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Sample records for alaska oil pipeline

  1. Integrity Evaluation of Oil and Gas Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-15

    The length of oil and gas pipelines is increased much according to economic reasons and practicality, the construction of pipeline in Asia and Europe is going on global region in recently. This oil and gas pipelines is managed integrity to it's explosion property or environmental pollution riskiness. This paper is dealt with major defects type, using on integrity evaluation methods in developed countries, showing basic data to workout a countermeasure integrity evaluation of domestic pipelines.

  2. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  3. Oil pipeline energy consumption and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of energy consumption and efficiency of oil pipelines in the US in 1978. It is based on a simulation of the actual movement of oil on a very detailed representation of the pipeline network, and it uses engineering equations to calculate the energy that pipeline pumps must have exerted on the oil to move it in this manner. The efficiencies of pumps and drivers are estimated so as to arrive at the amount of energy consumed at pumping stations. The throughput in each pipeline segment is estimated by distributing each pipeline company's reported oil movements over its segments in proportions predicted by regression equations that show typical throughput and throughput capacity as functions of pipe diameter. The form of the equations is justified by a generalized cost-engineering study of pipelining, and their parameters are estimated using new techniques developed for the purpose. A simplified model of flow scheduling is chosen on the basis of actual energy use data obtained from a few companies. The study yields energy consumption and intensiveness estimates for crude oil trunk lines, crude oil gathering lines and oil products lines, for the nation as well as by state and by pipe diameter. It characterizes the efficiency of typical pipelines of various diameters operating at capacity. Ancillary results include estimates of oil movements by state and by diameter and approximate pipeline capacity utilization nationwide.

  4. USGS releases Alaska oil assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the U.S. Congress gearing up for a House-Senate conference committee battle about whether to open the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for oil drilling, a new assessment of the amount of oil in the federal portion of the U.S. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NRPA) is influencing the debate.The U.S. Geological Survey has found that the NPRA holds "significantly greater" petroleum resources than had been estimated previously This finding was disclosed in a 16 May report. The assessment estimated that technically recoverable oil on NPRA federal lands are between 5.9 and 13.2 billion barrels of oil; a 1980 assessment estimated between 0.3 and 5.4 billion barrels.

  5. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  6. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  7. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States (Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean e. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Crude oil produced on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) is primarily transported on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) to in-state refineries and the Valdez Marine Terminal in southern Alaska. From the Terminal, crude oil is loaded onto tankers and is transported to export markets or to three major locations along the U.S. West Coast: Anacortes-Ferndale area (Washington), San Francisco Bay area, and Los Angeles area. North Slope of Alaska production has decreased about 75% since the 1980s, which has reduced utilization of TAPS.

  8. Environmental impact analysis; the example of the proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, David A.

    1974-01-01

    The environmental impact analysis made as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline included consideration of the (1) technologically complex and geographically extensive proposed project, (2) extremely different physical environments across Alaska along the proposed route and elsewhere in Alaska and in Canada along alternative routes, (3) socioeconomic environment of the State of Alaska, and (4) a wide variety of alternatives. The analysis was designed specifically to fit the project and environment that would be affected. The environment was divided into two general parts--natural physical systems and superposed socioeconomic systems--and those parts were further divided into discipline-oriented systems or components that were studied and analyzed by scientists of the appropriate discipline. Particular attention was given to potential feedback loops in the impact network and to linkages between the project's impacting effects and the environment. The results of the analysis as reported in the final environmental impact statement were that both unavoidable and threatened environmental impacts would result from construction, operation, and maintenance of the proposed pipeline system and the developments related to it. The principal unavoidable effects would be (1) disturbances of terrain, fish and wildlife habitat, and human environs, (2) the results of the discharge of effluent from the tanker-ballast-treatment facility into Port Valdez and of some indeterminate amount of oil released into the ocean from tank-cleaning operations at sea, and (3) the results associated with increased human pressures of all kinds on the environment. Other unavoidable effects would be those related to increase of State and Native Corporation revenues, accelerated cultural change of the Native population, and extraction of the oil and gas resource. The main threatened environmental effects would all be related to unintentional oil

  9. Alaska-Canada Pipeline Project : getting it done

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brintnell, R. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Enbridge's unique qualifications for the proposed Alaska-Canada pipeline that will extend from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta was discussed. Enbridge is Canada's largest local distribution company (LDC), handling approximately 14 bcf of natural gas per day through pipeline, processing and marketing. It also operates the world's longest liquids pipeline, delivering more than 2 million barrels per day. The company also has 20 years of operational experience in perma frost regions. The key challenges facing the construction of the proposed new high pressure liquids rich pipeline were discussed with reference to market outlook; cost reduction; U.S. fiscal and regulatory issues; Alaska fiscal contract; and, Canadian regulatory efficiency. A successful project will mean a $15 billion capital expenditure in Canada, $16 billion in government revenues, 12,000 construction work years, and tens of thousands of new jobs. It will also improve Alberta's position as the key energy hub and will increase the utilization of the existing infrastructure. Canadian consumers will benefit from access to a new supply basin and a more secure source of clean-burning natural gas at a cost competitive price. In order to get the project completed, the following requirements must be met: regulatory regimes must be clear and predictable; land access must be ensured in a timely manner; access to skilled human resources, material and equipment must also be ensured to facilitate timely and efficient project implementation; and, the safe and environmentally sound operation of the pipelines must also be ensured. This paper highlighted Canadian regulatory options in terms of the National Energy Board Act, Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, the Yukon Environmental and Socio-Economic Assessment Act, and the Northern Pipeline Act. Enbridge's proposed straddle plant at Fort Saskatchewan was discussed along with inter-connecting pipeline options. Enbridge

  10. Hazard identification studies applied to oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savio, Augusto; Alpert, Melina L. [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: asavio@tecna.com, e-mail: malpert@tecna.com

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess risks inherent to an Oil Pipeline, it is imperative to analyze what happens 'outside the process'. HAZID (HAZard IDentification) studies are mainly carried out for this purpose. HAZID is a formal study which identifies hazards and risks associated to an operation or facility and enable its acceptability assessment. It is a brainstorming exercise guided by a typical 'Checklist', divided into four Sections: External, Facilities and Health Hazards and Issues pertaining to Project Execution, which are further subdivided into Hazard Categories. For each Category, there are 'Guide-words' and 'Prompts'. Even if an Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment can be performed by means of the above referred 'Checklist', carrying out the actual process can become lengthy and annoying due to the lack of specificity. This work aims at presenting the most suitable 'Checklist' for the identification of Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment, although it could be used for Gas Pipeline Risk Assessment too. Prepared ad hoc, this list, is based on the spill causes established by CONCAWE (CONservation of Clean Air Water in Europe). Performing Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment by means of specially formulated Checklist enables the Study Team to easily identify risks, shortens execution time and provides both accuracy and specificity. (author)

  11. KENYA’S OIL PIPELINE AND TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The threat of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on the critical infrastructure (oil pipeline in Kenya has brought to the attention the strategic issue of the energy sector security, highlighting the potential vulnerabilities of this sector. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP should be a key component of the national security especially after the Kenya Defence Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia. The merger of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist groups and the accelerated grenades attack against Kenya in retaliation has become the centre of the debate on terrorism and internal security of the Kenya. The energy resources are strategic assets from the security, political and economic point of view. Kenya as an oil transit country is considered of primary strategic importance at international level. International terrorism has always looked with interest at the oil resource in order to meet its political and economic targets. We argue that Kenya’s oil pipelines are vulnerable to Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attack. In summary, the article looks at the concept of terrorism within the framework of critical infrastructure protection, the dangers of attacks on oil pipelines, Kenya’s government preparedness and recommendations.

  12. Pipeline transportation of heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henaut, I.; Argillier, J.F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2005-12-15

    The paper focusses on transportation, describing the different methods (heating, dilution, oil-in-water emulsion, upgrading and core annular flow) in order to improve them or develop new ones, a structural and rheological study was undertaken to appraise the origin of the high viscosity and counteract its effect. (authors)

  13. Legal and instututional framework for promoting oil pipeline security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the security agencies saddled with the overall responsibility for managing as well as safeguarding the pipelines to ensure their productivity; and overhauling the entire security apparatus put in place to protect oil pipelines in Nigeria by having a sustainable and strategic approach to dealing with oil pipeline insecurity.

  14. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  15. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  16. legal and institutional framework for promoting oil pipeline security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    ABSTRACT. Oil pipelines are no ordinary assets, and their security is of utmost importance especially in a country like Nigeria where oil pipelines are the major means of transporting crude oil. Nigeria relies on this means of transportation, which has been the victim of various physical attacks over the years by vandals.

  17. Maintenance optimization for subsea oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanier, Bruno; Rausand, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the classical PF interval model, proposed for reliability centered maintenance, is used to optimize the preventive replacement policy of a subsea oil pipeline. The pipeline is subject to failure modes that may lead to oil release and pollution of the sea. The proposed replacement policy is based on regular condition measurements of the quality of an internal pipeline coating (lining). Holes in the coating will expose the pipe material (steel) to a corrosive environment. It is, therefore, important to identify holes in the coating and take action before the corrosion penetrates the pipe wall. The model proposed in the paper can be used to determine the inspection interval that minimizes the average maintenance cost per time unit. The model formulation is outlined and illustrative examples are solved. The mathematical evaluation of the replacement policy requires numerous assumptions. These assumptions have to be tailored to the specific application. The assumptions and the data provided are included for illustrative purposes to exemplify potential results that may be obtained by using the replacement policy

  18. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion in pipelines is one of the major challenges faced by oil and gas industries all over the world. This has made corrosion control or management a major factor to consider before setting up any industry that will transport products via pipelines. In this study the types of corrosion found on system 2A pipeline were; ...

  19. 77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR12-13-000] Lion Oil... of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.202 (2011), Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline Company, collectively, Lion Companies...

  20. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  1. Pipeline oil fire detection with MODIS active fire products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbuyi, M. G.; Martinez, P.; Eckardt, F. D.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate 85 129 MODIS satellite active fire events from 2007 to 2015 in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The region is the oil base for Nigerian economy and the hub of oil exploration where oil facilities (i.e. flowlines, flow stations, trunklines, oil wells and oil fields) are domiciled, and from where crude oil and refined products are transported to different Nigerian locations through a network of pipeline systems. Pipeline and other oil facilities are consistently susceptible to oil leaks due to operational or maintenance error, and by acts of deliberate sabotage of the pipeline equipment which often result in explosions and fire outbreaks. We used ground oil spill reports obtained from the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) database (see www.oilspillmonitor.ng) to validate MODIS satellite data. NOSDRA database shows an estimate of 10 000 spill events from 2007 - 2015. The spill events were filtered to include largest spills by volume and events occurring only in the Niger Delta (i.e. 386 spills). By projecting both MODIS fire and spill as `input vector' layers with `Points' geometry, and the Nigerian pipeline networks as `from vector' layers with `LineString' geometry in a geographical information system, we extracted the nearest MODIS events (i.e. 2192) closed to the pipelines by 1000m distance in spatial vector analysis. The extraction process that defined the nearest distance to the pipelines is based on the global practices of the Right of Way (ROW) in pipeline management that earmarked 30m strip of land to the pipeline. The KML files of the extracted fires in a Google map validated their source origin to be from oil facilities. Land cover mapping confirmed fire anomalies. The aim of the study is to propose a near-real-time monitoring of spill events along pipeline routes using 250 m spatial resolution of MODIS active fire detection sensor when such spills are accompanied by fire events in the study location.

  2. Environmental considerations in a high desert, crude oil pipeline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.A.; Mancini, E.R.; Chamberlain, D.W.; Albright, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    A road grader punctured a high-pressure crude oil pipeline in the California high desert resulting in the release of approximately 4,200 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil. Oil sprayed over a steeply sloped hillside and flowed into an adjacent, densely vegetated ephemeral stream channel which carried secondary treatment sewage discharge. Three underflow dams were constructed in the channel within 2.8 km of the site. To ensure containment at the first dam, the sewage discharge was diverted from the channel, eventually to an upland impulse sprinkler irrigation system. Channel water and phase-separated ANS crude oil, impounded behind the first dam, percolated through alluvial sands/gravels to a depth of about five meters. The oil percolated through the soils on the receding surface of the water, affecting soils to an equivalent depth and saturating a horizontally narrow band of stream-bank soils as much as two to four meters into the bank. Stream channel undergrowth and a small number of mature trees were cleared to provide access for cleanup and/or to remove oiled plants. A large number of trees experienced partial leaf-drop within 25 days of the spill while two heavily oiled trees died. New vegetative growth was evident within five weeks of the spill. Site restoration included planting cuttings of five riparian tree species and hydroseeding exposed banks. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from not detectable to 203,000 parts per million and averaged approximately 25,000 ppm in affected soils as sampled in place and in stockpiles. Approximately 30,000 tons of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was excavated from the length of the stream channel (3,600 tons) as well as the area behind the first dam and spill site (26,400 tons). All soils were staged on site for waste profiling and final disposition. After treatment, the contaminated soil was beneficially reused as daily cover at a southern California landfill at a turnkey cost of approximately $57/ton

  3. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants.

  4. Oil spill response planning, training and facilities for wildlife in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    The special provisions of the SERVS System of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company concerning the treatment of wildlife in the event of an oil spill, were described. The Company is prepared to mobilize a rapid response for protection and treatment of wildlife in the event of an oil spill anywhere along the trans-Alaska pipeline or in Prince William Sound. Equipment for hazing, capture, and treatment is pre-assembled and staged at facilities at the Valdez Marine Terminal. Veterinarians and wildlife treatment specialists are under contract for treating oiled birds. This complex of wildlife response capabilities meets or exceeds the guidelines and response planning standards set by wildlife agencies. 7 refs., 6 figs

  5. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  6. Outlook '98 - Gas and oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, B.

    1998-01-01

    Due to rising North American demand, especially by the United States, by the end of 1997 there were plans to build 15 new pipelines over the next three years, at an estimated cost of $17 billion. Canada''s proximity to the United States, combined with huge Canadian reserves, and the fact that Canada already supplies some 15 per cent of U.S. requirements, makes Canada the obvious choice for filling future demand. This explains why most, if not all, current pipeline expansion projects are targeting markets in the U.S. Market forces will determine which of the projects will actually go forward. From the point of view of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association pipeline regulatory reform, pipeline safety, integrity and climate change will be the Association''s key concerns during 1998. To that end, the Association is cooperating with the National Energy Board in a multi-million dollar study of stress corrosion cracking. The Association has also developed a Manual of Recommended Practices for the use of member companies to assist them to tailor stress corrosion cracking practices to their own operations. Meeting Canada''s commitment at the Kyoto Conference for greenhouse gas emissions of six per cent below 1990 levels by the year 2008 to 2012 (in effect a 25 per cent reduction from the level anticipated in the year 2000), a very difficult task according to industry experts, is also among the high priority items on the pipeline industry''s agenda for 1998

  7. Environmental impact of oil transportation by tankers, pipelines, railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chelidze, M.A.; Kaviladze, I.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Tsitskishvili, L.B.; Ninua, T.L.; Kordzaxia, G.I.; Gavasheli, L.; Petriashvili, E.T.; Alania, M.L.; Gigolashvili, Sh.Z.; Kordzakhia, M.O.; Chankotadze, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Considering all types of risks (technical, operational, natural hazards (e.g. geo-hazards) and third party intrusion), the underground pipelines constructed in accordance with the international standards are the most safe and reliable system for oil transportation. Statistical data provided by CONCAWE and US Department of Transportation confirms that the pipeline related spills are rare and mainly related to the old pipelines. Georgia's experience yet confirms the general sound guess that the situation in our countries is not the same as in western Europe or USA and accordingly the CONCAWE statistical data can not be applied mechanically. Two spills (although small and manageable), during the recent 4 years and some discovered illegal hot-taps on the Baku-Supsa pipeline indicate that the issue of third party intrusion risks is much higher in the region and well organized security system is required to protect the pipeline from intentional damage. Of course the pipeline system can not function isolated and it is integrated with the other systems of oil transportation, mainly with off-shore terminals and tankers. The most significant of the recorded pollution damages are related to the tanker collisions (like Prestige and Exxon Valdez cases). The basic fact, which we would like to stress, is that the environmental risks related to the tanker collisions are much higher for such confined or semi-confined systems as Black and Caspian seas. The overloading of the Black Sea transportation capacity and especially its limiting narrow point - the Bosporus will inevitably lead in future to the implementation of the restrictive measures limiting transportation of oil by tankers in the Black Sea. Therefore, the role of the BTC pipeline as major transportation system will increase significantly. We consider that responsibility of the scientific society is to facilitate this process as soon as the BTC pipeline is functional. The railway transportation of oil is quite

  8. Alaska oil and gas: Energy wealth or vanishing opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Harrison, W.E.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically identify and review (a) the known and undiscovered reserves and resources of arctic Alaska, (b) the economic factors controlling development, (c) the risks and environmental considerations involved in development, and (d) the impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Alaska North Slope Oil Delivery System (ANSODS). 119 refs., 45 figs., 41 tabs.

  9. 75 FR 34959 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...] Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index June 15, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... comments on its five-year review of the oil pipeline pricing index established in Revisions to Oil Pipeline..., 1991-1996] ] 30,985 (1993). Specifically, the Commission proposes to use the Producer Price Index for...

  10. MIC in long oil pipelines: diagnosis, treatment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenneman, Gary; Harris, Jennifer; Webb, Robert [ConocoPhillips (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) in long oil pipelines. The presence of inorganic solids, bacteria, gases and organic acids in produced water in the oil pipelines causes MIC, which is hard to detect or test and it does not produce any unique type of corrosion. Chemical analysis of water from pig runs is presented in a tabular form and a graphical analysis of pig sludge solids is shown. From the biometabolite analysis, 23 putative hydrocarbon biometabolites were identified and biometabolites for the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic HC were also detected. Operational considerations include the history of MIC in upstream pipelines, water slugging, and presence of suspended solids, among others. From microbiological, chemical, metallurgical and operational evidence it was suggested that MIC is a likely mechanism. The mitigation program is described and suggestions for successful mitigation measures include removal of oxygen sources, scale inhibitor injection, and increasing CO2 inhibitor concentration.

  11. Failure analysis of oil pipelines | Ajayi | Botswana Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the crude, but had a rather low fatigue strength (46.10N/mm2) when compared to the standard. It is suggested that welded joints in pipes be heat-treated and coated on clean substrate pipe in order to enhance material integrity in service. Keywords: Failure Analysis, Oil Pipeline, Corrosion, Environment, Photomicrograph ...

  12. Crude Oil Corrosion Fatigue of L485MB Pipeline Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 5 (2015), 051401 ISSN 0094-9930 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : corrosion fatigue * crude oil * pipeline steel * S–N curve * separated water Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.476, year: 2015 http://pressurevesseltech.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleID=2107675

  13. A New Method of Piping Work by Freezing Fuel Oil to Repair a Fuel Oil Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masashi; Tateno, Masayoshi; Minowa, Kazuki; Murayama, Kouichi

    When a pipe is cut off to repair fuel oil pipelines, the oil has to be drained from the pipelines. If the oil inside the pipe is frozen at both sides of a cutting plane, it is not necessary to drain the oil from the pipelines. In the present paper, such a freezing method is studied analytically and experimentally to establish a suitable construction method, where liquid-nitrogen (LN2) is used as a coolant and fuel oil-C is used as a typical example. From the result, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the fuel oil-C in a low temperature range were measured as a function of temperature in addition to the pour point and glass transition point. Furthermore, in order to compare the agreement between analysis and experiment, an analytical method was performed under various conditions. Finally, temperatures in analytical values were agreed well with experimental ones, and suitable position and time for cutting are clarified.

  14. Reliability evaluation of oil pipelines operating in aggressive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomedov, R. M.; Paizulaev, M. M.; Gebel, E. S.

    2017-08-01

    In connection with modern increased requirements for ecology and safety, the development of diagnostic services complex is obligatory and necessary enabling to ensure the reliable operation of the gas transportation infrastructure. Estimation of oil pipelines technical condition should be carried out not only to establish the current values of the equipment technological parameters in operation, but also to predict the dynamics of changes in the physical and mechanical characteristics of the material, the appearance of defects, etc. to ensure reliable and safe operation. In the paper, existing Russian and foreign methods for evaluation of the oil pipelines reliability are considered, taking into account one of the main factors leading to the appearance of crevice in the pipeline material, i.e. change the shape of its cross-section, - corrosion. Without compromising the generality of the reasoning, the assumption of uniform corrosion wear for the initial rectangular cross section has been made. As a result a formula for calculation the probability of failure-free operation was formulated. The proposed mathematical model makes it possible to predict emergency situations, as well as to determine optimal operating conditions for oil pipelines.

  15. RF sensor for multiphase flow measurement through an oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, S. R.; Shaw, A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2006-08-01

    We have developed, in conjunction with Solartron ISA, an electromagnetic cavity resonator based sensor for multiphase flow measurement through an oil pipeline. This sensor is non-intrusive and transmits low power (10 mW) radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 100-350 MHz and detects the pipeline contents using resonant peaks captured instantaneously. The multiple resonances from each captured RF spectrum are analysed to determine the phase fractions in the pipeline. An industrial version of the sensor for a 102 mm (4 inch) diameter pipe has been constructed and results from this sensor are compared to those given by simulations performed using the electromagnetic high frequency structure simulator software package HFSS. This paper was presented at the 13th International Conference on Sensors and held in Chatham, Kent, on 6-7 September 2005.

  16. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company requesting new or changed depreciation rates pursuant to part 347 of this title if the proposed depreciation...

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  18. The Vulnerability Formation Mechanism and Control Strategy of the Oil and Gas Pipeline City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. L.; Han, L.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the pipelines of oil and gas pipelines in our country have been for more than 25 years. These pipes are buried underground and was difficult to daily test. In addition, it was vulnerable to environmental, corrosion and natural disasters, So there is a hidden nature of accidents. The rapid development of urbanization, population accumulation, dense building and insufficient safety range are all the reasons for the frequent accidents of oil and gas pipelines. Therefore, to appraise and know the safe condition of the city various regions oil and gas pipelines is vital significant. In order to ensure the safety of oil and gas pipeline city, this paper defines the connotation of oil and gas pipeline city vulnerability according to the previous research on vulnerability. Then from three perspectives of environment, structure and behavior, based on the analytical paradigm of “structure—vulnerability conduct—performance” about oil and gas, the influential indicators of vulnerable oil and gas pipelines were analysed, the vulnerability mechanism framework of Oil and gas pipeline city was also constructed. Finally, the paper proposed the regulating strategy of the vulnerability of the oil and gas pipeline city to decrease its vulnerability index, which can be realize the city’s vulnerability evaluation and provides new ideas for the sustainable development of the city.

  19. Optimization of oil-mixture “hot” pumping in main oil pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekibayev, T. T.; Zhapbasbayev, U. K.; Ramazanova, G. I.

    2017-10-01

    The optimal conditions for high pour point and high-viscosity oil transportation through the main oil pipeline sections are determined. The optimization of “hot” pumping is investigated by determining the energy-saving operating conditions of pumps and heating furnaces. The objective function of optimality for the pipeline section with several stations is determined by a minimum costs of energy consumed by pumps and heating furnaces. The problem solving algorithm is constructed by new dynamic programming approach. The problem is divided into many overlapping subtasks with finding the optimal substructure. The object of each subtask is the cost function of pumps and heating furnaces at the stations.

  20. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  1. Full-scale chilled pipeline frost heave testing, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, B. [Northern Engineering and Scientific, Anchorage, AK (United States); Isaacs, R.M. [RMI Associates, Camano Island, WA (United States); Myrick, J.E. [Myrick International, Tyler, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a chilled pipeline frost-heave testing facility that was developed to simulate and record the rate of frost heave and frost-bulb growth for a buried, chilled pipeline in frost-susceptible soil and to determine the effectiveness of different mitigation techniques. The test facility, which was established near Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1979, has 10 test sections using 1.22-metre-diameter pipe. The testing involved un-insulated, insulated, and insulated with over-excavation and gravel berm configurations as well as the frost heave of the chilled pipeline. The test facility was described in detail. Frost heave and frost-bulb growth measurements from the first 10 months of testing were presented, as these are the first data to enter the public domain. The testing was undertaken to investigate the frost-heave relationships between sections, to better understand frost heave in permafrost, to explore possible mitigation options, and to advance the predicative capabilities of frost heave models. 12 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  2. COPTEM: A Model to Investigate the Factors Driving Crude Oil Pipeline Transportation Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette-Levy, Nicolas; Zhong, Margaret; MacLean, Heather; Bergerson, Joule

    2018-01-02

    Previous transportation fuel life cycle assessment studies have not fully accounted for the full variability in the crude oil transport stage, for example, transporting a light crude through a high-diameter pipeline, vs transporting a heavy crude through a small-diameter pipeline. We develop a first-principles, fluid mechanics-based crude oil pipeline transportation emissions model (COPTEM) that calculates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with pipeline transport as a function of crude oil parameters, pipeline dimensions, and external factors. Additionally, we estimate the emissions associated with the full life cycle of pipeline construction, maintenance, and disposal. This model is applied to an inventory of 62 major Canadian and U.S. pipelines (capacity greater than 100 000 barrels/day) to estimate the variability of GHG emissions associated with pipeline transportation. We demonstrate that pipeline GHG emissions intensities range from 0.23 to 20.3 g CO 2 e/(bbl·km), exhibiting considerably greater variability than data reported in other studies. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the linear velocity of crude transport and pipeline diameter are the most impactful parameters driving this variability. To illustrate one example of how COPTEM can be used, we develop an energy efficiency gap analysis to investigate the possibilities for more efficient pipeline transport of crude oil.

  3. The analysis of repeated failures of pipelines in Kal'chinskoe oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavlov, E. N.; Brusnik, O. V.; Lukjanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the chemical analysis of oilfield water and hydraulic analysis of the liquid flow in Kal'chinskoe oil field pipeline that allow detecting the causes of the internal corrosion processes. The inhibitor protection is suggested to reduce the corrosion rate in the pipelines of Kal'chinskoe oil field. Based on the analysis of the pipeline failures, it is suggested to replace steel pipes by fiberglass pipes.

  4. Regulating access of oil production and refining objects to pipeline networks: Russian and German experience

    OpenAIRE

    GULIYEV I.; LITVINYUK I.; ZINCHENKO O.

    2016-01-01

    In Russia the right to access oil and oil product pipeline networks is governed by a vast number of laws and subordinate legislation. On one hand, this imperative method is justified in order to ensure indiscriminate access to pipelines. On the other hand, international practices show that these objectives can also be achieved using a permissive legal regulation method more broadly. Therefore it is pertinent to analyze and compare the practice of pipeline access regulation in different states...

  5. State of art of seismic design and seismic hazard analysis for oil and gas pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiwen; Chen, Kun; Wu, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to adopt the uniform confidence method in both water pipeline design and oil-gas pipeline design. Based on the importance of pipeline and consequence of its failure, oil and gas pipeline can be classified into three pipe classes, with exceeding probabilities over 50 years of 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively. Performance-based design requires more information about ground motion, which should be obtained by evaluating seismic safety for pipeline engineering site. Different from a city’s water pipeline network, the long-distance oil and gas pipeline system is a spatially linearly distributed system. For the uniform confidence of seismic safety, a long-distance oil and pipeline formed with pump stations and different-class pipe segments should be considered as a whole system when analyzing seismic risk. Considering the uncertainty of earthquake magnitude, the design-basis fault displacements corresponding to the different pipeline classes are proposed to improve deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA). A new empirical relationship between the maximum fault displacement and the surface-wave magnitude is obtained with the supplemented earthquake data in East Asia. The estimation of fault displacement for a refined oil pipeline in Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake is introduced as an example in this paper.

  6. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  7. Corrosion Prevention And Control In High Pressure Oil And Gas Transmission Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.T.; Radwan, M.H.; Jones, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    At the start of the 1990s there were concerns over the increasing threat of corrosion to the integrity of high-pressure oil and gas transmission pipelines. For example: corrosion was the major cause of reportable incidents in North America (1]. Corrosion was the major cause of pipeline failure in the Gulf of Mexico [2]. Corrosion in a North American onshore oil pipeline had required over $1 billion in repairs(3]. Internal corrosion along the complete length of pipelines had resulted in replacement[4] . However, the worldwide published failure statistics indicate that the incidents of corrosion are not increasing year on year(5-9]. Indeed, CONCA WE[8,9] statistics (for pipelines In Western Europe) show that the failure rate from corrosion (the most likely failure mode with increasing age) has not increased with pipeline age (Figure 1). In fact the statistics for gas pipelines in Europe

  8. Involvement of thermophilic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidova, Irene A; Duncan, Kathleen E; Perez-Ibarra, B Monica; Suflita, Joseph M

    2012-07-01

    Two thermophilic archaea, strain PK and strain MG, were isolated from a culture enriched at 80°C from the inner surface material of a hot oil pipeline. Strain PK could ferment complex organic nitrogen sources (e.g. yeast extract, peptone, tryptone) and was able to reduce elemental sulfur (S°), Fe(3+) and Mn(4+) . Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the organism belonged to the order Thermococcales. Incubations of this strain with elemental iron (Fe°) resulted in the abiotic formation of ferrous iron and the accumulation of volatile fatty acids during yeast extract fermentation. The other isolate, strain MG, was a H(2) :CO(2) -utilizing methanogen, phylogenetically affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter family. Co-cultures of the strains grew as aggregates that produced CH(4) without exogenous H(2) amendment. The co-culture produced the same suite but greater concentrations of fatty acids from yeast extract than did strain PK alone. Thus, the physiological characteristics of organisms both alone and in combination could conceivably contribute to pipeline corrosion. The Thermococcus strain PK could reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide, produce fatty acids and reduce ferric iron. The hydrogenotrophic methanogen strain MG enhanced fatty acid production by fermentative organisms but could not couple the dissolution Fe° with the consumption of water-derived H(2) like other methanogens. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil

  10. Fate of oil determinations under Arctic conditions: The Komi Pipeline oil spill experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, R.J.; Hansen, O.

    1995-01-01

    The rationale developed by a United Nations team to estimate the fate and transport of spilled oil remaining on the ground in the Pechora River basin in Russia following the Komi Pipeline spill disaster, was presented. The team consisted of experts from Norway, Canada, the United States and the European Union. Detailed background of the spill event, petroleum industry setting, geographic setting and hydrology of the regions was presented. Nine contaminated sites were identified. A worst case scenario was developed for the fate of the spilled oil. It was estimated that 93 000 - 97 000 tonnes of oil remained on the ground. Further pollution of the environment outside of Russia was considered unlikely under the circumstances, but petroleum contamination of the drinking water, tar balls and residual oil were expected to continue to persist in the affected area for many months. The UN team concluded that chronic pollution posed a significant threat to the region's natural resources. 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. From tankers to tissues : tracking the degradation and fate of oil discharges in Port Valdez, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, J.R.; Braddock, J.F.; Bailey, J.; Ka'aihue, L.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Short, J.W.; Driskell, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    An average of 9 million gallons per day of oil-contaminated ballast water off loaded from tankers are treated at the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company Ballast Water Treatment Facility at the terminus of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline in Port Valdez, Alaska. This paper focuses on the results of 2 Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council monitoring programs which detail changes in the chemical composition of treated ballast water as it moves from tankers through the facility and subsequently traces the effluent hydrocarbons into the receiving environment of Port Valdez. The treatment facility involves gravity separation tanks, dissolved air flotation cells and biological treatment tanks. Effluent containing traces of volatile aromatics, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, low levels of oil, saturated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is being continuously discharged to Port Valdez. Because of the extremely large average flow rate, low concentrations in the effluent can add up to a significant mass discharge. Samples from the facility were collected on 3 occasions. In March 2004, a limited pilot series of composite samples were collected from the effluent and the effluent to Port Valdez from a sampling port in the Fan/Meter Building. Second-round samples were collected from a wider suite of locations. A BIORATE assay study was completed during September 2004 and January 2005 field programs to measure degradation rates. The largest hydrocarbon pollution sources detected in samples from Port Valdez stations are correlated with an oil spill mishap at the terminal in 1994 and a sheen event in 1997. Apart from these events, concentrations from petrogenic sources are usually near or below the detection limits of the analytic methods used. However, on a routine basis, oil signals attributed to the facility effluent are detectable in mussel tissues at both Alyeska Marine Terminal and Gold Creek stations, and in sediments at Alyeska

  12. 75 FR 80300 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...] Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index Issued December 16, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Order establishing index for oil price change ceiling levels. SUMMARY... five-year review of the oil pricing index, established in Order No. 561. After consideration of the...

  13. Integrating market share models with network optimizing models for strategic planning in an oil pipeline company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.D.; Moses, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models of market share are constructed to describe the distribution of petroleum products from pipeline terminals, water terminals and refineries in the midcontinental United States. Network distribution models are developed to analyse the constraints and economics of alternative distribution systems. This paper describes how the two types of models were integrated for strategic planning in an oil pipeline company

  14. Frequency Spectrum Method-Based Stress Analysis for Oil Pipelines in Earthquake Disaster Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline. PMID:25692790

  15. Frequency spectrum method-based stress analysis for oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline.

  16. Oil and Gas Pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico from BOEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A line file representing locations of the pipeline infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico associated with the oil and gas industry is presented. These layers were...

  17. Community-based oil spill response in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banta, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States); Munger, M. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council are independent, non profit organizations formed in 1989 following the Exxon Valdez oil spill to promote the concept of community-based oil spill response (COSR) in their respective regions. COSR involves local citizens in responding to oil spilled in waters they rely upon for income, recreation and subsistence. The 2 advisory councils recently held a Community Oil Spill Response Forum to review the status of existing COSR teams and to share information about past and future COSR-related efforts. The meeting served as an information exchange process about regulatory programs, COSR variations in communities and harbors, training, and personnel issues. Key groups attending the forum were harbor masters, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, United States Coast Guard, existing COSR teams, oil response organizations, local community governments, and volunteers from the advisory councils. This paper was based on the notes taken from the forum. It was agreed that the current system is inadequate in its response to small spills that are frequently associated with non-tank vessels. It was suggested that improved capacity for community-based response could address the situation. It was also suggested that work groups should meet on an annual or biannual basis to continue to educate responders and communities about oil spill response. 7 refs.

  18. A nuclear on-line sensor for continuous control of vanadium content in oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, R.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Trace amounts of vanadium in crude oil and in heavy distillate fuels are very harmful due to their corrosive action. Thus the necessity arises for continuous control of the vanadium content in oil pipelines. Moreover, the development of a nuclear on-line sensor that can continuously analyze the vanadium content in oil pipelines may lead to a better control of processing operations. In this paper a feasibility study for on-line analysis of vanadium in crude oil by means of neutron activation analysis is presented. (author)

  19. Model for the calculation of pressure loss through heavy fuel oil transfer pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luis Laurencio-Alfonso,

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limitations of methodologies and empirical correlations in the evaluation of simultaneous effects produced by viscous and mix strength during the transfer of fluids through pipelines, this article presents the functional relationships that describe the pressure variations for the non-Newtonian fuel oil flowrate. The experimental study was conducted based on a characterization of the rheological behavior of fuel oil and modeling for a pseudoplastic behavior. The resulting model describes temperature changes, viscous friction effects and the effects of blending flow layers; which is therefore the basis of calculation for the selection, evaluation and rationalization of transport of heavy fuel oil by pipelines.

  20. Application of distributed optical fiber sensing technologies to the monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Xiaofei; Deng, Chi; Li, Junyi; Liu, Cheng; Yu, Wenpeng; Luo, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To improve the level of management and monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of long distance oil pipeline, the distributed optical fiber temperature and vibration sensing system is employed to test the feasibility for the healthy monitoring of a domestic oil pipeline. The simulating leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline are performed in the experiment. It is demonstrated that the leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline can be monitored and located accurately with the distributed optical fiber sensing system, which exhibits good performance in the sensitivity, reliability, operation and maintenance etc., and shows good market application prospect.

  1. Transient flow assurance for determination of operational control of heavy oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejo, Victor [TransCanada Pipelines Ltd, (Canada); Mohitpour, Mo [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pipeline transmission systems have been designed traditionally using steady state simulations. Steady state simulation provided sufficient values for simple systems, but is limited in dealing with surges in flow rates, loss of facilities and facility operation. A dynamic approach is required to test the capacity of a system for various fluids. This paper investigated the use of transient analysis of liquid pipelines in order to improve the design of these pipelines and to achieve operational benefits. The transient method and its use are discussed. Dynamic analysis was applied to the Keystone Pipeline Project. The purpose of the study was first to determine the system capacity and data for transportation of Heavy DilBit, and then to implement batch transportation of a volume of synthetic crude oil. It was found that the use of transient modeling in design and operational assessment of a liquid pipeline ensures system capability, control, safety and integrity.

  2. Effects of Pipeline Construction on Wetland Ecosystems: Russia-China Oil Pipeline Project (Mohe-Daqing Section)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaofei Yu; Guoping Wang; Yuanchun Zou; Qiang Wang; Hongmei Zhao; Xianguo Lu (Key Lab of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Inst. of Geography and Agroecology, Changchun (China)), e-mail: wangguoping@neigae.ac.cn

    2010-07-15

    Although the multiple roles of wetland ecosystems and their value to humanity have been increasingly understood and documented in recent years, the efforts to conserve and restore wetlands are not in harmony with the press for high speed of economy growth. The degradation of wetlands is proceeding, especially in China. Russia- China Oil Pipe-line Project (Mohe-Daqing Section) has already begun in May 2009, and is ongoing. The pipeline runs through four riverine wetlands and two marshlands of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. Although the project has vital significance of mitigating the energy crisis as well as guaranteeing the energy security of China, it will bring a series of ecological and environmental problems, especially for wetland ecosystems

  3. Development of ecologically safe method for main oil and gas pipeline trenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmedov Asvar Mikdadovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Constructive, technical and technological reliability of major pipeline ensures ecological safety on different stages of life circle - beginning with project preparation activities up to the end of major pipeline operation. Even in the process of transition into new life circle stage, no matter if the pipeline needs major repairs or reconstruction, such technical and technological solutions should be found, which would preserve ecological stability of nature-anthropogenic system. Development of ecology protection technologies of construction, reconstruction and major repairs of main pipelines is of great importance not only for a region, but ensures ecological safety across the globe. The article presents a new way of trenching the main oil and gas pipeline, preservation and increase of ecological safety during its service. The updated technological plan is given in the paper for overhaul of the main oil and gas pipeline using the new technology of pipeline trenching. The suggested technical solution contributes to environment preservation with the help of deteriorating shells - the shells’ material decomposes into environment-friendly components: carbon dioxide, water and humus. The quantity of polluting agents in the atmosphere decreases with the decrease of construction term and quantity of technical equipment.

  4. Estimated prospective tanker rates for Alaska North Slope crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Roger

    1992-01-01

    Within the next ten years, three significant events will affect the structure of tankering costs for the Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil fields. These are: the double hulling requirement of the Oil Spill Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA90); the ageing of the tanker fleet; and the decline in ANS and West Coast oil production, which will eliminate more costly shipments to the Gulf Coast. The purpose of this paper is to estimate how these will affect tankering costs over the next twenty years. As baseline, the existing fleet is described, followed by a detailed discussion of the above factors. Company specific shipping requirements are calculated as compared to ship-by-ship tonnage availability (based on the current fleet) pursuant to these events, and the resultant tonnage deficit. A model is presented that derives a hypothetical reconstruction scheme to eliminate the deficits on a company specific ship-by-ship basis. The resulting costs are then translated into a weighted average per barrel ANS cost. The specific double hull costs are segregated. (author)

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  6. Leak Detection Modeling and Simulation for Oil Pipeline with Artificial Intelligence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjo Sukarno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leak detection is always interesting research topic, where leak location and leak rate are two pipeline leaking parameters that should be determined accurately to overcome pipe leaking problems. In this research those two parameters are investigated by developing transmission pipeline model and the leak detection model which is developed using Artificial Neural Network. The mathematical approach needs actual leak data to train the leak detection model, however such data could not be obtained from oil fields. Therefore, for training purposes hypothetical data are developed using the transmission pipeline model, by applying various physical configuration of pipeline and applying oil properties correlations to estimate the value of oil density and viscosity. The various leak locations and leak rates are also represented in this model. The prediction of those two leak parameters will be completed until the total error is less than certain value of tolerance, or until iterations level is reached. To recognize the pattern, forward procedure is conducted. The application of this approach produces conclusion that for certain pipeline network configuration, the higher number of iterations will produce accurate result. The number of iterations depend on the leakage rate, the smaller leakage rate, the higher number of iterations are required. The accuracy of this approach is clearly determined by the quality of training data. Therefore, in the preparation of training data the results of pressure drop calculations should be validated by the real measurement of pressure drop along the pipeline. For the accuracy purposes, there are possibility to change the pressure drop and fluid properties correlations, to get the better results. The results of this research are expected to give real contribution for giving an early detection of oil-spill in oil fields.

  7. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    compared to other methods and thus constant monitoring is needed to achieve optimum efficiency. Keywords: Corrosion, Cathodic ... no impress current. This shows the difference between the pipe/soil potential and the natural potential. Table 1: Material/Specification for system 2A pipeline. Specifications. Designation.

  8. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A.; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J.

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, val...

  9. Model for the calculation of pressure loss through heavy fuel oil transfer pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Luis Laurencio-Alfonso,; José Falcón-Hernández; Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja; Olga Pérez-Maliuk

    2012-01-01

    Considering the limitations of methodologies and empirical correlations in the evaluation of simultaneous effects produced by viscous and mix strength during the transfer of fluids through pipelines, this article presents the functional relationships that describe the pressure variations for the non-Newtonian fuel oil flowrate. The experimental study was conducted based on a characterization of the rheological behavior of fuel oil and modeling for a pseudoplastic behavior. The resulting model...

  10. Fitting partially upgraded oils into pipelines and refinery markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaherty, G.

    2000-01-01

    The logistics of transporting partially upgraded crudes in feeder and trunk pipeline systems is discussed. Logistic alternatives are evaluated against economic drivers for partial upgrading, and the impact of crude transportation logistics on the quality of crude that reaches refinery gates is assessed. The potential advantages of partial upgrading in the field are reviewed (including reduction of diluent required to meet pipeline density and viscosity specifications, cost and availability of diluent, limitations in diluent transportation infrastructure, increased chemical stability, increased attractiveness to refineries, shortage of refinery coking capacity, higher market value). The pros and cons of various upgrading processes, and the implications of each for producers and refiners are explained. The advantages of moving to large common streams, as opposed to the concept of 'boutique' crudes, are stressed as the surest way for producers to realize the maximum value of partially upgraded crudes

  11. Rheology and FTIR studies of model waxy crude oils with relevance to gelled pipeline restart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, J.J.; Guimeraes, K.; Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Venkatesan, R.; Montesi, A. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Gels composed of wax crystals may sometimes form when crude oils are transported in pipelines when ambient temperatures are low. The gels may stop the pipe flow, making it difficult or even impossible to restart the flow without breaking the pipe. Rheology and FTIR techniques were used to study the problem and to characterize transparent model waxy crude oils in pipeline flow experiments. These model oils were formulated without any highly volatile components to enhance the reproducibility of the rheology tests. Results were presented for the time- and temperature-dependent rheology of the model waxy crude oils as obtained in linear oscillatory shear and in creep-recovery experiments. The model oils were shown to exhibit many of the rheological features reported for real crude oils, such as 3 distinct apparent yield stresses, notably static yield stress, dynamic yield stress, and elastic-limit yield stress. It was concluded that of the 3, the static yield stress value, particularly its time dependence, can best be used to predict the restart behaviour observed for the same gel in model pipelines.

  12. Literature Review: Theory and Application of In-Line Inspection Technologies for Oil and Gas Pipeline Girth Weld Defection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshan Feng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Girth weld cracking is one of the main failure modes in oil and gas pipelines; girth weld cracking inspection has great economic and social significance for the intrinsic safety of pipelines. This paper introduces the typical girth weld defects of oil and gas pipelines and the common nondestructive testing methods, and systematically generalizes the progress in the studies on technical principles, signal analysis, defect sizing method and inspection reliability, etc., of magnetic flux leakage (MFL inspection, liquid ultrasonic inspection, electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT inspection and remote field eddy current (RFDC inspection for oil and gas pipeline girth weld defects. Additionally, it introduces the new technologies for composite ultrasonic, laser ultrasonic, and magnetostriction inspection, and provides reference for development and application of oil and gas pipeline girth weld defect in-line inspection technology.

  13. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  14. Environmental impact of oil development in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1969-01-01

    It is reported that in the spring of 1969 a high official of one of the oil companies was flying over the area of oil development in the vicinity of Prudhoe Bay. He is quoted as saying "If the American people could see what we are doing to their land here, they would want to abolish the use of the reciprocating engine."The last really large area of wilderness in the United States is the' Brooks Range and the Arctic Coastal Plain which stretches from that range to the Arctic Ocean. The proving of the  exploratory oil wells which have been drilled on the coastal plain in the vicinity of Prudhoe Bay makes it virtually certain that this heretofore mostly unknown country will rapidly and vigorously be exposed to a variety of changes caused by the influx of men and their equipment. Even within the first four months of 1969 the whole aspect of the central part of the region has been importantly changed by the drilling programs of several large oil companies.So suddenly was this change brought about that no long-range plans have been developed either to soften the effect of such development on the natural environment or even to record the progress of these effects. Yet the absence of a plan provides an inadvertent potential advantage in that there has' been no history of increasingly firm Federal policy which, in other places, has often made it difficult to take newly conceived action in line with the increasing societal interest in environmental preservation. The lack of firm Federal policy provides here a unique opportunity for the application of new rules and investigative techniques aimed at minimizing the adverse effects on the environment while5.at the same time, not unduly hindering the development of the natural resources.But the speed with which the changes are being wrought makes it imperative that the principles applicable here to environmental protection or preservation, be enunciated immediately and that from these principles flow farsighted regulations which

  15. The role of JANAF oil pipeline in the efficiency increase and Croatian Energy system's globalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekulic, G.; Diminic, V.; Baranovic, K.; Rukavina, K.

    1999-01-01

    In the past 20 years of its operation, JANAF has contributed not only to the domestic refineries' costs decrease and the improvement of their efficiency but also to the internationalisation of the Croatian energy system and its globalisation. The implementation of new JANAF development projects in co-operation with international companies would intensity the JANAF connection to the European oil pipeline network and improve the oil supply safety of domestic refineries. New projects would at the same time enable oil export from Russia and other FSU states to the international oil market, such as oil transport from the INA oil fields in Russia. The JANAF development projects would help evaluate the existing capacities and infrastructure in terms of quality. They would be realised according to the principles of Energy Charter Treaty, the new Croatian energy system legislation and Energy Strategy. (author)

  16. Simulations of severe slugging during depressurization of an oil/gas pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nordsveen

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulators for pipelines with multiphase flow have proved to be important computational tools for both design and operational support of oil and gas production systems. One important aim of such simulators is to predict the arrival time and magnitude of outlet liquid transients after production changes made by an operator of a pipeline. A multiphase flow simulator (OLGA-94.1 with a two-fluid model has been applied to simulate depressurization of a pipeline during a shutdown procedure. During depressurization liquid slugs may form and propagate towards the outlet. The importance of the numerical method for predictions of such transients is demonstrated by using an Eulerian, finite difference, implicit, upwind scheme both with and without a front tracking scheme. First the initial conditions for the depressurization is established from a shut-down simulation where the production at the inlet is closed down, and the liquid comes to rest at low points along the pipeline. A realistic depressurization is simulated by opening a choke at the outlet of the pressurized pipeline. The numerical scheme without front tracking (standard scheme gives outlet gas and liquid flow rates which are smeared out in time due to numerical diffusion. Simulations with the front tracking scheme give intermittent gas-liquid flow arriving as sharp fronts at the outlet. The total remaining fluid in the pipeline after the depressurization is larger when using the standard scheme.

  17. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Point Hope et al., v. Salazar, No. 1:08-cv-00004-RRB (D. Alaska)]. The sale was conducted in February... Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of...: BOEMRE announces the availability of a Revised Draft SEIS, OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea...

  18. 76 FR 68502 - National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 in the National Petroleum... opening for select tracts in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska. The United States reserves the right...

  19. Evaluation of revegetation progress and erosion-prone areas along oil and gas pipelines in Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramov, Emil [BP British Petroleum, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2012-09-15

    The construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil and South Caucasus gas (SCP) pipelines was completed in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The Azerbaijan section of the BTC oil and SCP gas pipelines is 442 km long and lies in a 44 m wide corridor named as the Right-of-Way (RoW). BTC and SCP pipelines are aligned parallel to each other within the RoW. The construction process significantly disturbed vegetation and soil cover along the RoW of the pipelines. The revegetation and erosion control measures were conducted after the completion of construction to restore disturbed footprints of construction. The general goals of the present studies, dedicated to the environmental monitoring and erosion control measures were to evaluate the status of the revegetation in 2007 since the completion of the construction activities and to determine erosion-prone areas along the RoW. Quantitative assessment of vegetation cover (VC) was based on the regression and RMSE analysis using IKONOS NDVI 2007 and in-situ estimation of VC percentage for the normalization of NDVI to VC. The prediction of erosion-prone areas was based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The prediction reliability of USLE was evaluated using in-situ collected erosion occurrences. (orig.)

  20. Oil pipeline geohazard monitoring using optical fiber FBG strain sensors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ferro, Andres; Mendez, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Pipelines are naturally vulnerable to operational, environmental and man-made effects such as internal erosion and corrosion; mechanical deformation due to geophysical risks and ground movements; leaks from neglect and vandalism; as well as encroachments from nearby excavations or illegal intrusions. The actual detection and localization of incipient and advanced faults in pipelines is a very difficult, expensive and inexact task. Anything that operators can do to mitigate the effects of these faults will provide increased reliability, reduced downtime and maintenance costs, as well as increased revenues. This talk will review the on-line monitoring of an extensive network of oil pipelines in service in Colombia using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors for the measurement of strains and bending caused by geohazard risks such as soil movements, landslides, settlements, flooding and seismic activity. The FBG sensors were mounted on the outside of the pipelines at discrete locations where geohazard risk was expected. The system has been in service for the past 3 years with over 1,000 strain sensors mounted. The technique has been reliable and effective in giving advanced warning of accumulated pipeline strains as well as possible ruptures.

  1. 75 FR 36773 - Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... to ensure the safe, reliable, and environmentally sound operation of the Nation's pipeline transportation system. Pursuant to authority delegated under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, 33 U.S.C. 1321, and...

  2. Hydrodynamic Study of Oil Leakage in Pipeline via CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana de Vasconcellos Araújo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the transient dynamics behavior of oil flow in a pipe with the presence of one or two leaks through fluid dynamics simulations using the Ansys CFX commercial software. The pipe section is three-dimensional with a pipe length of 10 m, a pipe diameter of 20 cm, and leak diameter of 1.6 mm. The interest of this work is to evaluate the influence of the flow velocity, and the number and position of leaks on the transient pressure behavior. These new data may provide support for more efficient detection systems. Thus, this work intends to contribute to the development of tools of operations in oil and gas industry.

  3. Standardization of industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals: TRANSPETRO's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Correa, Marcelo Leal [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO concerning standardization of its industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, preparation and implementation of standards and five corporate operational procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, and consequently the sense of unity and creation of a nucleus consisting of 30 professionals who mobilized a learning network with great capillarity. In this context, the paper presents the results of implementing corporate standards, based on internationally recognized yardsticks such as American Petroleum Institute (API), US Department of Transportation (DOT) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), as well as PETROBRAS standards. It covers the following topics: an overview of the whole process; preparation of corporate operational procedures, which resulted in a total of 5 standards against 60 in the original situation; preparation and implementation of visual quick guides corresponding to the new corporate operational procedures; and proposal of a set of industrial maintenance performance indicators in compliance with operational guidelines established by TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals business segment. (author)

  4. Transnational opposition and negotiation: Challenges to an oil pipeline in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Patricia

    The literature on transnational networks portrays transnational collaborations as advantageous to domestic stakeholders. Yet, the gains of transnational engagement may be accompanied by hardship for domestic groups. This dissertation examines how domestic stakeholders experienced the benefits and burdens of transnational collaboration in challenging the construction of the oil pipeline, the Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados, in Ecuador. Four community cases along the pipeline's route were selected for analysis. Each case varied by the experienced externalities of the oil industry and distributive struggle with the industry and the state. Lago Agrio, an oil town on the edge of the Amazon, represented a community with 30 years of oil saturation that engaged the state to determine just compensation. The capital Quito represented the nation's environmental organizations that sought a role in directing oil-funded conservation efforts. The third site, the eco-tourism community of Mindo, mobilized to reject the pipeline's route near their private reserves and to promote eco-tourism as an economic alternative to oil extraction. The final site was Esmeraldas, a coastal community experienced in tanker loading and oil refining that achieved a collective dignity in pressing for community-determined compensation. To better understand the impacts of transnational activities, this dissertation synthesizes theories of social movements, environmental justice and development. In its longitudinal and case study design, the examination of one project at four sites of contention offers insight into how transnational mobilization drives or hinders environmental justice and how grassroots groups gain or lose a forum for participation. My findings indicate that transnational campaigns benefited locals by providing expert assessments, facilitating international access and influencing international financing policies. However, the unintended consequences included a focus on international concerns

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... International Energy Agency, any oil transported by pipeline over right-of-way granted pursuant to section 203... International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), the National Emergencies Act ( ) U.S.C... transported by pipeline over right-of-way granted pursuant to section 203 of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline...

  6. Identification of environmentally vulnerable areas with priority for prevention and management of pipeline crude oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Heydrich, Silke Cram; Cervantes, Irene Sommer; Orozco, Oralia Oropeza

    2011-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the main productive activities in Mexico and has a huge infrastructure, including a wide pipeline network that crosses urban, industrial, agricultural and natural areas. The threat of crude oil spills is greatest in those regions with a high concentration of oil extraction and refining activities, as in the case of the Coatzacoalcos and Tonalá Rivers Low Basin. This study ranked the geosystems of the basin in terms of vulnerability to pipeline crude oil spills. Very high vulnerability (level I) was assigned to the water bodies (lakes and rivers) and their margins of influence, including surfaces that flood during normal hydraulic load. High vulnerability areas (level II) comprised surfaces that can flood during extraordinary hydraulic load related with extreme hydrometeorological events. The remaining three vulnerability levels were defined for areas with low or negligible flooding potential, these were ranked according to physical (slope, relief and permeability), biological (richness, singularity and integrity) and socio-economic (social marginalization index and economic activities index) conditions. These results are presented on a map for better visualization and interpretation. This study will be useful to establish preventive and effective emergency management actions in order to reduce remediation costs and adverse effects on wild species. It also can help local and national authorities, oil industry and civil protection corps to better protect ecosystems, natural resources and human activities and goods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Div. of Mineral Physics

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs.

  8. Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

  9. Rehabilitation of Sao Sebastiao-Cubatao oil pipeline: integrated planning and action - key for project success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serodio, Conrado J.M. [GDK S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The execution of the OSBAT 24{sup o}il pipeline rehabilitation project, comprising the substitution of a 30 km section of the 37 years old pipeline has become a real benchmark in the history of this kind of job. The pipeline is inserted in one of the most sensitive environmental areas of the Sao Paulo State - the last Environmental Protection Area of the Mata Atlantica . The growth of human presence in its surroundings during the last three decades, has caused the right-of-way to be totally confined by luxury housing developments, streets, highways and resorts, as well as by the local communities and their activities, schools, and commerce. The pipeline runs through the Serra do Mar unstable mountain range slopes, with sequences of very steep hills and ravines followed by swamps and rivers. The success of such a challenging project - assembling the new line in a narrow ROW with all its restrictions, where the old line was still in operation, and complying with the tight work schedule required by PETROBRAS, was only possible due to a carefully managed combination of: accurate planning, best engineering methods and equipment and experienced workforce, deeply integrated in a massive effort towards safety, environmental care and social responsibility. (author)

  10. Characterization of bacterial community associated to biofilms of corroded oil pipelines from the southeast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria-González, Isabel; Wang, En Tao; Ramírez, Florina; Romero, Juan M; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

    2006-06-01

    Microbial communities associated to biofilms promote corrosion of oil pipelines. The community structure of bacteria in the biofilm formed in oil pipelines is the basic knowledge to understand the complexity and mechanisms of metal corrosion. To assess bacterial diversity, biofilm samples were obtained from X52 steel coupons corroded after 40 days of exposure to normal operation and flow conditions. The biofilm samples were directly used to extract metagenomic DNA, which was used as template to amplify 16S ribosomal gene by PCR. The PCR products of 16S ribosomal gene were also employed as template for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) specific nested-PCR and both PCR products were utilized for the construction of gene libraries. The V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was also amplified to analyse the bacterial diversity by analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Ribosomal library and DGGE profiles exhibited limited bacterial diversity, basically including Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp. and Halanaerobium spp. while Desulfovibrio alaskensis and a novel clade within the genus Desulfonatronovibrio were detected from the nested PCR library. The biofilm samples were also taken for the isolation of SRB. Desulfovibrio alaskensis and Desulfovibrio capillatus, as well as some strains related to Citrobacter were isolated. SRB consists in a very small proportion of the community and Desulfovibrio spp. were the relatively abundant groups among the SRB. This is the first study directly exploring bacterial diversity in corrosive biofilms associated to steel pipelines subjected to normal operation conditions.

  11. Business process modeling applied to oil pipeline and terminal processes: a proposal for TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Adilson da Silva [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Caulliraux, Heitor Mansur [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ/GPI), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia. Grupo de Producao Integrada; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Felippe, Adriana Vieira de Oliveira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Business process modeling (BPM) using event driven process chain diagrams (EPCs) to lay out business process work flows is now widely adopted around the world. The EPC method was developed within the framework of the ARIS Toolset developed by Prof. Wilhelm-August Scheer at the Institut fur Wirtschaftsinformatik at the Universitat des Saarlandes, in the early 1990s. It is used by many companies to model, analyze and redesign business processes. As such it forms the core technique for modeling in ARIS, which serves to link the different aspects of the so-called control view, which is discussed in the section on ARIS business process modeling. This paper describes a proposal made to TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, which will be jointly developed by specialists and managers from TRANSPETRO and from COPPETEC, the collaborative research arm of Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ). The proposal is based on ARIS business process modeling and is presented here according to its seven phases, as follows: information survey and definition of the project structure; mapping and analysis of Campos Eliseos Terminal (TECAM) processes; validation of TECAM process maps; mapping and analysis of the remaining organizational units' processes; validation of the remaining organizational units' process maps; proposal of a business process model for all organizational units of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais; critical analysis of the process itself and the results and potential benefits of BPM. (author)

  12. Co-movements of Alaska North Slope and UK Brent crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, B.T.; Harter, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the inter-relationships of international crude oil markets, empirical analyses are used to investigate univariate and multivariate relationships between Alaska North Slope and UK Brent oil prices. Using monthly data from the period 1974-1996, the results show that both price series follow a random walk and that these oil markets share a long-run common trend. The empirical results suggest that the two markets are 'unified'. That is, they are competitive, and there is price convergence in the markets. (author)

  13. Slightly weathered Exxon Valdez oil persists in Gulf of Alaska beach sediments after 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jeffrey W; Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Maselko, Jacek M; Pella, Jerome J; Lindeberg, Mandy R; Payne, James R; Driskell, William B; Rice, Stanley D

    2007-02-15

    Oil stranded by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted in subsurface sediments of exposed shores for 16 years. With annualized loss rates declining from approximately 68% yr(-1) prior to 1992 to approximately 4% yr(-1) after 2001, weathering processes are retarded in both sediments and residual emulsified oil ("oil mousse"), and retention of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is prolonged. The n-alkanes, typically very readily oxidized by microbes, instead remain abundant in many stranded emulsified oil samplesfrom the Gulf of Alaska. They are less abundant in Prince William Sound samples, where stranded oil was less viscous. Our results indicate that, at some locations, remaining subsurface oil may persist for decades with little change.

  14. Real-Time Failure-Detection and Identification Applied to Supervision of Oil Transport in Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tørris Digernes

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper methods for real-time failure detection and identification are discussed. The methods apply parallel filters of the Kalman type based on plant models that describe the different failure situations as well as normal operation. A failure is determined by identifying the filter having the highest probability of representing the plant. The tests are based on the innovation sequence produced each of the filters. The last section presents simulations from a system designed for supervision of oil transport in pipelines.

  15. Standardization process for pipeline right-of-way activities: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipeline and Terminals Business Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra de Morais M.; Goncalves, Bruno Martins [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. concerning the standardization process for its pipeline right-of-way (ROW) activities. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, standardization and implementation of all norms and corporate procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's right-of-way activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, a sense of unity and the creation of a learning network consisting of 60 employees. This paper presents the last phase's results concerning implementation of corporate standards, based upon achievements of previous phases. It covers the following topics: a general view of the whole process by way of introduction; the potential of integration of recent standardization results with TRANSPETRO's corporate management tools and information systems; definition of four performance indicators and their metrics related to pipeline right-of-way management, as well as a corporate standard for the requirements for contracting services related to rights-of-way inspection, maintenance and communication; challenges, barriers and benefits perceived by the team responsible for formulating and implementing standards and procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. (author)

  16. Stochastic analysis of uncertain thermal characteristic of foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Jianzhou; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of stochastic properties and conditions on permafrost foundation was investigated. • A stochastic analysis for the uncertain thermal characteristic of crude oil pipe is presented. • The mean temperature and standard deviation of foundation soils are obtained and analyzed. • Average standard deviation and maximum standard deviation of foundation soils increase with time. - Abstract: For foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions, the soil properties and the upper boundary conditions are stochastic because of complex geological processes and changeable atmospheric environment. The conventional finite element analysis of thermal characteristics for crude oil pipeline is always deterministic, rather than taking stochastic parameters and conditions into account. This study investigated the stochastic influence of an underground crude oil pipeline on the thermal stability of the permafrost foundation on the basis of a stochastic analysis model and the stochastic finite element method. A stochastic finite element program is compiled by Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) software, and the random temperature fields of foundation soils surrounding a crude oil pipeline in a permafrost region are obtained and analyzed by Neumann stochastic finite element method (NSFEM). The results provide a new way to predict the thermal effects of the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions, and it shows that the standard deviations in temperature increase with time when considering the stochastic effect of soil properties and boundary conditions, which imply that the results of conventional deterministic analysis may be far from the true value, even if in different seasons. It can improve our understanding of the random temperature field of foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline and provide a theoretical basis for actual engineering design in permafrost regions.

  17. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in six oil-pipeline pumping stations in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-06-01

    Mexico has a very important oil industry, comprehending the exploration, production, transformation, storage and distribution of crude oil and its fractions. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a state-owned monopoly in charge of these activities. Oil and oil-products transport is an extremely crucial operation for the cycle production-transformation-distribution. Pipeline system transport crude oil and sub-products along the country (including liquids, gases and mixtures). It has been reported that more than 30% of the oil ducts in Mexico have been operating for over 30 years, although their lifetime has been calculated in 25-30 years. This work is aimed at characterizing a zone around six oil-pipeline pumping stations located at northern Mexico. The specific places to evaluate soil contamination were (1) the distribution head of the Gomez Palacio (GOPA) pumping station; (2) the north side of the old ditch, the API oil separator and the wastewater zones of the Jimenez (JIM) pumping station; (3) the pumping stations of Ceballos (CE), Peronal (PER), Simon Bolivar (SIBO), and Mayran (MAY). The study comprehended sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils, regarding TPH and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as a priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to the Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the encountered contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. In general, TPHs were found in all the pumping stations analyzed in this study. Regarding maximal TPHs concentrations at the stations, their order of contamination was as follows: SIBO>CE>PER>MAY>JIM>GOPA. PAHs were found only in a few points at concentrations above the detection limit. At the Jimenez, Gomez Palacio, Peronal, and Ceballos stations, only one point, with PAHs values over the

  18. Intrusion detection on oil pipeline right of way using monogenic signal representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Binu M.; Santhaseelan, Varun; Cui, Chen; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2013-05-01

    We present an object detection algorithm to automatically detect and identify possible intrusions such as construction vehicles and equipment on the regions designated as the pipeline right-of-way (ROW) from high resolution aerial imagery. The pipeline industry has buried millions of miles of oil pipelines throughout the country and these regions are under constant threat of unauthorized construction activities. We propose a multi-stage framework which uses a pyramidal template matching scheme in the local phase domain by taking a single high resolution training image to classify a construction vehicle. The proposed detection algorithm makes use of the monogenic signal representation to extract the local phase information. Computing the monogenic signal from a two dimensional object region enables us to separate out the local phase information (structural details) from the local energy (contrast) thereby achieving illumination invariance. The first stage involves the local phase based template matching using only a single high resolution training image in a local region at multiple scales. Then, using the local phase histogram matching, the orientation of the detected region is determined and a voting scheme gives a certain weightage to the resulting clusters. The final stage involves the selection of clusters based on the number of votes attained and using the histogram of oriented phase feature descriptor, the object is located at the correct orientation and scale. The algorithm is successfully tested on four different datasets containing imagery with varying image resolution and object orientation.

  19. Potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, M.G. [P.E.A.K. Research, Longmont, CO (United States); Ka' aihue, L. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV) compared to a standard laboratory test conducted with fluorescent lighting (minimal UV). Oil products, weathered oil, and specific polycyclic aromatic compounds present in oil are 2 to greater than 1000 times more toxic in the presence of UV. The photoenhanced toxicity of oil to fish and aquatic invertebrates appears to occur through a process of photosensitization, rather than photomodification of the aqueous phase oil. In photosensitization, the bioaccumulated chemical transfers light energy to other molecules causing toxicity through tissue damage rather than a narcosis mechanism. The available evidence indicates that phototoxic components of oil are specific 3-5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles. Determinants of photoenhanced toxicity include the extent of oil bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and the spectra and intensity of UV exposure. No studies have specifically investigated the photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Alaska waters. Although there are substantial uncertainties, the results of this evaluation indicate there is potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. The potential hazard of photoenhanced toxicity may be greatest for embryo and larval stages of aquatic organisms that are relatively translucent to UV and inhabit the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas. Photoenhanced toxicity should be considered in oil spill response because the spatial and temporal extent of injury to aquatic organisms may be underestimated if based on standard laboratory bioassays and existing toxicity databases. Additionally, the choice of counter measures and oil removal operations may influence the degree of photoenhanced toxicity. (author)

  20. Visual operations management tools applied to the oil pipelines and terminals standardization process: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the process by which visual operations management (VOM) tools were implemented, concerning standards and operational procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. It provides: a brief literature review of visual operations management tools applied to total quality management and the standardization processes; a discussion of the assumptions from the second level of VOM (visual standards) upon which TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals business processes and operational procedures are based; and a description of the VOM implementation process involving more than 100 employees and one illustrative example of 'Quick Guides' for right-of- way management activities. Finally, it discusses the potential impacts and benefits of using VOM tools in the current practices in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit, reinforcing the importance of such visual guides as vital to implement regional and corporate procedures, focusing on the main operational processes. (author)

  1. Study of Agglomeration Characteristics of Hydrate Particles in Oil/Gas Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuchang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The force acting on hydrate particles is the critical factor to hydrate slurry stability which serves as fundamental basis for slurry flow assurance. A comprehensive analysis of forces acting on the hydrate particles was executed to determine the major agglomeration forces and separation forces, and comparison of forces reveals that the main agglomeration force is capillary force and the main separation force is shear force. Furthermore, four main influencing factors deciding the hydrate particle agglomeration were also analyzed and calculated, which shows contacting angle of capillary bridge is the most important factor for hydrate particles agglomeration, while interface tension of oil and water is the least important one. Some methods must be adopted to change the surface of hydrate agglomerates from hydrophile to lipophilicity so as to control the agglomeration of hydrate particle, which is the significant guarantee for safe flow of oil and gas transporting pipeline with hydrate particles.

  2. Technical forums as an instrument for knowledge management in oil pipelines and terminals companies: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit regarding an institutionalized knowledge management (KM) process of systematically promoting technical forums focused on: pipeline and terminal operations; industrial maintenance; and right-of-way activities management. This empirical work adds evidence that in the model of cooperative and communicative knowledge management it is necessary to motivate staff to provide the company with their tacit knowledge and to take a proactive part in knowledge management processes, particularly in technical forums. Within this KM perspective, technical forums have been held by TRANSPETRO for the following purposes: to discuss the main barriers and challenges the oil pipelines and terminals unit has to face in the coming years; to share and disseminate good practices concerning oil pipeline and terminal activities; to discuss new processes, methods and equipment developments with potential application in business and operational processes; to establish action plans concerning the main challenges, barriers and opportunities; to disseminate Research and Development (R and D) projects in course, new procedures, methods and equipment and to promote integration among forum attendees. The two year-experience in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit revealed that technical forums have been an important instrument for cooperative and communicative knowledge management, according to evaluations from 173 attendees. (author)

  3. The side effects of the THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) treatment in oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de A.; Lopes, Eduardo Gullo M.; Paiva, Eva M.de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais e Controle de Corrosao; Penna, Monica de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been using THPS biocide since 2000 to control sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and H{sub 2}S generation in FPSO's tanks, storage tanks, seawater injection systems, produced water systems and hydrostatic testings. The advantage of this product over other biocides is to be effective against sessile SRB and to have low environmental impact and low risk to operators' health. Since 2005 the use of THPS was also extended to oil pipelines and has being demonstrating high efficacy in controlling sessile SRB and sulfide formation, even in fluids with very low water cut (BSW < 1%). However, some deleterious effects were observed when THPS (formulated with 75% of active ingredient) was dosed continuously in the produced fluids, in high concentration and/or for long periods. This paper presents the results of THPS treatment in two PETROBRAS' oil pipelines and describes the side effects that were detected during the biocide injection. The actions taken to minimize these harmful effects, without losing the good biocide efficiency were also presented. (author)

  4. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  5. Development of the Write Process for Pipeline-Ready Heavy Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones; Frank Guffey

    2009-03-07

    Work completed under this program advances the goal of demonstrating Western Research Institute's (WRI's) WRITE{trademark} process for upgrading heavy oil at field scale. MEG Energy Corporation (MEG) located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada supported efforts at WRI to develop the WRITE{trademark} process as an oil sands, field-upgrading technology through this Task 51 Jointly Sponsored Research project. The project consisted of 6 tasks: (1) optimization of the distillate recovery unit (DRU), (2) demonstration and design of a continuous coker, (3) conceptual design and cost estimate for a commercial facility, (4) design of a WRITE{trademark} pilot plant, (5) hydrotreating studies, and (6) establish a petroleum analysis laboratory. WRITE{trademark} is a heavy oil and bitumen upgrading process that produces residuum-free, pipeline ready oil from heavy material with undiluted density and viscosity that exceed prevailing pipeline specifications. WRITE{trademark} uses two processing stages to achieve low and high temperature conversion of heavy oil or bitumen. The first stage DRU operates at mild thermal cracking conditions, yielding a light overhead product and a heavy residuum or bottoms material. These bottoms flow to the second stage continuous coker that operates at severe pyrolysis conditions, yielding light pyrolyzate and coke. The combined pyrolyzate and mildly cracked overhead streams form WRITE{trademark}'s synthetic crude oil (SCO) production. The main objectives of this project were to (1) complete testing and analysis at bench scale with the DRU and continuous coker reactors and provide results to MEG for process evaluation and scale-up determinations and (2) complete a technical and economic assessment of WRITE{trademark} technology to determine its viability. The DRU test program was completed and a processing envelope developed. These results were used for process assessment and for scaleup. Tests in the continuous coker were intended to

  6. Economics of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the North Slope of Alaska: Economic Update and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published assessments by geologists of undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations in the North Slope of Alaska; these assessments contain a set of scientifically based estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable quantities of oil and gas in discrete oil and gas accumulations that can be produced with conventional recovery technology. The assessments do not incorporate economic factors such as recovery costs and product prices. The assessors considered undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in four areas of the North Slope: (1) the central North Slope, (2) the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), (3) the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), and (4) the area west of the NPRA, called in this report the 'western North Slope'. These analyses were prepared at different times with various minimum assessed oil and gas accumulation sizes and with slightly different assumptions. Results of these past studies were recently supplemented with information by the assessment geologists that allowed adjustments for uniform minimum assessed accumulation sizes and a consistent set of assumptions. The effort permitted the statistical aggregation of the assessments of the four areas composing the study area. This economic analysis is based on undiscovered assessed accumulation distributions represented by the four-area aggregation and incorporates updates of costs and technological and fiscal assumptions used in the initial economic analysis that accompanied the geologic assessment of each study area.

  7. Biodegradation of Alaska North Slope crude oil enhanced by commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrett, S.; Bonner, J.S.; Mills, M.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Autenrieth, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The biodegradation of crude oil was studied. Tests were conducted in which natural unpolluted seawater was collected and then contaminated with Alaska North Slope crude oil. The oil was weathered by heating it to 521 degrees F to remove the light-end hydrocarbons. A total of 13 different bioremediation agents were tested, each one separately. Three samples per treatment were destructively analysed for petroleum chemistry. The thirteen treatments were analyzed for oil and grease. It was found that microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was enhanced by the addition of bioremediation agents, but it was not possible to identify the intermediate products responsible for the increase of resolved petroleum hydrocarbons through time. It was suggested that caution be used when interpreting results since the protocols used to test the products were prone to uncontrollable variations. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  8. Alternatives for operational cost reduction in oil pipelines; Alternativas para reducao de custos energeticos operacionais em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Philipe Barroso; Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Pires, Luis Fernando Goncalves [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (SIMDUT/DEM/ PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecancia. Nucleo de Simulacao Termo-Hidraulica de Dutos

    2012-07-01

    This paper intends to give a brief overview of some cost reduction alternatives in oil pipelines, to optimize the pipeline operation. Four different alternatives are presented, based on previous studies made on existing pipelines, to demonstrate the response obtained with these solutions. Pipeline operation, especially on mature ones, tends to have a high operational cost, be by tradition, the aging of the installation, change of operational characteristics - such as nominal flow, product, or even flow direction - for which the pipeline wasn't originally designed. The alternatives showed allow for an increase survival time of the pipeline, without resorting to major changes, such as replacement of pipes or adding pumping stations to the system. The alternative studied varies from no implementation cost to high installation cost or operational cost increase, depending on the system and the alternative chosen. From changing the pump arrays during operation or changing the products viscosity with different blends, that represent virtually no cost to the pipeline operation, to the use of VFDs, with a high installation cost or DRA, which increase the operational cost. (author)

  9. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill bioremediation: Experiences with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. Field studies conducted by scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency have demonstrated that oil degradation by indigenous microflora on the beaches of Prince William Sound could be significantly accelerated by adding fertilizer directly to the surfaces of oil-contaminated beaches. The author's results from the application of an oleophilic fertilizer are presented as exemplary field and laboratory information. The fertilizer enhanced biodegradation of the oil, as measured by changes in oil composition and bulk oil weight per unit of beach material, by approximately twofold relative to untreated controls. The emphasis of this chapter will be on some of the difficulties and problems associated with the fertilizer application and its effect on oil degradation. The author will concentrate primarily on the separate application of an oleophilic fertilizer which occurred at a site called Snug Harbor on Knight Island in Prince William Sound, and on the application of slow-release fertilizer granules which occurred on Disk Island in Prince William Sound

  10. Implementation of an integrity management program in a crude oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria; Tomasella, Marcelo [Oleoductos del Valle, General Roca (Argentina); Rossi, Juan; Pellicano, Adolfo [SINTEC S.A. , Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    The implementation of an Integrity Management Program (IMP) in a crude oil pipeline system is focused on the accomplishment of two primary corporative objectives: to increase safety operation margins and to optimize available resources. A proactive work philosophy ensures the safe and reliable operation of the pipeline in accordance with current legislation. The Integrity Management Program is accomplished by means of an interdisciplinary team that defines the strategic objectives that complement and are compatible with the corporative strategic business plan. The implementation of the program is based on the analysis of the risks due to external corrosion, third party damage, design and operations, and the definition of appropriate mitigation, inspection and monitoring actions, which will ensure long-term integrity of the assets. By means of a statistical propagation model of the external defects, reported by high-resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), together with the information provided by corrosion sensors, field repair interventions, close internal surveys and operation data, projected defect depth; remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established, including the inspection and repair plan, the internal inspection program and both corrosion monitoring and mitigation programs. (author)

  11. Beach geomorphic factors for the persistence of subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuqiang; Boufadel, Michel C

    2011-12-01

    Oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill persists in some of the Prince William Sound (Alaska) beaches and continues to be a potential threat to the fauna. This paper reports a field investigation during the summer of 2008 of groundwater flow and solute transport in a tidal gravel beach in Smith Island, Prince William Sound. The beach contains oil on one side, the left side (facing landward). Field measurements of water table, salinity, and tracer (lithium) concentration were obtained for an approximate duration of 64 h for two transects, the oiled transect and a clean transect (the right transect). It was found that the hydraulic conductivity and the fresh groundwater recharge into the two transects were similar. It was also found that the beach slope of the mid to high tidal zone along the oiled (left) transect was ~7.4% which is considerably smaller than that of the clean (right) transect (~11.8%). This suggests a higher flushing/replenishing of the right transect with nutrients and/or oxygen, which would have enhanced biodegradation of oil on the right transect if that oil was not washed by waves. We also found that the degree of oiling at each location was inversely dependent on the armoring of the beach surface with clasts and boulders. The applied tracer concentration at the left transect was less than 2% of the source or close to the background level at all locations except a seaward well closest to the applied location, indicating that the tracer applied was diluted or washed out from the beach during the application. Thus, in situations where oil biodegradation is limited by the availability of nutrients and/or dissolved oxygen, applying the chemicals on the beach surface would most likely not enhance oil biodegradation as the applied chemicals would be greatly diluted prior to reaching the oil. Thus, deep injection of nutrients and/or dissolved oxygen is probably the only option for enhancing oil biodegradation.

  12. CSI : Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letwin, S.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation emphasized the need for northern gas supply at a time when conventional natural gas supplies are decreasing and demand is growing. It highlighted the unique qualifications of Enbridge Inc. in creating an infrastructure to move the supply to where it is in most demand. Enbridge has substantial northern experience and has a unique approach for the construction of the Alaskan Gas Pipeline which entails cooperation, stability and innovation (CSI). Enbridge's role in the joint venture with AltaGas and Inuvialuit Petroleum was discussed along with its role in the construction of the first Canadian pipeline in 1985. The 540 mile pipeline was buried in permafrost. A large percentage of Enbridge employees are of indigenous descent. Enbridge recognizes that the amount of capital investment and the associated risk needed for the Alaska Gas Pipeline will necessitate a partnership of producers, pipeline companies, Native organizations, the State of Alaska, market participants and other interested parties. 9 figs

  13. Alaska North Slope crude oil price and the behavior of diesel prices in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrangi, B.; Chatrath, A.; Raffiee, K.; Ripple, R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the price dynamics of Alaska North Slope crude oil and L.A. diesel fuel prices. We employ VAR methodology and bivariate GARCH model to show that there is a strong evidence of a uni-directional causal relationship between the two prices. The L.A. diesel market is found to bear the majority of the burden of convergence when there is a price spread. This finding may be seen as being consistent with the general consensus that price discovery emanates from the larger, more liquid market where trading volume is concentrated. The contestability of the West Coast crude oil market tends to cause it to react relatively competitively, while the lack of contestability for the West Coast diesel market tends to limit its competitiveness, causing price adjustment to be slow but to follow the price signals of crude oil. Our findings also suggest that the derived demand theory of input pricing may not hold in this case. The Alaska North Slope crude oil price is the driving force in changes of L.A. diesel price

  14. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J. Karchesy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2, and eremophil-1(10,11-dien-13-ol (3. The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3 was established by synthesis from valencene (6. Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5 and valencene-13-aldehyde (4, respectively.

  15. Biologically important eremophilane sesquiterpenes from alaska cedar heartwood essential oil and their semi-synthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J

    2011-06-08

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2), and eremophil-1(10),11-dien-13-ol (3). The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S) configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3) was established by synthesis from valencene (6). Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5) and valencene-13-aldehyde (4), respectively.

  16. Nutrients and Oxygen Limitation for the Biodegradation of Exxon Valdez Oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Y.; Boufadel, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    Twenty years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the oil is still lingering in beaches of Prince William Sound, Alaska. We conducted measurements of water level, salinity, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen in a beach on Eleanor Island heavily contaminated in 1989. The measurements were conducted in two transects: One transect contained Heavy Oil Residue (HOR) and the other was clean. Six pits were dug in each transect, and they ranged in depth from 0.9 m to 1.5 m. In each pit, a multiport sampling well and two sampling boxes (each around 200 ml in volume) were placed for collecting water samples at various depths. Nutrients measurements revealed that nitrate-N was around 0.2 mg/L at oiled pits, which is an order of magnitude lower than the concentration needed for optimal degradation of oil by micro-organisms. The dissolved oxygen was less than 0.6 mg/L in the oiled pits while it was, on the average, larger than 4.0 mg/L in the clean pits. This suggests that oxygen limitation could have played a major role in the persistence of oil in beaches of Prince William Sound.

  17. Oil and gas pipelines with hydrophobic surfaces better equipped to deal with gas hydrate flow assurance issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfeldt, Christine Malmos; Sharifi, Hassan; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate deposition can cause plugging in oil and gas pipelines with resultant flow assurance challenges. Presently, the energy industry uses chemical additives in order to manage hydrate formation, however these chemicals are expensive and may be associated with safety and environmental...... crystallizer. This indicates that 10 to 14 times less KHI is needed in the presence of a hydrophobically coated surface. These experimental studies suggest that the use of hydrophobic surfaces or pipelines could serve as an alternative or additional flow assurance approach for gas hydration mitigation...... and management....

  18. Technical assistance to the manufacture, construction and assembly of Osorio-Canoas oil pipeline flow pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Kellson Takenaka; Rangel Junior, Joilson Rangel; Costa, Jose Coelho [Petroleo Brasileiro S/A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: kellson.telsan@petrobras.com.br, joilson_jr@petrobras.com.br, jccoelho.telsan@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the experiences acquired through the modifications and improvements implemented in the manufacture, construction and assembly of the oil flow centrifugal pumps of the Osorio-Canoas Oil Pipeline (OSCAN 22''), located in Rio Grande do Sul. The OSCAN 22'' pumping capacity expansion was conceived aiming at meeting the Alberto Pasqualini Refinery (REFAP) processing increase project from 20,000 m{sup 3}/day to 30,000 m{sup 3}/day, besides changing the product profile from processed product to national high viscosity national oils. Due to this reason, a new pump park at the Almirante Soares Dutra Terminal (TEDUT) and a new intermediate pump station named Estacao de Santo Antonio da Patrulha (ESPAT) have been erected. Thus, the oil received by a tanker and stored at TEDUT was now pumped to ESPAT and then to REFAP through a 97 km long and 22 inch diameter oil pipeline named OSCAN 22''. In order to get such oil flow done, 03 new main pumps have been installed at TEDUT, one of them being a stand-by one, and other 03 pumps at ESPAT, one of them being also a stand-by one. During the startup of TEDUT's pumps, high vibration levels were observed in the rotors and in the equipment structures. The values defined by the manufacturer for equipment alarm and shutdown were, respectively, 50.0 {mu}m and 75.0 {mu}m, measured on the pump rotors in the bearing region. However, the global vibration levels of the TEDUT's pumps reached 110.0 {mu}m during the startup attended by the manufacturers. The equipment warranty period started after that, and a detailed activity planning was drawn up with the purpose of keeping TEDUT running with the new pumps at the lowest possible operational risk and avoiding a production reduction at REFAP. Simultaneously, various actions were taken in order to identify the vibration sources and reduce its intensity to the lowest possible values. After equipment modifications, median vibration values at 15

  19. Treatment screening for internal corrosion control of PETROBRAS oil pipelines; Selecao de tratamento para controle da corrosao interna de oleodutos da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de Azevedo; Muller, Eduardo Gullo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Antunes, Warlley Ligorio; Shioya, Nilce Hiromi; Salvador, Angelica Dias [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2005-07-01

    The use of corrosion inhibitors is spread out in oil and gas industry and is the most common methodology to control pipeline internal corrosion. However, their effectiveness depends on the pipeline material, inhibitor composition, flow type and scale characteristics. When a pipeline has heavy scale deposits, thick bacterial biofilm, or oxygen contamination, the corrosion control via filmic inhibitors is not effective. So, the only way to control internal corrosion of an oil pipeline is to primary identifies the corrosive agent and the main corrosion mechanism. The monitoring of the inhibitor efficiency and the determination of minimal residual concentration to prevent corrosion, are also fundamental. In this paper, is presented the criteria used to identify the main corrosion mechanism of oil pipelines, the treatment proposed in each case and the techniques employed in real time corrosion monitoring. (author)

  20. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  1. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Renxing; Grizzle, Robert S; Duncan, Kathleen E; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55°C. Most-probable number (MPN) analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy) was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy), while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm(2), while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens.

  2. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxing eLiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55 oC. Most-probable number (MPN analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy, while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm2, while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens.

  3. GeoFORCE Alaska: Four-Year Field Program Brings Rural Alaskan High School Students into the STEM Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowell, S. J.; Rittgers, A.; Stephens, L.; Hutchinson, S.; Peters, H.; Snow, E.; Wartes, D.

    2016-12-01

    GeoFORCE Alaska is a four-year, field-based, summer geoscience program designed to raise graduation rates in rural Alaskan high schools, encourage participants to pursue college degrees, and increase the diversity of Alaska's technical workforce. Residents of predominantly Alaska Native villages holding degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) bring valuable perspectives to decisions regarding management of cultural and natural resources. However, between 2010 and 2015 the average dropout rate for students in grades 7-12 was 8.5% per year in the North Slope School District and 7% per year in the Northwest Arctic School District. 2015 graduation rates were 70% and 75%, respectively. Statewide statistics highlight the challenge for Alaska Native students. During the 2014-2015 school year alone 37.6% of Alaska Native students dropped out of Alaskan public schools. At the college level, Alaska Native students are underrepresented in University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) science departments. Launched in 2012 by UAF in partnership with the longstanding University of Texas at Austin program, GeoFORCE applies the cohort model, leading the same group of high school students on geological field academies during four consecutive summers. Through a combination of active learning, teamwork, and hands-on projects at spectacular geological locations, students gain academic skills and confidence that facilitate high school and college success. To date, GeoFORCE Alaska has recruited two cohorts. 78% of these students identify as Alaska Native, reflecting community demographics. The inaugural cohort of 18 students from the North Slope Borough completed the Fourth-Year Academy in summer 2015. 94% of these students graduated from high school, at least 72% plan to attend college, and 33% will major in geoscience. A second cohort of 34 rising 9th and 10th graders entered the program in 2016. At the request of corporate sponsors, this cohort was recruited from both the

  4. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom...

  5. Can tax policy change exploration levels? A case of Alaska oil legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappen, Samuel Weston

    This thesis applies modern Autoregressive Distributed Lag modeling techniques to estimate the effects of oil tax policy in the case of the 2007 ACES legislation on exploratory drilling within Alaska. This analysis uses recently released public data to examine the period of 1986 to 2013 in quarterly intervals which includes all periods in which ACES was in place. While this subject has become a popular subject of debate within the state and industry, no similar statistical analysis has been conducted to date. According to the results, ACES had a significantly negative and lasting effect on exploration levels while it was in effect. The oil price and interest rate are also found to be important variables in characterizing exploration activity.

  6. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  7. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

  8. What happened to Fairbanks: the effects of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline on the community of Fairbanks, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, M.

    1978-01-01

    Fairbanks failed to prepare for the deluge of construction-related equipment and personnel and its consequences. This book includes many effects, including prostitution, and rent gouging. The author presents community alternatives that were ignored. The author attempts to evaluate the impact of rapid growth and suggests that industry pay the social cost of disruption to the community. (DP)

  9. Papers of the Canadian Institute's 3. annual conference : oil sands supply and infrastructure : labour supply, upgraders, transportation, pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this conference was on the development of the oil sands industry, with specific reference to issues concerning supply and infrastructure. Energy source development and transmission issues were discussed, as well as transportation systems. The impact of increased oil sands development on pipelines was also examined. Various fuel options were discussed, including the use of hydrogen, natural gas and alternate fuels in manufacturing and processing plants. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed. The environmental impact of increased oil sands activity was discussed, with specific reference to the Boreal regions. Management challenges in the oil sands industry were also discussed along with issues concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 13 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krummel, John R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hlava, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moore, H. Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Orr, Andrew B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, Scott O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-21

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines.

  11. Subtidal distribution of Exxon Valdez oil in two bays in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.; Mankiewicz, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This 1991 study assessed the subtidal fate of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 2 bays. A subtidal stratified random sampling design compared stations in the oiled Bay of Isles with stations in the reference Drier Bay. Thirty-five random sampling stations over 3 depth zones in each of the oiled and reference bays enabled generalization of the results. 12 non-randomly chosen stations were also sampled in the two bays. Sediment samples were analyzed for saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons, grain size and organic carbon. The statistical comparisons between the oiled and reference bays were based on PAH analyses. Four types of PAH were identified in the two bays; Alaska North Slope (ANS) petrogenic spill PAH; seep-derived natural petrogenic background PAH; pyrogenic PAH; and diagenetic PAH (perylene). The Bay of Isles sediments contained significantly higher levels of weathered ANS-PAH than Drier Bay. These levels were generally small compared with those of the petrogenic background PAH naturally present. The concentration of the natural petrogenic PAH component increased with increasing depth zone for each bay. Drier Bay, a location of past cannery and mining activity, had significantly greater levels of pyrogenic PAH than the Bay of Isles. All sediment PAH concentrations were well below the 4,000 ng/g total PAH concentration reported in the literature as a sublethal toxicity threshold value in sediments. The highest sediment ANSPAH concentration (201 ng/g) was 20 times lower than this value

  12. Evolutionary algorithm for the problem of oil products distributions on oil pipeline network; Algoritmo evolucionario para distribuicao de produtos de petroleo por redes de polidutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, Eduardo; Goldbarg, Elizabeth; Goldbarg, Marco; Cunha, Thatiana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A major problem about the planning of production in refinery is the determination of what should be done in each stage of production as a horizon of time. Among such problems, distribution of oil products through networks of pipelines is a very significant problem because of its economic importance. In this work, a problem of distribution of oil through a network of pipelines is modeled. The network studied is a simplification of a real network. There are several restrictions to be met, such as limits of storage, transmission or receipt of limits and limitations of transport. The model is adopted bi-goal where you want to minimize the fragmentation and the time of transmission, given the restrictions of demand and storage capacity. Whereas the occupancy rate of networks is increasingly high, is of great importance optimize its use. In this work, the technique of optimization by Cloud of particles is applied to the problem of distribution of oil products by networks of pipelines. (author)

  13. Ultra-sonic PIG inspection in crude oil pipeline on deep waters; Inspecao com PIG ultra-sonico em oleodutos de aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Aldo Renato; Melo, Francimario da Silva Vieira; Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Morais, Ricardo Pereira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Nowadays, Marlin field is one of the biggest oil production fields in Campos Basin. This field is compound by platforms that produce, storage and export natural gas and crude oil through sub sea pipelines. The pipeline integrity must be assured for operation continuity and safety of the people and environment. The use of smart pigs is a technique applied to verify corrosion and wall thickness loss in PETROBRAS' sub sea pipelines. The crude oil pipelines inspection from a platform to a FPSO was a big challenge due to the high wall thickness, high export temperature, high BSW (Basic Sediments and Water) and wax. This paper presents solutions for the success of this inspection using smart pigs (author)

  14. Bourgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline; will matching institutional and regulatory contexts lead to an effective bargaining and eventual consensus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs Muthoo's bargaining principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result (. A Non-Technical Introduction to Bargaining Theory, World Economics 1(2): 145-166) to decide whether Greece and Bulgaria can form a successful energy coalition. Motivation for this is the proposed construction of the crude oil pipeline from the Bulgarian port Burgas to the Greek Aegean port of Alexandroupolis. The reason Turkey is the third country in the analysis despite its current non-membership in this venture, is that: (i) Turkey offers to host a competitive route of the pipeline, (ii) It is a transit, neighboring country to Greece forming an important geopolitical triangle together with Greece and Bulgaria and (iii) co-operates separately with Bulgaria and Greece in other energy pipelines. Therefore, the three countries engage to interwining energy and geopolitical futures. Whether B-A oil pipeline will be implemented or not, will be due to a mix of bargaining procedures. The paper shows that Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy and energy figures and characteristics), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising based on this theory. - Research Highlights: →The B-A oil pipeline project is currently at a junction point. Bargaining and public discussion is ongoing. →Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy, energy, socio-demographic and E-governance figures and characteristics as well as environmental effects and construction characteristics of the pipeline), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. Therefore the two countries match in all parameters and remains pending the last but not least point of agreement, namely citizens' consensus. →A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising

  15. Bourgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline; will matching institutional and regulatory contexts lead to an effective bargaining and eventual consensus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N., E-mail: amenegaki@her.forthnet.g [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Languages, Literature and Civilization of Black Sea Countries, Polytechniou 7A, 69100 Komotini (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    This paper employs Muthoo's bargaining principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result (. A Non-Technical Introduction to Bargaining Theory, World Economics 1(2): 145-166) to decide whether Greece and Bulgaria can form a successful energy coalition. Motivation for this is the proposed construction of the crude oil pipeline from the Bulgarian port Burgas to the Greek Aegean port of Alexandroupolis. The reason Turkey is the third country in the analysis despite its current non-membership in this venture, is that: (i) Turkey offers to host a competitive route of the pipeline, (ii) It is a transit, neighboring country to Greece forming an important geopolitical triangle together with Greece and Bulgaria and (iii) co-operates separately with Bulgaria and Greece in other energy pipelines. Therefore, the three countries engage to interwining energy and geopolitical futures. Whether B-A oil pipeline will be implemented or not, will be due to a mix of bargaining procedures. The paper shows that Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy and energy figures and characteristics), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might also be permissible and promising based on this theory. - Research Highlights: {yields}The B-A oil pipeline project is currently at a junction point. Bargaining and public discussion is ongoing. {yields}Muthoo's principles/prerequisites for an effective bargaining result, through their constituents (selected economy, energy, socio-demographic and E-governance figures and characteristics as well as environmental effects and construction characteristics of the pipeline), are fulfilled by Greece and Bulgaria. Therefore the two countries match in all parameters and remains pending the last but not least point of agreement, namely citizens' consensus. {yields}A broader coalition with the inclusion of Turkey might

  16. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no

  17. Studying the rheological properties and the influence of drag reduction on a waxy crude oil in pipeline flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hassanean

    2016-03-01

    The rheological behaviors of tested waxy crude oil were studied at different temperatures (varies from 67 to 102 °F and different DRA concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 ppm. The results showed that at all constant DRA concentrations, the viscosity highly decreased until 80 °F (above pour point by 15 °F. However, by increasing the DRA concentration, the viscosity is increased at temperatures lower than 80 °F. This is because the DRA is a high molecular weight polymer which participates in increasing viscosity by increasing its concentration. After 80 °F, the DRA concentration has an insignificant effect on viscosity. So the effect of the DRA is not in reducing viscosity but mainly in reducing the degree of turbulence energy. The field studies were performed at a normal temperature of tested pipeline sections (100 °F. The tested DRA has an improving effect on reducing the pressure drop of pipeline which leads to reduction in crude oil pumping energy or an increase in the pipeline capacity with a high efficiency of the DRA.

  18. Monitoring oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Harner, E.J.; Boehm, P.D.; Stoker, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of shoreline monitoring programs were employed to evaluate the recovery of the ecological communities of Prince William Sound (PWS) shorelines after the oil spill: (a) Extensive shoreline surveys conducted (1989--1992) over much of the oiled shoreline to define extent of shoreline oiling and to assess biological conditions; (b) Detailed sampling in 1989 at nonrandomly chosen locations representing a range of oiling conditions (c) Comprehensive shoreline ecology program initiated in 1990 to assess shoreline recovery in Prince William Sound using (1) a rigorous stratified random sampling study design with 64 sites representing 4 shoreline habitats and 4 oiling levels (unoiled, light, moderate, heavy); (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites of particular concern. Biological communities were analyzed to detect differences due to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Following the spill, populations of all major species survived as sources for recolonization. Recruitment to oiled shores began in summer 1989. By 1990, shoreline biota in PWS had largely recovered. Estimates of shoreline recovery (biological community indistinguishable from reference) ranged from 91% based on univariate analysis of standard community parameters to 73% based on multivariate correspondence analysis

  19. The pipes for gas and oil pipelines mains one-sided high-speed welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Вікторович Щетинін

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic theory of the undercuts formation under the arc magnetic field action according to which as welding speed increases cooling intensifies and arc diameter reduces, induction and magnetic pressure increase, pinch-effect amplifies, has been proved. The arc concentrates, heat input and the pool side edges electrical resistance reduce with the result that current through the side walls and a downward electromagnetic force, under the action of which the liquid metal flows from the pool edges, increase and the undercuts form. In high-speed welding a composite electrode as compared with the wire electrode the heat input into the side edges and their electrical resistance increase; current and induction at the pool side edges and the electromagnetic force decrease that providing the seams qualitative formation and confirming the electromagnetic theory of the undercuts. With welding speed increasing the weld pool molten metal crystallization rate increases in proportion to it, microstructure gets reduced and welding stresses decrease, that providing the welds joints toughness rise. By increasing welding speed due to deflection rearward the arc pressure decreases, the molten metal movement rate into the back part of the pool grows, that resulting in the molten metal hydrodynamic pressure reduction. Due to simultaneous reduction of the arc pressure, of the downward electromagnetic force and of the molten metal hydrodynamic pressure, the crystallization rate increase and the pool molten state time reduction the backing bead formation on the melt backing improves greatly at the high-speed welding. The energy-saving process of one-sided high-speed welding of the pipes for gas and oil pipelines on the melt backing with the use of glass flux by means of a composite electrode, which provides quality and the welded joints toughness increase, has been developed

  20. Cleanup and biodegradation of a crude-oil spill at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgenson, M.T.; Cater, T.C.; Joyce, M.R.; Ronzio, S.

    1992-01-01

    A crude oil spill occurred at an exploratory well site near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska during drilling in the winter of 1969-70. The oil infiltrated a portion of the gravel pad and flowed onto the adjacent tundra. Although some attempts were made to clean up the site at the time, a large area of contaminated gravel and tundra remained in 1990. Based on a detailed site assessment, 2.2 hectares had such high total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations that excavation and incineration were selected as the most appropriate remedial actions. In the remaining less-contaminated areas that were not excavated and in subsurface soil horizons, bioremediation was selected. During the winter of 1991, an estimated 19,000 m 3 of soil was excavated and incinerated in a rotary kiln. During summer 1991, biodegradation of the TPH in the remaining soil was promoted by tilling, watering and draining, and fertilizing. Excavation of the heavily contaminated soil reduced mean TPH concentrations by 89% at the tundra surface. Bioremediation for 53 days reduced mean TPH concentrations by 74%. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and soil and groundwater properties important to microbial growth were also monitored. Two strains of Pseudomonas species showed a good ability to degrade crude oil and probably were responsible for the large reduction in TPH concentrations observed after one summer. 5 refs., 5 figs

  1. Status of intertidal infaunal communities following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Allan K; Shigenaka, Gary; Coats, Douglas A

    2014-07-15

    Intertidal infaunal communities were sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska from 1990-2000 to evaluate impacts and recovery from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Initial findings suggested that the spill and cleanup depressed abundances of all taxonomic groups. By 1992, abundances of major taxonomic categories at disturbed sites had either converged or paralleled populations at Unoiled sites. Abundances of littleneck clams, Leukoma (Protothaca) staminea, slowly increased at Treated sites and converged with Unoiled sites by 2000. Infaunal population differences positively correlated with fine-grained sediments at Treated sites. We believe that sediment fines removal during cleanup, and subsequent slow natural replenishment, impeded the return of the environment to pre-spill conditions. This suggests physical recovery of spill-affected beaches is an important precursor to biological recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M.E. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV. The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV and scaled distance (SD relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD−1.225 in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD−0.071 in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  3. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  4. Intelligent leak detection system for oil pipelines; Sistema inteligente para deteccao de vazamentos em dutos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Dantas Gadelha de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in an oil field is implementation of a software-based leak detection system on a multi-phase flow pipeline. This paper will discuss implementation of a leak detection system in a particular oil field using state-of-the-art signal processing techniques to apply to the data collected in a oil pipeline. This leak detection system is still in development and uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system. Windowing, joint time-frequency analysis and wavelets were considered to develop methods of detecting leaks by watching for the wavefront. The idea behind these techniques is to cut the signal of interest into several parts and then analyze the parts separately. It is impossible to know the exact frequency and the exact time of occurrence of the leak frequency in a signal. In other words, a leak signal can simply not be represented as a point in the time-frequency space. It is very important how one cuts the signal to implement the analysis. The wavelet transform or wavelet analysis is probably the most recent solution to overcome the shortcomings of the Fourier transform. So, this paper shows some tests and how these techniques are being implementing during the development of the system. (author)

  5. Risk assessment in gas and oil pipelines based on the fuzzy Bow-tie technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Heyrani

    2016-04-01

      Conclusion: Considering the recognized factors leading to destruction of pipelines and their most notable outcomes, instructions on how to control and reduce the potential consequences were suggested, with emphasis on the removal of the most probable causes.

  6. Modeling Hydrodynamic State of Oil and Gas Condensate Mixture in a Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Based on the developed model a calculation method was obtained which is used to analyze hydrodynamic state and composition of hydrocarbon mixture in each ith section of the pipeline when temperature-pressure and hydraulic conditions change.

  7. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments.

  8. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, G.V. [United States Geological Survey , Anchorage, AK (United States); Mann, D.H. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Institute of Arctic Biology; Short, J.W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Fisheries Laboratory

    2006-09-15

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by 'oil mousse', which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulder. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. (author)

  9. Experimental recovery of sea otter carcasses at Kodiak Island, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Doroff, Angela M.; Monson, Daniel H.

    1994-01-01

    ound,  Alaska,  spilling  approximately  11  million  barrels  of  crude  oilOil  wasdeposited  on  beaches  nearly  700  km  from  the  spill  site  (Galt  and  Payton  1990,Piatt  et  al.  1990),  affecting  thousands  of  hectares  of  sea  otter(Enhydra  lutris)habitat.  Two  of  the  principal  limitations  in  determining  the  initial  effects  of  theExxon  Valdez  oil  spill  on  sea  otter  populations  were  a  lack  of  recent  populationdata,  and  a  lack  of  information  on  the  proportion  of  the  total  number  of  seaotters  killed  by  the  spill  that  were  actually  recovered.ound,  Alaska,  spilling  approximately  11  million  barrels  of  crude  oilOil  wasdeposited  on  beaches  nearly  700  km  from  the  spill  site  (Galt  and  Payton  1990,Piatt  et  al.  1990),  affecting  thousands  of  hectares  of  sea  otter(Enhydra  lutris)habitat.  Two  of  the  principal  limitations  in  determining  the  initial  effects  of  theExxon  Valdez  oil  spill  on  sea  otter  populations  were  a  lack  of  recent  populationdata,  and  a  lack  of  information  on  the  proportion  of  the  total  number  of  seaotters  killed  by  the  spill  that  were  actually  recovered.On 24 March 1989, the T/V Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling approximately 11 million barrels of crude oil. Oil was deposited on beaches nearly 700 km from the spill site (Galt and Payton 1990, Piatt et al. 1990), affecting thousands of hectares of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) habitat. Two of the principal limitations in determining the initial effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on sea otter populations were a lack of recent population data, and a lack of information on the proportion of the total number of sea otters killed by the spill that were actually recovered.In late

  10. Comparison of pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, blood parameters from oiled and unoiled areas of Alaska eight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, Gregory H.; Litzow, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. A Sensitivity Analysis of a Computer Model-Based Leak Detection System for Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Lu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Improving leak detection capability to eliminate undetected releases is an area of focus for the energy pipeline industry, and the pipeline companies are working to improve existing methods for monitoring their pipelines. Computer model-based leak detection methods that detect leaks by analyzing the pipeline hydraulic state have been widely employed in the industry, but their effectiveness in practical applications is often challenged by real-world uncertainties. This study quantitatively assessed the effects of uncertainties on leak detectability of a commonly used real-time transient model-based leak detection system. Uncertainties in fluid properties, field sensors, and the data acquisition system were evaluated. Errors were introduced into the input variables of the leak detection system individually and collectively, and the changes in leak detectability caused by the uncertainties were quantified using simulated leaks. This study provides valuable quantitative results contributing towards a better understanding of how real-world uncertainties affect leak detection. A general ranking of the importance of the uncertainty sources was obtained: from high to low it is time skew, bulk modulus error, viscosity error, and polling time. It was also shown that inertia-dominated pipeline systems were less sensitive to uncertainties compared to friction-dominated systems.

  12. Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations, Alaska North Slope, and summary of resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Lease, Richard O.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Rouse, William A.; Jarboe, Palma B.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Heller, Samuel; Craddock, William H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Smith, Rebecca; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 8.7 billion barrels of oil and 25 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (associated and nonassociated) in conventional accumulations in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, adjacent State and Native lands, and State waters. The estimated undiscovered oil resources in the Nanushuk and Torok Formations are significantly higher than previous estimates, owing primarily to recent, larger than anticipated oil discoveries.

  14. Study on Resources Assessment of Coal Seams covered by Long-Distance Oil & Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Wei; Hou, Hanfang

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of mineral resources covered by construction projects plays an important role in reducing the overlaying of important mineral resources and ensuring the smooth implementation of construction projects. To take a planned long-distance gas pipeline as an example, the assessment method and principles for coal resources covered by linear projects are introduced. The areas covered by multiple coal seams are determined according to the linear projection method, and the resources covered by pipelines directly and indirectly are estimated by using area segmentation method on the basis of original blocks. The research results can provide references for route optimization of projects and compensation for mining right..

  15. A hybrid Delphi-SWOT paradigm for oil and gas pipeline strategic planning in Caspian Sea basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavana, Madjid; Pirdashti, Mohsen; Kennedy, Dennis T.; Belaud, Jean-Pierre; Behzadian, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The Caspian Sea basin holds large quantities of both oil and natural gas that could help meet the increasing global demand for energy resources. Consequently, the oil and gas potential of the region has attracted the attention of the international oil and gas industry. The key to realizing the energy producing potential of the region is the development of transnational export routes to take oil and gas from the landlocked Caspian Sea basin to world markets. The evaluation and selection of alternative transnational export routes is a complex multi-criteria problem with conflicting objectives. The decision makers (DMs) are required to consider a vast amount of information concerning internal strengths and weaknesses of the alternative routes as well as external opportunities and threats to them. This paper presents a hybrid model that combines strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) analysis with the Delphi method. - Highlights: ► The evaluation and selection of the pipeline routes is a multi-criteria problem. ► A hybrid SWOT-Delphi method is proposed to evaluate five potential routes. ► The Southern and Northern routes are chosen as the best and second-best options. ► The second best option is identified to provide some degree of diversification.

  16. Pyrosequencing investigation into the bacterial community in permafrost soils along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Jin, Huijun; Wu, Qingbai

    2012-01-01

    The China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) goes through 441 km permafrost soils in northeastern China. The bioremediation in case of oil spills is a major concern. So far, little is known about the indigenous bacteria inhabiting in the permafrost soils along the pipeline. A pilot 454 pyrosequencing analysis on the communities from four selected sites which possess high environment risk along the CRCOP is herein presented. The results reveal an immense bacterial diversity than previously anticipated. A total of 14448 OTUs with 84834 reads are identified, which could be assigned into 39 different phyla, and 223 families or 386 genera. Only five phyla sustain a mean OTU abundance more than 5% in all the samples, but they altogether account for 85.08% of total reads. Proteobacteria accounts for 41.65% of the total OTUs or 45% of the reads across all samples, and its proportion generally increases with soil depth, but OTUs numerically decline. Among Proteobacteria, the abundance of Beta-, Alpha-, Delta- and Gamma- subdivisions average to 38.7% (2331 OTUs), 37.5% (2257 OTUs), 10.35% (616 OTUs), and 6.21% (374 OTUs), respectively. Acidobacteria (esp. Acidobacteriaceae), Actinobacteria (esp. Intrasporangiaceae), Bacteroidetes (esp. Sphingobacteria and Flavobacteria) and Chloroflexi (esp. Anaerolineaceae) are also very common, accounting for 8.56% (1237 OTUs), 7.86% (1136 OTUs); 7.35% (1063 OTUs) and 8.27% (1195 OTUs) of total libraries, respectively. The ordination analysis indicates that bacteria communities in the upper active layer cluster together (similar), while bacterial consortia from the lower active layer and permafrost table scatter (less similar). The abundance of Rhodococcus (12 OTUs), Pseudomonas (71 OTUs) and Sphingomonas (87 OTUs) is even less (<0.01%). This effort to profile the background diversity may set the first stage for better evaluating the bacterial dynamics in response to accidental oil spills.

  17. In-situ repairs of pipelines using metal arc welding under oil (MAW-UO) aided by eddy current crack detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almostaneer, Hamad; Jones, Zachary S.; Liu, Stephen; Olson, David L.

    2012-05-01

    Metal arc welding under oil (MAW-UO) is a new process developed to make in-situ internal repairs of in-service oil industry pipelines, tanks and vessels without the need to evacuate the service from the containing fluid. High nickel alloy welding wires were used to produce a tough, relatively soft, austenitic weld metal; with reduced weld metal hardness, porosity, residual strain, and cracking susceptibility. Eddy current sensors were able to detect cracks under oil which then can be repaired in-situ using MAW-UO. The in-situ under oil crack detection and arc weld repair process will be described.

  18. Retrospective analysis: bile hydrocarbons and histopathology of demersal rockfish in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Gary D; Hoffmann, Andy; Okihiro, Mark S; Hepler, Kelly; Hanes, David

    2003-12-01

    Demersal rockfish are the only fish species that have been found dead in significant numbers after major oil spills, but the link between oil exposure and effect has not been well established. After the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, several species of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) from oiled and reference sites were analyzed for hydrocarbon metabolites in bile (1989-1991) and for microscopic lesions (1990 and 1991). Biliary hydrocarbons consistent with exposure to Exxon Valdez oil were elevated in 1989, but not in 1990 or 1991. Significant microscopic findings included pigmented macrophage aggregates and hepatic megalocytosis, fibrosis, and lipid accumulation. Site differences in microscopic findings were significant with respect to previous oil exposure in 1991 (P=0.038), but not in 1990. However, differences in microscopic findings were highly significant with respect to age and species in both years (PExxon Valdez oil in 1989, but differences in microscopic changes in 1990 and 1991 were related more to age and species differences than to previous oil exposure.

  19. Approach to downstream planning for nearshore response and sensitive areas protection outside Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCola, E.G.; Robertson, T.L.; Robertson, R.; Banta, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the need for an oil spill response plan for downstream coastal communities that could be affected by oil spilled from tankers travelling in Prince William Sound, Alaska. For the purpose of oil spill contingency planning, the State of Alaska has been divided into the Kodiak and Cook Inlet sub-areas that are at risk for downstream impacts from a Prince William Sound oil spill. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill provided an example of a worst-case scenario oil spill from a tanker in Prince William Sound, but the oil spill planning system that has evolved in Alaska does not adequately plan for on oil spill that originates in one sub-area of the state, but impacts other sub-areas in the downstream spill path. This study analyzed the gaps that exist in the current response planning system in the Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet and Kodiak sub-areas. A method was proposed to improve the existing response plans so that emergency response teams are better prepared to manage cross-boundary oil spills originating in Prince William Sound. The proposed method focuses on nearshore response and sensitive areas protection for coastlines and communities that are at risk for oil spills from a tanker travelling the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). 11 refs., 3 figs

  20. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  1. Experimental study of oil-water with paraffin precipitation in submarine pipelines; Estudo experimental do escoamento oleo-agua com precipitacao de parafinas em dutos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Sergio N.; Oliveira, Rafael de Castro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo], e-mail: bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: rafael@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The deposition of paraffins in submarine pipelines poses a serious problem for the offshore petroleum production. Paraffins precipitate off oily solutions due to a temperature decrease according to the phase equilibrium conditions of the liquid-solid system. After some time, the continuous precipitation leads to deposits in the internal walls of the pipe, clogging the lines and promoting an increase in the head loss of the flow. Consequently, there is an increase in the pressure gradient required to maintain the flow, and the flow rate is reduced. A complete obstruction of the pipeline may occur. In the present work, this phenomenon was studied in a simulation of the subsea operational conditions, where the oil pipelines laying on the seabed are subjected to low temperatures, just a little above the freezing point of water. The pipeline behaves as a heat exchanger and the hot oil from the underground reservoir emerging from the wellhead is effectively cooled down to the point where paraffin precipitation occurs somewhere along the line. An experimental apparatus was built for a 25.4 mm (1 in) diameter pipe-flow model with 13 m of length, submerged in a chilling bath of near frozen water. Stream wise pressure and temperature gradients were measured, in order to evaluate the differences in the behavior of paraffin deposition between one-phase oil flow and two-phase oil-water flow. (author)

  2. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix A: BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Final project description - Revision 1, March 27, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendix A of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. This document is the Northstar Development Project, Final Project Description, Revision 1 for BPXA Northstar Project

  3. Modeling of composite coupling technology for oil-gas pipeline section resource-saving repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkova, Irina; Yakubovskiy, Yuriy; Kruglov, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    The article presents a variant of modeling and calculation of a main pipeline repair section with a composite coupling installation. This section is presented in a shape of a composite cylindrical shell. The aim of this work is mathematical modeling and study of main pipeline reconstruction section stress-strain state (SSS). There has been given a description of a structure deformation mathematical model. Based on physical relations of elasticity, integral characteristics of rigidity for each layer of a two-layer pipe section have been obtained. With the help of the systems of forces and moments which affect the layers differential equations for the first and second layer (pipeline and coupling) have been obtained. The study of the SSS has been conducted using the statements and hypotheses of the composite structures deformation theory with consideration of interlayer joint stresses. The relations to describe the work of the joint have been stated. Boundary conditions for each layer have been formulated. To describe the deformation of the composite coupling with consideration of the composite cylindrical shells theory a mathematical model in the form of a system of differential equations in displacements and boundary conditions has been obtained. Calculation of a two-layer cylindrical shell under the action of an axisymmetric load has been accomplished.

  4. Changes in diets of river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States)); Faro, J.B.; Schwartz, C.C.; Browning, J.B. (Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game, Soldotna, AK (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the diets of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, were examined in 1989 and 1990. On the basis of identification of prey remains in their feces, otters fed principally on marine, bottom-dwelling fishes. Marine gastropods, bivalves, and crustaceans composed most of the invertebrates in the diet of otters; freshwater and terrestrial food items seldom occurred in their feces. The diets of otters included 149 different taxa, most of which rarely occurred in their feces. Sixty-five taxa occurred [ge]5 times in the combined data set. Species richness and diversity of prey remains in otter feces were similar on oiled and nonoiled study areas in late winter 1989 (before the oil spill) and during summer 1989 following the spill. By summer 1990, however, there were significant declines in the richness and diversity of species (mostly bony fish, molluscs, and bivalves) in otter diets on the oiled area. Likewise, the relative abundance of prey remains in otter feces showed strong differences between areas and years, and an area by year interaction. Members of the Perciformes and Archaeogastropoda declined from 1989 to 1990 on the oiled area while they increased on the nonoiled site; Malacostraca exhibited the opposite pattern. These outcomes, when considered with other data on body mass and blood chemistry, strongly suggest that some effects of the oil spill on otters were delayed. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Geomagnetically induced pipe-to-soil voltages in the Czech oil pipelines during October-November 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejda, P.; Bochnicek, J. [Geophysical Inst., Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    Whereas geomagnetically induced currents are a source of problems for technological systems mainly at high geomagnetic latitudes, strong geomagnetic disturbances can have quiet strong effects even at mid-latitudes. This papers deals with the analysis of the pipe-to-soil (P/S) voltage measured in oil pipelines in the Czech Republic during the Halloween magnetic storms in 2003. It is shown that the simplest - plane wave and uniform Earth-model of the electric field corresponds well to the measured P/S voltage. Although the largest amplitudes of the geomagnetic field were reached on the onset of the geomagnetic storm, large voltages were also induced in the main and recovery phases due to Pc5 oscillations. (orig.)

  6. Geomagnetically induced pipe-to-soil voltages in the Czech oil pipelines during October-November 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hejda

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Whereas geomagnetically induced currents are a source of problems for technological systems mainly at high geomagnetic latitudes, strong geomagnetic disturbances can have quite strong effects even at mid-latitudes. This paper deals with the analysis of the pipe-to-soil (P/S voltage measured in oil pipelines in the Czech Republic during the Halloween magnetic storms in 2003. It is shown that the simplest - plane wave and uniform Earth-model of the electric field corresponds well to the measured P/S voltage. Although the largest amplitudes of the geomagnetic field were reached on the onset of the geomagnetic storm, large voltages were also induced in the main and recovery phases due to Pc5 oscillations.

  7. Feature extraction and identification in distributed optical-fiber vibration sensing system for oil pipeline safety monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huijuan; Qian, Ya; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Chenghao

    2017-12-01

    High sensitivity of a distributed optical-fiber vibration sensing (DOVS) system based on the phase-sensitivity optical time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) technology also brings in high nuisance alarm rates (NARs) in real applications. In this paper, feature extraction methods of wavelet decomposition (WD) and wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) are comparatively studied for three typical field testing signals, and an artificial neural network (ANN) is built for the event identification. The comparison results prove that the WPD performs a little better than the WD for the DOVS signal analysis and identification in oil pipeline safety monitoring. The identification rate can be improved up to 94.4%, and the nuisance alarm rate can be effectively controlled as low as 5.6% for the identification network with the wavelet packet energy distribution features.

  8. Shoreline type and subsurface oil persistence in the Exon Valdez spill zone of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D. [Exponent Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Neff and Associates, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The grounding of the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska in the spring of 1989 resulted in the release of 258,000 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil into the marine environment. Nearly 800 km of shoreline were oiled to some degree. There was an unprecedented oil spill cleanup effort following the spill. The shoreline surveys of the spill zone were synthesized in this paper in an effort to demonstrate the relationship between shoreline type and persistence of subsurface oil (SSO) residues. Shoreline surveys of surface and SSO indicate rapid initial oil loss with a decline from about 800 linear km of PWS shoreline in 1989 to about 10 km of oiled shoreline in 1992. The period of rapid loss was attributed to natural physical process, biodegradation and cleanup activities that removed accessible spill remnants from shorelines. This was followed by a slower natural average loss rate for less accessible surface and SSO deposits of about 22 per cent per year for the period 1992-2001. This paper emphasized that shoreline type plays a key role in determining SSO persistence. The geology of PWS is complex. Many of the shorelines where SSO persists have armouring layers composed of hard, dense clasts, such as the quartzite boulders and cobblestones that can protect SSO deposits. Eighteen years after the spill, persistent SSO deposits in PWS shorelines remain protected from tidal water-washing and biodegradation by a surface boulder/cobble armour and low sediment porosity. The SSO deposits are in a physical/chemical form and location where they do not pose a health risk to intertidal biological communities and animals. The surveys continue to substantiate that remaining SSO deposits in PWS continue to degrade and go away slowly. 37 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. Energy Equation Derivation of the Oil-Gas Flow in Pipelines Dérivation de l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans des pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan J.M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the simulation of oil-gas pipeline multiphase flow, thermodynamic computation is an important process interacting with the hydraulic calculation and it influences the convergence of the program and the accuracy of the results. The form of the energy equation is the key to the thermodynamic computation. Based on the energy equation of oil-gas flow in pipeline, the Explicit Temperature Drop Formula (ETDF is derived for oilgas steady state temperature calculation. This new energy equation has considered many factors, such as Joule-Thomson effect, pressure work, friction work and impact of terrain undulation and heat transfer Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Rev. IFP Energies nouvelles with the surroundings along the line. So it is an overall form of energy equation, which could describe the actual fact of multiphase pipeline accurately. Therefore, some standpoints in literatures on the temperature calculation of oil-gas two-phase flow in pipelines are reviewed. Elimination of temperature iteration loop and integration of the explicit temperature equation, instead of enthalpy energy equation, into the conjugated hydraulic and thermal computation have been found to improve the efficiency of algorithm. The calculation applied to both the component model, also applied to the black-oil model. This model is incorporated into the component model and black-oil model, respectively, and two simulations are carried out with two practical pipeline Yingmai-Yaha and Lufeng multiphase pipeline and the temperature results are compared with the simulation calculated by the OLGA and the measured. It is shown that this model has simulated the temperature distribution very well. Finally, we analyzed the influence of the specific heat capacity of oil and gas on the temperature of the mixture of fluids and the influence of the Joule-Thomson effect on the temperature distribution on the pipeline. It is shown that the Joule-Thomson coefficient is a key factor to

  10. Monitoring lingering oil from the Exxon Valdez spill on Gulf of Alaska armored beaches and mussel beds sixteen years post-spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Short, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Final Rept. ; Prepared in Cooperation With Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Inst. of Arctic Biology. Sponsored By National Marine Fisheries Service, Juneau, Ak. AlaskaFisheries Science Center. ; Stranded Exxon Valdez Oil Has Persisted for 16 Years At Boulder-Armored Beach Sites Along National Park Coastlines Bordering the Gulf of Alaska. These Sites Are Up to 640 Km From the Spill Origin and Were Contaminated By Oil Mousse, a Viscous Water-in-Oil Emulsion. Although Surface Oil Has Continued to Decline, Subsurface Oiling Persists in Patches. Especially Striking Is the General Lack of Weathering of Stranded Oil on Armored Beaches Over the Last 16 Years. At Three of the Four Sites Where Oil Was Sampled in 2005, the Oil Was Compositionally Similar to 11-Day Old Exxon Valdez Oil, Even After 16 Years. The Formation of Mousse Allowed Less-Weathered Oil to Be Transported Long Distances. The Sequestration of the Oil Beneath a Boulder Armor, Coupled With the Stability of the Boulder Armoring (Investigated By Examining Movement of Marked Boulders), Had Contributed to the Lengthy Persistence of This Stranded Oil. Opportunistic Sampling of Several Previously Studied Oiled Mussel Beds Indicates Continued Contamination of At Least One of the Sites By Not Very Weathered Exxon Valdez Oil. Long-Term Persistence of Oil in These Habitats Should Cause Reconsideration of Response Activities After Spills, and May Influence the Environmental Sensitivity Indices Applied to These Habitats. 

  11. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  12. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M; Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 years after the spill. Spilled oil has persisted in PWS for two decades as surface oil residues (SOR) and subsurface oil residues (SSOR) on the shore. The rare SOR are located primarily on the upper shore as inert, nonhazardous asphaltic deposits, and SSOR are confined to widely scattered locations as small patches under a boulder/cobble veneer, primarily on the middle and upper shore, in forms and locations that preclude physical contact by wildlife and diminish bioavailability. Sea otters and harlequin ducks consume benthic invertebrates that they collect by diving to the bottom in the intertidal and subtidal zones. Sea otters also dig intertidal and subtidal pits in search of clams. The three plausible exposure pathways are through the water, in oil-contaminated prey, or by direct contact with SSOR during foraging. Concentrations of PAH in near-shore water off oiled shores in 2002 to 2005 were at background levels (<0.05 ng/L). Median concentrations of PAH in five intertidal prey species on oiled shores in 2002 to 2008 range from 4.0 to 34 ng/g dry weight, indistinguishable from background concentrations. Subsurface oil residues are restricted to locations on the shore and substrate types, where large clams do not occur and where sea otters do not dig foraging pits. Therefore, that sea otters and harlequin ducks continue to be exposed to environmentally significant amounts of PAH from EVOS 20 years after the spill is not plausible. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Current Risks to Harlequin Ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Parker, Keith R.; Murphy, Stephen M.; Day, Robert H.; Bence, A. Edward; Neff, Jerry M.; Wiens, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) were adversely affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, and some have suggested effects continue two decades later. We present an ecological risk assessment evaluating quantitatively whether PWS seaducks continue to be at-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residual Exxon Valdez oil. Potential pathways for PAH exposures are identified for initially oiled and never-oiled reference sites. Some potential pathways are implausible (e.g., a seaduck excavating subsurface oil residues), whereas other pathways warrant quantification. We used data on PAH concentrations in PWS prey species, sediments, and seawater collected during 2001–2008 to develop a stochastic individual-based model projecting assimilated doses to seaducks. We simulated exposures to 500,000 individuals in each of eight age/gender classes, capturing the variability within a population of seaducks living in PWS. Doses to the maximum-exposed individuals are ∼400–4,000 times lower than chronic toxicity reference values established using USEPA protocols for seaducks. These exposures are so low that no individual-level effects are plausible, even within a simulated population that is orders-of-magnitude larger than exists in PWS. We conclude that toxicological risks to PWS seaducks from residual Exxon Valdez oil two decades later are essentially non-existent. PMID:23723680

  14. Oil Pipelines, Politics and International Business : The Rotterdam Oil Port, Royal Dutch Shell and the German Hinterland, 1945-1975

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boon (Marten)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractThe dissertation questions how and why the transition from coal to oil affected the economic relations between the Port of Rotterdam and its German hinterland between 1945 and 1975. From the 1880s onwards, Rotterdam had become the main seaport of the German industrial heartland in

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  17. New test for oil soluble/water dispersible gas pipeline inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmann, D.W.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The wheel test provides good mixing of the condensate and water phases, the coupons are exposed to both phases. Therefore, the wheel test cannot distinguish between inhibitors that need continuous mixing of the these phases to maintain a water dispersion of the inhibitor and inhibitors that will self disperse into the water. This concept becomes important for pipelines in stratified flow where the water can settle out. In these cases with low turbulence, the inhibitor must self disperse into the water to be effective. The paper describes a test method to measure the effectiveness of an inhibitor and its ability to self disperse. The effectiveness of several inhibitors as predicted by the new test method is discussed relative to data from the wheel test and breaker tests. Field performance of these inhibitors in a gas gathering line, with liquids in stratified flow, are cities and compared with the results of the various laboratory tests.

  18. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  19. A semi-quantitative risk assessment method for analyzing the level of risk associated with parameters in design of thermal heavy oil Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhzad, M.A. [IMV Projects Inc., Alberta (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    During the design stage of a thermal heavy oil pipeline, the design engineer should include the consideration of more factors than what is normally used for the design of a conventional pipeline. In the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) production, for the extraction of bitumen from oily soil, it is required that a stream of hot and pressurized steam (over 300 deg C) to be injected into the oil reservoir. The steam reaches the oily soil reservoir from a steam sour such as boilers by traveling through above-ground pipeline arrangements. As a result of the steam injection into the well site, bitumen oil is released from the oily soil. The produced bitumen also consists of high pressure and temperature (over 200 deg C) and requires a gathering pipeline arrangement for traveling to the processing plant. During the layout design, both steam injection and hot production lines are usually designed parallel with each other by using a series of anchor-loop-anchor supported by steel structures and pilings. The coexistence of two extremely hot pipelines (Injecting Steam and Production pipelines) on the aboveground pipe rack should be designed with extreme care. The higher than normal design temperature of these lines creates considerable lateral and longitudinal movements and heavy loads on the supporting structure and piling. In addition, since both lines contain high pressure mediums, the design engineer shall include a few more parameters than what is normally considered for conventional pipelines. These parameters include; sustain loads, slug forces, natural frequency, mechanical interactions, frictional forces on anchors and guides, and mechanical engagement of supporting components, as well as the effects of these loads on the steel structure-piling and their reaction with the surrounding soil. In addition the design engineer shall be aware of any potential failures associated with these physical and mechanical parameters, the impact and probability rationales and

  20. Oversight of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s oil pipeline regulatory program. Hearing before the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, August 1, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The hearing addresses oversight of The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) oil pipeline regulatory program which was viewed as deficient. The primary focus is competition and market share among petroleum pipeline segments. Statements of government and industry officials are included along with documents submitted for the record.

  1. Introduction and development of soil thermal stabilization technologies at the objects of oil pumping station-2 (OPS-2 of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapsay Aleksey Nikolaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the questions of designing the foundations for the Oil Pumping Station-2 site of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline. The problems of choice and grounds for technical solutions are considered basing on the results of complex thermotechnical calculations. The construction territory of OPS-2 site of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline is characterized by complex engineering and geocryological conditions: 1 presence of permafrost soil on 80 % of the site area; 2 absence of sufficiently widespread rocky soils under designed buildings and constructions; 3 transition of loamy grounds into yield during thawing. The buildings and facilities are designed on the basis of pile foundation type with high rigid foundation grill. The piles’ diameter is 325 mm and 426 mm, the total length of piles is 9-12 m. The full designed vertical loading, transferred to the pile, is ranging from 10.6 to 50.4 tf. According to the results of the calculations, in order to provide the necessary bearing capacity of piles, securing the perception of transmitted designed loadings, the equivalent temperature of the soil along the side surface of piles ( e should not be higher than -0,5 °C. Taking into account that the soil temperatures on the projected site mainly range from -0.1 to -0.3 °C, in order to lower their temperatures to the calculated values ventilated underground areas are arranged under the buildings and facilities and seasonally active cooling devices (soil thermal stabilizers are installed. Assembly technique and construction of ventilated underground areas with application of soil thermal stabilizers were developed earlier while designing the pipeline system "Zapolyarye - Oil Pumping Station Purpe". For confirmation of the accepted decisions forecasting thermotechnical calculations were performed with the use of a special computer program TermoStab 67-87, which allows simulating the changes of temperature regimes of the permafrost

  2. Pumping propagation and influence of oil derivatives transport in a pipeline network; Propagacao e influencia de bombeamento no transporte de derivados de petroleo em uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Camila Baldissera de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kluppel, Liege Bauer; Neves Junior, Flavio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the work developed on a pipeline network that transports oil derivatives. The transport occurs in batches of a specific product, each one having a defined route: the pumping origin, a destination for its receipt and the pipelines which the product is moved through. The network studied has a total of thirty pipelines connected by fourteen possible areas of pumping and/or receiving, this makes it not trivial to obtain the batches order in the pipeline. In order to obtain the passage of batches ordered list in the pipeline network, was developed an algorithm capable of propagating a batches list that only have route, start time and end time of pumping in the origin. This algorithm is part of a larger project whose goal is to obtain a tool to aid the process of operational decision making in a real pipeline network. The developed module can also generate the entry and exit times of each batch for each pipe through which it passes. With this information, analysis and/or validations can be made. At the end of the process, the result is a list of all the pumped batches in all pipes where it must go by. Thus, it is made a small pos-processing where the list is sorted, first by pipeline and then by start time of entry into the duct, which naturally causes the passage of the batches list in the ducts to be obtained. This work is based on the development presented by Czaikowski et al (2008). (author)

  3. Leak detector PIG for oil pipelines; PIG detector de vazamentos em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerini, Daniel Almeida; Weid, Jean Pierre von der [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Telecomunicacoes; Camerini, Claudio Soligo; Maia, Carlos Eduardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    The leakage detector pig was created with the purpose of detect and locate leakages in a preventive way. The fast detection of small leakages decreases the probability of larger leakages. By means of a differential pressure system based on pressure data acquired through the pig's running, using pressure sensors installed on the pig's vessel, small leakages are identified and its positions registered. This allows a quick intervention at the identified location. The working principle is based on the pressure difference caused by the leakage, which is read by the sensors. The polyurethane cups responsible by the pig's propulsion are of a special kind capable of sealing a constant volume of product among them. So, when the pig passes through a leakage, the pressure in the middle drops compared to those in front and hear, generating a characteristic signal thus permit identification. The first prototype was tested intensively at laboratory facilities, and in a test pipeline showing excellent results locating precisely all the simulated leakages. Defects from different sizes with different flow where simulated and measured. This work has the objective to present the tool, its potential, the test results, to discuss its efficiency in detect and locate leakages and the possibilities for the future. (author)

  4. Chechnya: the pipeline front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the impact of the Russian campaign against Chechnya on projects for oil and gas pipelines from the new Caspian republics, which are seeking financial support. Topics discussed include the pipeline transport of oil from Azerbaijan through Chechnya to the Black Sea, the use of oil money to finance the war, the push for non-Russian export routes, the financing of pipelines, the impact of the war on the supply of Russian and Turkmenistan gas to Turkey, the proposed construction of the Trans Caspian pipeline, the weakening of trust between Russia and its neighbours, and the potential for trans Caucasus republics to look to western backers due to the instability of the North Caucasus. (UK)

  5. Last 20 years of gas hydrates in the oil industry : challenges and achievements in predicting pipeline blockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanga, D.A.; Creek, J.; Subramanian, S.; Kini, R.A. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed how the successes of the past 20 years have shaped the new hydrate focus. It also outlined innovative tools for hydrate plugging prediction. Tools such as CSMHyK-OLGA were developed to address the design and operational challenges associated with offshore production regarding flow assurance in the area of gas hydrates. The effort to understand the complex behavior of gas hydrates in multiphase flow has resulted in new hydrate blockage models. Although the hydrate community continues to debate the impact of kinetics, agglomeration, and oil chemistry effects on hydrate blockage formation in pipelines and wellbores, the petroleum industry still relies on thermodynamic strategies that completely prevent hydrates in production systems. However, these complex strategies such as thermal insulation, electric heating, dead oil displacement, and methanol injection are costly, particularly for marginal fields. As such, research continues in developing a comprehensive multiphase flow simulator capable of handling the transient aspects of production operations, notably shut-in, restart, blowdown and blockage prediction. Model predictions are leading to new operating strategies based on risk management approach. This paper discussed the challenges and opportunities that have shifted the focus from prevention of hydrates to prevention of blockage. Some initial successes in the development of a first generation empirical tool for the prediction of hydrate blockages in flow lines were also presented along with new experimental data that explained how hydrate blockages can manifest in the field. It was concluded that additional research is needed to solve the problem of hydrate plugging mechanism. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Surveys of murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Field surveys were conducted in July and August 1991 on 32 of the 36 murre (Uria spp.) colonies in the northern Gulf of Alaska to assess colony attendance (number of birds present at a colony) two years after the exxon Valdez oil spill. The surveys focused on murre colonies because murres represented 74% of the recovered seabird carcasses and because it had claimed that there was large-scale mortality of murres, leading to 60% to 70% decreases at some large colonies and population recovery periods of 20 to 70 years. Murres were present at all 32 colonies, and colony attendance estimates were generally similar to those from historical (prespill) surveys, particularly for those colonies in the direct path of the spill, i.e., the Barren Islands and Chiswell islands. Colony attendance levels in 1991 do not support the contention that murre colony attendance in the study area was drastically lower than historical levels. When colonies were grouped according to risk of oil exposure, the mean changes in attendance between 1991 and historical murre surveys did not differ significantly among the groups. Factors that could account for the observed similarity of 1991 and historical murre counts despite the high estimated mortality are (1) overestimation of mortality or (2) replacement of lost breeders through either recruitment of formerly nonbreeding individuals into the breeding population at spill-affected colonies or immigration of murres form nonaffected colonies. The findings of this study suggest that impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of alaska were relatively short-term. 118 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  8. The gas century: worldwide LNG developments may deal death blow to Alaskan pipeline dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2004-01-01

    The growing interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG), which casts doubt on the viability of the Alaska gas pipeline, and the potential impacts on Canadian gas exports to the United States are discussed. There is currently a proposal before Congress for an Alaskan LNG project, and consensus appears to be building among American energy experts and law-makers that building a multitude of LNG facilities would be more flexible and cheaper than building the proposed Alaska pipeline. As further proof of the growing popularity of LNG, U.S. industry lobbyists are said to be rapidly gaining congressional support for the idea of building eight to ten billion cubic feet per day of LNG capacity along the U. S. coast. Either development, -- LNG facilities or the Alaska pipeline -- have the potential to seriously impact Canadian natural gas exports. If the Alaska pipeline is built, the addition of five billion cubic feet per day of new gas on the market would cause gas prices to fall; if the U.S. decides to subsidize its gas industry, Canadian gas would be put at a serious disadvantage. Conversely, if the Alaskan LNG proposal were to succeed, the potential demise of the Alaska pipeline would mean the loss of about 12,000 jobs that would be created during the Canadian construction phase of the pipeline, as well as the loss of tariffs. Industry experts predict that by 2005 LNG terminals will dot the periphery of the U. S. coast line; to prepare for these eventualities, Canadian companies, such as Irving Oil, TransCanada Pipelines and EnCana are taking note, and are scrambling not to be left out of the game. As proof of the seriousness of their concern, Irving Oil is adding a Can$500 million LNG facility to its Canaport terminal on the Scotian shelf; TCPL is working to supply an LNG terminal offshore Massachusetts, and EnCana is refurbishing a Louisiana salt cavern to prepare for storage of gas delivered to the Gulf Coast

  9. Offshore pipeline influence on middle east religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delistoian Dmitri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East is responsible for nearly 30% of world oil production. Oil export is possible just using oil tankers and pipelines. Most developed pipeline network it has Syria. At the same time Syria is a gateway to Europe oil market. Bearing in mind oil price decline, fight on oil markets becomes more pronounced. The consequences of this struggle are creating increasing religious tensions between Shiites and Sunnis. Syria becomes a global battlefield for the influence on Arabian oil.

  10. Phase Behavior, Solid Organic Precipitation, and Mobility Characterization Studies in Support of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery on the Alaska North Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    The medium-heavy oil (viscous oil) resources in the Alaska North Slope are estimated at 20 to 25 billion barrels. These oils are viscous, flow sluggishly in the formations, and are difficult to recover. Recovery of this viscous oil requires carefully designed enhanced oil recovery processes. Success of these recovery processes is critically dependent on accurate knowledge of the phase behavior and fluid properties, especially viscosity, of these oils under variety of pressure and temperature conditions. This project focused on predicting phase behavior and viscosity of viscous oils using equations of state and semi-empirical correlations. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the phase behavior and physical properties of viscous oils from the Alaska North Slope oil field. The oil samples were compositionally characterized by the simulated distillation technique. Constant composition expansion and differential liberation tests were conducted on viscous oil samples. Experiment results for phase behavior and reservoir fluid properties were used to tune the Peng-Robinson equation of state and predict the phase behavior accurately. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to compile available compositional viscosity models and their modifications, for application to heavy or viscous oils. With the help of meticulously amassed new medium-heavy oil viscosity data from experiments, a comparative study was conducted to evaluate the potential of various models. The widely used corresponding state viscosity model predictions deteriorate when applied to heavy oil systems. Hence, a semi-empirical approach (the Lindeloff model) was adopted for modeling the viscosity behavior. Based on the analysis, appropriate adjustments have been suggested: the major one is the division of the pressure-viscosity profile into three distinct regions. New modifications have improved the overall fit, including the saturated viscosities at low pressures. However, with the limited

  11. Pollution from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

  12. Mitigating the consequences of extreme events on strategic facilities: evaluation of volcanic and seismic risk affecting the Caspian oil and gas pipelines in the Republic of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarè, F A; Tormey, D; Vezzoli, L; Okrostsvaridze, A; Tutberidze, B

    2011-07-01

    In this work we identify and quantify new seismic and volcanic risks threatening the strategic Caspian oil and gas pipelines through the Republic of Georgia, in the vicinity of the recent Abuli Samsari Volcanic Ridge, and evaluate risk reduction measures, mitigation measures, and monitoring. As regards seismic risk, we identified a major, NW-SE trending strike-slip fault; based on the analysis of fault planes along this major transcurrent structure, an about N-S trend of the maximum, horizontal compressive stress (σ1) was determined, which is in good agreement with data instrumentally derived after the 1986, M 5.6 Paravani earthquake and its aftershock. Particularly notable is the strong alignment of volcanic vents along an about N-S trend that suggests a magma rising controlled by the about N-S-directed σ1. The original pipeline design included mitigation measures for seismic risk and other geohazards, including burial of the pipeline for its entire length, increased wall thickness, block valve spacing near recognized hazards, and monitoring of known landslide hazards. However, the design did not consider volcanic risk or the specific seismic hazards revealed by this study. The result of our analysis is that the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline, as well as the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzerum South Caucasian natural gas pipeline (SCP) were designed in such a way that they significantly reduce the risk posed by the newly-identified geohazards in the vicinity of the Abuli-Samsari Ridge. No new measures are recommended for the pipeline itself as a result of this study. However, since the consequences of long-term shut-down would be very damaging to the economies of Western Europe, we conclude that the regionally significant BTC and SCP warrant greater protections, described in the final section of or work. The overall objective of our effort is to present the results in a matrix framework that allows the technical information to be used further in the decision

  13. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  14. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthike, Halambage Upul; Tecon, Robin; Van Kooten, Gerry; Van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Harms, Hauke; Wells, Mona; Short, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (approximately 4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable.

  15. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  16. Wax inhibitor based on ethylene vinyl acetate with methyl methacrylate and diethanolamine for crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Abang, S.; Bono, A.; Krishnaiah, D.; Karali, R.; Safuan, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    Wax precipitation and deposition is one of the most significant flow assurance challenges in the production system of the crude oil. Wax inhibitors are developed as a preventive strategy to avoid an absolute wax deposition. Wax inhibitors are polymers which can be known as pour point depressants as they impede the wax crystals formation, growth, and deposition. In this study three formulations of wax inhibitors were prepared, ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl acetate co-methyl methacrylate (EVA co-MMA) and ethylene vinyl acetate co-diethanolamine (EVA co-DEA) and the comparison of their efficiencies in terms of cloud point¸ pour point, performance inhibition efficiency (%PIE) and viscosity were evaluated. The cloud point and pour point for both EVA and EVA co-MMA were similar, 15°C and 10-5°C, respectively. Whereas, the cloud point and pour point for EVA co-DEA were better, 10°C and 10-5°C respectively. In conclusion, EVA co-DEA had shown the best % PIE (28.42%) which indicates highest percentage reduction of wax deposit as compared to the other two inhibitors.

  17. Investigation the Kinetic Models of Biological Removal of Petroleum Contaminated Soil Around Oil Pipeline Using Ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghaheri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The industrial revolution of the past century has resulted in significant damage to environmental resources such as air, water and soil. Petroleum contamination of soil is a serious problem throughout the oil producer countries. Remediation of petroleum contamination of soils is generally a slow and expensive process. Phytoremediation is a potentially less-damaging, cost-effective, but needs longer-term for remediation of contaminated land compared to the alternative methods. In this study the kinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Khozestan were investigated. For this paper Ryegrass (Lolium perenne plant selected and the decline of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH was analyzed after growth stage, every 10 days up to 90 days. The results of TPH concentration was fitted with zero-order kinetic, first-order kinetic and Higuchi model. The result indicated that degradation of TPH with presence of plants as a function of time was well fitted with the first-order kinetic model. The first-order rate constants (K and half-lives (T1/2 for TPH degradation were 0.0098 1/day and 71 day; respectively. The results of phytoremediation showed that there were 65% decreases in TPH concentration with Ryegrass during the 17 weeks.

  18. Northern entanglement : Arctic gas pipeline plans caught in web of competing interests, but dire supply-demand forecasts indicate line will be built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2005-01-01

    This article discussed land access and regulatory issues surrounding decisions to stop field work of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline in the spring of 2005. Although current supply and demand balances in natural gas markets argue that the pipeline will be beneficial, Imperial Oil and its partners have halted activities such as geotechnical data-gathering programs and preparatory work on contracting construction. The project's future depends on the successful resolution of First Nations land claims, governmental disputes and various activist groups protesting the pipeline's construction. Imperial Oil has suggested that the pipeline presents a significant opportunity for the people of the North to reduce their reliance on government and will create jobs and business opportunities for Aboriginal people. In the aftermath of work stoppage, Alberta's former Energy Minister stated that imports of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Alaska gas from the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project may arrive on the market in advance of the Mackenzie Valley project, which would affect the project's financial future. It was noted that access and benefits agreements with First Nations stakeholders have yet to be reached. Lawsuits involving the Deh Cho First Nations were examined. It was also suggested that Imperial Oil has not included information on the Alberta portion of the project in its environmental impact assessment. It was concluded that if the Mackenzie Delta line isn't in service by 2010, North American consumers can expect to spend an extra $190 billion on gas from 2011 to 2020. 3 figs

  19. Predictive modeling of subsurface shoreline oil encounter probability from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-04-07

    To better understand the distribution of remaining lingering subsurface oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) along the shorelines of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, we revised previous modeling efforts to allow spatially explicit predictions of the distribution of subsurface oil. We used a set of pooled field data and predictor variables stored as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data to generate calibrated boosted tree models predicting the encounter probability of different categories of subsurface oil. The models demonstrated excellent predictive performance as evaluated by cross-validated performance statistics. While the average encounter probabilities at most shoreline locations are low across western PWS, clusters of shoreline locations with elevated encounter probabilities remain in the northern parts of the PWS, as well as more isolated locations. These results can be applied to estimate the location and amount of remaining oil, evaluate potential ongoing impacts, and guide remediation. This is the first application of quantitative machine-learning based modeling techniques in estimating the likelihood of ongoing, long-term shoreline oil persistence after a major oil spill.

  20. Modeling of the re-starting of waxy crude oil flows in pipelines; Modelisation du redemarrage des ecoulements de bruts paraffiniques dans les conduites petrolieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinay, G.

    2005-11-15

    Pipelining crude oils that contain large proportions of paraffins can cause many specific difficulties. These oils, known as waxy crude oils, usually exhibit high 'pour point', where this temperature is higher than the external temperature conditions surrounding the pipeline. During the shutdown, since the temperature decreases in the pipeline, the gel-like structure builds up and the main difficulty concerns the issue of restarting. This PhD attempts to improve waxy crude oil behaviour understanding thanks to experiment, modelling and numerical simulation in order to predict more accurately time and pressure required to restart the flow. Using various contributions to the literature, waxy crude oils are described as viscoplastic, thixotropic and compressible fluid. Strong temperature history dependence plays a prevailing role in the whole shutdown and restart process. Thus, waxy crude oils under flowing conditions correspond to the non-isothermal flow of a viscoplastic material with temperature-dependent rheological properties. Besides, the restart of a waxy crude oil is simulated by the isothermal transient flow of a weakly compressible thixotropic fluid in axisymmetric pipe geometry. We retain the Houska model to describe the thixotropic/viscoplastic feature of the fluid and compressibility is introduced in the continuity equation. The viscoplastic constitutive equation is involved using an augmented Lagrangian method and the resulting equivalent saddle-point problem is solved thanks to an Uzawa-like algorithm. Governing equations are discretized using a Finite Volume method and the convection terms are treated thanks to a TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) scheme. The Lagrangian functional technique usually used for incompressible viscoplastic flows, is adapted to compressible situations. Several numerical results attest the good convergence properties of the proposed transient algorithm. The non-isothermal results highlight the strong sensitivity of

  1. Real-time monitoring and control of the oil pipeline networks; Monitoramento e controle inteligentes e em tempo real de redes de escoamento de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, F.; Galvao, C.; Brasileiro, E.; Catao, B.; Souto, C.; Machado, E.; Muniz, M.; Souza, A.; Gomes, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)]. E-mail: fubica@dsc.ufcg.edu.br; Aloise, D. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Oliveira, A.; Gomes, C.; Rolim, T.; Boquimpani, C. [PETROBRAS S.A. (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Real-time monitoring and control of complex and large-scale oil pipeline networks is complicated by several requirements, among them: reliability of data acquisition and communication systems; strict time limits between data acquisition and decision of control action; operational constraints of a large number of pipeline devices and multi-objective control, involving economic, operational, environmental and institutional objectives and constraints. The MDTP system was designed for meeting such requirements. A simulation-optimization approach is the strategy adopted for the network state prediction and control. The simulation module is based on the quasi-steady state hydraulics of oil-water flow. The control is centered on the pumping systems, respecting operational constraints of tanks and pipes, without reducing the oil production targets. For real-time control, an optimization scheme generates multiple operational scenarios, the optimum of them being selected by means of a meta-heuristics approach. To meet the strict time limits for deciding the control strategy, a grid computing architecture was adopted, instead of conventional dedicated high-performance computers. (author)

  2. United States petroleum pipelines: An empirical analysis of pipeline sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, L. L.

    1980-12-01

    The undersizing theory hypothesizes that integrated oil companies have a strong economic incentive to size the petroleum pipelines they own and ship over in a way that means that some of the demand must utilize higher cost alternatives. The DOJ theory posits that excess or monopoly profits are earned due to the natural monopoly characteristics of petroleum pipelines and the existence of market power in some pipelines at either the upstream or downstream market. The theory holds that independent petroleum pipelines owned by companies not otherwise affiliated with the petroleum industry (independent pipelines) do not have these incentives and all the efficiencies of pipeline transportation are passed to the ultimate consumer. Integrated oil companies on the other hand, keep these cost efficiencies for themselves in the form of excess profits.

  3. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population "sink" for sea otters in Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Daniel H.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 42 million L of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. At the time of the spill, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population inhabiting the spill area suffered substantial acute injuries and loss. Subsequent research has resulted in one of the best-studied species responses to an oil spill in history. However, the question remains: Is the spill still influencing the Prince William Sound sea otter population? Here we fit time-varying population models to data for the sea otter population of western Prince William Sound to quantify the duration and extent of mortality effects from the spill. We hypothesize that the patchy nature of residual oil left in the environment has created a source-sink population dynamic. We fit models using the age distributions of both living and dying animals and estimates of sea otter population size to predict the number of sea otters in the hypothesized sink population and the number lost to this sink due to chronic exposure to residual oil. Our results suggest that the sink population has remained at just over 900 individuals (95% CI: 606-960) between 1990 and 2009, during which time prime-age survival remained 2-6% below pre-spill levels. This reduced survival led to chronic losses of ???900 animals over the past two decades, which is similar in magnitude to the number of sea otter deaths documented in western Prince William Sound during the acute phase of the spill. However, the unaffected source population appears to be counterbalancing these losses, with the model indicating that the sea otter population increased from ???2150 individuals in 1990 to nearly 3000 in 2009. The most optimistic interpretation of our results suggests that mortality effects dissipated between 2005 and 2007. Our results suggest that residual oil can affect wildlife populations on time scales much longer than previously believed and that cumulative chronic effects can be as

  4. Histopathology and cytogenetic evaluation of Pacific herring larvae exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory or in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, G.D.; Hinton, D.E.; Brown, E.D.

    1997-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Pacific herring larvae samples from oiled sites showed ascites, pericardial edema, and genotoxic damage. Laboratory study confirmed that these lesions were consistent with oil exposure. In a laboratory experiment, Pacific herring eggs were exposed to an oil-water dispersion of Prudhoe Bay crude oil and sampled for histopathology less than 24 h after hatching. Effects were significant at the 0.48 mg/L dose. Lesions included ascites, heptocellular vacuolar change and degeneration or necrosis of skeletal myocytes, retinal cells, and developing brain cells. Lesions in field-sampled larvae were consistent with higher mortality rates documented in larvae from oiled sites. In both field and laboratory experiments, ascites was the most significant lesion related to oil exposure. Decreased growth in larvae from oiled sites was also consistent with findings in three other laboratory studies with Pacific herring. This study concluded that if a large proportion of a population is exposed to contamination during early life stages, impacts on subsequent recruitment may be significant. However, estimates of the proportion of Pacific herring year-class affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill vary from 4 per cent to 50 per cent. Since recruitment of the 1989 year-class was also poor in Sitka Sound (the control site), it was suggested that oceanic variables might have been more significant in limiting recruitment of the 1989 year-class in Prince William Sound than was the oil spill. 40 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  5. High temperature pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenslade, J.G. [Colt Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada). Pipelines Dept.; Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dyck, D.W. [Stress Tech Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    It is impractical to transport bitumen and heavy oil by pipelines at ambient temperature unless diluents are added to reduce the viscosity. A diluted bitumen pipeline is commonly referred to as a dilbit pipeline. The diluent routinely used is natural gas condensate. Since natural gas condensate is limited in supply, it must be recovered and reused at high cost. This paper presented an alternative to the use of diluent to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen. The following two basic design issues for a hot bitumen (hotbit) pipeline were presented: (1) modelling the restart problem, and, (2) establishing the maximum practical operating temperature. The transient behaviour during restart of a high temperature pipeline carrying viscous fluids was modelled using the concept of flow capacity. Although the design conditions were hypothetical, they could be encountered in the Athabasca oilsands. It was shown that environmental disturbances occur when the fluid is cooled during shut down because the ground temperature near the pipeline rises. This can change growing conditions, even near deeply buried insulated pipelines. Axial thermal loads also constrain the design and operation of a buried pipeline as higher operating temperatures are considered. As such, strain based design provides the opportunity to design for higher operating temperature than allowable stress based design methods. Expansion loops can partially relieve the thermal stress at a given temperature. As the design temperature increase, there is a point at which above grade pipelines become attractive options, although the materials and welding procedures must be suitable for low temperature service. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  6. 2013 update on sea otter studies to assess recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly; Bodkin, James L.; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the tanker vessel Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling an estimated 42 million liters of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Oil spread in a southwesterly direction and was deposited on shores and waters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS). The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was one of more than 20 nearshore species considered to have been injured by the spill. Since 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey has led a research program to evaluate effects of the spill on sea otters and assess progress toward recovery, as defined by demographic and biochemical indicators. Here, we provide an update on the status of sea otter populations in WPWS, presenting findings through 2013. To assess recovery based on demographic indicators, we used aerial surveys to estimate abundance and annual collections of sea otter carcasses to evaluate patterns in ages-at-death. To assess recovery based on biochemical indicators, we quantified transcription rates for a suite of genes selected as potential indicators of oil exposure in sea otters based on laboratory studies of a related species, the mink (Mustela vison). In our most recent assessment of sea otter recovery, which incorporated results from a subset of studies through 2009, we concluded that recovery of sea otters in WPWS was underway. This conclusion was based on increasing abundance throughout WPWS, including increasing numbers at northern Knight Island, an area that was heavily oiled in 1989 and where the local sea otter population had previously shown protracted injury and lack of recovery. However, we did not conclude that the WPWS sea otter population had fully recovered, due to indications of continuing reduced survival and exposure to lingering oil in sea otters at Knight Island, at least through 2009. Based on data available through 2013, we now conclude that the status of sea otters—at all spatial scales within WPWS—is consistent with the designation of recovery from the spill as

  7. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Prince William Sound, Alaska: effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, T.A.; Smith, R.O.; Stekoll, M.S.; Jewett, S.C.; Hose, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Possible injury to, and recovery of, populations of eelgrass Zostera marine L., in Prince William Sound were assessed following the Exxon Valdez oil spill by comparing populations at oiled vs reference sites between 1990 and 1995. Eelgrass beds in heavily oiled bays were exposed to moderate concentrations of hydrocarbons. In 1990, a year after the spill, concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons average nearly 4000 ng g -1 dry weight of sediment at oiled sites compared to less than 700 ng g -1 at reference sites. Injuries to eelgrass, if any, appeared to be slight and did not persist for more than a year after the spill. There were possible effects on the average density of shoots and flowering shoots, as these were 24 and 62% lower at oiled than at reference sites in 1990 (p < 0.10 for both). However, there were no differences between oiled and reference sites with respect to eelgrass biomass, seed density, seed germination or the incidence of normal mitosis in seedlings, and there were no signs of the elimination of eelgrass beds. (author)

  8. Protecting a pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.H (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Garcia-Lopez, M. (Ingenieria y Geotecnia Ltda., Santafe de Bogota (Colombia))

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  9. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF

  10. The influence of local oil exploration and regional wildfires on summer 2015 aerosol over the North Slope of Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Creamean

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is warming at an alarming rate, yet the processes that contribute to the enhanced warming are not well understood. Arctic aerosols have been targeted in studies for decades due to their consequential impacts on the energy budget, both directly and indirectly through their ability to modulate cloud microphysics. Even with the breadth of knowledge afforded from these previous studies, aerosols and their effects remain poorly quantified, especially in the rapidly changing Arctic. Additionally, many previous studies involved use of ground-based measurements, and due to the frequent stratified nature of the Arctic atmosphere, brings into question the representativeness of these datasets aloft. Here, we report on airborne observations from the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program's Fifth Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V field campaign along the North Slope of Alaska during the summer of 2015. Contrary to previous evidence that the Alaskan Arctic summertime air is relatively pristine, we show how local oil extraction activities, 2015's central Alaskan wildfires, and, to a lesser extent, long-range transport introduce aerosols and trace gases higher in concentration than previously reported in Arctic haze measurements to the North Slope. Although these sources were either episodic or localized, they serve as abundant aerosol sources that have the potential to impact a larger spatial scale after emission.

  11. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halambage Upul Deepthike; Robin Tecon; Gerry van Kooten; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Hauke Harms; Mona Wells; Jeffrey Short [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2009-08-15

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content, technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of local oil exploration and regional wildfires on summer 2015 aerosol over the North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie M.; Maahn, Maximilian; de Boer, Gijs; McComiskey, Allison; Sedlacek, Arthur J.; Feng, Yan

    2018-01-01

    The Arctic is warming at an alarming rate, yet the processes that contribute to the enhanced warming are not well understood. Arctic aerosols have been targeted in studies for decades due to their consequential impacts on the energy budget, both directly and indirectly through their ability to modulate cloud microphysics. Even with the breadth of knowledge afforded from these previous studies, aerosols and their effects remain poorly quantified, especially in the rapidly changing Arctic. Additionally, many previous studies involved use of ground-based measurements, and due to the frequent stratified nature of the Arctic atmosphere, brings into question the representativeness of these datasets aloft. Here, we report on airborne observations from the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Fifth Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V) field campaign along the North Slope of Alaska during the summer of 2015. Contrary to previous evidence that the Alaskan Arctic summertime air is relatively pristine, we show how local oil extraction activities, 2015's central Alaskan wildfires, and, to a lesser extent, long-range transport introduce aerosols and trace gases higher in concentration than previously reported in Arctic haze measurements to the North Slope. Although these sources were either episodic or localized, they serve as abundant aerosol sources that have the potential to impact a larger spatial scale after emission.

  14. Fishing activity near offshore pipelines, 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    On the North Sea bottom lie numerous pipelines to link oil- or gas offshore drilling units, - platforms and processing stations on land. Although pipeline tubes are coated and covered with protective layers, the pipelines risk being damaged through man-made hazards like anchor dropping and fishing

  15. Documentation of the ground for the planned MERO-IKL oil pipeline using the remote sensing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kult, L.; Vavra, J.; Sara, V.

    1994-02-01

    Complete photographic documentation of the planned route for the Ingolstadt-Kralupy-Litvinov pipeline was obtained by remote sensing; the vegetation cover sites and their avitalities were identified and described. The documentation identifies areas of avital plants, and defines potentially hazardous sources of soil or water pollution along the planned route. (J.B.). 1 tab., 17 figs

  16. The Fate and Effects of Crude Oil Spilled on Subarctic Permafrost Terrain in Interior Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    nalkanes by McCown, B.H., F.J. Deneke, W.E. Rickard and L.L. Tieszen Cladosporium resinae Applied Microbiology, vol 25, p (197 t) The response of...alkanes.on Impact of Oil Resource Deselopment on Northern Plant Com- Cladosporium resinae Canadian Journal of Microbiology. vol munities University of

  17. Fluid and Rock Property Controls On Production And Seismic Monitoring Alaska Heavy Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Herring, Andy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Prasad, Manika [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Dorgan, John [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Batzle, Mike [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-10-30

    The goal of this project is to improve recovery of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) heavy oil resources in the Ugnu formation by improving our understanding of the formation's vertical and lateral heterogeneities via core evaluation, evaluating possible recovery processes, and employing geophysical monitoring to assess production and modify production operations.

  18. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  19. 75 FR 38093 - ConocoPhillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... located near Kenai, Alaska, to Japan and/ or one or more other countries globally with which trading is... place of business in Anchorage, Alaska, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of ConocoPhillips Company, a publicly-traded Delaware corporation. Marathon is an Ohio corporation with its principal place of business...

  20. Evaluation of the biodegradation of Alaska North Slope oil in microcosms using the biodegradation model BIOB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish eTorlapati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the details of a numerical model, BIOB that is capable of simulating the biodegradation of oil entrapped in the sediment. The model uses Monod kinetics to simulate the growth of bacteria in the presence of nutrients and the subsequent consumption of hydrocarbons. The model was used to simulate experimental results of Exxon Valdez oil biodegradation in laboratory columns (Venosa et al. (2010. In that study, samples were collected from three different islands: Eleanor Island (EL107, Knight Island (KN114A, and Smith Island (SM006B, and placed in laboratory microcosms for a duration of 168 days to investigate oil bioremediation through natural attenuation and nutrient amendment. The kinetic parameters of the BIOB model were estimated by fitting to the experimental data using a parameter estimation tool based on Genetic Algorithms (GA. The parameter values of EL107 and KN114A were similar whereas those of SM006B were different from the two other sites; in particular biomass growth at SM006B was four times slower than at the other two islands. Grain size analysis from each site revealed that the specific surface area per unit mass of sediment was considerably lower at SM006B, which suggest that the surface area of sediments is a key control parameter for microbial growth in sediments. Comparison of the BIOB results with exponential decay curves fitted to the data indicated that BIOB provided better fit for KN114A and SM006B in nutrient amended treatments, and for EL107 and KN114A in natural attenuation. In particular, BIOB was able to capture the initial slow biodegradation due to the lag phase in microbial growth. Sensitivity analyses revealed that oil biodegradation at all three locations were sensitive to nutrient concentration whereas SM006B was sensitive to initial biomass concentration due to its slow growth rate. Analyses were also performed to compare the half-lives of individual compounds with the decay rate of the overall PAH.

  1. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the

  2. Environmental management of the OSBAT 24'' oil pipeline: methodological and conceptual innovations; Gestao ambiental do Oleoduto OSBAT 24{sup :} inovacoes metodologicas e conceituais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Martiniano, Flavio [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil); Masumoto, Cinthia; Frazao, Luciana Rocha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present considerations about the design, systematic and methodology used for conducting the environmental management of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, what is located in the stretch between Sao Sebastiao City (center) and Camburi district, in Sao Paulo State. It presents a set of criteria, concepts, techniques, ideas and practices that stand out for its innovative character, and contribute effectively to the challenge of sustainable development, and new techniques of conciliation between environmental responsibility and investment in oil sector and gas. The general direction of the article is to reflect on the experience, seeking to broadcast both conceptual and methodological aspects responsible for the successes of OSBAT 24'' environmental management, and point out obstacles found in it's implementation. (author)

  3. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product.

  4. Decommissioning end of life oilfield facilities and pipelines : the first step to the safe and efficient remediation of oil and gas sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, J.; Thygesen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Environmentally sound decommissioning practices in the remediation and reclamation process were reviewed, with reference to abandoned oil and gas facilities and pipelines. There are inherent dangers associated with aged infrastructure, and decommissioning companies should be the first service on site to ensure that all facilities have been located, removed and cleaned. All licensed, unlicensed and on-lease pipelines are required to be properly abandoned. Site research is needed to identify any industry or government regulated requirements that may impact the decommissioning process. Decommissioning companies are also responsible for recording all relevant site information so that it can be conveyed to remediation and reclamation companies. A knowledge of landowner sensitivities, weather affected access, unlicensed facilities and locations of historic contamination are crucial to all parties involved. Additional documentation, such as photographs and survey drawings, can assist remediation and reclamation companies in locating areas of concern. Once a well has been abandoned in Alberta, surface equipment, cement pads, debris and produced liquids associated with the well license must be removed within 12 months of the cutting and capping operation. Records of the removal and cleanup activities must be retained by the licensee. Many sites have been sitting dormant for several years and can be harboring dangerous production fluids, asbestos, Hantavirus and other hazardous materials. All equipment must be steam-cleaned by qualified personnel and all production fluids and contaminated water from the cleaning process must be captured and transported to a waste facility. All equipment that is deemed re-usable can be returned to inventory or re-used. Equipment that can not be salvaged is sold for recycling at a steel mill. All pipelines are required to be cleaned of hydrocarbons, purged and left with a medium of inert gas or atmospheric air. Residual fluids left in a

  5. Identification of hydrocarbon sources in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.; Bence, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods and improved analytical methods make possible the quantitative discrimination of the multiple sources of hydrocarbons in the benthic sediments of Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska. These methods measure an extensive range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at detection levels that are as much as two orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by standard Environmental Protection Agency methods. Nineteen hundred thirty six subtidal sediment samples collected in the sound and the eastern Gulf of Alaska in 1989, 1990, and 1991 were analyzed. Fingerprint analyses of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data reveal a natural background of petrogenic and biogenic PAH. Exxon Valdez crude, its weathering products, and diesel fuel refined from Alaska North Slope crude are readily distinguished from the natural seep petroleum background and from each other because of their distinctive PAH distributions. Mixing models were developed to calculate the PAH contributions from each source to each sediment sample. These calculations show that most of the seafloor in PWS contains no detectable hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez spill, although elevated concentrations of PAH from seep sources are widespread. In those areas where they were detected, spill hydrocarbons were generally a small increment to the natural petroleum hydrocarbon background. Low levels of Exxon Valdez crude residue were present in 1989 and again in 1990 in nearshore subtidal sediments off some shorelines that had been heavily oiled. By 1991 these crude residues were heavily degraded and even more sporadically distributed. 58 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  7. Preliminary stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation, including a brief summary of newly discovered oil stain, upper Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, Marwan A.; Decker, Paul L.; Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys has an ongoing program aimed at evaluating the Mesozoic forearc stratigraphy, structure, and petroleum systems of lower Cook Inlet. Most of our field studies have focused on the Jurassic component of the petroleum system (this report). However, in late July and early August of 2012, we initiated a study of the stratigraphy and reservoir potential of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation. The Kaguyak Formation is locally well exposed on the upper Alaska Peninsula (fig. 25) and was named by Keller and Reiser (1959) for a sequence of interbedded siltstone and sandstone of upper Campanian to Maastrichtian age that they estimated to be 1,450 m thick.Subsequent work by Detterman and Miller (1985) examined 900 m of section and interpreted the unit as the record of a prograding submarine fan.This interpretation of deep-water deposition contrasts with other Upper Cretaceous rocks exposed along the Alaska Peninsula and lower Cook Inlet that are generally described as nonmarine to shallow marine (Detterman and others, 1996; LePain and others, 2012).Based on foraminifera and palynomorphs from the COST No. 1 well, Magoon (1986) concluded that the Upper Cretaceous rocks were deposited in a variety of water depths and environments ranging from upper bathyal to nonmarine. During our recent fieldwork west and south of Fourpeaked Mountain, we similarly encountered markedly varying lithofacies in the Kaguyak Formation (fig. 25), and we also found oil-stained rocks that are consistent with the existence of an active petroleum system in Upper Cretaceous rocks on the upper Alaska Peninsula and in lower Cook Inlet. These field observations are summarized below.

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, walruses, polar bears, and Steller sea lions in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions and polar bears in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points and lines representing human-use resource data for airports, marinas, and mining sites in Northwest Arctic, Alaska....

  11. Batch sequencing of oil derivates in pipeline networks; Sequenciamento de bateladas de derivados leves de petroleo numa rede dutoviaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacin, Mario Vicente; Oliveira, Daniel Rossato de; Czaikowski, Daniel Irineu; Polli, Helton Luis; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio Leandro; Neves Junior, Flavio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a computational tool to assist the operational scheduling of a pipeline network. In this network, transfer of products is carried out by batches, from a source to a destination. This tool implements a proposal to determine priorities of the outgoing batches as well as alternatives for sequencing them fulfilling the stated periods stipulated. This proposal uses an analysis of production and demand plans, stockage, products draining in terminals, as well as operational restrictions of the pipeline network, looking for optimizing the use of resources such as pipes, bombs and tanks. The scenario in study is composed by 14 areas (4 refineries, 2 harbours, 6 distribution centres and 2 costumers) and 29 pipes. Prioritizing the attendance to the areas of source or demand, the algorithm carries choices between routes and possible batches volumes, considering calculations of time windows, that determine the limited interval when transference operations must occur. Moreover, operations called 'lung' are also treated, which involve flow changes during the movement. (author)

  12. Alaska GRIN project : development of geospatial data management interface for oil spill and emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, S. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States); Robertson, T.L. [Nuka Research and Planning Group LLC, Seldovia, AK (United States); DeCola, E. [Nuka Research and Planning Group LLC, Plymouth, MA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A geographic response network (GRIN) project was conducted in 2005 to develop a computer-based tool for organizing maps and data related to oil spill and emergency response logistics and community resources. Originally conceived as an html-based website where information was organized based on incident command system divisions of responsibility, open source mapping applications are also being added to crate an interactive map interface with geospatially referenced information. GRIN information is organized by community. A locator map is embedded in the lower right-hand corner of each map. GRIN includes categories of information related to emergency management, air logistics, law enforcement, marine logistics, and shore-side logistics. A project is now being conducted by the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council to convert the html-based GRIN into a geospatial data management tool. A prototype has now been populated with data for several Cook Inlet communities. GRIN can also be accessed on only computer with an Internet browser. It was concluded that the use of open source programming will make GRIN an easy tool for planners and emergency responders. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Challenges for the heavy oil exportation though pipelines in deep waters; Desafios da exportacao de oleos pesados atraves de oleodutos em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreolli, Ivanilto; Borges Filho, Jonas P.; Gaspari, Eduardo F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the high pressures, low temperatures, and high viscosities involved, the heavy oil exportation in deep waters through pipelines imposes a number of challenges to be feasible. The viscosities involved in such scenarios are usually very high, which brings most of the system to a laminar flow even for the higher flow rates. In a laminar flow the viscosity is linearly and directly related to the frictional pressure drop and so its precise determination is crucial for the correct results from simulations in transient or in steady state, including the modeling thermal. This work presents some results in steady state and transient simulations of heavy oil of deg API around 16 and pipe length of approximately 20km. For the analyses in the steady state was concluded that in low outflows the required pressures can surpass the pressures in high outflows. In the transient regimen was concluded that in case of long stop, the return to the full outflow surpasses 6 days and the replacement of the fluids from the pipe by diesel is a solution to reduce significantly this time. (author)

  14. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Ahmed S., E-mail: a.habib@surrey.ac.u [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A.; Regan, P.H. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey (United Kingdom); Shutt, A.L. [Centre for Radiation Chemical and Environmental Hazards (CRCE), Health Protection Agency (HPA), Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-21

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  15. Use of novel compounds for pest control: insecticidal and acaricidal activity of essential oil components from heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella, Nicholas A; Dolan, Marc C; Karchesy, Joseph J; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Montenieri, John A; Maupin, Gary O

    2005-05-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the activity of 15 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., against Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild), and Aedes aegypti (L.) adults. Four of the compounds from the essential oil have been identified as monoterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpene derivatives from valencene and nootkatone, and one as a sesquiterpene outside the eremophilane parent group. Carvacrol was the only monoterpene that demonstrated biocidal activity against ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes with LC50 values after 24 h of 0.0068, 0.0059, and 0.0051% (wt:vol), respectively. Nootkatone from Alaska yellow cedar was the most effective of the eremophilane sesquiterpenes against ticks (LC50 = 0.0029%), whereas the nootkatone grapefruit extract exhibited the greatest biocidal activity against fleas (LC50 = 0.0029%). Mosquitoes were most susceptible to one of the derivatives of valencene, valencene-13-aldehyde (LC50 = 0.0024%), after 24 h. Bioassays to determine residual activity of the most effective products were conducted at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after initial treatment. Residual LC50 values for nootkatone did not differ significantly at 4 wk posttreatment from the observations made at the initial 24-h treatment. The ability of these natural products to kill arthropods at relatively low concentrations represents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of disease vectors.

  16. Development of a Free-Swimming Acoustic Tool for Liquid Pipeline Leak Detection Including Evaluation for Natural Gas Pipeline Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Significant financial and environmental consequences often result from line leakage of oil product pipelines. Product can escape into the surrounding soil as even the smallest leak can lead to rupture of the pipeline. From a health perspective, water...

  17. Hydrological Measurements in Several Streams During Breakup in the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, D. A.; Toniolo, H. A.; Kemnitz, R.; Brailey, D.; Lamb, E. K.

    2011-12-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska (NPR - A) expands from the North side of the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean over 23.5 million acres. There is a renewed interest in opening NPR -A for oil and gas exploration and hydrological data is critical to the development of pipelines, roads, and bridges. A set of hydraulic measurements, which includes discharge measurements using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), water slope, and suspended sediment sampling during breakup were conducted on Otuk Creek, Seabee Creek, Prince Creek, Ikpikpuk River, Judy Creek, Fish Creek, and Ublutuoch River in the NPR - A region. We will present preliminary results, grouped by stream characteristics.

  18. Gas elephants: Arctic projects revived by expanding markets and pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-03

    The revival of interest in Arctic natural gas and the developing competition to extend the pipeline grid to Alaska and the Yukon and the Northwest territories are the subject of this report. Substantial agreement between competing interest groups is reported with respect to the need for Arctic gas and the willingness of the market to pay for bringing it south to consumers. The discussion centers on the construction of the Alliance Pipeline Project that will reportedly bring two billion cubic feet per day of excess capacity to transport natural gas from northeastern British Columbia to Chicago, and the 2,400 km long Foothills Pipelines System that carries about one-third of Canadian gas exports to middle-western states and California. Plans are to extend the line to 5,240 km by laying pipe in a giant Y pattern between Prudhoe Bay and the Mackenzie delta in the north, and the start of the Foothills System at Caroline in central Alberta. The estimated cost of the line is about $US 6 billion, using a 36-inch diameter line at increased pressures in place of the 56-inch diameter pipe used in the 1970s. Construction plans are similar for the rest of the big Y, the Dempster Lateral beside the Dempster Highway between Whitehorse and Inuvik. A competing project, the Northern Gas Pipeline Project is also discussed. This line would run east of Prudhoe Bay under the Beaufort Sea to the Mackenzie Delta; then south along the Mackenzie Valley to Alberta. Cost of this line is also estimated at $US 6 billion, however, it would have a capacity of four billion cubic feet per day, including 2.5 billion cubic feet from Alaska and 1.5 billion cubic feet from Canada. Strong revival of interest is also reported from the supply side, with BP Amoco, ARCO, Chevron Canada Resources, Ranger 0il Ltd., Paramount Resources, Berkley Petroleum Corporation, Canadian Forest Oil, Alberta Energy Company, Petro-Canada, Anderson Resources, and Poco Petroleum Ltd., all showing interest to mount new

  19. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  20. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Ward

    Full Text Available The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp. in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1 density dependence, (2 the EVOS event, (3 changing environmental conditions, (4 interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5 predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the

  1. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eric J; Adkison, Milo; Couture, Jessica; Dressel, Sherri C; Litzow, Michael A; Moffitt, Steve; Hoem Neher, Tammy; Trochta, John; Brenner, Rich

    2017-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1) density dependence, (2) the EVOS event, (3) changing environmental conditions, (4) interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5) predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the interactions between

  2. Increase of ecological safety of the pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr Movsumov, Sh.N.; Prof Aliyev, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : For increase of ecological safety of the pipeline, necessary decrease of damage (risk) rendered by the pipeline on surrounding natural environment which depends: on the frequency of damage of the pipeline; on the volume poured oil; on the factor of sensitivity of an environment where flood of oil was. Frequency of damage of the pipeline depends on physico-chemical properties of a material of the pipeline, from its technical characteristics (thickness of a wall, length of a pipe, working pressure), on the seismic area of the district where the pipeline passed and also on the way of lining of the pipeline (underground or overground). The volume poured oil depends on diameter of the received damage, from stability of the pipeline mechanical and other external actions, from an ambient temperature, from capacity of the pipeline, from distance between the latches established in the pipeline, and also from time, necessary for their full closing. The factor of sensitivity of environment depends on geological structure and landscapes of district (mountain, the river, settlements) where passed the pipeline. At designing the pipeline, in report is shown questions of increase of ecological safety of the pipeline are considered at his construction and exploitation. For improvement of ecological safety of the pipeline is necessary to hold the following actions: Ecological education of the public, living near along a line of the oil pipeline; carrying out ecological monitoring; working of the public plan of response to oil spills; For ecological education of the public is necessary: carrying out informing of the public for all (technical, ecological, social and economic and legal) questions connected to an oil pipeline, and also on methods of protection of the rights at participation in acceptance of ecological significant decisions; Creation of public groups for realization of activity on observance of the legislation and to prevention of risks; Exposure of hot

  3. The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

  4. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  5. Criteria for oil spill recovery: a case study of the intertidal community of Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalski, J R; Coats, D A; Fukuyama, A K

    2001-07-01

    Marine intertidal organisms in Prince William Sound were exposed to crude oil following the TN Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The intertidal communities were also subjected to mechanical disturbance during invasive oil spill remediation and cleanup efforts. Using monitoring data collected from 1989 to 1997, impacts and eventual recovery were assessed at oiled but uncleaned sites and oiled and cleaned study areas. A statistical model where recovery was defined as parallelism between the time profiles at control and oiled sites was evaluated. Statistical analysis and graphical presentations of the data suggest intertidal epibiota communities recovered from the oil spill by 1992 at the oiled sites and by 1994 at the oiled and remediated sites. Empirical data from the intertidal monitoring program supports the use of tests of parallelism in evaluating recovery and the need to avoid simply the comparison of sample means from control and oiled sites.

  6. Monitoring winter flow conditions on the Ivishak River, Alaska : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Sagavanirktok River, a braided river on the Alaska North Slope, flows adjacent to the trans-Alaska pipeline for approximately 100 miles south of Prudhoe Bay. During an unprecedented flooding event in mid-May 2015, the pipeline was exposed in an a...

  7. Modeling the Environmental Impacts of Potential Oil Pipeline Leaks in the PÁRAMO Region upon the Water Supply for Quito, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, J.; Sanjinez Guzman, V.; Emerman, S. H.; Tebbs, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Trans-Ecuadorian Pipeline carries crude oil from oilfields in eastern Ecuador to refineries on the Pacific coast, crossing the Páramo region, an alpine tundra ecosystem within the province of Pichincha, which also serves as the water supply for the capital city of Quito. The objective of this study has been to create a model for predicting the likelihood that the effects of a crude oil spill in the Páramo region would impact the water supply of Quito by comparing the residence times of organic compounds in soil with the time required for microbial degradation. A custom MATLAB script included linear partitioning of multiple organic compounds among the water, air, soil and NAPL phases. The three organic compounds considered were anthracene, benzene, and naphthalene. The relevant soil parameters for the Páramo region were obtained from the ISRIC-WISE Harmonized Global Soil Profile Dataset. The soil organic matter content is a critical parameter that was estimated from a very small number of measurements. Residence time half-lives were calculated for depths of penetration of the initial spill ranging from 0.1-5 m. For a depth of penetration of 1 m, residence time half-lives for benzene, naphthalene and anthracene were 1.5, 23.1 and 247.8 years, respectively. Comparing with typical biodegradation half-lives of 10-730 days for benzene, 1-258 days for naphthalene, and 199-252 days for anthracene, it can be seen that penetration to groundwater and transport to the reservoir that supplies water to Quito is unlikely for naphthalene and anthracene, but is a distinct possibility for benzene. Current modeling involves including the effect of volatilization within the soil and improving the estimates of biodegradation rates within an alpine tundra ecosystem. Further results will be reported at the meeting.

  8. Leak detection technologies for oil and gas pipelines; Tecnologias para deteccao e localizacao de vazamento em dutos de oleo e ou gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio R. [MTT Aselco Automacao Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Two concepts are available for leak detection in oil and/or gas pipelines: On-line leak detection system and off-line leak detection technique. The off-line leak detection technique is, usually, portable and does net configure a 'system'. This technique includes hydro-test, acoustic emission of high frequency, tracer of chemical substances, ultrasonic flow meter (UT), thermographic infra-red mapping, electromagnetic offset registration, etc. Since most of those methods requests stop of the system or depend on direct and detailed inspection of the whole monitored piping they are limited to the off-line inspection. In the current days there are only two technologies applied to detect and locate leaks on-line: The acoustic Leak Detection System and the modeling of computerized simulation also called as RTM (Real Time Modeling), RTTM or Mass Balance. There are still other techniques in the market, as acoustic emission, pressure analysis (PPA) beyond other rough techniques, without good results. Even some of these techniques are working without success, they are still used to accomplish with government standards. (author)

  9. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  10. Two Oil Types on the North Slope of Alaska. Implications for Future Exploration Les deux types d'huile du versant septentrional de l'Alaska. Implications pour l'exploration future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoon L. B.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty oil samples from across the North Slope of Alaska have been analyzed by the US Bureau of Mines and the Us Geological Survey. Results of these analyses suggest two separate genetic oil types. The first type, the Simpson-Umiat oil type, occurs in reservoir rocks of Cretaceous and Quaternary age and includes oils from seeps in the Skull Cliff, Cape Simpson, Manning Point, and Ungoon Point areas; the Wolf Creek test well 3, and the Umiat oil field. These are higher gravity, low-sulfur oils with no, or slight, odd-numbered n-alkane predominance and pristane to phytane ratios greater than 1. 5. The second type, the Barrow-Prudhoe oil type, occurs in reservoir rocks of Carboniferous to Cretataceous age and includes ails from South Barrow gas field, Prudhoe Bay oil field, and the Fish Creek test well 1. Physical properties of Barrow-Prudhoe oils are variable, but in general the oils are medium-gravity, high-sulfur oils with a slight even-numbered n-alkane predominance and pristane to phytane ratio of less thon 1. 5. The two types are believed to originated from different source rocks; the Barrow-Prudhoe type may have originated from a carbonate or other iron-deficient source rock, and the Simpson-Umiat type from asiliciclastic source rock. Occurrences of fine two oil types, when outlined on a map, indicate atleast two exploration fairways. The fairway for the Barrow-Prudhoe type is along the Barrow arch, and the fairway, for the Simpson-Umiat type is the area of the best reservoir development for the Nanushuk Group. Quarante échantillons d'huile prélevés à travers le versant septentrional de l'Alaska ont été analysés par l'US Bureau of Mines et l'US Geological Survey. Les résultats de ces analyses suggèrent deux types séparés d'huile. Le premier, le type d'huile Simpson-Umiat, se trouve dans des roches magasins du Crétacé au Quaternaire et comprend des huiles des suintements des régions de la falaise Skull, du cap Simpson, de Point

  11. Trends in sea otter population abundance in western Prince William Sound, Alaska: Progress toward recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Duane E.; Beasley, Joe D.; Esslinger, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea otters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS) and elsewhere in the Gulf of Alaska suffered widespread mortality as a result of oiling following the 1989 T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill. Following the spill, extensive efforts have been directed toward identifying and understanding long-term consequences of the spill and the process of recovery. We conducted annual aerial surveys of sea otter abundance from 1993 to 2009 (except for 2001 and 2006) in WPWS. We observed an increasing trend in population abundance at the scale of WPWS through 2000 at an average annual rate of 4 percent: however, at northern Knight Island where oiling was heaviest and sea otter mortality highest, no increase in abundance was evident by 2000. We continued to see significant increase in abundance at the scale of WPWS between 2001 and 2009, with an average annual rate of increase from 1993 to 2009 of 2.6 percent. We estimated the 2009 population size of WPWS to be 3,958 animals (standard error=653), nearly 2,000 animals more than the first post-spill estimate in 1993. Surveys since 2003 also have identified a significant increasing trend at the heavily oiled site in northern Knight Island, averaging about 25 percent annually and resulting in a 2009 estimated population size of 116 animals (standard error=19). Although the 2009 estimate for northern Knight Island remains about 30 percent less than the pre-spill estimate of 165 animals, we interpret this trend as strong evidence of a trajectory toward recovery of spill-affected sea otter populations in WPWS.

  12. Density and productivity of bald eagles in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.M.; Ritchie, R.J.; Cooper, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Helicopter surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) to assess the effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the reproductive success and densities of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) one and two years after the spill (1990 and 1991). Densities of bald eagles were compared between an oiled area in southwestern PWS and an unoiled area in northern PWS. In all surveys (four in 1990, one in 1991) densities of eagles in the oiled areas generally were similar to or higher than those in the unoiled area. Reproductive success was compared between nesting territories that were oiled within 1 km of nests and nesting territories that were unoiled. In 1990, all measures of nest productivity, nest occupancy, and nesting success were similar between oiled and unoiled territories. In 1991, however, the number of young per successful nest was lower in oiled territories. The number of successful nests was slightly lower in 1991 than in 1990 in oiled territories but was significantly lower in 1991 in unoiled territories. Comparisons of nest occupancy and nesting success could not be made in 1991 because early surveys were not conducted. Differences between areas, territories, and years could not be attributed to oil, but rather appeared to be related to natural annual variability. Overall, no demonstrable effects of the oil spill on eagle density or reproduction could be detected in PWS one and two years after the spill. 70 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Mussels document loss of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the return to baseline conditions for oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D.; Brown, J.S. [Exponent, Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Battelle, MA (United States); Burns, W.A. [W.A. Burns Consulting Services, Houston, TX (United States); Bence, A.E. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co. Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected between 1990 and 2002 from 11 sites on the shores of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, that were heavily oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). This study, utilizing the methods of the NOAA Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program, found that concentrations of PAH released from spill remnants have decreased dramatically with time and by 2002 were at or near the range of total PAH (TPAH) of 3-355 ng/g dry weight obtained for mussels from unoiled reference sites in PWS. Time-series TPAH data indicate a mean TPAH half-life in mussel tissues of 2.4 years with a range from 1.4 to 5.3, yielding an annual mean loss of bioaccumulated TPAH of 25%. The petroleum-derived TPAH fraction in mussel tissues has decreased with time, reflecting the decreasing release of EVOS residues in shoreline sediments. These results show that PAH from EVOS residues that remain buried in shoreline sediments after the early 1990s are in a form and at locations that have a low accessibility to mussels living in the intertidal zone. (author)

  14. The Impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on Phytoplankton as Evidenced Through the Sedimentary Dinoflagellate Cyst Records in Prince William Sound (Alaska, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genest, M.; Pospelova, V.; Williams, J. R.; Dellapenna, T.; Mertens, K.; Kuehl, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Large volumes of crude oil are extracted from marine environments and transported via the sea, putting coastal communities at a greater risk of oils spills. It is therefore crucial for these communities to properly assess the risk. The first step is to understand the effects of such events on the environment, which is limited by the lack of research on the impact of oil spills on phytoplankton. This first-of-its-kind research aims to identify how one of the major groups of phytoplankton, dinoflagellates, have been affected by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. To do this, sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts, produced during dinoflagellate reproduction and preserved in the sediment, were analyzed. Two sediment cores were collected from PWS in 2012. The sediments are mainly composed of silt with a small fraction of clay. Both well-dated with 210Pb and 137Cs, the cores have high sedimentation rates, allowing for an annual to biannual resolution. Core 10 has a sedimentation rate of 1.1 cm yr-1 and provides continuous record since 1957, while Core 12 has a sedimentation rate of 1.3 cm yr-1 and spans from 1934. The cores were subsampled every centimeter for a total of 110 samples. Samples were treated using a standard palynological processing technique to extract dinoflagellate cysts and 300 cysts were counted per sample. In both cores, cysts were abundant, diverse and well preserved with the average cyst assemblage being characterized by an equal number of cysts produced by autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates. Of the 40 dinoflagellate cyst taxa, the most abundant are: Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp. Other common species are: Spiniferites ramosus, cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei, Echinidinium delicatum, E. zonneveldiae, E. transparantum, Islandinium minutum, and a thin pale brown Brigantedinium type. Changes in the sedimentary sequence of dinoflagellate cysts were analyzed by determining cyst

  15. Development of high productivity pipeline girth welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapp, David; Liratzis, Theocharis

    2010-01-01

    The trend for increased oil and gas consumption implies a growth of long-distance pipeline installations. Welding is a critical factor in the installation of pipelines, both onshore and offshore, and the rate at which the pipeline can be laid is generally determined by the speed of welding. This has resulted in substantial developments in pipeline welding techniques. Arc welding is still the dominant process used in practice, and forge welding processes have had limited successful application to date, in spite of large investments in process development. Power beam processes have also been investigated in detail and the latest laser systems now show promise for practical application. In recent years the use of high strength steels has substantially reduced the cost of pipeline installation, with X70 and X80 being commonly used. This use of high strength pipeline produced by thermomechanical processing has also been researched. They must all meet three requirments, high productivity, satisfactory weld properties, and weld quality

  16. Pipeline network and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Nascimento, I.; Wagner, J.; Silveira, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Rio de Janeiro is one of 27 units of Brazil. It is located in the eastern portion of the Southeast and occupies an area of 43 696.054 km², being effectively the 3rd smallest state in Brazil. This state in recent years has suffered from erosion problems caused by the deployment of the network pipeline. The deployment pipeline is part of the activities related to the oil industry has caused a more intense conflict between the environment and economic activities, modifying the soil structure and distribution of surface and subsurface flows. This study aimed to analyze the erosion caused by the removal of soil for the deployment of pipeline transportation, with the consequences of the emergence of numerous gullies, landslides and silting of rivers. For the development of this study were performed bibliographic research, field work, mapping and digital preparation of the initial diagnosis of active processes and what the consequent environmental impacts. For these reasons, we conclude that the problems could be avoided or mitigated if there was a prior geological risk management. (author)

  17. Turbulent Flow of Saudi Non-Newtonian Crude Oils in a Pipeline Écoulement turbulent de bruts non-newtoniens séoudiens dans une canalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemeidia A. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of Saudi Arab-Light, Arab-Berri and Arab-Heavy crude oils were measured with Brookfield Viscometer (LVT Model at temperatures 10, 15, 20, 25, 38, 55 and 70°C. Saudi Arab-Light and Arab-Heavy exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at temperature less than or equal to 20°C, while Saudi Arab-Berri behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid at all temperatures. The main reason for this rheological behavior can be attributed to the thermal and shear histories; the relative amounts of wax and asphaltene content in Saudi crude oils as well. Therefore, Statistical Analysis (t-test was used to check the variability of the change in rheological behavior of Saudi non-Newtonian crude oils at a confidence level of 95%. The evaluation ensured that, all non-Newtonian data were statistically not different and were correlated with power-law model. Under turbulent flow conditions the pipeline design calculations were carried out through a computer program. Les propriétés rhéologiques des bruts séoudiens Arab-Light, Arab-Berri et Arab-Heavy ont été mesurées à l'aide d'un viscomètre Brookfield (modèle LVT à des températures de 10, 15, 20, 25, 38, 55 et 70°C. Les Saudi Arab-Light et Arab-Heavy présentent un comportement non newtonien à des températures égales ou inférieures à 20°C, tandis que le Saudi Arab-Berri se comporte comme un fluide non newtonien à toutes les températures. Ce comportement rhéologique est principalement dû aux historiques thermiques et de cisaillement, de même qu'aux quantités relatives de paraffine et à la teneur en asphaltène des bruts séoudiens. Une analyse statistique (essai t a donc été menée pour vérifier la variabilité des changements de comportement rhéologique des bruts séoudiens non newtoniens à un degré de fiabilité de 95%. Il en est ressorti que toutes les données non newtoniennes étaient statistiquement non différentes et étaient en corrélation avec le modèle de la loi des

  18. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subsea tie-in shall be equipped with only a block valve. (7) Gas-lift or water-injection pipelines on... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of... a flow safety valve (FSV). (ii) For sulphur operations, incoming pipelines delivering gas to the...

  19. Architecture of a corporate system to aid the scheduling of a oil derivatives transport in a pipeline network; Arquitetura de um sistema corporativo para auxilio a programacao do transporte de derivados de petroleo em redes dutoviarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Guilherme R.; Polli, Helton L.; Esser, Eduardo M.; Lueders, Ricardo; Neves Junior, Flavio; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This paper addresses the development and the architecture of a corporative package to aid the operational decision-making of the scheduling activities in a real-world pipeline network for oil derivatives. The system was developed based on a service-oriented architecture, allowing the development of Web applications to define the network scheduling, as well as graphic display of the movements. The solution of the scheduling is generated by an optimization block as a service of this application. However, this paper emphasizes the description of the architecture and its functionalities, which was defined with the help of experienced programmers. (author)

  20. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Brian K.; Irons, David B.; Kendall, Steven J.; McDonald, Lyman L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilise shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  1. Observations of the vegetation of the Atigun River floodplain as affected by the crude oil spill from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of botanical investigation conducted along the Atigun River, associated side channels and tributaries during the period 26 –...

  2. Alaska's nest egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Thomas.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the Alaska Permanent Fund was established to receive a substantial share of the state's oil receipts and to invest these monies each year. Four key aspects are unique to Alaska's providential fund among oil-producing states. Firstly a constitutional amendment is needed to touch the assets so the capital is safe from encroachment by the government. Secondly, each Alaskan gets a detailed breakdown of what is invested and what is earned. In the third place, and most importantly, each Alaskan receives an annual dividend from the Fund. Fourthly, the funds have been prudently invested almost entirely outside Alaska rather than in unremunerative vanity infrastructure projects. Now, however, oil production is falling and revenues per barrel from new fields with higher costs are projected to decline as well. Given the budget shortfall, there is now a debate about whether the dividends paid directly to the people, should be shifted, at least in part to the state budget. Although the Fund's capital cannot be touched by the government, the Legislature does have the right to dispose of the income. The arguments in this debate over policy and political philosophy are examined. (UK)

  3. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  4. Sea otter abundance, distribution, and pup production in Prince William Sound Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garshelis, D.L.; Johnson, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The authors investigated effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the abundance, distribution, and pup production of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Prince William Sound by comparing counts made during 1990 and 1991 with prespill counts. Changes in the distribution of otters 1--2 years after the spill from that observed during the late 1970s and early 1980s were not related to oiled shorelines. Despite a substantial loss of sea otters immediately following the spill, the authors counted fewer otters than prespill investigators at only one of three heavily oiled islands, and from 1990 to 1991 their counts at this one site increased to a level equivalent to the latest (1985) prespill count. The unexpectedly high counts at two of the three oiled sites cannot be explained simply by interobserver variability between te pre- and postspill counts or by immigrations of otters from other parts of the sound. The most plausible explanation for the findings also involves a modest population increase prior to the spill. At three heavily oiled sites, pup production 1--2 years after the spill was as high as or higher than before the spill. These results indicate the potential for renewed population growth

  5. An analysis of the potential for oil spill effects on the herring population of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, W.H.; Elston, R.A.; Bienert, R.W.; Drum, A.S.; Antrim, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the herring population in Prince William Sound, was studied. Following the incident in 1989, there was no commercial harvest of herring. However, 1990 through 1992 proved to have above average, record harvests. This was followed by a dramatic decline in 1993 which was generally attributed to the oil spill. An examination of the scientific data was conducted. The main hypotheses for the decline were tested. These hypotheses attributed the decline to: (1) the oil spill itself, (2) a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply, (3) disease, and (4) other natural stochastic processes. Based on the review of the data and the analysis of the four alternative hypotheses, it was concluded that the population decline of 1993 was the result of a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply. No connection to the Exxon Valdez incident was evident. 22 refs., 6 figs

  6. Evidence of damage to pink salmon inhabiting Prince William Sound, Alaska, three generations after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bue, B.G.; Miller, G.D.; Seeb, J.E.; Sharr, S.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations into the environmental effects of the 1 989 Exxon Valdez oil spill lead us to conclude that chronic damage occurred in some pink salmon populations. Differences in survival between streams contaminated by oil and uncontaminated streams have been observed annually since the spill for pink salmon embryos incubating in the intertidal portions of Prince William Sound. The authors assessed the environmental influence on these findings by collecting gametes from both contaminated and uncontaminated streams, transporting them to a hatchery where intra-stream crosses were made, and incubating the resulting embryos under identical conditions. Lower survival was detected in the embryos originating from the oil-contaminated streams indicating that the agent responsible for the differences detected in the field was genetic rather than environmental

  7. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Johnson, Charles B; Garshelis, David L; Parker, Keith R

    2010-07-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001-2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI.

  8. Notice of availability, final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) is proposing to develop the Northstar Unit, located approximately 6 miles offshore of Point Storkensen in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. BPXA's proposed action is a self-contained development/production facility located on a reconstructed gravel island in 39 feet of water. Also proposed is construction of two buried subsea pipelines between the island and shoreline to transport oil and gas. The pipelines would connect with onshore facilities and the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). In response to BPXA's submittal of a permit application under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, and Section 103 of the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act, the US Army Corps of engineers, Alaska District (Corps) determined that issuance of a permit for BPXA's proposed project constituted a major federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), determined under provisions of the Clean Water Act and 40 CFR Part 6 Subpart F that permitting by the EPA for BPXA's proposed project also constituted a major federal action that my significantly affect the quality of the human environment. As a result, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under NEPA was undertaken to identify and evaluate a range of reasonable alternatives and evaluate the potential effects the alternates, including BPXA's proposed project, may have on the human environment

  9. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 3: Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Harner, E.J.; Boehm, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    This study describes the biological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program designed to assess ecological recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill on march 24, 1989. The program is an application of the ''Sediment Quality Triad'' approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in Prince William Sound. The spill affected four major shoreline habitat types in Prince William Sound: pebble/gravel, boulder/cobble, sheltered bedrock, and exposed bedrock. The study design had two components: (1) one-time stratified random sampling at 64 sites representing four habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites) and (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites that included some of the most heavily oiled locations in the sound. Biological communities on rock surfaces and in intertidal and shallow subtidal sediments were analyzed for differences resulting from to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Statistical methods included univariate analyses of individual species abundances and community parameter variables (total abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity), and multivariate correspondence analysis of community structure. 58 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Oil transport scheduling in a pipeline with a characteristic operation; Otimizacao das operacoes de transporte de derivados em um poliduto com multiplas sangrias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Guilherme; Magatao, Leandro; Arruda, Lucia Valeria Ramos; Silva, Marcos Henrique da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lara, Lucas El Ghoz [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This work presents an optimization structure to support the operational decision making of scheduling activities in a multi product pipeline with multiple deliveries. This pipeline connects, in sequence, 6 operational areas: one is the main refinery, and the 5 remaining are distribution centers, each one with specific capacity of storage. Basically, the refinery pumps derivatives, such as diesel and gasoline, in a unidirectional flow to distribution centers, in a way to supply their demands. The solution kernel is underlined in a hybrid structure, using heuristics and Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) modeling, executed iteratively. Details of storage curves and flow rate of pipelines are obtained in the proposed approach, expanding the results of Kira et al. (2010). Additionally, the proposed approach is able to deal with discrete demands along the scheduling horizon. Thus, this hybrid structure makes possible to obtain operational scheduling solutions at a low CPU times (few minutes), using real data scenarios, whose horizon length has at least 30 days. (author)

  11. Pitting growth modelling in buried oil and gas pipelines using statistical techniques; Modelado del crecimiento de picaduras en tuberias enterradas que transportan hidrocarburos utilizando tecnicas estadisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, J. C.; Caleyo, F.; Valorm, A.; Hallen, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    New deterministic and stochastic predictive models are proposed for external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The deterministic model takes into consideration the local chemical and physical properties of the soil as well as the pipeline coating to predict the time dependence of pitting depth and rate in a range of soils. This model, based on results from a field study, was used to conduct Monte Carlo simulations that established the probability distribution of pitting depth and growth rate in the studied soils and their evolution over the life of the pipeline. In the last stage of the study, an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model was developed for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. (Author) 18 refs.

  12. Removable pipeline plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassalotti, M.; Anastasi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A removable plugging device for a pipeline, and particularly for pressure testing a steam pipeline in a boiling water reactor, wherein an inflatable annular sealing member seals off the pipeline and characterized by radially movable shoes for holding the plug in place, each shoe being pivotally mounted for self-adjusting engagement with even an out-of-round pipeline interior

  13. Contributions of transported Prudhoe Bay oil field emissions to the aerosol population in Utqiaġvik, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsch, Matthew J.; Kirpes, Rachel M.; Kolesar, Katheryn R.; Barrett, Tate E.; China, Swarup; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Laskin, Alexander; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Tuch, Thomas; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-01

    Loss of sea ice is opening the Arctic to increasing development involving oil and gas extraction and shipping. Given the significant impacts of absorbing aerosol and secondary aerosol precursors emitted within the rapidly warming Arctic region, it is necessary to characterize local anthropogenic aerosol sources and compare to natural conditions. From August to September 2015 in Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK, the chemical composition of individual atmospheric particles was measured by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (0.13-4 µm projected area diameter) and real-time single-particle mass spectrometry (0.2-1.5 µm vacuum aerodynamic diameter). During periods influenced by the Arctic Ocean (70 % of the study), our results show that fresh sea spray aerosol contributed ˜ 20 %, by number, of particles between 0.13 and 0.4 µm, 40-70 % between 0.4 and 1 µm, and 80-100 % between 1 and 4 µm particles. In contrast, for periods influenced by emissions from Prudhoe Bay (10 % of the study), the third largest oil field in North America, there was a strong influence from submicron (0.13-1 µm) combustion-derived particles (20-50 % organic carbon, by number; 5-10 % soot by number). While sea spray aerosol still comprised a large fraction of particles (90 % by number from 1 to 4 µm) detected under Prudhoe Bay influence, these particles were internally mixed with sulfate and nitrate indicative of aging processes during transport. In addition, the overall mode of the particle size number distribution shifted from 76 nm during Arctic Ocean influence to 27 nm during Prudhoe Bay influence, with particle concentrations increasing from 130 to 920 cm-3 due to transported particle emissions from the oil fields. The increased contributions of carbonaceous combustion products and partially aged sea spray aerosol should be considered in future Arctic atmospheric composition and climate simulations.

  14. Energy and Environmental Policy Trends: The Invisible Cost of Pipeline Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kent Fellows

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available THE INVISIBLE COST OF PIPELINE CONSTRAINTS Over much of the last decade pipeline constraints and the resulting apportionment of pipeline capacity have meant reduced returns on Alberta’s Oil Exports. There is a natural price discount between the US benchmark West Texas Intermediate (WTI Crude oil price and the Canadian benchmark Western Canada Select (WCS price. This differential reflects the lower quality of WCS relative to WTI and the costs associated with pipeline tolls to transport this oil from Alberta to US refining hubs. However, at present western Canada is experiencing significant pipeline capacity constraints which have dramatically increased this discount relative to historical levels.

  15. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  16. Qualification of the system for thermal coating rehabilitation in situ of oil pipeline in operation; Qualificacao de sistema de reabilitacao in situ de revestimento termico para oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebsch, Andre; Correa, Anyr Rosa; Cabral, Glaucia Brazuna; Castanheiras Junior, Wilson Gil [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliver, Joao Hipolito de Lima; Pinto, Mucio Eduardo Amarante Costa [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The transfer of some derived products of petroleum with high viscosity is accomplished with the same ones heated up. These buried pipelines are provided of Thermal Isolation System (TIS). Those TIS are composed with a polyurethane foam layer (PU) that is externally protected by polyethylene layer (PE). The acids production was generated by the deterioration of TIS. This associated with an absence of anticorrosive coating on the pipeline cause the corrosion with its thickness loss and consequently it's endangered. The rehabilitation of the existent TIS was done necessary to control this corrosive process, by reason of the Cathodic Protection System usually used in complement to the anticorrosive coating does not work on this TIS. A TIS rehabilitation process with the pipeline in operation was specified by PETROBRAS - ENGINEER and TRANSPETRO. It's qualified and was composed by two stages: Pre-qualification: tests in factory using pipes with original TIS and operating with hot water to 85 deg C. This stage was composed by the removal of original TIS, pipe surface preparation, application and tests on the anticorrosive coating, application and tests of the PU foam and application and tests of the PE casing. Qualification: stage composed by the application in field of the new TIS in a thousand meters of the pipeline OBATI-SP, operated by TRANSPETRO, and tests of the pipe assembly. This work presents the results of the Qualification for the rehabilitation of the thermal coating. It achieves the quality level demanded by PETROBRAS - Engineer and TRANSPETRO. (author)

  17. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sahli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less. This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs. The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  18. Nova Gas's pipeline to Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, N.

    1996-01-01

    The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia's peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI's success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI's ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners

  19. Hematology and clinical chemistry of sea otters vaptured in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bruden, D.L.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemical analyses were performed on sea otter blood samples collected from 31 adult males, 63 adult females, and 42 pups captured in western Prince William Sound (oiled area), and 12 adult males, 40 adult females, and 15 pups captured in eastern Prince William Sound (unoiled area) in 1989 and 1990. Hematologic differences between eastern and western adult males were minimal. Both hematocrits and hemoglobins were higher in western than eastern otters but the biological significance of this is equivocal. Western males had higher absolute eosinophil counts, suggesting possible systemic hypersensitivity reactions. Western males had higher serum protein and serum globulin levels than eastern males, suggesting greater antigenic stimulation (more inflammatory and/or infectious conditions). There were no differences in hematologic parameters between eastern and western female otters. Some chemistry changes were present, but the degree of difference was small. Total protein and serum globulin levels were slightly higher in western females, a finding also seen in adult males. Mean levels of liver enzymes for western females were somewhat higher than for the eastern otters, suggesting the possibility of subclinical liver disease. As a group, western pup hematocrits, hemoglobins, and red cell counts were significantly lower than those of eastern pups. From a biological perspective, these reductions were minimal but supported by individual animal data. The red cell data suggest a mild anemia in western pups; however, the degree of anemia was minimal, so that biological significance was equivocal. Other hematologic and clinical chemical differences between eastern and western pups were not striking and were also of equivocal biological significance.

  20. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in petroleum product pipelines--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, N; Rajasekar, A; Ponmariappan, S; Mohanan, S; Maruthamuthu, S; Muralidharan, S; Subramanian, P; Palaniswamy, N; Raghavan, M

    2003-09-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is responsible for most of the internal corrosion problems in oil transportation pipelines and storage tanks. One problematic area in treating gas lines is the occurrence of the stratification of water in the line. Under these conditions, corrosion inhibitors do not come into contact properly and oil and inhibitors undergo degradation. The role of bacteria on oil degradation, the consequences of oil degradation in fuel systems and its influence on corrosion have been explained in detail. Besides, factors influencing on degradation of oil and corrosion inhibitors have also been discussed. Mechanism of microbiologically influenced corrosion in oil pipeline has been explained. Many of the misapplication of biocides/inhibitors occur mainly because the characteristics of biocides/inhibitors are not considered before use in pipeline industry. List of biocides and monitoring programme have been collected from literature and presented.

  1. Also deputies will say something to new pipeline of Slovnaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2005-01-01

    The oil transit company, Transpetrol, expects the new Bratislava-Schwechat pipeline connecting the OMV refinery to the Druzba pipeline to increase the use of the pipeline and improve company revenues by 20%. The Austrian project partner, OMV, looks to the project to decrease transportation costs for Russian oil. One sixth of the 60 km pipeline will be built in Slovakia, but there is a problem - the Slovak Ministry of Environment and the City of Bratislava have not approved the route proposed by Transpetrol. In their opinion, the propose route would endanger the protected area, Zitny ostrov, that provides drinking water to the capital. Slovnaft also plans a new pipeline to replace the old obsolete one used to transport its products to the mineral oils transhipment centre at Bratislava docks. One of the alternatives proposed by Slovnaft is the construction of a pipeline and transhipment centre on Zitny ostrov. Unlike the Transpetrol project, this has already received approval from the Ministry of Environment. Before construction work on the pipeline to Schwechat can start. OMV will have resolve issues related to the supply of oil from Russia. According to the original plans, Yukos, which owns a 49% stake in Transpetrol, was to supply the oil. But due to tax problems in Russia, Yukos lost its main drilling division, Juganskneftgaz

  2. The kinematic viscosity influence on energetic cost of oil pipeline flow; Influencia da viscosidade cinematica sobre o custo energetico no escoamento de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Kennedy F.M. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Paraiba (CEFET-PB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Torres, Euriclides G.; Lacerda, Ivonaldo de S.; Machado, Erica C.M.N. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the petroleum pipelines flow the objective of the maximum production with the minor cost is desired, considering the techniques, operational and administrative restrictions. One of the biggest difficulties in the pipelines flow is related to increase of viscosity that the fluids produced can present and to the variations during the transport. In this study had been analyzed through computational simulations, using Smart Pumping software, the hydraulic behavior of the network and the operational cost with energy consumption, in function of the variation of the viscosity. Two scenes had been simulated, using a initial kinematic viscosity of 3,029x10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/s, that it was reduced gradually until the minimum limit of 10% of initial viscosity, remaining the too much constant the fluid properties. In scene 1 it was verified that the reduction of viscosity implied in the reduction of the energy cost in up to 14,53%, increase of the daily production in up to 3,88% and the reduction in the cost for m3 flowed off in up to 17,73%, without alterations in the operations. Scene 2 presented similar behavior to scene 1, however, had been necessary interventions to get operations that did not violate the restrictions. The results had ratified the interference of viscosity in the operations and the system petroleum flow costs. (author)

  3. Carboniferous and older carbonate rocks: Lithofacies, extent, and reservoir quality: Chapter CC in The oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1999-01-01

    -stem tests found locally reasonable flow rates (4,220-4,800 bpd) and, in the Flaxman Island area, recovered gas and condensate from these rocks. The Lisburne Group has produced up to 50,000 bbl of oil/ day from the Lisburne field at Prudhoe Bay. Reservoir parameters of the Lisburne in northeastern Alaska range from low (porosities ≤ 5% in most limestones) to good (porosities average 6.5-10% in some dolostones). Reservoir quality in Carboniferous and older carbonate strata in the 1002 area should be greatest where these rocks are highly fractured and (or) truncated by the Lower Cretaceous Unconformity.

  4. Living and working near pipelines : Landowner guide 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    The transportation of natural gas, oil and other commodities is effected by pipelines throughout most of the country. Safety in the vicinity of a pipeline is very important because damage to a pipeline could result in adverse conditions to public safety and/or the environment. Before digging, written approval must be obtained from the pipeline company. If a landowner is having difficulty negotiating an agreement with the pipeline company, they should call the National Energy Board. It is illegal to construct or excavate without authorization, and approval or denial of a request must be granted within 10 business days by the pipeline company. Three days are allowed to the pipeline company to locate its pipeline. A section dealing with pipeline right-of-way is included, as well as the safety zone and the restricted area. A 10-step checklist of safety tips assists the landowner in taking the appropriate measures in the vicinity of a pipeline. A brief overview of the responsibilities of the National Energy Board is provided, followed by a list of the main pipelines regulated by the National Energy Board. 2 figs

  5. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  6. Computer models of pipeline systems based on electro hydraulic analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudinov, V. A.; Trubitsyn, K. V.; Tkachev, V. K.; Stefanyuk, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the results of the development of mathematical and computer models of complex multi-loop branched pipeline networks for various purposes (water-oil-gas pipelines, heating networks, etc.) based on the electro hydraulic analogy of current spread in conductors and fluids in pipelines described by the same equations. Kirchhoff’s laws used in the calculation of electrical networks are applied in the calculations for pipeline systems. To maximize the approximation of the computer model to the real network concerning its resistance to the process of transferring the medium, the method of automatic identification of the model is applied.

  7. Induced voltages in metallic pipelines near power transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grcev, Leonid; Jankov, Voislav; Filiposki, Velimir

    2002-01-01

    With the continuous development of the electric power system and the pipeline networks used to convey oil or natural gas, cases of close proximity of high voltage structures and metallic pipelines become more and more frequent. Accordingly there is a growing concern about possible hazards resulting from voltages induced in the metallic pipelines by magnetic coupling with nearby power transmission lines. This paper presents a methodology for computation of the induced voltages in buried isolated metallic pipelines. A practical example of computation is also presented. (Author)

  8. Quantitative risk analysis in two pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Euclides [Centro Universitario FIB, Salvador , BA (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Transportation risk analysis techniques were used to study two pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO. The Pipeline A is for the simultaneous transportation of diesel, gasoline and LPG and comprises three parts, all of them crossing rural areas. The Pipeline B is for oil transportation and one of its ends is located in an area of a high density population. Both pipelines had their risk studied using the PHAST RISK{sup R} software and the individual risk measures, the only considered measures for license purposes for this type of studies, presented level far below the maximum tolerable levels considered. (author)

  9. Wood energy for residential heating in Alaska: current conditions, attitudes, and expected use

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Valerie. Barber

    2010-01-01

    This study considered three aspects of residential wood energy use in Alaska: current conditions and fuel consumption, knowledge and attitudes, and future use and conditions. We found that heating oil was the primary fuel for home heating in southeast and interior Alaska, whereas natural gas was used most often in south-central Alaska (Anchorage). Firewood heating...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-way oil or gas pipeline shall transport or purchase oil or natural gas produced from submerged lands... platforms, structures, domes over valves, pipes, taps, and valves along the right-of-way. All of these...

  11. 75 FR 4136 - Pipeline Safety: Requests for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    .... These original construction hydrostatic tests were conducted more than thirty years ago. The application... certain other pressure test data. PHMSA-2009-0407 Union Oil of 49 CFR 195.452(h)(3) Union Oil of... terminates at the Bruce platform riser located in Kenai Borough, Alaska on the Cook Inlet, a navigable...

  12. Expert systems for integrity management in a crude oil pipeline; Sistemas expertos para gestion de integridad en sistemas de transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.P.; Pini, J. [Oldelval S.A., General Roca RN (Argentina)]. E-mail: mmartine@oldelval.com.ar; jpini@oldelval.com.ar; Rossi, J.P.; Pellicano, A. [Sintec S.A., Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: icesing@infovia.com.ar

    2003-07-01

    The study and modeling of corrosion processes aim at the accomplishment of three primary objectives: to increase safety operation margins, to reduce maintenance costs and to optimize available resources. The Integrity Expert System is based on a statistical propagation model of defects reported by high resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), fed with the information provided by corrosion sensors, repair interventions, field surveys and future inspections. As model results, defect depth, remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established: a medium term repair plan, an internal inspection program and both monitoring and mitigation technologies. System implementation in OLDELVAL was translated into two major effects of importance for the company integrity program: reduction in the pipeline probability of failure by corrosion by means of programmed repairs and optimization of the internal inspection investment plan by mans of an alternative programming. (author)

  13. Validation of pig operations through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, pigging operations in pipelines have been largely applied for different purposes: pipe cleaning, inspection, liquid removal and product separation, among others. An efficient and safe pigging operation requires that a number of operational parameters, such as maximum and minimum pressures in the pipeline and pig velocity, to be well evaluated during the planning stage and maintained within stipulated limits while the operation is accomplished. With the objective of providing an efficient tool to assist in the control and design of pig operations through pipelines, a numerical code was developed, based on a finite difference scheme, which allows the simulation of two fluid transient flow, like liquid-liquid, gas-gas or liquid-gas products in the pipeline. Modules to automatically control process variables were included to employ different strategies to reach an efficient operation. Different test cases were investigated, to corroborate the robustness of the methodology. To validate the methodology, the results obtained with the code were compared with a real liquid displacement operation of a section of the OSPAR oil pipeline, belonging to PETROBRAS, with 30'' diameter and 60 km length, presenting good agreement. (author)

  14. Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents

  15. Physical data from CTD and bottle casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX in the Gulf of Alaska by the University of Alaska; Institute of Marine Science (UAK/IMS) in support of the Exxon Oil Spill Monitoring Program and the Gulf of Alaska Recirculation Project from 1989-05-05 to 1989-05-28 (NODC Accession 8900171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and sigma-t profiles from CTD and bottle casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX. Data were collected in the Gulf of Alaska by the University of...

  16. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption

  17. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  18. Semipermeable membrane devices link site-specific contaminants to effects: PART II - A comparison of lingering Exxon Valdez oil with other potential sources of CYP1A inducers in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jeffrey W; Springman, Kathrine R; Lindeberg, Mandy R; Holland, Larry G; Larsen, Marie L; Sloan, Catherine A; Khan, Colin; Hodson, Peter V; Rice, Stanley D

    2008-12-01

    We deployed semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) on beaches for 28 days at 53 sites in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, to evaluate the induction potential from suspected sources of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A)-inducing contaminants. Sites were selected to assess known point sources, or were chosen randomly to evaluate the region-wide sources. After deployment, SPMD extracts were analyzed chemically for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These results were compared with hepatic CYP1A enzyme activity of juvenile rainbow trout injected with the same extracts prior to clean-up for the chemical analyses. Increased CYP1A activity was strongly associated with PAH concentrations in extracts, especially chrysene homologues but was not associated with POPs. The only apparent sources of chrysene homologues were lingering oil from Exxon Valdez, asphalt and bunker fuels released from storage tanks during the 1964 Alaska earthquake, creosote leaching from numerous pilings at one site, and PAH-contaminated sediments at Cordova Harbor. Our results indicate that PWS is remarkably free of pollution from PAH when nearby sources are absent as well as from pesticides and PCBs generally.

  19. Distribution and relative abundance of sea otters in south-central and south-western Alaska before or at the time of the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Monson, Daniel H.; Irons, David B.; Robbins, C.M.; Douglas, David C.; Bayha, Keith; Kormendy, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    Surveys of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) conducted before, immediately after, or at the time of the TA^ Exxon Valdez oil spill were used to guide otter capture efforts and assess the immediate effects of the spill. Shoreline counts (by boat) of sea otters in Prince William Sound in 1984 suggested that a minimum of 4,500 sea otters inhabited nearshore waters of Prince William Sound. Areas of highest density within the western portion of Prince William Sound included the Bainbridge Island area, Montague Island, Green Island, and Port Wells. About 1,330 sea otters were counted from helicopters along the coast of the Kenai Peninsula. Highest densities of sea otters were found along the western end of the Kenai Peninsula. At Kodiak Island, about 3,500 sea otters were counted in coastal surveys from helicopters. Highest densities of sea otters were found in Perenosa Bay in northern Afognak Island, and in waters between Afogneik, Kodiak, and Raspberry Islands. Along the Alaska Peninsula, about 6,500 sea otters were counted between Kamishak Bay and Unimak Pass. Areas of concentration included the Izembek Lagoon airea. False Pass, the Pavlof Islands, Hallo Bay, and Kujulik Bay. Line transect surveys conducted offshore of the coastal strips indicate that at the time of the surveys relatively high densities of sea otters existed offshore at Kodiak Island and along the Alaska Peninsula, but not on the Kenai Peninsula.

  20. Environmental management of the OSBAT 24'' oil pipeline: reached practical results; Gestao ambiental do Oleoduto OSBAT 24{sup :} resultados praticos alcancados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Ricardo N.; Garibaldi, Celia M.; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Maira B.; Oliveira, Flavio M. de; Perim, Leandro A. [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil); Baptista, Sidney L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of this article is to present considerations about the practical results obtained over the implementation of specialized technical services for environmental monitoring and control of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' pipeline, located in a stretch of about 32 km from the Aquatic Terminal of Sao Sebastiao - SP (TASSE) to the district Camburi. This area is characterized by intense environmental complexity by the presence of the Serra do Mar State Park, under enormous natural diversity of preserved Mata Atlantica forest, contrasting with a considerable pole of urban sprawl whose population growth rates (4.66% pa) and economic they are above the average for the Sao Paulo State. The presentation of results considers the practical implementation of the package of environmental management tools used and seek verification of the scope and quality of the following items: general Review of care as environmental registers occurred at different periods (eg monthly, bimonthly, half, etc.); survey of the nature of environmental registers; environmental registers recovered; cases of non-compliance and the main control measures implemented; evaluation of environmental performance; recommendations and learning. (author)

  1. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  2. Investigation on potential SCC in gas transmission pipeline in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, S. [Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China); Zupei, Y.; Yunxin, M. [China Petroleum Pipeline Corp., Beijing (China). Science and Technology Center

    2004-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a common phenomenon that occurs on the outer surfaces of buried pipelines. This paper investigated aspects of SCC on 3 transmission pipelines on the West-East Gas Pipeline Project in China. The study was comprised of 3 different investigations: (1) an investigation of SCC cases on constructed pipelines; (2) an evaluation of SCC sensitivity of pipeline steels in typical soil environments; and (3) an analysis of soil environments and operation conditions of western pipelines. The study included a review of pipeline corrosion investigations, as well as an examination of pipeline failure cases. Investigative digs were conducted at 21 sites to test soil chemistries. Slow strain rate stress were conducted to evaluate SCC sensitivity of steel pipelines used in China. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted to characterize the electrochemical behaviour of the X70 line pipe steel in different soil environments. Results of the study showed that the environmental conditions in many locations in China contributed to SCC in pipelines. SCC was observed on the surface of X70 steel pipe specimens in both marsh and saline environments. Seasonal temperature changes also contributed additional stress on pipelines. The movement of soil bodies in mountainous areas also contributed to stress and coating damage. It was concluded that proper cathodic protection can alleviate concentrations of local solutions under disbanded coatings. Overprotection of SCC will accelerate the growth of cracks and the degradation of coatings. Samples gathered from the solutions found under the disbanded coatings of pipelines will be used to form part of a reference database for predicting SCC in oil and gas pipelines in the future. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Oil Pollution and Eastern Obolo Human Ecology,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Pipelines were laid from all the oil wells to the terminals of the oil firms. Owing to this fact, the area is crisscrossed with high pressure oil pipelines and other installations; some manifold ones carry the instructions, “DO ... It specifically gave severe corrosion to corrugated iron sheets used in roofing houses and turned them.

  4. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  5. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables

  6. Pipeline system operability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

  7. Military Petroleum Pipeline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    Army has standardized for this purpose. A tactical pipeline system, may be temporary or semilpermanenit and isemnplaced rapidly to maintain the Ipip ...with operating pressure. IPip is the1 highest cost Item In a pipeline system, normally representing more than half the total jinvest- ment in materiel

  8. Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

  9. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  10. Slovakia should be more active in pipeline projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    European Union is interested also like USA to lower its own dependence on oil distributors from problematic region of Persian Gulf. Therefore the attention is turning on to Russia and to region of Caspian Sea. However except political and safety problems the import of oil from these territories meets also the lack of transport capacities. Slovakia can become the important transit territory, where could flow more Russian or Caspian oil to the European market. After a break-up of Soviet Union Russia lost oil export terminals on the coast of Baltic Sea. These terminals became a part of territories of three independent Baltic countries. The frequent storms in the region of Novorossiysk are disadvantage of Black Sea's ports Novorossiysk and Tuapse. The overloading of Turkish straits Bospor and Dardanely, which connect Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, is becoming a new and more serious problem. In the present time up to 500 tankers swim over through these straits annually, which transport together around 70 million tones of oil and of oil products. Owing to the rising mining of oil the only one way out is the circumvention of these straits. New pipeline from Baku through Georgia to Turkish terminal Ceyhan on the coast of Mediterranean Sea is the only one but not sufficient solution. Therefore Russia promotes the project of integration of pipelines Druzba and Adria. The intensions is to open the continuous export pipeline way through Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia and Hungary into Croatian terminal Omisajl on the coast of Adriatic Sea. Other possibility how to rise the oil transit through Slovakia is the construction of pipeline to the refinery OMW in Schweechat near Vienna. In the end of the last year the representatives of Transpetrol, Yukos and OMW signed the contract of its construction in Bratislava. Annual capacity of this pipeline is 2 million tonnes of oil. Other possibility how to transport the Caspian oil is pipeline Odessa-Brody. More then 600 km of this pipeline

  11. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  12. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... rates translate to increased public and worker safety and decreased repair and outage costs for pipeline... April 2, 2012 Part III Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  13. Online slug detection in multi-phase transportation pipelines using electrical tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Mai, Christian; Hansen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Slugging flow in offshore oil & gas multi-phase transportation pipelines cause big challenges as the flow regime induces flow and pressure oscillations in the multi-phase pipelines. The negative impacts of the most severe slugs are significant and thus the elimination of slugging flow in the pipe......Slugging flow in offshore oil & gas multi-phase transportation pipelines cause big challenges as the flow regime induces flow and pressure oscillations in the multi-phase pipelines. The negative impacts of the most severe slugs are significant and thus the elimination of slugging flow...

  14. Failure analysis and fitness-for-service assessment for a pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Yaorong; Li Helin; Zhang Pingsheng [Tubular Goods Research Center of CNPC, Xi`an, Shaanxi (China); Du Baiping; Ma Baodian; Jin Zhihao [Jiao Tong Univ., Xi`an, Shaanxi (China)

    1996-12-01

    Failures during hydrotest have been analyzed for a new crude oil pipeline and it indicates that the main cause of failures of the pipeline is the severe lack of fusion defects formed by inadequate welding heat input in ERW pipe`s welds. The Fitness-for-Service assessment has been carried out for the pipeline by use of the fracture mechanics approach, which shows that the pipeline may leak before break under designed operating pressure, and the lack of fusion defects in the welds may propagate under the condition of fluctuating of the pressure. The prediction of remaining life for the pipeline is given in this paper.

  15. Assessment of injury to river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Terrestrial mammal study number 3. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faro, J.B.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Duffy, L.K.

    1994-03-01

    River otters (Lutra canadensis) were killed by direct effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, but the magnitude of that loss is unknown due to lack of pre-spill data. A time lag in spill effects is reflected by the reduction in species richness and diversity in the summer diets of otters in oiled areas between 1989 and 1990. Otters from oiled areas had higher haptoglobin levels in both 1990 and 1991. Male otters captured in oiled areas in 1990 had significantly lower body mass than otters from nonoiled areas. Otters from oiled areas had home ranges that were twice as large as those from a non-spill area. Differences in rates of fecal deposition between oiled and nonoiled latrine sites in 1989 suggest otters used heavily oiled areas less often. Otters avoided shorelines with shallow slopes on the oiled area, whereas they strongly preferred these slopes on nonoiled sites, suggesting that otters lost habitat as a result of the spill.

  16. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, A.

    1997-01-01

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell's oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs

  18. Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Natural gas interstate and intrastate pipelines in the United States. Based on a variety of sources with varying scales and levels of accuracy and therefore accuracy...

  19. Caspian Pipeline Consortium, Bellwether of Russia's Investment climate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellecker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC), a shipper-owned oil pipeline carrying Caspian oil to Russia's Black Sea port of Novorossyisk, remains to this day the only oil export pipeline on Russian territory that is not under the control of the state company Transneft. Completed in 2001, the CPC was, from the start, the product of a fragile balance of power between states eager to maintain control of hydrocarbon flows and private companies able to finance the necessary infrastructure. Despite its economic success, the future of the CPC currently hinges on a share-holding dispute pitting Russia against private shareholders. This essay places the CPC dossier in the broader context of Russia's investment climate and argues that the dispute's dynamic is an important bellwether of the Russian energy policy. (author)

  20. Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

    2013-07-01

    Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

  1. Pargo/Garoupa 22'' crude oil pipeline from reconstruction to inspection: stages of the pipeline rehabilitation into the standard of guarantee of structural integrity; Oleoduto Pargo/Garoupa 22'' da reconstrucao a inspecao: etapas de re-habilitacao de um duto ao padrao de garantia de integridade estrutural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Aldo Renato; Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Medeiros, Carlos Eduardo Amosso; Mori, Eduardo Teruo; Melo, Francimario da Silva Vieira de; Ribeiro, Jussara Carvalho; Moura Neto, Rodolfo Jose de [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2003-07-01

    The Pipeline Pargo/Garoupa 22'' is 17 km long transfers the production of six platforms of the Northeast Pole for the Garoupa Central platform in Campos' Basin. This pipeline works with a flowrate of 450 m{sup 3}/h and it began to operate in 1987. The existence of a non-piggable sub sea manifold 500 meters down stream PGP-1 allied with receiver's absence impeded the passage of any type of pigs. The strategic importance of the pipeline allied with the need of operational safety assurance took PETROBRAS/UN-BC to the decision of building a pigs receiver in PGP-1 and to reestablish pig ability assembling a new riser and a new sub sea pipeline covering 500 meters, both in the diameter of 22 inches. After the conclusion, it was carried out a long campaign of cleaning, with emphasis in the development new drawings of specific pigs for the removal of the internal debris accumulated since the beginning of the operation. Several accessories were developed in order to improve the removal and arresting of wax and barium sulfate scale. Finally, the pipeline was inspected with a high resolution MFL pig. The present work describes all the stages of this pipeline rehabilitation, from the adaptation of the submarine facilities and of surface, going by the extensive campaign of cleaning and culminated with the inspection and the evaluation of the integrity. (author)

  2. Analysis of stresses on buried pipeline subjected to landslide based on numerical simulation and regression analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bing; Jing, Hongyuan; Liu, Jianping; Wu, Zhangzhong [PetroChina Pipeline RandD Center, Langfang, Hebei (China); Hao, Jianbin [School of Petroleum Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2010-07-01

    Landslides have a serious impact on the integrity of oil and gas pipelines in the tough terrain of Western China. This paper introduces a solving method of axial stress, which uses numerical simulation and regression analysis for the pipelines subjected to landslides. Numerical simulation is performed to analyze the change regularity of pipe stresses for the five vulnerability assessment indexes, which are: the distance between pipeline and landslide tail; the thickness of landslide; the inclination angle of landslide; the pipeline length passing through landslide; and the buried depth of pipeline. A pipeline passing through a certain landslide in southwest China was selected as an example to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. This method has practical applicability, but it would need large numbers of examples to better verify its reliability and should be modified accordingly. Also, it only considers the case where the direction of the pipeline is perpendicular to the primary slip direction of the landslide.

  3. Failure analysis of high strength pipeline with single and multiple corrosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanfei; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Juan; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study failure of high strength pipelines with single corrosion. • We give regression equations for failure pressure prediction. • We propose assessment procedure for pipelines with multiple corrosions. - Abstract: Corrosion will compromise safety operation of oil and gas pipelines, accurate determination of failure pressure finds importance in residual strength assessment and corrosion allowance design of onshore and offshore pipelines. This paper investigates failure pressure of high strength pipeline with single and multiple corrosions using nonlinear finite element analysis. On the basis of developed regression equations for failure pressure prediction of high strength pipeline with single corrosion, the paper proposes an assessment procedure for predicting failure pressure of high strength pipeline with multiple corrosions. Furthermore, failure pressures predicted by proposed solutions are compared with experimental results and various assessment methods available in literature, where accuracy and versatility are demonstrated

  4. A Study on Optimal Sizing of Pipeline Transporting Equi-sized Particulate Solid-Liquid Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asim, Taimoor; Mishra, Rakesh; Pradhan, Suman; Ubbi, Kuldip

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines transporting solid-liquid mixtures are of practical interest to the oil and pipe industry throughout the world. Such pipelines are known as slurry pipelines where the solid medium of the flow is commonly known as slurry. The optimal designing of such pipelines is of commercial interests for their widespread acceptance. A methodology has been evolved for the optimal sizing of a pipeline transporting solid-liquid mixture. Least cost principle has been used in sizing such pipelines, which involves the determination of pipe diameter corresponding to the minimum cost for given solid throughput. The detailed analysis with regard to transportation of slurry having solids of uniformly graded particles size has been included. The proposed methodology can be used for designing a pipeline for transporting any solid material for different solid throughput.

  5. Pipeline network expansion crucial to economic development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Kiran Kumar; Tandon, Anil; Sati, Vipin Chandra [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Sadiq Nagar, New Delhi (India)

    2008-07-01

    Oil Sector plays a crucial role in the development of a country and provides the required balance and stability to the economy. Though traditionally coal has had the largest share in the energy basket in India, oil and gas as a source of energy have gradually gained importance and it is expected that oil and gas will continue to command a significant share in the years to come. Transportation of oil and gas by pipelines, which are recognized worldwide as the most reliable and cost effective mode for transportation is a developing business in India. With the increasing demand for oil and gas, a necessity has arisen for according priority attention to develop a well-spread out pipeline network throughout the country so as to facilitate efficient transportation to various consumption centres. The country has already opened its doors to private sector within the country as well as to multinationals. Thus, considerable scope exists not only for making investments but also for consultants, equipment and material manufacturers/suppliers and contractors for providing their services to the Indian pipeline industry. With growth of the economy, the opportunities for investment in the Indian pipeline industry are likely to improve further. (author)

  6. Oil Transport Networks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbal Guliyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the problems and prospects of crude oil and petroleum products transportation market on the European continent. Particular attention is paid to the possibilities of the planned pipeline routes and new supplies of oil and petroleum products. European Union countries have large reserves of hydrocarbons, but it is not enough to fully satisfy domestic consumption. Improved pipeline infrastructure both within the EU and oil pipelines from other countries is an important economic and social factor. Recent developments of this year especially emphasize the importance of strengthening the energy security in the foreign policy of the state. For transporting fuel energy in Europe used the following types of transport: marine (sea and river, truck, railway, and pipeline. It seems necessary to mention the fact that the role of pipeline transport is particularly high in the oil and gas industry. Pipeline transport has an important impact on the formation and developmen t of the fuel and energy complex of the state, as well as regions, as its integral part. An effective system of crude oil and petroleum products pipelines is an important tool for the implementation of public policies, policies at the EU level, allowing the country to regulate the supply of crude oil and petroleum products to the overseas and domestic markets.

  7. Abundance, distribution and population status of Marbled Murrelets in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Naslund, Nancy L.; Ralph, C. John; Hunt, George L.; Raphael, Martin G.; Piatt, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Ship-based surveys conducted throughout Alaska during the 1970's and 1980's, and more recent small boat surveys conducted in the northern Gulf of Alaska, suggest that about 280,000 murrelets reside in Alaska during summer. Most Marbled Murrelets are concentrated offshore of large tracts of coastal coniferous forests in southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, and the Kodiak Archipelago. About 1-3 percent of murrelets breed wholly outside of forested areas in Alaska, and these presumably all nest on the ground. At sea, murrelets tend to occupy sheltered waters of bays, fiords, and island straits, and often aggregate near large river outflows or tide rips. Small boat surveys of Prince William Sound and Christmas Bird Count trends suggest that Marbled Murrelet populations in Alaska declined by about 50 percent between 1972 and 1992. Population declines may have resulted from cumulative effects of oil pollution, gill netting, logging of old-growth breeding habitat, and natural changes in the marine environment. The Exxon Valdez oil spill killed an estimated 8,400 murrelets in 1989, or about 3 percent of the Alaska population. The toll from chronic pollution is unknown. About 3300 murrelets (89 percent adult) die annually in fishing nets in Alaska - a sustained adult mortality rate of 1.5 percent per annum. The extent or effect on murrelets of logging in Alaska are unknown. While only 7 percent of the old-growth has been harvested in the Tongass National Forest, about 40 percent of the highly productive old-growth in the forest has already been logged. A decline in forage fish populations in the Gulf of Alaska during the last 20 years may account for reduced breeding success and population size of several seabird species, including murrelets. Murrelet populations should be sensitive to small increases in adult mortality from the above factors because production by murrects is low and must therefore be balanced by a low annual adult mortality rate.

  8. 76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... pipeline rehabilitation, replacement and repair initiatives along with all forum-related comments. PHMSA... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY...

  9. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  10. Pipelines from the north : a U.S. perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, J.

    2003-01-01

    The United States will continue to look to Canada and Alaska for a significant part of its natural gas supply in an effort to meet its growing demand for energy. The United States depends on Canadian gas as a reliable and secure supply of energy, and is therefore examining natural gas markets and the wide range of supply opportunities. This presentation highlighted changes in cross border natural gas trade in North America and noted that 94 per cent of natural gas going to the United States from Canada is shipped via pipeline. On the liquefied natural gas (LNG) front, U.S. exports to Mexico now exceed imports, but import volumes from Trinidad and Nigeria are increasing as expected. Total import volumes in 2001 surpassed the previous year. A look at the infrastructure of LNG in the United States was also presented along with the advantages and limitations of each option. Cost comparisons were also presented. It was noted that any import or LNG project would result in unique economics. LNG projects are now cheaper because of better engineering, economies of scale and better pipeline economics. The U.S. National Energy Policy recommends that the pipeline to bring Alaskan gas to U.S. markets should be constructed as soon as possible. It was emphasized that any project to ship natural gas from Alaska to the lower 48 will need to work closely with Canada in order to be successful. 15 figs

  11. Thermohydraulics analysis for pipeline increase capacity; Estudo termohidraulico para ampliacao de capacidade de oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Krause, Philipe Barroso; Pires, Luis Fernando G. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos - SIMDUT; Souza, Antonio Geraldo de [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper intent to assist the development of a oil pipeline expansion study. It will show that each pipeline has its own solution, because it has several variables of technical, economical and environmental order, as well as several ones of political nature. (author)

  12. Online slug detection in multi-phase transportation pipelines using electrical tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Mai, Christian; Hansen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Slugging flow in offshore oil & gas multi-phase transportation pipelines cause big challenges as the flow regime induces flow and pressure oscillations in the multi-phase pipelines. The negative impacts of the most severe slugs are significant and thus the elimination of slugging flow in the pipe...

  13. Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, P.; Isaacs, J.; Richardson, J.; Braund, S.; Witten, E.

    1990-11-01

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

  14. Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  15. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes in operation. The research was conducted using two operating laboratory models imitated a part of the operating pipeline. The results of finite-element modeling, identification of pipe natural modes and its modification under the influence of virtual failure are discussed. The work considers the results of experimental research of dynamic behavior of the operating pipe models using one of OMA techniques and comparing dynamic properties with the modeled data. The study results demonstrate sensitivity of modal shape parameters to modification of operating pipeline technical state. Two strategies of pipeline repair – with continuously condition-based monitoring with proposed technology and without such monitoring, was discussed. Markov chain reliability models for each strategy were analyzed and reliability improvement factor for proposed technology of monitoring in compare with traditional one was evaluated. It is resumed about ability of operating pipeline condition monitoring by measuring dynamic deformations of the operating pipe and OMA techniques application for dynamic properties extraction.

  16. The North Slope of Alaska and Tourism: Potential Impacts on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, L. R.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrocarbon industry of Alaska is currently the leading producer of revenue for the Alaskan state economy. Second only to hydrocarbons is the tourism industry. Tourism has been a viable industry since the 1890's when cruises touted the beauty of glaciers and icebergs along the Alaskan coastline. This industry has seen a steady growth for the past few decades throughout the state. The North Slope of Alaska, particularly Prudhoe Bay and the National Petroleum Reserve, has long been associated with hydrocarbon development and today displays a landscape dotted with gravel drill pads, gas and oil pipelines and housing for the oil workers. While tourism is not usually considered hand in hand with the hydrocarbon industry, it has mimicked the development of hydrocarbons almost since the beginning. Today one not only sees the effects of the oil industry on the North Slope, but also the tourist industry as planes unload dozens of tourists, or tour buses and private vehicles arrive daily via the Dalton Highway. In Deadhorse, hotels that once only housed the oil workers now welcome the tourist, offering tours of the oil fields and adjacent areas and have become jumping off sites for wilderness trips. Tourism will create jobs as well as revenue. However, at present, there are few restrictions or guidelines in place that will deal with the potential impacts of increased tourism. Because of this there are many concerns about the possible impacts tourism and the infrastructure development will have on the North Slope. To list several concerns: (1) What are the impacts of increased tourism and the infrastructure development? (2) What will the impacts be on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), which sits a mere 60 miles to the east of Deadhorse? (3) Will hydrocarbon development in ANWR and the associated infrastructure exacerbate potential impact by encouraging greater use of the Refuge by tourists? (4) Will tourism itself have a negative impact on this fragile

  17. Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  18. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction

  19. Diagnosing in building main pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, L.G.; Gorelov, A.S.; Kurepin, B.N.; Orekhov, V.I.; Vasil' yev, G.G.; Yakovlev, Ye. I.

    1984-01-01

    General principles are examined for technical diagnosis in building main pipelines. A technique is presented for diagnosis during construction, as well as diagnosis of the technical state of the pipeline-construction machines and mechanisms. The survey materials could be used to set up construction of main pipelines.

  20. APV6 Pipeline Emulations

    CERN Document Server

    Millmore, Martin

    1997-01-01

    The data volume from the CMS inner tracker is large enough that data cannot be read out for every bunch crossing, so data are stored in the front end readout chips until a first level trigger signal is received, after which the interesting data are read out. This will reduce the data rate from 40 MHz to 100 kHz. For the silicon microstrips, the data are read out using the APV6 chip which holds the data in an analogue pipeline for up to 3.2 us. Up to 6 events may be stored in the pipeline at any one time, and data are read out asynchronously. In any system where data arrives with a random distribution in time, a finite sized memory can become full, causing data to be lost. Because of the complex nature of the APV6 pipeline logic, a true estimate of the proportion of data which will be lost can only be achieved by running a computer emulation of the pipeline logic, with a poisson distribu tion of trigger signals. The emulation has also been modified to study the effect of other possible logic designs.

  1. 78 FR 50335 - Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-AB96 Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... requirements for certain tankers operating on the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS). This interim... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act OPA 90 Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-380, 104...

  2. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  3. Failure analysis and fitness-for-service assessment for a pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Yaorong; Li Helin; Zhang Pingsheng [Tubular Goods Research Center of CNPC, Shaanxi (China); Du Baiping; Ma Baodian; Jin Zhihao [Jiao Tong University, Shaanxi (China)

    2001-07-01

    Failures during hydrotest have been analyzed for a new crude oil pipeline, indicating that the main cause of failures is severe lack of fusion defects formed by inadequate welding heat input in electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe welds. The fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment has been carried out for the pipeline by use of the fracture mechanics approach, which shows that the pipeline may leak before break under designed operating pressure, and the lack of fusion defects in the welds may propagate under the condition of fluctuating pressure. The prediction of remaining life for the pipeline is given in this paper. (author)

  4. Finite-Element Modeling of a Damaged Pipeline Repaired Using the Wrap of a Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapin, A. A.; Chebakov, M. I.; Dumitrescu, A.; Zecheru, G.

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear static problem of FEM modeling of a damaged pipeline repaired by a composite material and subjected to internal pressure is considered. The calculation is carried out using plasticity theory for the pipeline material and considering the polymeric filler and the composite wrap. The level of stresses in various zones of the structure is analyzed. The most widespread alloy used for oil pipelines is selected as pipe material. The contribution of each component of the pipeline-filler-wrap system to the level of stresses is investigated. The effect of the number of composite wrap layers is estimated. The results obtained allow one to decrease the costs needed for producing test specimens.

  5. Fault detection using artificial neural networks in pipelines for transport of oil and gas; Deteccao de falhas utilizando redes neurais artificiais em dutos para transporte de petroleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guia, Jose G.C. da; Araujo, Adevid L. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Irmao, Marcos A. da Silva [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Processos; Silva, Antonio A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2003-07-01

    The condition monitoring and diagnostic of structural faults in pipelines are an important problem for the petroleum's industry, being necessary to develop supervisory systems for detection, prediction and evaluation of a fault in the pipelines to avoid environmental and financial damages. In this work, three types of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are reviewed and used to detect and locate a fault in a simulated pipe. The simulated pipe was modeled through the Finite Elements Method. In Neural Networks' analysis, the first six natural frequencies of the pipe are used as networks' inputs. The used ANNs were the Multi-Layer Perceptron Network with backpropagation, the Probabilistic Neural Network and the Generalized Regression Neural Network. After the analysis, it was concluded that the ANN are a good computational tool in problems of faults detection on pipelines with a great precision. In the localization of the faults were obtained errors smaller than 5%. (author)

  6. PRODUT - a pipeline technological program to face the challenges in the oil and gas transportation in Brazil; PRODUT - um programa tecnologico de dutos para enfrentar os desafios do transporte de oleo e gas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Ney Goncalves [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    Following the international tendency of the pipeline companies, PETROBRAS has been investing relevant resources in new technologies, with the objective of increasing reliability and life span, and decreasing the cost and the risk of leakage. PETROBRAS created in 1998 the pipeline technological program, PRODUT, to be responsible for coordinating the development of the company R and D projects. This paper will present PRODUT and the good results obtained in order to increase reliability and competitiveness of transportation systems, essential for global performance of the petroleum industry. (author)

  7. CO2 slurry pipeline to transport solid marketable products to improve CCS economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhning, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Carbon dioxide pipelines are anticipated to be a key element in CCS (Carbon Capture and Sequestration) to transport the carbon dioxide to sequestration sites or to oil fields for use in enhanced oil recovery applications. However the economics of CCS are such that the operations are economically challenged. The concept of using super critical (liquid) carbon dioxide in a slurry pipeline is to use the pipeline constructed for environmental purposes to transport marketable products such as sulphur, petroleum coke, limestone and others to market thereby generating additional income to make CCS carbon dioxide transportation economically attractive.

  8. 75 FR 36677 - Notice of Relocation/Change of Address for the Bureau of Land Management, Office of Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLAK990000 L13100000.XG0000; LLAK990000 L51060000.XG0000.LVAPFL070000] Notice of Relocation/Change of Address for the Bureau of Land Management, Office of Pipeline Monitoring, Alaska State Office AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION...

  9. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  10. Crowded country: Gentry pipeline faces infrastructure web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2003-12-01

    In order to support the growing potential production of leases, some Alberta oil and natural gas companies are obliged to pile their infrastructure on top of each other. To illustrate the overcrowding and the problems encountered by some of the companies, a case history describing the trials and tribulations of Gentry Resources, a Calgary-based junior company, is provided. The case history recalls that during the construction of a 11.2 km four-inch pipeline in the Princess/Tide Lake region to tie in their Princess Nisku gas well, the company had to cross 60 different existing pipelines and roads, including an abandoned rail bed. The greatest challenge in building the pipeline was getting the approval of each of many companies active in the region, not to mention the regulatory approvals which also included both environmental and historical assessments. Because of the combination of water and high carbon dioxide content of the gas, Gentry also had to install a dehydration plant to take water out of the gas train to avoid corrosion. Current production is about 2,000 boe/d; future growth in production is likely to be constrained because growth in gas production will strain the existing infrastructure, and space for adding more infrastructure is not available.

  11. Hollow-core fiber sensing technique for pipeline leak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, W. A.; Kasten, Matthias A.; Karp, Jason; Choudhury, Niloy

    2018-02-01

    Recently there has been increased interest on the part of federal and state regulators to detect and quantify emissions of methane, an important greenhouse gas, from various parts of the oil and gas infrastructure including well pads and pipelines. Pressure and/or flow anomalies are typically used to detect leaks along natural gas pipelines, but are generally very insensitive and subject to false alarms. We have developed a system to detect and localize methane leaks along gas pipelines that is an order of magnitude more sensitive by combining tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLAS) with conventional sensor tube technology. This technique can potentially localize leaks along pipelines up to 100 km lengths with an accuracy of +/-50 m or less. A sensor tube buried along the pipeline with a gas-permeable membrane collects leaking gas during a soak period. The leak plume within the tube is then carried to the nearest sensor node along the tube in a purge cycle. The time-to-detection is used to determine leak location. Multiple sensor nodes are situated along the pipeline to minimize the time to detection, and each node is composed of a short segment of hollow core fiber (HCF) into which leaking gas is transported quickly through a small pressure differential. The HCF sensing node is spliced to standard telecom solid core fiber which transports the laser light for spectroscopy to a remote interrogator. The interrogator is multiplexed across the sensor nodes to minimize equipment cost and complexity.

  12. Politics, proximity and the pipeline: Mapping public attitudes toward Keystone XL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravelle, Timothy B.; Lachapelle, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The politics of oil pipelines have become increasingly salient in American politics in recent years. In particular, debates about economic benefits, energy security and environmental impact have been provoked by the proposed Keystone XL pipeline expansion intended to take bitumen from northern Alberta in Canada to refineries on the Gulf Coast in Texas. Drawing on data from recent surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center, this article asks a series of questions. What levels of support for (and opposition to) the pipeline exist among the American public? What are the roles of political factors (such as party identification and ideology), economic attitudes, environmental attitudes and proximity to the proposed pipeline route in shaping attitudes toward the pipeline? And how do political factors and proximity to the pipeline interact? We find that partisanship and ideology drive attitudes toward the Keystone XL pipeline, and that the effect of ideology is attenuated by proximity to the proposed route. The policy implications of these findings for energy infrastructure siting controversies are discussed. -- Highlights: •Americans are divided on the Keystone XL energy pipeline. •Attitudes toward Keystone XL are driven by political party identification and ideology. •Attitudes toward the pipeline are also shaped by attitudes toward the economy and global warming. •The effect of proximity on attitudes toward Keystone XL is non-linear. •Spatial proximity to the pipeline attenuates the effect of ideology

  13. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  14. Tourism in rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrina Church-Chmielowski

    2007-01-01

    Tourism in rural Alaska is an education curriculum with worldwide relevance. Students have started small businesses, obtained employment in the tourism industry and gotten in touch with their people. The Developing Alaska Rural Tourism collaborative project has resulted in student scholarships, workshops on website development, marketing, small...

  15. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J. (comps.)

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  16. Extending oil and gas operations in the Yukon and the NWT : proceedings of an Insight conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The focus of this conference was on the economic, environmental and social advantages that can be gained by extending oil and gas operations further into Canada's north which has some of the largest remaining reserves in North America. The current situation with supply and demand of natural gas make investment opportunities to transport Canadian gas from the north to southern markets very attractive. Recent developments in the Northwest Territories make the Mackenzie Valley an ideal place for a gas pipeline. Yukon's geology also holds great potential with its proximity to significant discoveries in northeast British Columbia, the Northwest Territories and Alaska. Many of the papers discussed issues regarding the settlement of aboriginal land claims throughout Canada's North and how indigenous people are now active participants in economic development. A total of 19 papers were presented at this conference, all of which have been processed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Planned and proposed pipeline regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Research and Special Programs Administration administers the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (NGPSA) and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 (HLPSA). The RSPA issues and enforces design, construction, operation and maintenance regulations for natural gas pipelines and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper discusses a number of proposed and pending safety regulations and legislative initiatives currently being considered by the RSPA and the US Congress. Some new regulations have been enacted. The next few years will see a great deal of regulatory activity regarding natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines, much of it resulting from legislative requirements. The office of Pipeline Safety is currently conducting a study to streamline its operations. This study is analyzing the office's business, social and technical operations with the goal of improving overall efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and job satisfaction to meet the challenges of the future

  18. Pipeline integrity : control by coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.

  19. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.210 Pipeline location. (a) Pipeline right-of-way must be selected to avoid, as...

  20. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  1. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  2. A closed solution for the collapse load of pressurized pipelines in free spans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Luciano M. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Murray, David W.; Xuejun Song [University of Alberta (Canada). Civil Engineering Dept.

    2005-07-01

    Submarine pipelines for oil exploitation, generally, are under internal pressure and compressive thermal loading. Due to rough see-bottom terrains, these pipelines may be supported only intermittently and span freely. The collapse of such pipelines may produce oil leakage to the environment. A common engineering practice for the determination of the collapse load of such pipelines is the use of finite element modeling. This paper presents an analytical method for the determination of the collapse load of pressurized pipelines extended over free spans. The formulation also takes into account the internal pressure and initial imperfection, generally present in these pipelines. Collapse load is determined from a deduced transcendental equation. Results of the presented formulation are compared with sophisticated finite element analyses. While sophisticated finite element analysis requires hours of computer processing, the present formulation takes practically no time to assess a good approximation for the collapse load of pressurized free span pipelines under compression. The present paper is not intended to substitute the more precise finite element analyses but to provide an easier, faster, and practical way to determine a first approximation of the collapse load of pressurized free span pipelines. (author)

  3. Analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines; Analise de integridade e risco para dutos onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marco Aurelio [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The increasing expansion of the oil and gas industry in Brazil, the current legal requirements relating to security, health and environment in the industrial installations, is necessary that the companies, responsible by the operation of pipelines for oil and gas transport, adopt efficient techniques to assure the operational continuity of these of trustworthy form and insurance. To fulfill this important function it is important that the companies implement a management program to control and register the integrity of the pipelines during the all operational life cycle. Inside of this context of management of the integrity of pipelines, the DNV developed the software ORBIT Pipeline with the intention to serve as an important tool to monitor the technique and security condition of the pipeline, to define the frequency and content technician of the inspection program and to recommend the work of intervention or repair in pipeline when necessary. Additionally to these activities that are carried through directly in the ORBIT Pipeline, also an evaluation of the activity of third part and the land/soil movement is made inside of the systematic for analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines performed by DNV. (author)

  4. Out on the tar sands mainline : mapping Enbridge's web of pipelines : a corporate profile of pipeline company Enbridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, R.; Davis, T.R. [Polaris Institute, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This document described Enbridge's operations, economic situation, political connections, and its social and environmental track record. It explored the social cost of operating refineries and pipelines in First Nations communities and the environment. It also raised concerns regarding future plans to open up Asian markets to oil sand crude via the Gateway pipeline. This profile included specific details on recurring pipeline leaks that have caused environmental damage; the ongoing expropriation of First Nations land; widespread political lobbying and influence in Canada and the United States; and interference in local community decision-making through financial contributions and projects. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Environmental hazards for pipelines in coastal regions/shore approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinsi, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Often oil/gas and other hydrocarbons discovered and produced offshore are transported to onshore facilities via submarine pipelines. The route of such pipelines traverses through coastal/shore approach regions. For a rational/economic design, safe installation and subsequent operation it is of utmost importance to review, evaluate and finalize various environmental hazard such as winds, waves, currents, seabed topography, seabed and sub-bottom soils, seabed erosion and soil accretion. This paper addresses the above described environmental hazards, their assessment and techniques to prepare design parameters which must be used for stability analysis, installation methods, long term operation and maintenance for the shore approaches. Additionally, various proven pipeline installation and stabilization techniques for the shore approach region are detailed. As case histories, three approaches installed in the Dutch North Sea are described

  6. Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Riley [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Farnsworth, David [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.

  7. Effect of the welding process on the microstructure and microhardness of API 5L X80 steel welded joint used for oil transportation pipeline; Efeito do processo de soldagem sobre a microestrutura e a microdureza de juntas soldadas de aco API 5L X80 usado em tubulacoes para transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, R.T.P.; Albuquerque, S.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Maciel, T.M.; Almeida, D.M.; Santos, M.A.

    2008-07-01

    This study had as objective to evaluate the microstructure and microhardness of API 5L X80 steel welded joints, used for pipelines to transport oil and gas, using the Shield Metal Arc Welding process with pre- heating temperature of 200 deg C and 400 deg C and the AWS E8010G electrode as filler metal. For this, besides the microhardness of the welded joint, the weld metals percentiles of micro-constituents and of columnar and regenerated grains and the medium size and extension of the heat affected zone were evaluated. The percentage of acicular ferrite in weld metal ranged from 13% to 33% which generated values of microhardness from 114 HV to 309 HV. (author)

  8. Logistics aspects of pipeline transport in the supply of petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial transportation of crude oil and petroleum products by pipeline is receiving increased attention in South Africa. Transnet Pipeline Transport has recently obtained permission from the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (Nersa to construct and operate a new petroleum products pipeline of 60 cm diameter from Durban to Gauteng. At an operating speed of 10 km/h the proposed 60 cm Transnet pipeline would be able to deliver 3,54 million litres of petroleum product per hour. This is equivalent to 89 deliveries per hour using road tank vehicles with an average carrying capacity of 40 000 litres of fuel per vehicle. This pipeline throughput is also equivalent to two trains departing per hour, each consisting of 42 petroleum tank wagons with an average carrying capacity of 42 500 litres of fuel per wagon. Considering that such road trucks and rail wagons return empty to the upstream refineries in Durban, it is clear that there is no tenable long-term alternative to pipeline transport:pipeline transport is substantially cheaper than road and rail transport;pipeline transport is much safer than rail and especially road transport; andpipeline transport frees up alternative road and rail transport capacity.Pipeline transport is a non-containerised bulk mode of transport for the carriage of suitable liquids (for example, petroleum commodities, which include crude oil, refined fuel products and liquid petro-chemicals, gas, slurrified coal and certain water-suspended ores and minerals. InSouth Africa, petroleum products account for the majority of commercial pipeline traffic, followed by crude oil and natural gas. There are three basic types of petroleum pipeline transport systems:Gathering pipeline systemsCrude oil trunk pipeline systemsRefined products pipeline systems Collectively, these systems provide a continuous link between extraction, processing, distribution, and wholesalers’ depots in areas of consumption. The following

  9. How vulnerable is Indian coast to oil spills? Impact of MV Ocean Seraya oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; George, A.; Ingole, B.S.

    , Low tide. armoured beaches bordering the Gulf of Alaska. These sites are 300–700 km away from the spill and the oil was chemically similar to the 11-day oil of Exxon Valdez 10 . Thus, the degree of oil pollution in the marine environ- ment may...

  10. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for aquaculture facilities, boat ramps, set nets (for commercial fishing), oil facilities, pipelines, platforms, State...

  11. Learning the image processing pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haomiao; Tian, Qiyuan; Farrell, Joyce; Wandell, Brian

    2017-06-08

    Many creative ideas are being proposed for image sensor designs, and these may be useful in applications ranging from consumer photography to computer vision. To understand and evaluate each new design, we must create a corresponding image processing pipeline that transforms the sensor data into a form that is appropriate for the application. The need to design and optimize these pipelines is time-consuming and costly. We explain a method that combines machine learning and image systems simulation that automates the pipeline design. The approach is based on a new way of thinking of the image processing pipeline as a large collection of local linear filters. We illustrate how the method has been used to design pipelines for novel sensor architectures in consumer photography applications.

  12. Automatic Data Collection Design for Real-Time Detection of Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such disasters can occur at any point within the entire oil-pipeline topology, which is geographically dispersed across the country spanning from the extreme south-south through south-east and south-west to the north central. A major cause of oil spillage disaster is oil-pipeline vandalism, which has recently become one of ...

  13. Phytomass in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    1998-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for the southeast Alaska archipelago. Average phytomass for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 10 forest and 4 nonforest vegetation types is shown.

  14. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  15. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  16. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries......This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information...... and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  18. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  19. Modelling the pressurization induced by solar radiation on above ground installations of LPG pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporini, M.; Terenzi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Giacchetta, G.; Polonara, F.; Corvaro, F.; Cocci Grifoni, R.

    2017-11-01

    Pipelining Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a mode of LPG transportation more environmentally-friendly than others due to the lower energy consumption and exhaust emissions. Worldwide, there are over 20000 kilometers of LPG pipelines. There are a number of codes that industry follows for the design, fabrication, construction and operation of liquid LPG pipelines. However, no standards exist to modelling particular critical phenomena which can occur on these lines due to external environmental conditions like the solar radiation pressurization. In fact, the solar radiation can expose above ground pipeline sections at pressure values above the maximum Design Pressure with resulting risks and problems. The present work presents an innovative practice suitable for the Oil & Gas industry to modelling the pressurization induced by the solar radiation on above ground LPG pipeline sections with the application to a real case.

  20. Assessment of pipeline stability in the Gulf of Mexico during hurricanes using dynamic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Tian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines are the critical link between major offshore oil and gas developments and the mainland. Any inadequate on-bottom stability design could result in disruption and failure, having a devastating impact on the economy and environment. Predicting the stability behavior of offshore pipelines in hurricanes is therefore vital to the assessment of both new design and existing assets. The Gulf of Mexico has a very dense network of pipeline systems constructed on the seabed. During the last two decades, the Gulf of Mexico has experienced a series of strong hurricanes, which have destroyed, disrupted and destabilized many pipelines. This paper first reviews some of these engineering cases. Following that, three case studies are retrospectively simulated using an in-house developed program. The study utilizes the offshore pipeline and hurricane details to conduct a Dynamic Lateral Stability analysis, with the results providing evidence as to the accuracy of the modeling techniques developed.

  1. Chevron Texaco wants Kazakh oil to flow through Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    Chevron Texaco is offering Slovakia an option for the diversification of its oil stocks. It plans to use the Druzba pipeline to transport about 3 million tons of Kazakhstan oil. Most of it should be delivered to the refinery in Czech Kralupy. Pipeline administrator, the company Transpetrol, rejects the proposal and argues that adjusting the pipeline designed for heavy Russian oil to allow the transmission of light oil would cost over SKK 2 billion (Eur 50.04 million). Transpetrol is managed by Russian concern Yukos. Russian oil companies view Caspian oil as competition and the reaction of Transpetrol only follows in line with this attitude. It may sound paradoxical, but letting Caspian oil flow through the Transpetrol pipelines would help Russian concerns expand to Western European markets. The refinery in Kralupy is connected to the IKL pipeline, which connects the Czech Republic to the German network close to the German refinery in Ingolstadt. The one-way pipeline that the Czech used to decrease their dependency on Russian oil and the Druzba pipeline in the nineties would remain unused and discussions about an investment in a change of flow direction to allow the transport of oil to Germany would take on an entirely new dimension. The interest of Chevron may therefore indicate major changes in the European oil distribution network. If the flow direction of the IKL pipeline were to change, it would not only be possible to transport Caspian oil, but also Russian oil. What's more, both US and Western European companies have their sights set on Czech and German refineries that get their oil form the Caspian region and they are also interested in capital entry to Russian oil concerns. This scenario is likely to come true in the case of Yukos

  2. Biological, chemical, optical, and physical observations collected aboard the Alaska marine highway system ferry TUSTUMENA in the Gulf of Alaska from September 15, 2004 through November 6, 2008 (NODC Accession 0070122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An oceanographic measurement system aboard the Alaskan ferry Tustumena operated for four years in the Alaska Coastal Current with funding from the Exxon Valdez Oil...

  3. Experimental Study on the Cause of Inorganic Scale Formation in the Water Injection Pipeline of Tarim Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihong Pei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation of water injection pipeline will cause the pipeline to be corroded and increase frictional drag, which will induce the quality and quantity cannot meet the need of oil production process. The cause of scale formation in different oilfield is different because of the complex formation conditions. Taking one operation area of Tazhong oilfield as research object, the authors studied the water quality in different point along water injection pipeline through experiment studies, and analyzed the cause of inorganic scale formation and influence factors. The research results can provide theoretical guidance to anticorrosion and antiscale of oilfield pipeline.

  4. Key pipeline drips dry

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Venemaa kütusefirma Transneft lõpetas naftaekspordi läbi Ventspilsi sadama, kuna Läti kütusefirma Vetspils Oil polnud nõus neile oma aktsiaid müüma. EL sekkub Venemaa ja Läti kütusefirmade vahelisse vaidlusse

  5. Prediction of response and damaged length of a subsea pipeline after a full bore rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Mashayekh, Kourosh

    2012-01-01

    Master thesis in Offshore technology The combination of oil and gas reservoirs in sea areas with high shipping traffic brings some challenges for engineers. One of these challenges is related to subsea pipeline systems specially where water depth is classified as shallow or intermediate. Due to large number of vessels passing the area with shallow water depth, interaction between anchors of these vessels and the offshore pipeline can occur. If a dragging anchor hits and subsequently hooks ...

  6. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for additional information. Privacy Act Statement: Anyone may search the electronic... patterns of similar findings. Poor construction quality has led to short and long term pipeline integrity...

  7. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  8. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  9. Subsea pipeline operational risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.L.; Lanan, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    Resources used for inspection, maintenance, and repair of a subsea pipeline must be allocated efficiently in order to operate it in the most cost effective manner. Operational risk management aids in resource allocation through the use of risk assessments and cost/benefit analyses. It identifies those areas where attention must be focused in order to reduce risk. When they are identified, a company`s resources (i.e., personnel, equipment, money, and time) can then be used for inspection, maintenance, and/or repair of the pipeline. The results are cost effective risk reduction and pipeline operation with minimum expenditure.

  10. Tectonic framework of petroliferous rocks in Alaska: hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Kirschner, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Alaska, which contains about 28% of the land and continental shelf of the United States, is estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey to contain about one third of the nation's undiscovered oil and about one sixth of its undiscovered natural gas. The Survey estimates that fields discovered in Alaska through 1972 ultimately may produce about 26 billion bbl of oil and 68 Tcf of natural gas. In northern Alaska, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf and slope carbonate and clastic rocks of the Brooks Range orogen were thrust relatively northward over the depressed south margin of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Arctic platform. A foredeep, the Colville geosyncline, developed across the depressed margin of the platform in earliest Cretaceous time. Detritus from the Brooks Range filled the foredeep and prograded northward to fill the Cretaceous and Tertiary North Chukchi and Umiat-Camden basins and form the progradational Beaufort shelf. The largest petroleum reserves (Prudhoe Bay and associated fields) and the best prospects for additional large discoveries in Alaska lie in the areally extensive upper Paleozoic to Tertiary carbonate and clastic rocks of northern Alaska. In southern Alaska, a series of arc-trench systems developed on oceanic rocks during Jurassic and Cretaceous time. Between these arcs and the metamorphic (continental) terranes of east-central and northern Alaska, large back-arc and arc-trench gap basins received thick volcanic and detrital deposits. These deposits were extensively, and commonly intensely, deformed and disrupted by mid-Jurassic to Tertiary plutonism, Laramide oroclinal bending, wrench faulting, and arc-related compression. This deformation, coupled with low porosity (in part produced by diagenetic mobilization of labile constituents), has left these rocks with only modest, local prospects for petroleum. Laramide events compressed and consolidated ("continentalized") the late Mesozoic back-arc basin deposits and welded them to the older continental

  11. Rehabilitation of underwater pipeline with liner; Reabilitacao de aqueduto submarino com liner: multiplas vantagens e aplicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Jose N. de; Urtiga, Rogerio L.; Witt, R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The system of water injection in XAREU oil production field has an water pipeline sizing 4'' of diameter, between the offshore platform PXA-1 and another PXA-2, that it transfers 165 m{sup 3}/d of salt water for pressurization of the reservoir through the injection well Xareu-23. This water pipeline always presented high degree of corrosion needing frequently installation of cramps to eliminate leakages. After evaluating the costs we conclude that the more attractive it would be the installation of a liner than the launching of a new water pipeline. For the installation of a new water pipeline we would need the approval of IBAMA and of a great number of resources for the substitution of that pipeline. In spite of treating of an unpublished service between two offshore platforms we chose for the installation of a liner, because we had a great technological domain in this service in onshore oil production facilities with many pipelines recovered with this technique. We had to revise all of the procedures so that there was not any surprise to make unfeasible this service. The installation of the system liner, consisted of an internal coating 'in situ' through the insert of plastic tubes(high density polyethylene-HDPE), that it forms a barrier between the pipeline and the transported fluid. (author)

  12. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.422 Pipeline repairs. (a) Each operator shall, in repairing its pipeline systems, insure that the repairs are made in a safe manner and are made so as to prevent damage to...

  13. Fishing intensity around the BBL pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Wageningen Marine Research was requested by ACRB B.V. to investigate the fishing activities around the BBL pipeline. This gas pipeline crosses the southern North Sea from Balgzand (near Den Helder) in the Netherlands to Bacton in the UK (230km). This pipeline is abbreviated as the BBL pipeline. Part

  14. Prehistoric Alaska: The land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Weber, Florence R.; Rennick, Penny

    1994-01-01

    Many Alaskans know the dynamic nature of Alaska’s landscape firsthand. The 1964 earthquake, the 1989 eruption of Mount Redoubt volcano, the frequent earthquakes in the Aleutians and the ever-shifting meanders of the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers remind them of constant changes to the land. These changes are part of the continuing story of the geologic growth and development of Alaska during hundreds of millions of years. By geologic time, Alaska has only recently come into existence and the dynamic processes that formed it continue to affect it. The landscape we see today has been shaped by glacier and stream erosion or their indirect effects, and to a lesser extent by volcanoes. Most prominently, if less obviously, Alaska has been built by slow movements of the Earth’s crust we call tectonic or mountain-building.During 5 billion years of geologic time, the Earth’s crust has repeatedly broken apart into plates. These plates have recombined, and have shifted positions relative to each other, to the Earth’s rotational axis and to the equator. Large parts of the Earth’s crust, including Alaska, have been built and destroyed by tectonic forces. Alaska is a collage of transported and locally formed fragments of crusts As erosion and deposition reshape the land surface, climatic changes, brought on partly by changing ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns, alter the location and extent of tropical, temperate and arctic environments. We need to understand the results of these processes as they acted upon Alaska to understand the formation of Alaska. Rocks can provide hints of previous environments because they contain traces of ocean floor and lost lands, bits and pieces of ancient history.

  15. Pipelines : how do proposed increases in crude production impact the Canadian pipeline picture?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, B.

    2005-01-01

    New markets and pipeline capacity are needed to support Western Canadian oil sands production. A corporate overview of Terasen, a Canadian company with an asset base of over $4 billion was provided in this presentation, as well as details of oil sands supply and infrastructure. A chart of Western Canadian crude supply was presented, along with a map of key current and future markets. It was noted that traditional gas production is expected to decline by 4 per cent per year. Heavy crudes are expected to decline by 3 per cent per year, with imports expected to increase by 460,000 bpd by 2015. However, the Canadian market will face competition from South America. Details of the Far East market were reviewed. Strong West Coast demand has resulted in capacity apportionment for most of 2003 and 2004. Various express opportunities were examined. Corridor expansion was discussed in relation to the Bison project and the Heartland terminal in Edmonton. Choices for marine exports and TMX expansion were also reviewed. TMX representative tolls were listed. Specific project challenges include building and operating pipelines through rugged, environmentally sensitive terrain; stakeholder relations; and a need for shipper commitments. It was noted that there is strong support to continue development, with commercial discussions proceeding. An open season is planned for 2005, with new capacity expected to be in service by late 2006. Terasen's project plans include building strong customer relations; stakeholder engagement; and efficient construction strategies. tabs., figs

  16. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  17. Pipeline integrity handbook risk management and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Based on over 40 years of experience in the field, Ramesh Singh goes beyond corrosion control, providing techniques for addressing present and future integrity issues. Pipeline Integrity Handbook provides pipeline engineers with the tools to evaluate and inspect pipelines, safeguard the life cycle of their pipeline asset and ensure that they are optimizing delivery and capability. Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Integrity Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day use in identifying key pipeline degradation mechanisms and threats to pipeline integrity. The book begins

  18. Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeheim, C.

    1991-08-01

    Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

  19. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  20. Oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies.

  1. Modelling asphaltene deposition in turbulent pipeline flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskin, D.; Ratulowski, J.; Akbarzadeh, K.; Pan, S. [Schlumberg DBR Technology Center (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Asphaltene deposition is one of the important problems of oil production that requires accurate predictive modeling. A model of asphaltene deposition in a turbulent pipe flow is introduced in this paper. A Couette device is employed to perform experiments. There are two major modules in this model. (1) A model of particle size distribution evolution along a pipe - the concept of 'critical particle size' is introduced. Only particles smaller than the critical particle size may deposit. (2) A model of particle transport to the wall. The major mechanism of particle transport to the wall is the Brownian motion. The model developed contains three major tuning parameters that are determined experimentally using a Couette device: particle-particle collision efficiency, particle-wall sticking efficiency, and particle critical size. Performance of the deposition model for a pipeline with the coefficients obtained using a laboratory Couette device is also illustrated in this paper.

  2. Pipeline for Contraceptive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blithe, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    The high rates of unplanned pregnancy reflect unmet need for effective contraceptive methods for women, especially for individuals with health risks such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions that may contraindicate use of an estrogen-containing product. Improvements in safety, user convenience, acceptability and availability of products remain important goals of the contraceptive development program. Another important goal is to minimize the impact of the products on the environment. Development of new methods for male contraception has the potential to address many of these issues with regard to safety for women who have contraindications to effective contraceptive methods but want to protect against pregnancy. It also will address a huge unmet need for men who want to control their fertility. Products under development for men would not introduce eco-toxic hormones in the waste water. Investment in contraceptive research to identify new products for women has been limited in the pharmaceutical industry relative to investment in drug development for other indications. Pharmaceutical R&D for male contraception was active in the 1990’s but was abandoned over a decade ago. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has supported a contraceptive development program since 1969. Through a variety of programs including research grants and contracts, NICHD has developed a pipeline of new targets/products for male and female contraception. A number of lead candidates are under evaluation in the NICHD Contraceptive Clinical Trials Network (CCTN) (1–3). PMID:27523300

  3. Energy Northwest: Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    The four-state area, one of 10 Federal regions established to streamline Federal operations and encourage Federal-state-local cooperation, includes Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. The sources of energy and some energy technology are first reviewed briefly. The physical characteristics and regional developments are identified. Energy reserves, production, imports, facilities, and consumption are examined for the Northwest. The following energy issues are examined: conservation, electric rates, Clean Air Act of 1970, continental shelf development, transmission corridors, centralized electric generation, electric generation mix, electric power planning, environment and safety regulations, water use, electric energy forecasts, and oil tankers. (MCW)

  4. Corporate social responsibility along pipelines: communities and corporations working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Edison D.R.; Lopes, Luciano E.; Danciguer, Lucilene; Macarini, Samuel; Souza, Maira de [Grupo de Aplicacao Interdisciplinar a Aprendizagem (GAIA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present GAIA's findings in three corporate social responsibility projects along pipelines owned by three Brazilian companies in gas, oil and mining sectors. The projects had as the main goal to improve the relationship with communities in the companies' direct influence areas. Clearly, the relationship with communities along pipelines is essential to prevent and reduce industrial hazards. The damage in pipelines due to agriculture, buildings, intentional perforations and traffic of heavy vehicles may cause fatal accidents, environmental and material losses. Such accidents have negative consequences with regard to economy, image and relationship with communities and environmental agencies. From communities' perspective, pipelines deteriorate their life quality due to risk of industrial hazards nearby their houses. The lack of proper information about the pipelines remarkably increases insecurity feelings and discourses against the companies among community leaders. The methodology developed by GAIA comprises companies' and communities' interests and encompasses nine stages. 1. Socio-environmental appraisal or inventory, mapping main risks, communities' needs and their leaders. 2. Communication plan, defining strategies, languages and communication vehicles for each stakeholder group. 3. Inter-institutional meetings to include other institutions in the program. 4. Launching seminar in partnership with local authorities, divulging companies' actions in the cities with pipelines. 5. Multiplier agents formation, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to disseminate correct information about the pipelines such as their functioning, hazard prevention, maintenance actions, and restrictions of activities over the pipelines. 6. Formation on project management, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to elaborate, fund raise and manage socio environmental projects aimed at

  5. Impacts on the physical environment caused by works of the OSBAT 24'' Oil Pipeline; Impactos no meio fisico decorrentes das obras de manutencao do Oleoduto OSBAT 24''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Oliveira, Flavio Martiniano de; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Perim, Leandro Amadeu; Endo, Andressa [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this article it presents considerations about the essentials transformations and environmental impacts in the physical environment, result of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, located in a stretch from the Sao Sebastiao city (center) and Camburi's district, in Sao Paulo State. The essentials processes, conditions, discernments tools used to classify for its, the actions technology had changed theses processes, the environmental impacts significant, the measures has accepting to control of these processes and environmental impacts. The general sense of article is to reveal about the experience obtained, seeking to broadcast the justifications, features concepts and methods that are responsible for the success reached, as well as, to point out obstacles found and recommendations to guest a quality environmental. (author)

  6. Emissions of polluting substances in the atmosphere at construction of the pipeline Bolshoy Chagan - Atyrau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilazhov, E.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The main pipelines of Kazakhstan represent the most complicated mechanized and the automated hydraulic system which has been very branched out and long. It is equipped by powerful pump stations, lines and constructions of technological communication, telemechanics and automatics, fire-prevention devices, on occasion - furnaces of heating. Construction Oil and gas pipeline Bolschoy Chagan - Atyrau is intended for transportation of a mix of oil, acting on NPS Bolschoy Chagan with Karachaganak Oil and gas deposits (KNGKM), up to Atyrau for pumping in pipeline system of the Caspian pipeline consortium. The maximal volume of a transported product from Bolschoy Chagan up to pipeline KTK will make 10 million tons a year at full projected volume from KNGKM up to Atyrau - 11 million tons/years. The line Oil and gas pipeline Bolschoy Chagan - Atyrau is covered by a network of highways - soil, rural, with a covering and with the improved covering. The largest settlements located in a strip of passage of a line the following: Bolschoy Chagan, Kushum, Budarino, Chapaev, Mergenevo, Lbishchenskoe, Tajpak, Eltaj, Kulagino, Orlik, Green, Mahambet, Sarajshyk. The line Oil and gas pipeline represents a broken line in length of 455,25 km, stretched with the north on the south. The Earth, allocated under construction Oil and gas pipeline now are used for an agricultural production, mainly pasturable cattle breeding, and also in a small degree for cultivation grain, vegetable and agro cultures. According to influence of the equipment used at construction and operation Oil and gas pipeline on atmospheric air, inventory of sources of emissions is lead to an atmosphere in view of duration of work during which sources of emissions have been revealed all, total and as much as possible single emissions from stationary sources are calculated. It has been revealed, that here take place, both stationary sources of emissions, and mobile to which all motor transport concerns, and also

  7. Saint John lateral pipeline project: comprehensive study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    A descripion is given of the results of an environmental impact assessment of the construction of a natural gas pipeline that will bring gas from Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline Management Ltd.'s (M and NP) main transmission pipeline to clients in Lake Utopia and Saint John, NB. It will be 110 km long, and the Saint John lateral will join the mainline approximately 2 km south of Big Kedron Lake, NB. Various institutional, industrial, commercial and residential clients will be able to access the pipeline in the future, and it is intended to be capable of future expansion for markets along its route and for markets that become economically feasible in the future. A matrix was developed that relates environmental resources to Environmental Components of Concern (ECCs), and to the rationale for exclusion/inclusion of the ECC as a Valued Environmental Component (VECs). The positive benefits of the pipeline to clients in the Saint John area include: reduced dependence on foreign oil, fuel switching and price competition, lower air emission pollution, increased energy efficiency, and a source of energy that is secure and reliable. VECs were selected based on: concerns of various stakeholders including the public, community groups, scientific parties, Aboriginal groups, government officials and agencies, relevant regulations; relevant literature; and past evaluation experiences, including future developments of the proposed study area. Further selection of the VECs required an examination of the issues picked out via scoping to determine the ways in which the overall project could affect the ECCs, and included construction, operation, decommissioning/abandonment, malfunctions and accidents of the pipeline. The phases of the project as they impacted residually and cumulatively on the VECs were evaluated, and impacts on Valued Socio-Economic Components (VSCs) were assessed also. The mitigation efforts taken will minimize the potential effects of the project on VECs and VSCs

  8. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  9. The Chad-Cameroon petroleum project: loaded dices on the pipeline; Projet petrolier Tchad-Cameroun: des pipes sur le pipe-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The project of a oil pipeline starting from Chad and passing threw Cameroon has raised several controversies. History has shown several times in the past that oil discovery in Africa is very often synonymous of the increase of corruption and dictatorship. Talking into account the political situation of both countries, this book explains how this project can be a source of anxiety, in particular concerning the populations' rights and the environment protection. (J.S.)

  10. Acoustic effects of oil-production activities on bowhead and white whales visible during spring migration near Pt. Barrow, Alaska-1990 phase: sound propagation and whale responses to playbacks of continuous drilling noise from an ice platform, as studied in pack ice conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, W.J.; Greene, C.R.; Koski, W.R.; Smultea, M.A.; Cameron, G.

    1991-10-01

    The report concerns the effects of underwater noise from simulated oil production operations on the movements and behavior of bowhead and white whales migrating around northern Alaska in spring. An underwater sound projector suspended from pack ice was used to introduce recorded drilling noise and other test sounds into leads through the pack ice. These sounds were received and measured at various distances to determine the rate of sound attenuation with distance and frequency. The movements and behavior of bowhead and white whales approaching the operating projector were studied by aircraft- and ice-based observers. Some individuals of both species were observed to approach well within the ensonified area. However, behavioral changes and avoidance reactions were evident when the received sound level became sufficiently high. Reactions to aircraft are also discussed

  11. 78 FR 66066 - Proposed Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request: Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...: MMAA104000] Proposed Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request: Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and... requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR 556, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the OCS; 30 CFR 550, Subpart J, Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way; and 30 CFR 560, OCS Oil and Gas Leasing. DATES: Submit...

  12. The application of the finite element method for the low-cycle fatigue calculation of the elementsof the pipelines’ fixed support construction for the areas of above-ground routing of the oil pipeline «Zapolyarye — NPS „Pur-Pe“»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the order of performing low-cycle fatigue strength calculation of the elements of the full-scale specimen construction of the fixed support DN 1000 of the above-ground oil pipeline “Zapolyarye — Purpe” during rig-testing. The calculation is performed with the aim of optimizing the quantity of testing and, accordingly, cost cutting for expensive experiments. The order of performing the calculation consists of two stages. At the first stage the calculation is performed by the finite element method of the full-scale specimen construction’s stressed-deformed state in the calculation complex ANSYS. Thearticle describes the main creation stages of the finite element calculation model for the full-scale specimen in ANSYS. The calculation model is developed in accordance with a three-dimensional model of the full-scale specimen, adapted for rig-testing by cyclic loads. The article provides the description of the full-scale specimen construction of the support and loading modes in rig-testing. Cyclic loads are accepted as calculation ones, which influence the support for the 50 years of the oil pipeline operation and simulate the composite impact in the process of the loads’ operation connected to the changes in the pumping pressure, operational bending moment. They also simulate preloading in the case of sagging of the neighboring free support. For the determination of the unobservable for the diagnostic devices defects impact on the reliability of the fixed support and welding joints of the fixed support with the oil pipeline by analogy with the full-scale specimen, artificial defects were embedded in the calculation model. The defects were performed in the form of cuts of the definite form, located in a special way in the spool and welding joints. At the second stage of calculation for low-cycle fatigue strength, the evaluation of the cyclic strength of the full-scale specimen construction’s elements of the

  13. Engineered pipeline field joint coating solutions for demanding conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lwemuchi, Andre L.; Gudme, Carl C.; Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, OT (Canada)

    2009-12-19

    Trends in the oil and gas pipeline industry see that the demand for new technologies and engineered solutions for pipeline external coatings are increasing. In general, superior mechanical resistance and long term performance are being required in addition to operating at higher temperatures. This demand for more robust coatings has been created because of factors such as more remote fields, deep onshore reservoirs, deep water offshore fields and heavy oil that must be pumped at higher temperatures. The development of new techniques for pipeline construction is also exposing the coatings to more aggressive construction conditions. Because of this, the use of three layer and multi-layer polypropylene mainline coating systems have been growing considerably. Following this trend, the field joint coating manufacturers developed polypropylene systems and more recently had to work on engineered solutions required for recent offshore projects in Europe where very thick polypropylene field joint heat-shrinkable systems were provided. In addition, projects in remote locations such as the recently completed projects in the Brazilian Amazon required special logistics and field services. The growth of the mining industry in South America with slurry pipelines constructed in the recent years also demanded thicker, more robust coatings. The popularization of directional drilling and shore approach applications moved the industry to develop improved abrasion resistant coating systems such as using sacrificial elements to protect the primary coating integrity after the pipeline pull. PETROBRAS plans to replace existing thermally insulated pipelines crossing Great Sao Paulo. Therefore, pumping heavy oil at high temperatures created the need to develop improved mainline and field joint coatings to avoid having the same sort of problems they are facing in existing thermally insulated lines. Due to these needs, the field joint coating manufactures have been challenged to provide

  14. Mathematical Model of Pipeline Abandonment and Recovery in Deepwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Guang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In offshore oil and gas engineering the pipeline abandonment and recovery is unavoidable and its mechanical analysis is necessary and important. For this problem a third-order differential equation is used as the governing equation in this paper, rather than the traditional second-order one. The mathematical model of pipeline abandonment and recovery is a moving boundary value problem, which means that it is hard to determine the length of the suspended pipeline segment. A novel technique for the handling of the moving boundary condition is proposed, which can tackle the moving boundary condition without contact analysis. Based on a traditional numerical method, the problem is solved directly by the proposed technique. The results of the presented method are in good agreement with the results of the traditional finite element method coupled with contact analysis. Finally, an approximate formula for quick calculation of the suspended pipeline length is proposed based on Buckingham’s Pi-theorem and mathematical fitting.

  15. Addressing stress corrosion cracking on multi layer pipeline coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Scott B.; Marr, James E. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Willmot, Martyn [Jotun Group (Norway); Norman, David [David Norman Corrosion Control, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Khera, Ashish [Allied Engineering, Portland, ME (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is now recognized by operators worldwide as a significant threat to the safe operation of their pipeline systems. Gas, oil, and refined products lines have all been susceptible to this form of environmentally assisted cracking. As a result, operators and regulators have been incorporating data related to the development and prevalence of SCC into their risk management systems in order that they may effectively address this time-dependant threat. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) published the first structured methodology for stress corrosion cracking direct assessment (SCCDA) in 2004 (RP0204-2004). Operators are now beginning to apply the methods outlined in the standard to assess their systems. Research and industry experience have shown that various pipeline coating systems can be more or less effective in preventing the formation and growth of SCC. Newer pipeline coatings, such as multi layer epoxy/extruded polyolefin systems have been widely regarded as effective coating systems to address the threat posed by SCC when they are properly applied. New field studies performed on a pipeline coated with a three layer epoxy/polyethylene system have raised the possibility that operators utilizing these types of coatings may need to reassess how they manage the SCC threat. (author)

  16. EPA Research in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s collaboration with the DEC and the Air Force on PFAS sampling and analytical methods is key to ensuring valid, defensible data are collected on these emerging contaminants that are being found in soil, groundwater and drinking water in Alaska.

  17. Phytomass in southwest Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    2000-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for southwest Alaska. The methods used to estimate plant weight and occurrence in the river basin are described and discussed. Average weight is shown for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 19 forest and 48 nonforest vegetation types. Species frequency of occurrence and species constancy within the type...

  18. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  19. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  20. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  1. Environmental audit guidelines for pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Environmental auditing is a form of management control which provides an objective basis by which a company can measure the degree of compliance with environmental regulations. Other benefits of this type of auditing include improved environmental management, furthering communication on environmental issues of concern within the company, and provision of documentation on environmental diligence. A series of environmental audit guidelines for pipelines is presented in the form of lists of questions to be asked during an environmental audit followed by recommended actions in response to those questions. The questions are organized into seven main categories: environmental management and planning; operating procedures; spill prevention; management of wastes and hazardous materials; environmental monitoring; construction of pipelines; and pipeline abandonment, decommissioning and site reclamation

  2. Environmental recover in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Kingston, P.F.; Baker, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This report is based on work commissioned by Exxon as part of a program of analyzing the ecosystem recovery process in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the oil spill of March 1989. Written by three distinguished scientists, it supplements a comprehensive study they and a fourth researcher prepared on the subject of Natural Recovery of Cold Water Marine Environments after an Oil Spill. This scientific review was presented at the 13th Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar sponsored by the Canadian Government in Edmonton, Alberta, on June 6, 1990. As a followup to this study, the scientists spent two weeks in April 1990 gathering insight into the Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska environment as a whole and examining plant and animal life in the area. They compared their Alaska findings to their knowledge gained from studying the recovery process from other oil spills in cold waters of the world

  3. A discrete event simulation model for evaluating time delays in a pipeline network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spricigo, Deisi; Muggiati, Filipe V.; Lueders, Ricardo; Neves Junior, Flavio [Federal University of Technology of Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Currently in the oil industry the logistic chain stands out as a strong candidate to obtain highest profit, since recent studies have pointed out to a cost reduction by adoption of better policies for distribution of oil derivatives, particularly those where pipelines are used to transport products. Although there are models to represent transfers of oil derivatives in pipelines, they are quite complex and computationally burden. In this paper, we are interested on models that are less detailed in terms of fluid dynamics but provide more information about operational decisions in a pipeline network. We propose a discrete event simulation model in ARENA that allows simulating a pipeline network based on average historical data. Time delays for transferring different products can be evaluated through different routes. It is considered that transport operations follow a historical behavior and average time delays can thus be estimated within certain bounds. Due to its stochastic nature, time quantities are characterized by average and dispersion measures. This allows comparing different operational scenarios for product transportation. Simulation results are compared to data obtained from a real world pipeline network and different scenarios of production and demand are analyzed. (author)

  4. The impact of changing pipeline BS and W specifications : a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renouf, G.; Ranganathan, R.; Scoular, R.J.; Soveran, D.

    1997-01-01

    The current situation in Canada and in the US regarding BS and W was presented. In Canada BS and W specifications are 0.5 per cent and are the same for light and heavy oils, while in the US, BS and W specifications range from 0.5 to 3 per cent. Some pipelines allow more relaxed specifications for heavy oil. A telephone survey was conducted in which 12 producers, 25 pipeline representatives and 18 upgrader facilities from 45 different sites in Canada and the US were contacted. Contacts were questioned on which components in crude oil most affected their operations and their reaction to changing pipeline BS and W specifications. The most troublesome component, according to the majority of contacts, were solids. Downstream users cannot accept any increase in solids within the crude. Many pipeline companies would like to see solids regulated separately from water. There are several advantages and disadvantages for producers, pipeliners, and refiners in relaxing water limits. Among the advantages, flash evaporation proved to provide the strongest case for relaxing water limits. 1 fig

  5. Energy conserving modules for petroleum pipeline pumps; Realisierung von Energiesparmodultechnik fuer Mineraloelpipelinepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, S.V. [Saxena GbR, Witten (Germany); Roeer, H.; Brandt, K.; Tesch, F. [RMR, Koeln (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Pipelines are the safest and least pollluting transport pathway for crude oil and petroleum products. Technical progress, constant monitoring and improved preventive measures ensure a high degree of safety. The contribution discusses the pipeline technology and presents criteria for selecting pipeline pumps. [German] Die Umwelt zu schuetzen heisst heutzutage nicht nur gravierende Eingriffe in die Natur zu verhindern, sondern auch Energie zu sparen und natuerliche Ressourcen zu schonen. Rohrleitungen sind - im Vergleich zu anderen Transportalternativen - der sicherste und umweltschonendste Transportweg fuer Rohoel- und Mineraloelprodukte. Die Umsetzung des technischen Fortschrittes im RMR-System und die staendige Ueberpruefung und Verbesserung der Praeventivmassnahmen sorgen dafuer, dass die Sicherheit der RMR-Pipeline hoechsten Anspruechen genuegt. In diesem Beitrag wird die Pipelinetechnik eroertert sowie ausfuehrlich ueber die Auswahlkriterien fuer die Wahl der optimalen Pipelinepumpe berichtet. (orig.)

  6. Field investigation and analysis of buried pipelines under various seismic environments. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1982-08-01

    A research project is proposed in which the behavior of oil, water, sewer, and gas pipelines under various seismic environments, including seismic shaking and large ground deformation would be investigated. It is suggested that the investigation be conducted in the Beijing and Tangshan areas. Three major hazards to underground pipelines are identified: the effect of wave propagation; ground rupture and differential movement along fault lines; and soil liquefaction induced by ground shaking. Ruptures or severe distortions of the pipe are most often associated with fault movements, landslides, or ground squeeze associated with fault zones. A model is presented to evaluate the general longitudinal responses of buried pipelines, both segmented and continuous, subjected to ground shakings and vibrations. The results of these tests will be used to develop aseismic codes for buried pipelines.

  7. Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H J [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Gao, B T [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Zhang, X H [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Deng, Z Q [School of Mechanical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot.

  8. Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H J; Gao, B T; Zhang, X H; Deng, Z Q

    2006-01-01

    Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot

  9. Integer programming formulation and variable neighborhood search metaheuristic for the multiproduct pipeline scheduling problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Lima, Leonardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Pipeline are known as the most reliable and economical mode of transportation for petroleum and its derivatives, especially when large amounts of products have to be pumped for large distances. In this work we address the short-term schedule of a pipeline system comprising the distribution of several petroleum derivatives from a single oil refinery to several depots, connected to local consumer markets, through a single multi-product pipeline. We propose an integer linear programming formulation and a variable neighborhood search meta-heuristic in order to compare the performances of the exact and heuristic approaches to the problem. Computational tests in C language and MOSEL/XPRESS-MP language are performed over a real Brazilian pipeline system. (author)

  10. Reliability-based assessment of flow assurance of hot waxy crude pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinjun, Zhang; Wenke, Zhang; Jianlin, Ding; Bo, Yu [China University of Petroleum - Beijing (CUPB), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    Waxy crude is characterized by its high pour point. Pipeline blockage may occur after prolonged shutdown of a pipeline due to crude oil gelation. Another flow assurance problem is the instable operation at a flow rate below the lowest allowable operation flow rate which is dependent on heat transfer of the pipeline and the viscosity vs. temperature relation of the crude pumped. Besides, for pipelines with thick wax deposition layer, massive depletion of wax deposit in some cases such as pipeline restart at high expelling pressure may also result in blockage of the pipeline, and the pig may be jammed during pigging as a result of thick wax deposition. Conventionally, assessment of these risks has been made by using the deterministic approach. However, many related physical quantities are subject to uncertainty and contribute to reliability of flow assurance. Therefore, the probabilistic approach is suggested and a framework of reliability based assessment of flow assurance of waxy crude pipelines is proposed in this paper. Discussions are also made on the limit state functions and target safety level. In the future study, development of an efficient and robust stochastic-numerical method is crucial. (author)

  11. Modal testing of hydraulic pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikota, Gudrun; Manhartsgruber, Bernhard; Kogler, Helmut; Hammerle, Franz

    2017-11-01

    Dynamic models of fluid power systems require accurate descriptions of hydraulic pipeline systems. For laminar flow in a rigid pipeline, modal approximations of transcendental transfer functions lead to a multi-degrees-of-freedom description. This suggests the application of experimental modal analysis to investigate fluid dynamics in hydraulic pipeline systems. The concept of modal testing is adapted accordingly and demonstrated for a straight pipeline, the same pipeline with a single side branch, and a pipeline system with three side branches. Frequency response functions are determined by injecting a defined flow rate excitation and measuring pressure responses along the pipelines. The underlying theory is confirmed by comparisons between calculated transcendental, measured, and estimated rational frequency response functions. Natural frequencies, damping ratios, and pressure mode shapes are identified. Although the experiments are made for low flow rates and stiff pipeline walls, they indicate the way to perform modal testing in practical applications of fluid power.

  12. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effects of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the Cit of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas' pipeline...

  13. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  14. 76 FR 73570 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 191, 192, 195 and 198 [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0026] RIN 2137-AE59 Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...

  15. 76 FR 303 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 195 [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0229] RIN 2137-AE66 Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  16. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    .... PHMSA-2009-0421] Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and... INFORMATION: Background Pipeline leak detection is one of the many layers of protection in PHMSA's approach to... of these interconnected layers of protections, including advances in leak detection systems. These...

  17. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 [Docket No. PHMSA-RSPA-2004-19854; Amdt. 192-113] RIN 2137-AE15 Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  18. Assessment and management of SCC in a liquid pipeline: case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, Pablo; Tandon, Samarth; Gao, Ming; Krishnamurthy, Ravi [Blade Energy Partners, Houston, Texas (United States); Peverelli, Romina (PIMS of London, London (United Kingdom)); Moreno Ochoa, Carlos (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico)); Diaz Solis, Esau (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico))

    2010-07-01

    A 30-inch crude oil pipeline system was built between Nuevo Teapa to Venta de Carpjo from 1978 to 1980. It is owned by Pemex; its total length is 570 km, and it has strategic importance in Mexico's refining capability. In this oil pipeline, various degrees of external and internal corrosion have been found, and recent incidents occurred as a result of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper presents an approach for managing high pH SCC in such a pipeline: it includes a comprehensive verification excavation plan, a strict in-ditch NDT investigation protocol, statistical models to determine the probability of detection and identification, sizing tolerance analyses, and an assessment methodology that is backed up by the material testing program. All the results provided by the application of the approach lead to the development of integrity management strategies. An integrity management plan is established and refined before the next inspection.

  19. Lay Pipeline Abandonment Head during Some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... Fracture mechanics approach is used on API 5L X52 of wall thickness of 0.5 inches pipeline structure. The pipeline was failed in a ... barge and the hydrodynamic loading on the pipeline itself. The Response Amplitude Operator is simply a measure of the Heave, Surge and Pitch of the barge relative to wave ...

  20. How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Dynamics of Alcanivorax spp. in Oil-Contaminated Intertidal Beach Sediments Undergoing Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind K.; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D.; Jones, Martin D.; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Head, Ian M.

    The industrial revolution has led to significant increases in the consumption of petroleum hydrocarbons. Concomitant with this increase, hydrocarbon pollution has become a global problem resulting from emissions related to operational use, releases during production, pipeline failures and tanker spills. Importantly, in addition to these anthropogenic sources of hydrocarbon pollution, natural seeps alone account for about 50% of total petroleum hydrocarbon releases in the aquatic environment (National Research Council, 2003). The annual input from natural seeps would form a layer of hydrocarbons 20 molecules thick on the sea surface globally if it remained un-degraded (Prince, 2005). By contrast with natural seeps, many oil spills, e.g. Sea Empress (Milford Haven, UK), Prestige (Galicia, Spain), EXXON Valdez (Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA), released huge amounts of oil (thousands to hundreds of thousand tonnes; Table 24.1) in a locally confined area over a short period of time with a huge acute impact on the marine environment. These incidents have attracted the attention of both the general public and the scientific community due to their great impact on coastal ecosystems. Although many petroleum hydrocarbons are toxic, they are degraded by microbial consortia naturally present in marine ecosystems.

  1. Customer service drives pipelines' reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, J.

    1997-01-01

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate's net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG's income, it was vital that the merger of Northern's 950 employees with Transwestern's 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives

  2. 77 FR 58616 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval. DATES: Comments on this notice must be... Management Center, Room 10102 NEOB, 725 17th Street NW., Washington, DC 20503, ATTN: Desk Officer for the U.S... Petroleum Institute (API) and American Oil Pipelines Association (AOPL);--Trade Associations (10) Interstate...

  3. Techniques for Minimizing and Monitoring the Impact of Pipeline Construction on Coastal Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Mulroy; John R. Storrer; Vincent J. Semonsen; Michael L. Dungan

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes specific measures recently employed for protection of riparian resources during construction of an oil and gas pipeline that crossed coastal reaches of 23 perennial and intermittent streams between Point Conception and Gaviota in Santa Barbara County, California. Flumes were constructed to maintain stream flow; anchored straw bales and silt fences...

  4. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... grades and quantities of crude oil. (d) Market analysis. (1) DOE shall establish a market value for each... availability of ships, pipelines and terminals to move and receive the oil. (3) Based on the market analysis... present a significant contango and prices offer the opportunity to reduce the average cost of oil...

  5. Economic Evaluation of Crop Farms Acquired for Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Evaluation of Crop Farms Acquired for Crude Oil Production Activities in Rivers State of Nigeria. ... of economic loss due to crude oil production activities was $165,287.10 out of which pipelines laying accounted for $43,741.25, flow stations ($36,387.92), oil well sites ($31,334.67), gas flaring sites ($10,485.63).

  6. Pipeline heating method based on optimal control and state estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, F.L.V. [Dept. of Subsea Technology. Petrobras Research and Development Center - CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fvianna@petrobras.com.br; Orlande, H.R.B. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. POLI/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: helcio@mecanica.ufrj.br; Dulikravich, G.S. [Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Florida International University - FIU, Miami, FL (United States)], e-mail: dulikrav@fiu.edu

    2010-07-01

    In production of oil and gas wells in deep waters the flowing of hydrocarbon through pipeline is a challenging problem. This environment presents high hydrostatic pressures and low sea bed temperatures, which can favor the formation of solid deposits that in critical operating conditions, as unplanned shutdown conditions, may result in a pipeline blockage and consequently incur in large financial losses. There are different methods to protect the system, but nowadays thermal insulation and chemical injection are the standard solutions normally used. An alternative method of flow assurance is to heat the pipeline. This concept, which is known as active heating system, aims at heating the produced fluid temperature above a safe reference level in order to avoid the formation of solid deposits. The objective of this paper is to introduce a Bayesian statistical approach for the state estimation problem, in which the state variables are considered as the transient temperatures within a pipeline cross-section, and to use the optimal control theory as a design tool for a typical heating system during a simulated shutdown condition. An application example is presented to illustrate how Bayesian filters can be used to reconstruct the temperature field from temperature measurements supposedly available on the external surface of the pipeline. The temperatures predicted with the Bayesian filter are then utilized in a control approach for a heating system used to maintain the temperature within the pipeline above the critical temperature of formation of solid deposits. The physical problem consists of a pipeline cross section represented by a circular domain with four points over the pipe wall representing heating cables. The fluid is considered stagnant, homogeneous, isotropic and with constant thermo-physical properties. The mathematical formulation governing the direct problem was solved with the finite volume method and for the solution of the state estimation problem

  7. Improvement in supply chain management for oil and gas sector using drag reduction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, A.A.; Chughtai, A.; Shafeeq, A.; Muhammad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management is an integrative philosophy about managing the flow of distribution channels from supplier to the consumer. PARCO, an oil and gas company in Pakistan has three existing pipelines. Out of three, two pipelines are running parallel from Karachi to Mehmood kot. One pipeline is of crude oil and meeting the demand of PARCO refinery while second pipeline is of High Speed Diesel (HSD) and third pipeline is of (HSD and Kerosene) running from Mehmood Kot to Machhike (Sheikhupura). PARCO supply petroleum products from Shikarpur, Mehmood Kot, Faisalabad and Machhike to oil marketing companies (OMCs) as per their share, standard and demand. The purpose of these pipelines is to meet the country demand for petroleum products at various locations all over Pakistan. In the peak season when OMCs have high demand and receipt of product from PARCO pipelines are less, there is a need to enhance the flow rate of oil inside the PARCO pipelines to fulfill the demand of OMCs. This could be done economically by the application of drag reduction theory. So by injecting drag reducer, dragging of the oil inside the pipeline could appreciably be reduced thereby improving the pumping of oil. (author)

  8. The main causes of in situ internal pipeline painting failures; Fatores que podem implicar em falhas prematuras de pintura interna in situ de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela, Joaquim P.; Vieira, Magda M.; Vieira, Gerson V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Fragata, Fernando de L.; Amorim, Cristina da C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Resources in coating technology have been used to increase the useful life of pipelines, to guarantee the carried product quality, to increase the operational trustworthiness, to reduce the maintenance costs, the personal and patrimonial risks and environmental damages. Parallel, in virtue of the pipelines natural ageing and operational problems, more advanced technologies, as the internal coating process in situ, have become an important method of pipelines rehabilitation. The aim of this work is to study the main factors that may influence the performance of an internal coating project, allowing the premature damages occurrence in pipelines, used in gas, oil and derivatives transport. (author)

  9. Novel leak localization in pressurized pipeline networks using acoustic emission and geometric connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozevin, Didem; Harding, James

    2012-01-01

    Time dependent aging and instantaneous threats can cause the initiation of damage in the buried and on-ground pipelines. Damage may propagate all through the structural thickness and cause leaking. The leakage detection in oil, water, gas or steam pipeline networks before it becomes structurally instable is important to prevent any catastrophic failures. The leak in pressurized pipelines causes turbulent flow at its location, which generates solid particles or gas bubbles impacting on the pipeline material. The impact energy causes propagating elastic waves that can be detected by the sensors mounted on the pipeline. The method is called Acoustic Emission, which can be used for real time detection of damage caused by unintentional or intentional sources in the pipeline networks. In this paper, a new leak localization approach is proposed for pipeline networks spread in a two dimensional configuration. The approach is to determine arrival time differences using cross correlation function, and introduce the geometric connectivity in order to identify the path that the leak waves should propagate to reach the AE sensors. The leak location in multi-dimensional space is identified in an effective approach using an array of sensors spread on the pipeline network. The approach is successfully demonstrated on laboratory scale polypropylene pipeline networks. - Highlights: ► Leak is identified in 2D using the 1D algorithm and geometric connectivity. ► The methodology is applicable if the source to sensor path is not straight. ► The hit sequence based on average signal level improves the source location. ► The leak localization in viscoelastic materials is high due to attenuation.

  10. Equipment for Preparing Pipeline Position Butts for Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanov L.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of developments of the Ye.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute and its specialized departments on the designing national equipment models for preparation during the assembly the edges and butt ends of pipeline position butts with the diameter from 14 up to 159 mm, repair and modernization of power engineering objects, including the power units of nuclear and heat electric stations, in chemical and machine building, at enterprises of oil-gas complex and other branches of industry are presented.

  11. Kebijakan Rusia Menerapkan Sistem Caspian Pipeline Consorsium (Cpc) Dalam Kerjasama Dibidang Energi Migas Dengan Khazakhstantahun 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Agfa, Robi; ", Afrizal

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the policy of Rusia implemented the Caspian Pipeline Concorcium system in oil cooperation Rusia with Khazakhstan in 2010-2014. Oil one of most important for human and nowdays every states need a oil with politics oil. Khazakhstan are one of most country in Centre Asia Region that have big potency in oil, its make a Rusia to create a agreement wiyth Khazakahstan.The research method used was a qualitative with descriptive as a technic of the research. Writer collects dat...

  12. Food Insecurity, Malnutrition and Crude Oil Spillage in a Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , external control group study design, with a semi-structured questionnaire and anthropometry as the study tools. The study ... Keywords: Pipeline oil spill, household food security, malnutrition, rural community, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of ...

  13. Reasons for decision in the matter of Enbridge Pipelines Inc. Line 4 Extension Project : facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In June 2007, Enbridge Pipelines Inc. applied for approval to extend Line 4 of its Mainline pipeline upstream from Hardisty to Edmonton, Alberta. The project would relieve a potential bottleneck and would also add an additional line across this segment to increase system security and flexibility. The average annual capacity of Line 4 would be 140,000 cubic metres per day. The Enbridge Mainline from Edmonton to Hardisty currently includes 3 oil pipelines, while the Enbridge Mainline downstream of Hardisty includes 4 oil pipelines. This document presented the views of the Board regarding the construction and operation of the project facilities; public and Aboriginal consultation; environmental and socio-economic matters; land matters; tolls and tariffs; and, supply, markets, financing and economics. The Board noted that the benefits of this project outweigh the burdens associated with it. The project required an environmental assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act which found that it is not likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects. In its approval of the project, the Board attached 15 conditions, including a requirement for Enbridge to file an updated Environmental Protection Plan for the Board's approval. The Board also approved Enbridge's application for its tolling method and to reactivate 3 sections of pre-existing pipeline. 3 tabs., 3 figs., 3 appendices

  14. The pipe dream of gold in Alaska; La quimera del oro en Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, Amory B; Lovins, L Hunter [Rocky Mountain Institute (United States)

    2001-10-01

    Since 1973, the Alaska's politicians have been used all the crude oil price rises in order to put pressure in favour of the Artic National Wildlife Refuge's perforations. However, without taking into account the environment-friendly issues, the refuge's crude oil is unnecessary and quiet unsafe, besides, isn't economic-friendly and becomes a distraction to the real energy discussion. The solutions aimed to the market point to increase the efficiency; therefore, they can assure a safety and environment-friendly energy supply at very less cost. [Spanish] Desde 1973, los politicos de Alaska se han valido de todas las alzas en los precios del petroleo para presionar a favor de las perforaciones en el Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre del Artico. Pero incluso si se dejan de lado las cuestiones ambientales, el petroleo del refugio es innecesario, poco seguro, economicamente riesgoso e implica una distraccion del verdadero debate energetico. Las soluciones orientadas al mercado que apuntan a aumentar la eficiencia pueden garantizar un suministro de energia seguro y limpio a un costo mucho menor.

  15. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  16. Developing pipeline risk methodology for environmental license permit; Metodologia para avaliacao do risco em dutos, no licenciamento ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Paulo; Naime, Andre [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Licenciamento e Qualidade Ambiental; Serpa, Ricardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analise de Riscos; Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil); Ventura, Gilmar [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Some new pipelines undertakings aim to establish connection between gas provinces in the Southeast and consumers in the Northeast of Brazil, in order to supply medium consuming centers and regions with minor potential of development. Consulting companies are carrying out Environmental Assessments studies and among them is the Risk Analyses of these pipeline transmission systems, in order to receive environmental permits by IBAMA, the Federal Brazilian Environmental Agency. In addition, existing interstate pipeline systems which are under IBAMA regulation will also require the same attention. For the purpose of defining a Pipeline Risk Analysis Protocol with methodology and risk criteria, with minimum risk analysis information on a comprehensive process, it has been decided for a 'tour de force' formed by experts from IBAMA and PETROBRAS engineers. The risk assessment protocol is focus on the risk to communities in the neighborhood of these pipelines and on the potential damage to the environment near and far from the ROW. The joined work ended up in two protocols, which attempt to provide environmental license permits for oil pipeline and gas pipelines with minimum contents for risk analysis studies. Another aspect is the environmental risk that has been focused on the contingency plan approach, since there are no consolidated environmental risk criteria for application as a common worldwide sense. The environmental risk mapping - MARA methodology will indicate areas with potential to be affected by leakages along a pipeline system. (author)

  17. Two methodological perspectives on the Energy East Pipeline conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Amanda; Obeidi, Amer; Hipel, Keith W.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary approaches for identifying potential resolutions to a conflict are applied to a pipeline dispute in Canada to gain a range of valuable strategic insights as to how it can be resolved. More specifically, the controversy over the Energy East Pipeline for shipping bitumen from the Alberta oil sands for refining in Central and Eastern Canada as well as shipping overseas is investigated using the usual definitions for stability as well as the metarational tree methodology in which policies can be taken into account. As demonstrated by the case study, enhanced strategic insights can be garnered when the metarational tree approach is utilised for exploring conflict resolution within the confines of existing policy. The metarational tree procedure constitutes a useful expansion of the overall Graph Model for Conflict Resolution set of techniques for formally investigating real world disputes. - Highlights: •Application of generalised metarationalities to the Energy East Pipeline conflict. •Comparison and contrasting of generalised metarationalities and the graph model. •Generalised metarationalities are useful for conflicts’ spanning long periods of time. •Generalised metarationalities use policies which may circumvent player preferences.

  18. Production of 82Br Radiotracer and its Application on Leak Detection in Buried Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawed, E. M.; Alwerfalli, M. A.; Ben ayad, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper represents a proper technique called a pig method technique. This technique was applied for leakage detection on the 10 inch diameter and 54 km long underground pipeline carrying the crude oil derivatives from Albrega pumping station (Alzawia) to the Tareeq Almatar distribution center (Tripoli). For this technique, a suitable radioisotope ( 82 BR) was produced through irradiation of potassium bromide target under flux of 1014 n/cm 2 .sec. After 24 hours cooling of the target, 74 GBq (2 Ci) activity was achieved. The chemical reaction to get the radioactive source in a gaseous form was carried on in a special generator. A generated Methyl bromide gas was injected into the pipeline fluid stream (Light Naphtha), and then DN-1 water proof detector was lunched in the same pipeline, afterwards analysis of the obtained data from the detector passage in the pipeline indicated that no changes in the background activity a long the pipeline except the markers positions. This result proved that the pipeline was free of leaks (author)

  19. Coalbed methane : evaluating pipeline and infrastructure requirements to get gas to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, B.

    2005-01-01

    This Power Point presentation evaluated pipeline and infrastructure requirements for the economic production of coalbed methane (CBM) gas. Reports have suggested that capital costs for CBM production can be minimized by leveraging existing oil and gas infrastructure. By using existing plant facilities, CBM producers can then tie in to existing gathering systems and negotiate third party fees, which are less costly than building new pipelines. Many CBM wells can be spaced at an equal distance to third party gathering systems and regulated transmission meter stations and pipelines. Facility cost sharing, and contracts with pipeline companies for compression can also lower initial infrastructure costs. However, transmission pressures and direct connect options for local distribution should always be considered during negotiations. The use of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) commingling services was also recommended. A map of the North American gas network was provided, as well as details of Alberta gas transmission and coal pipeline overlays. Maps of various coal zones in Alberta were provided, as well as a map of North American pipelines. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Ting, Yen-Peng [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan [Sourashtra Coll., Madurai (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Biocorrosion Group; Rahman, Pattanathu K.S.M. [Teesside Univ., Tees Valley (United Kingdom). Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Group

    2010-01-15

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic Flux Leakage and Principal Component Analysis for metal loss approximation in a pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M; Mujica, L E; Quintero, M; Florez, J; Quintero, S

    2015-01-01

    Safety and reliability of hydrocarbon transportation pipelines represent a critical aspect for the Oil an Gas industry. Pipeline failures caused by corrosion, external agents, among others, can develop leaks or even rupture, which can negatively impact on population, natural environment, infrastructure and economy. It is imperative to have accurate inspection tools traveling through the pipeline to diagnose the integrity. In this way, over the last few years, different techniques under the concept of structural health monitoring (SHM) have continuously been in development.This work is based on a hybrid methodology that combines the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) approaches. The MFL technique induces a magnetic field in the pipeline's walls. The data are recorded by sensors measuring leakage magnetic field in segments with loss of metal, such as cracking, corrosion, among others. The data provide information of a pipeline with 15 years of operation approximately, which transports gas, has a diameter of 20 inches and a total length of 110 km (with several changes in the topography). On the other hand, PCA is a well-known technique that compresses the information and extracts the most relevant information facilitating the detection of damage in several structures. At this point, the goal of this work is to detect and localize critical loss of metal of a pipeline that are currently working. (paper)

  2. Statistical analysis on the signals monitoring multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Guo, Liejin

    2013-07-01

    The signals monitoring petroleum transmission pipeline in offshore oil industry usually contain abundant information about the multiphase flow on flow assurance which includes the avoidance of most undesirable flow pattern. Therefore, extracting reliable features form these signals to analyze is an alternative way to examine the potential risks to oil platform. This paper is focused on characterizing multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system that is often appeared in offshore oil industry and finding an objective criterion to describe the transition of flow patterns. Statistical analysis on pressure signal at the riser top is proposed, instead of normal prediction method based on inlet and outlet flow conditions which could not be easily determined during most situations. Besides, machine learning method (least square supported vector machine) is also performed to classify automatically the different flow patterns. The experiment results from a small-scale loop show that the proposed method is effective for analyzing the multiphase flow pattern.

  3. Alaska exceptionality hypothesis: Is Alaska wilderness really different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Brown

    2002-01-01

    The common idiom of Alaska as “The Last Frontier” suggests that the relative remoteness and unsettled character of Alaska create a unique Alaskan identity, one that is both a “frontier” and the “last” of its kind. The frontier idiom portrays the place and people of Alaska as exceptional or different from the places and people who reside in the Lower Forty- Eight States...

  4. 1982 annual report on Alaska's mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The greater part of the information used in this report came from the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines. Because of the time required for sample analysis and data synthesis and because of the publication process, reports are generally issued a year or more after the sample and data collection. Thus, this report provided information chiefly about projects current in 1980 and 1981. In addition to federal and state publications, trade and professional journals, symposia proceedings, public meetings and hearings, press releases, and newspaper and magazine articles have been sources of the information presented. The report addresses only onshore areas of alaska and provides information on minerals of current interest in two broad categories: energy resources (oil and gas, uranium, coal and peat, and geothermal resources) and nonfuel, critical, and strategic minerals

  5. Small mammal baseline surveys, Alaska Peninsula/Becharof NWR, Alaska, Summer 2004, addendum

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document supplements the report Small Mammal Baseline Surveys, Alaska Peninsula / Becharof NWR, Alaska – Summer 2004. After completion of that report additional...

  6. Monitoring of scale deposition in petroleum pipelines by means of photon scattering: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meric, Ilker; Johansen, Geir A.

    2013-01-01

    In the petroleum industry precipitation of scale onto the inner walls of hydrocarbon pipelines poses a significant challenge as, unless treated appropriately, deposits such as sulfate and carbonate scales reduce the overall flow area and even lead to blockage of entire sections of the pipework. This may in turn result in costly production suspension and maintenance work. Therefore, monitoring and characterization of scale deposits can be said to be of great importance. In this work, a preliminary feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate the possibility of utilizing photon scattering for scale detection in multiphase oil/water/gas pipelines. (author)

  7. Comparison of Soil Models in the Thermodynamic Analysis of a Submarine Pipeline Buried in Seabed Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Waldemar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with mathematical modelling of a seabed layer in the thermodynamic analysis of a submarine pipeline buried in seabed sediments. The existing seabed soil models: a “soil ring” and a semi-infinite soil layer are discussed in a comparative analysis of the shape factor of a surrounding soil layer. The meaning of differences in the heat transfer coefficient of a soil layer is illustrated based on a computational example of the longitudinal temperaturę profile of a -kilometer long crude oil pipeline buried in seabed sediments.

  8. Monitoring of scale deposition in petroleum pipelines by means of photon scattering: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meric, Ilker; Johansen, Geir A., E-mail: ilker.meric@ift.uib.no, E-mail: geiranton.johansen@ift.uib.no [University of Bergen (UiB), Bergen, (Norway). Dept. of Physics and Technology; Melo, Silvio de Barros; Lima, Emerson A.O.; Jimenez, Juana M.; Dantas, Carlos C., E-mail: sbm@cin.ufpe.br, E-mail: ccd@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the petroleum industry precipitation of scale onto the inner walls of hydrocarbon pipelines poses a significant challenge as, unless treated appropriately, deposits such as sulfate and carbonate scales reduce the overall flow area and even lead to blockage of entire sections of the pipework. This may in turn result in costly production suspension and maintenance work. Therefore, monitoring and characterization of scale deposits can be said to be of great importance. In this work, a preliminary feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate the possibility of utilizing photon scattering for scale detection in multiphase oil/water/gas pipelines. (author)

  9. SAR processing in the cloud for oil detection in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garron, J.; Stoner, C.; Meyer, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    A new world of opportunity is being thawed from the ice of the Arctic, driven by decreased persistent Arctic sea-ice cover, increases in shipping, tourism, natural resource development. Tools that can automatically monitor key sea ice characteristics and potential oil spills are essential for safe passage in these changing waters. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data can be used to discriminate sea ice types and oil on the ocean surface and also for feature tracking. Additionally, SAR can image the earth through the night and most weather conditions. SAR data is volumetrically large and requires significant computing power to manipulate. Algorithms designed to identify key environmental features, like oil spills, in SAR imagery require secondary processing, and are computationally intensive, which can functionally limit their application in a real-time setting. Cloud processing is designed to manage big data and big data processing jobs by means of small cycles of off-site computations, eliminating up-front hardware costs. Pairing SAR data with cloud processing has allowed us to create and solidify a processing pipeline for SAR data products in the cloud to compare operational algorithms efficiency and effectiveness when run using an Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) defined Amazon Machine Image (AMI). The products created from this secondary processing, were compared to determine which algorithm was most accurate in Arctic feature identification, and what operational conditions were required to produce the results on the ASF defined AMI. Results will be used to inform a series of recommendations to oil-spill response data managers and SAR users interested in expanding their analytical computing power.

  10. Lessons Learned from Developing and Operating the Kepler Science Pipeline and Building the TESS Science Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    The experience acquired through development, implementation and operation of the KeplerK2 science pipelines can provide lessons learned for the development of science pipelines for other missions such as NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, and ESA's PLATO mission.

  11. Valencene oxidase CYP706M1 from Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cankar, K.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Goedbloed, M.A.; Renirie, R.; Jong, de R.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Sonke, Th.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    (+)-Nootkatone is a natural sesquiterpene ketone used in grapefruit and citrus flavour compositions. It occurs in small amounts in grapefruit and is a major component of Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) heartwood essential oil. Upon co-expression of candidate cytochrome P450 enzymes from

  12. Chile's pipelines - who's out in the cold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellhouse, G.

    1998-01-01

    There is a battle on in Northern Chile to supply the region with gas and electricity. Two pipelines and a transmission line are being built, but there is insufficient demand to merit the construction of all of these projects. It is widely believed that the first pipeline to be finished will be the overall winner, but the situation is not that simple. A more sensible conclusion could be the merger of the two pipeline projects, rationalising supply of gas to the region. (Author)

  13. Pipeline dreams face up to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Orla

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of two gas pipelines which are expected to be built in Turkey to meet the estimated demand for gas. The Bluestream joint ENI/Gasprom project pipeline will convey Russian gas across the Black Sea to Turkey, and the PSG joint Bechtel/General Electric venture will bring gas from Turkmenistan to Turkey across the Caspian Sea. Construction of the pipelines and financing aspects are discussed. (uk)

  14. Research of processes of heat exchange in horizontal pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A. K.; Dokoukin, V. P.; Lykov, Y. V.; Fetisov, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    The energy crisis, which becomes more evident in Russia, stems in many respects from unjustified high consumption of energy resources. Development and exploitation of principal oil and gas deposits located in remote areas with severe climatic conditions require considerable investments increasing essentially the cost of power generation. Account should be taken also of the fact that oil and gas resources are nonrenewable. An alternative fuel for heat and power generation is coal, the reserves of which in Russia are quite substantial. For this reason the coal extraction by 2020 will amount to 450-550 million tons. The use of coal, as a solid fuel for heat power plants and heating plants, is complicated by its transportation from extraction to processing and consumption sites. Remoteness of the principal coal mining areas (Kuzbass, Kansk-Achinsk field, Vorkuta) from the main centers of its consumption in the European part of the country, Siberia and Far East makes the problem of coal transportation urgent. Of all possible transportation methods (railway, conveyor, pipeline), the most efficient is hydrotransport which provides continuous transportation at comparatively low capital and working costs, as confirmed by construction and operation of extended coal pipelines in many countries.

  15. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix K (continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendices K (continued) of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment

  16. Acoustic system for communication in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, II, Louis Peter; Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2008-09-09

    A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

  17. Fluid mixing with a pipeline tee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroka, L.M.; Forney, L.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (USA)); Forney, L.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1988-01-01

    The pipeline mixing of two fluid streams by turbulent jet injection normal to the pipeline has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A simple scaling law for the second moment of the tracer concentration within the pipeline is proposed for the first fifteen pipe diameters downstream from the injection point. The similarity solution is derived by assuming that the tracer diffuses in a weak compound jet moving parallel to the pipeline axis. The theoretical results are correlated with all of the available experimental measurements. The results indicate that the second moment of the tracer concentration decreases with increasing jet momentum and distance from the injection point.

  18. Transmission pipeline calculations and simulations manual

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, E Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual's three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified f

  19. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  20. Thermal expansion absorbing structure for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya.

    1995-01-01

    A thermal expansion absorbing structure for a pipeline is disposed to the end of pipelines to form a U-shaped cross section connecting a semi-circular torus shell and a short double-walled cylindrical tube. The U-shaped longitudinal cross-section is deformed in accordance with the shrinking deformation of the pipeline and absorbs thermal expansion. Namely, since the central lines of the outer and inner tubes of the double-walled cylindrical tube deform so as to incline, when the pipeline is deformed by thermal expansion, thermal expansion can be absorbed by a simple configuration thereby enabling to contribute to ensure the safety. Then, the entire length of the pipeline can greatly be shortened by applying it to the pipeline disposed in a high temperature state compared with a method of laying around a pipeline using only elbows, which has been conducted so far. Especially, when it is applied to a pipeline for an FBR-type reactor, the cost for the construction of a facility of a primary systems can greater be reduced. In addition, it can be applied to a pipeline for usual chemical plants and any other structures requiring absorption of deformation. (N.H.)

  1. East, West German gas pipeline grids linked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ruhrgas AG, Essen, has started up the first large diameter gas pipeline linking the gas grids of former East and West Germany. Ruhrgas last month placed in service a 40 in., 70 km line at Vitzeroda, near Eisenach, linking a new Ruhrgas pipeline in Hesse state with a 330 km gas pipeline built last year in Thuringia and Saxony states by Erdgasversorgungs GmbH (EVG), Leipzig. The new link enables pipeline operator EVG to receive 70 bcf/year of western European gas via Ruhrgas, complementing the 35 bcf/year of gas coming from the Commonwealth of Independent States via Verbundnetz Gas AG (VNG), Leipzig

  2. A quick guide to pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Alkazraji, D

    2008-01-01

    Pipeline engineering requires an understanding of a wide range of topics. Operators must take into account numerous pipeline codes and standards, calculation approaches, and reference materials in order to make accurate and informed decisions.A Quick Guide to Pipeline Engineering provides concise, easy-to-use, and accessible information on onshore and offshore pipeline engineering. Topics covered include: design; construction; testing; operation and maintenance; and decommissioning.Basic principles are discussed and clear guidance on regulations is provided, in a way that will

  3. Impact assessment of offshore oil activities in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    The global demand for oil and gas has lead to a notable increase in interest for oil and gas exploration in the Arctic. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of the legislation for impact assessment in Greenland, Denmark, Norway, Alaska (USA) and Canada. The point of departure...

  4. 2005 Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Lidar: Unalakleet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report is a summary of a LiDAR data collection over the community of Unalakleet, in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The original data were collected on...

  5. PipelineDog: a simple and flexible graphic pipeline construction and maintenance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anbo; Zhang, Yeting; Sun, Yazhou; Xing, Jinchuan

    2017-11-23

    Analysis pipelines are an essential part of bioinformatics research, and ad hoc pipelines are frequently created by researchers for prototyping and proof-of-concept purposes. However, most existing pipeline management system or workflow engines are too complex for rapid prototyping or learning the pipeline concept. A lightweight, user-friendly, and flexible solution is thus desirable. In this study, we developed a new pipeline construction and maintenance tool, PipelineDog. This is a web-based integrated development environment with a modern web graphical user interface. It offers cross-platform compatibility, project management capabilities, code formatting and error checking functions, and an online repository. It uses an easy-to-read/write script system that encourages code reuse. With the online repository, it also encourages sharing of pipelines, which enhances analysis reproducibility and accountability. For most users, PipelineDog requires no software installation. Overall, this web application provides a way to rapidly create and easily manage pipelines. PipelineDog web app is freely available at http://web.pipeline.dog. The command line version is available at http://www.npmjs.com/package/pipelinedog, and online repository at http://repo.pipeline.dog. ysun@kean.edu or xing@biology.rutgers.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  7. 77 FR 16052 - Information Collection Activities: Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way; Submitted for Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Modification (ROW)-- $3,865. Section 250.1008(e)--Pipeline Repair Notification--$360. Section 250.1015(a... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Pipelines and Pipeline... regulations under Subpart J, ``Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way.'' This notice also provides the public a...

  8. 78 FR 53190 - Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on Leak Repair Clamps Due to Defective Seal AGENCY: Pipeline... to Operators of Natural Gas and Hazardous Liquid Pipelines of a Recall on Leak Repair Clamps Due to...

  9. Turning Noise into Signal: Utilizing Impressed Pipeline Currents for EM Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Tobias; Becken, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) systems are extensively used for the protection of central Europe's dense network of oil-, gas- and water pipelines against destruction by electrochemical corrosion. While ICCP systems usually provide protection by injecting a DC current into the pipeline, mandatory pipeline integrity surveys demand a periodical switching of the current. Consequently, the resulting time varying pipe currents induce secondary electric- and magnetic fields in the surrounding earth. While these fields are usually considered to be unwanted cultural noise in electromagnetic exploration, this work aims at utilizing the fields generated by the ICCP system for determining the electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The fundamental period of the switching cycles typically amounts to 15 seconds in Germany and thereby roughly corresponds to periods used in controlled source EM applications (CSEM). For detailed studies we chose an approximately 30km long pipeline segment near Herford, Germany as a test site. The segment is located close to the southern margin of the Lower Saxony Basin (LSB) and part of a larger gas pipeline composed of multiple segments. The current injected into the pipeline segment originates in a rectified 50Hz AC signal which is periodically switched on and off. In contrast to the usual dipole sources used in CSEM surveys, the current distribution along the pipeline is unknown and expected to be non-uniform due to coating defects that cause current to leak into the surrounding soil. However, an accurate current distribution is needed to model the fields generated by the pipeline source. We measured the magnetic fields at several locations above the pipeline and used Biot-Savarts-Law to estimate the currents decay function. The resulting frequency dependent current distribution shows a current decay away from the injection point as well as a frequency dependent phase shift which is increasing with distance from the injection

  10. A promising tool for subsurface permafrost mapping-An application of airborne geophysics from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jared E.

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost is a predominant physical feature of the Earth's Arctic and Subarctic clines and a major consideration encompassing ecosystem structure to infrastructure engineering and placement. Perennially frozen ground is estimated to cover about 85 percent of the state of Alaska where northern reaches are underlain with continuous permafrost and parts of interior Alaska are underlain by areas of discontinuous and (or) sporadic permafrost (fig. 1). The region of Interior Alaska, where permafrost is scattered among unfrozen ground, is a complex mosaic of terrains and habitats. Such diversity creates arrays of lakes and surface-water and groundwater patterns that continental populations of migratory waterfowl and internationally significant fisheries have adapted to over time. A road or pipeline might pass over frozen and unfrozen ground, affecting the types of materials and engineering approaches needed to sustain the infrastructure.

  11. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  12. Investigation of Alaska's uranium potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    Of the various geographical regions in Alaska that were examined in an exhaustive literary search for the possibility of uranium--either vein type or sedimentary--six offer encouragement: the Copper River Basin, the alkaline intrusive belt of west-central Alaska and Selawik Basin area, the Seward Peninsula, the Susitna Lowland, the coal-bearing basins of the north flank of the Alaska Range, the Precambrian gneisses of the USGS 1:250,000 Goodnews quadrangle, and Southeastern Alaska, which has the sole operating uranium mine in the state. Other areas that may be favorable for the presence of uranium include the Yukon Flats area, the Cook Inlet Basin, and the Galena Basin

  13. LED Street Lights in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    During winter nights in Alaska, streetlights often remain lit more than half the day, using energy all the while. Around the nation, communities are exploring the use of : light-emitting diode technology for lighting streets and reducing energy use. ...

  14. Level III Ecoregions of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. The ecoregions of Alaska are a...

  15. Report on Boeing pipeline leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichele, W.T.

    1978-08-01

    Testing was performed on both simulated (test) and existing (water) pipelines to evaluate the Boeing leak detection technique. This technique uses a transformer mounted around the pipe to induce a voltage level onto the pipeline. The induced ground potential is measured from a distant ground probe, inserted into the surrounding soil, with respect to the excited pipeline. The induced voltage level will depend on the soil characteristics, the distance from the excited pipeline, and the probe types. If liquid should leak from the excited pipeline, the escaping liquid will modify the induced potential of the soil surrounding the excited pipeline. This will change the response of the quiescent soil characteristics and cause the voltage level on the detecting probes in the area of the leak to increase. This voltage increase will indicate a soil anomaly. However, the liquid does not have to reach the detection probe to reveal an anomalous soil condition. Several different detection probes were used and evaluated for sensitivity and response time. Although not evaluated during this test, results indicate that a wire laid parallel to the pipe axis may be the best probe configuration. A general sensitivity figure for any of the probes cannot be made from these tests; however, the technique used will reliably detect a pipeline leak of ten gallons. An additional test was performed using the Boeing pipeline leak detection technique to locate the position and depth of an underground pipeline. This test showed that the location and depth of an excited pipeline could be determined from above the ground where other methods for pipeline location had previously failed

  16. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  17. Petrochemicals from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, M.P.; McCann, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The petrochemical industry in Alberta developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s. However, projected diminishing gas production from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has raised concerns about the future growth of the industry in Alberta. A joint industry/government study has been conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. Having both gas and oil sands feedstock options should increase the long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry.This paper presents a framework for evaluating and optimizing schemes for helping Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development from 2005 to 2020. The paper places emphasis on specific locations and market conditions. It demonstrates that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals, assuming a new pipeline is built between Edmonton and Vancouver. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical cluster. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants within the next 5 to 10 years. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  18. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mica, Isabella; Polignano, Maria Luisa; Marco, Cinzia De

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes

  19. System reliability of corroding pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenxing

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is presented in this paper to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of a pipeline segment that contains multiple active corrosion defects and is subjected to stochastic internal pressure loading. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system with three distinctive failure modes due to corrosion, namely small leak, large leak and rupture. The internal pressure is characterized as a simple discrete stochastic process that consists of a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables each acting over a period of one year. The magnitude of a given sequence follows the annual maximum pressure distribution. The methodology is illustrated through a hypothetical example. Furthermore, the impact of the spatial variability of the pressure loading and pipe resistances associated with different defects on the system reliability is investigated. The analysis results suggest that the spatial variability of pipe properties has a negligible impact on the system reliability. On the other hand, the spatial variability of the internal pressure, initial defect sizes and defect growth rates can have a significant impact on the system reliability.

  20. 77 FR 61826 - Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    .... PHMSA-2012-0201] Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations AGENCY: Pipeline and... this Advisory Bulletin to reiterate the importance of immediate dialogue between pipeline facility...: Communication During Emergency Situations Advisory: To further enhance the Department's safety efforts, PHMSA is...