these proposals are in the review stage. Western Canadian crude supply is expected to peak at 1.9 million bbl/d in 1996. An increase in heavy crude supply is expected but this increase will not be sufficient to offset a decline in light crude supply. Adequate pipeline capacity should exist with the Interprovincial expansion volume of 170,000 bbl/d and the Trans Mountain expansion of 38,000 bbl/d forecast to be in place by 1995. Canadian crude exports to the USA have steadily increased since 1989, and heavy crude exports have grown an average of 20,000 bbl/d each year. In PADD Region IV, oil production is declining and ca 20,000 bbl/d of heavy crude will be needed by the year 2000; additional pipeline capacity will be required. In PADD Region II, Canadian heavy crude imports are ca 390,000 bbl/d and further market opportunities exist, after the Interprovincial expansion is complete. When the various combinations of possible pipeline expansions or reversals are considered, a range of heavy crude near-term growth potentials is obtained in which Canadian heavy oil would displace offshore heavy oil supplied to USA refineries. This potential is seen to range from 35,000 bbl/d to 200,000 bbl/d. 7 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Grooving corrosion of seam welded oil pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hanafy El-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    24” pipeline carrying oil was failed in the form of longitudinal crack at the 6 O’clock position resulting in oil spill. The failed pipe was investigated to reveal the main cause of its failure. The procedure of investigation was built on studying the intact pipe, rupture area, parent material, and intact weld. Results of chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the pipe material were confirmed with the specified standard. Cracks were originated from weld defected sites...

  20. Vulnerability maps for Druzba crude oil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maps of risk for individual environmental aspects within the protection zone of the Czech part of the Druzba crude oil pipeline (505.7 km) were developed based on a modified 'H and V index' method. Risk data were added into a GIS of the Druzba pipeline so that the system could be used as conceptual material in the field of environmental protection (a base for the new SCADA system). Considered environmental aspects were assessed in terms of their vulnerability. The criteria were defined as the vulnerability of the aquatic environment (surface waters and ground waters), the vulnerability of soil environment and the vulnerability of biotic components of the environment. (authors)

  1. 77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El... 385.202 (2011), Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline Company, collectively, Lion Companies, requested that the Commission grant a temporary waiver...

  2. Alaska gas pipeline and the global natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global natural gas market was discussed in relation to the Alaska natural gas pipeline project. Natural gas supply forecasts to the year 2025 were presented. Details of the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market were discussed. Charts were included for United States natural gas production, consumption, and net imports up to the year 2030. The impact of high natural gas prices on the manufacturing sector and the chemicals industry, agricultural, and ethanol industries were discussed. Natural gas costs around the world were also reviewed. The LNG global market was discussed. A chart of world gas reserves was presented, and global LNG facilities were outlined. Issues related to the globalization of the natural gas trade were discussed. Natural gas imports and exports in the global natural gas market were reviewed. A chart of historical annual United States annual LNG imports was presented. tabs., figs

  3. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2009,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 75×103 km.The pipelines include 38×103 km of gas pipelines,20×103km of crude oil pipelines and 17×103 km of oil product pipelines,framing a trans-regional pipeline network for the oil and gas delivery.

  4. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  5. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  6. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  7. Fish and wildlife survey of the Atigun River after the June 10, 1979 Alyeska Pipeline crude oil spill

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A crude oil spill estimated at 60 – 10,000 gallons was discovered at the Alyeska Trans Alaska Pipeline on the north side of Atigun Pass in the Brooks Range on June...

  8. Grooving corrosion of seam welded oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hanafy El-Sayed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 24” pipeline carrying oil was failed in the form of longitudinal crack at the 6 O’clock position resulting in oil spill. The failed pipe was investigated to reveal the main cause of its failure. The procedure of investigation was built on studying the intact pipe, rupture area, parent material, and intact weld. Results of chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the pipe material were confirmed with the specified standard. Cracks were originated from weld defected sites, initiated by grooving corrosion, propagated by inertia at the normal designed pressure condition, and stopped when stress relief is attained. It is recommended to use high quality ERW pipe, with its seam weld line positioned around the 12 O’clock during installation, to minimize and decelerate grooving corrosion. It is also important to perform regular or routine inspection, on suitable intervals, determined by past experience.

  9. Radiographic Determination of Flow pigs in Oil Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipeline pigs are devices that are inserted into and travel throughout the length of a pipeline driven by a product flow. They are used for pipeline cleaning, pipeline protection and flow assurance in the oil, gas and other process industries. During a pigging process to clean a pipeline transporting refined petroleum oil from Buipe to Bolgatanga both in the Northern part of Ghana, the movement of the pig was obstructed leading to a blockage somewhere in the pipeline. Based on information from a pig signaler, radiographic inspections were carried on a portion of the pipeline to locate the exact position of the pig. The radiographs obtained revealed that the pig was located 50cm from a reference point and the battery component was disjointed

  10. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2008,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 6.3×104 km.These pipelines include 3.2×104 km of natural gas pipelines,1.8×104 km of crude oil pipelines and 1.3×104 km of oil products pipelines,laying the foundation for establishing a network of trans-regional oil and gas pipelines.

  11. Environmental considerations in a high desert, crude oil pipeline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A road grader punctured a high-pressure crude oil pipeline in the California high desert resulting in the release of approximately 4,200 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil. Oil sprayed over a steeply sloped hillside and flowed into an adjacent, densely vegetated ephemeral stream channel which carried secondary treatment sewage discharge. Three underflow dams were constructed in the channel within 2.8 km of the site. To ensure containment at the first dam, the sewage discharge was diverted from the channel, eventually to an upland impulse sprinkler irrigation system. Channel water and phase-separated ANS crude oil, impounded behind the first dam, percolated through alluvial sands/gravels to a depth of about five meters. The oil percolated through the soils on the receding surface of the water, affecting soils to an equivalent depth and saturating a horizontally narrow band of stream-bank soils as much as two to four meters into the bank. Stream channel undergrowth and a small number of mature trees were cleared to provide access for cleanup and/or to remove oiled plants. A large number of trees experienced partial leaf-drop within 25 days of the spill while two heavily oiled trees died. New vegetative growth was evident within five weeks of the spill. Site restoration included planting cuttings of five riparian tree species and hydroseeding exposed banks. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from not detectable to 203,000 parts per million and averaged approximately 25,000 ppm in affected soils as sampled in place and in stockpiles. Approximately 30,000 tons of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was excavated from the length of the stream channel (3,600 tons) as well as the area behind the first dam and spill site (26,400 tons). All soils were staged on site for waste profiling and final disposition. After treatment, the contaminated soil was beneficially reused as daily cover at a southern California landfill at a turnkey cost of approximately $57/ton

  12. Continuously Innovating Technology of Oil and Gas Pipeline in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Shihong; Yang Tianbing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Through fifty years' development and effort,oil and gas pipeline industry in China has created a selfdevelopment way under the country's characteristics which relies on scientific and technological innovation and introduction,assimilation and re-innovation.Along with the completion and application of West-East Gas Transmission Pipeline Ⅰ and starting construction of Line West-East Gas Transmission Pipeline Ⅱ,in the main technology field such as design and construction,the whole oil and gas pipeline industry has reached the international advanced level,even some have reached the international top level at present.Thanks to the development process of current economic globalization and technology internationalization,scientific and technological innovation as the inevitable choice to realize continuous,effective,fast and harmonious development of China oil and gas pipeline technology.

  13. Tariff Policy Applied in the Adriatic Oil Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy of energy costs of crude oil transportation by pipeline strongly encourages an operational regime which results in poor pump efficiency. Oil is being unnecessarily and for too long time retained in oil storage tanks, thus increasing evaporation losses. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Alaska oil and gas: Energy wealth or vanishing opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Harrison, W.E.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically identify and review (a) the known and undiscovered reserves and resources of arctic Alaska, (b) the economic factors controlling development, (c) the risks and environmental considerations involved in development, and (d) the impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Alaska North Slope Oil Delivery System (ANSODS). 119 refs., 45 figs., 41 tabs.

  15. Allowable Differential Settlement of Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Faeli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The allowable settlement of pipelines has been mentioned rarely in design references and codes. The present paper studies the effects of differential settlement of pipeline bed on resulted forces and deformations and then determines the allowable differential settlement of pipelines in two conditions as follows: (i heterogeneous soil bed and (ii adjacent to steel tanks. To accomplish the studies, numerical simulation of pipeline is used. The pipeline bed is idealized by Winkler springs and four-element standard viscoelastic Burger model. Also, the use of geosynthetic reinforcement is studied in heterogeneous soil beds and the effect of geosynthetics on decreasing the settlement is investigated. The pipeline-tank joints in two cases of fixed and flexible joints are investigated and the results for two kinds of joints are compared.

  16. Overcoming regulatory, political and operational challenges to boost Alaska E and P and pipeline activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation addressed a range of issues associated with the development of the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline, including fundamentals regarding North American gas supply and demand for power generation, industrial use and residential and commercial use; pipeline routing. It also addressed issues regarding the United States Energy Bill and Alaska readiness in terms of regulatory approvals and right-of-way applications, TransCanada readiness, and other key issues. Natural gas supply from the East Coast, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, United States Rockies, Gulf of Mexico and other localities in the United States were illustrated in a graph along with natural gas market prices and a comparison of recent NYMEX gas price forecasts. The author indicates that 10 to 15 billion cubic feet per day of new supply will be needed. The Mackenzie project continues to work towards an in-service date of 2009. However, a strong competitor and alternative to northern gas is liquefied natural gas (LNG). The issue of integrating Alaskan gas into the existing Alberta pipeline grid was also discussed along with technologies to improve pipeline costs and issues regarding First Nation consultations. TransCanada believes that Alaskan gas can be delivered to markets in the United States by 2012 if existing pipeline infrastructures are used as well as existing legislation in Canada. 4 figs

  17. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. PMID:17286169

  18. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  19. Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and union linkages : Working Paper No. 7.2.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large construction projects such as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project typically have an agreement with a union before starting construction in order to avoid strikes and other labour disruptions. Unions can also secure multi-year employment for their workers, creating a win-win situation. There are 4 unions associated with building pipelines. These are United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters (UA), Teamsters, International Union of Operating Engineers, and Laborers International Union. Only the UA is currently active in construction in the Yukon. Generally, all contractors and sub-contractors must sign a collective agreement. Unions give local hiring priority and have also established targets for First Nations hiring. This study presented charts depicting employment of operators, labourers, teamsters, welders, pipefitters, electricians, carpenters and others, by seasons in Canada in the main union jurisdictions and in building trades. None of the highway, road, bridge or engineering construction firms active in the Yukon is unionized, but some have collective agreements in other jurisdictions. It was noted that these local non-union firms may have difficulty bidding on pipeline related sub-contracts. The four unions along with several pipeline contractors have formed a joint council of northern pipeline construction called the Northern Pipelines Projects Group, which intends to coordinate training programs for pipeline workers. 2 tabs

  20. Pipeline flow of heavy oil with temperature-dependent viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza Quinones, Danmer; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msc@puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    The heavy oil produced offshore needs to be transported through pipelines between different facilities. The pipelines are usually laid down on the seabed and are submitted to low temperatures. Although heavy oils usually present Newtonian behavior, its viscosity is a strong function of temperature. Therefore, the prediction of pressure drops along the pipelines should include the solution of the energy equation and the dependence of viscosity to temperature. In this work, an asymptotic model is developed to study this problem. The flow is considered laminar and the viscosity varies exponentially with temperature. The model includes one-dimensional equations for the temperature and pressure distribution along the pipeline at a prescribed flow rate. The solution of the coupled differential equation is obtained by second-order finite difference. Results show a nonlinear behavior as a result of coupled interaction between the velocity, temperature, and temperature dependent material properties. (author)

  1. Northern Alaska oil fields and caribou: a commentary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the status of caribou, Rangifer tarandus, herds relative to oil field development in the Prudhoe Bay region of Alaska. The Central Arctic caribou herd, which spends June and July in and around oil fields in the Prudhoe Bay region, has increased since the inception of oil field development and has demographics similar to those of adjacent herds which are not near oil fields. Although oil field development may impact individual caribou through disturbance or impedance of movements, herd-level impacts of the oil fields are not apparent. Caribou populations characteristically fluctuate dramatically, and differentiating human and non-human impacts is difficult or impossible. The herd is the unit of management, and management objectives are being met. The experience in northern Alaska's oil fields indicates resource extraction and wildlife populations can be compatible when managed properly. (Author)

  2. NORTH SEA PIPELINES: A SURVEY OF TECHNOLOGY, REGULATION AND USE CONFLICTS IN OIL AND GAS PIPELINE OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project was undertaken to provide information on North Sea offshore pipelines and the processes used in route selection decision-making. It is designed to be used by persons involved in offshore oil and gas pipeline planning, including pipeline corridors and landfalls. A bri...

  3. Environmental impact of oil transportation by tankers, pipelines, railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Considering all types of risks (technical, operational, natural hazards (e.g. geo-hazards) and third party intrusion), the underground pipelines constructed in accordance with the international standards are the most safe and reliable system for oil transportation. Statistical data provided by CONCAWE and US Department of Transportation confirms that the pipeline related spills are rare and mainly related to the old pipelines. Georgia's experience yet confirms the general sound guess that the situation in our countries is not the same as in western Europe or USA and accordingly the CONCAWE statistical data can not be applied mechanically. Two spills (although small and manageable), during the recent 4 years and some discovered illegal hot-taps on the Baku-Supsa pipeline indicate that the issue of third party intrusion risks is much higher in the region and well organized security system is required to protect the pipeline from intentional damage. Of course the pipeline system can not function isolated and it is integrated with the other systems of oil transportation, mainly with off-shore terminals and tankers. The most significant of the recorded pollution damages are related to the tanker collisions (like Prestige and Exxon Valdez cases). The basic fact, which we would like to stress, is that the environmental risks related to the tanker collisions are much higher for such confined or semi-confined systems as Black and Caspian seas. The overloading of the Black Sea transportation capacity and especially its limiting narrow point - the Bosporus will inevitably lead in future to the implementation of the restrictive measures limiting transportation of oil by tankers in the Black Sea. Therefore, the role of the BTC pipeline as major transportation system will increase significantly. We consider that responsibility of the scientific society is to facilitate this process as soon as the BTC pipeline is functional. The railway transportation of oil is quite

  4. 75 FR 34959 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 342 Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index June... pipeline pricing index established in Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy... beginning July 2001.\\5\\ In its second five-year review of the oil pricing index, the Commission adopted...

  5. Crude Oil Corrosion Fatigue of L485MB Pipeline Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 5 (2015), 051401. ISSN 0094-9930 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : corrosion fatigue * crude oil * pipeline steel * S–N curve * separated water Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2014 http://pressurevesseltech.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleID=2107675

  6. Transient evaluation for LPG and oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Do Nascimento, Elson Antonio; Fernandes Lacerda, Rogerio [Federal Fluminense University, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In the last decades, the offshore industry has expanded thanks to the development of equipment for subsea operation. In such installations, protection equipment can be adapted to the installation's design in order to avoid surge pressure effects and ensure safety and integrity of the system, predicting transient effect is therefore very important. The purpose of this study is to predict the surge pressure on refrigerated LPG and gasoline pipelines during unpredicted closure of valves. Flowmaster software was used to carry out the simulations and its results were then validated with a methodology that applied the characteristics method based on Wylie and Streeter assumptions. Results showed that surge pressures during transient effect for both refrigerated LPG and Gasoline pipeline systems were less than the maximum allowable operating pressure and therefore no control dispositive installations are geeded. This study showed that the use of these computer models can ensure the optimization of the system and provide cost effective solutions.

  7. Stress analysis of parallel oil and gas steel pipelines in inclined tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Wu, Shijuan

    2015-01-01

    Geological conditions along long distance pipelines are complex. In consideration of differences in elevation and terrain obstacles, long distance pipelines are commonly laid through tunnels. Oil and gas pipelines are often laid side by side to reduce construction costs and minimize geological impact. The layout and construction of parallel oil and gas pipelines are more complex than those of single pipelines. In order to reduce safety hazards, it is necessary to carry out stress analysis of ...

  8. Predicting wear of hydrotransport pipelines in oil sand slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, J.; Lu, B.; Wolodko, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kiel, D. [Coanda Research and Development Corp., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of erosion and corrosion methods and techniques was presented. Wear to pipelines is influenced by slurry flow and chemistry; solids loading; and electrochemical interactions. While several experimental techniques have been developed to rank the performance of different pipeline materials, experiments do not currently provide accurate quantitative prediction of pipeline wear in the field. Rotating cylinder electrodes (RCE) and jet impingement methods are used to study the effect of flow velocity on corrosion rate. Slurry pot erosion-corrosion testers are used to rank materials for use in more dilute, less turbulent slurries. Coriolois slurry erosion testers are used to rank the erosion resistance of different pipeline materials. A pilot-scale flow loop is now being constructed by the Alberta Research Council (ARC) in order to replicate wet erosion phenomena in oil sands applications. The flow loop will be used to simulate the field conditions of oil sands pipelines and develop predictive wear data and models. Coulombic shear stress and characteristic wall velocities have been determined using a 2-layer model designed to represent flow as 2 distinct layers. To date, the flow loop pilot study has demonstrated that wear rates in smaller diameter flow loops are not significantly different than larger diameter field installations. Preliminary calculations have demonstrated that the flow loop can be used to accurately simulate the hydrodynamics and wear typically experienced in field slurry flows. 67 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. Survey of technologies available to detect small leaks on the Trans Alaska Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the types of systems that are currently used to detect any major leaks in the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) and presented some facts about the pipeline to demonstrate the problems facing leak detection in a region with temperature extremes and reduced sunlight during half of the year. In particular, this paper described the operation of the 1290 kilometer section of pipeline belonging to the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company and their inquiries regarding the feasibility of using sensor technologies developed for space exploration. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) examined the possibility of using remote chemical and thermal sensors, airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensors, ground penetrating radar, and in situ chemical sensing. It was determined that these space-based remote sensing techniques are not suitable for detecting small leaks. The best option appeared to be in a simple in situ system of mass-produced, tiny sensors capable of one-time or multi-use detection of hydrocarbons through BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) vapours. It was emphasized, however, that some technical and economic difficulties must still be solved before these sensors can be put into commercial use for TAPS. 5 refs., 1 tab

  10. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company requesting new or changed depreciation rates pursuant to part 347 of this title if the proposed...

  11. Regional risk assessment of environmental contamination from oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the risk of environmental contamination from oil pipeline leaks due to earthquakes. Risk is measured both as volume of oil released and remediation cost. The methodology was developed for use on a regional scale and thus relies on a limited amount of input data. Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate earthquake events, while a deterministic model is used to estimate the volume of oil released at a particular site. A library of cost models is used to estimate the contamination and resulting remediation cost based on the volume of oil released and the general site conditions. This methodology has been implemented in a computer program, OILOSS, and the results are presented as annual frequency of exceedence curves for volume of oil released and cost of remediation

  12. Oil spill risks for Copper River Delta in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil spills which occurred at Prince William Sound and at Hinchinbrook Entrance in the northern Gulf of Alaska were discussed. Oil spill simulations were conducted to determine if the spilled oil could be carried to the Copper River Delta from these two sites. The study included both stochastic simulations showing the most probable path of the oil, and trajectory and fate simulations showing individual trajectories. Wind records were obtained from the National Oceanographic Data Center's stored wind observations. Previous hydrodynamic model results from other simulations which had been stored, were retrieved for use as input in the oil spill model simulation. It was concluded that westerly winds are not persistent enough to transport the oil from the spill sites to the Copper River. The available data suggests that oiling of the Copper River Delta is highly unlikely. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  13. Oil Pipelines, Oil pipelines in Coffee County, GA, Published in 2000, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Oil Pipelines dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2000. It is described as 'Oil...

  14. Jet mixing of water in crude oil pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The jet mixing of water in crude oil pipelines by single nozzle and multi-nozzle mixers was studied by dividing the mixing domain into to three regions. the penetration. near field and farfield regions. At the penetration region the quantitative experimental data were aided by a flow visualisation study in an attempt to to form fundamental semi-empirical correlations to estimate the entrainment rate of stratified water from the bottom and the Sauter mean diameter of the e...

  15. Research on the optimal energy consumption of oil pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Liuting; Liu, Song; Wu, Mingchang; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Chinese crude oil is easy to curdle and has high viscosity, so heating transportation is usually selected. Energy consumption by this method mainly comes from furnaces and pumps. Currently, operating parameters of these pipelines were determined according to experience of dispatch. It cause high energy consumption and high cost of pipeline running, so it could not adapt to energy conservation policy. The present study focused on consuming lowest energy to operate oil transportation line. To begin with, several optimization variables were set which included pump combinations, suction pressure, discharge pressure, and station temperature. Then constraint conditions were set to establish an optimal mathematical model of running transportation line. Furthermore, genetic algorithm was used to solve the model, in meantime, selection operation, cross operation and mutation operation in the genetic algorithm were improved. Finally, a crude oil pipeline running optimization software was developed. Through optimal analyzing, S-L transportation line and contrasting with the actual working conditions, it was found that optimal operation scheme could reduce energy consumption by 5% - 9%. In addition, optimal operation scheme also considered the effect of seasons and flow on energy consumption of S-L transportation line. PMID:26387343

  16. The oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGrange A.R.

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound Alaska, on March 24, 1989, treatment centres for sea otters were set up at Valdez, Seward and Homer. Otter survival rates were lower at Valdez than at Seward, probably because the animals collected were closer to the spill in time and space, and oil toxicity was at a maximum. Otters collected in Prince William Sound were predominantly female and pregnant or lactating. Weathered oil persists in otter habitats throughout the spill zone - long term studies are underway to assess the effects of this.

  17. Pipeline integrity evaluation of oil pipelines using free-swimming acoustic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariaratnam, Samuel T. [Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (United States); Chandrasekaran, Muthu [Pure Technologies Limited, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In the United States, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) funded a joint academy-industry research project, which developed and refined a free-swimming tool called SmartBall. The tool swims through the pipeline and gives results at a much lower cost than current leak detection methods, and it can detect leaks as small as 0.03 gpm of oil. GPS-synchronized above-ground loggers capture acoustic signals and record the passage of the tool through the pipeline. The tool is spherical and smaller than the pipe, through which it rolls silently; it can overcome obstacles that could otherwise make a pipeline unpiggable. SmartBall uses the great potential of acoustic detection, because when a pressurized product leaks from a pipe, it produces a distinctive acoustic signal that travels through the product; at the same time, it overcomes the problem caused by the very limited range of this signal. This technology can prevent enormous economic consequences such as a 50,000-gallon gasoline spill that happened in 2003 between Tucson and Phoenix.

  18. Full-scale chilled pipeline frost heave testing, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, B. [Northern Engineering and Scientific, Anchorage, AK (United States); Isaacs, R.M. [RMI Associates, Camano Island, WA (United States); Myrick, J.E. [Myrick International, Tyler, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a chilled pipeline frost-heave testing facility that was developed to simulate and record the rate of frost heave and frost-bulb growth for a buried, chilled pipeline in frost-susceptible soil and to determine the effectiveness of different mitigation techniques. The test facility, which was established near Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1979, has 10 test sections using 1.22-metre-diameter pipe. The testing involved un-insulated, insulated, and insulated with over-excavation and gravel berm configurations as well as the frost heave of the chilled pipeline. The test facility was described in detail. Frost heave and frost-bulb growth measurements from the first 10 months of testing were presented, as these are the first data to enter the public domain. The testing was undertaken to investigate the frost-heave relationships between sections, to better understand frost heave in permafrost, to explore possible mitigation options, and to advance the predicative capabilities of frost heave models. 12 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  19. North Slope pipeline work strong; gas pipeline project deferred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.

    1982-09-01

    Over 225 miles of insulated pipelines will be installed on the North Slope as part of a 5-year, $10.5 billion program by Sohio and Arco to maintain output from the field to feed the trans-Alaska oil pipeline. New lines are for waterflood supply systems, low pressure production systems, produced water handling, and gas handling. Pipeline construction is quite active at both Prudhoe Bay and at Kuparuk Field. Future projects include an oil line to the Beaufort Sea, the Polar Gas Project, the Arctic Pilot project, and the Northern Tier Pipeline.

  20. Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

    2006-03-31

    This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

  1. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  2. Haltenpipe and Troll oil pipeline, technology at the forefront

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaker, F. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    Offshore pipeline technology coprises a spectrum of technologies within seabed mapping, design, materials, construction, inspection and maintenance. This paper deals with some of the recent developments, characterised by achievements within two specific projects on the Norwegian continental shelf. These developments concern the Troll oil pipeline and the Haltenbank projects. These are the use of advanced subsea mapping and position technology, hydraulic flow modelling simulating unique flow conditions inside a deep and narrow fjord, control of multiple free span behaviour by use of advanced design methology, use of strain based criteria to reduce large scale seabed correction works, high precision pipeline installation in deep weater involving guided laying to ensure the correct position of the pipeline across pre-installed gravel burns and at lateral counteracts, and a midline tie-in concept comprising an above-water welded tie-in of a prefabricated bend section and on bottom installation of hydraulic operated mechanical connectors specially developed for diverless repair contingency in deep waters. 10 figs.

  3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  4. Compensated Mass Balance Method For Oil Pipeline Leakage Detection using SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaid A. Karim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Having extracting oil from reservoir below the ground surface, and after processing, the products are transported through a network of oil pipelines to oil terminals. Thus, oil pipelines play a major role of the economic structure. However, oil pipelines could be subjected to damage due to many reasons like (i Pipeline corrosion or wear, (ii Operation outside the design limits, (iii Unintentional third-party damage and (iv Intentional damage. As a result of this damage, oil would leak from pipelines, which leads to loss of life and property, cost of lost product and line downtime, environmental cleanup cost, possible fines and legal suits. The biggest challenge in this industry is to come up with a pipeline leak detection method that will accurately detect leaks in a timely fashion. There are several methods which lead to detection of pipeline leakage. In most Yemeni oil fields pipeline leakage is detected by fiber optics sensing method which is expensive or by visual inspection using experienced personnel who walk along a pipeline, looking for unusual patterns near the pipeline. In this paper, we are going to implement a different and cost effective method using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA system. Simulation has been performed using Rockwell Automation Software Products. The results so obtained are presented and discussed.

  5. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  6. The pipeline oil pumping engineering based on the Plant Wide Control technology

    OpenAIRE

    Starikov, Dmitry Pavlovich; Rybakov, Evgeniy Aleksandrovich; Gromakov, Evgeny Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for the use technology Plant Wide Control to control the pumping of oil through the pipeline. The proposed engineering using pipeline management in general (Pipe Wide Control) will reduce the loss of electric power at the expense of the balance of pumping stations located along the pipeline route.

  7. Women and Rapid Economic Change: The Alaska Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Monica E.

    The Trans Alaska Oil Pipeline project and accompanying increases in economic wealth have had an enormous impact, particularly on Alaskan women. Prior to pipeline construction, the civilian labor force participation by Alaskan women was close to the national average. During and since pipeline construction, this participation rate has soared.…

  8. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD 27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This polyline data set contains the locations of oil and gas pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf federal waters that are associated with the oil...

  9. 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Attanasi, E.D.; Garrity, C.P.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Pollastro, R.M.; Cook, T.A.; and Klett, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 896 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 53 trillion cubic feet (TCFG) of nonassociated natural gas in conventional, undiscovered accumulations within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent State waters. The estimated volume of undiscovered oil is significantly lower than estimates released in 2002, owing primarily to recent exploration drilling that revealed an abrupt transition from oil to gas and reduced reservoir quality in the Alpine sandstone 15-20 miles west of the giant Alpine oil field. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has been the focus of oil exploration during the past decade, stimulated by the mid-1990s discovery of the adjacent Alpine field-the largest onshore oil discovery in the United States during the past 25 years. Recent activities in NPRA, including extensive 3-D seismic surveys, six Federal lease sales totaling more than $250 million in bonus bids, and completion of more than 30 exploration wells on Federal and Native lands, indicate in key formations more gas than oil and poorer reservoir quality than anticipated. In the absence of a gas pipeline from northern Alaska, exploration has waned and several petroleum companies have relinquished assets in the NPRA. This fact sheet updates U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates of undiscovered oil and gas in NPRA, based on publicly released information from exploration wells completed during the past decade and on the results of research that documents significant Cenozoic uplift and erosion in NPRA. The results included in this fact sheet-released in October 2010-supersede those of a previous assessment completed by the USGS in 2002.

  10. Condition prediction models for oil and gas pipelines using regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    El-Abbasy, M.; Senouci, A; Zayed, T.; Mirahadi, F.; Parvizsedghy, L.

    2014-01-01

    Although they are the safest means of transporting oil and gas products, pipelines can sometimes fail with hazardous consequences and large business losses. The decision to replace, repair, or rehabilitate depends mainly on the condition of the pipeline. Assessing and predicting its condition is therefore a key step in the maintenance plan of a pipeline. Several models have recently been developed to predict pipeline failures and conditions. However, most of these models were limited to the u...

  11. Modeling of Non-equilibrium Processes in Oil Trunk Pipeline Using Godunov Type Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumskoi, S. I.; Sverchkov, A. M.

    The Article presents the numerical method of solving the system of one-dimensional non-stationary equations describing oil movement in the oil pipeline. The method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the oil pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. This new developed method can be applied for relaxation non-equilibrium flow case, that can't be modeling using another methods. Also this method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the liquefied hydrocarbon pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. Phase non-equilibrium flow is considered for boiling liquids transporting pipeline.

  12. From tankers to tissues : tracking the degradation and fate of oil discharges in Port Valdez, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An average of 9 million gallons per day of oil-contaminated ballast water off loaded from tankers are treated at the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company Ballast Water Treatment Facility at the terminus of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline in Port Valdez, Alaska. This paper focuses on the results of 2 Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council monitoring programs which detail changes in the chemical composition of treated ballast water as it moves from tankers through the facility and subsequently traces the effluent hydrocarbons into the receiving environment of Port Valdez. The treatment facility involves gravity separation tanks, dissolved air flotation cells and biological treatment tanks. Effluent containing traces of volatile aromatics, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, low levels of oil, saturated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is being continuously discharged to Port Valdez. Because of the extremely large average flow rate, low concentrations in the effluent can add up to a significant mass discharge. Samples from the facility were collected on 3 occasions. In March 2004, a limited pilot series of composite samples were collected from the effluent and the effluent to Port Valdez from a sampling port in the Fan/Meter Building. Second-round samples were collected from a wider suite of locations. A BIORATE assay study was completed during September 2004 and January 2005 field programs to measure degradation rates. The largest hydrocarbon pollution sources detected in samples from Port Valdez stations are correlated with an oil spill mishap at the terminal in 1994 and a sheen event in 1997. Apart from these events, concentrations from petrogenic sources are usually near or below the detection limits of the analytic methods used. However, on a routine basis, oil signals attributed to the facility effluent are detectable in mussel tissues at both Alyeska Marine Terminal and Gold Creek stations, and in sediments at Alyeska

  13. Spatial variation in spring CO2 efflux along the trans-Alaska pipeline, Alaska: Contribution of spring carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Spring soil CO2 efflux-measurement was conducted in representative sites along the trans-Alaska pipeline during 2010 to 2012 for the understanding of spatial variation in spring CO2 efflux response to change in snow-melting timing. The sites is 3 tundra sites (coastal tundra, upland tundra, upland tundra, and sub-alpine tundra), 2 white spruce sites in tundra-boreal forest ecotone, and Gold Creek, and 3 black spruce sites in Coldfoot, upper and lower reaches of the Yukon River. Soil CO2 efflux-measurement, which is a portable manual chamber CO2 efflux system, was conducted during snow-covered and snow-melting periods, minimizing artificial effects. CO2 effluxes in snow-covered and exposed soils showed a significantly difference, suggesting that spring CO2 efflux is much higher than that in snow-covered soil. The efflux was measured at 4-direction due to the difference of exposed extent, implying the magnitude of CO2 production. Average diameter in breast height (DBH: 85 × 11 cm) of white spruce is much thicker than black spruce (DBH: 33 × 5 cm), suggesting the difference of heat uptake and emission capacity between both forests. Soil temperature at 5 cm below the surface is one of significant keys in determining soil CO2 efflux. The magnitude of spring CO2 efflux showed white spruce, black spruce, and tundra in turn, suggesting that spring CO2 efflux (> 8 gC/m2/day) of corresponds to summer soil CO2 efflux. Then, spring soil CO2 efflux should be not overlooked the contribution of annual soil carbon efflux in spite of difficulties in snow-disappeared timing and springtime.

  14. OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: EXPERIENCES, LESSONS AND RESULTS FROM THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL IN ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. ield studies conducted by sci...

  15. METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF POWER-EFFICIENCY IN RECONSTRUCTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF OIL PIPELINE PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Коlesnik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a method and presents nomographs for determination of power-efficiency of oil pipeline operation in the case of transition from one pipeline system configuration to another one. This method is based on the usage of new configuration characteristics of a linear part of multi-line oil pipeline. It allows to analyze only the changed part of the pipeline system. The proposed configuration characteristics are based on recalculation of the length of input/output pipeline with specific diameter to the similar length of the pipeline with a conventional diameter and it is numerically equal to an extent of a laid pipeline with a conventional diameter from an initial time moment t0 to a time moment t.

  16. Corrosion Prevention And Control In High Pressure Oil And Gas Transmission Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the start of the 1990s there were concerns over the increasing threat of corrosion to the integrity of high-pressure oil and gas transmission pipelines. For example: corrosion was the major cause of reportable incidents in North America (1]. Corrosion was the major cause of pipeline failure in the Gulf of Mexico [2]. Corrosion in a North American onshore oil pipeline had required over $1 billion in repairs(3]. Internal corrosion along the complete length of pipelines had resulted in replacement[4] . However, the worldwide published failure statistics indicate that the incidents of corrosion are not increasing year on year(5-9]. Indeed, CONCA WE[8,9] statistics (for pipelines In Western Europe) show that the failure rate from corrosion (the most likely failure mode with increasing age) has not increased with pipeline age (Figure 1). In fact the statistics for gas pipelines in Europe

  17. Pipeline investigation report : crude oil pipeline-third party damage : Trans Mountain Pipeline LP 610 millimetre-diameter crude oil pipeline : kilometre post 3.10, Westridge dock transfer line, Burnaby, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discussed an oil spill which occurred in July 2007 when a contractor's excavator bucket punctured a pipeline during the excavation of a trench for a new storm sewer line at a location in Burnaby, British Columbia (BC). The puncture caused the release of approximately 234 cubic meters of crude oil, which flowed into Burrard Inlet Bay via a storm sewer system. Eleven houses were sprayed with crude oil, and many other properties required restoration. Approximately 250 residents left their homes. While emergency workers and firefighters responding to the incident were sprayed with crude oil, no explosions, fires, or injuries occurred. The report provided details of studies conducted to determine the placement of the sewer line, as well as attempts made by the contractors to determine the lateral connection of the crude oil pipeline. Discrepancies between the location of the pipeline design drawing and its actual location on other construction drawings were also noted by the contractor. Twenty-four minutes after the rupture, the terminal was fully isolated and the drain-down of the pipeline was completed within an hour. The cause of the accident was attributed to inaccurate construction drawings and inadequate communications between contractors and consulting companies. 3 figs

  18. Design of oil pipeline leak detection and communication system based on optical fiber technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yaqing; Chen, Huabo

    1999-08-01

    The integrity of oil pipeline is always a major concern of operators. Pipeline leak not only leads to loss of oil, but pollutes environment. A new pipeline leak detection and communication system based on optical fiber technology to ensure the pipeline reliability is presented. Combined direct leak detection method with an indirect one, the system will greatly reduce the rate of false alarm. According, to the practical features of oil pipeline,the pipeline communication system is designed employing the state-of-the-art optic fiber communication technology. The system has such feature as high location accuracy of leak detection, good real-time characteristic, etc. which overcomes the disadvantages of traditional leak detection methods and communication system effectively.

  19. Mechanical Analysis of Submarine Oil Pipelines Considering Overhanging of Transition Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to protect the safety of the submarine pipelines by establishing and analyzing mechanical model of the overhanging pipeline. The calculation equations of the force and deformation of the overhanging pipeline are presented in this study. In especial, the transition section is introduced to analyze the overhanging oil pipeline. The calculation equations of the moment, stress and deformation of the overhanging pipeline by considering the premise of sediment reaction are created. The software FORTRAN is used to carry out numerical simulation and the changing laws of bending moment, stress and deformation of overhanging pipeline are obtained. On the basis, the calculation equations of maximum bending moment, maximum stress and maximum deformation can be also obtained. Therefore, theoretical support for calculating submarine pipelines is provided, which has great significance for the analysis and treatment of the overhanging of submarine pipelines.

  20. Provincial impacts of Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact that the construction and operation of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will have on the Canadian economy was examined. Part 2 of this report presents a series of assumptions where the changes to the economy were explained with reference to the cost of developing facilities, revenues earned by their operations and other determinants that affect jurisdictional and sectorial impacts. The third part of the report presents the implications for the Northwest Territories/Yukon, British Columbia and Alberta since they are the regions that will be directly impacted by the AHPP. The significance of the development that extend beyond the immediately impacted regions was also assessed. For the impact analysis procedure, a base case forecast of the economy was prepared, assuming the project does not go ahead. This was followed by an impact case forecast of the economy in which the pipeline is developed and operated. Direct, indirect and induced effects were described. Two impact cases were considered for both national and regional studies. For the first case, all changes in government balances from increased revenues were assumed to go directly into debt reduction or acquisition of financial assets. For the second case, the governments recycle the increased revenue using a lower employment insurance contribution rate, and keeping federal business tax revenue and federal personal income tax revenue equal to the base case. The general effect of the second scenario is to increase the induced effects by increasing disposable income through lower tax rates. The report examined assumptions in the construction phase with reference to capital costs and construction employment. It also examined assumptions in the operational phase with reference to transportation services and operations employment. 7 tabs., 12 figs

  1. Fiber Optics: Safety Measures on Oil & Gas Pipeline Monitoring in Lagos State Region

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Oluseye

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis work is to research and implement the use of an optical communication system (fiber optics) as a safe and reliable monitoring system for the oil and gas pipeline industry in Lagos region of Nigeria. These optical fiber cables are laid parallel to oil and gas buried pipelines to monitor and indicate ad-vanced warning in real time situation once leakages occur in these pipelines, thereby allowing pipeline operators to take immediate and strategic actions to re-solve...

  2. Oil pipeline performance review 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 : Technical/statistical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a summary of the pipeline performance and reportable pipeline failures of liquid hydrocarbon pipelines in Canada, for the years 1995 through 1998. The year 1994 was the last one for which the Oil Pipeline Performance Review (OPPR) was published on an annual basis. The OPPR will continue to be published until such time as the Pipeline Risk Assesment Sub-Committee (PRASC) has obtained enough pipeline failure data to be aggregated into a meaningful report. The shifts in the mix of reporting pipeline companies is apparent in the data presented, comparing the volumes transported and the traffic volume during the previous ten-year period. Another table presents a summary of the failures which occurred during the period under consideration, 1995-1998, allowing for a comparison with the data for the previous ten-year period. From the current perspective and from an historical context, this document provides a statistical review of the performance of the pipelines, covering refined petroleum product pipelines, clean oil pipelines and High Vapour Pressure (HVP) pipelines downstream of battery limits. Classified as reportable are spills of 1.5 cubic metre or more of liquid hydrocarbons, any amount of HVP material, any incident involving an injury, a death, a fire, or an explosion. For those companies that responded to the survey, the major items, including number of failures and volumes released are accurate. Samples of the forms used for collecting the information are provided within the document. 6 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Efficiency estimation of electrical protection in the underground oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The method of determination damage, caused by installation of protectors unsufficient quantity in underground oil and gas pipelines group, is offered in this article. The method is based in comparison the pipeline protection zones among themselyes with a choice of protectors number

  4. Frequency Spectrum Method-Based Stress Analysis for Oil Pipelines in Earthquake Disaster Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline. PMID:25692790

  5. Oil and Gas Pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico from BOEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A line file representing locations of the pipeline infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico associated with the oil and gas industry is presented. These layers were...

  6. Estimated prospective tanker rates for Alaska North Slope crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the next ten years, three significant events will affect the structure of tankering costs for the Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil fields. These are: the double hulling requirement of the Oil Spill Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA90); the ageing of the tanker fleet; and the decline in ANS and West Coast oil production, which will eliminate more costly shipments to the Gulf Coast. The purpose of this paper is to estimate how these will affect tankering costs over the next twenty years. As baseline, the existing fleet is described, followed by a detailed discussion of the above factors. Company specific shipping requirements are calculated as compared to ship-by-ship tonnage availability (based on the current fleet) pursuant to these events, and the resultant tonnage deficit. A model is presented that derives a hypothetical reconstruction scheme to eliminate the deficits on a company specific ship-by-ship basis. The resulting costs are then translated into a weighted average per barrel ANS cost. The specific double hull costs are segregated. (author)

  7. Fracture risk assessment of trunk oil pipeline by corrosion fatigue mechanism of service defects development

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyl Luzhetskyy

    2013-01-01

    Engineering estimations of the corrosion fracture velocity of oil pipelines have been given, which include both mechanical and physical-chemical interaction operation factors of strained material with workspace. Characteristics of cyclic corrosion crack resistance of a pipe metal of the exploited oil-trunk pipeline with the regard for operating production factors have been defined. New data about corrosive and fatigue failure of pipes in dependence on the initial sizes and forms of their dete...

  8. Determination of the most suitable oil pipeline route using GIS least cost path analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huseynli, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    The Keystone XL has a big role for transforming Canadian oil to the USA. The function of the pipeline is decreasing the dependency of the American oil industry on other countries and it will help to limit external debt. The proposed pipeline seeks the most suitable route which cannot damage agricultural and natural water recourses such as the Ogallala Aquifer. Using the Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, the suggested path in this study got extremely high correct results that ...

  9. Bird kills from oil contamination in the Gulf of Alaska, February-March 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Outlines potential solutions for identifying oil threats to Alaska birds. Makes recommendations on activities, partners, research, and plans to undertake to better...

  10. 75 FR 36773 - Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... Bulletin to operators of hazardous liquid pipeline facilities required to prepare and submit an oil spill response plan under 49 CFR part 194. In light of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of...

  11. 75 FR 80300 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ..., National Propane Gas Association (NPGA), Tesoro Refining and Market Company and Sinclair Oil Corporation... period commencing July 1, 2011. \\1\\ Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index, 75 FR 34959 (June 21...., Washington, DC 20426, (202) 502-6527; Michael Lacy (Technical Information), Office of Energy...

  12. Using finite element method in the processof strength calculation for the pipeline supports in above-groundarea of "Zapolyar'e — NPS "PUR-PE" oil pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich; Varshitskiy Viktor Mironovich; Bondarenko Valeriy Vyacheslavovich; Korgin Andrey Valentinovich; Bogach Andrey Anatol'evich

    2014-01-01

    The present article studies a procedure of calculating the strength of pipeline support constructions of the above-ground oil trunk pipeline system «Zapolyar'e — oil pumping station «Pur-pe». The calculations of the supports stress-strain state are performed with the use of computer complex Ansys v13, which applies the finite element method. The article provides a short description of the construction of fixed, linear-sliding and free-sliding supports of the oil pipeline of above-ground routi...

  13. Model for the calculation of pressure loss through heavy fuel oil transfer pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luis Laurencio-Alfonso,

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limitations of methodologies and empirical correlations in the evaluation of simultaneous effects produced by viscous and mix strength during the transfer of fluids through pipelines, this article presents the functional relationships that describe the pressure variations for the non-Newtonian fuel oil flowrate. The experimental study was conducted based on a characterization of the rheological behavior of fuel oil and modeling for a pseudoplastic behavior. The resulting model describes temperature changes, viscous friction effects and the effects of blending flow layers; which is therefore the basis of calculation for the selection, evaluation and rationalization of transport of heavy fuel oil by pipelines.

  14. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical

  15. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Karchesy, Joe J.; Javier Peralta-Cruz; Mohammad A. Khasawneh; Yeping Xiong

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, val...

  16. Variation of yield stress of Daqing crude oil with pipelining history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 侯磊; 孙立新

    2008-01-01

    The yield stress of waxy crude oil is a fundamental parameter in the calculation of pipelining technique and analysis of flow safety for the heated oil transported through pipeline.Daqing crude oil was studied and the variation of yield stress with shear history was explored through simulation experiment of pipelining.It is found that the effect of throughput variation or shear rate on yield stress is not obvious.With the decrease of final dynamic cooling temperature,the yield stress of waxy crude oil decreases,but there exists a little increase at the beginning.The prediction model of yield stress for waxy crude oil under the condition of shutdown is developed and it can be used to predict the yield stress of Daqing crude oil at certain heating temperature,final dynamic cooling temperature and measurement temperature.For the 139 groups of yield stress data of Daqing crude oil from the simulation experiment of pipelining,the result of prediction with this model shows that the average relative deviation between the yield stress measured and predicted is 30.27%,and the coefficient of correlation is 0.962 3.

  17. Transient flow assurance for determination of operational control of heavy oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejo, Victor [TransCanada Pipelines Ltd, (Canada); Mohitpour, Mo [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pipeline transmission systems have been designed traditionally using steady state simulations. Steady state simulation provided sufficient values for simple systems, but is limited in dealing with surges in flow rates, loss of facilities and facility operation. A dynamic approach is required to test the capacity of a system for various fluids. This paper investigated the use of transient analysis of liquid pipelines in order to improve the design of these pipelines and to achieve operational benefits. The transient method and its use are discussed. Dynamic analysis was applied to the Keystone Pipeline Project. The purpose of the study was first to determine the system capacity and data for transportation of Heavy DilBit, and then to implement batch transportation of a volume of synthetic crude oil. It was found that the use of transient modeling in design and operational assessment of a liquid pipeline ensures system capability, control, safety and integrity.

  18. Marine spill response planning for the non-persistent oil transportation industry in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique difficulties that face oil spill response planning for the oil transportation industry in Alaska were discussed. Three levels of response strategies and actions proposed by the Alaska Petroleum Distributors and Transporters (APD and T) member companies were reviewed. They were: (1) immediate response (on-board resources), (2) in-region response (caches in Subareas), and (3) out-of-region cascaded resources (from Anchorage and other sources). The strategies and levels of capability were proposed as emergency measures in addition to the more important prevention measures already instituted to prevent discharges of non-persistent oil. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  19. Assessment of potential oil and gas resources in source rocks of the Alaska North Slope, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Rouse, William A.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated potential, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for source rocks of the Alaska North Slope. Estimates (95-percent to 5-percent probability) range from zero to 2 billion barrels of oil and from zero to nearly 80 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  20. THE FATE AND EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL SPILLED ON SUBARCTIC PERMAFROST TERRAIN IN INTERIOR ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine both the short- and long-term effects of spills of hot Prudhoe Bay crude oil on permafrost terrain in subarctic interior Alaska. Two experimental oil spills of 7570 liters (2000 gallons) each on 500sqm test plots were made at a forest site un...

  1. Effects of Pipeline Construction on Wetland Ecosystems: Russia-China Oil Pipeline Project (Mohe-Daqing Section)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaofei Yu; Guoping Wang; Yuanchun Zou; Qiang Wang; Hongmei Zhao; Xianguo Lu (Key Lab of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Inst. of Geography and Agroecology, Changchun (China)), e-mail: wangguoping@neigae.ac.cn

    2010-07-15

    Although the multiple roles of wetland ecosystems and their value to humanity have been increasingly understood and documented in recent years, the efforts to conserve and restore wetlands are not in harmony with the press for high speed of economy growth. The degradation of wetlands is proceeding, especially in China. Russia- China Oil Pipe-line Project (Mohe-Daqing Section) has already begun in May 2009, and is ongoing. The pipeline runs through four riverine wetlands and two marshlands of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. Although the project has vital significance of mitigating the energy crisis as well as guaranteeing the energy security of China, it will bring a series of ecological and environmental problems, especially for wetland ecosystems

  2. A combined kriging and stochastic method to map paraffin scale growth in oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, R. K.; Novrianto, A. R.; Rahmawati, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Paraffin is a common deposit in oil production pipeline. It occurs when the oil flowing-temperature is under Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) or pour-point temperature. Several prediction models so far only estimatethe location where the paraffin-wax is possibly formed and there is no prediction about paraffin-wax growth over time. Therefore, this paper presents a new mathematical model to accurately predict paraffin-wax growth in oil production pipeline. The proposed model contains stochastic and kriging method. The stochastic model is developed based on Markov and Poisson model and used to describe the generation time and growth of scale. Kriging model is then combined to describe the position of scale along the production pipeline. As the result of the combined model, paraffin-wax thickness can be mapped in space and time. This prediction is important to determine and decide an effective production operation and efficient investment.

  3. From the Silk Road to Chevron: The Geopolitics of Oil Pipelines in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fishelson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the struggle between Iran, Russia, China, and the US over their preferred pipeline routes for Central Asian oil and gas gives a good glimpse as to the world's future geopolitical order. Despite the formidable difficulties in building pipelines, those four powers are converging upon the region with an eagerness that is almost desperate. In previous eras, a country's military was the sole arbiter of her strength, but today her economy has become nearly as important, if not more so, and all industrial economies – and militaries – run on oil and gas. The US and China desire those resources to fuel their power plants, factories, automobiles, aircraft, and armored vehicles. Iran and Russia want the pipelines to go through their territory in order to claim transit fees and use the resources as political tools. For each country wresting control of the Central Asian oil and gas is necessarily a vital part of its grand strategy.

  4. DISTRIBUTED OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR FOR LONG-DISTANCE OIL PIPELINE HEALTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A fully distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) for monitoring long-distance oil pipeline health is proposed based on optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR). A smart and sensitive optical fiber cable is installed along the pipeline acting as a sensor. The experiments show that the cable swells when exposed to oil and induced additional bending losses inside the fiber, and the optical attenuation of the fiber coated by a thin skin with periodical hardness is sensitive to deformation and vibration caused by oil leakage, tampering,or mechanical impact. The region where the additional attenuation occurred is detected and located by DOFS based on OTDR, the types of pipeline accidents are identified according to the characteristics of transmitted optical power received by an optical power meter. Another prototype of DOFS based on a forward traveling frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) is also proposed to monitor pipeline. The advantages and disadvantages of DOFSs based on OTDR and FMCW are discussed. The experiments show that DOFSs are capable of detecting and locating distant oil pipeline leakages and damages in real time with an estimated precision of ten meters over tens of kilometers.

  5. Prediction Model Based on the Grey Theory for Tackling Wax Deposition in Oil Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Wu; Shujuan Qiu; Jianfeng Liu; Ling Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Problems involving wax deposition threaten seriously crude pipelines both economically and operationally. Wax deposition in oil pipelines is a complicated problem having a number of uncertainties and indeterminations. The Grey System Theory is a suitable theory for coping with systems in which some information is clear and some is not, so it is an adequate model for studying the process of wax deposition.In order to predict accurately wax deposition along a pipeline, the Grey Model was applied to fit the data of wax deposition rate and the thickness of the deposited wax layer on the pipe-wall, and to give accurate forecast on wax deposition in oil pipelines. The results showed that the average residential error of the Grey Prediction Model is smaller than 2%. They further showed that this model exhibited high prediction accuracy. Our investigation proved that the Grey Model is a viable means for forecasting wax deposition.These findings offer valuable references for the oil industry and for firms dealing with wax cleaning in oil pipelines.

  6. Inter provincial input-output analysis of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using an inter provincial input-output model (IPIO) consisting of 10 provincial input-output matrix sets and 2 territorial IO matrix sets which were then interconnected through inter provincial trade flow. Changes in any province, industry or commodity will impact on other provinces, industries and commodities. The AHPP will cause investment and production of pipeline services to increase. Investment will require additional products from the economy that can come from domestic industries or imported from foreign markets. The purchase and installation of pipeline and any preparation costs would be associated with non-residential structure investment. The report refers to both machinery and equipment capital expenditures, and pipeline cost-of-service. Direct, indirect and induced effects were also examined. The construction phase impact for the Yukon segment of the AHPP will be $2,138 million from structures investment, and $1,231 million from machinery and equipment investment. For the British Columbia segment, the construction phase impact will be $1,711 million from structures investment and $927 million from machinery and equipment investment. The construction phase is expected to generate 50,000 person-years of employment in the Canadian economy over a 10 year construction period, with peak construction occurring in 2006. The construction phase is expected to generate $3,446 million of Gross Domestic Product for Canada, of which $2,318 million will be split between Yukon and British Columbia. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  8. Leakage of Oil Following Rupture of Pipeline P/15-4 to Hook of Holland

    OpenAIRE

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents computational results concerning the buoyancy-driven leakage of oil resulting from a possible rupture of the planned pipeline P/15-4 to Hook of Holland. The computations were commissioned by R.J. Brown and Associates (Netherlands) b.v. (RJBA Job No. 7004.02). The specifications of the pipeline and oil as made available by RJBA are listed in Table 1. Assumed properties of seawater are also listed. Leak volumes up to 400 m were calculated as functions of time after rupture ...

  9. Oil Pipelines, This is an ESRI feature class of Enbridge Energy's Rock County crude oil lines., Published in 2005, Rock County Planning, Economic, and Community Development Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Oil Pipelines dataset as of 2005. It is described as 'This is an ESRI feature class of Enbridge Energy's Rock County crude oil lines.'. Data by this publisher...

  10. 76 FR 68502 - National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 in the National Petroleum... opening for select tracts in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska. The United States reserves the...

  11. An ornithological study of alternate gas pipeline routes in Alaska, Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study was an attempt to describe and estimate the numbers of species and relative densities of birds along the two alternate pipeline routes, and to arrive at...

  12. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramirez

    Full Text Available The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196 were inactive, one-third (1,665 were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration.

  13. Rock environment pollution as a consequence of the oil pipeline activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tometz Ladislav

    1996-01-01

    An extensive rock environment pollution, including soil and groundwater, was caused as a consequence of the oil-pipeline fracture at the village Jur nad Hronom (Levice district). The extent of the pollution was determined by exploration works. This work presents sanation of rock environment and groundwater.

  14. The strategic priorities of the national oil and gas pipeline transport system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Миколаївна Ісаєва

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of legal documents governing relations between Ukraine, Russia and the European Union as part of their energy policies was performed. The strategic interests of participating countries and the strategic priorities of the governance with national oil and gas pipeline transport system development in particular were designated

  15. Leakage of Oil Following Rupture of Pipeline P/15-4 to Hook of Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents computational results concerning the buoyancy-driven leakage of oil resulting from a possible rupture of the planned pipeline P/15-4 to Hook of Holland. The computations were commissioned by R.J. Brown and Associates (Netherlands) b.v. (RJBA Job No. 7004.02). The specifications

  16. 12th International corrosion congress: Preceedings. Volume 4: Oil/gas/pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 4 of these proceedings contain 65 papers divided into the following sections: Cathodic protection (7 papers); Hydrogen effects (10); Oil and gas production and refining workshop (33); Pipeline corrosion (6); and Reliability and corrosion control of weldments/corrosion resistant alloys (9). All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  17. Impact of the Keystone XL pipeline on global oil markets and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Climate policy and analysis often focus on energy production and consumption, but seldom consider how energy transportation infrastructure shapes energy systems. US President Obama has recently brought these issues to the fore, stating that he would only approve the Keystone XL pipeline, connecting Canadian oil sands with US refineries and ports, if it `does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution'. Here, we apply a simple model to understand the implications of the pipeline for greenhouse gas emissions as a function of any resulting increase in oil sands production. We find that for every barrel of increased production, global oil consumption would increase 0.6 barrels owing to the incremental decrease in global oil prices. As a result, and depending on the extent to which the pipeline leads to greater oil sands production, the net annual impact of Keystone XL could range from virtually none to 110 million tons CO2 equivalent annually. This spread is four times wider than found by the US State Department (1-27 million tons CO2e), who did not account for global oil market effects. The approach used here, common in lifecycle analysis, could also be applied to other pending fossil fuel extraction and supply infrastructure.

  18. Rheology and FTIR studies of model waxy crude oils with relevance to gelled pipeline restart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, J.J.; Guimeraes, K.; Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Venkatesan, R.; Montesi, A. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Gels composed of wax crystals may sometimes form when crude oils are transported in pipelines when ambient temperatures are low. The gels may stop the pipe flow, making it difficult or even impossible to restart the flow without breaking the pipe. Rheology and FTIR techniques were used to study the problem and to characterize transparent model waxy crude oils in pipeline flow experiments. These model oils were formulated without any highly volatile components to enhance the reproducibility of the rheology tests. Results were presented for the time- and temperature-dependent rheology of the model waxy crude oils as obtained in linear oscillatory shear and in creep-recovery experiments. The model oils were shown to exhibit many of the rheological features reported for real crude oils, such as 3 distinct apparent yield stresses, notably static yield stress, dynamic yield stress, and elastic-limit yield stress. It was concluded that of the 3, the static yield stress value, particularly its time dependence, can best be used to predict the restart behaviour observed for the same gel in model pipelines.

  19. Fitting partially upgraded oils into pipelines and refinery markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The logistics of transporting partially upgraded crudes in feeder and trunk pipeline systems is discussed. Logistic alternatives are evaluated against economic drivers for partial upgrading, and the impact of crude transportation logistics on the quality of crude that reaches refinery gates is assessed. The potential advantages of partial upgrading in the field are reviewed (including reduction of diluent required to meet pipeline density and viscosity specifications, cost and availability of diluent, limitations in diluent transportation infrastructure, increased chemical stability, increased attractiveness to refineries, shortage of refinery coking capacity, higher market value). The pros and cons of various upgrading processes, and the implications of each for producers and refiners are explained. The advantages of moving to large common streams, as opposed to the concept of 'boutique' crudes, are stressed as the surest way for producers to realize the maximum value of partially upgraded crudes

  20. EFFECTIVENESS AND REGULATORY ISSUES IN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: EXPERIENCES WITH THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL IN ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. ield studies conducted by sci...

  1. Oil Pipelines, Politics and International Business: The Rotterdam Oil Port, Royal Dutch Shell and the German Hinterland, 1945-1975

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, Marten

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractThe dissertation questions how and why the transition from coal to oil affected the economic relations between the Port of Rotterdam and its German hinterland between 1945 and 1975. From the 1880s onwards, Rotterdam had become the main seaport of the German industrial heartland in the Ruhr area. The transition from coal to oil in the 1950s and 1960s required a new infrastructure – pipelines – to supply the expanding West German market with crude oil. Despite its intimate trans...

  2. Two oil types on North slope of Alaska; implications for exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoon, L.B.; Claypool, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    40 oil samples from across the N Slope of Alaska have been analyzed by the US Bureau of Mines and the US Geological Survey. Results of these analyses suggest 2 separate genetic oil types. The first, the Simpson-Umiat oil type, occurs in reservoir rocks of Cretaceous and Quaternary age. These are higher gravity, low- sulfur oils with no, or slight, odd-numbered n-alkane predominance and pristane to phytane ratios greater than 1.5. The second type, the Barrow-Prudhoe oil type, occurs in reservoir rocks of Carboniferous to Cretaceous age. Physical properties of these oils are variable, but in general the oils are medium-gravity, high-sulfur oils with slight even-numbered n-alkane predominance and pristane to phytane ratios less than l.5. The 2 types are believed to originate from different source rocks.

  3. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil plays an important role in providing the energy supply of the world, and pipelines have long been recognized as the safest and most efficient means of transporting oil and its products. However, the transportation process also faces the challenges of asphaltene-paraffin structural interactions, pipeline pressure losses and energy consumption. In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines with a biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses were carried out. The results indicated that heavy oil transportation in the pipeline is remarkably enhanced by creating stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsion with the surfactant additive. The wax appearance temperature (WAT and pour point were modified, and the formation of a space-filling network of interlocking wax crystals was prevented at low temperature by adding a small concentration of the surfactant additive. A maximum viscosity reduction of 70% and a drag reduction of 40% for light crude oil flows in pipelines were obtained with the surfactant additive at a concentration of 100 mg/L. Furthermore, a successful field application of the drag-reducing surfactant in a light crude oil pipeline in Daqing Oilfield was demonstrated. Hence, the use of biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses in oil transportation is a potential method to address the current challenges, which could result in a significant energy savings and a considerable reduction of the operating cost.

  4. North SEa pipelines: a survey of technology, regulation and use conflicts in oil and gas pipeline operation. Final report, Aug-Dec 78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nothdurft, W.E.

    1980-02-01

    This project was undertaken to provide information on North Sea offshore pipelines and the processes used in route selection decision-making. It is designed to be used by persons involved in offshore oil and gas pipeline planning, including pipeline corridors and landfalls. A brief overview of offshore activity in both the United Kingdom and Norwegian sectors of the North Sea is presented, with special emphasis on the transportation systems established or proposed for the major commercial fields. The report then focuses on the specific issues arising from the installation and operation of each of these transportation systems. These issues include: regulations affecting pipeline placement, criteria for route selection, pipeline trenching and burial, and conflicts with the fishing industry in the North Sea.

  5. Vertical oil distribution within the intertidal zone 12 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented a quantitative assessment of the vertical distribution of surface and subsurface oil left on the beaches of Prince William Sound, Alaska, 12 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In the summer of 2001, oil was found at 53 of the 91 randomly surveyed sites. Chemical fingerprinting of oil samples confirmed patterns of relative PAH abundances consistent with weathered Exxon Valdez oil. Most of the oil from the 4,249 quadrates was found in the subsurface pits instead of at the surface. 80 per cent of the subsurface oil was below the 3.3 m tidal elevation, suggesting there is a reason for concern regarding chronic exposure for species that live, prey, or spawn on lower intertidal zones. The concern stems from the amount of oil discovered plus the lack of weathering in the subsurface oil from the lower zones. The primary source of subsurface oil in the lower intertidal zone is suspected to be oil deposited soon after the spill, and not oil migration downslope over time between 1989 and 2001. The subsurface oil was less weathered than surface oil and was found in liquid form. 21 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  6. Taming the oil spill paperwork beast : the Alaska spill response permits project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addressed the issue of the intense paperwork associated with an oil spill event. The permits, forms and applications needed to carry out an effective oil spill response can slow down progress or lead to confusion. In the State of Alaska where permitting authorities have been transferred, some forms appear unnecessary in the response effort and may even be carryovers from other venues. In response to this problem, the Alaska Spill Response Permits project was initiated to facilitate the process of identifying, filling out and filing spill response forms with the appropriate agency. This paper described the progress of the Alaska permits project and presented lessons learned that may be useful for other jurisdictions seeking to minimize the paperwork burden. The project was initiated by the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Council. Representatives from the Alaska oil industry, state and federal agencies and response organizations helped in updating the list of required permits and the actual permit forms. A computer-based tool was developed to sort, fill out, file and organize the permits during an oil spill remediation effort. 1 ref., 3 figs

  7. Pipelines: prebuild remains focus of attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-21

    Progress on the prebuilding of the Alaska Highway Pipeline continues to dominate the Canadian pipeline scene as the deadline nears for decision making on several aspects of the project. If obstacles are removed in time for the western leg of the prebuild to proceed on the revised schedule, facilities for gas deliveries to California should be completed by fall 1980. Financing negotiations are continuing in both the US and Canada. Pipeline projects in Canada during 1980 are listed by line type, including gas transmission lines, crude oil and products lines, gas gathering systems, waterflood systems, and new projects not called gas transmission lines.

  8. Gamma transmission system for detection of scale in oil exploration pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study is to detect and quantify the thickness of the scale layer inside the service pipelines. For this purpose, a system composed of a 137Cs source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was developed. The source and the detector were positioned in geometry to make transmission measurements. A computational routine was developed to generate simulated data, which were later compared with the experimental ones, in order to calculate the thickness of scale layer. The results of the validation tests show similar values to the real ones. It was therefore possible to conclude that the procedure is efficient for the detection and quantification of materials inside pipelines, and that the system is advantageous for its application in the field, especially with respect to radioprotection. - Highlights: • Detection of scale in oil and gas pipelines. • Validation of a mathematical procedure to generate transmitted radiation profiles. • Quantification of the scale layer thickness by gamma-ray transmission

  9. Conversion of an operating product pipeline to crude service: success story of Indian oil's strategic initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Kiran Kumar; Tandon, Anil; Sati, Vipin Chandra [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Sadiq Nagar, New Delhi (India)

    2008-07-01

    Indian Oil Corporation Limited, a major oil company of India, had plans to expand capacity of its refinery located in northern part of the country. The crude oil requirement of this refinery was being met through a pipeline system originating at the West Coast of the country. A new crude oil pipeline from West Coast for expansion of the refinery was not becoming financially attractive. It was noted that part (about 1100 km) of an existing product pipeline, whose capacity utilization was low, if converted to crude oil service, would give double advantage of reducing cost of laying a new pipeline and also ensure its optimum utilization. This strategy prompted us to innovate ways to optimize use of existing facilities for meeting additional crude oil requirements for expansion of the refinery. After series of in-house brainstorming sessions, a scheme was evolved which involved lot of alterations in a well established operating pipeline system supplying products to strategically sensitive north-west region of the country. Through innovations in system design and strategic thinking, the organization brought about a major change in supply chain. There was no disruption in supplies of petroleum products to the areas fed by the product pipeline during the conversion process, which manifested the strength of Indian Oil in planning and execution of projects which were not only of mega size but also were innovative in nature. (author)

  10. Oil pipeline geohazard monitoring using optical fiber FBG strain sensors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ferro, Andres; Mendez, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Pipelines are naturally vulnerable to operational, environmental and man-made effects such as internal erosion and corrosion; mechanical deformation due to geophysical risks and ground movements; leaks from neglect and vandalism; as well as encroachments from nearby excavations or illegal intrusions. The actual detection and localization of incipient and advanced faults in pipelines is a very difficult, expensive and inexact task. Anything that operators can do to mitigate the effects of these faults will provide increased reliability, reduced downtime and maintenance costs, as well as increased revenues. This talk will review the on-line monitoring of an extensive network of oil pipelines in service in Colombia using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors for the measurement of strains and bending caused by geohazard risks such as soil movements, landslides, settlements, flooding and seismic activity. The FBG sensors were mounted on the outside of the pipelines at discrete locations where geohazard risk was expected. The system has been in service for the past 3 years with over 1,000 strain sensors mounted. The technique has been reliable and effective in giving advanced warning of accumulated pipeline strains as well as possible ruptures.

  11. Will Reducing Oil Taxes Spur Production? The Critical Question in Alaska's FY 2014 Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    McBeath, Jerry; Wright, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Among western states, Alaska is the most dependent on oil/gas taxes.  In late 2012 and early 2013 the its counter-cyclical economy puttered along while oil production (taxes from which provide 87 percent of the state general fund budget) continued to decline.  The main fiscal issue during the 2013 legislative session was oil severance taxes, with Governor Parnell making his second attempt (with Republican support) to lower them in hope that the industry would increase its investment in the st...

  12. Co-movements of Alaska North Slope and UK Brent crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the inter-relationships of international crude oil markets, empirical analyses are used to investigate univariate and multivariate relationships between Alaska North Slope and UK Brent oil prices. Using monthly data from the period 1974-1996, the results show that both price series follow a random walk and that these oil markets share a long-run common trend. The empirical results suggest that the two markets are 'unified'. That is, they are competitive, and there is price convergence in the markets. (author)

  13. Quantitative risk assessment & leak detection criteria for a subsea oil export pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Yuan; Bai, Yong; Badaruddin, Mohd Fauzi; Tuty, Suhartodjo

    2009-06-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on leak detection criteria (LDC) for the design of a proposed subsea oil export pipeline is presented in this paper. The objective of this QRA/LDC study was to determine if current leak detection methodologies were sufficient, based on QRA results, while excluding the use of statistical leak detection; if not, an appropriate LDC for the leak detection system would need to be established. The famous UK PARLOC database was used for the calculation of pipeline failure rates, and the software POSVCM from MMS was used for oil spill simulations. QRA results revealed that the installation of a statistically based leak detection system (LDS) can significantly reduce time to leak detection, thereby mitigating the consequences of leakage. A sound LDC has been defined based on QRA study results and comments from various LDS vendors to assist the emergency response team (ERT) to quickly identify and locate leakage and employ the most effective measures to contain damage.

  14. Fuzzy Reliability Analysis for Seabed Oil-Gas Pipeline Networks Under Earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 潘斌

    2003-01-01

    The seabed oil-gas pipeline network is simplified to a network w i th stochastic edge-weight by means of the fuzzy graphics theory. With the help o f network analysis, fuzzy mathematics, and stochastic theory, the problem of rel iability analysis for the seabed oil-gas pipeline network under earthquakes is t ransformed into the calculation of the transitive closure of fuzzy matrix of the stochastic fuzzy network. In classical network reliability analysis, the node i s supposed to be non-invalidated; in this paper, this premise is modified by in t roducing a disposal method which has taken the possible invalidated node into a ccount. A good result is obtained by use of the Monte Carlo simulation analysis.

  15. Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

  16. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ..., Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management... Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea, Alaska (OCS EIS/EA BOEMRE 2011-041). BOEMRE... Final EIS, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea Planning Area (OCS EIS/EA MMS 2007-026). BOEMRE...

  17. Entropy Production in Pipeline Flow of Dispersions of Water in Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Rajinder Pal

    2014-01-01

    Entropy production in pipeline adiabatic flow of water-in-oil emulsions is investigated experimentally in three different diameter pipes. The dispersed-phase (water droplets) concentration of emulsion is varied from 0 to 41% vol. The entropy production rates in emulsion flow are compared with the values expected in single-phase flow of Newtonian fluids with the same properties (viscosity and density). While in the laminar regime the entropy production rates in emulsion flow can be described a...

  18. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  19. Method and measuring device for checking the support and/or covering of a pipeline for oil or gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previous invention was for a device which was propelled along the pipeline by the oil or gas flow and measured the background radiation. By comparing the radiation profile with a reference profile made when the pipeline was new, changes in the support of the pipeline on the sea bed, or in its sand cover, can be detected, and to a certain degree, measured. The present invention is that by placing similar detectors at different positions in the same cross-section of the pipeline, and processing the signals comparatively, the need for a reference profile is obviated. (JIW)

  20. Standardization of industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals: TRANSPETRO's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Correa, Marcelo Leal [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO concerning standardization of its industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, preparation and implementation of standards and five corporate operational procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, and consequently the sense of unity and creation of a nucleus consisting of 30 professionals who mobilized a learning network with great capillarity. In this context, the paper presents the results of implementing corporate standards, based on internationally recognized yardsticks such as American Petroleum Institute (API), US Department of Transportation (DOT) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), as well as PETROBRAS standards. It covers the following topics: an overview of the whole process; preparation of corporate operational procedures, which resulted in a total of 5 standards against 60 in the original situation; preparation and implementation of visual quick guides corresponding to the new corporate operational procedures; and proposal of a set of industrial maintenance performance indicators in compliance with operational guidelines established by TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals business segment. (author)

  1. Exergy Destruction in Pipeline Flow of Surfactant-Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Rajinder Pal

    2014-01-01

    Exergy destruction in adiabatic pipeline flow of surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions is investigated in five different diameter pipes. The dispersed-phase (oil droplets) concentration of the emulsions is varied from 0% to 55.14% vol. The emulsions are Newtonian in that the viscosity is independent of the shear rate. For a given emulsion and pipe diameter, the exergy destruction rate per unit pipe length increases linearly with the increase in the Reynolds number on a log-log scale i...

  2. Transnational opposition and negotiation: Challenges to an oil pipeline in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Patricia

    The literature on transnational networks portrays transnational collaborations as advantageous to domestic stakeholders. Yet, the gains of transnational engagement may be accompanied by hardship for domestic groups. This dissertation examines how domestic stakeholders experienced the benefits and burdens of transnational collaboration in challenging the construction of the oil pipeline, the Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados, in Ecuador. Four community cases along the pipeline's route were selected for analysis. Each case varied by the experienced externalities of the oil industry and distributive struggle with the industry and the state. Lago Agrio, an oil town on the edge of the Amazon, represented a community with 30 years of oil saturation that engaged the state to determine just compensation. The capital Quito represented the nation's environmental organizations that sought a role in directing oil-funded conservation efforts. The third site, the eco-tourism community of Mindo, mobilized to reject the pipeline's route near their private reserves and to promote eco-tourism as an economic alternative to oil extraction. The final site was Esmeraldas, a coastal community experienced in tanker loading and oil refining that achieved a collective dignity in pressing for community-determined compensation. To better understand the impacts of transnational activities, this dissertation synthesizes theories of social movements, environmental justice and development. In its longitudinal and case study design, the examination of one project at four sites of contention offers insight into how transnational mobilization drives or hinders environmental justice and how grassroots groups gain or lose a forum for participation. My findings indicate that transnational campaigns benefited locals by providing expert assessments, facilitating international access and influencing international financing policies. However, the unintended consequences included a focus on international concerns

  3. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs

  4. Identification of environmentally vulnerable areas with priority for prevention and management of pipeline crude oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Heydrich, Silke Cram; Cervantes, Irene Sommer; Orozco, Oralia Oropeza

    2011-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the main productive activities in Mexico and has a huge infrastructure, including a wide pipeline network that crosses urban, industrial, agricultural and natural areas. The threat of crude oil spills is greatest in those regions with a high concentration of oil extraction and refining activities, as in the case of the Coatzacoalcos and Tonalá Rivers Low Basin. This study ranked the geosystems of the basin in terms of vulnerability to pipeline crude oil spills. Very high vulnerability (level I) was assigned to the water bodies (lakes and rivers) and their margins of influence, including surfaces that flood during normal hydraulic load. High vulnerability areas (level II) comprised surfaces that can flood during extraordinary hydraulic load related with extreme hydrometeorological events. The remaining three vulnerability levels were defined for areas with low or negligible flooding potential, these were ranked according to physical (slope, relief and permeability), biological (richness, singularity and integrity) and socio-economic (social marginalization index and economic activities index) conditions. These results are presented on a map for better visualization and interpretation. This study will be useful to establish preventive and effective emergency management actions in order to reduce remediation costs and adverse effects on wild species. It also can help local and national authorities, oil industry and civil protection corps to better protect ecosystems, natural resources and human activities and goods. PMID:21376445

  5. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Div. of Mineral Physics

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs.

  6. Potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV) compared to a standard laboratory test conducted with fluorescent lighting (minimal UV). Oil products, weathered oil, and specific polycyclic aromatic compounds present in oil are 2 to greater than 1000 times more toxic in the presence of UV. The photoenhanced toxicity of oil to fish and aquatic invertebrates appears to occur through a process of photosensitization, rather than photomodification of the aqueous phase oil. In photosensitization, the bioaccumulated chemical transfers light energy to other molecules causing toxicity through tissue damage rather than a narcosis mechanism. The available evidence indicates that phototoxic components of oil are specific 3-5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles. Determinants of photoenhanced toxicity include the extent of oil bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and the spectra and intensity of UV exposure. No studies have specifically investigated the photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Alaska waters. Although there are substantial uncertainties, the results of this evaluation indicate there is potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. The potential hazard of photoenhanced toxicity may be greatest for embryo and larval stages of aquatic organisms that are relatively translucent to UV and inhabit the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas. Photoenhanced toxicity should be considered in oil spill response because the spatial and temporal extent of injury to aquatic organisms may be underestimated if based on standard laboratory bioassays and existing toxicity databases. Additionally, the choice of counter measures and oil removal operations may influence the degree of photoenhanced toxicity. (author)

  7. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on maximizing oil sands growth : improving transportation logistics, labour supply and pipeline availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference focused on the development of a transportation infrastructure to accommodate oil sands growth, with particular reference to building a pipeline infrastructure to meet the delivery and supply requirements of oil sands producers. The need for transmission system upgrades and additions to meet the electric power requirements of the oil sands industry was also discussed. The transportation options and new proposed pipeline construction projects that will alleviate the current transportation challenges in the oil sands region were identified. These include the implementation of new infrastructure strategies based on current pipeline availability, Kyoto requirements and downstream market demands. The impact of labour shortages on the oil sands industry was reviewed along with solutions to prevent and overcome these shortages. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  8. Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

  9. Tax policy can change the production path: A model of optimal oil extraction in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We model the economically optimal dynamic oil production decisions for seven production units (fields) on Alaska's North Slope. We use adjustment cost and discount rate to calibrate the model against historical production data, and use the calibrated model to simulate the impact of tax policy on production rate. We construct field-specific cost functions from average cost data and an estimated inverse production function, which incorporates engineering aspects of oil production into our economic modeling. Producers appear to have approximated dynamic optimality. Consistent with prior research, we find that changing the tax rate alone does not change the economically optimal oil production path, except for marginal fields that may cease production. Contrary to prior research, we find that the structure of tax policy can be designed to affect the economically optimal production path, but at a cost in net social benefit. - Highlights: ► We model economically optimal dynamic oil production decisions for 7 Alaska fields. ► Changing tax rate alone does not alter the economically optimal oil production path. ► But change in tax structure can affect the economically optimal oil production path. ► Tax structures that modify the optimal production path reduce net social benefit. ► Field-specific cost functions and inverse production functions are estimated

  10. A root cause analysis approach to risk assessment of a pipeline network for Kuwait Oil Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Ray J.; Alfano, Tony D. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Waheed, Farrukh [Kuwait Oil Company, Ahmadi (Kuwait); Komulainen, Tiina [Kongsberg Oil and Gas Technologies, Sandvika (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    A large scale risk assessment was performed by Det Norske Veritas (DNV) for the entire Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) pipeline network. This risk assessment was unique in that it incorporated the assessment of all major sources of process related risk faced by KOC and included root cause management system related risks in addition to technical risks related to more immediate causes. The assessment was conducted across the entire pipeline network with the scope divided into three major categories:1. Integrity Management 2. Operations 3. Management Systems Aspects of integrity management were ranked and prioritized using a custom algorithm based on critical data sets. A detailed quantitative risk assessment was then used to further evaluate those issues deemed unacceptable, and finally a cost benefit analysis approach was used to compare and select improvement options. The operations assessment involved computer modeling of the entire pipeline network to assess for bottlenecks, surge and erosion analysis, and to identify opportunities within the network that could potentially lead to increased production. The management system assessment was performed by conducting a gap analysis on the existing system and by prioritizing those improvement actions that best aligned with KOC's strategic goals for pipelines. Using a broad and three-pronged approach to their overall risk assessment, KOC achieved a thorough, root cause analysis-based understanding of risks to their system as well as a detailed list of recommended remediation measures that were merged into a 5-year improvement plan. (author)

  11. Rehabilitation of Sao Sebastiao-Cubatao oil pipeline: integrated planning and action - key for project success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serodio, Conrado J.M. [GDK S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The execution of the OSBAT 24{sup o}il pipeline rehabilitation project, comprising the substitution of a 30 km section of the 37 years old pipeline has become a real benchmark in the history of this kind of job. The pipeline is inserted in one of the most sensitive environmental areas of the Sao Paulo State - the last Environmental Protection Area of the Mata Atlantica . The growth of human presence in its surroundings during the last three decades, has caused the right-of-way to be totally confined by luxury housing developments, streets, highways and resorts, as well as by the local communities and their activities, schools, and commerce. The pipeline runs through the Serra do Mar unstable mountain range slopes, with sequences of very steep hills and ravines followed by swamps and rivers. The success of such a challenging project - assembling the new line in a narrow ROW with all its restrictions, where the old line was still in operation, and complying with the tight work schedule required by PETROBRAS, was only possible due to a carefully managed combination of: accurate planning, best engineering methods and equipment and experienced workforce, deeply integrated in a massive effort towards safety, environmental care and social responsibility. (author)

  12. A fast-track preliminary thermo-mechanical design of oil export pipelines from P-56 platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Rafael F.; Mendonca, Salete M. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franco, Luciano D.; Walker, Alastair; El-Gebaly, Sherif H. [INTECSEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The oil export pipelines of Marlim Sul field Module 3, Campus Basin, offshore Brazil, will operate in high pressure and temperature conditions, and will be laid on seabed crossing ten previously laid pipelines along the routes. In terms of thermo-mechanical design, these conditions turn out to be great challenges. In order to obtain initial results and recommendations for detail design, a preliminary thermo-mechanical design of pipelines was carried out as a fast-track design before the bid. This way, PETROBRAS can assess and emphasize the susceptibility of these lines to lateral buckling and pipeline walking behavior. Therefore, PETROBRAS can present a preliminary mitigation strategy for lateral buckling showing solutions based on displacement controlled criteria and by introducing buckle initiation along the pipeline using distribution buoyancy. Besides that, axial displacements and loads at the pipeline ends can be furnished also in order to provide a basis for the detailed design. The work reported in this paper follows the SAFEBUCK JIP methodology and recommendation, which were used to determine the allowable strain and maximum allowable VAS (Virtual Anchor Spacing) considered in the buckling mitigation strategy. The paper presents also the formation of uncontrolled buckles on the seabed and the propensity for pipeline walking in its sections between buckles. The buckling mitigation strategy established in this preliminary design confirms that the oil pipeline specifications are adequate to maintain integrity during design life. (author)

  13. Long-term recovery of peat bogs oiled by pipeline spills in northern Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sites in northern Alberta, in which oil spills occurred more than 23 years ago, were revisited. The Nipisi spill occurred when a rupture in the underground oil pipeline leaked 60,000 barrels of crude into a 25 acre bog, with very little drainage. It was one of the largest spills in Canadian history. The Rainbow spill was into a fen that was draining by subsurface seepage. Treatments at the time included burning, tilling, and fertilizer addition. The sites were revisited in order to take samples and to evaluate both the natural and enhanced recovery and the effectiveness of the cleanup techniques. The long-term persistence of oil residues and changes in oil character resulting from weathering and biodegradation over time, were studied. Results showed that samples of oil residue and vegetation were still highly contaminated with oil which was heavily degraded. Subsurface samples were contaminated but the oil was only slightly degraded. The Nipisi site still had large areas devoid of vegetation. The unique drainage of peat bogs and the influence it has on rehabilitation was described. It was concluded that although the sites are recovering, they are doing so at a very slow pace and will require some more time to be complete. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Economics of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the North Slope of Alaska: Economic Update and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published assessments by geologists of undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations in the North Slope of Alaska; these assessments contain a set of scientifically based estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable quantities of oil and gas in discrete oil and gas accumulations that can be produced with conventional recovery technology. The assessments do not incorporate economic factors such as recovery costs and product prices. The assessors considered undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in four areas of the North Slope: (1) the central North Slope, (2) the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), (3) the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), and (4) the area west of the NPRA, called in this report the 'western North Slope'. These analyses were prepared at different times with various minimum assessed oil and gas accumulation sizes and with slightly different assumptions. Results of these past studies were recently supplemented with information by the assessment geologists that allowed adjustments for uniform minimum assessed accumulation sizes and a consistent set of assumptions. The effort permitted the statistical aggregation of the assessments of the four areas composing the study area. This economic analysis is based on undiscovered assessed accumulation distributions represented by the four-area aggregation and incorporates updates of costs and technological and fiscal assumptions used in the initial economic analysis that accompanied the geologic assessment of each study area.

  15. Use of Polyurethane Coating to Prevent Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Samimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Polyurethane is a thermoses polymer with various applications. Using form this polymer has spread for military applications by Otto Bayer in 1930. In one general look polyurethane is product of Iso Syanate and ploy with each other, So that: Iso + ploy = polyurethane. Spend large cost for application and launching oil and gas transitions, has cleared the necessity protection from them agonist corrosion. In this direction protection coating with specific properties such as high electricity resistance presented to market by various companies that each of them has special advantage and disadvantages. In this research has tried while analysis coatings specifications of gas and oil transitional pipelines, has compared properties and common qualities of them with each other.

  16. Business process modeling applied to oil pipeline and terminal processes: a proposal for TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Adilson da Silva [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Caulliraux, Heitor Mansur [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ/GPI), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia. Grupo de Producao Integrada; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Felippe, Adriana Vieira de Oliveira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Business process modeling (BPM) using event driven process chain diagrams (EPCs) to lay out business process work flows is now widely adopted around the world. The EPC method was developed within the framework of the ARIS Toolset developed by Prof. Wilhelm-August Scheer at the Institut fur Wirtschaftsinformatik at the Universitat des Saarlandes, in the early 1990s. It is used by many companies to model, analyze and redesign business processes. As such it forms the core technique for modeling in ARIS, which serves to link the different aspects of the so-called control view, which is discussed in the section on ARIS business process modeling. This paper describes a proposal made to TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, which will be jointly developed by specialists and managers from TRANSPETRO and from COPPETEC, the collaborative research arm of Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ). The proposal is based on ARIS business process modeling and is presented here according to its seven phases, as follows: information survey and definition of the project structure; mapping and analysis of Campos Eliseos Terminal (TECAM) processes; validation of TECAM process maps; mapping and analysis of the remaining organizational units' processes; validation of the remaining organizational units' process maps; proposal of a business process model for all organizational units of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais; critical analysis of the process itself and the results and potential benefits of BPM. (author)

  17. Advisory Review on the Compliance of Project Implementation with the Environmental Permit for the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Oil Pipeline and the South Caucasus Gas Pipeline in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Borjomi area at the Kodiana pass and in the Sakire area the risks of geohazards (especially risks of landslides) can be further reduced by improving drainage and re-evaluation of the slope stability. In case of capacity extension a new environmental report has to be made in which re-routing of the pipeline becomes a serious option. These are the main findings of the Dutch Commission for Environmental Impact Assessment asked by the Georgian Government (NCEIA) to assess the compliance of the project with the conditions for the environmental license. Currently the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline through Georgia is under construction by a consortium led by British petroleum (BP). It is intended to transport 1 million barrels of crude oil per day from Azerbijan to the Mediterranean coast. It runs through the sensitive Borjomi area, an area with high natural and recreational values, and known for the origin of the Borjomi mineral water. In 2002 the Government of Georgia conditionally issued the environmental license for this project. The NCEIA was asked to review the current compliance with the environmental license including the risks of geohazards (landslides and earthquakes) on specific spots along the pipeline, the oil spill response plan and the government capacity for reviewing the monitoring program. The Government of Georgia and BP have agreed that the risk of oil spills in the Borjomi area should have a risk as close to zero as possible. A zero risk on oil spills is impossible. In the Borjomi area additional measures already have been applied to reduce the risk of oil spills. However at the Kodiana pass and in the Sakire area there is still a significant risk of geohazards that could have a significant impact on the integrity of the oil pipeline. The risks of oil spills should be further reduced by implementation of additional mitigating measures, such as constant monitoring of hazardous circumstances for landslides and drainage of the soil above spots

  18. Culture, cash and communication: the Inupiat encounter with oil development in Northern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaogak, G. [North Slope Borough, Barrow, AK (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Oil and gas development in Alaska coincided with the political awakening of the Inupiat Eskimo people of Alaska. In this presentation, the author detailed some of the characteristics and challenges facing the Alaska Natives as they strive to protect their heritage and gain experience in government. The socio-economic conditions that existed prior to oil and gas development in Alaska were briefly reviewed, as was the situation that led to the formation of the North Slope Borough, which was established in 1972 and effectively created regional government in the area. The first few tentative steps in forming a relationship with industry were described, as industry saw the borough as just an additional level of taxation and government interference. The benefits resulting from the borough materialized in the form of vastly improved living conditions, at the expense of enormous socio-cultural challenges. The resource taxes were discussed, along with community infrastructure development that took place during the most productive years of Prudhoe Bay. Land use management was examined. In the next section, cooperative relationships were reviewed from three perspectives: engagement with industry, agency cooperation, and the role of native corporations. Some of the current challenges are onshore versus offshore development, risks and responses. A quick outline about the North Slope oil and gas outlook was provided. The author concluded the presentation with two major points: (1) assertive Native participation during all phases of development, and (2) a real commitment by government and industry to understand and respond to the social and cultural impacts on Native residents, as being the driving factors for the successful coexistence of Native people and resource industries.

  19. Culture, cash and communication: the Inupiat encounter with oil development in Northern Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and gas development in Alaska coincided with the political awakening of the Inupiat Eskimo people of Alaska. In this presentation, the author detailed some of the characteristics and challenges facing the Alaska Natives as they strive to protect their heritage and gain experience in government. The socio-economic conditions that existed prior to oil and gas development in Alaska were briefly reviewed, as was the situation that led to the formation of the North Slope Borough, which was established in 1972 and effectively created regional government in the area. The first few tentative steps in forming a relationship with industry were described, as industry saw the borough as just an additional level of taxation and government interference. The benefits resulting from the borough materialized in the form of vastly improved living conditions, at the expense of enormous socio-cultural challenges. The resource taxes were discussed, along with community infrastructure development that took place during the most productive years of Prudhoe Bay. Land use management was examined. In the next section, cooperative relationships were reviewed from three perspectives: engagement with industry, agency cooperation, and the role of native corporations. Some of the current challenges are onshore versus offshore development, risks and responses. A quick outline about the North Slope oil and gas outlook was provided. The author concluded the presentation with two major points: (1) assertive Native participation during all phases of development, and (2) a real commitment by government and industry to understand and respond to the social and cultural impacts on Native residents, as being the driving factors for the successful coexistence of Native people and resource industries

  20. Levels of Vitamin E Decreases and Retinol Increases in Oil Extracts from Aged Alaska Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Alaska Pollock constitutes one of the largest commercial fish catch and generation of by-products in the world. Crude oil is one of the products generated from the by-products; however, quality loss is expected if time delay or temperature abuse is encountered before oil extraction. The objectiv...

  1. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill bioremediation: Experiences with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. Field studies conducted by scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency have demonstrated that oil degradation by indigenous microflora on the beaches of Prince William Sound could be significantly accelerated by adding fertilizer directly to the surfaces of oil-contaminated beaches. The author's results from the application of an oleophilic fertilizer are presented as exemplary field and laboratory information. The fertilizer enhanced biodegradation of the oil, as measured by changes in oil composition and bulk oil weight per unit of beach material, by approximately twofold relative to untreated controls. The emphasis of this chapter will be on some of the difficulties and problems associated with the fertilizer application and its effect on oil degradation. The author will concentrate primarily on the separate application of an oleophilic fertilizer which occurred at a site called Snug Harbor on Knight Island in Prince William Sound, and on the application of slow-release fertilizer granules which occurred on Disk Island in Prince William Sound

  2. Shoreline impacts in the Gulf of Alaska region following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-eight sites in the Gulf of Alaska region (GOA-Kodiak Island, Kenai Peninsula, and Alaska Peninsula) were sampled in July/August 1989 to assess the impact of the March 24, 1989, Exxon Valdez oil spill on shoreline chemistry and biological communities hundreds of miles from the spill origin. In a 1990 companion study, 5 of the Kensai sites and 13 of the Kodiak and Alaska Peninsula sites were sampled 16 months after the spill. Oiling levels at each site were estimated visually and/or quantified by chemical analysis. The chemical analyses were performed on sediment and/or rock wipe samples collected with the biological samples. Additional sediment samples were collected for laboratory amphipod toxicity tests. Mussels were also collected and analyzed for hydrocarbon content to assess hydrocarbon bioavailability. Biological investigations at these GOA sites focused on intertidal infauna, epifauna, and macroalgae by means of a variety of common ecological techniques. For rock sites the percentage of hard substratum covered by biota was quantified. At each site, up to 5 biological samples (scrapes of rock surfaces or sediment cores) were collected intertidally along each of 3 transects, spanning tide levels from the high intertidal to mean-lowest-low-water (zero tidal datum). Organisms (down to 1.0 mm in size) from these samples were sorted and identified. Community parameters including organism abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity were calculated for each sample. 43 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Coefficients de-noising with wavelet transform for magnetic flux leakage data obtained from oil pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Wenhua; Que Peiwen

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of noise cancellation for the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) data obtained from the inspection of oil pipelines. MFL data is contaminated by various sources of noise, and the noise can considerably reduce the detectability of flaw signals in MFL data. This paper presents a new de-noising approach for removing the system noise contained in the MFL data by using the coefficients de-noising with wavelet transform. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the advantages of this de-noising approach over the conventional wavelet de-noising method.

  4. Alaska North Slope crude oil price and the behavior of diesel prices in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyze the price dynamics of Alaska North Slope crude oil and L.A. diesel fuel prices. We employ VAR methodology and bivariate GARCH model to show that there is a strong evidence of a uni-directional causal relationship between the two prices. The L.A. diesel market is found to bear the majority of the burden of convergence when there is a price spread. This finding may be seen as being consistent with the general consensus that price discovery emanates from the larger, more liquid market where trading volume is concentrated. The contestability of the West Coast crude oil market tends to cause it to react relatively competitively, while the lack of contestability for the West Coast diesel market tends to limit its competitiveness, causing price adjustment to be slow but to follow the price signals of crude oil. Our findings also suggest that the derived demand theory of input pricing may not hold in this case. The Alaska North Slope crude oil price is the driving force in changes of L.A. diesel price

  5. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J. Karchesy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2, and eremophil-1(10,11-dien-13-ol (3. The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3 was established by synthesis from valencene (6. Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5 and valencene-13-aldehyde (4, respectively.

  6. Biologically important eremophilane sesquiterpenes from alaska cedar heartwood essential oil and their semi-synthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2), and eremophil-1(10),11-dien-13-ol (3). The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S) configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3) was established by synthesis from valencene (6). Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5) and valencene-13-aldehyde (4), respectively. PMID:21654582

  7. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in six oil-pipeline pumping stations in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-06-01

    Mexico has a very important oil industry, comprehending the exploration, production, transformation, storage and distribution of crude oil and its fractions. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a state-owned monopoly in charge of these activities. Oil and oil-products transport is an extremely crucial operation for the cycle production-transformation-distribution. Pipeline system transport crude oil and sub-products along the country (including liquids, gases and mixtures). It has been reported that more than 30% of the oil ducts in Mexico have been operating for over 30 years, although their lifetime has been calculated in 25-30 years. This work is aimed at characterizing a zone around six oil-pipeline pumping stations located at northern Mexico. The specific places to evaluate soil contamination were (1) the distribution head of the Gomez Palacio (GOPA) pumping station; (2) the north side of the old ditch, the API oil separator and the wastewater zones of the Jimenez (JIM) pumping station; (3) the pumping stations of Ceballos (CE), Peronal (PER), Simon Bolivar (SIBO), and Mayran (MAY). The study comprehended sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils, regarding TPH and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as a priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to the Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the encountered contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. In general, TPHs were found in all the pumping stations analyzed in this study. Regarding maximal TPHs concentrations at the stations, their order of contamination was as follows: SIBO>CE>PER>MAY>JIM>GOPA. PAHs were found only in a few points at concentrations above the detection limit. At the Jimenez, Gomez Palacio, Peronal, and Ceballos stations, only one point, with PAHs values over the

  8. Standardization process for pipeline right-of-way activities: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipeline and Terminals Business Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra de Morais M.; Goncalves, Bruno Martins [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. concerning the standardization process for its pipeline right-of-way (ROW) activities. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, standardization and implementation of all norms and corporate procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's right-of-way activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, a sense of unity and the creation of a learning network consisting of 60 employees. This paper presents the last phase's results concerning implementation of corporate standards, based upon achievements of previous phases. It covers the following topics: a general view of the whole process by way of introduction; the potential of integration of recent standardization results with TRANSPETRO's corporate management tools and information systems; definition of four performance indicators and their metrics related to pipeline right-of-way management, as well as a corporate standard for the requirements for contracting services related to rights-of-way inspection, maintenance and communication; challenges, barriers and benefits perceived by the team responsible for formulating and implementing standards and procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. (author)

  9. Physical and biological remediation of oil-polluted river bed and hillside sediments resulting from a ruptured oil pipeline in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oil spill of several tens of thousands of liters ocurred when an underground pipeline ruptured next to the Rio Barca, a torrential mountain stream in Italy. The spill ocurred during a time when the Rio Barca was almost totally dry, therefore allowing the fuel-oil to saturate the sediments which form the bed of the watercourse. This paper describes the feasibility study performed to determine the possibility of conducting in situ remediation. In addition, a two-step strategy was developed to remove the hydrocarbons in the stream: (1) Mechanical liberation and recovery of the free-phase hydrocarbon trapped in the sediments; (2) In situ treatment via an Enhanced Natural Bioremediation program. The residual hydrocarbon contamination in the hillside soils were addressed by in situ remediation incorporating air sparging below the water table, soil vapor extraction of the vadose zone and nutrient addition to the soils via infiltration trenches

  10. Gamma transmission system for detection of scale in oil exploration pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Davi F., E-mail: davi@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nascimento, Joseilson R. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marinho, Carla A. [Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo Research Center, CENPES/PETROBRAS (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study is to detect and quantify the thickness of the scale layer inside the service pipelines. For this purpose, a system composed of a {sup 137}Cs source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was developed. The source and the detector were positioned in geometry to make transmission measurements. A computational routine was developed to generate simulated data, which were later compared with the experimental ones, in order to calculate the thickness of scale layer. The results of the validation tests show similar values to the real ones. It was therefore possible to conclude that the procedure is efficient for the detection and quantification of materials inside pipelines, and that the system is advantageous for its application in the field, especially with respect to radioprotection. - Highlights: • Detection of scale in oil and gas pipelines. • Validation of a mathematical procedure to generate transmitted radiation profiles. • Quantification of the scale layer thickness by gamma-ray transmission.

  11. Leakage location system for oil pipeline on basis of stress wave detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangfeng WANG; Renwen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    An online monitoring system was developed for rapidly determining the exact location of the holing position in an oil pipeline by monitoring and analyzing the characteristics of the strain wave caused by the hole. The system has a master-slaver computer structure based on a remote wireless network. The master system takes charge of managing and controlling the whole system, identifying the holing stress wave, and calculating the holing position. The slaver system is responsible for sampling the strain wave signal from the pipeline. The characteristics of the strain wave signal are extracted by a Hilbert-Huang trans-form based on a signal processing approach. The exact holing position can be obtained by a time delay locating method with stress wave characteristics. The experimental results of the in-service pipeline show that the average locating error of the system is less than 10 m, the accuracy ratio for the holing alarm is more than 90%, and the time that the system takes to respond to the leakage is less than 10 s.

  12. Visual operations management tools applied to the oil pipelines and terminals standardization process: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the process by which visual operations management (VOM) tools were implemented, concerning standards and operational procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. It provides: a brief literature review of visual operations management tools applied to total quality management and the standardization processes; a discussion of the assumptions from the second level of VOM (visual standards) upon which TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals business processes and operational procedures are based; and a description of the VOM implementation process involving more than 100 employees and one illustrative example of 'Quick Guides' for right-of- way management activities. Finally, it discusses the potential impacts and benefits of using VOM tools in the current practices in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit, reinforcing the importance of such visual guides as vital to implement regional and corporate procedures, focusing on the main operational processes. (author)

  13. Response, remediation and risk management of a crude oil pipeline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A light crude oil spill occurred along a section of pipeline near the bank of a major river of a southern Alberta community in December of 1995. Crude oil was observed at ground surface over an area of 2,000 sq m at the top of the river slope. It had also migrated down slope through the subgrade soils and along the groundwater table toward the river. The initial emergency response measures included removing and disposing of oil-stained vegetation and snow, and the containment and recovery of free oil pooled on the ground surface. Other measures included the drilling of test holes and boreholes and the installation of groundwater monitoring and recovery wells. It was determined that phase-separated crude oil had accumulated at the water table within the flood plain sediments near the river. The water was remediated on-site to Canadian drinking water quality standards. The zone of impacted water was effectively captured, and ground water quality steadily improved

  14. Technical forums as an instrument for knowledge management in oil pipelines and terminals companies: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit regarding an institutionalized knowledge management (KM) process of systematically promoting technical forums focused on: pipeline and terminal operations; industrial maintenance; and right-of-way activities management. This empirical work adds evidence that in the model of cooperative and communicative knowledge management it is necessary to motivate staff to provide the company with their tacit knowledge and to take a proactive part in knowledge management processes, particularly in technical forums. Within this KM perspective, technical forums have been held by TRANSPETRO for the following purposes: to discuss the main barriers and challenges the oil pipelines and terminals unit has to face in the coming years; to share and disseminate good practices concerning oil pipeline and terminal activities; to discuss new processes, methods and equipment developments with potential application in business and operational processes; to establish action plans concerning the main challenges, barriers and opportunities; to disseminate Research and Development (R and D) projects in course, new procedures, methods and equipment and to promote integration among forum attendees. The two year-experience in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit revealed that technical forums have been an important instrument for cooperative and communicative knowledge management, according to evaluations from 173 attendees. (author)

  15. Incorporating vapor corrosion inhibitors (VCIs) in oil and gas pipeline additive formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharshan, M.; Furman, A. [Cortec Corp., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Two new oil and gas pipeline additives were formulated utilizing volatile corrosion inhibitors (VCIS). These products provide a very high level of protection for steel subjected to different types of corrosive petrochemicals due to surface adsorption and vapor phase action environments. The formulation work was based on fatty acid imidazoline chemistry combined with different organic acids. Different surfactants were used to provide maximum wetting properties to the inhibitor and faster transport of inhibitor from the oil or gas phase to the water. Vapor corrosion inhibitors were introduced in the formulation. A Windows-compatible software was used to identify the vital factors that affect the quality of the product. The protective properties of newly developed inhibitors were evaluated in various types of corrosive mediums.

  16. Cold-region environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline and their management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The cold-region eco-environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) in northern Northeast China are in disequilibrium due to the combined influences of pronounced climate warming and intensive anthropogenic activities.This is evidenced by the sharp areal reduction and northward shifting of the boreal forests,shrinking of wetlands,enhancing of soil erosion,accelerating degradation of permafrost and deteriorating of cold-region eco-environments.The degradation of permafrost plays an important role as an internal drive in the eco-environmental changes.Many components of the cold-region eco-environments,including frozen ground,forests,wetlands and peatlands,forest fires and "heating island effect" of rapid urbanization,are interdependent,interactive,and integrated in the boreal ecosystems.The construction and long-term operation of the CRCOP system will inevitably disturb the cold-region environments along the pipeline.Therefore,a mandatory and carefully-elaborated environ-mental impact statement is indispensable for the proper mitigation of the ensued adverse impacts.Proper management,effective protection and practical rehabilitation of the damaged cold-region environments are a daunting,costly and long-term commitment.The recommended measures for protection and restoration of permafrost eco-environments along the pipeline route include adequate investigation,assessment and monitoring of permafrost and cold-region environments,compliance of pipeline construction and operation codes for environmental management,proper and timely re-vegetation,returning the cultivated lands to forests and grasslands,and effective mitigation of forest fire hazards.

  17. The side effects of the THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) treatment in oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de A.; Lopes, Eduardo Gullo M.; Paiva, Eva M.de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais e Controle de Corrosao; Penna, Monica de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been using THPS biocide since 2000 to control sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and H{sub 2}S generation in FPSO's tanks, storage tanks, seawater injection systems, produced water systems and hydrostatic testings. The advantage of this product over other biocides is to be effective against sessile SRB and to have low environmental impact and low risk to operators' health. Since 2005 the use of THPS was also extended to oil pipelines and has being demonstrating high efficacy in controlling sessile SRB and sulfide formation, even in fluids with very low water cut (BSW < 1%). However, some deleterious effects were observed when THPS (formulated with 75% of active ingredient) was dosed continuously in the produced fluids, in high concentration and/or for long periods. This paper presents the results of THPS treatment in two PETROBRAS' oil pipelines and describes the side effects that were detected during the biocide injection. The actions taken to minimize these harmful effects, without losing the good biocide efficiency were also presented. (author)

  18. Oil pipeline corridor through an intact forest alters ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in southeastern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Bareena; Horn, David J; Purrington, Foster F; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were monitored 1 yr after the construction of a corridor for installation of an oil pipeline along a xeric ridge-top forest in southeastern Ohio. After the creation of the corridor, three distinct habitats were evident in these sites: open corridor, ecotone areas around the corridor, and undisturbed forest interior. Carabidae were collected using directional pitfall traps that were placed parallel and perpendicular to the corridor in each of the three habitats. Results indicate that more carabids were present in the ecotone than in the other two habitats. Carabid diversity as estimated by rarefaction was highest in the corridor followed by ecotone and forest interior. Generalist and forest specialists such as Synuchus impunctatus (Say), Carabus goryi Dejean, and Pterostichus trinarius (Casey) were present in greater numbers in the forest interior and ecotone assemblages. In contrast, open-habitat specialists such as Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Selenophorus opalinus (LeConte) were present in greater numbers in the corridor assemblages. Carabid assemblages of the corridor were distinct from those of the ecotone and forest interior, whereas the latter two habitats had very similar assemblages. The successional pathway of the corridor carabid assemblage will therefore be likely different from that of the forest interior and ecotone. Overall, results indicate that construction of the oil pipeline corridor had significant short-term effects on the carabid numbers, diversity, and species composition because of ensuing habitat changes and fragmentation of the forest. PMID:18559178

  19. Natural hydrocarbon background in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oil vs coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The source of the background hydrocarbons in benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, where the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) occurred, has been ascribed to oil seeps in coastal areas of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). The authors present evidence that coal is a more plausible source, including (i) high concentrations of total PAH (TPAH), between 1,670 and 3,070 ng/g, in continental shelf sediments adjacent to the coastal region containing extensive coal deposits; (ii) PAH composition patterns of sediments along with predictive models that are consistent with coal but not oil; (iii) low ratios of triaromatic steranes of methylchrysenes found in sediments and coals, contrasting with the high ratios found in seep oil; and (iv) bioaccumulation of PAH in salmon collected within 100 m of the Katalla oil seeps but not in filter-feeding mussels collected near oilfield drainages 9 km from the seeps, indicating negligible transport of bioavailable PAH from Katalla seeps to the GOA. In contrast with oil, PAH in coal are not bioavailable, so the presence of coal in these benthic sediments confers no adaptive benefit to biota of the marine ecosystem with respect to PAH insults from anthropogenic sources

  20. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aouadj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA system is a telemetry and control system adapted for particular requirements of an oilfield management. Thanks to its different functions, we take advantage of this system to solve production problems especially those related to oil collecting pipeline network. In fact this network is confronted to some problems, in particular pressure losses which has significant effect on the production. This problem can be taken under control by the awareness of pipeline network operation and all its process data (especially junctions in real time. This will allow online creation of representative and accurate computerized models for the oil collecting pipeline network including producing wells, collecting pipelines, manifolds and others facilities.

  1. Influence of the key parameters of suspended structures on the inherent frequency of oil and gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S. Y.; Liu, Q. Y.; Wang, G. R.; Jiang, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Inherent frequency is an important parameter that reflects the dynamic stability of fluid-conveying pipelines. In engineering applications, the inherent frequency of pipelines is usually increased to improve their dynamic stability. The flow velocity and pressure of oil and gas pipelines cannot be altered freely. Among all of the parameters that affect the inherent frequency of suspended pipelines, the flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder, the tensile force of the cable system, and the pipe-axial precompression force are the most important. Revealing the influence laws of these three parameters could provide theoretical support for engineering designs. In this paper, a suspended crossing pipeline project was simplified as a Hetenyi's elastic foundation model. The flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder and the tensile force of the cable system were simplified as the foundation parameters G and K, respectively. The influence regularities of G, K, and the pipe-axial precompression force T on the pipeline inherent frequency were analyzed. According to the numerical simulation results, the ranks of these three parameters in descending order of importance were G, T, and K. During construction, G should be increased as much as possible. If the inherent frequency needs to be improved while pipelines have already been built up, it should be firstly considered to increase T, to values higher than zero if possible. On this basis, the further improvement of K could achieve a better result.

  2. Alternatives for operational cost reduction in oil pipelines; Alternativas para reducao de custos energeticos operacionais em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Philipe Barroso; Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Pires, Luis Fernando Goncalves [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (SIMDUT/DEM/ PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecancia. Nucleo de Simulacao Termo-Hidraulica de Dutos

    2012-07-01

    This paper intends to give a brief overview of some cost reduction alternatives in oil pipelines, to optimize the pipeline operation. Four different alternatives are presented, based on previous studies made on existing pipelines, to demonstrate the response obtained with these solutions. Pipeline operation, especially on mature ones, tends to have a high operational cost, be by tradition, the aging of the installation, change of operational characteristics - such as nominal flow, product, or even flow direction - for which the pipeline wasn't originally designed. The alternatives showed allow for an increase survival time of the pipeline, without resorting to major changes, such as replacement of pipes or adding pumping stations to the system. The alternative studied varies from no implementation cost to high installation cost or operational cost increase, depending on the system and the alternative chosen. From changing the pump arrays during operation or changing the products viscosity with different blends, that represent virtually no cost to the pipeline operation, to the use of VFDs, with a high installation cost or DRA, which increase the operational cost. (author)

  3. Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

  4. Development of the Write Process for Pipeline-Ready Heavy Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones; Frank Guffey

    2009-03-07

    Work completed under this program advances the goal of demonstrating Western Research Institute's (WRI's) WRITE{trademark} process for upgrading heavy oil at field scale. MEG Energy Corporation (MEG) located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada supported efforts at WRI to develop the WRITE{trademark} process as an oil sands, field-upgrading technology through this Task 51 Jointly Sponsored Research project. The project consisted of 6 tasks: (1) optimization of the distillate recovery unit (DRU), (2) demonstration and design of a continuous coker, (3) conceptual design and cost estimate for a commercial facility, (4) design of a WRITE{trademark} pilot plant, (5) hydrotreating studies, and (6) establish a petroleum analysis laboratory. WRITE{trademark} is a heavy oil and bitumen upgrading process that produces residuum-free, pipeline ready oil from heavy material with undiluted density and viscosity that exceed prevailing pipeline specifications. WRITE{trademark} uses two processing stages to achieve low and high temperature conversion of heavy oil or bitumen. The first stage DRU operates at mild thermal cracking conditions, yielding a light overhead product and a heavy residuum or bottoms material. These bottoms flow to the second stage continuous coker that operates at severe pyrolysis conditions, yielding light pyrolyzate and coke. The combined pyrolyzate and mildly cracked overhead streams form WRITE{trademark}'s synthetic crude oil (SCO) production. The main objectives of this project were to (1) complete testing and analysis at bench scale with the DRU and continuous coker reactors and provide results to MEG for process evaluation and scale-up determinations and (2) complete a technical and economic assessment of WRITE{trademark} technology to determine its viability. The DRU test program was completed and a processing envelope developed. These results were used for process assessment and for scaleup. Tests in the continuous coker were intended to

  5. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with hydraulic pipeline transport of fossil fuels. A general analysis of coal and heavy viscous oil pipelining systems is introduced and pipeline transport of concentrated coal-water slurry, coal-water fuel, coal pipelining in other than water carrier liquid (e.g. methanol) and capsule pipeline transport (coal-log pipelining) is described.

  6. The deep benthos of Prince William Sound, Alaska, 16 months after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, 16 months after the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, an assessment of the benthic macrofauna and associated environmental parameters at 40 and 100 m was made. Assessment of the biota and environmental data demonstrated patterns in deep benthic assemblages reflective of oceanographic conditions, as indicated by sediment differences, rather than EVOS toxicity. Comparison of polynuclear aromatic stations within the oil trajectory and reference stations outside of the trajectory showed no significant differences. This investigation uncovered no signals of disturbance 16 months after the EVOS. These results agree with conclusions of studies of intertidal and shallow subtidal regions following the EVOS that demonstrated disturbance effects decreasing with depth. (author)

  7. Histopathology of adult Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, G. S.; Okihiro, M. S.; Hinton, D. E. [California Univ., School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA (United States); Brown, E. D. [Alaska Univ., School of Fisheries and Marine Science, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Hanes, D. [Sonoma Univ., Dept. of Biology, Rohnert Park, CA (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The histopathology of Pacific herring sampled from oiled sites in Prince William Sound, Alaska, three weeks after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, is discussed. All samples showed multifocal hepatic necrosis and significantly increased tissue concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In contrast, Pacific herring from reference sites in 1989 and from all sites in 1990 and 1991 did not have hepatic necrosis or increase PAH concentrations. Naphthalenes were the predominant PAH in all tissue samples. The development of hepatic necrosis and the predominance of naphthalenes in samples from 1989 is considered consistent with results obtained from recent laboratory studies indicating that crude oil exposure resulted in dose-dependent expression of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). It was concluded that adult Pacific herring in Prince William Sound were likely exposed to Exxon Valdez oil in April 1989. Because Pacific herring near spawning condition in early spring are in a state of physiological stress, the added stress of oil exposure in 1989 could reasonably have led to expression of VHSV in these fish. The findings suggest that the immediate response to future large toxic spills should include consideration of the potential interaction of multiple stressors in exposed individuals. 29 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig.

  8. Ecological building measures while oil pollution of soils along Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline corridor in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to fulfil recultivation during the soils pollution by oil along the corridor of BTC pipeline. The soils recultivation is carried out in a technical and biological stage. The biological recultivation depends on defenition of the phytoindicator plants and the proper organization of their sowing form

  9. Optimization of operational flow rates of an oil pipeline on the basis of a linear regression model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smati, A.; Djelloul, A. (Institut National des Hydrocarbures et de la Chimie, Boumerdes (Algeria))

    Many uncontrollable factors cause random fluctuations in the properties of an oil pipeline. After a brief statistical analysis of the leading parameters used to identify the phenomenon, this article describes an optimization algorithm for minimizing energy consumption in pumping stations. The proposed algorithm is based on a linear regression model. Several very flexible approaches to multivariable identification are examined.

  10. 75 FR 29526 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 61,161; Docket No. RM93-11-000] Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for...

  11. Energy Equation Derivation of the Oil-Gas Flow in Pipelines Dérivation de l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans des pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Duan J.M; Wang W; Zhang Y; Zheng L.J.; Liu H.S.; Gong J

    2012-01-01

    In the simulation of oil-gas pipeline multiphase flow, thermodynamic computation is an important process interacting with the hydraulic calculation and it influences the convergence of the program and the accuracy of the results. The form of the energy equation is the key to the thermodynamic computation. Based on the energy equation of oil-gas flow in pipeline, the Explicit Temperature Drop Formula (ETDF) is derived for oilgas steady state temperature calculation. This new energy equation ha...

  12. Implementation of an integrity management program in a crude oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria; Tomasella, Marcelo [Oleoductos del Valle, General Roca (Argentina); Rossi, Juan; Pellicano, Adolfo [SINTEC S.A. , Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    The implementation of an Integrity Management Program (IMP) in a crude oil pipeline system is focused on the accomplishment of two primary corporative objectives: to increase safety operation margins and to optimize available resources. A proactive work philosophy ensures the safe and reliable operation of the pipeline in accordance with current legislation. The Integrity Management Program is accomplished by means of an interdisciplinary team that defines the strategic objectives that complement and are compatible with the corporative strategic business plan. The implementation of the program is based on the analysis of the risks due to external corrosion, third party damage, design and operations, and the definition of appropriate mitigation, inspection and monitoring actions, which will ensure long-term integrity of the assets. By means of a statistical propagation model of the external defects, reported by high-resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), together with the information provided by corrosion sensors, field repair interventions, close internal surveys and operation data, projected defect depth; remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established, including the inspection and repair plan, the internal inspection program and both corrosion monitoring and mitigation programs. (author)

  13. Noise impact assessment methodology for a crude oil pipeline's facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: pascal.everton@hfpacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    The paper focuses on the construction of a crude oil pipeline from Alberta, Canada, to Illinois, USA, and reviews the methodology used to quickly and easily assess the noise emission of each of the 47 pump stations relative to topography, weather, and local regulations, and to predict mitigation costs for each pump. Instead of creating a time-consuming and non-versatile computer noise model for each pump, a spreadsheet tool with graphic user interface was designed, incorporating source noise levels and sound propagation calculations. An order-ranked list of noise sources for each station and noise mitigation corrections were applied, resulting in an easy-to-use, versatile tool, capable of predicting rapidly what noise control corrections are needed for each site. The spreadsheet results were validated by comparing the results with noise model predictions for specific locations. Use of this tool increased flexibility and cost-efficiency and it can be easily reconfigured for similar projects.

  14. Hybrid heuristic and mathematical programming in oil pipelines networks: Use of immigrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DE LA CRUZ J.M.; HERR(A)N-GONZ(A)LEZ A.; RISCO-MART(I)N J.L.; ANDR(E)S-TORO B.

    2005-01-01

    We solve the problem of petroleum products distribution through oil pipelines networks. This problem is modelled and solved using two techniques: A heuristic method like a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm and Mathematical Programming. In the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm, several objective functions are defined to express the goals of the solutions as well as the preferences among them. Some constraints are included as hard objective functions and some are evaluated through a repairing function to avoid infeasible solutions. In the Mathematical Programming approach the multiobjective optimization is solved using the Constraint Method in Mixed Integer Linear Programming. Some constraints of the mathematical model are nonlinear, so they are linearized. The results obtained with both methods for one concrete network are presented. They are compared with a hybrid solution, where we use the results obtained by Mathematical Programming as the seed of the evolutionary algorithm.

  15. 75 FR 38093 - ConocoPhillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... will not jeopardize service to the local markets into which this natural gas might otherwise be sold... critical back-up natural gas supply service for the local market in times of peak needs on the coldest days...Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket Authorization...

  16. The effectiveness of dispersants on Alaska North Slope crude oil under various temperature and salinity regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

    2006-07-01

    The results of a study investigating the influence of salinity and temperature interactions on dispersants were presented. Experiments were conducted on Alaska North Slope oil at lower temperatures and lower salinity in order to determine optimal dispersant application measurements. Dispersant was pre-mixed with oil and placed on water in a test vessel. The test vessel was agitated on a moving table shaker. At the end of the shaking period, a settling period was allowed and a sample of water was taken. The oil in the water column was extracted from the water using a pentane/dichloromethane mixture and analyzed using gas chromatography. A set of calibration samples was run concurrently with the test samples to establish a calibration curve. ASMB standard oil premixed with Corexit 9500 was tested for effectiveness at 3 temperatures and 8 salinities, including fresh water. Results indicated that the maximum effectiveness was obtained at a temperature of 10 degrees C and at a salinity of 25 per mil. It was noted that temperature and salinity effects are interrelated, with the salinity effect peaking at a select value depending on specific surfactant content. It was suggested that the match between ionic strength and its relation to the surfactant polarity may be the factor that causes the reversal of results. It was concluded that there is an interrelationship between temperature, salinity and the effectiveness of dispersants, indicating that a 3-way correlation may yield a predictive model with good reliability. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  17. An oil spill model for Cook Inlet and Shelikof Strait, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Committee (CIRCAC) and the Prince William Sound Regional Citizens Advisory Committee (PWSRCAC) have jointly produced an oil spill model that entirely encompasses Cook Inlet as well as Shelikof Straight and a small part of the Gulf of Alaska. The modeled region is approximately 400 Km by 400 Km. Cook Inlet is a resonant basin with tidal ranges in some areas on the order of 10 meters with extensive areas that go dry at low tide and currents in excess of 5 Kts. Because of the large currents and current variations in Cook Inlet it was necessary to place considerable emphasis on a flow model to construct an oil spill model. The model allows the user to specify the location of the oil spill, time, date, duration of the spill as well as other parameters. The model has an interactive graphical interface. To aid in this interactive process, displays of the path and shape of the oil spill are included as well as water velocity, date and time. The user can update wind speed and direction as desired. The model will allow the user to update a spill location if field data becomes available. Other useful features of the model include the location of land impacts, and a trace facility. The trace facility displays a history of the spill trajectory. (author)

  18. What happened to Fairbanks: the effects of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline on the community of Fairbanks, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, M.

    1978-01-01

    Fairbanks failed to prepare for the deluge of construction-related equipment and personnel and its consequences. This book includes many effects, including prostitution, and rent gouging. The author presents community alternatives that were ignored. The author attempts to evaluate the impact of rapid growth and suggests that industry pay the social cost of disruption to the community. (DP)

  19. An evaluation of petrogenic hydrocarbons in northern Gulf of Alaska continental shelf sediments - The role of coastal oil seep inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.; Payne, J.R.; Van Kooten, G. K.

    2007-01-01

    We compared hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and riparian sediment collected from coastal watersheds along the Yakataga foreland with corresponding hydrocarbons in Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments. This comparison allows an evaluation of hydrocarbon contributions to marine sediments from natural oil seeps, coal and organic matter (e.g., kerogen) associated with eroding siliciclastic rocks. The samples from oil seeps show extensive loss of low-molecular weight n-alkanes (Gulf of Alaska, but overall seep inputs are largely attenuated by the (non-seep) petrogenic hydrocarbon content of the high SPM loads. In contrast to the geochemical signature of seep oil, Gulf of Alaska benthic sediments are characterized by abundant alkylated naphthalene homologues, relatively smooth n-alkane envelopes (n-C9 through n-C34, but with elevated levels of n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), and small UCMs. Further, hydrocarbons in benthic sediments are highly intercorrelated. Taken together, these characteristics indicate that seep oil is a negligible petrogenic hydrocarbon source to the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. Coaly material separated from the benthic sediment samples using a dense liquid (???2.00 g cm-3) also accounted for a minor portion of the total PAH (1-6%) and total n-alkanes (0.4-2%) in the benthic samples. Most of the hydrocarbon burden in the sediments is found in the denser sediment fraction and likely derives from organic matter contributed by denudation of siliciclastic formations in the Yakutat terrane. We therefore conclude that previous investigations relying on source allocation models have considerably overestimated oil seeps as a hydrocarbon source to the Gulf of Alaska. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment screening for internal corrosion control of PETROBRAS oil pipelines; Selecao de tratamento para controle da corrosao interna de oleodutos da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de Azevedo; Muller, Eduardo Gullo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Antunes, Warlley Ligorio; Shioya, Nilce Hiromi; Salvador, Angelica Dias [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2005-07-01

    The use of corrosion inhibitors is spread out in oil and gas industry and is the most common methodology to control pipeline internal corrosion. However, their effectiveness depends on the pipeline material, inhibitor composition, flow type and scale characteristics. When a pipeline has heavy scale deposits, thick bacterial biofilm, or oxygen contamination, the corrosion control via filmic inhibitors is not effective. So, the only way to control internal corrosion of an oil pipeline is to primary identifies the corrosive agent and the main corrosion mechanism. The monitoring of the inhibitor efficiency and the determination of minimal residual concentration to prevent corrosion, are also fundamental. In this paper, is presented the criteria used to identify the main corrosion mechanism of oil pipelines, the treatment proposed in each case and the techniques employed in real time corrosion monitoring. (author)

  1. Monitoring oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of shoreline monitoring programs were employed to evaluate the recovery of the ecological communities of Prince William Sound (PWS) shorelines after the oil spill: (a) Extensive shoreline surveys conducted (1989--1992) over much of the oiled shoreline to define extent of shoreline oiling and to assess biological conditions; (b) Detailed sampling in 1989 at nonrandomly chosen locations representing a range of oiling conditions (c) Comprehensive shoreline ecology program initiated in 1990 to assess shoreline recovery in Prince William Sound using (1) a rigorous stratified random sampling study design with 64 sites representing 4 shoreline habitats and 4 oiling levels (unoiled, light, moderate, heavy); (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites of particular concern. Biological communities were analyzed to detect differences due to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Following the spill, populations of all major species survived as sources for recolonization. Recruitment to oiled shores began in summer 1989. By 1990, shoreline biota in PWS had largely recovered. Estimates of shoreline recovery (biological community indistinguishable from reference) ranged from 91% based on univariate analysis of standard community parameters to 73% based on multivariate correspondence analysis

  2. Using finite element method in the processof strength calculation for the pipeline supports in above-groundarea of "Zapolyar'e — NPS "PUR-PE" oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies a procedure of calculating the strength of pipeline support constructions of the above-ground oil trunk pipeline system «Zapolyar'e — oil pumping station «Pur-pe». The calculations of the supports stress-strain state are performed with the use of computer complex Ansys v13, which applies the finite element method. The article provides a short description of the construction of fixed, linear-sliding and free-sliding supports of the oil pipeline of above-ground routing, developed for the installation in complex climatic and geologic conditions of the far north. According to the operation specification for design — the support constructions have to maintain the resistance power and bearing capacity under the influence of the pipeline stress without sagging and considering the possible sagging of the neighboring support. The support constructions represent space structures with a complex geometry. Together with the complex geometry, contacting elements are present in the construction of the supports. There is also an interaction of the pile foundation and the nonhomogeneous foundation. The enumerated peculiarities of the construction and operating conditions of the supports considerably complicate the strength calculations by engineering methods. The method of numerical modeling (finite element method used in the article for the analysis of the supports’ operation under the stress is widely applied at the present time for calculations of space structures with a complex geometry. For the first time, while performing the supports’ strength calculations, the article considers the mutual deformation of the support, foundation grill and pile foundation in the ground, thus making it possible to consider real operation of the construction altogether. The main development stages of the calculation model “support — pile foundation — ground” in ANSYS, calculation and testing of the static strength of the support

  3. Criterions and Measures of Route Selection of Shallowly Embedded Long-Distance Oil and Gas Pipeline in Mountain Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghua; MA Qingwen; KONG Jiming; CHEN Zefu; LI Xiuzhen

    2006-01-01

    According to the engineering investigation of long-distance oil and gas pipelines, the criterions and measures of route selection are drawn as follows: the flat landform is the first choice in route alignment. The foot of mountain is the first choice when the route passes by the valley. The route should pass by but the shady and deposited slope and not in sunny and erosive slope as possible as it can. The pipeline should be vertical to contour climbing and descending the mountain except steep slope. Tunnel can be used in crossing foothill. Perpendicularly traversing the river is better than beveling; the worst choice is to put the pipeline along the river. Bypass is the best choice in karsts area. The order of route selection should be pre-choosing, investigation, optimization and adjustment.

  4. Development of a system based on transmission of gamma radiation for detection of incrustations in pipelines used for oil extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incrustation in pipelines found in oil exploration facilities - a problem that has been related since the '30s - reduce the flow and, as a consequence, the efficiency of the plant, thus impairing the activities of exploration and production of oil. These incrustations occur when there is mixing between water from the formation of the wells and the sea water injected in them - an injection which aims to increase the capacity of lifting and removal of the oil trapped in reservoirs. The purpose of this work is the development and application of the technique of gamma transmission to detect incrustations in pipelines for prospecting of oil. The measurements were performed using a system composed of Cs-137 source and NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. The results were processed in a spreadsheet for calculating the measurement of the thickness of the incrustation located in pipelines. The spreadsheet performs simulations of the interaction of radiation based on the known data of the pipe, such as diameter, thickness and composition, providing values of intensity that are compared with those obtained experimentally, and thus it is able to determine the existence and thickness of an infiltration layer. For the validation of both the simulation and the system, some laboratory tests were performed with a sample of pipe containing parts with and without incrustation. The results showed that, despite the limitations, the system was efficient enough to detect incrustations, showing the advantage of the reduced dose which is of great importance in offshore environments. (author)

  5. Technical assistance to the manufacture, construction and assembly of Osorio-Canoas oil pipeline flow pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Kellson Takenaka; Rangel Junior, Joilson Rangel; Costa, Jose Coelho [Petroleo Brasileiro S/A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: kellson.telsan@petrobras.com.br, joilson_jr@petrobras.com.br, jccoelho.telsan@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the experiences acquired through the modifications and improvements implemented in the manufacture, construction and assembly of the oil flow centrifugal pumps of the Osorio-Canoas Oil Pipeline (OSCAN 22''), located in Rio Grande do Sul. The OSCAN 22'' pumping capacity expansion was conceived aiming at meeting the Alberto Pasqualini Refinery (REFAP) processing increase project from 20,000 m{sup 3}/day to 30,000 m{sup 3}/day, besides changing the product profile from processed product to national high viscosity national oils. Due to this reason, a new pump park at the Almirante Soares Dutra Terminal (TEDUT) and a new intermediate pump station named Estacao de Santo Antonio da Patrulha (ESPAT) have been erected. Thus, the oil received by a tanker and stored at TEDUT was now pumped to ESPAT and then to REFAP through a 97 km long and 22 inch diameter oil pipeline named OSCAN 22''. In order to get such oil flow done, 03 new main pumps have been installed at TEDUT, one of them being a stand-by one, and other 03 pumps at ESPAT, one of them being also a stand-by one. During the startup of TEDUT's pumps, high vibration levels were observed in the rotors and in the equipment structures. The values defined by the manufacturer for equipment alarm and shutdown were, respectively, 50.0 {mu}m and 75.0 {mu}m, measured on the pump rotors in the bearing region. However, the global vibration levels of the TEDUT's pumps reached 110.0 {mu}m during the startup attended by the manufacturers. The equipment warranty period started after that, and a detailed activity planning was drawn up with the purpose of keeping TEDUT running with the new pumps at the lowest possible operational risk and avoiding a production reduction at REFAP. Simultaneously, various actions were taken in order to identify the vibration sources and reduce its intensity to the lowest possible values. After equipment modifications, median vibration values at 15

  6. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  7. Cleanup and biodegradation of a crude-oil spill at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crude oil spill occurred at an exploratory well site near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska during drilling in the winter of 1969-70. The oil infiltrated a portion of the gravel pad and flowed onto the adjacent tundra. Although some attempts were made to clean up the site at the time, a large area of contaminated gravel and tundra remained in 1990. Based on a detailed site assessment, 2.2 hectares had such high total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations that excavation and incineration were selected as the most appropriate remedial actions. In the remaining less-contaminated areas that were not excavated and in subsurface soil horizons, bioremediation was selected. During the winter of 1991, an estimated 19,000 m3 of soil was excavated and incinerated in a rotary kiln. During summer 1991, biodegradation of the TPH in the remaining soil was promoted by tilling, watering and draining, and fertilizing. Excavation of the heavily contaminated soil reduced mean TPH concentrations by 89% at the tundra surface. Bioremediation for 53 days reduced mean TPH concentrations by 74%. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and soil and groundwater properties important to microbial growth were also monitored. Two strains of Pseudomonas species showed a good ability to degrade crude oil and probably were responsible for the large reduction in TPH concentrations observed after one summer. 5 refs., 5 figs

  8. The effect of bioremediation on the microbial populations of oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation, the stimulation of the natural process of biodegradation, played an important role in the cleanup of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Since there were already substantial indigenous populations of oil-degrading microbes in the area, it was apparent that degradation was likely to be nutrient - not microbial - limited. Bioremediation therefore involved the application of carefully selected fertilizers to provide assimilable nitrogen and phosphorus to the indigenous organisms, with the intent to stimulate their activity and enhance their numbers. The authors show here that the indigenous microbial populations were indeed substantially increased, throughout the sound, approximately one month after wide-spread fertilizer applications in both 1989 and 1990. Furthermore, while oil-degrading bacteria made up a significant fraction of the microbial populations on contaminated beaches in September and October 1989, they had declined to less than 1 percent by the summer of 1990, suggesting that the microbial populations on the shorelines were returning to their prespill conditions

  9. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  10. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no

  11. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  12. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

  13. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006

  14. Papers of the Canadian Institute's 3. annual conference : oil sands supply and infrastructure : labour supply, upgraders, transportation, pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this conference was on the development of the oil sands industry, with specific reference to issues concerning supply and infrastructure. Energy source development and transmission issues were discussed, as well as transportation systems. The impact of increased oil sands development on pipelines was also examined. Various fuel options were discussed, including the use of hydrogen, natural gas and alternate fuels in manufacturing and processing plants. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed. The environmental impact of increased oil sands activity was discussed, with specific reference to the Boreal regions. Management challenges in the oil sands industry were also discussed along with issues concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 13 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Detection of Oil and Gas Pipeline Leak%油气管道泄漏检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许旺松

    2011-01-01

    Pipeline transport was a rapidly developing field in oil and natural gas transmission because of its economical and convenient,but the leakage problem became a hazard to safe operation of pipelines,and was the main factor causing a variety of accidents.The pipeline leak detection technology was an important pipeline management techniques to prevent the leakage occurred(or after the timely detection of the leak).Therefore,the research pipeline leak detection technology for the safe operation of the pipeline was important.A systematic description of this technology,classification and comparison,and its development prospects were predicted.%管道输送因其经济方便,正在石油天然气等输送领域迅速发展,但泄漏问题已经成为危害管道安全运行、造成各种事故的主要因素。借助管道泄漏检测技术防止泄漏发生(或在泄漏发生后及时发现)是管道管理采取的重要技术手段。因此,研究管道泄漏检测技术对管道安全运行具有重要意义,本文对油气管道泄露技术进行了系统性介绍、分类和比较,并对其发展前景进行了预测。

  16. Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Crude Oil Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex W. Dawotola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is constructed for risk management of crude pipeline subject to rupture on the basis of a methodology that incorporates structured expert judgment and analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The risk model calculates frequency of failure and their probable consequences for different segments of crude pipeline, considering various failure mechanisms. Specifically, structured expert judgment is used to provide frequency of failure assessments for identified failure mechanisms of the pipeline. In addition, AHP approach is utilized to obtain relative failure likelihood for attributes of failure mechanisms with very low probability of occurrence. Finally, the expected cost of failure for a given pipeline segment is estimated by combining its frequency of failure and the consequences of failure, estimated in terms of historical costs of failure from the pipeline operator’s database. A real-world case study of a crude pipeline is used to demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology.

  17. Ultra-sonic PIG inspection in crude oil pipeline on deep waters; Inspecao com PIG ultra-sonico em oleodutos de aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Aldo Renato; Melo, Francimario da Silva Vieira; Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Morais, Ricardo Pereira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Nowadays, Marlin field is one of the biggest oil production fields in Campos Basin. This field is compound by platforms that produce, storage and export natural gas and crude oil through sub sea pipelines. The pipeline integrity must be assured for operation continuity and safety of the people and environment. The use of smart pigs is a technique applied to verify corrosion and wall thickness loss in PETROBRAS' sub sea pipelines. The crude oil pipelines inspection from a platform to a FPSO was a big challenge due to the high wall thickness, high export temperature, high BSW (Basic Sediments and Water) and wax. This paper presents solutions for the success of this inspection using smart pigs (author)

  18. Oil pollution issues: an overview of U.S. law under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, and Alaska State law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part One of this paper presents details of the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA). The Act defines the responsible party for a vessel or facility from which oil is spilled, or which poses a threat of a spill into US waters, assigns liability for removal costs and damages, defines limitations of liability, outlines financial responsibility and contingency plan requirements, and describes civil and criminal penalties for violations. Part Two of the paper discusses the corresponding Alaska statutes and regulations which are essentially similar to the OPA. It also provides details of the Alaska requirement of certificates of financial responsibility and contingency plans which are separate from those required under federal law

  19. Bourgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline; will matching institutional and regulatory contexts lead to an effective bargaining and eventual consensus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N., E-mail: amenegaki@her.forthnet.g [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Languages, Literature and Civilization of Black Sea Countries, Polytechniou 7A, 69100 Komotini (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    This paper employs Muthoo's bargaining principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result (. A Non-Technical Introduction to Bargaining Theory, World Economics 1(2): 145-166) to decide whether Greece and Bulgaria can form a successful energy coalition. Motivation for this is the proposed construction of the crude oil pipeline from the Bulgarian port Burgas to the Greek Aegean port of Alexandroupolis. The reason Turkey is the third country in the analysis despite its current non-membership in this venture, is that: (i) Turkey offers to host a competitive route of the pipeline, (ii) It is a transit, neighboring country to Greece forming an important geopolitical triangle together with Greece and Bulgaria and (iii) co-operates separately with Bulgaria and Greece in other energy pipelines. Therefore, the three countries engage to interwining energy and geopolitical futures. Whether B-A oil pipeline will be implemented or not, will be due to a mix of bargaining procedures. The paper shows that Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy and energy figures and characteristics), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising based on this theory. - Research Highlights: {yields}The B-A oil pipeline project is currently at a junction point. Bargaining and public discussion is ongoing. {yields}Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy, energy, socio-demographic and E-governance figures and characteristics as well as environmental effects and construction characteristics of the pipeline), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. Therefore the two countries match in all parameters and remains pending the last but not least point of agreement, namely citizens' consensus. {yields}A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might

  20. Bourgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline; will matching institutional and regulatory contexts lead to an effective bargaining and eventual consensus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs Muthoo's bargaining principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result (. A Non-Technical Introduction to Bargaining Theory, World Economics 1(2): 145-166) to decide whether Greece and Bulgaria can form a successful energy coalition. Motivation for this is the proposed construction of the crude oil pipeline from the Bulgarian port Burgas to the Greek Aegean port of Alexandroupolis. The reason Turkey is the third country in the analysis despite its current non-membership in this venture, is that: (i) Turkey offers to host a competitive route of the pipeline, (ii) It is a transit, neighboring country to Greece forming an important geopolitical triangle together with Greece and Bulgaria and (iii) co-operates separately with Bulgaria and Greece in other energy pipelines. Therefore, the three countries engage to interwining energy and geopolitical futures. Whether B-A oil pipeline will be implemented or not, will be due to a mix of bargaining procedures. The paper shows that Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy and energy figures and characteristics), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising based on this theory. - Research Highlights: →The B-A oil pipeline project is currently at a junction point. Bargaining and public discussion is ongoing. →Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy, energy, socio-demographic and E-governance figures and characteristics as well as environmental effects and construction characteristics of the pipeline), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. Therefore the two countries match in all parameters and remains pending the last but not least point of agreement, namely citizens' consensus. →A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising

  1. Differences in blood haptoglobin and length-mass relationships in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences

  2. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizhong Yang

    Full Text Available The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  3. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the Arctic slope of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial surveys were conducted annually in June 1978-87 near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to determine changes in the distribution of calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that accompanied petroleum-related development. With construction of an oil field access road through a calving concentration area, mean caribou density (no./km2) decreased from 1.41 to 0.31 within 1 km and increased from 1.41 to 4.53, 5-6 km from the road. Concurrently, relative caribou use of the adjacent area declined apparently in response to increasing surface development. It is suggested that perturbed distribution associated with roads reduced the capacity of the nearby area to sustain parturient females and that insufficient spacing of roads may have depressed overall calving activity. Use of traditional calving grounds and of certain areas therein appears to favor calf survival, principally through lower predation risk and improved foraging conditions. Given the possible loss of those habitats through displacement and the crucial importance of the reproductive process, a cautious approach to petroleum development on the Arctic Slope is warranted. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the subtidal organic geochemistry of two bays in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subtidal effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, were studied. In March, 1989, 258,000 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil were released into the marine environment, which impacted greatly on the many protected bays and coves in that area. In this study, the subtidal sediment hydrocarbon chemistry in a heavily oiled bay (Bay of Isles), was compared to a reference bay (Drier Bay) that received little impact from the spill. Stratified random sampling was used to compare a total of 35 stations over 3 depth zones in each of the oiled and reference bays. Sediments were analyzed for saturate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sediment grain size and organic carbon content. Tissue samples of the deposit-feeding clam were analyzed. Results showed that PAH concentration increased with increasing depth, but the PAH concentrations were at least 2-3 orders of magnitude below those associated with sublethal effects. 20 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Fitness for service assessment of defects in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutonico, Jose Mauricio; Souza, Gerardo; Manfredi, Carlos [GIE A.S. (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    During normal operation a pipeline generates a series of defects that can affect its integrity. At some stage during the pipeline life will require an assessment of these defects in order to determine their ability to maintain safe operation. Defects can be classified as geometric defects (gouges, plain dents, dents containing other defects), volumetric defects (external or internal corrosion) or planar defects (cracks, SCC). In this work a methodology to the characterization and determination of the severity of defects detected by an ILI inspection in pipelines is presented. A series of practical procedures and instructive has been developed based on international codes, national regulations and industry best practices. The repair approaches were defined from the risk level that the company it is disposed to assume. The contributed examples were collected in high pressure pipelines of different ages, located on diverse geographical locations and over different operation conditions. (author)

  6. Methanol incorporation in clathrate hydrates and the implications for oil and gas pipeline flow assurance and icy planetary bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kyuchul; Udachin, Konstantin A.; Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Leek, Donald M.; Alavi, Saman; Ratcliffe, Christopher I.; Ripmeester, John A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the best-known uses of methanol is as antifreeze. Methanol is used in large quantities in industrial applications to prevent methane clathrate hydrate blockages from forming in oil and gas pipelines. Methanol is also assigned a major role as antifreeze in giving icy planetary bodies (e.g., Titan) a liquid subsurface ocean and/or an atmosphere containing significant quantities of methane. In this work, we reveal a previously unverified role for methanol as a guest in clathrate hydrate c...

  7. Approach to downstream planning for nearshore response and sensitive areas protection outside Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the need for an oil spill response plan for downstream coastal communities that could be affected by oil spilled from tankers travelling in Prince William Sound, Alaska. For the purpose of oil spill contingency planning, the State of Alaska has been divided into the Kodiak and Cook Inlet sub-areas that are at risk for downstream impacts from a Prince William Sound oil spill. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill provided an example of a worst-case scenario oil spill from a tanker in Prince William Sound, but the oil spill planning system that has evolved in Alaska does not adequately plan for on oil spill that originates in one sub-area of the state, but impacts other sub-areas in the downstream spill path. This study analyzed the gaps that exist in the current response planning system in the Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet and Kodiak sub-areas. A method was proposed to improve the existing response plans so that emergency response teams are better prepared to manage cross-boundary oil spills originating in Prince William Sound. The proposed method focuses on nearshore response and sensitive areas protection for coastlines and communities that are at risk for oil spills from a tanker travelling the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). 11 refs., 3 figs

  8. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Northern Alaska Gas Hydrate Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  9. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix A: BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Final project description - Revision 1, March 27, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendix A of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. This document is the Northstar Development Project, Final Project Description, Revision 1 for BPXA Northstar Project

  10. Changes in diets of river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the diets of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, were examined in 1989 and 1990. On the basis of identification of prey remains in their feces, otters fed principally on marine, bottom-dwelling fishes. Marine gastropods, bivalves, and crustaceans composed most of the invertebrates in the diet of otters; freshwater and terrestrial food items seldom occurred in their feces. The diets of otters included 149 different taxa, most of which rarely occurred in their feces. Sixty-five taxa occurred ≥5 times in the combined data set. Species richness and diversity of prey remains in otter feces were similar on oiled and nonoiled study areas in late winter 1989 (before the oil spill) and during summer 1989 following the spill. By summer 1990, however, there were significant declines in the richness and diversity of species (mostly bony fish, molluscs, and bivalves) in otter diets on the oiled area. Likewise, the relative abundance of prey remains in otter feces showed strong differences between areas and years, and an area by year interaction. Members of the Perciformes and Archaeogastropoda declined from 1989 to 1990 on the oiled area while they increased on the nonoiled site; Malacostraca exhibited the opposite pattern. These outcomes, when considered with other data on body mass and blood chemistry, strongly suggest that some effects of the oil spill on otters were delayed. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

  12. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Yun Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  13. Pitting growth modelling in buried oil and gas pipelines using statistical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New deterministic and stochastic predictive models are proposed for external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The deterministic model takes into consideration the local chemical and physical properties of the soil as well as the pipeline coating to predict the time dependence of pitting depth and rate in a range of soils. This model, based on results from a field study, was used to conduct Monte Carlo simulations that established the probability distribution of pitting depth and growth rate in the studied soils and their evolution over the life of the pipeline. In the last stage of the study, an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model was developed for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. (Author) 18 refs.

  14. Long-term recovery of vegetation on two experimental crude oil spills in interior Alaska black spruce taiga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation was sampled on two black spruce taiga sites in interior Alaska, 15 and 20 years after crude oil was experimentally applied as low-volume sprays or high-volume point spills. Low volume spray spills that uniformly covered the ground caused initial damage to vegetation, but after 20 years recovery of the understory vegetation was almost complete, with dramatic recovery and expansion of fruticose lichens. High-volume point spills created small areas of surface oil saturation with dead vegetation and little sign of recovery but spread out mostly below ground with little or no apparent effect on the shallowly rooted vegetation above even after 15-20 years. Because winter point spills created a much greater area of surface oil, their effects were more damaging. After 15 years on the saturated surface oiled areas, only Eriophorum vaginatum tussocks survive and grow. At both sites with surface oil, black spruce mortality was high, with evidence of long-term recovery and with continuing chronic effects after 15 years. However, from a long-term perspective the black spruce taiga ecosystem appears to be able to recover from low volume spray spills and to retain large amounts of crude oil from high-volume point spills below ground with minimal damage to the vegetation. Because of the permafrost, removal of crude oil from this ecosystem by soil excavation is undesirable. In situ acceleration of oil breakdown using fertilizers and bacteria is a possible option; seeding or planting of E. vaginatum on surface-oiled areas may also provide some cover and below ground biomass. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Pipeline coatings keep getting more sophisticated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2004-08-01

    Bredero Shaw is the world's largest pipeline company. It's Canadian division, Shaw Pipe Protection Limited (SPPL), has a technology development laboratory in Calgary where a pipe coating line is being developed along with a deepwater program which tests the performance of sub-sea insulation coatings. Tests are performed at simulated service conditions of temperature, pressure and sea water environment. Research efforts have also focused on oilsands development and the challenge of keeping bitumen hot inside pipes while reducing wear caused by entrained sand. Shaw's high performance composite coating (HPCC) is a high-tech multiple component coating that is applied as a powder spray. It can withstand temperatures of -40 to -50 degrees C and is therefore particularly suited for providing mechanical, corrosion protection in large diameter transmission pipelines such as the Mackenzie Valley Gas Pipeline and the Alaska Pipeline. It is also compatible with cathodic protection. The coating consists of fusion bonded epoxy, polyolefin adhesive and a polyethylene. It has already been used for the Athabasca Pipeline which transports crude oil from Fort McMurray through Cold Lake to Hardisty, Alberta. Other developments include the Dual Powder Abrasion Coating system which consists of two fusion layers that provide damage resistance to pipelines in rocky mountainous terrain. The Yellow Jacket is a two layer coating used for oil and gas gathering systems to resist corrosion, moisture and soil stress. This paper also described other popular coatings such as the polyurethane foam coating called Insul-8 Systems; a sprayed epoxy polymer coating called Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating; the Cement Mortar Lining; the Flow Efficiency Coating; the Concrete Weight Coating; and, the Rock Jacket corrosion coating. 1 fig.

  16. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  17. A hybrid Delphi-SWOT paradigm for oil and gas pipeline strategic planning in Caspian Sea basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caspian Sea basin holds large quantities of both oil and natural gas that could help meet the increasing global demand for energy resources. Consequently, the oil and gas potential of the region has attracted the attention of the international oil and gas industry. The key to realizing the energy producing potential of the region is the development of transnational export routes to take oil and gas from the landlocked Caspian Sea basin to world markets. The evaluation and selection of alternative transnational export routes is a complex multi-criteria problem with conflicting objectives. The decision makers (DMs) are required to consider a vast amount of information concerning internal strengths and weaknesses of the alternative routes as well as external opportunities and threats to them. This paper presents a hybrid model that combines strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) analysis with the Delphi method. - Highlights: ► The evaluation and selection of the pipeline routes is a multi-criteria problem. ► A hybrid SWOT-Delphi method is proposed to evaluate five potential routes. ► The Southern and Northern routes are chosen as the best and second-best options. ► The second best option is identified to provide some degree of diversification.

  18. 稠油管道输送技术概述%Overview of Heavy Oil Pipeline Transportation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于欢; 姜亚杰; 吴玉国

    2016-01-01

    由于人口的快速增长和经济的快速发展,原油的需求日益增加,然而轻质原油的可开采量逐渐减少,稠油的开采和输送变得尤为重要。文中对各种稠油管道输送技术进行了概述,以及其各自的优缺点。并提出了主辅型降粘输送方法,为以后的稠油管道输送技术研究提供了一个方向。%Due to the rapid development of the economy and the rapid growth of population, the demand for crude oil is increasing. The amount of recoverable light crude oil is decreasing, so extraction and transport of heavy oil have become particularly important. In this paper, a variety of heavy oil pipeline technologies were introduced as well as their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector arcs in this data set represent species...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  3. 78 FR 69121 - Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access.... These regulations concern open and nondiscriminatory access to pipelines, and are the subject of this...) concerns a renewal to the paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 Part 291, Open...

  4. Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Crude Oil Pipeline System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawotola, A.W.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A model is constructed for risk management of crude pipeline subject to rupture on the basis of a methodology that incorporates structured expert judgment and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The risk model calculates frequency of failure and their probable consequences for different segments of cr

  5. Advanced cost-effective surface geochemical techniques for oil/gas/uranium exploration, environmental assessments and pipeline monitoring - a template for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced geochemical soil gas methods have been successfully developed for the exploration of oil/gas/uranium and for environmental assessments. Application of these cost-effective technologies in India can substantially reduce exploration risk while accelerating the development of oil/gas/uranium onshore resources. A reliable and effective monitoring system using geochemical soil gas surveys ensures that CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery operations as well as CO2 sequestration projects are safe and acceptable for the disposal of CO2, Soil gas surveys along with other technologies can also be applied for monitoring of oil/gas pipelines for leakage, especially those that are old or pass through populated regions

  6. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  7. Alaska-US gas line - design considerations for the Alaska segment of ANGTS (Alaska natural gas transportation system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, N.

    1982-01-01

    In 1968, the largest single discovery of oil and natural gas ever found on the North American continent was made at Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope of Alaska. The Prudhoe Bay field contains over 26 tcf of recoverable natural gas, or ca 13% of the proven domestic gas reserves. To bring this natural gas to the market in the Lower 48 states, filings were made with the Federal Power Commission, the predecessor to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, to construct a pipeline transportation system. The gas pipeline project will initially transport ca 2 billion cu ft of gas daily, expandable to 3.2 billion cu ft/day with additional compressor stations. The total ANGTS comprises nearly 4,800 miles of pipeline with diameters ranging from 36 to 56 in., and initially ca 1.4 million hp will be installed to transport 2.0 billion cu ft/day. This presentation concentrates on the Alaska segment of the ANGTS.

  8. Energy Equation Derivation of the Oil-Gas Flow in Pipelines Dérivation de l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans des pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan J.M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the simulation of oil-gas pipeline multiphase flow, thermodynamic computation is an important process interacting with the hydraulic calculation and it influences the convergence of the program and the accuracy of the results. The form of the energy equation is the key to the thermodynamic computation. Based on the energy equation of oil-gas flow in pipeline, the Explicit Temperature Drop Formula (ETDF is derived for oilgas steady state temperature calculation. This new energy equation has considered many factors, such as Joule-Thomson effect, pressure work, friction work and impact of terrain undulation and heat transfer Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Rev. IFP Energies nouvelles with the surroundings along the line. So it is an overall form of energy equation, which could describe the actual fact of multiphase pipeline accurately. Therefore, some standpoints in literatures on the temperature calculation of oil-gas two-phase flow in pipelines are reviewed. Elimination of temperature iteration loop and integration of the explicit temperature equation, instead of enthalpy energy equation, into the conjugated hydraulic and thermal computation have been found to improve the efficiency of algorithm. The calculation applied to both the component model, also applied to the black-oil model. This model is incorporated into the component model and black-oil model, respectively, and two simulations are carried out with two practical pipeline Yingmai-Yaha and Lufeng multiphase pipeline and the temperature results are compared with the simulation calculated by the OLGA and the measured. It is shown that this model has simulated the temperature distribution very well. Finally, we analyzed the influence of the specific heat capacity of oil and gas on the temperature of the mixture of fluids and the influence of the Joule-Thomson effect on the temperature distribution on the pipeline. It is shown that the Joule-Thomson coefficient is a key factor to

  9. Surveys of murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field surveys were conducted in July and August 1991 on 32 of the 36 murre (Uria spp.) colonies in the northern Gulf of Alaska to assess colony attendance (number of birds present at a colony) two years after the exxon Valdez oil spill. The surveys focused on murre colonies because murres represented 74% of the recovered seabird carcasses and because it had claimed that there was large-scale mortality of murres, leading to 60% to 70% decreases at some large colonies and population recovery periods of 20 to 70 years. Murres were present at all 32 colonies, and colony attendance estimates were generally similar to those from historical (prespill) surveys, particularly for those colonies in the direct path of the spill, i.e., the Barren Islands and Chiswell islands. Colony attendance levels in 1991 do not support the contention that murre colony attendance in the study area was drastically lower than historical levels. When colonies were grouped according to risk of oil exposure, the mean changes in attendance between 1991 and historical murre surveys did not differ significantly among the groups. Factors that could account for the observed similarity of 1991 and historical murre counts despite the high estimated mortality are (1) overestimation of mortality or (2) replacement of lost breeders through either recruitment of formerly nonbreeding individuals into the breeding population at spill-affected colonies or immigration of murres form nonaffected colonies. The findings of this study suggest that impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of alaska were relatively short-term. 118 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  11. The public's role in organization of ecological monitoring at the areas of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline in the western region of Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline covers the area of 6 districts of the Western region of Azerbaijan. This area mainly consists of fertile agricultural lands and rich in rivers and valuable Tugay forests around Kura river. Each small breakdown that can take place during oil transportation can be a reason of irreversible ecological calamity in this region. For avoiding transformation of breakdown into calamity and timely liquidation of damage to environment during the pipeline exploitation an increase of public activeness in the communities along the pipeline is one of the main factors in bio-diversity protection. Eco-Renaissance Organization took part in the monitoring of BTC oil pipeline on the project of Open Society Institute - Assistance Foundation and conducted a social survey concerning environment at the areas crossed by the pipeline. Analyzed the results of the survey it became clear that one of the main problems worrying the population is a restoration of disturbed bio-diversity. During the survey conducting it was also found out that there is a pre-condition for increase of public activeness in the communities living along the pipeline. Taking into account that the majority of the Organization's members are employees of Sustainable Development and Ecological Monitoring Laboratory of Ganja Regional Scientific Center of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, we see that increase of activeness of the public in environment protection at the areas crossed by the pipeline also meets our professional interests. The public's assistance is a very important factor for creation of ecological monitoring of the region. We think that it's necessary. To define active citizen in the communities; To organize training of these people and through it creation of strongpoints at the areas along the pipeline can be reached. With the purpose of detailed analysis of environment situation at these areas a committee consisting of inhabitants of the communities

  12. Phase Behavior, Solid Organic Precipitation, and Mobility Characterization Studies in Support of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery on the Alaska North Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    The medium-heavy oil (viscous oil) resources in the Alaska North Slope are estimated at 20 to 25 billion barrels. These oils are viscous, flow sluggishly in the formations, and are difficult to recover. Recovery of this viscous oil requires carefully designed enhanced oil recovery processes. Success of these recovery processes is critically dependent on accurate knowledge of the phase behavior and fluid properties, especially viscosity, of these oils under variety of pressure and temperature conditions. This project focused on predicting phase behavior and viscosity of viscous oils using equations of state and semi-empirical correlations. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the phase behavior and physical properties of viscous oils from the Alaska North Slope oil field. The oil samples were compositionally characterized by the simulated distillation technique. Constant composition expansion and differential liberation tests were conducted on viscous oil samples. Experiment results for phase behavior and reservoir fluid properties were used to tune the Peng-Robinson equation of state and predict the phase behavior accurately. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to compile available compositional viscosity models and their modifications, for application to heavy or viscous oils. With the help of meticulously amassed new medium-heavy oil viscosity data from experiments, a comparative study was conducted to evaluate the potential of various models. The widely used corresponding state viscosity model predictions deteriorate when applied to heavy oil systems. Hence, a semi-empirical approach (the Lindeloff model) was adopted for modeling the viscosity behavior. Based on the analysis, appropriate adjustments have been suggested: the major one is the division of the pressure-viscosity profile into three distinct regions. New modifications have improved the overall fit, including the saturated viscosities at low pressures. However, with the limited

  13. Gulf of Alaska/Yakutat Planning Area oil and gas lease sale 158: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses a proposed Federal action that will offer for lease areas in the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). These areas may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. At this time, gas is not considered economically recoverable. Lease Sale 158, proposed for 1997, is comprised of lease blocks in the Gulf of Alaska Planning Area. Up to 977 blocks will be available for lease under the proposed action; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. Of the blocks that will be leased, only a portion will be drilled and could possibly result in production. The analytical methods used in this EIS have been formulated over a period of years. The first step of the analysis is the identification of significant environmental and socioeconomic resources through the scoping process outlined in Section I.D. The MMS then derives a range of energy-resource estimates from geologic and economic assumptions and establishes alternatives to the proposed action. The MMS assumes estimated levels of exploration and development activity for analyzing the proposed action. The MMS then analyzes the potential effects expected from the interaction between significant environmental and socioeconomic resources and OCS-related activities

  14. Efficacy of natural biocide on control of microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines mediated by Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meeta Lavania; Priyangshu M. Sarma; Ajoy K. Mandal; Simrita Cheema; Banwari Lal

    2011-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of a natural biocide with four chemical tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate,benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride,and formaldehyde,glutaraldehyde,to control microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines.The efficacy of biocides were monitored against Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in experimental pipes by measuring cell counts,H2S production,Fe(II) production,production of extracellular polymeric substances and structure of biofilm.The treatment with cow urine had minimum planktonic cell counts of 3 × 102 CFU/mL as well as biofiim cell counts of 9 × 101 CFU/mL as compared with tetrakishydroxyl methyl phosphonium sulfonate,benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride,formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde.Sulfide production was the lowest with cow urine (0.08 mmol/L),followed by tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate 0.72 mmoi/L.On day 90 of treatment,Fe(II) production was also found to be the lowest with cow urine.The scanning electron microscopic studies indicated that the biofilm bacteria were killed by cow urine.These results demonstrate the cow urine mediated control of microbially induced corrosion,and this is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of toxic biocides.To the best of our knowledge,this seems to be the first report which screens possible biocidal activity by cow urine as compared to the most common biocides which oil industry is currently using.

  15. Efficacy of natural biocide on control of microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines mediated by Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, Meeta; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Mandal, Ajoy K; Cheema, Simrita; Lal, Banwari

    2011-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of a natural biocide with four chemical tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate, benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, and formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, to control microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines. The efficacy of biocides were monitored against Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in experimental pipes by measuring cell counts, H2S production, Fe(II) production, production of extracellular polymeric substances and structure of biofilm. The treatment with cow urine had minimum planktonic cell counts of 3 x 10(2) CFU/mL as well as biofilm cell counts of 9 x 10(1) CFU/mL as compared with tetrakishydroxyl methyl phosphonium sulfonate, benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. Sulfide production was the lowest with cow urine (0.08 mmol/L), followed by tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate 0.72 mmol/L. On day 90 of treatment, Fe(II) production was also found to be the lowest with cow urine. The scanning electron microscopic studies indicated that the biofilm bacteria were killed by cow urine. These results demonstrate the cow urine mediated control of microbially induced corrosion, and this is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of toxic biocides. To the best of our knowledge, this seems to be the first report which screens possible biocidal activity by cow urine as compared to the most common biocides which oil industry is currently using. PMID:22128548

  16. Development of a unified federal/state coastal/inland oil and hazardous substance contingency plan for the state of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passage of the US Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 expanded the existing federal planning and response framework in several ways. The OPA created a new requirement for facility and tank vessel response plans and creates an area-level planning and coordination structure to help supplement federal, regional, and local planning efforts. The OPA amended the existing Clean Water Act's section 311(j)(4), which establishes area committees and area contingency plans as primary components of this structure. In 1980, the Alaska legislature enacted legislation which defines the state's policies regarding oil spills. Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, additional legislation was passed to expand and strengthen the state's oil spill program. Specifically, in 1989 the Senate Bill 261 required the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation to develop, annually review, and revise the State Oil and Hazardous Substance Contingency Plans (State Master and Regional Plans). State regional plans serve as annexes to the State Master Plan. The coordinated and cooperative efforts by government agencies and local entities toward creating a unified federal/state, coastal/inland Oil and Hazardous Substance Contingency Plan are presented, along with the development and progress of unified area/regional contingency plans for Alaska. 3 figs

  17. Oceanographic studies in Harrison Bay and the Colville River Delta, Alaska, to support the development of oil spill response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of an oil spill resulting from the development of the Alpine oil field is considered to be low. The field is located on the North Slope of Alaska adjacent to the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and reaches coastal waters from the distributary channels of the Colville River Delta. The physical environmental (hydrodynamic) conditions that would affect the transport and fate of spilled oil was investigated to further reduce the risk. During the open-water season of 2001 in Harrison Bay, near shore current meters were deployed and data on weather and surface currents was analyzed. Ocean current and wind measurements were examined to evaluate the relationship between meteorology and water levels during the open-water season. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the near shore hydrodynamic processes at play in Harrison Bay, in order to plan the most appropriate spill response strategies. The results obtained indicate that surface currents within the bay adjacent to the Colville Delta are variable. They respond to wind forces as well as other possible mechanisms like estuarine circulation. The surface currents reach maximum speeds of 0.26 metre per second. For the late July-September deployment, the calculated net surface drift was a 0.02 metre per second current to the east southeast. In both Harrison Bay and Colville Delta, prevailing southwest and northeast winds, respectively, induced water level changes of more than 0.5 metre above and below the average. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  18. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthike, Halambage Upul; Tecon, Robin; Van Kooten, Gerry; Van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Harms, Hauke; Wells, Mona; Short, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (approximately 4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable. PMID:19731689

  19. A progress report on fishery surveys along the route of the proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline between the Yukon River and Atigun Pass during 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report represents a summary of findings of the field work conducted by USFWS during the summer of 1971 along the route of the proposed Trans-Alaska...

  20. GIS在油气长输管道完整性管理中的应用%Application of GIS in the Oil and Gas Pipeline Integrity Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿作孝; 林渊; 李晓宁

    2011-01-01

    传统油气长输管道完整性管理模式和手段在管道突发事故的应变能力、分析处理效率等方面已难以适应当今管道安全管理与监督的需要.为提高管道完整性管理业务综合分析与信息深层次集成的能力,结合油气长输管道距离长、空间跨度大、途径地理情况复杂、运行中发生的事件带有显著空间特征等特点,开发基于GIS的完整性管理系统,旨在以空间特征作为整合管道各种信息的纽带,充分发挥地理信息系统强大的空间数据处理和分析能力,提高长输管道风险识别、高后果区分析、完整性评价和决策支持的水平,以达到管道始终处于受控状态,持续改善管道安全性、可靠性和公众置信度的目的.%Nowadays, safety and environmental concerns from the public have emphasized the requirement for pipeline owners to demonstrate the safe operation of their facilities. Traditional oil & gas transmission Pipeline Integrity Management mode cannot meet the requirements of pipeline safety supervising in terms of dealing with an emergency, analysis and disposal efficiency. To improve the Pipeline Integrity Management business comprehensive analysis ability and information deep - level integration ability, combine with the characteristics that oil & gas transmission pipeline has a long distance and a big spatial span, by way of complex geographical situation, events happening in running have remarkable spatial feature, develop Pipeline Integrity Management System bases onGIS, aimed at using spatial feature as a link to integrate all pipeline information, make GIS spatial data treatment & analysis ability into full play, raise the level of oil & gas transmission Pipeline ability in risk identify, high consequence area analysis, integrity evaluation and decision supporting,to achieve the goal that pipeline always in controlled state, continuously improve pipeline security, reliability and public confidence

  1. A semi-quantitative risk assessment method for analyzing the level of risk associated with parameters in design of thermal heavy oil Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhzad, M.A. [IMV Projects Inc., Alberta (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    During the design stage of a thermal heavy oil pipeline, the design engineer should include the consideration of more factors than what is normally used for the design of a conventional pipeline. In the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) production, for the extraction of bitumen from oily soil, it is required that a stream of hot and pressurized steam (over 300 deg C) to be injected into the oil reservoir. The steam reaches the oily soil reservoir from a steam sour such as boilers by traveling through above-ground pipeline arrangements. As a result of the steam injection into the well site, bitumen oil is released from the oily soil. The produced bitumen also consists of high pressure and temperature (over 200 deg C) and requires a gathering pipeline arrangement for traveling to the processing plant. During the layout design, both steam injection and hot production lines are usually designed parallel with each other by using a series of anchor-loop-anchor supported by steel structures and pilings. The coexistence of two extremely hot pipelines (Injecting Steam and Production pipelines) on the aboveground pipe rack should be designed with extreme care. The higher than normal design temperature of these lines creates considerable lateral and longitudinal movements and heavy loads on the supporting structure and piling. In addition, since both lines contain high pressure mediums, the design engineer shall include a few more parameters than what is normally considered for conventional pipelines. These parameters include; sustain loads, slug forces, natural frequency, mechanical interactions, frictional forces on anchors and guides, and mechanical engagement of supporting components, as well as the effects of these loads on the steel structure-piling and their reaction with the surrounding soil. In addition the design engineer shall be aware of any potential failures associated with these physical and mechanical parameters, the impact and probability rationales and

  2. New test for oil soluble/water dispersible gas pipeline inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmann, D.W.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The wheel test provides good mixing of the condensate and water phases, the coupons are exposed to both phases. Therefore, the wheel test cannot distinguish between inhibitors that need continuous mixing of the these phases to maintain a water dispersion of the inhibitor and inhibitors that will self disperse into the water. This concept becomes important for pipelines in stratified flow where the water can settle out. In these cases with low turbulence, the inhibitor must self disperse into the water to be effective. The paper describes a test method to measure the effectiveness of an inhibitor and its ability to self disperse. The effectiveness of several inhibitors as predicted by the new test method is discussed relative to data from the wheel test and breaker tests. Field performance of these inhibitors in a gas gathering line, with liquids in stratified flow, are cities and compared with the results of the various laboratory tests.

  3. 油气管道机器人技术研发进展%Research and development progress in oil and gas pipeline robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建树; 林立; 李杨; 李魁龙

    2013-01-01

    Pipeline robots integrated with smart mobile carrier and pipeline defect nondestructive testing technology are mainly used for detection, coating spraying, joint welding, foreign material removal and other maintenances of industrial pipelines such as oil and gas pipelines. Mode of motion is core technology of the pipeline robots, including active and passive modes. This paper elaborates technical features and difficulties of the pipeline robots using active motion modes such as bionic type, crawler type, screw driven type, vehicle type and supporting wheel type and those using passive motion mode are elaborated and enumerates products and technologies at home and overseas. Based on the above technology, a comparative analysis is carried out for overall performance of various technologies and key technical problems required to resolve for R&D of pipeline robots are proposed.%管道机器人综合了智能移动载体技术和管道缺陷无损检测技术,主要用于输油气管道的检测、喷涂、接口焊接、异物清理等检修维护作业.运动方式是管道机器人的技术核心,包括主动运动方式和被动运动方式两大类.系统阐述了仿生式、履带式、螺旋驱动式、车型式和支撑轮式等5种主动运动方式管道机器人及被动运动方式管道机器人PIG的技术特点和难点,例举了国内外现有产品和技术.对比分析了各种技术的综合性能,提出了管道机器人研发需要重点解决的技术问题.

  4. Pumping propagation and influence of oil derivatives transport in a pipeline network; Propagacao e influencia de bombeamento no transporte de derivados de petroleo em uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Camila Baldissera de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kluppel, Liege Bauer; Neves Junior, Flavio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the work developed on a pipeline network that transports oil derivatives. The transport occurs in batches of a specific product, each one having a defined route: the pumping origin, a destination for its receipt and the pipelines which the product is moved through. The network studied has a total of thirty pipelines connected by fourteen possible areas of pumping and/or receiving, this makes it not trivial to obtain the batches order in the pipeline. In order to obtain the passage of batches ordered list in the pipeline network, was developed an algorithm capable of propagating a batches list that only have route, start time and end time of pumping in the origin. This algorithm is part of a larger project whose goal is to obtain a tool to aid the process of operational decision making in a real pipeline network. The developed module can also generate the entry and exit times of each batch for each pipe through which it passes. With this information, analysis and/or validations can be made. At the end of the process, the result is a list of all the pumped batches in all pipes where it must go by. Thus, it is made a small pos-processing where the list is sorted, first by pipeline and then by start time of entry into the duct, which naturally causes the passage of the batches list in the ducts to be obtained. This work is based on the development presented by Czaikowski et al (2008). (author)

  5. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  6. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., receiverships, and similar actions which affect the identity or organization of the company Permanently or at... cancellation. (c) Copies of formal orders of regulatory bodies served upon the company 1 year after expiration... reading of oil and other products received into the delivered from company's lines 3 years. (c)...

  7. Alaska Gas: future options for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination of industry trends indicate a growth in the proportion of the gas component in the worldwide production of the three primary energy sources of coal, oil and natural gas. BP, as one of the leading North American producers of natural gas, is well positioned in all of the most attractive basins for growth in market share, and to maintain an aggressive leadership position in terms of price competition. BP's Alaska holdings and operations are outlined, including its gas-to-liquid technology facility, construction of which is scheduled to start in 2002. Development of Alaskan LNG in consortium with Phillips, Foothills and Marubeni, which is premised on the assumption of exporting the LNG to the Far East, is also reviewed. The project is expected to cost between five and six billion dollars, not including ships to transport the product. Construction of a gas pipeline to the lower 48 states to gain access to the extensive North American grid is also under study. Three routes are being considered; construction will employ high-strength steel, automated welding, improved pipeline monitoring, advanced computer control and instrumentation, advanced protective coating and operation at high pressures in excess of 2,500 psig. Current cost estimates range from six to ten billion dollars. The pipeline route through Canada seems to hold the most promise at this time. BP's position regarding construction of the pipeline should be finalized in 2001

  8. The gas century: worldwide LNG developments may deal death blow to Alaskan pipeline dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG), which casts doubt on the viability of the Alaska gas pipeline, and the potential impacts on Canadian gas exports to the United States are discussed. There is currently a proposal before Congress for an Alaskan LNG project, and consensus appears to be building among American energy experts and law-makers that building a multitude of LNG facilities would be more flexible and cheaper than building the proposed Alaska pipeline. As further proof of the growing popularity of LNG, U.S. industry lobbyists are said to be rapidly gaining congressional support for the idea of building eight to ten billion cubic feet per day of LNG capacity along the U. S. coast. Either development, -- LNG facilities or the Alaska pipeline -- have the potential to seriously impact Canadian natural gas exports. If the Alaska pipeline is built, the addition of five billion cubic feet per day of new gas on the market would cause gas prices to fall; if the U.S. decides to subsidize its gas industry, Canadian gas would be put at a serious disadvantage. Conversely, if the Alaskan LNG proposal were to succeed, the potential demise of the Alaska pipeline would mean the loss of about 12,000 jobs that would be created during the Canadian construction phase of the pipeline, as well as the loss of tariffs. Industry experts predict that by 2005 LNG terminals will dot the periphery of the U. S. coast line; to prepare for these eventualities, Canadian companies, such as Irving Oil, TransCanada Pipelines and EnCana are taking note, and are scrambling not to be left out of the game. As proof of the seriousness of their concern, Irving Oil is adding a Can$500 million LNG facility to its Canaport terminal on the Scotian shelf; TCPL is working to supply an LNG terminal offshore Massachusetts, and EnCana is refurbishing a Louisiana salt cavern to prepare for storage of gas delivered to the Gulf Coast

  9. Decision fusion framework in diagnostic and prognostic assessment of long-distance oil pipeline leakage and damage based on Dempster-Shafer theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decision fusion algorithm in diagnostic and prognostic assessment of long-distance oil pipeline leakage and damage based on Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory is proposed in this paper. To monitor the leakage and external damage, a new monitoring system is constructed with an optical fiber cable installed along the pipeline as a distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) and a pair of pressure meters installed at the pipeline inlet and outlet. When leaking, the oil stream disturbs the cable and a negative-pressure wave originates which propagates to pipe inlet and outlet. The probability of leaking is evaluated according to the correlation coefficient of negative-pressure waves acquired at the inlet and outlet, and the location is pinpointed using the negative-pressure method. The optical fiber cable is sensitive to soakage of oil products and mechanical deformation/vibration caused by leaking, tampering, or mechanical impacting. An optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) is employed to locate the additional attenuation and an optical power meter is employed to record the transmitted optical power. By using the D-S rule, features generated from the waveforms of optical power and negative-pressures are fused to make a decision about whether and where there is leakage and/or external damage

  10. Detection of impurities in fluid flowing in refinery pipeline or oil production operations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus were developed for determining chlorine in fluids such as crude oil at wellheads or loading docks, refined product, or refinery feedstock or waste water. The fluid is bombarded with fast neutrons giving rise to thermal neutron capture gamma rays. The chlorine content is determined from the energy spectra of the thermal neutron caputre gamma rays. If the salinity of the salt water is known, and all the chlorine in the fluid is present as sodium chloride, then the salt water content in the fluid can also be determined. The sulfur content is determined from the gamma ray spectra simultaneously with the chlorine content. If the fluid contains a gas homogeneously mixed, then the percentage of gas or gas/oil ratio can be determined. The measurements are unaffected by the velocity and volume flow rate of the crude oil stream. The chemical source for the thermal neutrons is less expenisve and requires less maintenance than evacuated-envelope accelerator-type neutron generators. (DN)

  11. Four years of oil-free full-metal shut-off slides for gas pipelines; Vier Jahre oelfreie rein metallisch dichtende Gasabsperrschieber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linstedt, Holger; Seewald, Gerhard; Fugmann, Kay [TEC artec valves GmbH und Co. KG, Oranienburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    After several years of operation, oil-filled shut-off slides will slowly have soiled gas pipelines. Oil-free full-metal shut-off slides are advantageous both from an ecological and technical view. Serial production will reduce the cost and shorten delivery times. The slide presented in this contribution also enables double block and bleed testing after installation. Horizontal slides open up new fields of application. Complete cross-joint slides have a particularly high cost reduction effect. Radio monitoring and control is possible in remote areas. (orig.)

  12. ROLE OF MICROORGANISMS IN THE BIOREMEDIATION OF THE OIL SPILL INPRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Alaskan BioremediationProject was initiated in the aftermath of the March 24, 1989, EXXONVALDEZ oil Spill. he objective of the project was to demonstratean alternative cleanup method for oil-contaminated shorelines basedon enhancing natu...

  13. Last 20 years of gas hydrates in the oil industry : challenges and achievements in predicting pipeline blockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanga, D.A.; Creek, J.; Subramanian, S.; Kini, R.A. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed how the successes of the past 20 years have shaped the new hydrate focus. It also outlined innovative tools for hydrate plugging prediction. Tools such as CSMHyK-OLGA were developed to address the design and operational challenges associated with offshore production regarding flow assurance in the area of gas hydrates. The effort to understand the complex behavior of gas hydrates in multiphase flow has resulted in new hydrate blockage models. Although the hydrate community continues to debate the impact of kinetics, agglomeration, and oil chemistry effects on hydrate blockage formation in pipelines and wellbores, the petroleum industry still relies on thermodynamic strategies that completely prevent hydrates in production systems. However, these complex strategies such as thermal insulation, electric heating, dead oil displacement, and methanol injection are costly, particularly for marginal fields. As such, research continues in developing a comprehensive multiphase flow simulator capable of handling the transient aspects of production operations, notably shut-in, restart, blowdown and blockage prediction. Model predictions are leading to new operating strategies based on risk management approach. This paper discussed the challenges and opportunities that have shifted the focus from prevention of hydrates to prevention of blockage. Some initial successes in the development of a first generation empirical tool for the prediction of hydrate blockages in flow lines were also presented along with new experimental data that explained how hydrate blockages can manifest in the field. It was concluded that additional research is needed to solve the problem of hydrate plugging mechanism. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  14. 美国与加拿大油气管道的安全保护%Safety protection of oil and gas pipelines in US and Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢海军; 赵勇昌; 冯治中; 戴联双; 高丽

    2013-01-01

    基于我国油气管道安全保护的多维防护体系存在的诸多不足和薄弱环节,分析了美国和加拿大在油气管道安全保护方面的法规制度、标准规范及两国石油企业在管道安全保护的相关规定.指出我国标准在规范人防、物防、技防等方面存在较大差距,介绍了美国和加拿大管道安全保护的实例和先进理念,结合国内当前在油气管道安全保卫的通常做法,对改进和加强我国油气管道安全保护工作提出了建议,即从建立监管机构、明确分工职责、建设安全防护技术体系等方面进行完善.%Since the multidimensional protection system of oil and gas pipelines in China has many shortages and weak links,this paper analyzes American and Canadian laws and standards on safety protection of oil and gas pipelines and relevant regulations on safety protections of pipelines in the petroleum enterprises in both countries.The paper points out that China's standards lag way behind in normal manual protection,physical protection,technical protection,etc,introduces examples and advanced ideas of safety protection of pipelines in US and Canada,in view of common practices in safety protection of oil and gas pipelines in China,puts forward suggestions on improving and strengthening safety protection of oil and gas pipelines,which include establishing supervision institution,making responsibility clear-cut and constructing safety protection technical system.

  15. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  16. Histopathology and cytogenetic evaluation of Pacific herring larvae exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory or in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Pacific herring larvae samples from oiled sites showed ascites, pericardial edema, and genotoxic damage. Laboratory study confirmed that these lesions were consistent with oil exposure. In a laboratory experiment, Pacific herring eggs were exposed to an oil-water dispersion of Prudhoe Bay crude oil and sampled for histopathology less than 24 h after hatching. Effects were significant at the 0.48 mg/L dose. Lesions included ascites, heptocellular vacuolar change and degeneration or necrosis of skeletal myocytes, retinal cells, and developing brain cells. Lesions in field-sampled larvae were consistent with higher mortality rates documented in larvae from oiled sites. In both field and laboratory experiments, ascites was the most significant lesion related to oil exposure. Decreased growth in larvae from oiled sites was also consistent with findings in three other laboratory studies with Pacific herring. This study concluded that if a large proportion of a population is exposed to contamination during early life stages, impacts on subsequent recruitment may be significant. However, estimates of the proportion of Pacific herring year-class affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill vary from 4 per cent to 50 per cent. Since recruitment of the 1989 year-class was also poor in Sitka Sound (the control site), it was suggested that oceanic variables might have been more significant in limiting recruitment of the 1989 year-class in Prince William Sound than was the oil spill. 40 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  17. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Alaska Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Surface Locations of Boreholes drilled for exploration or oil and gas production. Dataset is maintained by Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. Please note: older...

  18. Northern entanglement : Arctic gas pipeline plans caught in web of competing interests, but dire supply-demand forecasts indicate line will be built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discussed land access and regulatory issues surrounding decisions to stop field work of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline in the spring of 2005. Although current supply and demand balances in natural gas markets argue that the pipeline will be beneficial, Imperial Oil and its partners have halted activities such as geotechnical data-gathering programs and preparatory work on contracting construction. The project's future depends on the successful resolution of First Nations land claims, governmental disputes and various activist groups protesting the pipeline's construction. Imperial Oil has suggested that the pipeline presents a significant opportunity for the people of the North to reduce their reliance on government and will create jobs and business opportunities for Aboriginal people. In the aftermath of work stoppage, Alberta's former Energy Minister stated that imports of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Alaska gas from the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project may arrive on the market in advance of the Mackenzie Valley project, which would affect the project's financial future. It was noted that access and benefits agreements with First Nations stakeholders have yet to be reached. Lawsuits involving the Deh Cho First Nations were examined. It was also suggested that Imperial Oil has not included information on the Alberta portion of the project in its environmental impact assessment. It was concluded that if the Mackenzie Delta line isn't in service by 2010, North American consumers can expect to spend an extra $190 billion on gas from 2011 to 2020. 3 figs

  19. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Prince William Sound, Alaska: effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible injury to, and recovery of, populations of eelgrass Zostera marine L., in Prince William Sound were assessed following the Exxon Valdez oil spill by comparing populations at oiled vs reference sites between 1990 and 1995. Eelgrass beds in heavily oiled bays were exposed to moderate concentrations of hydrocarbons. In 1990, a year after the spill, concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons average nearly 4000 ng g-1 dry weight of sediment at oiled sites compared to less than 700 ng g-1 at reference sites. Injuries to eelgrass, if any, appeared to be slight and did not persist for more than a year after the spill. There were possible effects on the average density of shoots and flowering shoots, as these were 24 and 62% lower at oiled than at reference sites in 1990 (p < 0.10 for both). However, there were no differences between oiled and reference sites with respect to eelgrass biomass, seed density, seed germination or the incidence of normal mitosis in seedlings, and there were no signs of the elimination of eelgrass beds. (author)

  20. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  1. An examination of additive-mediated wax nucleation in oil pipeline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, A. J.; Neville, A.; Roberts, K. J.

    1999-03-01

    As part of a wider study probing the molecular-scale factors important in controlling wax crystallisation processes, the effect of additives on the surface and bulk nucleation of wax crystals from hydrocarbon solution phases was examined. Bulk nucleation data obtained in the absence and presence of two growth inhibiting additives indicated an increase in the meta-stable zone width (MSZW) on addition of both inhibitors, and differences in their kinetics of inhibition. Complementary studies of surface nucleation using a pipe blocking apparatus revealed a lowering in the temperature at which blockage occurred on addition of inhibitor to the model oil, and existence of fractional crystallisation observed in the bulk phase was confirmed. The hydrodynamic dependence of the nucleation process provided added information on how the inhibitors and wax would perform in a field situation, with a strong dependence on shear rate.

  2. Machine Design of Robot for Detecting In-use Oil Pipeline%在役石油管道检测机器人机械设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敬德; 周明; 应金贵; 曾俊冬

    2001-01-01

    When in-use oil pipelines are corroded their walls becoming thin,resulting in cracks and oil leak. Therefore detection of oil pipe faults is an important research topic. This paper presents a general design scheme of robot for checking in-use oil pipeline, and focuses on design of main component such as selection of electric motor and design of searching unit dish, slip-rings, high-pressure sealing ring and universal joints. Calculation results are provided. Successful development of the mechanical parts establishes a firm base for the development of robot.%在役石油输油管道受蚀后,管壁变薄,甚至产生裂缝,造成漏油,如何检测管道缺陷已成为一个重要的研究课题.现提出了检测机器人总体设计方案,叙述了主要零部件的设计,提供了计算结果.重点说明了电动机的选择、探头盘的设计、滑环的研制、高压密封件与万向节的设计与制造等.机械部分的试制成功为整台检测机器人的研制打下了坚实的基础.

  3. Product through pipelines : transportation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballyntyne, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided a brief overview of the corporate structure of Terasen Pipelines along with a map displaying the locations of the pipelines it operates and new directions for growth. It also presented a proposal to deliver petroleum products from Alberta's oilsand fields to markets via the Corridor and Express pipeline systems, and evaluated the issue of transporting petrochemicals via rail transport rather than pipeline. Industry is also examining the option of shipping refined products through a trans mountain system from Alberta to British Columbia and California. A chart highlighting Canadian crude oil production was presented along with an oil sands pipeline capacity chart. It was noted that significant investment in refining capacity is needed and that new pipeline facilities will be required to meet the needs of oil sands developments. tabs., figs.

  4. New reclamation standards for oil and gas well sites and pipelines in the agricultural land reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reclamation standards are a necessity because of increasing density of oil and gas developments, and the number of wells which may be abandoned over the next few years. All petroleum industry users of land are subject to the Agricultural Land Commission Act and require the approval of the Commission. The new General Order 293/95 was discussed, the purpose of which is to streamline existing regulations and to clarify reclamation standards. The new standards are similar to requirements currently in place in northwestern Alberta because landforms, soils, and land there are similar to those that exist in the Peace River region of B.C. Adopting similar requirements also has the added benefit of providing consistency for the industry between adjacent jurisdictions. In essence, the official view is that petroleum developments are temporary activities as long as the land is restored to its original or better condition, and the disruption to farm operations is minimal. Major provisions of General Order 293/95 were reviewed. It was noted that site contamination and the disposal of wastes were not addressed in the General Order. The reason for this is that these matters fall under the jurisdiction of other government agencies. 7 refs

  5. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF

  6. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  7. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluid and Rock Property Controls On Production And Seismic Monitoring Alaska Heavy Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Herring, Andy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Prasad, Manika [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Dorgan, John [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Batzle, Mike [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-10-30

    The goal of this project is to improve recovery of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) heavy oil resources in the Ugnu formation by improving our understanding of the formation's vertical and lateral heterogeneities via core evaluation, evaluating possible recovery processes, and employing geophysical monitoring to assess production and modify production operations.

  9. Modeling of the re-starting of waxy crude oil flows in pipelines; Modelisation du redemarrage des ecoulements de bruts paraffiniques dans les conduites petrolieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinay, G.

    2005-11-15

    Pipelining crude oils that contain large proportions of paraffins can cause many specific difficulties. These oils, known as waxy crude oils, usually exhibit high 'pour point', where this temperature is higher than the external temperature conditions surrounding the pipeline. During the shutdown, since the temperature decreases in the pipeline, the gel-like structure builds up and the main difficulty concerns the issue of restarting. This PhD attempts to improve waxy crude oil behaviour understanding thanks to experiment, modelling and numerical simulation in order to predict more accurately time and pressure required to restart the flow. Using various contributions to the literature, waxy crude oils are described as viscoplastic, thixotropic and compressible fluid. Strong temperature history dependence plays a prevailing role in the whole shutdown and restart process. Thus, waxy crude oils under flowing conditions correspond to the non-isothermal flow of a viscoplastic material with temperature-dependent rheological properties. Besides, the restart of a waxy crude oil is simulated by the isothermal transient flow of a weakly compressible thixotropic fluid in axisymmetric pipe geometry. We retain the Houska model to describe the thixotropic/viscoplastic feature of the fluid and compressibility is introduced in the continuity equation. The viscoplastic constitutive equation is involved using an augmented Lagrangian method and the resulting equivalent saddle-point problem is solved thanks to an Uzawa-like algorithm. Governing equations are discretized using a Finite Volume method and the convection terms are treated thanks to a TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) scheme. The Lagrangian functional technique usually used for incompressible viscoplastic flows, is adapted to compressible situations. Several numerical results attest the good convergence properties of the proposed transient algorithm. The non-isothermal results highlight the strong sensitivity of

  10. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  11. Real-time monitoring and control of the oil pipeline networks; Monitoramento e controle inteligentes e em tempo real de redes de escoamento de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, F.; Galvao, C.; Brasileiro, E.; Catao, B.; Souto, C.; Machado, E.; Muniz, M.; Souza, A.; Gomes, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)]. E-mail: fubica@dsc.ufcg.edu.br; Aloise, D. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Oliveira, A.; Gomes, C.; Rolim, T.; Boquimpani, C. [PETROBRAS S.A. (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Real-time monitoring and control of complex and large-scale oil pipeline networks is complicated by several requirements, among them: reliability of data acquisition and communication systems; strict time limits between data acquisition and decision of control action; operational constraints of a large number of pipeline devices and multi-objective control, involving economic, operational, environmental and institutional objectives and constraints. The MDTP system was designed for meeting such requirements. A simulation-optimization approach is the strategy adopted for the network state prediction and control. The simulation module is based on the quasi-steady state hydraulics of oil-water flow. The control is centered on the pumping systems, respecting operational constraints of tanks and pipes, without reducing the oil production targets. For real-time control, an optimization scheme generates multiple operational scenarios, the optimum of them being selected by means of a meta-heuristics approach. To meet the strict time limits for deciding the control strategy, a grid computing architecture was adopted, instead of conventional dedicated high-performance computers. (author)

  12. Numerical Simulation of Oil-Gas Separation in Tee Pipeline%异径T型管道内油气分离过程数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凤利; 范开峰; 王卫强; 赵鹏; 张源李

    2011-01-01

    When the gas-liquid two-phase flows through tee pipeline, the distribution of two phase in two branch pipes is always uneven. There may be only gas branch in pipelines when it is serious, while the other export tube may be full of liquid. The numerical simulation on oil - gas two phase fluxion in different time by CFD was made and the oil and gas separation characteristics in branch pipes were get. The results show that there will be gas- liquid separation phenomenon in branch pipe when the oil and gas flow through branch pipe of tee pipeline, and close to the mouth branch the separation phenomenon is obvious. There is almost no separation phenomenon in certain distance of the branch mouth.%气液两相流经T型管后,两相介质在各自分支管内相态分布不均,严重时支管内可能只有气体,而主管内为气液混合物.借助CFD软件数值模拟了不同时刻分支处的流动情况,得到了分支管内油气分离特性.结果表明:油气流经T型分支管时,会在支管处出现气液分离现象,离分支口越近,分离现象越明显;当距分支口一定距离时,几乎没有分离现象.

  13. Evaluation of the biodegradation of Alaska North Slope oil in microcosms using the biodegradation model BIOB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish eTorlapati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the details of a numerical model, BIOB that is capable of simulating the biodegradation of oil entrapped in the sediment. The model uses Monod kinetics to simulate the growth of bacteria in the presence of nutrients and the subsequent consumption of hydrocarbons. The model was used to simulate experimental results of Exxon Valdez oil biodegradation in laboratory columns (Venosa et al. (2010. In that study, samples were collected from three different islands: Eleanor Island (EL107, Knight Island (KN114A, and Smith Island (SM006B, and placed in laboratory microcosms for a duration of 168 days to investigate oil bioremediation through natural attenuation and nutrient amendment. The kinetic parameters of the BIOB model were estimated by fitting to the experimental data using a parameter estimation tool based on Genetic Algorithms (GA. The parameter values of EL107 and KN114A were similar whereas those of SM006B were different from the two other sites; in particular biomass growth at SM006B was four times slower than at the other two islands. Grain size analysis from each site revealed that the specific surface area per unit mass of sediment was considerably lower at SM006B, which suggest that the surface area of sediments is a key control parameter for microbial growth in sediments. Comparison of the BIOB results with exponential decay curves fitted to the data indicated that BIOB provided better fit for KN114A and SM006B in nutrient amended treatments, and for EL107 and KN114A in natural attenuation. In particular, BIOB was able to capture the initial slow biodegradation due to the lag phase in microbial growth. Sensitivity analyses revealed that oil biodegradation at all three locations were sensitive to nutrient concentration whereas SM006B was sensitive to initial biomass concentration due to its slow growth rate. Analyses were also performed to compare the half-lives of individual compounds with the decay rate of the overall PAH.

  14. 加油站新旧输油管线碰头焊接方法探讨%Discussion on the method of joint welding between the new and old oil supply pipeline in the automobile gasoline filling station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丽; 卢烨强

    2012-01-01

    Mentioned in (Code for design and construction of automobile gasoline filling station} ( GB50156-2002) , it is the basic requirements of oil supply pipeline laying that oil supply pipeline should adopt die seamless steel pipe, connected by welding in the automobile gasoline filling station. It has several advantages, first is less weld, second is relatively close and reliable, third is the fast construction speed, fourth is saving material and labor, fifth is easy to corrosion, sixth is not prone to leakage risk that oil supply pipeline should adopt the seamless steel pipe, connected by welding in the automobile gasoline filling station. However,when the oil supply pipeline transformated in the automobile gasoline filling station , it is easy to to cause fire and explosion by the sparks produced in the process of joint welding between the new and old oil supply pipeline ignite oil gas. Therefore, how to construction safety in jiont welding between the new and old oil supply pipeline has become the issue that needs to be discussednow. Combining with the actual situation of the oil supply pipeline transformation in Dandong Taiping Bay automobile gasoline filling station, several methods of the oil and gas pipeline joint welding in this article.%《汽车加油加气站设计与施工规范》( GB50156 - 2002)中提到加油站输油管道宜采用无缝钢管、连接方式采用焊接是输油管道敷设的基本要求,其优点是焊缝少、比较严密可靠、施工速度快、省材省工、便于防腐、不容易出现渗漏隐患.但加油站在改造输油管线时,新旧管线碰头焊接过程中产生的火花易点燃管线中的油气引发火灾及爆炸.因此,如何在新旧输油管线碰头焊接时安全施工就成为了需要我们探讨的问题.本文结合丹东太平湾加油站输油管线改造的实际情况,简要的阐述了加油站含油气管线碰头焊接的几种方法.

  15. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Sahli; Naser El-Sheimy

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected p...

  16. Identification of hydrocarbon sources in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods and improved analytical methods make possible the quantitative discrimination of the multiple sources of hydrocarbons in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska. These methods measure an extensive range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at detection levels that are as much as two orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by standard Environmental Protection Agency methods. Nineteen hundred thirty six subtidal sediment samples collected in the sound and the eastern Gulf of Alaska in 1989, 1990, and 1991 were analyzed. Fingerprint analyses of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data reveal a natural background of petrogenic and biogenic PAH. Exxon Valdez crude, its weathering products, and diesel fuel refined from Alaska North Slope crude are readily distinguished from the natural seep petroleum background and from each other because of their distinctive PAH distributions. Mixing models were developed to calculate the PAH contributions from each source to each sediment sample. These calculations show that most of the seafloor in PWS contains no detectable hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez spill, although elevated concentrations of PAH from seep sources are widespread. In those areas where they were detected, spill hydrocarbons were generally a small increment to the natural petroleum hydrocarbon background. Low levels of Exxon Valdez crude residue were present in 1989 and again in 1990 in nearshore subtidal sediments off some shorelines that had been heavily oiled. By 1991 these crude residues were heavily degraded and even more sporadically distributed. 58 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Research on Design Coefficient of Oil and Gas Pipeline Based on Reliability%基于可靠性的油气管道设计系数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏; 顾晓婷; 赵丽恒

    2011-01-01

    Determination of oil and gas pipeline design coefficient based on experience was conservative in the previous strength design. Most studies at home and abroad demonstrated the feasibility of improving oil and gas pipeline design coefficient in theory, but it didn't give calculation method of design coefficient based on reliability. In this paper, stresssirength interference theory was introduced to the research on design coefficient of oil and gas pipeline. Taking the West to East Gas Pipeline Project and its second project for example, the reliability of pipeline without defect or with volume defect was calculated quantitatively under design coefficient of 0. 72 and 0. 8, practical measures were proposed, and the theories were provided to reduce the oil and gas pipeline wall thickness increase the transportation pressure and save the pipeline cost.%以往的油气管道强度设计中,设计系数的确定常常以经验为依据,比较保守.国内外大多数研究均是从理论上论证了提高油气管道设计系数的可行性,并没有给出基于可靠性的设计系数的计算方法.将应力-强度干涉理论引入油气管道设计系数的研究中,以西气东输一线及二线为例,定量计算了0.72和0.8两种设计系数下无缺陷管道和含体积型缺陷管道的可靠度,并提出了切实可行的措施,为油气管道降低壁厚,提高输送压力,节约管道成本提供了理论支持.

  18. Gulf of Alaska, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image shows the Gulf of Alaska and Kodiak Island, the partially snow-covered island in roughly the center of the image. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, walruses, polar bears, and Steller sea lions in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions and polar bears in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent muskoxen...

  2. Method and measuring device for verifying the support and/or covering of a pipeline for oil or gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described whereby a measuring device is propelled inside an underwater pipeline. The device is equipped with four radiation detectors symmetrically placed near the upper, lower, left and right periphery, and a weight placed below the centre of gravity of the device to ensure maintenance of the vertical/horizontal position. Comparison of the readings the instruments will reveal down-left and left-up anisotropy and a correlation quotient is also defined. By means of these, and knowing the radioactivity levels in the bottom sediments and the concrete shround the state of support and covering of the pipeline on the seabed (or lakebed) may be established. (JIW)

  3. Fatty acid signatures of stomach oil and adipose tissue of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in Alaska: Implications for diet analysis of Procellariiform birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.W.; Iverson, S.J.; Springer, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.

    2007-01-01

    Procellariiforms are unique among seabirds in storing dietary lipids in both adipose tissue and stomach oil. Thus, both lipid sources are potentially useful for trophic studies using fatty acid (FA) signatures. However, little is known about the relationship between FA signatures in stomach oil and adipose tissue of individuals or whether these signatures provide similar information about diet and physiology. We compared the FA composition of stomach oil and adipose tissue biopsies of individual northern fulmars (N = 101) breeding at three major colonies in Alaska. Fatty acid signatures differed significantly between the two lipid sources, reflecting differences in dietary time scales, metabolic processing, or both. However, these signatures exhibited a relatively consistent relationship between individuals, such that the two lipid sources provided a similar ability to distinguish foraging differences among individuals and colonies. Our results, including the exclusive presence of dietary wax esters in stomach oil but not adipose tissue, are consistent with the notion that stomach oil FA signatures represent lipids retained from prey consumed during recent foraging and reflect little metabolic processing, whereas adipose tissue FA signatures represent a longer-term integration of dietary intake. Our study illustrates the potential for elucidating short- versus longer-term diet information in Procellariiform birds using different lipid sources. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Use of novel compounds for pest control: insecticidal and acaricidal activity of essential oil components from heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella, Nicholas A; Dolan, Marc C; Karchesy, Joseph J; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Montenieri, John A; Maupin, Gary O

    2005-05-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the activity of 15 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., against Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild), and Aedes aegypti (L.) adults. Four of the compounds from the essential oil have been identified as monoterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpene derivatives from valencene and nootkatone, and one as a sesquiterpene outside the eremophilane parent group. Carvacrol was the only monoterpene that demonstrated biocidal activity against ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes with LC50 values after 24 h of 0.0068, 0.0059, and 0.0051% (wt:vol), respectively. Nootkatone from Alaska yellow cedar was the most effective of the eremophilane sesquiterpenes against ticks (LC50 = 0.0029%), whereas the nootkatone grapefruit extract exhibited the greatest biocidal activity against fleas (LC50 = 0.0029%). Mosquitoes were most susceptible to one of the derivatives of valencene, valencene-13-aldehyde (LC50 = 0.0024%), after 24 h. Bioassays to determine residual activity of the most effective products were conducted at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after initial treatment. Residual LC50 values for nootkatone did not differ significantly at 4 wk posttreatment from the observations made at the initial 24-h treatment. The ability of these natural products to kill arthropods at relatively low concentrations represents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of disease vectors. PMID:15962787

  5. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  6. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the

  7. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  8. A Cheap Aerial Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bolonkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present time gas pipelines are designed from steel and located on ground surface. That is very expensive and building requests a lot of time. Research and utilization of an old author idea: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude through neutral seas, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. Approach: A lift force of 1 m3 of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, did not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. Results: Researcher showed: This aerial pipeline dramatically decreased the cost and time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saved energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. Article contained a computed project for delivery 24 billion m3 of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year. Conclusion: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance (neutral sea was delineated. The offered idea an aerial pipe line was researched. It was shown new pipelines radically decreased pipeline cost and construction time. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This pipeline and wing devices also allowed to delivery the other goods.

  9. The Alaskan gas pipeline conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savich, P.; Fraser, N.M.; Hippel, K.W.

    1983-03-01

    A new conflict analysis technique is employed to study the dispute surrounding the selection of a natural gas pipeline route to transport gas from the American state of Alaska and also northern Canada to southern markets in the United States and Canada. The improved metagame analysis algorithm is the type of conflict analysis method that is used for providing a framework to study systematically the Alaskan gas pipeline controversy and to put the historical information into proper perspective. In addition, the methodology is utilized for predicting the possible feasible political solutions to the conflict.

  10. 长输成品油管道外腐蚀直接评价实践及对策%The Practice and Analyze of External Corrosion Direct Assessment on Product Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 奚旺; 王勇; 钱玉华; 叶远锡

    2015-01-01

    外腐蚀直接评价(ECDA)是油气管道完整性管理的重要手段,其通过各类检测技术对管道防腐系统及外部腐蚀进行科学检测与评价,确定经济合理的维修方案和预防措施.如何将ECDA技术合理高效地应用于国内长输管道是当前管道保护的重要任务.开展了长输成品油管道ECDA实践研究,结果表明:ECDA应用于长输成品油管道外腐蚀检测评价效果良好,检测管道外腐蚀危害轻;提出管道外腐蚀防护维修维护方案,为管道的维修维护与监控提供数据支持.提出应加强管道完整性管理中的数据完整性管理,综合运用外检测技术与其他检测技术,重点解决外检测技术应用中出现的特殊问题,积极探索检测评价的信息化技术,有效提高ECDA工作的效率和信息化水平.%External corrosion direct assessment (ECDA) was an important means of oil and gas pipeline integrity management, it made the economic and reasonable maintenance plan and preventive measures through scientific testing and evaluation by all kinds of testing technology for pipeline corrosion protection system and external corrosion, so how to apply ECDA technology reasonably and efficiently to the domestic products oil pipeline was an important task of pipeline protection. ECDA application research on products oil pipeline was carried out. The results show that application effect of ECDA to products oil pipeline corrosion testing evaluation was good, and the pipeline external corrosion was light. The research provided the data support for pipeline mitigations and monitoring. Repair and maintenance of pipeline external corrosion protection scheme was further put forward. Data integrity management and the integrated using of all kinds of detection technology should be strengthened. Most attention should be focused on the special problems in detection and information technology to effectively improve the efficiency of ECDA.

  11. Seismic hazard along a crude oil pipeline in the event of an 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H.H.M.; Chen, C.H.S.

    1990-04-16

    An assessment of the seismic hazard that exists along the major crude oil pipeline running through the New Madrid seismic zone from southeastern Louisiana to Patoka, Illinois is examined in the report. An 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake with moment magnitude 8.2 is assumed to occur at three locations where large historical earthquakes have occurred. Six pipeline crossings of the major rivers in West Tennessee are chosen as the sites for hazard evaluation because of the liquefaction potential at these sites. A seismologically-based model is used to predict the bedrock accelerations. Uncertainties in three model parameters, i.e., stress parameter, cutoff frequency, and strong-motion duration are included in the analysis. Each parameter is represented by three typical values. From the combination of these typical values, a total of 27 earthquake time histories can be generated for each selected site due to an 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake occurring at a postulated seismic source.

  12. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  13. Environmental management of the OSBAT 24'' oil pipeline: methodological and conceptual innovations; Gestao ambiental do Oleoduto OSBAT 24{sup :} inovacoes metodologicas e conceituais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Martiniano, Flavio [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil); Masumoto, Cinthia; Frazao, Luciana Rocha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present considerations about the design, systematic and methodology used for conducting the environmental management of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, what is located in the stretch between Sao Sebastiao City (center) and Camburi district, in Sao Paulo State. It presents a set of criteria, concepts, techniques, ideas and practices that stand out for its innovative character, and contribute effectively to the challenge of sustainable development, and new techniques of conciliation between environmental responsibility and investment in oil sector and gas. The general direction of the article is to reflect on the experience, seeking to broadcast both conceptual and methodological aspects responsible for the successes of OSBAT 24'' environmental management, and point out obstacles found in it's implementation. (author)

  14. Analysis on the External Corrosion for an Oil Pipeline in Southwest China%西南地区某输油管道外腐蚀分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊娟; 郑兴文; 张文艳; 范金龙; 黄恩龙

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the external corrosion for two excavation points of an oil pipeline in southwest China. Methods Through the on-site testing and laboratory analysis on phys-chemical properties of soil and composition of corrosion prod-uct. Results The soil is slightly basic for the excavation point A, and its corrosivity is weak, as a result, where the pipeline suffer weakly uniform corrosion, and the corrosion products are mainly iron oxides, including FeO(OH), Fe(OH) 3 and Fe3 O4 , also the cathodic reaction is reduction of dissolved oxygen. While for excavation point B, because of the strong acidity and high content of sulfate ion, the soil is highly corrosive and makes the pipeline suffer serious pitting corrosion, and corrosion products are mainly composed by FeSO4 ·7H2 O, also contains a small amount of basic ferric sulfate, moreover the cathodic process is mainly the re-duction of hydrogen ions. Conclusion Due to the significant difference of the phys-chemical properties of soil, there are notably dif-ferent on the corrosion morphology, products and mechanism of pipeline between two excavation points.%目的:研究西南地区某输油管道外腐蚀行为。方法现场检测,对土壤理化性质及腐蚀产物成分进行室内分析。结果开挖点 A 的土壤呈弱碱性,土壤腐蚀性弱,管道发生轻微均匀腐蚀,腐蚀产物主要为 FeO(OH),Fe(OH)3和 Fe3 O4等铁的氧化物,对应的阴极反应为吸氧反应;开挖点 B 的土壤酸性强,硫酸根离子浓度高,土壤腐蚀性强,管道发生严重坑蚀,腐蚀产物主要成分为 FeSO4·7H2 O 及少量碱式硫酸铁,对应的阴极反应以析氢反应为主。结论开挖点土壤的理化性质差异,导致管道的腐蚀形态、腐蚀产物和腐蚀机理显著不同。

  15. Decommissioning end of life oilfield facilities and pipelines : the first step to the safe and efficient remediation of oil and gas sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmentally sound decommissioning practices in the remediation and reclamation process were reviewed, with reference to abandoned oil and gas facilities and pipelines. There are inherent dangers associated with aged infrastructure, and decommissioning companies should be the first service on site to ensure that all facilities have been located, removed and cleaned. All licensed, unlicensed and on-lease pipelines are required to be properly abandoned. Site research is needed to identify any industry or government regulated requirements that may impact the decommissioning process. Decommissioning companies are also responsible for recording all relevant site information so that it can be conveyed to remediation and reclamation companies. A knowledge of landowner sensitivities, weather affected access, unlicensed facilities and locations of historic contamination are crucial to all parties involved. Additional documentation, such as photographs and survey drawings, can assist remediation and reclamation companies in locating areas of concern. Once a well has been abandoned in Alberta, surface equipment, cement pads, debris and produced liquids associated with the well license must be removed within 12 months of the cutting and capping operation. Records of the removal and cleanup activities must be retained by the licensee. Many sites have been sitting dormant for several years and can be harboring dangerous production fluids, asbestos, Hantavirus and other hazardous materials. All equipment must be steam-cleaned by qualified personnel and all production fluids and contaminated water from the cleaning process must be captured and transported to a waste facility. All equipment that is deemed re-usable can be returned to inventory or re-used. Equipment that can not be salvaged is sold for recycling at a steel mill. All pipelines are required to be cleaned of hydrocarbons, purged and left with a medium of inert gas or atmospheric air. Residual fluids left in a

  16. Decommissioning end of life oilfield facilities and pipelines : the first step to the safe and efficient remediation of oil and gas sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, J.; Thygesen, S. [JSK Consulting Ltd., Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Environmentally sound decommissioning practices in the remediation and reclamation process were reviewed, with reference to abandoned oil and gas facilities and pipelines. There are inherent dangers associated with aged infrastructure, and decommissioning companies should be the first service on site to ensure that all facilities have been located, removed and cleaned. All licensed, unlicensed and on-lease pipelines are required to be properly abandoned. Site research is needed to identify any industry or government regulated requirements that may impact the decommissioning process. Decommissioning companies are also responsible for recording all relevant site information so that it can be conveyed to remediation and reclamation companies. A knowledge of landowner sensitivities, weather affected access, unlicensed facilities and locations of historic contamination are crucial to all parties involved. Additional documentation, such as photographs and survey drawings, can assist remediation and reclamation companies in locating areas of concern. Once a well has been abandoned in Alberta, surface equipment, cement pads, debris and produced liquids associated with the well license must be removed within 12 months of the cutting and capping operation. Records of the removal and cleanup activities must be retained by the licensee. Many sites have been sitting dormant for several years and can be harboring dangerous production fluids, asbestos, Hantavirus and other hazardous materials. All equipment must be steam-cleaned by qualified personnel and all production fluids and contaminated water from the cleaning process must be captured and transported to a waste facility. All equipment that is deemed re-usable can be returned to inventory or re-used. Equipment that can not be salvaged is sold for recycling at a steel mill. All pipelines are required to be cleaned of hydrocarbons, purged and left with a medium of inert gas or atmospheric air. Residual fluids left in a

  17. Distributed fiber oil and gas pipeline leak detection and warning technology%分布式光纤油气长输管道泄漏检测及预警技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富斌

    2015-01-01

    管道用于油气运输有着独特的优势,因此成为了运输油气的主要手段。在实际油气的运输过程中因为人为因素和自然因素等原因,经常会导致运输油气的管道发生泄漏事故,这不仅造成环境污染,而且会威胁到人们的生命财产安全。本文介绍了分布式光纤油气长输管道泄漏检测及预警技术在油田的应用。%For oil and gas transportation pipeline has a unique advantage, it became the primary means of transportation of oil and gas. In the actual transportation of oil and gas, man-made and natural factors and other reasons often resulted the transport of oil and gas pipeline leak accident, which not only affected environmental pollution, but also threatened people’s life and property safety.This article introduced distributed fiber oil and gas pipeline leak detection and warning technology.

  18. Growth of pipelines : the critical enabler in achieving our energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues concerning pipeline infrastructure and development in relation to the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) were discussed. Ninety-five per cent of the crude oil and natural gas produced in Canada is transported by members of CEPA, which represents 2.4 mm bbl/d of oil and 16.2 Bcf/d of gas. Assets of CEPA's members are worth over CDN$20 billion, with a projected capital investment of CDN$20 billion over the next 20 years. Growth in consumer demand and issues concerning security of North American gas supply to 2025 were discussed. It was anticipated that while new sources of gas will be more costly, new supply will contribute to more moderate prices. New infrastructure needs will build on existing systems. However, timely investment will be critical to connect to supply markets. North American natural gas transmission and distribution networks will require investments of approximately $US301 billion. Ineffective regulatory processes, labour shortages and the search for competitively priced capital will result in higher energy costs to consumers. Issues concerning pipeline construction projects in Alaska and northern Canada were reviewed. The projected economic benefits of pipeline construction were examined, including details of employment created through pipeline investment. The costs to Canadian consumers of delaying pipeline construction were also outlined. It was concluded that efficient and effective policies and regulations are needed to secure energy supply in a timely manner. In addition, a competitive investment environment is needed, in which safety and sustainability are balanced by economic viability and productive trade relationships. tabs., figs

  19. Batch sequencing of oil derivates in pipeline networks; Sequenciamento de bateladas de derivados leves de petroleo numa rede dutoviaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacin, Mario Vicente; Oliveira, Daniel Rossato de; Czaikowski, Daniel Irineu; Polli, Helton Luis; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio Leandro; Neves Junior, Flavio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a computational tool to assist the operational scheduling of a pipeline network. In this network, transfer of products is carried out by batches, from a source to a destination. This tool implements a proposal to determine priorities of the outgoing batches as well as alternatives for sequencing them fulfilling the stated periods stipulated. This proposal uses an analysis of production and demand plans, stockage, products draining in terminals, as well as operational restrictions of the pipeline network, looking for optimizing the use of resources such as pipes, bombs and tanks. The scenario in study is composed by 14 areas (4 refineries, 2 harbours, 6 distribution centres and 2 costumers) and 29 pipes. Prioritizing the attendance to the areas of source or demand, the algorithm carries choices between routes and possible batches volumes, considering calculations of time windows, that determine the limited interval when transference operations must occur. Moreover, operations called 'lung' are also treated, which involve flow changes during the movement. (author)

  20. Two Oil Types on the North Slope of Alaska. Implications for Future Exploration Les deux types d'huile du versant septentrional de l'Alaska. Implications pour l'exploration future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoon L. B.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty oil samples from across the North Slope of Alaska have been analyzed by the US Bureau of Mines and the Us Geological Survey. Results of these analyses suggest two separate genetic oil types. The first type, the Simpson-Umiat oil type, occurs in reservoir rocks of Cretaceous and Quaternary age and includes oils from seeps in the Skull Cliff, Cape Simpson, Manning Point, and Ungoon Point areas; the Wolf Creek test well 3, and the Umiat oil field. These are higher gravity, low-sulfur oils with no, or slight, odd-numbered n-alkane predominance and pristane to phytane ratios greater than 1. 5. The second type, the Barrow-Prudhoe oil type, occurs in reservoir rocks of Carboniferous to Cretataceous age and includes ails from South Barrow gas field, Prudhoe Bay oil field, and the Fish Creek test well 1. Physical properties of Barrow-Prudhoe oils are variable, but in general the oils are medium-gravity, high-sulfur oils with a slight even-numbered n-alkane predominance and pristane to phytane ratio of less thon 1. 5. The two types are believed to originated from different source rocks; the Barrow-Prudhoe type may have originated from a carbonate or other iron-deficient source rock, and the Simpson-Umiat type from asiliciclastic source rock. Occurrences of fine two oil types, when outlined on a map, indicate atleast two exploration fairways. The fairway for the Barrow-Prudhoe type is along the Barrow arch, and the fairway, for the Simpson-Umiat type is the area of the best reservoir development for the Nanushuk Group. Quarante échantillons d'huile prélevés à travers le versant septentrional de l'Alaska ont été analysés par l'US Bureau of Mines et l'US Geological Survey. Les résultats de ces analyses suggèrent deux types séparés d'huile. Le premier, le type d'huile Simpson-Umiat, se trouve dans des roches magasins du Crétacé au Quaternaire et comprend des huiles des suintements des régions de la falaise Skull, du cap Simpson, de Point

  1. 77 FR 18260 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Cook Inlet Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... ecological and socio-cultural effects of oil and gas activities. NEPA analyses were prepared for the previous... level of environmental analysis, if the level of industry interest is such that BOEM recommends... Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 244 for OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2012-2017 AGENCY:...

  2. (Northern Pipeline Agency) annual report, 1987-1988. (Administration du pipe-line du Nord) rapport annuel, 1987-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interest of Canada. This report reviews the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included. Major revisions in the second-stage pipeline design and substantially reduced cost estimates are outlined, which, combined with the improved market for natural gas, improve the chances for completion of the pipeline in the 1990s.

  3. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  4. (Northern Pipeline Agency) annual report, 1986-1987. (Administration du pipe-line du Nord) rapport annuel, 1986-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interests of Canada. This report reviews the annual progress of this process. It gives an overview of the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included.

  5. Gas elephants: Arctic projects revived by expanding markets and pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revival of interest in Arctic natural gas and the developing competition to extend the pipeline grid to Alaska and the Yukon and the Northwest territories are the subject of this report. Substantial agreement between competing interest groups is reported with respect to the need for Arctic gas and the willingness of the market to pay for bringing it south to consumers. The discussion centers on the construction of the Alliance Pipeline Project that will reportedly bring two billion cubic feet per day of excess capacity to transport natural gas from northeastern British Columbia to Chicago, and the 2,400 km long Foothills Pipelines System that carries about one-third of Canadian gas exports to middle-western states and California. Plans are to extend the line to 5,240 km by laying pipe in a giant Y pattern between Prudhoe Bay and the Mackenzie delta in the north, and the start of the Foothills System at Caroline in central Alberta. The estimated cost of the line is about $US 6 billion, using a 36-inch diameter line at increased pressures in place of the 56-inch diameter pipe used in the 1970s. Construction plans are similar for the rest of the big Y, the Dempster Lateral beside the Dempster Highway between Whitehorse and Inuvik. A competing project, the Northern Gas Pipeline Project is also discussed. This line would run east of Prudhoe Bay under the Beaufort Sea to the Mackenzie Delta; then south along the Mackenzie Valley to Alberta. Cost of this line is also estimated at $US 6 billion, however, it would have a capacity of four billion cubic feet per day, including 2.5 billion cubic feet from Alaska and 1.5 billion cubic feet from Canada. Strong revival of interest is also reported from the supply side, with BP Amoco, ARCO, Chevron Canada Resources, Ranger 0il Ltd., Paramount Resources, Berkley Petroleum Corporation, Canadian Forest Oil, Alberta Energy Company, Petro-Canada, Anderson Resources, and Poco Petroleum Ltd., all showing interest to mount new

  6. Magnetic Memory Testing for Plastic Deformation of Oil and Gas Pipeline%油气管道塑性变形的磁记忆检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨理践; 王国庆; 刘斌; 高松巍

    2016-01-01

    利用金属磁记忆检测技术对油气管道塑性变形进行检测。通过位错理论分析了铁磁材料塑性变形时的能量变化,用铁磁材料能量平衡理论分析了材料塑性变形过程中磁场信号的变化特征。通过对管道进行打压试验,用磁记忆检测设备对磁信号进行检测,研究了磁记忆信号与应力的对应关系,得出磁记忆信号随应力的变化特征。结果表明:铁磁材料在塑性变形时,其表面弱磁场发生突变,应力-磁感应强度曲线斜率增大;多次塑性变形导致磁场变化率降低。%The plastic deformation of oil and gas pipeline was tested by magnetic memory testing.The energy balance under plastic deformation of ferromagnetic material was analyzed through dislocation theory.The change characteristic of magnetic signal was analyzed by ferromagnetic material energy balance theory.The bulge test was applied to pipeline.The magnetic signal was tested by magnetic memory testing equipment.The correspondence between magnetic memory signal and stress was studied.The change characteristic of magnetic signal along with stress change was obtained.The results show that surface weak magnetic signal will sudden change when plastic deformation emerges in ferromagnetic material.Moreover,the slope of stress-magnetic field curve rises.The repeated plastic deformation shall reduce magnetic field change rate.

  7. Improvement of Industrial Radiography for Defect Detection of Oil and Gas Pipelines in Weld Regions by Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Karimian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Radiography is one of the oldest and most usable of non-destructive methods for studying the defects inside the weld regions of pipelines. It sounds, to increase the quality of radiographic images inside the film and to decrease the weld commentary errors. It is necessary to have a system or method to improve the accuracy of recognition and detection of defects in the weld regions. In this research work, by using digital image processing methods, a new method has been proposed to improve the quality of the images on radiographic films of weld regions. The proposed method has been tested by 60 pieces of radiographic films of weld regions with different quality. The results showed the proposed algorithm and method has the ability to detect the defects inside the weld regions with 100% precision for the films with high and normal quality and with 87% and 47% precisions for the films with low and very low qualities respectively.

  8. Science and common sense in Port Valdez, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, P. [EVS Consultants, N. Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bridgman, J. [RCAC, Valdez, AK (United States); Kitagawa, J.; Dickason, G. [Alyeska, Anchorage, AK (United States); Dailey, A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Valdez, Alaska achieved worldwide attention with the Exxon Valdez oil spill. This exacerbated an already polarized situation (industry, government, citizens, environmental groups) regarding the Valdez Terminal of the Trans Alaska Pipeline System. Other than spills, the major focus of environmental concern was and remains the Terminal`s Ballast Water Treatment Plant (BWTP) which discharges into Port Valdez. The previous NPDES wastewater discharge permits for this facility have been contentious for almost the entire period of pipeline operation. The draft NPDES permit is scheduled to be proposed for reissuance this year. However, a significant change has been initiated which so far is resulting in cooperation rather than confrontation between the various primary stakeholders. This presentation will explain how this change was initiated, how it is being maintained, and how what is happening could be a model for progress through cooperation. Although EPA and the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) remain the final decision makers, key ingredients to this change and to the resulting progress include: (1) EPA opening up public discussion on the permit early in the permit development process; (2) willingness of involved parties to listen and explore non-traditional approaches; (3) a subsequent non-binding Scientific Meeting to discuss the permit, attended only by scientific representatives, with set Ground-Rules and Agenda and a nonstakeholder moderator, which resulted in eight general points of agreement; (4) use of these points of agreement to discuss what environmental monitoring should be in the permit, what should comprise separate studies, and what should not be done; (5) continuing cross-stakeholder communication and discussion; (6) an open and highly visible process.

  9. Science and common sense in Port Valdez, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, Alaska achieved worldwide attention with the Exxon Valdez oil spill. This exacerbated an already polarized situation (industry, government, citizens, environmental groups) regarding the Valdez Terminal of the Trans Alaska Pipeline System. Other than spills, the major focus of environmental concern was and remains the Terminal's Ballast Water Treatment Plant (BWTP) which discharges into Port Valdez. The previous NPDES wastewater discharge permits for this facility have been contentious for almost the entire period of pipeline operation. The draft NPDES permit is scheduled to be proposed for reissuance this year. However, a significant change has been initiated which so far is resulting in cooperation rather than confrontation between the various primary stakeholders. This presentation will explain how this change was initiated, how it is being maintained, and how what is happening could be a model for progress through cooperation. Although EPA and the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) remain the final decision makers, key ingredients to this change and to the resulting progress include: (1) EPA opening up public discussion on the permit early in the permit development process; (2) willingness of involved parties to listen and explore non-traditional approaches; (3) a subsequent non-binding Scientific Meeting to discuss the permit, attended only by scientific representatives, with set Ground-Rules and Agenda and a nonstakeholder moderator, which resulted in eight general points of agreement; (4) use of these points of agreement to discuss what environmental monitoring should be in the permit, what should comprise separate studies, and what should not be done; (5) continuing cross-stakeholder communication and discussion; (6) an open and highly visible process

  10. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    and minority students into the geosciences. View them as they explore the permafrost tunnel in Fairbanks, sand dunes in Anchorage, Portage Glacier, Matanuska-Susitna Glacier, and the Trans-Alaska pipeline damage from the earthquake of 2002.

  11. Trends in sea otter population abundance in western Prince William Sound, Alaska: Progress toward recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Esslinger, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea otters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS) and elsewhere in the Gulf of Alaska suffered widespread mortality as a result of oiling following the 1989 T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill. Following the spill, extensive efforts have been directed toward identifying and understanding long-term consequences of the spill and the process of recovery. We conducted annual aerial surveys of sea otter abundance from 1993 to 2009 (except for 2001 and 2006) in WPWS. We observed an increasing trend in population abundance at the scale of WPWS through 2000 at an average annual rate of 4 percent: however, at northern Knight Island where oiling was heaviest and sea otter mortality highest, no increase in abundance was evident by 2000. We continued to see significant increase in abundance at the scale of WPWS between 2001 and 2009, with an average annual rate of increase from 1993 to 2009 of 2.6 percent. We estimated the 2009 population size of WPWS to be 3,958 animals (standard error=653), nearly 2,000 animals more than the first post-spill estimate in 1993. Surveys since 2003 also have identified a significant increasing trend at the heavily oiled site in northern Knight Island, averaging about 25 percent annually and resulting in a 2009 estimated population size of 116 animals (standard error=19). Although the 2009 estimate for northern Knight Island remains about 30 percent less than the pre-spill estimate of 165 animals, we interpret this trend as strong evidence of a trajectory toward recovery of spill-affected sea otter populations in WPWS.

  12. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  13. Density and productivity of bald eagles in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicopter surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) to assess the effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the reproductive success and densities of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) one and two years after the spill (1990 and 1991). Densities of bald eagles were compared between an oiled area in southwestern PWS and an unoiled area in northern PWS. In all surveys (four in 1990, one in 1991) densities of eagles in the oiled areas generally were similar to or higher than those in the unoiled area. Reproductive success was compared between nesting territories that were oiled within 1 km of nests and nesting territories that were unoiled. In 1990, all measures of nest productivity, nest occupancy, and nesting success were similar between oiled and unoiled territories. In 1991, however, the number of young per successful nest was lower in oiled territories. The number of successful nests was slightly lower in 1991 than in 1990 in oiled territories but was significantly lower in 1991 in unoiled territories. Comparisons of nest occupancy and nesting success could not be made in 1991 because early surveys were not conducted. Differences between areas, territories, and years could not be attributed to oil, but rather appeared to be related to natural annual variability. Overall, no demonstrable effects of the oil spill on eagle density or reproduction could be detected in PWS one and two years after the spill. 70 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Increase of ecological safety of the pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : For increase of ecological safety of the pipeline, necessary decrease of damage (risk) rendered by the pipeline on surrounding natural environment which depends: on the frequency of damage of the pipeline; on the volume poured oil; on the factor of sensitivity of an environment where flood of oil was. Frequency of damage of the pipeline depends on physico-chemical properties of a material of the pipeline, from its technical characteristics (thickness of a wall, length of a pipe, working pressure), on the seismic area of the district where the pipeline passed and also on the way of lining of the pipeline (underground or overground). The volume poured oil depends on diameter of the received damage, from stability of the pipeline mechanical and other external actions, from an ambient temperature, from capacity of the pipeline, from distance between the latches established in the pipeline, and also from time, necessary for their full closing. The factor of sensitivity of environment depends on geological structure and landscapes of district (mountain, the river, settlements) where passed the pipeline. At designing the pipeline, in report is shown questions of increase of ecological safety of the pipeline are considered at his construction and exploitation. For improvement of ecological safety of the pipeline is necessary to hold the following actions: Ecological education of the public, living near along a line of the oil pipeline; carrying out ecological monitoring; working of the public plan of response to oil spills; For ecological education of the public is necessary: carrying out informing of the public for all (technical, ecological, social and economic and legal) questions connected to an oil pipeline, and also on methods of protection of the rights at participation in acceptance of ecological significant decisions; Creation of public groups for realization of activity on observance of the legislation and to prevention of risks; Exposure of hot

  15. The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

  16. Mussels document loss of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the return to baseline conditions for oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected between 1990 and 2002 from 11 sites on the shores of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, that were heavily oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). This study, utilizing the methods of the NOAA Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program, found that concentrations of PAH released from spill remnants have decreased dramatically with time and by 2002 were at or near the range of total PAH (TPAH) of 3-355 ng/g dry weight obtained for mussels from unoiled reference sites in PWS. Time-series TPAH data indicate a mean TPAH half-life in mussel tissues of 2.4 years with a range from 1.4 to 5.3, yielding an annual mean loss of bioaccumulated TPAH of 25%. The petroleum-derived TPAH fraction in mussel tissues has decreased with time, reflecting the decreasing release of EVOS residues in shoreline sediments. These results show that PAH from EVOS residues that remain buried in shoreline sediments after the early 1990s are in a form and at locations that have a low accessibility to mussels living in the intertidal zone. (author)

  17. Reliability Research of Underwater Wire Saw Cutting Single Oil and Gas Pipelines%水下绳锯机切割单层油气管道的可靠性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 张岚; 孟庆鑫; 王

    2013-01-01

      海底油气管道在维修过程中可以采用水下金刚石绳锯机割断。介绍水下绳锯机的基本组成,对绳锯机切割管道过程中的切割可靠性进行了理论上的分析,并且提出了串珠绳锯在给定允许磨损量及可靠度条件下耐磨时间的计算方法。进行了绳锯机对单层油气管道的切割试验,根据获得的试验数据,采用理论方法计算可知,某种直径下的油气管道需要一定长度的串珠绳才能完成切割。该结果为水下金刚石绳锯机切割单层油气管道绳锯长度的选择提供了一定的理论依据。%Underwater diamond wire saw can be used to cut undersea oil and gas pipelines in the repair process. The basic com-ponents of underwater wire saw were introduced. Cutting reliability of wire saw was analyzed in theory. Wear time calculating ways were proposed on the conditions of a given amount of wear and reliability. Wire saw cutting single oil and gas pipelines test was carried out. According to obtaining experimental data,theoretical calculation shows some kind diameter oil and gas pipeline needs a certain length of beads to complete the cutting. The results provide a theoretical basis for diamond wire saw length choice when underwater di-amond wire saw cuts single oil and gas pipeline.

  18. 油气管道CO2/H2 S腐蚀及防护技术研究进展%Research Progress of CO2/H2 S Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines and the Protection Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 袁世娇; 吴小卫; 谢飞; 赵启慧; 杨帆; 程贵鑫

    2016-01-01

    CO2和H2 S是油气管道中主要的腐蚀介质,两者往往同时存在于原油和天然气之中,是造成油气输送管道内腐蚀发生的主要原因之一,甚至会导致管道失效、穿孔、泄漏、开裂等现象,严重威胁了管网的安全运行及正常生产。因此CO2和H2 S引起的管道腐蚀问题,已成为当前研究的热点问题。针对油气管道日益严重的CO2和H2 S腐蚀问题,综述了CO2单独存在、H2 S单独存在以及CO2和H2 S共同存在三种体系中油气管道的腐蚀过程,得出了在这三种腐蚀体系下油气管道出现的主要腐蚀行为规律以及腐蚀机理。阐述了CO2和H2 S共同存在体系下,缓蚀剂、耐蚀性管材、电化学防腐技术、管道内涂层技术等先进的油气管道腐蚀防护技术,并剖析了这些防护措施各自的特点及在实际工程使用中的优势和局限性。最后,展望了CO2和H2 S共存体系的进一步研究方向以及更经济、更有效的防腐措施发展前景。%ABSTRACT:CO2 and H2 S are the major corrosion media in oil and gas pipeline, often existing in both crude oil and natural gas. Their presence is one of the main causes for internal corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and even leads to pipeline failure, perfora-tions, leaks and cracks. It′s a serious threat to the safe operation of the pipeline network and normal production. So pipeline corro-sion problems caused by CO2 and H2 S have become a hot issue of current research. For the growing oil and gas pipeline corrosion problems caused by CO2 and H2 S, the corrosion behaviors of oil and gas pipelines in CO2 alone, H2 S alone and the co-existence of CO2 and H2 S system were systematically compared in this paper. The law and mechanism of pipeline corrosion behavior in these three corrosion systems were obtained. And the protection techniques against oil and gas pipeline corrosion were listed, such as cor-rosion inhibitors, corrosion resistant pipes

  19. Egg-larval mortality of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to test the hypothesis that instantaneous daily rates of egg-larval mortality of Pacific herring were higher at two oil-exposed sites than at two other sites not so exposed. Results showed that egg-larval mortality was twice as great in the oil-exposed areas as in the two non-oiled areas. Larval growth rates were also severely affected; they were about half of those measured in populations from other areas of the north Pacific Ocean. A cautionary note was introduced to the effect that the differences in the egg-larval mortality between oiled and control sites may have been influenced by differences in egg dessication, predation, and wave scouring, hence these results should not be construed as conclusive evidence of oil spill damage. 40 refs., 6 figs

  20. The application of HAZOP analysis technology in pump stations of oil pipeline%HAZOP分析技术在输油管道站场的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文兴; 贾光明; 谷雨雷; 姜征锋; 戴联双; 程万洲; 杨晓铮; 李敬

    2012-01-01

    Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) technology is a structured analysis method for the identification of design imperfection, risk of process and operational problems, including processes, such as division of nodes, and explanation of design intent, process indicators and operation procedure, determination of meaningful deviation and analysis of the deviation, and the analysis of results and records, and submission of analytical reports, etc. Its actual guiding significance for production mainly lies in the determination of the deviation, and the analysis of causes of the deviation and consequences, the summary of the existing protection measures, as well as submission of risk control recommended measures. This technology is used for hazard identification and risk assessment for a pump station in the Western Refined Oil Pipeline, and the management level of pipeline operation company has strengthened the control on medium and high-risk deviation based on the analysis report, and implemented the proposed recommendations and measures on risk control in daily management of the corresponding departments and pump stations, and the recommendation adoption rate has reached at 70%. Finally, the author discuss the application significance and precautions of HAZOP technology in the pump stations of oil and gas pipelines.%危险与可操作性(HAZOP)技术是一种用于辨识设计缺陷、工艺过程危险及操作性问题的结构化分析方法,包括划分节点,解释设计意图、工艺指标和操作步骤,确定有意义的偏差,分析偏差,分析结果记录,提交分析报告等基本过程,其对于生产实际的指导意义主要在于偏差的确定,对偏差产生原因、造成后果的分析,对已有保护措施的总结以及新的风险控制建议措施的提出等.运用该技术,对西部成品油管道某站场进行危害辨识和风险评价,管道运营公司管理层根据分析报告对中、高风险偏差加强了控制,并将风险控制建

  1. Leak detection technologies for oil and gas pipelines; Tecnologias para deteccao e localizacao de vazamento em dutos de oleo e ou gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio R. [MTT Aselco Automacao Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Two concepts are available for leak detection in oil and/or gas pipelines: On-line leak detection system and off-line leak detection technique. The off-line leak detection technique is, usually, portable and does net configure a 'system'. This technique includes hydro-test, acoustic emission of high frequency, tracer of chemical substances, ultrasonic flow meter (UT), thermographic infra-red mapping, electromagnetic offset registration, etc. Since most of those methods requests stop of the system or depend on direct and detailed inspection of the whole monitored piping they are limited to the off-line inspection. In the current days there are only two technologies applied to detect and locate leaks on-line: The acoustic Leak Detection System and the modeling of computerized simulation also called as RTM (Real Time Modeling), RTTM or Mass Balance. There are still other techniques in the market, as acoustic emission, pressure analysis (PPA) beyond other rough techniques, without good results. Even some of these techniques are working without success, they are still used to accomplish with government standards. (author)

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Brookian Coalbed Gas Composite Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  3. (Northern Pipeline Agency) annual report, 1988-1989. (Administration du pipe-line du Nord) rapport annuel, 1988-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interest of Canada. This report reviews the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included. During 1988-89, proposals were made to expand substantially the capacity of the prebuilt eastern and western legs to export additional supplies of Canadian gas to markets in the USA. While plans for the second stage are still on hold, 3 owners of reserves in the Mackenzie Delta region sought authorization to export 260 billion cubic meters of gas over a 20-year period beginning in 1996. Plans were developed by Foothills Pipelines to transport the gas southward along the Mackenzie Valley to connect with the Alaska Highway Pipeline.

  4. Battle over proposed Keystone pipeline continues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    Opposing sides in the battle over the proposed construction of the controversial Keystone XL pipeline continue to push their messages on the issue. The American Petroleum Institute (API) announced on 9 July that it has launched a new advertising campaign in support of the pipeline, which, if built, will ship oil from Canadian tar sands to refineries in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  6. Experimental Study on Deposition Regulation in Oil Gathering Pipeline by ASP Flooding Process%三元复合驱集油管道淤积规律试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏立新; 庞仁山; 诸葛祥龙; 王志华

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of produced liquid by ASP flooding process include high wax content, high viscosity, serious emulsification and great amount of mechanical admixtures and clay particles. With temperature decreasing during the transportation process in oil gather- ing pipeline, these materials may be continuously precipitated, thus causing serious deposition problem to surface oil gathering system. In this paper, the composition and deposition regulation of precipitated materials in oil gathering pipelines of Daqing oilfield are studied by lab experiments. The results show that the precipitated material is black and viscous mixture mainly composed of wax. And the influencing factors are polymer concentration, oil gathering temperature, water cut and flow velocity, etc. The precipitating velocity increases with the increasing of polymer concentration and decreases with the increasing of oil gathering temperature, water cut and flow velocity. This study provides the theoretical foundations to take preventive and control measures for forming precipitated materials in oil gathering pipeline by ASP flooding process. It is of important significance for insuring the safe production and operation in oil gathering pipeline.%三元复合驱采出液蜡质含量高、黏度大、乳化严重、机械杂质及黏土颗粒含量多,在集油管道输送过程中,随着温度的降低,这些物质不断析出,从而给地面集油管道带来严重的淤积问题。通过室内试验研究大庆油田三元复合驱典型区块集油管道淤积物组成及淤积规律,明确了淤积物为黑色黏稠状的混合物,主要由蜡组成;集油管道淤积主要受所含聚合物浓度、集油温度、含水率、流速等因素的影响,且淤积速率随着含聚浓度的增大而增大;随着集油温度、含水率、流速的增大而减小。该研究结果为制定三元复合驱集油管道内形成淤积物的预防和控制措施提供了理论基

  7. Pipeline clean-up : speed, environment drive pipelining equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2004-08-01

    Horizontal drilling technology is the single most important enhanced oil recovery technology which has resulted in a significant increase in pipeline utilization. Pipeline operators such as Calgary-based Denim Pipeline Construction Ltd. are responding by using the latest equipment, including excavation equipment, to avoid maintenance delays and downtime. The sales of Denim's horizontal pipe bending equipment have increased due to their attention to worker safety. Denim's horizontal bending machine does not require as much technical support, plus it is faster to install and speeds up production. The machine consists of 3 hydraulic jacks that move on a horizontal plate. Curved dies can be modified to accommodate various diameters of pipe. The bending operation is performed very near to the ground, thereby significantly reducing the risk of pipe injury. Environmental damage is minimized through the use of mechanized mulching which has replaced burning of unwanted trees and brush to clean for pipelines. 1 fig.

  8. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilise shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  9. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  10. An introduction to studies on the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the early life history stages of Pacific herring, Cluea Pallasi, in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska were studied in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez oil spill to determine damage done to the herring stock, including population effects. Most of the research was concentrated on spawning herring because (1) spawning herring are sensitive to hydrocarbons and cannot metabolize them, (2) oil is lipophilic, hence it tends to concentrate in the lipid-rich eggs, and (3) oil uptake in adult female herrings affects their eggs and newly hatched larvae. Between 1989 and 1992 studies focused on sublethal effects. During 1993 and 1994 the focus was on pathology studies, spurred on by a documented outbreak of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in the herring population. Current studies concentrate on mutagenic effects of exposure to oil, especially in the early life stages. 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  11. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 2: Chemistry and toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes chemical and toxicological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program that was designed to assess recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989. The program is an application of the sediment quality triad approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in the sound and projected forward in time. It combined one-time sampling of 64 randomly chosen study sites representing four major habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites), with periodic sampling at 12 subjectively chosen fixed sites. Sediment samples--or when conditions required, filter-wipes from rock surfaces--were collected in each of three intertidal zones and from subtidal stations up to 30-m deep. Oil removal was generally quite rapid: by 1991 the concentration of oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez had been dramatically reduced on the majority of shorelines by both natural processes and cleanup efforts. Acute sediment toxicity from oil (as measured by standard toxicity tests) was virtually absent by 1990--91, except at a small number of isolated locations. The petroleum residues had degraded below the threshold of acute toxic effects. Measurable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels are, in general, well below those conservatively associated with adverse effects, and biological recovery has been considerably more rapid than the removal of the last chemical remnants. 55 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Sea otter abundance, distribution, and pup production in Prince William Sound Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the abundance, distribution, and pup production of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Prince William Sound by comparing counts made during 1990 and 1991 with prespill counts. Changes in the distribution of otters 1--2 years after the spill from that observed during the late 1970s and early 1980s were not related to oiled shorelines. Despite a substantial loss of sea otters immediately following the spill, the authors counted fewer otters than prespill investigators at only one of three heavily oiled islands, and from 1990 to 1991 their counts at this one site increased to a level equivalent to the latest (1985) prespill count. The unexpectedly high counts at two of the three oiled sites cannot be explained simply by interobserver variability between te pre- and postspill counts or by immigrations of otters from other parts of the sound. The most plausible explanation for the findings also involves a modest population increase prior to the spill. At three heavily oiled sites, pup production 1--2 years after the spill was as high as or higher than before the spill. These results indicate the potential for renewed population growth

  13. Air and pipeline transport; 1 : 1 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this map the air and pipeline transport on the territory of the Slovak Republic are shown. Passenger and freight air transport in 2000 are analysed. Routes of the transit and international gas pipelines as well as crude oil pipelines are marked

  14. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  15. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the

  16. Shoreline assessment and oil removal; ADEC in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project. Final report restoration project 94266b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.R.

    1996-03-01

    During the summer of 1994, a five person crew from the village of Chenega under the direction of an on site manager from the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation conducted manual treatment, debris and rebar removal and ground surveys at 11 subdivisions in Prince William Sound. Fourteen sites within 4 different shoreline subdivisions with persistent surface asphalt were manually treated to accelerate natural degradation. Removal of flagging and other miscellaneous shoreline debris left by cleanup and damage assessment crews was undertaken as possible. Six additional shoreline subdivisions near the village of Chenega were assessed because of the ongoing concern for subsistence and recreational resources within close proximity to the village. A comparison of the sites from 1993 to 1994 showed that little to no improvement had occurred at these sites.

  17. Evidence of damage to pink salmon inhabiting Prince William Sound, Alaska, three generations after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations into the environmental effects of the 1 989 Exxon Valdez oil spill lead us to conclude that chronic damage occurred in some pink salmon populations. Differences in survival between streams contaminated by oil and uncontaminated streams have been observed annually since the spill for pink salmon embryos incubating in the intertidal portions of Prince William Sound. The authors assessed the environmental influence on these findings by collecting gametes from both contaminated and uncontaminated streams, transporting them to a hatchery where intra-stream crosses were made, and incubating the resulting embryos under identical conditions. Lower survival was detected in the embryos originating from the oil-contaminated streams indicating that the agent responsible for the differences detected in the field was genetic rather than environmental

  18. Fermentative hydrogen production by new marine Clostridium amygdalinum strain C9 isolated from offshore crude oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghearachchi, H.S.; Singh, Sneha; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Lal, Banwari [Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology Division, The Energy and Resource Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, 110 003 (India); Aginihotri, Anil [Corporate HSF, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, New Delhi (India)

    2010-07-15

    The present study investigated hydrogen production potential of novel marine Clostridium amygdalinum strain C9 isolated from oil water mixtures. Batch fermentations were carried out to determine the optimal conditions for the maximum hydrogen production on xylan, xylose, arabinose and starch. Maximum hydrogen production was pH and substrate dependant. The strain C9 favored optimum pH 7.5 (40 mmol H{sub 2}/g xylan) from xylan, pH 7.5-8.5 from xylose (2.2-2.5 mol H{sub 2}/mol xylose), pH 8.5 from arabinose (1.78 mol H{sub 2}/mol arabinose) and pH 7.5 from starch (390 ml H{sub 2}/g starch). But the strain C9 exhibited mixed type fermentation was exhibited during xylose fermentation. NaCl is required for the growth and hydrogen production. Distribution of volatile fatty acids was initial pH dependant and substrate dependant. Optimum NaCl requirement for maximum hydrogen production is substrate dependant (10 g NaCl/L for xylose and arabinose, and 7.5 g NaCl/L for xylan and starch). (author)

  19. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 3: Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the biological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program designed to assess ecological recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill on march 24, 1989. The program is an application of the ''Sediment Quality Triad'' approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in Prince William Sound. The spill affected four major shoreline habitat types in Prince William Sound: pebble/gravel, boulder/cobble, sheltered bedrock, and exposed bedrock. The study design had two components: (1) one-time stratified random sampling at 64 sites representing four habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites) and (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites that included some of the most heavily oiled locations in the sound. Biological communities on rock surfaces and in intertidal and shallow subtidal sediments were analyzed for differences resulting from to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Statistical methods included univariate analyses of individual species abundances and community parameter variables (total abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity), and multivariate correspondence analysis of community structure. 58 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Pipeline transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cras, X.

    1994-11-01

    Here is described the situation of the South European Pipeline Society. The distribution of petroleum is made from Fos in the south of France until Swiss and Germany. Equipments, safety are at the top of modernism but the competition obliges to search for new improvements.

  1. Evaluating hydrocarbon source rock for unconventional shale oil play from seismic and well log data; Kingak Shale, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedberg, Sarah Elisabeth

    It has been proposed that Acoustic impedance (AI) responses can be used to estimate total organic carbon (TOC) within thick, clay rich shale. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the AI inversion technique, and establish a methodology that can be applied to other basins. The Kingak Formation (lower Jurassic to early Cretaceous), located on the North Slope of Alaska, has been extensively evaluated for its unconventional potential. The Kingak is shale and is known to have greater than 30 percent clay. Because clay has ductile properties it makes it difficult to stimulate a well through hydraulic fracturing. This AI inversion technique was tested by utilizing synthetic seismograms to create an AI curve generated using The KINGDOM Software©. The synthetic seismograms were used to ensure a well log to seismic match. The synthetic seismograms also created an AI curve along the well. From these synthetic seismograms the AI value was compared to TOC values. It was from this comparison that a trend was observed that did not match the predicted trend. I believe the discrepancy observed was due to the sampling method. Based on this observation, I conclude that the method of tracking TOC with AI responses requires extremely controlled sampling methods; therefore it is not a beneficial method of revisiting old data sets in hopes of identifying new prospects.

  2. Important considerations regarding ocean and ecosystem dynamics in assessing environmental risks from various oil spill countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council, Seward, AK (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Regulations in the United States state that dispersants should be used in oil spill response incidents only if it is clear that mechanical cleanup methods such as booming and skimming will not work. When choosing a response option, responders must consider the overall productivity of the ecosystem and whether additional risk to the pelagic habit will be counter-balanced by benefits to the near-shore habitat. Understanding the ecosystem involves an understanding of the composition and balance of the entire ecosystem from prey to predator. This paper compared and contrasted the ocean physics and ecosystem dynamics of the Alaska, North Pacific and North Atlantic regions. It emphasized the uniqueness of the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA), including Prince William Sound and the Eastern Bering Sea and cautioned that assumptions for oil spill response planning must be specific for these regions. Oceanographic factors in the GOA drive bottom-up forcing as compared to the onshore-off forcing of other regions such as the Gulf of Mexico and the North Atlantic. These inherent differences in ecosystems and regional dynamics have important implications for the use of chemical dispersants or other non-mechanical counter measures in GOA or surrounding waters. The GOM, the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift were contrasted with the North Pacific Current, Alaska Gyre, Alaska Stream and Alaska Coastal Current. The GOM is a principal location of oil production and transportation while the Alaska Coastal Current is the site of trade for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System and is being considered for offshore development. It was concluded that careful preplanning regarding response options is necessary prior to the occurrence of any spill incidence. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 23 figs.

  3. Responding to a northern pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klatt, T.J. [Alaska North Slope LNG Project, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The challenges regarding the construction of a pipeline to transport LNG from the Alaska North Slope Liquefied Natural Gas Project were discussed. The LNG will be transported by an 800 mile buried pipeline from the Prudhoe Bay area to a liquefaction plant at an ice-free port in southern Alaska. The project is expected to begin in 2008. The isolated arctic region and permafrost add to the challenges of this project. The first challenge of synchronizing the pipeline's operating pressure with the LNG plant's inlet pressure to achieve maximum efficiencies has been addressed. Secondly, an advanced method to designing and operating a gas pipeline in discontinuous permafrost was evaluated and new construction methods were developed for trenching areas and winter construction. Stage one of the conceptual study which defines the project and minimizes costs has also been completed. More work, however, is still needed to transform the project from concept to reality. Alternative methods are still needed to construct a safe, environmentally sound and economically viable arctic gas pipeline system. 4 figs.

  4. Development of high productivity pipeline girth welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend for increased oil and gas consumption implies a growth of long-distance pipeline installations. Welding is a critical factor in the installation of pipelines, both onshore and offshore, and the rate at which the pipeline can be laid is generally determined by the speed of welding. This has resulted in substantial developments in pipeline welding techniques. Arc welding is still the dominant process used in practice, and forge welding processes have had limited successful application to date, in spite of large investments in process development. Power beam processes have also been investigated in detail and the latest laser systems now show promise for practical application. In recent years the use of high strength steels has substantially reduced the cost of pipeline installation, with X70 and X80 being commonly used. This use of high strength pipeline produced by thermomechanical processing has also been researched. They must all meet three requirments, high productivity, satisfactory weld properties, and weld quality

  5. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 1: Study design and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and analysis of a large field and laboratory program to assess shoreline recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The study was designed so that results could be generalized area-wide (biology, chemistry) or habitat-wide (toxicology) and projected forward in time (chemistry). It made use of the sediment quality triad approach, combining biological, chemical, and toxicological measurements to assess shoreline recovery. Key aspects of the study include the following: coordinated field sampling for chemical, toxicological, and biological studies; stratified random sampling (SRS) as a basis for spatial generalization; periodic sampling to assess trends, including sites with worst-case conditions; analysis of oil-spill effects on hundreds of species; statistical methods based on normal and non-normal theory, consistent with the structure of the data, including generalized linear models and multivariate correspondence analysis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Observations of the vegetation of the Atigun River floodplain as affected by the crude oil spill from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of botanical investigation conducted along the Atigun River, associated side channels and tributaries during the period 26...

  7. China Shows Concerns Over Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Russia's news media reported on September 3 that the Russian Natural Resources would finally give up the plan raised by Yugos,Russia's private oil producer, to construct the crude oil pipeline from Russia's Angarsk to China's Daqing. The Russian segment of the pipeline is about 1450 kilometers while the Chinese segment is 795 kilometers.

  8. SCADA系统远程维护技术在临濮管线的应用%Application of Remote Maintenance Technology of SCADA System in Lin-Pu Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤养浩; 张权; 胡勇

    2011-01-01

    SCADA系统远程维护技术的应用可以缩短维修时间,降低维护成本,提高SCADA系统的利用率,同时解决企业维护人员匮乏问题。介绍了临濮线SCADA系统的构成及在使用过程中出现问题的处理方式,重点阐述了临濮线SCADA系统远程维护技术的设置过程、方法及处理效果。通过SCADA系统远程维护技术的应用,有效保证了输油生产的安全运行。%Remote maintenance technology of SCADA system can reduce maintenance time and costs,and improve the utilization of SCADA systems,while addressing the business problem of lack of maintenance personnel.The composition of SCADA system of the LinPu oil pipeline and the treatment mode for the problems occurred during application are described,and the setup,methods,and treatment effects of remote maintenance technology of SCADA system in LinPu oil pipeline are stressed.Safe operation of oil transportation can be effectively ensured by the application of remote maintenance technology of SCADA system.

  9. Pipeline network and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio de Janeiro is one of 27 units of Brazil. It is located in the eastern portion of the Southeast and occupies an area of 43 696.054 km², being effectively the 3rd smallest state in Brazil. This state in recent years has suffered from erosion problems caused by the deployment of the network pipeline. The deployment pipeline is part of the activities related to the oil industry has caused a more intense conflict between the environment and economic activities, modifying the soil structure and distribution of surface and subsurface flows. This study aimed to analyze the erosion caused by the removal of soil for the deployment of pipeline transportation, with the consequences of the emergence of numerous gullies, landslides and silting of rivers. For the development of this study were performed bibliographic research, field work, mapping and digital preparation of the initial diagnosis of active processes and what the consequent environmental impacts. For these reasons, we conclude that the problems could be avoided or mitigated if there was a prior geological risk management. (author)

  10. Notice of availability, final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) is proposing to develop the Northstar Unit, located approximately 6 miles offshore of Point Storkensen in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. BPXA's proposed action is a self-contained development/production facility located on a reconstructed gravel island in 39 feet of water. Also proposed is construction of two buried subsea pipelines between the island and shoreline to transport oil and gas. The pipelines would connect with onshore facilities and the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). In response to BPXA's submittal of a permit application under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, and Section 103 of the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act, the US Army Corps of engineers, Alaska District (Corps) determined that issuance of a permit for BPXA's proposed project constituted a major federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), determined under provisions of the Clean Water Act and 40 CFR Part 6 Subpart F that permitting by the EPA for BPXA's proposed project also constituted a major federal action that my significantly affect the quality of the human environment. As a result, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under NEPA was undertaken to identify and evaluate a range of reasonable alternatives and evaluate the potential effects the alternates, including BPXA's proposed project, may have on the human environment

  11. 用改进ECT技术测定油气两相流中空泡分数的测量研究%Void Fraction Measurement in Oil-Gas Transportation Pipeline Using an Improved Electrical Capacitance Tomography System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛刚; 贾志海; 王经

    2004-01-01

    To measure the void fraction online in oil-gas pipeline, an improved electrical capacitance tomography(ECT) system has been designed. The capacitance sensor with new structure has twelve internal electrodes and overcomes the influence of the pipe wall. The data collection system is improved by using high performance IC(integrated circuit). Static tests of bubble flow, stratified flow and annular flow regime are carried out. Measurements are taken on bubble flow, stratified flow and slug flow. Results show that the new ECT system performs well on void fraction measurement of bubble flow and stratified flow, but the error of measurement for slug flow is more than 10%.

  12. Architecture of a corporate system to aid the scheduling of a oil derivatives transport in a pipeline network; Arquitetura de um sistema corporativo para auxilio a programacao do transporte de derivados de petroleo em redes dutoviarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Guilherme R.; Polli, Helton L.; Esser, Eduardo M.; Lueders, Ricardo; Neves Junior, Flavio; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This paper addresses the development and the architecture of a corporative package to aid the operational decision-making of the scheduling activities in a real-world pipeline network for oil derivatives. The system was developed based on a service-oriented architecture, allowing the development of Web applications to define the network scheduling, as well as graphic display of the movements. The solution of the scheduling is generated by an optimization block as a service of this application. However, this paper emphasizes the description of the architecture and its functionalities, which was defined with the help of experienced programmers. (author)

  13. Turbulent Flow of Saudi Non-Newtonian Crude Oils in a Pipeline Écoulement turbulent de bruts non-newtoniens séoudiens dans une canalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemeidia A. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of Saudi Arab-Light, Arab-Berri and Arab-Heavy crude oils were measured with Brookfield Viscometer (LVT Model at temperatures 10, 15, 20, 25, 38, 55 and 70°C. Saudi Arab-Light and Arab-Heavy exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at temperature less than or equal to 20°C, while Saudi Arab-Berri behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid at all temperatures. The main reason for this rheological behavior can be attributed to the thermal and shear histories; the relative amounts of wax and asphaltene content in Saudi crude oils as well. Therefore, Statistical Analysis (t-test was used to check the variability of the change in rheological behavior of Saudi non-Newtonian crude oils at a confidence level of 95%. The evaluation ensured that, all non-Newtonian data were statistically not different and were correlated with power-law model. Under turbulent flow conditions the pipeline design calculations were carried out through a computer program. Les propriétés rhéologiques des bruts séoudiens Arab-Light, Arab-Berri et Arab-Heavy ont été mesurées à l'aide d'un viscomètre Brookfield (modèle LVT à des températures de 10, 15, 20, 25, 38, 55 et 70°C. Les Saudi Arab-Light et Arab-Heavy présentent un comportement non newtonien à des températures égales ou inférieures à 20°C, tandis que le Saudi Arab-Berri se comporte comme un fluide non newtonien à toutes les températures. Ce comportement rhéologique est principalement dû aux historiques thermiques et de cisaillement, de même qu'aux quantités relatives de paraffine et à la teneur en asphaltène des bruts séoudiens. Une analyse statistique (essai t a donc été menée pour vérifier la variabilité des changements de comportement rhéologique des bruts séoudiens non newtoniens à un degré de fiabilité de 95%. Il en est ressorti que toutes les données non newtoniennes étaient statistiquement non différentes et étaient en corrélation avec le modèle de la loi des

  14. Jockeying for position : how the proposed pipeline projects and route-on-route competition are shaping up in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation included a brief historical look at pipeline proposals submitted over the years to bring Alaska and Northwest Territories gas to market. The challenges facing the early proponents of a pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to the Mackenzie Delta, such as cost, environmental impact and socio-economic impact on Aboriginals living in the Mackenzie Valley, have now been removed. Lobbying efforts by politicians in Alaska nearly succeeded in forcing an Alaska Highway gas pipeline, instead of letting market economics dictate the route. The author indicated that an Alaska pipeline would not benefit the Canadian natural gas industry, rather it would force production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) to be slashed, resulting in reduced drilling and lower royalties to government. The author suggested that Canada should not grant any permit to construct a pipeline in Canada that is destined for markets in the contiguous United States if the pipeline was in any way subsidized to disadvantage Canadian producers. The author explained why the proposal to build a standalone pipeline in the Mackenzie Valley before the Alaska Highway pipeline is not a good idea. Gas prices and pipeline tolls are the most important economic elements. The author expressed the opinion that the over the top route combined with the Mackenzie Valley route would be beneficial to both Canada and the United States for a host of reasons. figs

  15. Temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and photoenhanced toxicity risks of spilled oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G; Vivian, Deborah; Yee, Susan H; Diamond, Steve A

    2008-03-01

    Solar irradiance (W/m2) and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd; 1/m) were determined in several locations in Prince William Sound (AK, USA) between April 2003 and December 2005 to assess temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and the risks of photo-enhanced toxicity from spilled oil. Weekly irradiance measurements of surface visible light, ultraviolet B (UVB), and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation in Valdez (AK, USA) followed expected trends of maximum solar irradiance at each summer solstice and minimum values at each winter solstice. Variation from weekly maximum expected surface irradiances was attributed to large variations in environmental conditions over the 142-week monitoring period. Season and proximity to glacial meltwater were significant determinants of Kd, with 1% attenuation depths ranging from 0.4 to 15 m (UVB and UVA) and from 0.5 to 28 m (visible light). The probability of photo-enhanced toxicity risks estimated from UVA dosimetry decreased with increasing water depth, with higher risks during spring and summer and lower risks during fall and winter. These results demonstrate substantial temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation in Prince William Sound and the potential for significant season- and location-specific photo-enhanced toxicity risks from spilled oil. PMID:17983275

  16. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline-soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West-East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements. PMID:26963097

  17. Game Analysis of the Co-construction and Sharing of Oil and Gas Pipeline%石油天然气管道共建共享博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏勋; 丁鹏; 张涛

    2014-01-01

    The pricing model of oil and gas is the chief influence factor of oil and gas industry and the change of pricing model will ob-servably change the profit of oil and gas companies. Using game model, under the condition that the government chooses three kinds of pricing model, that is marketing price, absolutely fixed price and relatively fixed price, this article analyzes the new and mature oil and gas market about sharing pipeline, finding that under the condition of marketing price, companies will co-construct and share pipeline both in the new and the mature market;under the condition of absolutely fixed price, companies will co-construct and share pipeline in the new market while the entrant should weight the costs and the benefits in the mature market;under the condition of relatively fixed price, companies will construct pipeline independently both in the new and mature market. Therefore, to promote the market-oriented reforms of oil and gas prices and to support the market playing the basic role in oil and gas resource allocation are an important ways to solve the problems of pipeline duplication.%油气定价方式是油气行业竞争环境的主要影响因素,定价方式的改变将显著改变油气企业的收益。假设政府通过选择三种油气定价方式(市场竞争形成价格、价格绝对固定、价格相对固定)改变油气行业竞争环境,对双寡头企业在每种价格条件下的新市场和成熟市场进行管道共建共享博弈分析,结果表明:市场竞争形成价格条件下的新市场和成熟市场,企业之间均能够实现管道共建共享;价格绝对固定条件下的新市场,企业之间能够实现管道共建共享,成熟市场则需要进一步考虑企业进入市场的成本和收益;价格相对固定条件下的新市场和成熟市场,企业之间均不能够实现管道共建共享。因此,推进油气价格的市场化改革,发挥市场在油气资源配置中的基础

  18. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  19. X80长输油气管道闪光对接焊技术研究%Research on Flash Butt Welding Process of X80 Long-distance Oil and Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建文; 胡建春; 宋晞明; 李洁; 傅建楠

    2015-01-01

    According to the welding quality requirements of long-distance oil and gas pipeline construction, the flash butt welding process of X80 pipeline steel was studied. Through analyzing the chemical composition and mechanical properties, combined with the selected welding process and welding method, the welding was carried out for X80 pipeline steel, and the mechanical properties of its welded joints were tested. The results showed that the flash butt welding performance of X80 steel is very good, and the strength, hardness and low temperature toughness can meet the safety requirement of X80 grade pipeline steel. The welding method and the technological parameters can be used for site welding.%针对长输油气管道建设对焊接质量的要求,对X80管线钢的闪光对接焊工艺进行了研究。通过对长输管道用X80管线钢化学成分及力学性能进行分析,结合选定的焊接方法和焊接工艺,对该管线钢进行了焊接,并对其焊接接头的力学性能进行了测试。结果表明,闪光对接焊得到的焊接接头性能良好,接头的强度、硬度、韧性等性能均满足X80管线钢管的安全要求。所选用的焊接方法和工艺参数可用于该管材的现场焊接。

  20. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  1. 俄罗斯干线油气管道焊接加热方法探讨%Discussion on Welding Heating Method for Russia Trunk Oil & Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许贵芝

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the advantage and necessity of welding heating for trunk oil & gas pipeline were put forward, the Russia technical specifications of welding heating were introduced, and the technical specifications of Russia, America and England were compared. The welding heating method of Russia trunk oil & gas pipeline, the analysis and discussion from experts to the said method were expatiated . Aiming at Russia technical documents, some supplements and amendment advice were put forward. In the end, constructive suggestion for China welding heating mode was brought forward.%提出了干线油气管道焊接加热的优点和必要性;介绍了俄罗斯焊接加热的技术规范,并与美、英两国的焊接加热方式进行比较.阐述了俄罗斯干线油气管道焊接加热的方法及专家对这些方法的分析和探讨,并针对俄罗斯焊接加热的相关技术文件提出了补充和修改建议.最后,对我国管道焊接加热方式提出了建设性意见.

  2. Pitting growth modelling in buried oil and gas pipelines using statistical techniques; Modelado del crecimiento de picaduras en tuberias enterradas que transportan hidrocarburos utilizando tecnicas estadisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, J. C.; Caleyo, F.; Valorm, A.; Hallen, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    New deterministic and stochastic predictive models are proposed for external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The deterministic model takes into consideration the local chemical and physical properties of the soil as well as the pipeline coating to predict the time dependence of pitting depth and rate in a range of soils. This model, based on results from a field study, was used to conduct Monte Carlo simulations that established the probability distribution of pitting depth and growth rate in the studied soils and their evolution over the life of the pipeline. In the last stage of the study, an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model was developed for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Oil transport scheduling in a pipeline with a characteristic operation; Otimizacao das operacoes de transporte de derivados em um poliduto com multiplas sangrias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Guilherme; Magatao, Leandro; Arruda, Lucia Valeria Ramos; Silva, Marcos Henrique da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lara, Lucas El Ghoz [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This work presents an optimization structure to support the operational decision making of scheduling activities in a multi product pipeline with multiple deliveries. This pipeline connects, in sequence, 6 operational areas: one is the main refinery, and the 5 remaining are distribution centers, each one with specific capacity of storage. Basically, the refinery pumps derivatives, such as diesel and gasoline, in a unidirectional flow to distribution centers, in a way to supply their demands. The solution kernel is underlined in a hybrid structure, using heuristics and Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) modeling, executed iteratively. Details of storage curves and flow rate of pipelines are obtained in the proposed approach, expanding the results of Kira et al. (2010). Additionally, the proposed approach is able to deal with discrete demands along the scheduling horizon. Thus, this hybrid structure makes possible to obtain operational scheduling solutions at a low CPU times (few minutes), using real data scenarios, whose horizon length has at least 30 days. (author)

  4. Pipeline Bending Strain Measurement and Compensation Technology Based on Wavelet Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan; Feng, Qingshan; Liu, Shucong; ZHAO, XIAOMING

    2016-01-01

    The bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines may lead to instability of the pipeline and failure of materials, which seriously deteriorates the transportation security of oil and gas. To locate the position of the bending strain for maintenance, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is usually adopted in a Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG). The attitude data of the IMU is usually acquired to calculate the bending strain in the pipe. However, because of the vibrations in the pipeline a...

  5. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Paraffin Wax in Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Stubsjøen, Marte

    2013-01-01

    Paraffin wax deposition, or the settling of solid wax particles on pipelines and equipment, is an extensive problem encountered in oil production and transportation. Flowing through subsea pipelines, oil and condensate are subject to cooling. If the temperature of a supersaturated crude oil mixture drops below the solubility limit of wax, known as the wax appearance temperature (WAT), solid paraffin start to appear in solution. Assuming temperatures below the WAT and a radial heat flux from t...

  6. Future impact on natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croom, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The future for natural gas pipelines is forecast by examining the sources and uses of energy today and projecting respective changes. No significant changes are expected over the next 20 yr in natural gas usage, but regionally, some demand shift could impact certain gas transmission facilities. The conclusion is that natural gas will continue to displace oil in some stationary uses, while coal will displace natural gas in some power plant and feedstock applications. Although these shifts will result in some regional construction activity, they will probably not necessitate major arterial increases to the pipeline network. However, significant changes in supply sources may have a major impact on pipeline planning and construction.

  7. Providing Situational Awareness for Pipeline Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jonathan; Kleinhans, Hugo; Chandia, Rodrigo; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    A SCADA system for a single 3,000-mile-long strand of oil or gas pipeline may employ several thousand field devices to measure process parameters and operate equipment. Because of the vital tasks performed by these sensors and actuators, pipeline operators need accurate and timely information about their status and integrity. This paper describes a realtime scanner that provides situational awareness about SCADA devices and control operations. The scanner, with the assistance of lightweight, distributed sensors, analyzes SCADA network traffic, verifies the operational status and integrity of field devices, and identifies anomalous activity. Experimental results obtained using real pipeline control traffic demonstrate the utility of the scanner in industrial settings.

  8. [Northern Pipeline Agency] annual report, 1990-1991. [Administration du pipe-line du Nord] rapport annuel, 1990-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interest of Canada. This report reviews the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included. During 1990-91, plans for completing the second stage continued to remain on hold. Representatives of a consortium of three owners of Canadian gas reserves in the Mackenzie Delta and three pipeline companies that originally planned to begin shipping gas to southern markets as early as 1996 have indicated that the project is unlikely to be operational at least before the turn of the century because of unfavourable market conditions. Foothills Pipelines was authorized to build a pipeline from the Delta along the Mackenzie Valley to Boundary Lake in the vicinity of northern British Columbia and Alberta, which it plans to link with the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline through a 656 km extension from the present terminus of the pre-built segment of the system at Caroline, Alberta. The design and route of the delivery system are yet to be decided. 1 fig.

  9. The commercial and water-law approval procedure for mineral-oil transmission pipelines with integrated environmental impact assessment; Das gewerbe- und wasserrechtliche Zulassungsverfahren fuer Mineraloelfernleitungen mit integrierter Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Familie, Frauen und Gesundheit, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    Mineral-oil transmission pipelines are an important component in the Federal Republic of Germany`s energy supply infrastructure. The pipeline system was largely planned and constructed in the 1960s. Approval permits were generally issued for a specified time, these times differing in the various federal states. The expiry of such a permit, significant modifications to a system, or the intended construction of a new pipeline all make it necessary to devote attention to the approval and permitting procedures incorporated in present-day legislation. The most important legal bases continue to be the permit issued in accordance with the Combustible Liquids Ordinance and approval in accordance with the Water Management Act. There are, however, other laws and regulations which are applicable to approval and have been enacted, in particular, to protect nature and the environment. Since the Act Regarding Environmental Impact Assesments (UVPG) came into effect on August 1, 1991, projects with an environmental significance may only be approved in the context of a procedure which includes an integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This provision applies equally to approval for construction and operation of new systems and to the extension of permits for operation of existing mineral-oil transmission pipelines. This article describes the way the ``UVP`` affects the approval procedure. The author`s experience is used to illustrate the basic requirements for the environmental impact assessment; the organizational and chronological aspects of the approval procedure are also described. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mineraloelfernleitungen sind ein wichtiger Bestandteil der Energieversorgung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Das Fernleitungsnetz wurde zum groessten Teil in den 60er Jahren projektiert und gebaut. Die Zulassungen wurden in der Regel befristet erteilt, wobei die Fristen in den Bundeslaendern unterschiedlich bemessen sind. Der Ablauf einer befristeten Zulassung, die

  10. 基于 Bow-tie模型的城镇输油管道风险评价方法研究%Study on risk assessment method of urban oil pipeline based on Bow-tie model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉超; 蒋宏业; 吴瑶晗; 姚安林; 韩晓瑜

    2016-01-01

    According to the leakage and explosion accidents of urban oil pipeline frequently occurred in recent years, it was proposed to introduce Bow-tie model into risk evaluation.Through the combination of Bow-tie model with the improved ana-lytic hierarchy process method, the weights of each influence factor were obtained and sorted.Then the risk evaluation was conducted on pipeline so as to put forward reasonable safety management schemes and reduce the occurrence of accidents. The calculation results showed that the third party factor dominates in the influence factors of pipeline failure, while in the a-nalysis of accident consequence, the safety consequence and environment consequence factors have the largest influence, which basically accord with the actual situation of accident.It has certain guiding significance and practical value for the risk analysis of urban oil pipeline.%根据近年来不断发生的城镇输油管道泄漏爆炸事故,提出将Bow-tie模型引入到风险评价中,将Bow-tie模型和改进的层次分析法相结合得出各影响因素的权重并排序,对管道进行风险评价,便于提出合理的安全管理方案,减少事故的发生。通过计算得到第三方因素在管道失效影响因素中占主导,而在事故后果分析中安全后果和环境后果因素影响较大,基本符合事故实际状况,说明该方法对于城镇输油管道风险分析有一定的指导意义和实用价值。

  11. Infrared evaluation of insulated pipelines to detect water that could cause Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Douglas; Sanders, H. Allen

    2012-06-01

    IR (infrared) inspection is being used to inspect oil pipelines on the North Slope of Alaska. The object of this inspection is to detect water trapped in the foam insulation around the steel pipes before it can cause corrosion that could result in a pipeline leak. This is referred to as Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI). The same method can be used to inspect insulated pipelines containing LNG (liquid natural gas), steam, heated chemicals, cryogenic fluids, etc. As long as the temperature in the pipe is substantially different (+ or -) than the ambient temperature, the IR evaluation method can work. Analysis can predict whether it will work for a specific application and operating conditions. IR can scan multiple pipes quickly and is a good qualitative screening method for detecting water trapped in insulation. Anomalies found by IR are evaluated further using RT ("C-Arm" or other RT technique) or other NDT methods. RT is a relatively slow technique compared to IR, but it is capable of detecting both water and pipe wall thinning. When the water level is high enough to reach the steel pipeline, corrosion of the pipe can occur. In this case, the corrosion is from the outside of the pipe inward. Other corrosion and erosion may take place from the inside out. Corrosion and erosion can eventually result in a hole in the pipe, which results in a leak. Thermal modeling has been performed to predict the environmental conditions under which IR testing will be successful. IR test procedures have been written and a personnel certification program has been implemented.

  12. 成品油管道混油量计算方法及减少混油量措施探讨%Study on Calculating Methods of Mixed Oil Quantity in the Product Pipeline and Measures to Reduce Mixed Oil Quantity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓刚

    2012-01-01

    Combined with production practice, calculating methods of mixed oil quantity in the batch transportation product pipeline were mainly introduced as well as theoretical formula, corrected theoretical formula and empirical formula. Through example calculation, different formulae were compared. Then, factors to influence mixed oil quantity were analyzed, and measures to reduce mixed oil quantity were put forward.%结合生产实际,重点介绍了成品油顺序输送管道混油量的计算方法,包括理论公式、修正的理论公式以及经验公式,并进行了相应的实例计算,对各种计算公式进行的比较,分析了混油量的影响因素,提出了减少混油量的措施.

  13. [Northern Pipeline Agency] annual report, 1992-1993. [Administration du pipe-line du Nord] rapport annuel, 1992-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interest of Canada. This report reviews the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included. During 1992-93, plans for substantially expanding the capacity of the western and eastern legs of the pipeline to transport increased exports of Canadian natural gas to western and mid-western US markets continued to move forward. During the calendar year 1992, Canadian gas exports to the USA increased by more than 20% to 58.02 billion cubic metres. Pacific Gas Transmission Co. proposed expansion of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System such that capacity to deliver gas to California and the Pacific Northwest would be increased 8.5 million m[sup 3]/d. A new compressor unit was announced for the eastern leg of the pre-built system of the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline to provide back-up capacity. 1 fig.

  14. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  15. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  16. Correlation of tertiary formations of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, F.S.; Wolfe, J.A.; Miller, D.J.; Hopkins, D.M.

    1961-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic and paleontologic studies have resulted in substantial revision of the age assignments and inter-basin correlations of the Tertiary formations of Alaska as given in both an earlier compilation by P. S. Smith (1939) and a tentative chart prepared for distribution at the First International Symposium on Arctic Geology at Calgary, Alberta (Miller, MacNeil, and Wahrhaftig, 1960). Current work in Alaska by the U. S. Geological Survey and several oil companies is furnishing new information at a rapid rate and further revisions may be expected. The correlation chart (Fig. 1), the first published chart to deal exclusively with the Tertiary of Alaska, had the benefit of a considerable amount of stratigraphic data and fossil collections from some oil companies, but recent surface mapping and drilling by other oil companies in several Tertiary basins undoubtedly must have produced much more information. Nevertheless, the extent of available data justifies the publication of a revised correlation chart at this time.

  17. 连续管线管在青海油田地面集输管线的应用%Coiled Tubing Application in Qinghai Oil Field Ground Gathering Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏强; 王琪; 秦跃平; 张阿军

    2013-01-01

    针对目前油田地面集输管线采用无缝管单根焊接方式造成的焊口多、空气污染严重、劳动强度高等问题,使用连续管线管替代无缝管进行地面集输管线项目试验.介绍了试验用连续管线管的拉伸性能,以及试验现场布管、焊接、焊后水压试验、防腐层补伤等工艺过程.试验结果表明,与无缝管相比,连续管线管用作地面集输管线具有施工效率高、安全性及质量可靠等优点.%Aiming at some problems occurred in adopting seamless steel pipe to conduct each single pipe welding in oil field ground gathering pipeline, such as many welded junction, serious air pollution, high labour intensity and so on. It adopted coiled tubing to replace seamless steel pipe to carry out ground gathering pipeline trial project, introduced the tensile performance of coiled tubing used in experiment, layout pipe in field, welding, hydrostatic test after welding, coating repaire and other process. The test results indicated that compared with seamless steel pipe, coiled tubing used for ground gathering pipeline is with high construction efficiency, high safety, reliable quality and etc.

  18. Study on Defect Detect of Oil and Gas Pipeline by Metal Magnetic Memory Testing Technology Based on Wavelet Analysis%基于小波分析的油气管道缺陷磁记忆检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书俊; 李著信; 龚利红; 郭联欢

    2011-01-01

    金属磁记忆检测技术是目前唯一能对铁磁性构件早期损伤进行诊断的无损检测手段,能检测识别油气管道早期损伤以及以应力集中为特征的裂纹缺陷.小波分析由于具有良好的时频局部性,能很好地克服傅里叶变换的不足,得到广泛的应用.针对目前金属磁记忆检测技术以过零点作为缺陷判定准则存在的不足,利用小波尺度谱和再分配的尺度谱对磁记忆信号进行分析.试验结果表明,小波再分配尺度谱能有效应用于管道缺陷的磁记忆检测之中.%Metal magnetic memory testing (MMMT) technology is the only feasible NDT method in the aspect of early diagnosis till now, which can detect and recognize the early damnification and oil and gas pipeline crack in the character of stress concentration. Wavelet is widely applied for it has good time-frequency location character and can get over the deficiency of Fourier transform. Aiming at the deficiency of using MMMT to recognize pipeline defect, the reassigned wavelet scalogram analysis method was put forward to analyze the MMMT signal. The experimental result proves that the reassigned wavelet scalogram is effective in pipeline defect recognition by MMMT.

  19. 沙漠地区输油管道内腐蚀开挖检测与评价%Inner Corrosion Detection and Evaluation of Oil Pipeline in Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珂; 罗金恒; 赵雄; 袁柱; 熊林; 丁科艳

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the characteristics of oil pipeline in desert, designed a special testing program, selected excavation points based on the accurate measurement of pipeline height and buried depth, carried out the pipe body inner corrosion detection by a method of combining magnetic flux leakage inspection, ultrasonic guided wave inspection, ultrasonic thickness measurement and ultrasonic C-scan imaging, And, solved many problems encountered in construction process to provide a reference for similar projects . At last, defects evaluation result showed that the pipeline is safe in the design pressure . It gave the detection cycle, suggested the pipe sections with serious defects should be monitored, and reinforce or replace them as soon as possible .%针对沙漠地区输油管道的特点,设计了专门的管道检测方案,通过对管道高程和埋深的精确测量,选取管道低点开挖,采用漏磁检测、超声导波检测、超声测厚和超声C扫描成像等相结合的检测方法,开展管体内腐蚀检测,并解决了检测施工过程中遇到的诸多问题,为同类工程提供了参考借鉴.对检测出的缺陷进行了安全评价,结果表明,管线在设计压力下能够安全运行,给出了检测周期,并建议对存在严重缺陷管段重点监测,尽快进行补强或更换.

  20. 分布式光纤油气管道监测系统研究%Study on Distributed Optical Fiber Monitoring System for Oil and Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红娜

    2013-01-01

      提出一种基于混沌理论的监测分布式光纤管道泄漏监测系统的方法,采用Duffing相轨迹法和Lyapu-nov指数法检测微弱的正弦信号,建立了基于混沌理论的分布式光纤管道泄漏检测系统的数学模型,并且进行了实例验证。%This put forward a method of monitoring distributed fiber-optic pipeline leak monitoring the system with cha-os theory. By using the method of Duffing phase trajectory and Lyapunov exponent to detect the weak sinusoidal signal, we establish a model of pipeline leakage detection system of distributed optical fiber based on chaos theory, and veri-fied by experiment.

  1. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sahli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less. This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs. The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  2. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  3. 次声波油气管道泄漏检测技术研究%Research of oil-gas pipeline leak detection technology based on infrasound wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎宏; 韦南; 王涛

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of leakage detection based on infrasound wave,infrasound signal's propagation mechanism in the oil-gas pipeline as well as feature analysis of acoustic leakage. The leakage signal received by infrasound sensor is analyzed according to properties of pipeline and waves,and the infrasound signal's noise is removed by wavelet analysis. The technology is evaluated in view of its accuracy,practicability and effectiveness.%本文研究了次声波油气管道泄漏检测原理,次声波信号在油气管道中的传播机理以及发生泄漏时泄漏声波的特点分析.根据管道及泄漏声波的特点,分析次声波传感器接收到的泄漏信号,并运用小波分析去除次声波信号中夹杂的噪声.最后对次声波油气管道泄漏检测技术的准确性、实用性和有效性进行评价.

  4. July 1, 2007: electricity and gas markets open to competition. Oil and gas pipelines, vital energy arteries. Warming of the Earth's northern latitudes: what are the consequences? Nuclear power, an alternative to costly fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - July 1, 2007 - electricity and gas markets open to competition: first telecommunications, now energy. Starting July 1, 2007, every one of the European Union's 500 million consumers is free to chose a supplier for electricity and natural gas. How will this work? A road map. 2 - Oil and gas pipelines, vital energy arteries: they criss-cross the planet over land and under sea, offering an alternative to sea lanes. How do these strategically placed pipelines work to transport fossil fuels? 3 - Warming of the Earth's northern latitudes: what are the consequences?: Dr. Oleg Anisimov, one of the experts on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that met in April 2007, reviews the consequences of human activity on permafrost, that huge expense of ice covering almost 20% of the Earth's surface. 4 - Nuclear power, an alternative to costly fossil fuels: part two of a report on the World energy outlook. This publication of the International Energy agency predicts that nuclear power will continue to be one of the main sources of energy supply for the next 25 years

  5. 油气混输管道工艺计算软件研制%The Software Development on the Process Calculation of Oil and Gas Mixed Transmission Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广诗; 张婷婷

    2012-01-01

    采用软件工程学的理论,结合国内外多相流研究成果,研制出了广泛适用于各种油气混输管道的工艺计算软件.该软件能够实现管道图形建模、物性参数计算、水力热力计算、修正计算、误差分析等功能.实例分析表明,该软件操作方便,功能完善,能够有效地对管道的生产运行进行模拟计算和分析.%Using the theory of software engineering, with the combination of domestic and foreign research results of multiphase flow, a oil and gas mixed transmission pipeline process calculation software has been developed which is widely applicable. The software can realize the functions such as pipeline graphical modeling, physical parameter calculation, hydraulic and thermodynamic calculation, correction calculation, error analysis and so on. Example analysis shows that, the software is easy to operate, has perfect function and can make effectively simulating calculation and analysis to pipe production and operation.

  6. Knotted pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is too early to speculate on where the Transpetrol shares will end up. The bankruptcy trustee of Yukos, Eduard Rebgun, has so far received three offers from Gazprom, the Rusneft oil company and the Penta private equity group via its Cyprian company. All three would like to gain control over the Slovak oil transporting company. As yet, no formal request from the Slovak Republic has been delivered to Moscow. By Trend's deadline, President Ivan Gasparovic and the Minister of Economy, Lubomir Jahnatek, were still negotiating in Moscow with the Russian President, Vladimir Putin. One of the topics on the agenda was the future of the company which transports Russian oil to Europe. Both Slovakia and Russia aim to gain control over the stock and the situation is locked in stalemate The stock in question is owned by the Dutch company, Yukos Finance. And although this company is owned by the bankrupt Yukos, the property rights are in the hands of foundation, Stichting Administratiekantoor Yukos International. Yukos Finance is not in bankruptcy and it is therefore difficult to detach the Yukos shares from the company assets. (authors)

  7. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN SOLAR RADIATION AND PHOTO-ENHANCED TOXICITY RISKS OF SPILLED OIL IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar irradiance (W/m2) and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd; m-1) were determined in several locations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, between April 2003 and December 2005 to assess temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and the risks of photoenh...

  8. 水下石油管道漏油检测定位的粒子滤波SLAM算法%Particle filter SLAM algorithm for underwater oil pipeline leakage detection and positioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁赣南; 王丹丹; 魏延辉; 洪伟

    2013-01-01

    In view of the problem of oil pipe leakage detection positioning under the sea, an integrated navigation positioning method was put forward, which combined the strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) with the simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) algorithm. The feature position information of oil pipeline was collected by sonar sensor, and under the action of SLAM algorithm, the pipeline map was built and high precision positioning information was obtained. Then the position error accumulation was compensated by using the particle filter algorithm to combine the obtained location information with SINS. The simulation experiment results show that the positioning precision is increased to about 0.1% of the total voyage.%  针对海底石油管道漏油位置检测定位这一问题,提出了捷联惯性导航系统与同时构图定位算法相组合的水下导航定位方法。利用声纳传感器采集石油管道的特征位置信息,在同时构图定位算法的作用下构建管道地图并获得高精度定位信息。然后利用粒子滤波算法将上述获得的定位信息与捷联惯性导航系统相结合,以补偿其位置误差积累。仿真实验结果显示所述组合方法的定位精度较高,达到总航程的0.1%。

  9. Comparative analysis of domestic and foreign labor protection standards for oil and gas pipeline%国内外油气管道劳动防护标准对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云峰; 刘冰; 马伟平; 税碧垣

    2013-01-01

    从头部防护、眼面部防护、身体防护、足部防护、手部防护、听觉器官防护、呼吸器官防护、防坠落保护8个方面对比分析了国内外油气管道领域劳动防护标准.剖析了我国标准的现状及与国外标准的差异,比如我国目前在听觉器官防护方面尚无相关标准,有待及早制定;指出了国外相关标准值得借鉴学习的内容,比如在防坠落保护方面,国外企业要求同时采取两种独立的防坠落保护措施,进行双重防坠落保护.研究成果对于完善我国油气管道劳动防护标准体系具有重要意义.%Comparative analysis of domestic and foreign labor protection standards for oil and gas pipeline is conducted from 8 aspects such as head protection, eye and face protection, body protection, foot protection, hand protection, hearing protection, respiratory organ protection and fall prevention. Status of Chinese standards and difference from foreign standards are analyzed. For example, China provides no relevant standard for hearing protection, so the standard shall be formulated as soon as possible. In addition, foreign standard contents worthy of learning are pointed out. For example, foreign enterprises are required to take two separate fall prevention measures to achieve dual protection. Research results are of great importance in improving China's labor protection standards for oil and gas pipeline.

  10. Study on the Influence of Slotting and Stealing Branch Pipe on the Pressure Field Distribution in Oil Product Transportation Pipeline%打孔盗油支管对输送成品油管内压力分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙天宇

    2012-01-01

    分析打孔盗油支管的成品油输送管道泄漏过程.建立带有打孔盗油支管的成品油输送管道物理模型.通过简化该物理模型建立了带有打孔盗油支管的成品油输送管道的三维压力场数学模型.利用Fluent软件模拟管道出口和支管的出流量比对带有打孔盗油支管的管道的压力场影响,确定其压力场特征,得到了带有打孔盗油支管的管道的压差二次曲线方程.%The physical model of oil product transportation pipeline with slotting and stealing branch pipe, whose leakage process is analyzed, is established. By simplifying the physical model, the mathematical model of 3d-pressure field is established in Oil Product Transportation Pipeline with Stealing Branch Pipe. The effect of pressure field of pipeline with slotting and stealing branch pipe is simulated with different lateral-flow ratio of pipeline export and branch pipe by using Fluent software, whose features of pressure field are determined. The quadratic curve equation of pressure field of pipeline with slotting and stealing branch pipe is obtained.

  11. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption

  12. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Oil-Water Tow Phase Flow Pressure Changes in Gathering Pipeline Bending Section%集输管道弯管内油水两相流压力变化数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙皓; 马贵阳; 汪笑楠; 李丹; 孙蕾; 王会香

    2013-01-01

    油水两相混合流动是集输管路中经常遇到的现象,研究压力变化规律对集输管道的设计和运行有重要意义。采用VOF模型,在不同含水率和流动速度条件下对油田地面集输管道弯管处的油水两相流进行了数值模拟。对计算结果进行分析的结果可知,两相流的含水率和流动速度对弯管处的压降有很大影响;弯管内两相流的压降随含水率的增大而增大;在弯管内壁压力减小的同时速度增大,在外壁压力增大的同时速度减小;增大流速时,高含水率的油水两相流的压降先减小后增大。%The phenomenon of the oil-water two phase mixed flow is often encountered in the gathering and transportation pipeline ,and the study of its pressure variation is important for the gathering pipeline design and operation .Using VOF model to simulate numerically the oil-water two phase flow in bend duct of oilfield surface gathering pipe under different moisture content of crude oil and fluid velocity .Through the analysis of the calculation results ,it was known that the moisture content of two phase flow and flow velocity has great influence on the pressure drop in bend duct .With the increase of moisture content ,the two phase flow pressure in bend duct increases .The elbow inner wall pressure is reduced while the speed increases ,the outer wall of the pressure increases while the rate decreases .While increasing the flow rate ,the high moisture content of the oil-water two phase pressure drop first decreases and then increases .

  14. 75 FR 36677 - Notice of Relocation/Change of Address for the Bureau of Land Management, Office of Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation/Change of Address for the Bureau of Land Management, Office of Pipeline Monitoring, Alaska State Office AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Office of Pipeline Monitoring, located at 411...

  15. Nova Gas's pipeline to Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia's peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI's success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI's ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners

  16. A comparison of natural gas pipeline options for the North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High prices and high demand for natural gas in the North American market, combined with a more positive investment climate, have renewed interest in the development of natural gas reserves in the Mackenzie Delta region of the Northwest Territories and Prudhoe Bay in Alaska. A prerequisite to developing these resources is construction of a pipeline. This report describes the results of an analysis of five of the six pipeline options which have been considered in recent years. The options considered are: (1) Mackenzie Valley Stand Alone, (2) a combination onshore Alaska North Slope with Mackenzie Valley, (3) a combination offshore Alaska North Slope with Mackenzie Valley, (4) the Alaska Natural Gas Transmission System (ANGTS) and (5) a combination of ANGTS and Dempster Lateral. The Mackenzie Valley with the Prudhoe Bay Onshore route was not included because benefits and costs are considered to be very similar to those of the Mackenzie Valley with Prudhoe Bay Offshore route. Both these would connect Alaska gas with gas from the Mackenzie Delta and ship both down the Mackenzie Valley. The report presents results of an analysis which focused on capital costs, employment and fiscal benefits to the Northwest Territories, employment and fiscal benefits to Canada, pipeline tolls and producer revenues. Results show that both the Northwest Territories and Canada as a whole would benefit most from a Mackenzie Valley and Offshore Prudhoe Bay Pipeline route because economic, employment and fiscal impacts are the highest. Tolls are also projected to be the lowest with this option; this would result in higher revenues to producers. Although all routes have the potential to affect the geology, hydrology, climate and biological aspects of the areas surrounding them, the environmental impacts for all routes appear to be moderate for the construction phase and low to negligible for the operation. Environmental implications are discussed in detail in Appendix B. 25 refs., 43 tabs., 9

  17. Pipeline transportation of emerging partially upgraded bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoverable reserves of Canada's vast oil deposits is estimated to be 335 billion barrels (bbl), most of which are in the Alberta oil sands. Canada was the largest import supplier of crude oil to the United States in 2001, followed by Saudi Arabia. By 2011, the production of oil sands is expected to increase to 50 per cent of Canada's oil, and conventional oil production will decline as more production will be provided by synthetic light oil and bitumen. This paper lists the announced oil sands projects. If all are to proceed, production would reach 3,445,000 bbl per day by 2011. The three main challenges regarding the transportation and marketing of this new production were described. The first is to expand the physical capacity of existing pipelines. The second is the supply of low viscosity diluent (such as natural gas condensate or synthetic diluent) to reduce the viscosity and density of the bitumen as it passes through the pipelines. The current pipeline specifications and procedures to transport partially upgraded products are presented. The final challenge is the projected refinery market constraint to process the bitumen and synthetic light oil into consumer fuel products. These challenges can be addressed by modifying refineries and increasing Canadian access in Petroleum Administration Defense District (PADD) II and IV. The technology for partial upgrading of bitumen to produce pipeline specification oil, reduce diluent requirements and add sales value, is currently under development. The number of existing refineries to potentially accept partially upgraded product is listed. The partially upgraded bitumen will be in demand for additional upgrading to end user products, and new opportunities will be presented as additional pipeline capacity is made available to transport crude to U.S. markets and overseas. The paper describes the following emerging partial upgrading methods: the OrCrude upgrading process, rapid thermal processing, CPJ process for

  18. Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) uses wheeled capsules (vehicles) to carry cargoes through a pipeline filled with air. Modern large diameter PCP systems utilize through flow booster pumps, also known as jet pump injectors. These create the pressure differentials required to propel multiple capsules through a pipeline, while allowing both terminals at atmospheric pressure. This is done by placing a booster pump midway along the pipeline, and designing it in such a way that capsules can bypass ...

  19. Induced voltages in metallic pipelines near power transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the continuous development of the electric power system and the pipeline networks used to convey oil or natural gas, cases of close proximity of high voltage structures and metallic pipelines become more and more frequent. Accordingly there is a growing concern about possible hazards resulting from voltages induced in the metallic pipelines by magnetic coupling with nearby power transmission lines. This paper presents a methodology for computation of the induced voltages in buried isolated metallic pipelines. A practical example of computation is also presented. (Author)

  20. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  1. An Overall Evaluation of Crude Oil in North Xinjiang on Urumchi-Lanzhou Pipeline%乌兰管道首站北疆原油综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远欣; 娄雅琪; 魏爱萍; 吕维华; 杨辉

    2012-01-01

    Overall evaluation of crude oil in North Xinjiang on Urumchi-Lanzhou Pipeline shows that the crude oil is of high density(867.3 kg/m3) with low sulfur and high wax,which is 0.1% and 11.46% respectively,so it is a middle quality crude oil.The reforming materials and gasoline distillation fractions are good cracking materials owing to their high alkane content,while kerosene and diesel distillation fractions need to be intensified refined because of their high sulfur and nitrogen contents,The decompressed wax oil is unsuitable for manufacture high viscosity index lubricant because the oleic acid content is high while the viscosity index is low.However,with high Cp(56.34%),low CA(7.69%),low carbon residue(0.013%) and less heavy metals,it is fine material for catalytic cracking.Residual oil is an ideal catalytic cracking and coking material,owing to small proportion of sulfur(0.26%) and asphalt(1.5%) belong to the second category in residual oil.%对乌兰管道首站北疆原油进行了综合评价。结果表明,该原油密度大(867.3 kg/m3),硫含量低(0.1%),蜡含量高(11.46%),属于中质低硫高蜡原油。重整原料和汽油馏分烷烃含量较高,适宜做乙烯裂解料。煤油馏分硫含量高,柴油馏分氮含量高,均需加强精制效果。减压蜡油酸值高、黏度指数低,不适合生产高黏度指数润滑油,Cp较高(56.34%),CA低(7.69%),残炭值低(0.013%),重金属含量较小,是催化裂解的优良原料。渣油较轻,属于第二类渣油,硫含量较小(0.26%),沥青质含量较低(1.5%),是理想的催化裂化原料的掺料或焦化原料。

  2. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables

  3. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  4. Design and development of two 600 LT oil spill recovery vessels for Prince William and Puget Sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of a long rang program to provide oil spill recovery capability in coastal and ocean waters, Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Valdez, Alaska and the Clean Sound Cooperative, Puget Sound, Washington, have awarded contracts of JBF Scientific to build six oil spill recovery systems. A portion of the contracts include a large 600 Lt vessel to Alyeska for operation in Prince William Sound and a similar large 600 LT vessel to Clean Sound for operation in Prot Angeles. The 600 LT vessels that are now being constructed are the largest built solely for oil spill recovery in the country. Each of the vessels is 123 feet long, has a beam of 31 feet, can collect 1300 barrels per hour and has 55,000 gallons of on board storage. This paper outlines their design requirements, the oil spill recovery method, the propulsion system for operation in the oil recovery mode, deck heating, heating of the recovered oil and oily debris recovery and handling. These vessels will be delivered under their own power from New England to Valdez, Alaska and Seattle, Washington. Both vessels are scheduled for completion in 1990

  5. Diluent evaluation for bitumen pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, P.; Cooper, S.; Alem, T. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands crudes are expected to represent over 75 per cent of the crude produced in Western Canada. Since bitumen is too viscous to be shipped in pipelines, it must be diluted with a lighter hydrocarbon. Although thermal processing could be used together with a smaller quantity of diluent, the resulting fuel would be less stable. This presentation reported on a study that examined the compatibility and stability of virgin and cracked bitumen in natural diluents and synthetic diluents. Diluent ranking for asphaltene stability in virgin bitumen and cracked bitumen was also examined. Four heavy oils and bitumens were used in this study, notably Athabasca bitumen (AB), cracked Athabasca bitumen, heavy oil B and a light crude C. Natural gas condensate and oil sand derived liquids were the 2 diluents used to investigate the insolubility number and solubility blending number of different crudes, diluents and their blends. It was concluded that the stability of different heavy oils can be determined accurately by observing flocculation of asphaltenes. The study also evaluated and ranked the strength of different diluents for keeping asphaltenes soluble in the oil matrix. Although synthetic diluents were found to be better solvents than natural gas condensates for bitumen, the order of the solvent strength was reversed when bitumen was processed. tabs., figs.

  6. Logistics aspects of pipeline transport in the supply of petroleum products

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The commercial transportation of crude oil and petroleum products by pipeline is receiving increased attention in South Africa. Transnet Pipeline Transport has recently obtained permission from the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa) to construct and operate a new petroleum products pipeline of 60 cm diameter from Durban to Gauteng. At an operating speed of 10 km/h the proposed 60 cm Transnet pipeline would be able to deliver 3,54 million litres of petroleum product per hour. Th...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

  8. Prediction of response and damaged length of a subsea pipeline after a full bore rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Mashayekh, Kourosh

    2012-01-01

    The combination of oil and gas reservoirs in sea areas with high shipping traffic brings some challenges for engineers. One of these challenges is related to subsea pipeline systems specially where water depth is classified as shallow or intermediate. Due to large number of vessels passing the area with shallow water depth, interaction between anchors of these vessels and the offshore pipeline can occur. If a dragging anchor hits and subsequently hooks the pipeline, the pipeline could be rupt...

  9. Investigation on the impacts of low-sulfur fuel used in residential heating and oil-fired power plants on PM2.5-concentrations and its composition in Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelasakultum, Ketsiri

    The effects of using low-sulfur fuel for oil-heating and oil-burning facilities on the PM2.5-concentrations at breathing level in an Alaska city surrounded by vast forested areas were examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry packages that were modified for the subarctic. Simulations were performed in forecast mode for a cold season using the National Emission Inventory 2008 and alternatively emissions that represent the use of low-sulfur fuel for oil-heating and oil-burning facilities while keeping the emissions of other sources the same as in the reference simulation. The simulations suggest that introducing low-sulfur fuel would decrease the monthly mean 24h-averaged PM2.5-concentrations over the city's PM2.5-nonattainment area by 4%, 9%, 8%, 6%, 5% and 7% in October, November, December, January, February and March, respectively. The quarterly mean relative response factors for PM2.5-concentrations of 0.96 indicate that with a design value of 44.7microg/m3. introducing low-sulfur fuel would lead to a new design value of 42.9microg/m 3 that still exceeds the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 35microg/m3. The magnitude of the relation between the relative response of sulfate and nitrate changes differs with temperature. The simulations suggest that in the city, PM2.5-concentrations would decrease more on days with low atmospheric boundary layer heights, low hydrometeor mixing ratio, low downward shortwave radiation and low temperatures. Furthermore, a literature review of other emission control measure studies is given, and recommendations for future studies are made based on the findings.

  10. Research on Improving Corrosion Resistance Property of Welded Joints of 13XΦA Steel Oil Pipeline%13XΦA钢石油管道焊接接头耐蚀性能改善的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许贵芝

    2013-01-01

    In this article, it introduced a kind of method to produce 13XΦA steel oil pipeline by high frequency welding and tempering treatment after 720 ℃. The results showed that welded joint possess ferrite-pearlite structure, the met allograph ic structure and mechanical performance are close to base metal, and is with high anti-corrosion stability. Based on a lot of tests, combined with the highest corrosion resistance property and the metallographic structure of mechanical performance specimen, the structure standard sample of 13XΦA steel pipeline welded joint was developed, which can quickly assess whether the corrosion resistance is reliable, and this kind of assessment method is quick and simple.%介绍了一种采用高频焊接、焊后720℃回火热处理工艺生产13XΦA钢石油管道的方法.研究结果表明,焊接接头具有铁素体-珠光体组织,其金相组织、力学性能与母材接近,并具有较高的耐蚀稳定性.在大量试验研究的基础上,综合最高耐蚀性能和力学性能试样的金相组织,研制出能迅速评估焊接接头耐蚀性是否可靠的13XΦA钢管道焊接接头组织标样,为石油管道的安全使用提供了一种快速简便的对照评估方法.

  11. Expert systems for integrity management in a crude oil pipeline; Sistemas expertos para gestion de integridad en sistemas de transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.P.; Pini, J. [Oldelval S.A., General Roca RN (Argentina)]. E-mail: mmartine@oldelval.com.ar; jpini@oldelval.com.ar; Rossi, J.P.; Pellicano, A. [Sintec S.A., Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: icesing@infovia.com.ar

    2003-07-01

    The study and modeling of corrosion processes aim at the accomplishment of three primary objectives: to increase safety operation margins, to reduce maintenance costs and to optimize available resources. The Integrity Expert System is based on a statistical propagation model of defects reported by high resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), fed with the information provided by corrosion sensors, repair interventions, field surveys and future inspections. As model results, defect depth, remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established: a medium term repair plan, an internal inspection program and both monitoring and mitigation technologies. System implementation in OLDELVAL was translated into two major effects of importance for the company integrity program: reduction in the pipeline probability of failure by corrosion by means of programmed repairs and optimization of the internal inspection investment plan by mans of an alternative programming. (author)

  12. Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents

  13. 顺序输送混油回掺的质量控制%The Quality Control in Back Mixing Treatment of Contaminated Oil from Batch Transportation Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向阳; 武士坤

    2011-01-01

    The production of contaminated oil during batch transportation operation and the data variation characteristic of main quality specifications during back mixing treatment were analyzed, and the quantity of oil back mixing was determined scientifically and reasonably to ensure the quality of oil up to grade.%介绍了管输油顺序输送混油的产生和处理方法,并以-10号、0号柴油和93号、95号汽油顺序输送为例,阐述了在保证油品质量的前提下,经实验室调和实验,根据有关规定测定混油性能,确定满足质量要求的最大允许混油浓度的质量控制方法。

  14. Trace Software Pipelining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; AndreasKrall; 等

    1995-01-01

    Global software pipelining is a complex but efficient compilation technique to exploit instruction-level parallelism for loops with branches.This paper presents a novel global software pipelining technique,called Trace Software Pipelining,targeted to the instruction-level parallel processors such as Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) and superscalar machines.Trace software pipelining applies a global code scheduling technique to compact the original loop body.The resulting loop is called a trace software pipelined (TSP) code.The trace softwrae pipelined code can be directly executed with special architectural support or can be transformed into a globally software pipelined loop for the current VLIW and superscalar processors.Thus,exploiting parallelism across all iterations of a loop can be completed through compacting the original loop body with any global code scheduling technique.This makes our new technique very promising in practical compilers.Finally,we also present the preliminary experimental results to support our new approach.

  15. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  16. Validation of pig operations through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, pigging operations in pipelines have been largely applied for different purposes: pipe cleaning, inspection, liquid removal and product separation, among others. An efficient and safe pigging operation requires that a number of operational parameters, such as maximum and minimum pressures in the pipeline and pig velocity, to be well evaluated during the planning stage and maintained within stipulated limits while the operation is accomplished. With the objective of providing an efficient tool to assist in the control and design of pig operations through pipelines, a numerical code was developed, based on a finite difference scheme, which allows the simulation of two fluid transient flow, like liquid-liquid, gas-gas or liquid-gas products in the pipeline. Modules to automatically control process variables were included to employ different strategies to reach an efficient operation. Different test cases were investigated, to corroborate the robustness of the methodology. To validate the methodology, the results obtained with the code were compared with a real liquid displacement operation of a section of the OSPAR oil pipeline, belonging to PETROBRAS, with 30'' diameter and 60 km length, presenting good agreement. (author)

  17. A Cheap Levitating Gas/Load Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel) gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. The main component of the natural gas is methane which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound). The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, does not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This aerial pipeline dramatically decreases the cost and the time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saves energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. The article contains a computed project for delivery 24 billion cubic meters of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year.

  18. [Northern Pipeline Agency] annual report, 1991-1992. [Administration du pipe-line du Nord] rapport annuel, 1991-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interest of Canada. This report reviews the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included. During 1991-92, plans for substantially expanding the capacity of the western and eastern legs of the pipeline to transport increased exports of Canadian natural gas to western and mid-western US markets continued to move forward. Plans for providing market access to US reserves at Prudhoe bay in Alaska, Canadian reserves in the Mackenzie Delta, and the reserves of both countries offshore in the Beaufort Sea remained in abeyance pending a strengthening in total US demand and a significant increase in prices. Final approval was given to a proposed expansion of the western leg to accomodate an increase in design capacity to more than 25.9 million cubic meters per day by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The issue of procurement for the pipeline remained a matter of controversy between Canadian and US authorities. 1 fig.

  19. 改进GA-BP算法的油气管道腐蚀剩余强度预测*%Prediction of Remaining Strength of Corroded Oil and Gas Pipeline Based on Improved GA-BP Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝财; 武建文; 李雷; 佘志刚

    2013-01-01

      利用人工神经网络能够逼近任意复杂函数的特性,可对在役油气管道的腐蚀剩余强度进行预测,但其缺点在于人工神经网络的权值和阈值的初始化分配具有随机性且只是一种局部优化算法,收敛过程中容易出现局部极小解。引入遗传算法的全局搜索特性和不依赖于梯度信息特性,对采用Levenberg-Marquardt(L-M)算法的BP神经网络的权值和阈值进行优化,并结合由敏感性分析确定的油气管道失效压力的影响因素,建立GA-BP(L-M)网络预测模型。采用Modified ASME B31G计算出的样本数据训练网络并进行预测。预测结果表明,GA-BP(L-M)网络预测模型可以相对更好地预测油气管道的失效压力,在满足工程需要的前提下,是一种更加科学、准确的预测模型。%  The remaining strength of the in-service corrode d oil and gas pipeline was predicted based on artificial neural net-work’s ability to approximate complex function. But artificial neural network has drawbacks as follows:the initial distribution of weight and threshold value is a stochastic process and it was the local optimization algorithm,and that the local minimum solution tends to appear in the convergence process. Therefore,the weight and threshold value of BP neural network using L-M algorithm were optimized based on the global search ability and independence of the gradient information of genetic algorithm, and with consideration of the influencing factors of failure pressure of oil and gas pipeline determined by sensitivity analysis, the GA-BP(L-M)network model was built. The network was trained using sample of Modified ASME B31G and predictions were made. The results show that the GA-BP(L-M)network model can better predict failure pressure of oil and gas pipeline, which proves to be a more scientific and accurate model.

  20. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  1. Muskox of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the muskox of Alaska. The report summarizes the history of muskoxen in Alaska, factors affecting the distribution of muskox, domestication and...

  2. Alaska Radiometric Ages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Radiometric Age file is a database of radiometric ages of rocks or minerals sampled from Alaska. The data was collected from professional publications...

  3. Understanding the Impact of Open-Framework Conglomerates on Water-Oil Displacements: Victor Interval of the Ivishak Reservoir, Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Ritzi, Robert W; Dominic, David F

    2014-01-01

    The Victor Unit of the Ivishak Formation in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield is characterized by high net-to-gross fluvial sandstones and conglomerates. The highest permeability is found within sets of cross-strata of open-framework conglomerate (OFC). They are preserved within unit bar deposits and assemblages of unit bar deposits within compound (braid) bar deposits. They are thief zones limiting enhanced oil recovery. We incorporate recent research that has quantified important attributes of their sedimentary architecture within preserved deposits. We use high-resolution models to demonstrate the fundamental aspects of their control on oil production rate, water breakthrough time, and spatial and temporal distribution of residual oil saturation. We found that when the pressure gradient is oriented perpendicular to the paleoflow direction, the total oil production and the water breakthrough time are larger, and remaining oil saturation is smaller, than when it is oriented parallel to paleoflow. The pressure differe...

  4. AN ECONOMIC ESTIMATION OF DAMAGE TO RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINE PROJECTS ——TAKING SHAN-GAN GAS PIPELINES AS A CASE%输油气管道工程对资源与环境损害的经济评估 ——以陕-甘天然气输气管道为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁春霞; 贾慧兰; 于云江

    2000-01-01

    Pipeline engineering of natural gas and oil can influence natural resources and environment such as biological and land resources, atmospheric environment, hydrological and geological environment. Based on the case of Shan-Gan (Shaanxi-Gansu) Gas Pipeline, this paper discusses the adverse effect of pipeline engineering on the Loess Plateau and estimated economic loss by valuation methods such as market approach and rehabilitation approach. Four aspects are analysed which include the loss of crop yield, the damage of woodland and grassland, soil erosion and desertification. The results showed that construction of pipelines has more seriously destroyed land and forest resources. These activities have not only caused decrease in crop yield, carrying capacity of grassland and growth of trees but also loss of land fertility, damage of surface stable structure, the higher risk of geological disasters and other hazards. So the economic loss assessment should take external cost into account. But the conventional approaches of environmental effect assessment readily neglected these potential factors and their persistent effects and underestimated the economic loss. Thus, two main problems were caused: 1) the estimate of resources and environmental loss was incorrect and 2) the economic responsibility was unclear. It was disadvantage for conservation and rehabilitation of eco-environment.%长输油气管线的修建对于沿线地区的资源及其环境具有一定的破坏作用。本文应用环境经济学的方法如市场价值法、恢复和防护费用法等方法,评价修建油气管道对环境资源影响的经济损害程度。以陕-甘天然气输气管道为例,从农作物产量损失、林地和草地资源的损害、水土流失损失以及沙漠化对土地资源的损害4个方面评估了修建该管道对资源的经济损害。结果表明,管道施工对林业资源和土地资源的危害程度最大,影响力也比较长久。同时也表

  5. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... sufficient to protect the public in the event of a gas pipeline leak or rupture? Are there ways that PHMSA... pipeline operators. In 2003, similar IM regulations were enacted for gas pipelines (68 FR 69778; 12/15/2003... pipelines in the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-481, which has since been......

  6. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    loss exceedance probability curve used by insurers to address their solvency and manage their portfolio risk. We analyze risk profile changes in areas with large population density and for structures of economic and financial importance: the Trans-Alaska pipeline, industrial facilities in Valdez, and typical residential wood buildings in Anchorage, Fairbanks and Juneau.

  7. Environmental management of the OSBAT 24'' oil pipeline: reached practical results; Gestao ambiental do Oleoduto OSBAT 24{sup :} resultados praticos alcancados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Ricardo N.; Garibaldi, Celia M.; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Maira B.; Oliveira, Flavio M. de; Perim, Leandro A. [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil); Baptista, Sidney L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of this article is to present considerations about the practical results obtained over the implementation of specialized technical services for environmental monitoring and control of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' pipeline, located in a stretch of about 32 km from the Aquatic Terminal of Sao Sebastiao - SP (TASSE) to the district Camburi. This area is characterized by intense environmental complexity by the presence of the Serra do Mar State Park, under enormous natural diversity of preserved Mata Atlantica forest, contrasting with a considerable pole of urban sprawl whose population growth rates (4.66% pa) and economic they are above the average for the Sao Paulo State. The presentation of results considers the practical implementation of the package of environmental management tools used and seek verification of the scope and quality of the following items: general Review of care as environmental registers occurred at different periods (eg monthly, bimonthly, half, etc.); survey of the nature of environmental registers; environmental registers recovered; cases of non-compliance and the main control measures implemented; evaluation of environmental performance; recommendations and learning. (author)

  8. Summary report from the NOFO 1995 oil-on-water exercise (1) Testing of field dispersant application by a SOKAF 3000 helicopter bucket and with a Clearspray system from boat (2) Underwater release of the Troll crude from 107 meters depth simulating a pipeline leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives for the sea trials described in this report were to assess the effectiveness of different methods of applying dispersant concentrates on oil slicks and to study the behaviour of oil released from 100 m depth simulating a pipeline leakage. The report integrates and presents the major findings from the various data reports from the field trial. When a modern dispersant is correctly applied from a helicopter bucket or from spray arms on a ship, it can disperse the thick oil completely within 10-30 minutes, provided it is used within the oil's ''window of opportunity'' for dispersant use. No significant water-in-oil emulsification of the oil in the underwater plume was observed. This is probably because the release pressure was low and no gas was released with the oil. The extensive documentation of this first large experimental underwater release (25 m3 of crude oil) has given a unique data set for calibrating models for underwater oil plume behaviour. 15 refs., 17 figs

  9. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Safety Representatives (NAPSR) on new distribution pipeline construction. The workshop will allow stakeholders in the pipeline safety community to learn about and discuss construction issues and...

  10. Pipelines : one size fits all : Statoil pig inspects 42-inch and 28-inch diameter pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2006-12-15

    This article provided details of a new multi-diameter pigging tool used to detect faulty pipelines at the Asgard oil and gas field off the Norwegian coast. The Asgard pipeline risers rest on an export riser base (ERB) which sits on the seabed and uses several valves to seal off the risers in case of leaks. Pigging of the pipelines presented a problem at the Asgard site as the first 200 metres of pipeline are 28 inches in diameter, while the remaining 707 km is 42 inches. Opting for 28 inch valves meant that the ERB could be smaller, lighter and cheaper. However, no inspection tool could cope with the huge change in diameter. A multi-diameter pig was deployed at the site in 2004. The pig was mounted on a specially designed suspension system supported by wheels. In order to find pipeline defects, the pig uses magnetic flux leakage, which magnetizes the pipe wall and magnetic field changes according to variations in wall thickness. Designed by Statoil, the tool was loaded onshore into a pig launcher, which was deployed from a sub-sea construction vessel via guide wires attached to the ERB. Using remotely controlled vehicles, the pig was launched into the pipeline as the system continued to transport gas. The operation was completed without creating hydrates in the pipeline, and no corrosion was detected during the inspection. Reductions in gas through-put were minimal during the deployment. The Asgard pigging operation involved 350 valve operations and 700 procedure steps. Besides having minimal impact on pipeline operations, the Statoil pig performed well and sustained minimal wear and tear due to its design. The multi-diameter tool has made it possible for other operators to inspect pipelines that have never been inspected before. It was concluded that Statoil is now looking for a collaborating partner that will provide the service to industry while continuing development of the technology. 6 figs.

  11. Proliferating pipelines: next growth wave gathering force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2001-11-05

    The fresh burst of activity in pipeline planning and construction following the buyout of Vancouver--based Westcoast Energy by Duke Energy of Charlotte, North Carolina is discussed. Although construction tapered off over the past year after the completion of the Maritime and Northern Pipeline (M and NP) and Alliance pipelines, the expansion of pipeline construction has not yet reached its peak. The scale of the Westcoast-Duke deal ($8.5 billion) underlines the extent of changes in the pipeline industry, much of which is yet to be realized. New developments described are such as Enbridge Inc's second stage in a long-range extension of the Interprovincial Pipe Line for oil from the West to Central Canada and the US Midwest to carry the projected 38 per cent increase in western oil production by 2010. In the north-eastern section of Alberta Trans Mountain Pipe Line is putting the finishing touches to its $700 million Corridor Pipeline to provide 400,000 barrels/day of additional capacity. On the Atlantic coast four new pipeline projects are lined up and a fifth is waiting in line, only two years after gas production started offshore of Nova Scotia. This includes the last missing link in the cross-Canada pipeline link. Enbridge and Montreal-based Gaz Metropolitain set a target of late 2004 for putting in service their proposed 262 km-long line to draw gas off the M and NP in New Brunswick and move its west to Quebec City for Gaz Metropolitain and to Toronto-based Enbridge Consumer Gas. In another development PanCanadian Energy signed a 10-year transportation deal with M and NP to ship 400,000 million cu ft per day from its one billion dollar Deep Panuke production development offshore of Nova Scotia. There are other developments waiting in the wings such as Houston-based Tatham Inc with its North Atlantic Pipeline Project calling a $3.2 billion, 2,200 km seafloor gas line grid to be built in stages reaching northward from the US to the Sable area and eventually to

  12. Moose movement and distribution in response to winter seismological exploration on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Although oil and gas development first occurred in Alaska on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR) in 1957, impacts on wildlife from oil exploration and...

  13. Slovakia should be more active in pipeline projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Union is interested also like USA to lower its own dependence on oil distributors from problematic region of Persian Gulf. Therefore the attention is turning on to Russia and to region of Caspian Sea. However except political and safety problems the import of oil from these territories meets also the lack of transport capacities. Slovakia can become the important transit territory, where could flow more Russian or Caspian oil to the European market. After a break-up of Soviet Union Russia lost oil export terminals on the coast of Baltic Sea. These terminals became a part of territories of three independent Baltic countries. The frequent storms in the region of Novorossiysk are disadvantage of Black Sea's ports Novorossiysk and Tuapse. The overloading of Turkish straits Bospor and Dardanely, which connect Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, is becoming a new and more serious problem. In the present time up to 500 tankers swim over through these straits annually, which transport together around 70 million tones of oil and of oil products. Owing to the rising mining of oil the only one way out is the circumvention of these straits. New pipeline from Baku through Georgia to Turkish terminal Ceyhan on the coast of Mediterranean Sea is the only one but not sufficient solution. Therefore Russia promotes the project of integration of pipelines Druzba and Adria. The intensions is to open the continuous export pipeline way through Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia and Hungary into Croatian terminal Omisajl on the coast of Adriatic Sea. Other possibility how to rise the oil transit through Slovakia is the construction of pipeline to the refinery OMW in Schweechat near Vienna. In the end of the last year the representatives of Transpetrol, Yukos and OMW signed the contract of its construction in Bratislava. Annual capacity of this pipeline is 2 million tonnes of oil. Other possibility how to transport the Caspian oil is pipeline Odessa-Brody. More then 600 km of this pipeline

  14. Optimization of infrasound wave-based leak detection and positioning system for oil pipeline%次声波输油管道泄漏检测与定位系统优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武伟强; 赵会军; 江光世; 王小兵; 周宁; 王树立

    2012-01-01

    Due to interference from ambient noise, signals acquired by infrasound wave sensors of oil pipeline leak detection and positioning systems are subject to large errors. To this end, hardware based dual-sensor detection methods are used to filter noises of detection signals. It is the specific method that two identical sensors are respectively installed at both ends of the detection pipeline, including one measuring sensor and one compensation sensor, and the output results of the compensation sensor and disturbance variable of the measuring sensor are used to make output results of the detection system not affected by the disturbance variables except for detected parameters so as to achieve signal compensation. Experimental application is made after system optimization, and the error between calculated leak point and set leak point is 123 m and positioning accuracy is relatively high, indicating feasibility of the method.%因受环境噪声干扰,输油管道泄漏检测与定位系统次声波传感器采集到的信号误差较大.为此,采用基于硬件的双传感器检测方法,对检测信号进行滤噪处理.具体方法是:在检测管道的两端分别安装两个同型传感器,一个作为测量传感器,一个作为补偿传感器,利用补偿传感器的输出结果和测量传感器的干扰量作用,使检测系统的输出结果不受被检测参数以外的干扰量影响,实现信号的补偿.系统优化后进行实验应用,计算泄漏点与设定泄漏点的误差为123m,定位精度相对较高,验证了该方法的可行性.

  15. Pipeline system operability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

  16. Design and Experimental Analysis of Steam Jet Nozzle in Cleaning Heavy Oil Pipeline%蒸汽射流喷嘴设计与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆伟

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at tubing for heavy grease accumulation,being difficult to clean and other is-sues,combining theoretical studies,numerical simulation and field trials,a steam jet nozzle is de-signed.Simulation results show that the temperature and pressure inside the steam jet nozzle gra-dient distribution in the tube.It can increase the release of latent heat of condensation of steam jet efficiency in the heavy tube and effectively clean heavy grease attached to the wall,which can play a good cleaning effect.Field tests show that the cleaning nozzle can effectively improve the quality of heavy oil pipe,which can achieve,better cleaning effect compared to a straight nozzle.The de-vice can significantly increase the area of heavy oil recovery of heavy oil pipe cleaning repair work efficiency and economic benefits.%针对稠油油管油垢堆积、清洗难等问题,结合理论研究、数值模拟及现场试验,设计出一种蒸汽射流清洗喷嘴。数值模拟结果表明,蒸汽射流喷嘴内的温度和压力在管内呈梯度分布,可提高蒸汽射流在稠油管内的凝结潜热释放效率,有效清洗附着于管壁的稠油油垢;现场试验表明,该喷嘴可有效提高稠油油管的清洗质量,相比直喷嘴能达到更好的清洗效果。稠油油管蒸汽射流清洗喷嘴及其装置,可大幅提高我国稠油开采区内稠油油管清洗修复工作的效率。

  17. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  18. Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

  19. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  20. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures

  1. Coal database for Cook Inlet and North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Gary D.; Spear, Brianne D.; Sprowl, Jennifer M.; Dietrich, John D.; McCauley, Michael I.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This database is a compilation of published and nonconfidential unpublished coal data from Alaska. Although coal occurs in isolated areas throughout Alaska, this study includes data only from the Cook Inlet and North Slope areas. The data include entries from and interpretations of oil and gas well logs, coal-core geophysical logs (such as density, gamma, and resistivity), seismic shot hole lithology descriptions, measured coal sections, and isolated coal outcrops.

  2. Landscape susceptibility, hazard and risk assessments along pipeline corridors in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais-Stevens, A.; Couture, R.; Page, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Koch, J.; Clague, J.J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada); Lipovsky, P.S. [Yukon Geological Survey, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This article discussed work that was carried out to inventory landslides and assess hazards along two proposed gas-pipeline routes in the North. Landslide inventories and hazard assessments are necessary to quantify and qualify the risk of environmental impacts from landslides on linear infrastructure. The Yukon Alaska Highway Pipeline and the Mackenzie Gas Project Pipeline, which will both be over 800 kilometres in length, will cross harsh landscapes characterized by permafrost terrain and will be at risk from geological hazards, including landslides with debris flows, earthquakes, subsidence, and permafrost degradation. The work involved inventorying and mapping landslides via aerial photography and field visits to identify the frequency-magnitude relationships for debris flow fans along the route and the creation of qualitative parametric landslide maps for both proposed pipeline corridors. A good correlation was found between actual landslide distribution and the landslide susceptibility maps. For the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Corridor, most landslides have occurred in fine unconsolidated sediments and shallow slopes. Landslides in the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor mostly happened in unconsolidated sediments, but a few took place in bedrock with high relief. The preliminary investigation revealed that a slope hazard exists in both corridors and must be taken into account during pipeline development. The results are intended to facilitate better decision-making for planning, constructing, and maintaining safe and economically viable pipeline routes in Northern Canada. The mapping methodology was outlined. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  3. An oilspill risk analysis for the Beaufort Sea, Alaska (proposed sale 71)outer continental shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, W.B.; Hopkins, Dorothy; Lanfear, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine the relative environmental hazards of developing oil in different regions of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, (Proposed Sale 71) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease area. The probability of spill occurrences, likely movement of oil slicks, and locations of resources vulnerable to spilled oil were analyzed. The model predicted movement of the center of spill mass and estimated the times between spill occurrence and contact with various resources, to allow a qualitative assessment of oil characteristics at the time of contact; no direct computation was made of weathering and cleanup. The model also assumed that any oil spilled under ice would remain in place, unchanged, until spring breakup. Ice movements, or travel of oil under ice, if occurring, would affect the results in a manner not directly predictable at this time. The combined results of spill occurrence and spill movement predictions yielded estimates of the overall risks associated with development of the proposed lease area. Assuming that oil exists in the lease area (a 99.3-percent chance) it is estimated that the leasing of the tracts proposed for OCS Sale 71 will result in an expected 9.2 oilspills (of 1,000 barrels or larger) over the lease lifetime of 25 years. This estimate is based on historic oilspill accident data for platforms and pipelines on the U.S. OCS (Gulf of Mexico and California). The estimated probability that land will be contacted by one or more oilspills (of 1,000 barrels or larger) that have been at sea less than 30 days (not counting any time trapped under ice) is greater than 99.5 percent. If oilspill accident data for Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, is used in the analysis, it is estimated that 5.6 oilspills (1,000 barrels or larger) will occur over the lease lifetime. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills (1,000 barrels or larger)will occur and contact land is99 percent. The results of a recent experimental cleanup operation for

  4. Meteorological aspects of benzene transport, dispersion and personal exposure in Valdez, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, D.R.; Ball, R.J. [TRC Environmental Corp., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Valdez Air Health Study (VAHS) was conducted in Valdez, Alaska to determine the personal exposure of the residential population of Valdez to certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The VAHS used the EPA`s Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) with continuous meteorology, air quality and intense tracer measurements to monitor personal and indoor/outdoor concentrations of VOCs in the community. The Valdez fjord is the site of the Alyeska Marine Terminal, the largest crude oil loading terminal in the United States, with a maximum capacity of 2.2 million barrels per day. The Alyeska Marine Terminal is the transfer point for Prudhoe Bay crude oil from the pipeline to marine tankers. During 1990, the terminal and marine tankers were estimated to emit approximately 450 metric tonnes/year of benzene to the air at an average throughput of 1.8 million barrels/day while benzene emissions from other sources in the basin were estimated to be approximately 3 tonnes/year.

  5. Feasibility Study on Crack Detection of Pipelines Using Piezoceramic Transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Guofeng Du; Qingzhao Kong; Timothy Lai; Gangbing Song

    2013-01-01

    Damage detection of pipelines is of great significance in terms of safety in the oil and gas industry. Currently, lead zirconate titanates (PZTs) are the most popular piezoceramic materials and show great potential in the applications of structural health monitoring. In this paper, the authors present a feasibility study on the crack detection and severity monitoring of pipelines using PZT transducers. Due to their electromechanical properties, the piezoceramic transducers can be either as an...

  6. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  7. Reliability of pipelines. Innovations in technical regulatory guides; Sicherheit von Pipelines. Neuerungen im technischen Regelwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, Christiane [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Risikomanagement'

    2010-03-15

    Gas and oil pipelines are important elements of assured energy supply. There are laws, ordinances, technical and organisational rules to ensure high safety and protection of humans and environment. These legal specifications must be amended from time to time because of new EU regulations involving legal amendments, because of experience gained in incidents and accidents, and also because the state of the art has changed. The contribution describes the amendments of the pipeline regulation (TRFL) of 2003, which are soon to be published. (orig.)

  8. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell's oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs

  10. Fermentative hydrogen production by two novel strains of Enterobacter aerogenes HGN-2 and HT 34 isolated from sea buried crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghearachchi, H.S.; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Singh, Sneha; Mandal, Ajay K.; Lal, Banwari [Environmental and Industrial Biotechnology Division, The Energy and Resource Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003 (India); Aginihotri, Anil [Corporate HSF, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, New Delhi (India)

    2009-09-15

    Present study investigated fermentative hydrogen production of two novel isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes HGN-2 and HT 34 isolated from oil water mixtures. The two isolates were identified as novel strains of E. aerogenes based on 16S rRNA gene. The batch fermentations of two strains from glucose and xylose were carried out using economical culture medium under various conditions such as temperature, initial pH, NaCl, Ni{sup +}/Fe{sup ++}, substrate concentrations for enhanced fermentation process. Both the strains favoured wide range of pH (6.5-8.0) at 37 C for optimum production (2.20-2.23 mol H{sub 2}/mol-glucose), which occurred through acetate/butyrate pathway. At 55 C, both strains favoured 6.0-6.5 and acetate type fermentation was predominant in HT 34. Hydrogen production by HT 34 from xylose was highly pH dependant and optimum production was at pH 6.5 (circa 1.98 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-xylose) through acetate pathway. The efficiency of the strain HGN-2 at pH 6.5 was 1.92-1.94 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-xylose, and displayed both acetate and butyrate pathways. At 55 C, very low hydrogen production was detected (less than 0.5 m mol/mol-xylose). (author)

  11. The North Slope of Alaska and Tourism: Potential Impacts on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, L. R.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrocarbon industry of Alaska is currently the leading producer of revenue for the Alaskan state economy. Second only to hydrocarbons is the tourism industry. Tourism has been a viable industry since the 1890's when cruises touted the beauty of glaciers and icebergs along the Alaskan coastline. This industry has seen a steady growth for the past few decades throughout the state. The North Slope of Alaska, particularly Prudhoe Bay and the National Petroleum Reserve, has long been associated with hydrocarbon development and today displays a landscape dotted with gravel drill pads, gas and oil pipelines and housing for the oil workers. While tourism is not usually considered hand in hand with the hydrocarbon industry, it has mimicked the development of hydrocarbons almost since the beginning. Today one not only sees the effects of the oil industry on the North Slope, but also the tourist industry as planes unload dozens of tourists, or tour buses and private vehicles arrive daily via the Dalton Highway. In Deadhorse, hotels that once only housed the oil workers now welcome the tourist, offering tours of the oil fields and adjacent areas and have become jumping off sites for wilderness trips. Tourism will create jobs as well as revenue. However, at present, there are few restrictions or guidelines in place that will deal with the potential impacts of increased tourism. Because of this there are many concerns about the possible impacts tourism and the infrastructure development will have on the North Slope. To list several concerns: (1) What are the impacts of increased tourism and the infrastructure development? (2) What will the impacts be on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), which sits a mere 60 miles to the east of Deadhorse? (3) Will hydrocarbon development in ANWR and the associated infrastructure exacerbate potential impact by encouraging greater use of the Refuge by tourists? (4) Will tourism itself have a negative impact on this fragile

  12. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  13. Decomposed software pipelining

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J.; Eisenbeis, Christine

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a new view on software pipelining in which we consider software pipelining as an instruction level transformation from a vector of one-dimension to a matrix of two-dimensions. Thus, the software pipelining problem can be naturally decomposed into two subproblems, one to determine the row-number of operations in the matrix and another to determine the column-numbers. Using this view-point as a basis, we develop a new loop scheduling approach, called decomposed software pip...

  14. Pipeline to connect Bratislava and Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A connection will be built to connect pipeline Druzba and OMV refinery in Schwechat close to Vienna. This is the conclusion of a Memorandum of Understanding signed by Chairman of Board of Directors of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer and the First Vice-President for Marketing in Jukos, Michail Brudno in Vienna last week. The sixty-kilometres long pipeline should be completed in 2005. First oil from western Siberia should flow into Austria in 2006. OMV signed a ten-years contract for 2 million tons of oil per year. This volume represents about 20 percent of the total capacity of the refinery in Schwechat. 'For us this is a price-effective solution. The transport will be cheaper,' said Vice-Chairman of Board of Directors of OMV, Gerhard Roiss. OMV plans to expand in the central-European region and to increase its current number of petrol-stations from the current 1.600 to 2.000 by 2008. Starting capacity of the pipeline will be 3.6 million tons that can be increased to 5 million tons. In Austria the pipeline will be operated by a new joint company where 26 percent will be controlled by OMV and 74 by Jukos or 'structures connected to Jukos'. The total investment related to connection of Druzba and the Austrian refinery should be about 28 million Euro (1.2 billion Slovak crowns). Investments in Slovakia should reach about 7.5 million Euro (314 million Slovak crowns). A major part of these cost should be covered by Jukos. The Slovak part will owned and operated by Transpetrol, a.s., Bratislava that operates and owns all the pipelines in Slovakia

  15. Drug Development Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infant Care Our Research Our Research Approach Drug Development Pipeline Clinical Trials CF Patient Registry Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics (CFFT) Therapeutics Development Network North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference For Researchers ...

  16. The Russian oil economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Risky Business - Oil in the Russian Empire 3. The Command Oil Economy 4. An Industry Fit for a Superpower 5. Malaise at the End of the Command Era 6. Desperate Measures 7. The New Wild West 8. Russian Oil in the 21 st Century Appendix A. The Early Regional Development of the Russian Oil Industry, 1860-1975 B. Reserve Classifications of the Soviet Union C. Long-Distance Oil Pipelines in Russia, 1908-1988 D. Internal Oil Pricing Policies of the Soviet Union. (Author)

  17. The Best of Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑钧

    2011-01-01

    Nothing awakes Alaska like a whale exploding out of the water or an eagle (鹰) pulling a silver fish from the river. Combine these images with high mountains, brilliant icebergs and wonderful meals and you really do have the best of Alaska!

  18. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J. (comps.)

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  19. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  20. Pargo/Garoupa 22'' crude oil pipeline from reconstruction to inspection: stages of the pipeline rehabilitation into the standard of guarantee of structural integrity; Oleoduto Pargo/Garoupa 22'' da reconstrucao a inspecao: etapas de re-habilitacao de um duto ao padrao de garantia de integridade estrutural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Aldo Renato; Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Medeiros, Carlos Eduardo Amosso; Mori, Eduardo Teruo; Melo, Francimario da Silva Vieira de; Ribeiro, Jussara Carvalho; Moura Neto, Rodolfo Jose de [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2003-07-01

    The Pipeline Pargo/Garoupa 22'' is 17 km long transfers the production of six platforms of the Northeast Pole for the Garoupa Central platform in Campos' Basin. This pipeline works with a flowrate of 450 m{sup 3}/h and it began to operate in 1987. The existence of a non-piggable sub sea manifold 500 meters down stream PGP-1 allied with receiver's absence impeded the passage of any type of pigs. The strategic importance of the pipeline allied with the need of operational safety assurance took PETROBRAS/UN-BC to the decision of building a pigs receiver in PGP-1 and to reestablish pig ability assembling a new riser and a new sub sea pipeline covering 500 meters, both in the diameter of 22 inches. After the conclusion, it was carried out a long campaign of cleaning, with emphasis in the development new drawings of specific pigs for the removal of the internal debris accumulated since the beginning of the operation. Several accessories were developed in order to improve the removal and arresting of wax and barium sulfate scale. Finally, the pipeline was inspected with a high resolution MFL pig. The present work describes all the stages of this pipeline rehabilitation, from the adaptation of the submarine facilities and of surface, going by the extensive campaign of cleaning and culminated with the inspection and the evaluation of the integrity. (author)

  1. Failure analysis of high strength pipeline with single and multiple corrosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study failure of high strength pipelines with single corrosion. • We give regression equations for failure pressure prediction. • We propose assessment procedure for pipelines with multiple corrosions. - Abstract: Corrosion will compromise safety operation of oil and gas pipelines, accurate determination of failure pressure finds importance in residual strength assessment and corrosion allowance design of onshore and offshore pipelines. This paper investigates failure pressure of high strength pipeline with single and multiple corrosions using nonlinear finite element analysis. On the basis of developed regression equations for failure pressure prediction of high strength pipeline with single corrosion, the paper proposes an assessment procedure for predicting failure pressure of high strength pipeline with multiple corrosions. Furthermore, failure pressures predicted by proposed solutions are compared with experimental results and various assessment methods available in literature, where accuracy and versatility are demonstrated

  2. Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

    2013-07-01

    Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

  3. Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

  4. Decision and report to Congress on the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System. [Selection of Alcan project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The selection of the Alcan project was made after an exhaustive review required by the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Act of 1976 determined that the Alcan Pipeline System will deliver more natural gas at less cost to a greater number of Americans than any other proposed transportation system.

  5. Ecology of wolverines in northwest Alaska: Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In response to proposed oil and gas exploration and development activities in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska NPRA, a study of wolverine ecology was initiated...

  6. A raptor survey of the Canning and Kongakut Rivers, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) directs the Department of the Interior to assess the potential for oil and natural gas resources of the...

  7. Pipelines from the north : a U.S. perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States will continue to look to Canada and Alaska for a significant part of its natural gas supply in an effort to meet its growing demand for energy. The United States depends on Canadian gas as a reliable and secure supply of energy, and is therefore examining natural gas markets and the wide range of supply opportunities. This presentation highlighted changes in cross border natural gas trade in North America and noted that 94 per cent of natural gas going to the United States from Canada is shipped via pipeline. On the liquefied natural gas (LNG) front, U.S. exports to Mexico now exceed imports, but import volumes from Trinidad and Nigeria are increasing as expected. Total import volumes in 2001 surpassed the previous year. A look at the infrastructure of LNG in the United States was also presented along with the advantages and limitations of each option. Cost comparisons were also presented. It was noted that any import or LNG project would result in unique economics. LNG projects are now cheaper because of better engineering, economies of scale and better pipeline economics. The U.S. National Energy Policy recommends that the pipeline to bring Alaskan gas to U.S. markets should be constructed as soon as possible. It was emphasized that any project to ship natural gas from Alaska to the lower 48 will need to work closely with Canada in order to be successful. 15 figs

  8. Thermohydraulics analysis for pipeline increase capacity; Estudo termohidraulico para ampliacao de capacidade de oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Krause, Philipe Barroso; Pires, Luis Fernando G. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos - SIMDUT; Souza, Antonio Geraldo de [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper intent to assist the development of a oil pipeline expansion study. It will show that each pipeline has its own solution, because it has several variables of technical, economical and environmental order, as well as several ones of political nature. (author)

  9. Focus on safety : a comparative analysis of pipeline safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the design, construction, operation and abandonment of interprovincial and international pipelines within Canada. This publication provides a review of the safety performance of the NEB-regulated oil and gas pipeline industry. It is based on data received through incident reporting under the 1999 Onshore Pipeline Regulations and Safety Performance Indicators. In an effort to assess the performance of NEB-regulated pipelines relative to pipelines constructed under other organizations, a comparison is provided between the performance of NEB-regulated pipeline companies and those of external reference organizations. Details on safety performance from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001 were presented. The 6 key indicators that provide comprehensive measures of safety performance for pipeline companies include: fatalities; ruptures; injury frequencies; liquid hydrocarbon releases; gas releases; and, damage prevention. This report reveals that safety has improved in some areas, such as damage due to excavations, but the Board is still concerned about an increase in the rate of contractor injury. However, the Board also acknowledges that accurate projections cannot be made based on 2 years of data. The safety performance of NEB-regulated pipelines is consistent with reference organizations with some exceptions. There was a significant difference in data between 2000 and 2001, some of which is due to the completion of major construction projects. There were no fatalities recorded by NEB-regulated pipeline companies. The number of ruptures increased from 1 in 2000 to 2 in 2001, with the leading cause being pipeline corrosion and the second most common cause being operational errors. The number of spills decreased from 265 in 2000 to 55 in 2001. The high number of spills in 2000 was due, in part, to the high level of construction activity. refs., 6 tabs., 14 figs

  10. A natural resource: what happens when oil interests conflict with the needs of a northern caribou herd and the people who depend on it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) established a wildlife refuge to protect the calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou, striking oil in Prudhoe Bay led to the construction of a pipeline, which even in decline delivers one million barrels of oil a day to the Port of Valdez. Given the money generated by the oil industry, it is not surprising that most Alaska legislators favour extraction of the nature reserve's petroleum resources. So far, legislation by the President, supported by a group of senators, managed to keep the drilling rigs out of the nursery of the Porcupine caribou. In Canada, too, aboriginal leaders and environmentalist groups have worked hard to ensure that the federal government continues to oppose the leasing of the coastal plain to developers. Development would negatively affect the Porcupine caribou herd, the traditional way of life of aboriginal communities, and the ecological integrity of Ivvavik National Park. Although the fate of the calving ground will ultimately be decided in Washington, the health of the Porcupine caribou herd is a true cross-border issue. So far, the two governments have managed to stave off development and to assert that such a relatively pristine and intact biosphere should remain intact. However, the pressure by the oil industry giants is relentless, and requires constant vigilance

  11. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process...

  12. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes in operation. The research was conducted using two operating laboratory models imitated a part of the operating pipeline. The results of finite-element modeling, identification of pipe natural modes and its modification under the influence of virtual failure are discussed. The work considers the results of experimental research of dynamic behavior of the operating pipe models using one of OMA techniques and comparing dynamic properties with the modeled data. The study results demonstrate sensitivity of modal shape parameters to modification of operating pipeline technical state. Two strategies of pipeline repair – with continuously condition-based monitoring with proposed technology and without such monitoring, was discussed. Markov chain reliability models for each strategy were analyzed and reliability improvement factor for proposed technology of monitoring in compare with traditional one was evaluated. It is resumed about ability of operating pipeline condition monitoring by measuring dynamic deformations of the operating pipe and OMA techniques application for dynamic properties extraction.

  13. Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals Propagation in Buried Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, A. L.; Lapshin, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the issues concerning acoustic signals propagation in the large-diameter oil pipelines caused by mechanical action on the pipe body. Various mechanisms of signals attenuation are discussed. It is shown that the calculation of the attenuation caused only by internal energy loss, i.e, the presence of viscosity, thermal conductivity and liquid pipeline wall friction lead to low results. The results of experimental studies, carried out using the existing pipeline with a diameter of 1200 mm. are shown. It is experimentally proved that the main mechanism of signal attenuation is the energy emission into the environment. The numerical values of attenuation coefficients that are 0,14- 0.18 dB/m for the pipeline of 1200 mm in diameter, in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 500 Hz, are determined.

  14. Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  15. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  16. Census Snapshot: Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Baumle, Amanda K; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in Alaska. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in Alaska. In many ways, the more than 1,600 same-sex couples living in Alaska are similar to married couples. According...

  17. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  18. Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  19. Oil deposition modeling for surface oil well blowouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belore, R. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); McHale, J. [Alaska Clean Seas, Anchorage, AK (United States); Chapple, T. [Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A project was conducted by Alaska Clean Seas to determine the likely fallout zone from a surface oil or gas well blowout, under specific conditions and blowout characteristics, for spill response planning purposes. A surface oil and gas blowout can cause a plume of oil droplets into the atmosphere near the discharge site. The place and rate at which the oil will fall to the ground depends on the following parameters: (1) the height to which the oil is propelled, (2) the size of the oil drops, and (3) the prevailing wind speed. A modeling method was presented for estimating the fallout width and rate as a function of distance from the source, for the range of oil and gas flows likely to occur in the Alaska North Slope operations. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  20. Oil deposition modeling for surface oil well blowouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project was conducted by Alaska Clean Seas to determine the likely fallout zone from a surface oil or gas well blowout, under specific conditions and blowout characteristics, for spill response planning purposes. A surface oil and gas blowout can cause a plume of oil droplets into the atmosphere near the discharge site. The place and rate at which the oil will fall to the ground depends on the following parameters: (1) the height to which the oil is propelled, (2) the size of the oil drops, and (3) the prevailing wind speed. A modeling method was presented for estimating the fallout width and rate as a function of distance from the source, for the range of oil and gas flows likely to occur in the Alaska North Slope operations. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs