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Sample records for alaska oil pipeline

  1. Alaska highway pipeline inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyk, K.M.; Bohmer, E.E.; Phelps, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A public enquiry was held to determine the social and economic impacts associated with the proposed Alaska Highway pipeline. The pipeline was proposed to carry natural gas from Prudhoe Bay to the continental United States. The pipeline would follow the trans-Alaskan pipeline to Fairbanks, and follow the Alaska Highway through southern Yukon into northern British Columbia. The 48 inch pipe would operate at a pressure of 1,260 psi and would carry 2.4 billion cubic feet of gas per day, and could operate at that level for at least 25 years. Issues considered included alternative routes, employment and training, economic impact, social impact, the Yukon Indian land claim, the Dempster Lateral pipeline, planning and regulation, and compensation. The enquiry concluded that the government of Canada should not give approval in principle to the proposed pipeline through the southern Yukon without resolving the issues of an advanced payment towards the settlement of the Yukon Indian land claim, of compensation from the pipeline company, the establishment of a planning and control agency, and the deferral of the commencement of construction of the pipeline. 8 figs.

  2. Water quality regulation during construction of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemansky, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The trans-Alaska oil pipeline system (TAPS) was constructed by a consortium including some of the largest oil companies in the world. They had a strong economic incentive in rapid construction of the project, perceiving delay as equivalent to loss of large amounts of profit. State and federal governments had similarly compelling economic, political, and policy reasons to adopt this objective of the oil companies as their own. This dissertation is a retrospective assessment of water quality regulation during construction of the TAPS project (1974 through mid-1977). Its theoretical framework involves the degree to which regulatory redundancy (overlap) produced reliability in achieving compliance with water pollution control requirements. It was found during this research that noncompliance was widespread, frequent, and of a magnitude which was often large. The root cause of this unnecessary noncompliance was the overriding economic interest of the pipeline builders in rapid construction coupled with the failure of regulatory agencies to enforce. There was a greater appearance of regulatory redundancy than was actually the case. The same economic, political, and policy reasons that had led to TAPS project authorization and bureaucratic dynamics resulted in enforcement failure with regard to water pollution control requirements. Under a mandate to facilitate rapid construction, the regulatory agencies demonstrated an inability to accomplish any other objective at the same time. Common-mode failure largely defeated the beneficial potential of what limited regulatory redundancy there was. Additionally, meaningful public participation was prevented by lack of resources, lack of procedural opportunity, and resistance to it from industry and government. The dissertation is concluded with recommendations for improving regulatory performance through strengthened redundancy mechanisms.

  3. Assessment of the impact of a Trans-Alaska Pipeline oil spill on the birds and mammals of the Atigun River system

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An oil spill resulting from a crack in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline was discovered on June 10, 1979 near pipeline mile post 166, on the north side of Atigun Pass....

  4. BC Alaska-Canada gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, K. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada). BP Alaska Canada Gas Pipelines

    2006-07-01

    The Alaska natural gas pipeline project was discussed in relation to the Canadian oil and gas industry and pipeline infrastructure. Total project costs for the pipeline were estimated at approximately $20 billion. Options out of Alberta include increasing existing capacity to the west coast, as well as expanding pipeline capacity to supply midwest and east coast markets. Existing pipeline systems will be expanded, and a new pipeline from Alaska to Chicago has been proposed. The gas pipeline project is expected to be the largest private construction project in the history of North America, and will provide 6500 jobs in both the United States and Canada. Project challenges to date have included the development of relationships with Aboriginals and First Nations groups in Canada and the United States, as well as ensuring access to efficient, competitive market-based regulatory processes. Project risks to date have included capital and operating cost over-runs, regulatory and legal delays, completion risks, and commodity price risks. Stranded gas act processes were discussed, as well as fiscal contracts related to the legislative and public process. Elements of the fiscal contract were provided, as well as details of First Nations relationships and Crown consultation processes. tabs., figs.

  5. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  6. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  7. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  8. Environmental impact of the proposed Trans-Alaska pipeline on marine mammals in the Beaufort sea: Proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline System potential environmental impact, possible loss of oil

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper describes the Beaufort Sea and how its characteristics would influence the course of fate of oil spills in generally predictable ways: currents would...

  9. Alaska-Washington effects on northern oil and gas projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persily, L. [Alaska Dept. of Revenue, Juneau, AK (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a review of a natural gas project proposal for Alaska. The proven reserves of the Alaskan North Slope total 35 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of natural gas. Potential gas reserves are estimated at about 100 tcf, but the gas is stranded and far from markets. The challenge of developing the resource lies in the development and construction of a pipeline to Alberta. While many companies have expressed interest in the project, investors believe the risk is too high for the multi-billion-dollar construction cost. In 1977, the government of Alaska created an oil-wealth savings account from the profits of the Prudhoe Bay oil discovery. The author suggested that instead of using the account for paying dividends to Alaskans as is currently done, the government should consider using the money to help reduce the risk and encourage private investors. BP and ConocoPhillips have indicated that they want risk-sharing help from the U.S. Treasury to build the pipeline. The author explained why gas price risk is such a concern and why North Slope producers are asking for financial assurances. Some Alaskans would prefer that a public corporation build, own and operate a gas project. Instead of building a pipeline to Alberta, they would prefer to build and operate a pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to a coastal liquefaction plant where a fleet of tankers would bring the refined LNG product to markets. The Alaska Native concern is another issue that requires attention. The issues which are important to Alaska natives include maintaining local control over taxation, social issues, and a financial stake in the project. Several Native corporations have formed a partnership and hope to buy into the Alaska gas project.

  10. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  11. China Oil & Gas Pipeline Survey & Design Institute, Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bureau of CNPC; Zhao Surong

    1995-01-01

    @@ China Oil/Gas Pipeline Bureau(P.B) is the only professional organization in China specialized in oil/gas pipelines design and construction since 1980s. It has ever cooperated with certain number of well known companies from Japan,USA, Germany, Canada, as well as Italy in the designs of many large oil/gas pipeline projects, during the course of which, personnel from P.B accumulated much experience in international project designs. During the execution of each particular project, they strictly followed the common-use international codes and standards with computers as the auxiliary design system combined with the self-developed software. All its clients showed their trust in this organization and gave it high praise for its outstanding survey, design and technical service.

  12. Review of Oil and Gas Pipeline Construction in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's pipeline industry has developed for 50 years till 2008. In the past 10 years, more than 50,000 kilometers of long-distance oil and gas pipelines have been constructed,of which gas pipelines reached about 30,000 kilometers,crude oil pipelines about 17,000 kilometers, and product oil pipelines about 7,000 kilometers. Oil and gas pipeline networks across regions have taken shape.

  13. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  14. STATUS AND PROSPECT OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the exploration and development of natural gas and the increase of crude oil import, the industry of China's Oil and Gas Pipelines has witnessed rapid development. Especially the gas pipeline industry is entering a peak period of development. Thanks to the completion and operation of large-scale pipeline projects including West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline project,Shanxi-Beijing Gas Pipeline Ⅱ, Ji-Ning Pipeline,Huaiyang-Wuhan Pipeline, Guangdong LNG Pipeline,Western Pipeline and Pearl River Delta Oil Product Pipeline, many trans-regional gas and oil pipeline networks with initial scale have been gradually established and improved in China. Meanwhile, the metallurgy,manufacturing and construction level of pipelines has been greatly developed, achieving world top level. The next five years is still a peak period of development for China's gas and oil pipeline industry which will enjoy a broader prospect.

  15. Alaska Federal Oil and Gas Historical Leases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the outlines for historic (i.e., relinquished or inactive) federal oil and gas leases in the Alaska OCS Region through sale 193. They...

  16. Hazard identification studies applied to oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savio, Augusto; Alpert, Melina L. [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: asavio@tecna.com, e-mail: malpert@tecna.com

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess risks inherent to an Oil Pipeline, it is imperative to analyze what happens 'outside the process'. HAZID (HAZard IDentification) studies are mainly carried out for this purpose. HAZID is a formal study which identifies hazards and risks associated to an operation or facility and enable its acceptability assessment. It is a brainstorming exercise guided by a typical 'Checklist', divided into four Sections: External, Facilities and Health Hazards and Issues pertaining to Project Execution, which are further subdivided into Hazard Categories. For each Category, there are 'Guide-words' and 'Prompts'. Even if an Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment can be performed by means of the above referred 'Checklist', carrying out the actual process can become lengthy and annoying due to the lack of specificity. This work aims at presenting the most suitable 'Checklist' for the identification of Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment, although it could be used for Gas Pipeline Risk Assessment too. Prepared ad hoc, this list, is based on the spill causes established by CONCAWE (CONservation of Clean Air Water in Europe). Performing Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment by means of specially formulated Checklist enables the Study Team to easily identify risks, shortens execution time and provides both accuracy and specificity. (author)

  17. Grooving corrosion of seam welded oil pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hanafy El-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    24” pipeline carrying oil was failed in the form of longitudinal crack at the 6 O’clock position resulting in oil spill. The failed pipe was investigated to reveal the main cause of its failure. The procedure of investigation was built on studying the intact pipe, rupture area, parent material, and intact weld. Results of chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the pipe material were confirmed with the specified standard. Cracks were originated from weld defected sites...

  18. KENYA’S OIL PIPELINE AND TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The threat of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on the critical infrastructure (oil pipeline in Kenya has brought to the attention the strategic issue of the energy sector security, highlighting the potential vulnerabilities of this sector. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP should be a key component of the national security especially after the Kenya Defence Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia. The merger of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist groups and the accelerated grenades attack against Kenya in retaliation has become the centre of the debate on terrorism and internal security of the Kenya. The energy resources are strategic assets from the security, political and economic point of view. Kenya as an oil transit country is considered of primary strategic importance at international level. International terrorism has always looked with interest at the oil resource in order to meet its political and economic targets. We argue that Kenya’s oil pipelines are vulnerable to Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attack. In summary, the article looks at the concept of terrorism within the framework of critical infrastructure protection, the dangers of attacks on oil pipelines, Kenya’s government preparedness and recommendations.

  19. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2009,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 75×103 km.The pipelines include 38×103 km of gas pipelines,20×103km of crude oil pipelines and 17×103 km of oil product pipelines,framing a trans-regional pipeline network for the oil and gas delivery.

  20. Express Crude Oil Pipeline Final Environmental Impact Statement

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management

    1996-01-01

    Express Pipeline, Inc. (Express) proposes to construct, maintain, and operate a 24-inch crude oil pipeline from the U.S. (Montana)/Canada border near Wild Horse to Casper, Wyoming. The project (the proposed action ) would include the 515-mile pipeline, five pump stations, numerous mainline block and check valves, and a meter station. Initially, the pipeline would be capable of transporting 172,000 barrels per day of Canadian crude oil to Casper, Wyoming. Construction is scheduled from July th...

  1. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  2. Development Prospect of Oil & Gas Pipelines of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yaorong; Chen Hao; Zhang Jinjun; Zhang Kegang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Technology progress of oil & gas pipelines transportation project of CNPC since the 11th Five-Year Plan period An introduction to oil & gas pipelines transportationproject As a large industrious system, pipelines transportation industry is playing a more and more important role in oil and natural gas industry even in the world economy.Thanks to the efforts of 40 years, substantial progress has been achieved in the oil & gas pipelines construction in China. Till now, long distance oil & gas transportation trunk pipelines with large caliber have been completed one after another, with a total length exceeding 50 thousand kilometers (kin). CNPC boasts a long distancel and oil transportation pipeline of 30 thousand km.

  3. CPECC Contracts Oil Products Pipeline Construction in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong

    2002-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Engineering & Construction Corporation (CPECC), a subsidiary of CNPC, and Pak-Arab Pipeline Company (PARCO) of Pakistan have recently reached an agreement to confirm the US$317-million contract for construction a pipeline for oil products in Pakistan by CPECC. The project is called the white oil pipeline project (WOPP)running from Karachi to Mahmood Kot, the distribution center of oil products in the northwest part of the country.

  4. Development Prospect of Oil & Gas Pipelines of CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yaorong; Chen Hao; Zhang Jinjun; Zhang Kegang

    2008-01-01

    Prospect of engineering technologies for pipelines in China In recent years, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has made remarkable achievements in the field of oil and gas transmission pipeline engineering. The demand for oil and gas has increased a lot, along with the rapid development of national economy and the improvement of people's living standard. In the days to come, China will witness an even greater development in the engineering construction of oil and gas transmission pipelines.

  5. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  6. Fish and wildlife survey of the Atigun River after the June 10, 1979 Alyeska Pipeline crude oil spill

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A crude oil spill estimated at 60 – 10,000 gallons was discovered at the Alyeska Trans Alaska Pipeline on the north side of Atigun Pass in the Brooks Range on June...

  7. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  8. Grooving corrosion of seam welded oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hanafy El-Sayed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 24” pipeline carrying oil was failed in the form of longitudinal crack at the 6 O’clock position resulting in oil spill. The failed pipe was investigated to reveal the main cause of its failure. The procedure of investigation was built on studying the intact pipe, rupture area, parent material, and intact weld. Results of chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the pipe material were confirmed with the specified standard. Cracks were originated from weld defected sites, initiated by grooving corrosion, propagated by inertia at the normal designed pressure condition, and stopped when stress relief is attained. It is recommended to use high quality ERW pipe, with its seam weld line positioned around the 12 O’clock during installation, to minimize and decelerate grooving corrosion. It is also important to perform regular or routine inspection, on suitable intervals, determined by past experience.

  9. Radiographic Determination of Flow pigs in Oil Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipeline pigs are devices that are inserted into and travel throughout the length of a pipeline driven by a product flow. They are used for pipeline cleaning, pipeline protection and flow assurance in the oil, gas and other process industries. During a pigging process to clean a pipeline transporting refined petroleum oil from Buipe to Bolgatanga both in the Northern part of Ghana, the movement of the pig was obstructed leading to a blockage somewhere in the pipeline. Based on information from a pig signaler, radiographic inspections were carried on a portion of the pipeline to locate the exact position of the pig. The radiographs obtained revealed that the pig was located 50cm from a reference point and the battery component was disjointed

  10. Current Status and Prospects of Oil and Gas Pipelines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ By the end of 2008,the total length of existing oil and gas pipelines in China had reached 6.3×104 km.These pipelines include 3.2×104 km of natural gas pipelines,1.8×104 km of crude oil pipelines and 1.3×104 km of oil products pipelines,laying the foundation for establishing a network of trans-regional oil and gas pipelines.

  11. Environmental considerations in a high desert, crude oil pipeline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A road grader punctured a high-pressure crude oil pipeline in the California high desert resulting in the release of approximately 4,200 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil. Oil sprayed over a steeply sloped hillside and flowed into an adjacent, densely vegetated ephemeral stream channel which carried secondary treatment sewage discharge. Three underflow dams were constructed in the channel within 2.8 km of the site. To ensure containment at the first dam, the sewage discharge was diverted from the channel, eventually to an upland impulse sprinkler irrigation system. Channel water and phase-separated ANS crude oil, impounded behind the first dam, percolated through alluvial sands/gravels to a depth of about five meters. The oil percolated through the soils on the receding surface of the water, affecting soils to an equivalent depth and saturating a horizontally narrow band of stream-bank soils as much as two to four meters into the bank. Stream channel undergrowth and a small number of mature trees were cleared to provide access for cleanup and/or to remove oiled plants. A large number of trees experienced partial leaf-drop within 25 days of the spill while two heavily oiled trees died. New vegetative growth was evident within five weeks of the spill. Site restoration included planting cuttings of five riparian tree species and hydroseeding exposed banks. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from not detectable to 203,000 parts per million and averaged approximately 25,000 ppm in affected soils as sampled in place and in stockpiles. Approximately 30,000 tons of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was excavated from the length of the stream channel (3,600 tons) as well as the area behind the first dam and spill site (26,400 tons). All soils were staged on site for waste profiling and final disposition. After treatment, the contaminated soil was beneficially reused as daily cover at a southern California landfill at a turnkey cost of approximately $57/ton

  12. Continuously Innovating Technology of Oil and Gas Pipeline in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Shihong; Yang Tianbing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Through fifty years' development and effort,oil and gas pipeline industry in China has created a selfdevelopment way under the country's characteristics which relies on scientific and technological innovation and introduction,assimilation and re-innovation.Along with the completion and application of West-East Gas Transmission Pipeline Ⅰ and starting construction of Line West-East Gas Transmission Pipeline Ⅱ,in the main technology field such as design and construction,the whole oil and gas pipeline industry has reached the international advanced level,even some have reached the international top level at present.Thanks to the development process of current economic globalization and technology internationalization,scientific and technological innovation as the inevitable choice to realize continuous,effective,fast and harmonious development of China oil and gas pipeline technology.

  13. China-Russia Oil Pipeline Comes under Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The long-awaited oil pipeline linking Russia's far east to China's northeast is set to start operation by the end of 2010, Zhou Jiping, Vice President of ChinaNational Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) confirmed in Beijing at a conference in late April. The pipeline runs from Skovorodino, Russia to China's northeastern city of Daqing.

  14. Alaska oil and gas: Energy wealth or vanishing opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Harrison, W.E.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically identify and review (a) the known and undiscovered reserves and resources of arctic Alaska, (b) the economic factors controlling development, (c) the risks and environmental considerations involved in development, and (d) the impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Alaska North Slope Oil Delivery System (ANSODS). 119 refs., 45 figs., 41 tabs.

  15. Current State and Prospect of China's Oil and Gas Pipeline Deveopment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By the end of 2010, China has completed 85,000 kilometers of oil and gas pipelines in length, of which natural gas pipelines were 45,000 kilometers, crude oil pipelines were 22,000 kilometers, and products pipelines were 18,000 kilometers. An oil and gas

  16. Allowable Differential Settlement of Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Faeli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The allowable settlement of pipelines has been mentioned rarely in design references and codes. The present paper studies the effects of differential settlement of pipeline bed on resulted forces and deformations and then determines the allowable differential settlement of pipelines in two conditions as follows: (i heterogeneous soil bed and (ii adjacent to steel tanks. To accomplish the studies, numerical simulation of pipeline is used. The pipeline bed is idealized by Winkler springs and four-element standard viscoelastic Burger model. Also, the use of geosynthetic reinforcement is studied in heterogeneous soil beds and the effect of geosynthetics on decreasing the settlement is investigated. The pipeline-tank joints in two cases of fixed and flexible joints are investigated and the results for two kinds of joints are compared.

  17. Overcoming regulatory, political and operational challenges to boost Alaska E and P and pipeline activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation addressed a range of issues associated with the development of the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline, including fundamentals regarding North American gas supply and demand for power generation, industrial use and residential and commercial use; pipeline routing. It also addressed issues regarding the United States Energy Bill and Alaska readiness in terms of regulatory approvals and right-of-way applications, TransCanada readiness, and other key issues. Natural gas supply from the East Coast, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, United States Rockies, Gulf of Mexico and other localities in the United States were illustrated in a graph along with natural gas market prices and a comparison of recent NYMEX gas price forecasts. The author indicates that 10 to 15 billion cubic feet per day of new supply will be needed. The Mackenzie project continues to work towards an in-service date of 2009. However, a strong competitor and alternative to northern gas is liquefied natural gas (LNG). The issue of integrating Alaskan gas into the existing Alberta pipeline grid was also discussed along with technologies to improve pipeline costs and issues regarding First Nation consultations. TransCanada believes that Alaskan gas can be delivered to markets in the United States by 2012 if existing pipeline infrastructures are used as well as existing legislation in Canada. 4 figs

  18. Building Alaska's Science and Engineering Pipeline: Evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hamutal; Martin, Carlos; Eyster, Lauren; Anderson, Theresa; Owen, Stephanie; Martin-Caughey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Urban Institute conducted an implementation and participant-outcomes evaluation of the Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP). ANSEP is a multi-stage initiative designed to prepare and support Alaska Native students from middle school through graduate school to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)…

  19. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. PMID:17286169

  20. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  1. Pipeline design software and the simulation of liquid propane/butane-light oils pipeline operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J. [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive and integrated suite of computer software routines has been developed to simulate the flow of liquids in pipelines. The fluid properties module accommodates Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids or mixtures including corrections for changes in properties with temperature and pressure. The hydraulic model calculates pressure drop in single or looped pipelines based on the diameter, route (length) and profile data provided. For multi-product pipelines the hydraulics module estimates energy loss for any sequence of batches given the size and fluid properties of each batch, and the velocity in the pipeline. When the characteristics of existing or proposed pipeline pumps are included, location and size of pumps can be optimized. The effect of heat loss on pressure drop is predicted by invoking the module which calculates the fluid temperature profile based on operating conditions, fluid properties, pipe and insulation conductivity and soil heat transfer data. Modules, created to simulate heater or cooler operations, can be incorporated to compensate for changes in temperature. Input data and calculated results can be presented in a format customized by the user. The simulation software has been successfully applied to multi-product, fuel oil, and non-Newtonian emulsion pipelines. The simulation and operation of a refinery products pipeline for the transportation of propane, butane, gasline, jet and diesel batches will be discussed. The impact of high vapor pressure batches (i.e., propane and butane) on the operation of the pipeline and on the upstream and downstream facilities will be examined in detail.

  2. Pipeline flow of heavy oil with temperature-dependent viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza Quinones, Danmer; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msc@puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    The heavy oil produced offshore needs to be transported through pipelines between different facilities. The pipelines are usually laid down on the seabed and are submitted to low temperatures. Although heavy oils usually present Newtonian behavior, its viscosity is a strong function of temperature. Therefore, the prediction of pressure drops along the pipelines should include the solution of the energy equation and the dependence of viscosity to temperature. In this work, an asymptotic model is developed to study this problem. The flow is considered laminar and the viscosity varies exponentially with temperature. The model includes one-dimensional equations for the temperature and pressure distribution along the pipeline at a prescribed flow rate. The solution of the coupled differential equation is obtained by second-order finite difference. Results show a nonlinear behavior as a result of coupled interaction between the velocity, temperature, and temperature dependent material properties. (author)

  3. 75 FR 34959 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 342 Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index June... pipeline pricing index established in Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy... beginning July 2001.\\5\\ In its second five-year review of the oil pricing index, the Commission adopted...

  4. Predicting wear of hydrotransport pipelines in oil sand slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, J.; Lu, B.; Wolodko, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kiel, D. [Coanda Research and Development Corp., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of erosion and corrosion methods and techniques was presented. Wear to pipelines is influenced by slurry flow and chemistry; solids loading; and electrochemical interactions. While several experimental techniques have been developed to rank the performance of different pipeline materials, experiments do not currently provide accurate quantitative prediction of pipeline wear in the field. Rotating cylinder electrodes (RCE) and jet impingement methods are used to study the effect of flow velocity on corrosion rate. Slurry pot erosion-corrosion testers are used to rank materials for use in more dilute, less turbulent slurries. Coriolois slurry erosion testers are used to rank the erosion resistance of different pipeline materials. A pilot-scale flow loop is now being constructed by the Alberta Research Council (ARC) in order to replicate wet erosion phenomena in oil sands applications. The flow loop will be used to simulate the field conditions of oil sands pipelines and develop predictive wear data and models. Coulombic shear stress and characteristic wall velocities have been determined using a 2-layer model designed to represent flow as 2 distinct layers. To date, the flow loop pilot study has demonstrated that wear rates in smaller diameter flow loops are not significantly different than larger diameter field installations. Preliminary calculations have demonstrated that the flow loop can be used to accurately simulate the hydrodynamics and wear typically experienced in field slurry flows. 67 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company requesting new or changed depreciation rates pursuant to part 347 of this title if the proposed...

  6. Oil Pipelines, Oil pipelines in Coffee County, GA, Published in 2000, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Oil Pipelines dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2000. It is described as 'Oil...

  7. Jet mixing of water in crude oil pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The jet mixing of water in crude oil pipelines by single nozzle and multi-nozzle mixers was studied by dividing the mixing domain into to three regions. the penetration. near field and farfield regions. At the penetration region the quantitative experimental data were aided by a flow visualisation study in an attempt to to form fundamental semi-empirical correlations to estimate the entrainment rate of stratified water from the bottom and the Sauter mean diameter of the e...

  8. The oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGrange A.R.

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound Alaska, on March 24, 1989, treatment centres for sea otters were set up at Valdez, Seward and Homer. Otter survival rates were lower at Valdez than at Seward, probably because the animals collected were closer to the spill in time and space, and oil toxicity was at a maximum. Otters collected in Prince William Sound were predominantly female and pregnant or lactating. Weathered oil persists in otter habitats throughout the spill zone - long term studies are underway to assess the effects of this.

  9. Full-scale chilled pipeline frost heave testing, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, B. [Northern Engineering and Scientific, Anchorage, AK (United States); Isaacs, R.M. [RMI Associates, Camano Island, WA (United States); Myrick, J.E. [Myrick International, Tyler, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a chilled pipeline frost-heave testing facility that was developed to simulate and record the rate of frost heave and frost-bulb growth for a buried, chilled pipeline in frost-susceptible soil and to determine the effectiveness of different mitigation techniques. The test facility, which was established near Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1979, has 10 test sections using 1.22-metre-diameter pipe. The testing involved un-insulated, insulated, and insulated with over-excavation and gravel berm configurations as well as the frost heave of the chilled pipeline. The test facility was described in detail. Frost heave and frost-bulb growth measurements from the first 10 months of testing were presented, as these are the first data to enter the public domain. The testing was undertaken to investigate the frost-heave relationships between sections, to better understand frost heave in permafrost, to explore possible mitigation options, and to advance the predicative capabilities of frost heave models. 12 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  10. North Slope pipeline work strong; gas pipeline project deferred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.

    1982-09-01

    Over 225 miles of insulated pipelines will be installed on the North Slope as part of a 5-year, $10.5 billion program by Sohio and Arco to maintain output from the field to feed the trans-Alaska oil pipeline. New lines are for waterflood supply systems, low pressure production systems, produced water handling, and gas handling. Pipeline construction is quite active at both Prudhoe Bay and at Kuparuk Field. Future projects include an oil line to the Beaufort Sea, the Polar Gas Project, the Arctic Pilot project, and the Northern Tier Pipeline.

  11. 77 FR 14006 - Proposed Development of the Alaska Stand Alone Gas Pipeline Project (ASAP), From the North Slope...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Proposed Development of the Alaska Stand Alone Gas Pipeline... January 20, 2012, issue of the Federal Register (77 FR No. 13), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  12. 77 FR 34458 - Pipeline Safety: Requests for Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ..., Alaska. The pipeline is intended to transport natural gas from the oil and gas producers on the Alaskan... received from Norgasco, Inc., and BreitBurn Energy Company LP, two natural gas pipeline operators, seeking... permits from two natural gas pipeline operators, Norgasco, Inc., (``NI''), and BreitBurn Energy Company...

  13. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  15. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil

  16. Compensated Mass Balance Method For Oil Pipeline Leakage Detection using SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaid A. Karim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Having extracting oil from reservoir below the ground surface, and after processing, the products are transported through a network of oil pipelines to oil terminals. Thus, oil pipelines play a major role of the economic structure. However, oil pipelines could be subjected to damage due to many reasons like (i Pipeline corrosion or wear, (ii Operation outside the design limits, (iii Unintentional third-party damage and (iv Intentional damage. As a result of this damage, oil would leak from pipelines, which leads to loss of life and property, cost of lost product and line downtime, environmental cleanup cost, possible fines and legal suits. The biggest challenge in this industry is to come up with a pipeline leak detection method that will accurately detect leaks in a timely fashion. There are several methods which lead to detection of pipeline leakage. In most Yemeni oil fields pipeline leakage is detected by fiber optics sensing method which is expensive or by visual inspection using experienced personnel who walk along a pipeline, looking for unusual patterns near the pipeline. In this paper, we are going to implement a different and cost effective method using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA system. Simulation has been performed using Rockwell Automation Software Products. The results so obtained are presented and discussed.

  17. The pipeline oil pumping engineering based on the Plant Wide Control technology

    OpenAIRE

    Starikov, Dmitry Pavlovich; Rybakov, Evgeniy Aleksandrovich; Gromakov, Evgeny Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for the use technology Plant Wide Control to control the pumping of oil through the pipeline. The proposed engineering using pipeline management in general (Pipe Wide Control) will reduce the loss of electric power at the expense of the balance of pumping stations located along the pipeline route.

  18. Dynamical Mechanisms of Effects of Landslides on Long Distance Oil and Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qingwen; WANG Chenghua; KONG Jiming

    2006-01-01

    According to the investigations on the oil and gas pipelines such as the Lan-Cheng-Chong pipeline and the Southwest pipeline, there are two ways of laying pipeline: pipelines paralleling (approximately) to the main slide direction and pipelines perpendicular (approximately) to the main slide direction. If earth-retaining walls have been built for pipelines paralleling to the main slide direction, they will prevent the lands from sliding; On the contrary, without earth-retaining walls, the sharp broken rocks in the backfilling soil will scratch the safeguard of the pipeline when the landslides take place. Pipelines perpendicular to the main slide direction can be classified into four types according to the relative positions between pipelines and landslides: Pipelines over the slide planes, pipelines inside the fracture strips of slide planes, pipelines below the slide planes and pipelines behind the backsides of landslides. The different dynamical mechanisms of the process in which landslide acts against pipelines are analyzed based on whether the pipelines are equipped with fixed frusta, because the sliding resistance depends on whether and how many fixed frusta are equipped and the distance between frusta.

  19. 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Attanasi, E.D.; Garrity, C.P.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Pollastro, R.M.; Cook, T.A.; and Klett, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 896 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 53 trillion cubic feet (TCFG) of nonassociated natural gas in conventional, undiscovered accumulations within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent State waters. The estimated volume of undiscovered oil is significantly lower than estimates released in 2002, owing primarily to recent exploration drilling that revealed an abrupt transition from oil to gas and reduced reservoir quality in the Alpine sandstone 15-20 miles west of the giant Alpine oil field. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has been the focus of oil exploration during the past decade, stimulated by the mid-1990s discovery of the adjacent Alpine field-the largest onshore oil discovery in the United States during the past 25 years. Recent activities in NPRA, including extensive 3-D seismic surveys, six Federal lease sales totaling more than $250 million in bonus bids, and completion of more than 30 exploration wells on Federal and Native lands, indicate in key formations more gas than oil and poorer reservoir quality than anticipated. In the absence of a gas pipeline from northern Alaska, exploration has waned and several petroleum companies have relinquished assets in the NPRA. This fact sheet updates U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates of undiscovered oil and gas in NPRA, based on publicly released information from exploration wells completed during the past decade and on the results of research that documents significant Cenozoic uplift and erosion in NPRA. The results included in this fact sheet-released in October 2010-supersede those of a previous assessment completed by the USGS in 2002.

  20. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD 27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This polyline data set contains the locations of oil and gas pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf federal waters that are associated with the oil...

  1. Condition prediction models for oil and gas pipelines using regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    El-Abbasy, M.; Senouci, A; Zayed, T.; Mirahadi, F.; Parvizsedghy, L.

    2014-01-01

    Although they are the safest means of transporting oil and gas products, pipelines can sometimes fail with hazardous consequences and large business losses. The decision to replace, repair, or rehabilitate depends mainly on the condition of the pipeline. Assessing and predicting its condition is therefore a key step in the maintenance plan of a pipeline. Several models have recently been developed to predict pipeline failures and conditions. However, most of these models were limited to the u...

  2. Modeling of Non-equilibrium Processes in Oil Trunk Pipeline Using Godunov Type Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumskoi, S. I.; Sverchkov, A. M.

    The Article presents the numerical method of solving the system of one-dimensional non-stationary equations describing oil movement in the oil pipeline. The method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the oil pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. This new developed method can be applied for relaxation non-equilibrium flow case, that can't be modeling using another methods. Also this method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the liquefied hydrocarbon pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. Phase non-equilibrium flow is considered for boiling liquids transporting pipeline.

  3. Spatial variation in spring CO2 efflux along the trans-Alaska pipeline, Alaska: Contribution of spring carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Spring soil CO2 efflux-measurement was conducted in representative sites along the trans-Alaska pipeline during 2010 to 2012 for the understanding of spatial variation in spring CO2 efflux response to change in snow-melting timing. The sites is 3 tundra sites (coastal tundra, upland tundra, upland tundra, and sub-alpine tundra), 2 white spruce sites in tundra-boreal forest ecotone, and Gold Creek, and 3 black spruce sites in Coldfoot, upper and lower reaches of the Yukon River. Soil CO2 efflux-measurement, which is a portable manual chamber CO2 efflux system, was conducted during snow-covered and snow-melting periods, minimizing artificial effects. CO2 effluxes in snow-covered and exposed soils showed a significantly difference, suggesting that spring CO2 efflux is much higher than that in snow-covered soil. The efflux was measured at 4-direction due to the difference of exposed extent, implying the magnitude of CO2 production. Average diameter in breast height (DBH: 85 × 11 cm) of white spruce is much thicker than black spruce (DBH: 33 × 5 cm), suggesting the difference of heat uptake and emission capacity between both forests. Soil temperature at 5 cm below the surface is one of significant keys in determining soil CO2 efflux. The magnitude of spring CO2 efflux showed white spruce, black spruce, and tundra in turn, suggesting that spring CO2 efflux (> 8 gC/m2/day) of corresponds to summer soil CO2 efflux. Then, spring soil CO2 efflux should be not overlooked the contribution of annual soil carbon efflux in spite of difficulties in snow-disappeared timing and springtime.

  4. OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: EXPERIENCES, LESSONS AND RESULTS FROM THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL IN ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. ield studies conducted by sci...

  5. METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF POWER-EFFICIENCY IN RECONSTRUCTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF OIL PIPELINE PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Коlesnik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a method and presents nomographs for determination of power-efficiency of oil pipeline operation in the case of transition from one pipeline system configuration to another one. This method is based on the usage of new configuration characteristics of a linear part of multi-line oil pipeline. It allows to analyze only the changed part of the pipeline system. The proposed configuration characteristics are based on recalculation of the length of input/output pipeline with specific diameter to the similar length of the pipeline with a conventional diameter and it is numerically equal to an extent of a laid pipeline with a conventional diameter from an initial time moment t0 to a time moment t.

  6. Corrosion Prevention And Control In High Pressure Oil And Gas Transmission Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the start of the 1990s there were concerns over the increasing threat of corrosion to the integrity of high-pressure oil and gas transmission pipelines. For example: corrosion was the major cause of reportable incidents in North America (1]. Corrosion was the major cause of pipeline failure in the Gulf of Mexico [2]. Corrosion in a North American onshore oil pipeline had required over $1 billion in repairs(3]. Internal corrosion along the complete length of pipelines had resulted in replacement[4] . However, the worldwide published failure statistics indicate that the incidents of corrosion are not increasing year on year(5-9]. Indeed, CONCA WE[8,9] statistics (for pipelines In Western Europe) show that the failure rate from corrosion (the most likely failure mode with increasing age) has not increased with pipeline age (Figure 1). In fact the statistics for gas pipelines in Europe

  7. Community-based oil spill response in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banta, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States); Munger, M. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council are independent, non profit organizations formed in 1989 following the Exxon Valdez oil spill to promote the concept of community-based oil spill response (COSR) in their respective regions. COSR involves local citizens in responding to oil spilled in waters they rely upon for income, recreation and subsistence. The 2 advisory councils recently held a Community Oil Spill Response Forum to review the status of existing COSR teams and to share information about past and future COSR-related efforts. The meeting served as an information exchange process about regulatory programs, COSR variations in communities and harbors, training, and personnel issues. Key groups attending the forum were harbor masters, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, United States Coast Guard, existing COSR teams, oil response organizations, local community governments, and volunteers from the advisory councils. This paper was based on the notes taken from the forum. It was agreed that the current system is inadequate in its response to small spills that are frequently associated with non-tank vessels. It was suggested that improved capacity for community-based response could address the situation. It was also suggested that work groups should meet on an annual or biannual basis to continue to educate responders and communities about oil spill response. 7 refs.

  8. Buoyancy-driven leakage of oil from a ruptured submarine pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts various mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and sea-water is difficult to estimate. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  9. Exchange Flow of Oil and Sea-Water in a Ruptured Submarine Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    The rupture of a submarine oil pipeline starts var10US mechanisms leading to an oil spill. Among these mechanisms the leakage of oil driven by the difference in specific gravities of oil and seawater is difficult to quantify. A simple mathematical model has been developed and laboratory experiments

  10. Provincial impacts of Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact that the construction and operation of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will have on the Canadian economy was examined. Part 2 of this report presents a series of assumptions where the changes to the economy were explained with reference to the cost of developing facilities, revenues earned by their operations and other determinants that affect jurisdictional and sectorial impacts. The third part of the report presents the implications for the Northwest Territories/Yukon, British Columbia and Alberta since they are the regions that will be directly impacted by the AHPP. The significance of the development that extend beyond the immediately impacted regions was also assessed. For the impact analysis procedure, a base case forecast of the economy was prepared, assuming the project does not go ahead. This was followed by an impact case forecast of the economy in which the pipeline is developed and operated. Direct, indirect and induced effects were described. Two impact cases were considered for both national and regional studies. For the first case, all changes in government balances from increased revenues were assumed to go directly into debt reduction or acquisition of financial assets. For the second case, the governments recycle the increased revenue using a lower employment insurance contribution rate, and keeping federal business tax revenue and federal personal income tax revenue equal to the base case. The general effect of the second scenario is to increase the induced effects by increasing disposable income through lower tax rates. The report examined assumptions in the construction phase with reference to capital costs and construction employment. It also examined assumptions in the operational phase with reference to transportation services and operations employment. 7 tabs., 12 figs

  11. Mechanical Analysis of Submarine Oil Pipelines Considering Overhanging of Transition Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to protect the safety of the submarine pipelines by establishing and analyzing mechanical model of the overhanging pipeline. The calculation equations of the force and deformation of the overhanging pipeline are presented in this study. In especial, the transition section is introduced to analyze the overhanging oil pipeline. The calculation equations of the moment, stress and deformation of the overhanging pipeline by considering the premise of sediment reaction are created. The software FORTRAN is used to carry out numerical simulation and the changing laws of bending moment, stress and deformation of overhanging pipeline are obtained. On the basis, the calculation equations of maximum bending moment, maximum stress and maximum deformation can be also obtained. Therefore, theoretical support for calculating submarine pipelines is provided, which has great significance for the analysis and treatment of the overhanging of submarine pipelines.

  12. Involvement of thermophilic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidova, Irene A; Duncan, Kathleen E; Perez-Ibarra, B Monica; Suflita, Joseph M

    2012-07-01

    Two thermophilic archaea, strain PK and strain MG, were isolated from a culture enriched at 80°C from the inner surface material of a hot oil pipeline. Strain PK could ferment complex organic nitrogen sources (e.g. yeast extract, peptone, tryptone) and was able to reduce elemental sulfur (S°), Fe(3+) and Mn(4+) . Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the organism belonged to the order Thermococcales. Incubations of this strain with elemental iron (Fe°) resulted in the abiotic formation of ferrous iron and the accumulation of volatile fatty acids during yeast extract fermentation. The other isolate, strain MG, was a H(2) :CO(2) -utilizing methanogen, phylogenetically affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter family. Co-cultures of the strains grew as aggregates that produced CH(4) without exogenous H(2) amendment. The co-culture produced the same suite but greater concentrations of fatty acids from yeast extract than did strain PK alone. Thus, the physiological characteristics of organisms both alone and in combination could conceivably contribute to pipeline corrosion. The Thermococcus strain PK could reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide, produce fatty acids and reduce ferric iron. The hydrogenotrophic methanogen strain MG enhanced fatty acid production by fermentative organisms but could not couple the dissolution Fe° with the consumption of water-derived H(2) like other methanogens.

  13. Oil pipeline performance review 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 : Technical/statistical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a summary of the pipeline performance and reportable pipeline failures of liquid hydrocarbon pipelines in Canada, for the years 1995 through 1998. The year 1994 was the last one for which the Oil Pipeline Performance Review (OPPR) was published on an annual basis. The OPPR will continue to be published until such time as the Pipeline Risk Assesment Sub-Committee (PRASC) has obtained enough pipeline failure data to be aggregated into a meaningful report. The shifts in the mix of reporting pipeline companies is apparent in the data presented, comparing the volumes transported and the traffic volume during the previous ten-year period. Another table presents a summary of the failures which occurred during the period under consideration, 1995-1998, allowing for a comparison with the data for the previous ten-year period. From the current perspective and from an historical context, this document provides a statistical review of the performance of the pipelines, covering refined petroleum product pipelines, clean oil pipelines and High Vapour Pressure (HVP) pipelines downstream of battery limits. Classified as reportable are spills of 1.5 cubic metre or more of liquid hydrocarbons, any amount of HVP material, any incident involving an injury, a death, a fire, or an explosion. For those companies that responded to the survey, the major items, including number of failures and volumes released are accurate. Samples of the forms used for collecting the information are provided within the document. 6 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Efficiency estimation of electrical protection in the underground oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The method of determination damage, caused by installation of protectors unsufficient quantity in underground oil and gas pipelines group, is offered in this article. The method is based in comparison the pipeline protection zones among themselyes with a choice of protectors number

  15. Oil and Gas Pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico from BOEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A line file representing locations of the pipeline infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico associated with the oil and gas industry is presented. These layers were...

  16. Fracture risk assessment of trunk oil pipeline by corrosion fatigue mechanism of service defects development

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyl Luzhetskyy

    2013-01-01

    Engineering estimations of the corrosion fracture velocity of oil pipelines have been given, which include both mechanical and physical-chemical interaction operation factors of strained material with workspace. Characteristics of cyclic corrosion crack resistance of a pipe metal of the exploited oil-trunk pipeline with the regard for operating production factors have been defined. New data about corrosive and fatigue failure of pipes in dependence on the initial sizes and forms of their dete...

  17. Determination of the most suitable oil pipeline route using GIS least cost path analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huseynli, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    The Keystone XL has a big role for transforming Canadian oil to the USA. The function of the pipeline is decreasing the dependency of the American oil industry on other countries and it will help to limit external debt. The proposed pipeline seeks the most suitable route which cannot damage agricultural and natural water recourses such as the Ogallala Aquifer. Using the Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, the suggested path in this study got extremely high correct results that ...

  18. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system composing of pipes, pumps, valves and storage facilities used to transport different types of liquids. Typically, products delivered by pipelines are petroleum of different grades moving either from production facilities to refineries or from refineries to distributors. Time-windows, which are generally used in logistics and scheduling areas, are incorporated in this study. The distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows is modeled as multicommodity network flow structure and mathematically formulated. The main focus of this dissertation is the investigation of operating issues and problem complexity of single-source pipeline problems and also providing solution methodology to compute input schedule that yields minimum total time violation from due delivery time-windows. The problem is proved to be NP-complete. The heuristic approach, a reversed-flow algorithm, is developed based on pipeline flow reversibility to compute input schedule for the pipeline problem. This algorithm is implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. This dissertation also extends the study to examine some operating attributes and problem complexity of multiple-source pipelines. The multiple-source pipeline problem is also NP-complete. A heuristic algorithm modified from the one used in single-source pipeline problems is introduced. This algorithm can also be implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. Computational results are presented for both methodologies on randomly generated problem sets. The computational experience indicates that reversed-flow algorithms provide good solutions in comparison with the optimal solutions. Only 25% of the problems tested were more than 30% greater than optimal values and

  19. Assessment of oil pollution as consequence of the oil leaks from seabed pipeline in the Bohai Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Li, X. [State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China); Goncharov, V.K. [St. Petersburg State Marine Technical Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Klementieva, N.Y. [Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    Although oil leaks from pipelines are less dangerous than a blowout of oil as a result of a pipeline break, the presence of oil in the ocean can have a devastating affect on the marine environment, particularly as oil leaks are difficult to detect and can occur over long periods of time. This paper discussed oil pollution in the Bohai Sea. Most of the crude oil in the Bohai oil fields is heavy and contains both paraffin and sand, both of which contribute to greater incidences of cracks and corrosion wormholes in pipes. The Main Points of Model for Assessment of Environmental Consequence of the Oil Leaks from Marine Pipeline (MAECOLMP) is based on the assumption that oil leaks from wormholes on seabed pipelines generate separate oil drops which float up to create a plume in the water. After their emergence on the sea surface, an oil slick forms, which has the shape of a serpentine strip extending along the surface in the direction of the current. The main parameters that define environmental oil pollution are: the dimensions of oil drops in the water; the dimension of the oil slick on the sea surface; and the carryover of crude oil on the coastline. According to the model, the assessment of environmental effects of the oil leaks from the sea bed consist of the following stages: selection of the probable position of wormholes in the pipeline and their size; calculation of the rate of the oil leak from the wormhole for selected sizes and positions; estimation of probable average sizes of oil drops for the selected diameter of wormhole; calculation of boundaries of the plume; calculation of the width and extension of the oil slicks for each selected position of the wormhole; and estimation of the volume of crude oil that can be carried over to the coastline in each case and detection of the most dangerous accident variant. This model permits the use of the Lagrangian description in order to take into account the difference in the velocities of emerging oil drops. It

  20. Development and Application of Oil-Spill Risk Assessment Model for Offshore Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yan; WANG Jia; WEI Wenpu; YANG Yong; AN Wei

    2014-01-01

    To the potential oil-spill risk caused by offshore pipeline more attention has been paid after the Dalian oil spill incident from oil-pipeline explosion. Since then an issue about how to prevent and control the sudden oil-spill from the offshore pipeline has been raised. In this paper, we proposed an optimized model to analyze the main causes (probability) of spill and the consequence with the fuzzy comprehensive assessment model. Considering the complicated assessment process for oil-spill, the assessment factor system involving the spill probability and consequence was established based on the operative manual and statistic leakage/damage data of offshore pipeline in order to estimate the integrated spill risk score automatically. The evaluated factors of spill probability could be grouped into five aspects:corrosion, fatigue, national damage, third party, and operational fault;the consequence evaluated factors of spill included hazard of oil and impact-controlling capability. With some modifications based on experts’ opinions, each of the evaluated factors in our work was developed with a relative weight and evaluation criterion. A test example for an offshore pipe-line in the Bohai waters was described to show how the model can be used for an actual case in more detail. By using the oil-spill risk assessment model, it is easy to determine the risk level associated with the ongoing activity and management level and hence to take the risk mitigation action immediately.

  1. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LONGITUDINAL SUBMERGED ARC WELDED STEEL PIPES USED FOR GAS PIPELINE OF OFFSHORE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Z. Yang; W. Tian; Q.R. Ma; Y.L. Li; J.K. Li; J.Z. Gao; H.B. Zhang; Y.H. Yang

    2008-01-01

    Since the development of offshore oil and gas, increased submarine oil and gas pipelines were installed. All the early steel pipes of submarine pipelines depended on importing because of the strict requirements of comprehensive properties, such as,anti-corrosion, resistance to pressure and so on. To research and develop domestic steel pipes used for the submarine pipeline, the Longitudinal-seam Submerged Arc Welded (LSAW) pipes were made of steel plates cut from leveled hot rolled coils by both the JCOE and UOE (the forming process in which the plate like the letter "J", "C", "O" or "U" shape, then expansion) forming processes. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the pipe base metal and weld metal were tested, and the results were in accordance with the corresponding pipe specification API SPEC 5L or DNV-OS-F101, which showed that domestic LSAW pipes could be used for submarine oil and gas pipelines.

  2. 78 FR 33103 - Call For Nominations and Comments for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... tracts for oil and gas leasing for the 2013 National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPR-A) oil and gas... Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 to contact the above individual during normal business hours. The FIRS...

  3. Using finite element method in the processof strength calculation for the pipeline supports in above-groundarea of "Zapolyar'e — NPS "PUR-PE" oil pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich; Varshitskiy Viktor Mironovich; Bondarenko Valeriy Vyacheslavovich; Korgin Andrey Valentinovich; Bogach Andrey Anatol'evich

    2014-01-01

    The present article studies a procedure of calculating the strength of pipeline support constructions of the above-ground oil trunk pipeline system «Zapolyar'e — oil pumping station «Pur-pe». The calculations of the supports stress-strain state are performed with the use of computer complex Ansys v13, which applies the finite element method. The article provides a short description of the construction of fixed, linear-sliding and free-sliding supports of the oil pipeline of above-ground routi...

  4. Model for the calculation of pressure loss through heavy fuel oil transfer pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luis Laurencio-Alfonso,

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limitations of methodologies and empirical correlations in the evaluation of simultaneous effects produced by viscous and mix strength during the transfer of fluids through pipelines, this article presents the functional relationships that describe the pressure variations for the non-Newtonian fuel oil flowrate. The experimental study was conducted based on a characterization of the rheological behavior of fuel oil and modeling for a pseudoplastic behavior. The resulting model describes temperature changes, viscous friction effects and the effects of blending flow layers; which is therefore the basis of calculation for the selection, evaluation and rationalization of transport of heavy fuel oil by pipelines.

  5. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Karchesy, Joe J.; Javier Peralta-Cruz; Mohammad A. Khasawneh; Yeping Xiong

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, val...

  6. Variation of yield stress of Daqing crude oil with pipelining history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 侯磊; 孙立新

    2008-01-01

    The yield stress of waxy crude oil is a fundamental parameter in the calculation of pipelining technique and analysis of flow safety for the heated oil transported through pipeline.Daqing crude oil was studied and the variation of yield stress with shear history was explored through simulation experiment of pipelining.It is found that the effect of throughput variation or shear rate on yield stress is not obvious.With the decrease of final dynamic cooling temperature,the yield stress of waxy crude oil decreases,but there exists a little increase at the beginning.The prediction model of yield stress for waxy crude oil under the condition of shutdown is developed and it can be used to predict the yield stress of Daqing crude oil at certain heating temperature,final dynamic cooling temperature and measurement temperature.For the 139 groups of yield stress data of Daqing crude oil from the simulation experiment of pipelining,the result of prediction with this model shows that the average relative deviation between the yield stress measured and predicted is 30.27%,and the coefficient of correlation is 0.962 3.

  7. Transient flow assurance for determination of operational control of heavy oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejo, Victor [TransCanada Pipelines Ltd, (Canada); Mohitpour, Mo [Tempsys Pipeline Solutions Inc., (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pipeline transmission systems have been designed traditionally using steady state simulations. Steady state simulation provided sufficient values for simple systems, but is limited in dealing with surges in flow rates, loss of facilities and facility operation. A dynamic approach is required to test the capacity of a system for various fluids. This paper investigated the use of transient analysis of liquid pipelines in order to improve the design of these pipelines and to achieve operational benefits. The transient method and its use are discussed. Dynamic analysis was applied to the Keystone Pipeline Project. The purpose of the study was first to determine the system capacity and data for transportation of Heavy DilBit, and then to implement batch transportation of a volume of synthetic crude oil. It was found that the use of transient modeling in design and operational assessment of a liquid pipeline ensures system capability, control, safety and integrity.

  8. Marine spill response planning for the non-persistent oil transportation industry in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique difficulties that face oil spill response planning for the oil transportation industry in Alaska were discussed. Three levels of response strategies and actions proposed by the Alaska Petroleum Distributors and Transporters (APD and T) member companies were reviewed. They were: (1) immediate response (on-board resources), (2) in-region response (caches in Subareas), and (3) out-of-region cascaded resources (from Anchorage and other sources). The strategies and levels of capability were proposed as emergency measures in addition to the more important prevention measures already instituted to prevent discharges of non-persistent oil. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  9. Assessment of potential oil and gas resources in source rocks of the Alaska North Slope, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Rouse, William A.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated potential, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for source rocks of the Alaska North Slope. Estimates (95-percent to 5-percent probability) range from zero to 2 billion barrels of oil and from zero to nearly 80 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  10. THE FATE AND EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL SPILLED ON SUBARCTIC PERMAFROST TERRAIN IN INTERIOR ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine both the short- and long-term effects of spills of hot Prudhoe Bay crude oil on permafrost terrain in subarctic interior Alaska. Two experimental oil spills of 7570 liters (2000 gallons) each on 500sqm test plots were made at a forest site un...

  11. National Wildlife Refuge System Oil and Gas Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of all pipeline activity, both past and present, located on National Wildlife Refuges. The dataset was acquired from the U.S. Department...

  12. Development of ecologically safe method for main oil and gas pipeline trenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmedov Asvar Mikdadovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Constructive, technical and technological reliability of major pipeline ensures ecological safety on different stages of life circle - beginning with project preparation activities up to the end of major pipeline operation. Even in the process of transition into new life circle stage, no matter if the pipeline needs major repairs or reconstruction, such technical and technological solutions should be found, which would preserve ecological stability of nature-anthropogenic system. Development of ecology protection technologies of construction, reconstruction and major repairs of main pipelines is of great importance not only for a region, but ensures ecological safety across the globe. The article presents a new way of trenching the main oil and gas pipeline, preservation and increase of ecological safety during its service. The updated technological plan is given in the paper for overhaul of the main oil and gas pipeline using the new technology of pipeline trenching. The suggested technical solution contributes to environment preservation with the help of deteriorating shells - the shells’ material decomposes into environment-friendly components: carbon dioxide, water and humus. The quantity of polluting agents in the atmosphere decreases with the decrease of construction term and quantity of technical equipment.

  13. Inter provincial input-output analysis of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using an inter provincial input-output model (IPIO) consisting of 10 provincial input-output matrix sets and 2 territorial IO matrix sets which were then interconnected through inter provincial trade flow. Changes in any province, industry or commodity will impact on other provinces, industries and commodities. The AHPP will cause investment and production of pipeline services to increase. Investment will require additional products from the economy that can come from domestic industries or imported from foreign markets. The purchase and installation of pipeline and any preparation costs would be associated with non-residential structure investment. The report refers to both machinery and equipment capital expenditures, and pipeline cost-of-service. Direct, indirect and induced effects were also examined. The construction phase impact for the Yukon segment of the AHPP will be $2,138 million from structures investment, and $1,231 million from machinery and equipment investment. For the British Columbia segment, the construction phase impact will be $1,711 million from structures investment and $927 million from machinery and equipment investment. The construction phase is expected to generate 50,000 person-years of employment in the Canadian economy over a 10 year construction period, with peak construction occurring in 2006. The construction phase is expected to generate $3,446 million of Gross Domestic Product for Canada, of which $2,318 million will be split between Yukon and British Columbia. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Effects of Pipeline Construction on Wetland Ecosystems: Russia-China Oil Pipeline Project (Mohe-Daqing Section)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaofei Yu; Guoping Wang; Yuanchun Zou; Qiang Wang; Hongmei Zhao; Xianguo Lu (Key Lab of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Inst. of Geography and Agroecology, Changchun (China)), e-mail: wangguoping@neigae.ac.cn

    2010-07-15

    Although the multiple roles of wetland ecosystems and their value to humanity have been increasingly understood and documented in recent years, the efforts to conserve and restore wetlands are not in harmony with the press for high speed of economy growth. The degradation of wetlands is proceeding, especially in China. Russia- China Oil Pipe-line Project (Mohe-Daqing Section) has already begun in May 2009, and is ongoing. The pipeline runs through four riverine wetlands and two marshlands of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. Although the project has vital significance of mitigating the energy crisis as well as guaranteeing the energy security of China, it will bring a series of ecological and environmental problems, especially for wetland ecosystems

  15. A combined kriging and stochastic method to map paraffin scale growth in oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, R. K.; Novrianto, A. R.; Rahmawati, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Paraffin is a common deposit in oil production pipeline. It occurs when the oil flowing-temperature is under Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) or pour-point temperature. Several prediction models so far only estimatethe location where the paraffin-wax is possibly formed and there is no prediction about paraffin-wax growth over time. Therefore, this paper presents a new mathematical model to accurately predict paraffin-wax growth in oil production pipeline. The proposed model contains stochastic and kriging method. The stochastic model is developed based on Markov and Poisson model and used to describe the generation time and growth of scale. Kriging model is then combined to describe the position of scale along the production pipeline. As the result of the combined model, paraffin-wax thickness can be mapped in space and time. This prediction is important to determine and decide an effective production operation and efficient investment.

  16. From the Silk Road to Chevron: The Geopolitics of Oil Pipelines in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fishelson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the struggle between Iran, Russia, China, and the US over their preferred pipeline routes for Central Asian oil and gas gives a good glimpse as to the world's future geopolitical order. Despite the formidable difficulties in building pipelines, those four powers are converging upon the region with an eagerness that is almost desperate. In previous eras, a country's military was the sole arbiter of her strength, but today her economy has become nearly as important, if not more so, and all industrial economies – and militaries – run on oil and gas. The US and China desire those resources to fuel their power plants, factories, automobiles, aircraft, and armored vehicles. Iran and Russia want the pipelines to go through their territory in order to claim transit fees and use the resources as political tools. For each country wresting control of the Central Asian oil and gas is necessarily a vital part of its grand strategy.

  17. Prediction Model Based on the Grey Theory for Tackling Wax Deposition in Oil Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Wu; Shujuan Qiu; Jianfeng Liu; Ling Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Problems involving wax deposition threaten seriously crude pipelines both economically and operationally. Wax deposition in oil pipelines is a complicated problem having a number of uncertainties and indeterminations. The Grey System Theory is a suitable theory for coping with systems in which some information is clear and some is not, so it is an adequate model for studying the process of wax deposition.In order to predict accurately wax deposition along a pipeline, the Grey Model was applied to fit the data of wax deposition rate and the thickness of the deposited wax layer on the pipe-wall, and to give accurate forecast on wax deposition in oil pipelines. The results showed that the average residential error of the Grey Prediction Model is smaller than 2%. They further showed that this model exhibited high prediction accuracy. Our investigation proved that the Grey Model is a viable means for forecasting wax deposition.These findings offer valuable references for the oil industry and for firms dealing with wax cleaning in oil pipelines.

  18. DISTRIBUTED OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR FOR LONG-DISTANCE OIL PIPELINE HEALTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A fully distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) for monitoring long-distance oil pipeline health is proposed based on optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR). A smart and sensitive optical fiber cable is installed along the pipeline acting as a sensor. The experiments show that the cable swells when exposed to oil and induced additional bending losses inside the fiber, and the optical attenuation of the fiber coated by a thin skin with periodical hardness is sensitive to deformation and vibration caused by oil leakage, tampering,or mechanical impact. The region where the additional attenuation occurred is detected and located by DOFS based on OTDR, the types of pipeline accidents are identified according to the characteristics of transmitted optical power received by an optical power meter. Another prototype of DOFS based on a forward traveling frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) is also proposed to monitor pipeline. The advantages and disadvantages of DOFSs based on OTDR and FMCW are discussed. The experiments show that DOFSs are capable of detecting and locating distant oil pipeline leakages and damages in real time with an estimated precision of ten meters over tens of kilometers.

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  20. Exploring the Feasibility of Robotic Pipeline Surveillance for Detecting Crude Oil Spills in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’tega A. Ejofodomi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have significant negative effects on the environment in which they occur, including damage to aquatic, aerial and terrestrial life. In the oil-producing Niger Delta, oil spillage is largely due to pipeline corrosion and crude oil theft and sabotage. This paper explores the feasibility of utilizing small mobile robots for early detection of ground oil leakage, a methodology defined as Ground Robotic Oil Spill Surveillance (GROSS. GROSS robot was constructed using iRobot Create, element serial Bluetooth Adapter Module (BAM and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG sensor, and programmed using MATLAB to patrol a pipeline route 5 m in length. To simulate oil spills, varying volumes of gasoline - 30, 59, 118, 236, 354, 472, 590, and 708 ml – were placed along the pipeline route prior to the robot‟s patrol. GROSS robot demonstrated capability of detecting spills as little as 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7 liters when running at 100, 200, and 300 mm/s respectively. Detection distance between LPG sensor and spill ranged from 76 – 157 cm. GROSS robots could assist in early detection of oil spills. Future work includes improvement in GROSS robot design and determining the effect of soil absorption and API density on the robot‟s ability to detect spills.

  1. LOWERING UNCERTAINTY IN CRUDE OIL MEASUREMENT BY SELECTING OPTIMIZED ENVELOPE COLOR OF A PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Saadat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowering uncertainty in crude oil volume measurement has been widely considered as one of main purposes in an oil export terminal. It is found that crude oil temperature at metering station has big effects on measured volume and may cause big uncertainty at the metering point. As crude oil flows through an aboveground pipeline, pick up the solar radiation and heat up. This causes the oil temperature at the metering point to rise and higher uncertainty to be created. The amount of temperature rise is depended on exterior surface paint color. In the Kharg Island, there is about 3 km distance between the oil storage tanks and the metering point. The oil flows through the pipeline due to gravity effects as storage tanks are located 60m higher than the metering point. In this study, an analytical model has been conducted for predicting oil temperature at the pipeline exit (the metering point based on climate and geographical conditions of the Kharg Island. The temperature at the metering point has been calculated and the effects of envelope color have been investigated. Further, the uncertainty in the measurement system due to temperature rise has been studied.

  2. 76 FR 28966 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of... regulations include a methodology for oil pipelines to change their rates through use of an index system...

  3. 78 FR 30296 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of... regulations include a methodology for oil pipelines to change their rates through use of an index system...

  4. 77 FR 29997 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of... regulations include a methodology for oil pipelines to change their rates through use of an index system...

  5. Leakage of Oil Following Rupture of Pipeline P/15-4 to Hook of Holland

    OpenAIRE

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents computational results concerning the buoyancy-driven leakage of oil resulting from a possible rupture of the planned pipeline P/15-4 to Hook of Holland. The computations were commissioned by R.J. Brown and Associates (Netherlands) b.v. (RJBA Job No. 7004.02). The specifications of the pipeline and oil as made available by RJBA are listed in Table 1. Assumed properties of seawater are also listed. Leak volumes up to 400 m were calculated as functions of time after rupture ...

  6. An ornithological study of alternate gas pipeline routes in Alaska, Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study was an attempt to describe and estimate the numbers of species and relative densities of birds along the two alternate pipeline routes, and to arrive at...

  7. Oil Pipelines, This is an ESRI feature class of Enbridge Energy's Rock County crude oil lines., Published in 2005, Rock County Planning, Economic, and Community Development Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Oil Pipelines dataset as of 2005. It is described as 'This is an ESRI feature class of Enbridge Energy's Rock County crude oil lines.'. Data by this publisher...

  8. 76 FR 68502 - National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 in the National Petroleum... opening for select tracts in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska. The United States reserves the...

  9. Leak Detection Modeling and Simulation for Oil Pipeline with Artificial Intelligence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjo Sukarno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leak detection is always interesting research topic, where leak location and leak rate are two pipeline leaking parameters that should be determined accurately to overcome pipe leaking problems. In this research those two parameters are investigated by developing transmission pipeline model and the leak detection model which is developed using Artificial Neural Network. The mathematical approach needs actual leak data to train the leak detection model, however such data could not be obtained from oil fields. Therefore, for training purposes hypothetical data are developed using the transmission pipeline model, by applying various physical configuration of pipeline and applying oil properties correlations to estimate the value of oil density and viscosity. The various leak locations and leak rates are also represented in this model. The prediction of those two leak parameters will be completed until the total error is less than certain value of tolerance, or until iterations level is reached. To recognize the pattern, forward procedure is conducted. The application of this approach produces conclusion that for certain pipeline network configuration, the higher number of iterations will produce accurate result. The number of iterations depend on the leakage rate, the smaller leakage rate, the higher number of iterations are required. The accuracy of this approach is clearly determined by the quality of training data. Therefore, in the preparation of training data the results of pressure drop calculations should be validated by the real measurement of pressure drop along the pipeline. For the accuracy purposes, there are possibility to change the pressure drop and fluid properties correlations, to get the better results. The results of this research are expected to give real contribution for giving an early detection of oil-spill in oil fields.

  10. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramirez

    Full Text Available The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196 were inactive, one-third (1,665 were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration.

  11. Leakage of Oil Following Rupture of Pipeline P/15-4 to Hook of Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents computational results concerning the buoyancy-driven leakage of oil resulting from a possible rupture of the planned pipeline P/15-4 to Hook of Holland. The computations were commissioned by R.J. Brown and Associates (Netherlands) b.v. (RJBA Job No. 7004.02). The specifications

  12. 75 FR 80300 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... period commencing July 1, 2011. \\1\\ Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index, 75 FR 34959 (June 21...) (Oct. 24, 1992). The EPAct 1992's mandate of establishing a simplified and generally applicable method..., this data is drawn from the Form No. 6: Carrier Property, page 110; Accrued Depreciation, page...

  13. The strategic priorities of the national oil and gas pipeline transport system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Миколаївна Ісаєва

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of legal documents governing relations between Ukraine, Russia and the European Union as part of their energy policies was performed. The strategic interests of participating countries and the strategic priorities of the governance with national oil and gas pipeline transport system development in particular were designated

  14. Rheology and FTIR studies of model waxy crude oils with relevance to gelled pipeline restart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, J.J.; Guimeraes, K.; Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Venkatesan, R.; Montesi, A. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Gels composed of wax crystals may sometimes form when crude oils are transported in pipelines when ambient temperatures are low. The gels may stop the pipe flow, making it difficult or even impossible to restart the flow without breaking the pipe. Rheology and FTIR techniques were used to study the problem and to characterize transparent model waxy crude oils in pipeline flow experiments. These model oils were formulated without any highly volatile components to enhance the reproducibility of the rheology tests. Results were presented for the time- and temperature-dependent rheology of the model waxy crude oils as obtained in linear oscillatory shear and in creep-recovery experiments. The model oils were shown to exhibit many of the rheological features reported for real crude oils, such as 3 distinct apparent yield stresses, notably static yield stress, dynamic yield stress, and elastic-limit yield stress. It was concluded that of the 3, the static yield stress value, particularly its time dependence, can best be used to predict the restart behaviour observed for the same gel in model pipelines.

  15. Impact of the Keystone XL pipeline on global oil markets and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Climate policy and analysis often focus on energy production and consumption, but seldom consider how energy transportation infrastructure shapes energy systems. US President Obama has recently brought these issues to the fore, stating that he would only approve the Keystone XL pipeline, connecting Canadian oil sands with US refineries and ports, if it `does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution'. Here, we apply a simple model to understand the implications of the pipeline for greenhouse gas emissions as a function of any resulting increase in oil sands production. We find that for every barrel of increased production, global oil consumption would increase 0.6 barrels owing to the incremental decrease in global oil prices. As a result, and depending on the extent to which the pipeline leads to greater oil sands production, the net annual impact of Keystone XL could range from virtually none to 110 million tons CO2 equivalent annually. This spread is four times wider than found by the US State Department (1-27 million tons CO2e), who did not account for global oil market effects. The approach used here, common in lifecycle analysis, could also be applied to other pending fossil fuel extraction and supply infrastructure.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS AND REGULATORY ISSUES IN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: EXPERIENCES WITH THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL IN ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. ield studies conducted by sci...

  17. Waterbirds and oil-contaminated ponds at Point Storkersen, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of larger project on effects of Trans Alaskan Pipeline System, report (1) supplements data on bird populations and their selection of habitats, and (2)...

  18. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil plays an important role in providing the energy supply of the world, and pipelines have long been recognized as the safest and most efficient means of transporting oil and its products. However, the transportation process also faces the challenges of asphaltene-paraffin structural interactions, pipeline pressure losses and energy consumption. In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines with a biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses were carried out. The results indicated that heavy oil transportation in the pipeline is remarkably enhanced by creating stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsion with the surfactant additive. The wax appearance temperature (WAT and pour point were modified, and the formation of a space-filling network of interlocking wax crystals was prevented at low temperature by adding a small concentration of the surfactant additive. A maximum viscosity reduction of 70% and a drag reduction of 40% for light crude oil flows in pipelines were obtained with the surfactant additive at a concentration of 100 mg/L. Furthermore, a successful field application of the drag-reducing surfactant in a light crude oil pipeline in Daqing Oilfield was demonstrated. Hence, the use of biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses in oil transportation is a potential method to address the current challenges, which could result in a significant energy savings and a considerable reduction of the operating cost.

  19. North SEa pipelines: a survey of technology, regulation and use conflicts in oil and gas pipeline operation. Final report, Aug-Dec 78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nothdurft, W.E.

    1980-02-01

    This project was undertaken to provide information on North Sea offshore pipelines and the processes used in route selection decision-making. It is designed to be used by persons involved in offshore oil and gas pipeline planning, including pipeline corridors and landfalls. A brief overview of offshore activity in both the United Kingdom and Norwegian sectors of the North Sea is presented, with special emphasis on the transportation systems established or proposed for the major commercial fields. The report then focuses on the specific issues arising from the installation and operation of each of these transportation systems. These issues include: regulations affecting pipeline placement, criteria for route selection, pipeline trenching and burial, and conflicts with the fishing industry in the North Sea.

  20. Pipelines: prebuild remains focus of attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-21

    Progress on the prebuilding of the Alaska Highway Pipeline continues to dominate the Canadian pipeline scene as the deadline nears for decision making on several aspects of the project. If obstacles are removed in time for the western leg of the prebuild to proceed on the revised schedule, facilities for gas deliveries to California should be completed by fall 1980. Financing negotiations are continuing in both the US and Canada. Pipeline projects in Canada during 1980 are listed by line type, including gas transmission lines, crude oil and products lines, gas gathering systems, waterflood systems, and new projects not called gas transmission lines.

  1. A NEW TECHNIQUE OF OIL TRANSPORTATION IN PIPELINE BY STEAM INJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The direct contact heating of crude oil with steam is promising technique for improving crude oil transportation in pipelines. Crude oil temperature is increased greatly by a small quantity of steam due to the high steam latent heat and direct contact heat transfer. A jet pump was developed for injecting steam into oil in order to get a high efficiency by transferring momentum and energy from a high-velocity jet to ambient fluid. The jet pump was designed based on the free injection principle, which has no rotation parts and no converging mixing chamber, therefore it would not be blocked by the viscous crude oil. The technical feasibility of this method has been tested in the Liaohe Oilfeld, China.

  2. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K. [Biophilia Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  3. Oil pipeline geohazard monitoring using optical fiber FBG strain sensors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ferro, Andres; Mendez, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Pipelines are naturally vulnerable to operational, environmental and man-made effects such as internal erosion and corrosion; mechanical deformation due to geophysical risks and ground movements; leaks from neglect and vandalism; as well as encroachments from nearby excavations or illegal intrusions. The actual detection and localization of incipient and advanced faults in pipelines is a very difficult, expensive and inexact task. Anything that operators can do to mitigate the effects of these faults will provide increased reliability, reduced downtime and maintenance costs, as well as increased revenues. This talk will review the on-line monitoring of an extensive network of oil pipelines in service in Colombia using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors for the measurement of strains and bending caused by geohazard risks such as soil movements, landslides, settlements, flooding and seismic activity. The FBG sensors were mounted on the outside of the pipelines at discrete locations where geohazard risk was expected. The system has been in service for the past 3 years with over 1,000 strain sensors mounted. The technique has been reliable and effective in giving advanced warning of accumulated pipeline strains as well as possible ruptures.

  4. Will Reducing Oil Taxes Spur Production? The Critical Question in Alaska's FY 2014 Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    McBeath, Jerry; Wright, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Among western states, Alaska is the most dependent on oil/gas taxes.  In late 2012 and early 2013 the its counter-cyclical economy puttered along while oil production (taxes from which provide 87 percent of the state general fund budget) continued to decline.  The main fiscal issue during the 2013 legislative session was oil severance taxes, with Governor Parnell making his second attempt (with Republican support) to lower them in hope that the industry would increase its investment in the st...

  5. Co-movements of Alaska North Slope and UK Brent crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the inter-relationships of international crude oil markets, empirical analyses are used to investigate univariate and multivariate relationships between Alaska North Slope and UK Brent oil prices. Using monthly data from the period 1974-1996, the results show that both price series follow a random walk and that these oil markets share a long-run common trend. The empirical results suggest that the two markets are 'unified'. That is, they are competitive, and there is price convergence in the markets. (author)

  6. Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

  7. Fuzzy Reliability Analysis for Seabed Oil-Gas Pipeline Networks Under Earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 潘斌

    2003-01-01

    The seabed oil-gas pipeline network is simplified to a network w i th stochastic edge-weight by means of the fuzzy graphics theory. With the help o f network analysis, fuzzy mathematics, and stochastic theory, the problem of rel iability analysis for the seabed oil-gas pipeline network under earthquakes is t ransformed into the calculation of the transitive closure of fuzzy matrix of the stochastic fuzzy network. In classical network reliability analysis, the node i s supposed to be non-invalidated; in this paper, this premise is modified by in t roducing a disposal method which has taken the possible invalidated node into a ccount. A good result is obtained by use of the Monte Carlo simulation analysis.

  8. Evaluating the economic impacts of pipeline useage on the Texas oil & gas supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jashandeep

    The objective of this dissertation is to find the minimum supply chain cost for the Texas oil and gas industry, when pipeline is used as the major mode of transporting oil. The problem is solved, by introducing a mixed -- integer linear programming model which will help in taking the necessary decisions based on the cost estimates for various scenarios. In order to meet the objective, specific objectives were put down to evaluate their impacts. First was to evaluate the economic impact of mode of transport and the infrastructure second was to evaluate the economic impact of refinery flow. Finally this dissertation aims at the mixed -- integer programming model to demonstrate the economic impacts of pipeline usage on the supply chain.

  9. 76 FR 53481 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ..., Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management... Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea, Alaska (OCS EIS/EA BOEMRE 2011-041). BOEMRE... Final EIS, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea Planning Area (OCS EIS/EA MMS 2007-026). BOEMRE...

  10. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  11. Standardization of industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals: TRANSPETRO's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Correa, Marcelo Leal [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO concerning standardization of its industrial maintenance of oil pipelines and terminals. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, preparation and implementation of standards and five corporate operational procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, and consequently the sense of unity and creation of a nucleus consisting of 30 professionals who mobilized a learning network with great capillarity. In this context, the paper presents the results of implementing corporate standards, based on internationally recognized yardsticks such as American Petroleum Institute (API), US Department of Transportation (DOT) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), as well as PETROBRAS standards. It covers the following topics: an overview of the whole process; preparation of corporate operational procedures, which resulted in a total of 5 standards against 60 in the original situation; preparation and implementation of visual quick guides corresponding to the new corporate operational procedures; and proposal of a set of industrial maintenance performance indicators in compliance with operational guidelines established by TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals business segment. (author)

  12. Transnational opposition and negotiation: Challenges to an oil pipeline in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Patricia

    The literature on transnational networks portrays transnational collaborations as advantageous to domestic stakeholders. Yet, the gains of transnational engagement may be accompanied by hardship for domestic groups. This dissertation examines how domestic stakeholders experienced the benefits and burdens of transnational collaboration in challenging the construction of the oil pipeline, the Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados, in Ecuador. Four community cases along the pipeline's route were selected for analysis. Each case varied by the experienced externalities of the oil industry and distributive struggle with the industry and the state. Lago Agrio, an oil town on the edge of the Amazon, represented a community with 30 years of oil saturation that engaged the state to determine just compensation. The capital Quito represented the nation's environmental organizations that sought a role in directing oil-funded conservation efforts. The third site, the eco-tourism community of Mindo, mobilized to reject the pipeline's route near their private reserves and to promote eco-tourism as an economic alternative to oil extraction. The final site was Esmeraldas, a coastal community experienced in tanker loading and oil refining that achieved a collective dignity in pressing for community-determined compensation. To better understand the impacts of transnational activities, this dissertation synthesizes theories of social movements, environmental justice and development. In its longitudinal and case study design, the examination of one project at four sites of contention offers insight into how transnational mobilization drives or hinders environmental justice and how grassroots groups gain or lose a forum for participation. My findings indicate that transnational campaigns benefited locals by providing expert assessments, facilitating international access and influencing international financing policies. However, the unintended consequences included a focus on international concerns

  13. Determination of flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Div. of Mineral Physics

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a multiphase flow meter developed by CSIRO for determining of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in high pressure pipelines, and the results of a trial of this flow meter on an offshore oil platform. Two gamma-ray transmission gauges are mounted about a pipeline carrying the full flow of oil, water and gas. The flow rates are determined by combining single energy gamma-ray transmission measurements which determine the mass per unit area of fluids in the gamma-ray beam as a function of time, dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET) which determine the approximate mass fraction of oil in the liquids, cross-correlation of gamma-ray transmission measurements, with one gauge upstream of the other, which determines flow velocity, pressure and temperature measurements, and knowledge of the specific gravities of oil and (salt) water, and solubility of the gas in the liquids, all as a function of pressure and temperature. 3 figs.

  14. Potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV) compared to a standard laboratory test conducted with fluorescent lighting (minimal UV). Oil products, weathered oil, and specific polycyclic aromatic compounds present in oil are 2 to greater than 1000 times more toxic in the presence of UV. The photoenhanced toxicity of oil to fish and aquatic invertebrates appears to occur through a process of photosensitization, rather than photomodification of the aqueous phase oil. In photosensitization, the bioaccumulated chemical transfers light energy to other molecules causing toxicity through tissue damage rather than a narcosis mechanism. The available evidence indicates that phototoxic components of oil are specific 3-5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles. Determinants of photoenhanced toxicity include the extent of oil bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and the spectra and intensity of UV exposure. No studies have specifically investigated the photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Alaska waters. Although there are substantial uncertainties, the results of this evaluation indicate there is potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. The potential hazard of photoenhanced toxicity may be greatest for embryo and larval stages of aquatic organisms that are relatively translucent to UV and inhabit the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas. Photoenhanced toxicity should be considered in oil spill response because the spatial and temporal extent of injury to aquatic organisms may be underestimated if based on standard laboratory bioassays and existing toxicity databases. Additionally, the choice of counter measures and oil removal operations may influence the degree of photoenhanced toxicity. (author)

  15. Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

  16. Rehabilitation of Sao Sebastiao-Cubatao oil pipeline: integrated planning and action - key for project success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serodio, Conrado J.M. [GDK S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The execution of the OSBAT 24{sup o}il pipeline rehabilitation project, comprising the substitution of a 30 km section of the 37 years old pipeline has become a real benchmark in the history of this kind of job. The pipeline is inserted in one of the most sensitive environmental areas of the Sao Paulo State - the last Environmental Protection Area of the Mata Atlantica . The growth of human presence in its surroundings during the last three decades, has caused the right-of-way to be totally confined by luxury housing developments, streets, highways and resorts, as well as by the local communities and their activities, schools, and commerce. The pipeline runs through the Serra do Mar unstable mountain range slopes, with sequences of very steep hills and ravines followed by swamps and rivers. The success of such a challenging project - assembling the new line in a narrow ROW with all its restrictions, where the old line was still in operation, and complying with the tight work schedule required by PETROBRAS, was only possible due to a carefully managed combination of: accurate planning, best engineering methods and equipment and experienced workforce, deeply integrated in a massive effort towards safety, environmental care and social responsibility. (author)

  17. A root cause analysis approach to risk assessment of a pipeline network for Kuwait Oil Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Ray J.; Alfano, Tony D. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Waheed, Farrukh [Kuwait Oil Company, Ahmadi (Kuwait); Komulainen, Tiina [Kongsberg Oil and Gas Technologies, Sandvika (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    A large scale risk assessment was performed by Det Norske Veritas (DNV) for the entire Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) pipeline network. This risk assessment was unique in that it incorporated the assessment of all major sources of process related risk faced by KOC and included root cause management system related risks in addition to technical risks related to more immediate causes. The assessment was conducted across the entire pipeline network with the scope divided into three major categories:1. Integrity Management 2. Operations 3. Management Systems Aspects of integrity management were ranked and prioritized using a custom algorithm based on critical data sets. A detailed quantitative risk assessment was then used to further evaluate those issues deemed unacceptable, and finally a cost benefit analysis approach was used to compare and select improvement options. The operations assessment involved computer modeling of the entire pipeline network to assess for bottlenecks, surge and erosion analysis, and to identify opportunities within the network that could potentially lead to increased production. The management system assessment was performed by conducting a gap analysis on the existing system and by prioritizing those improvement actions that best aligned with KOC's strategic goals for pipelines. Using a broad and three-pronged approach to their overall risk assessment, KOC achieved a thorough, root cause analysis-based understanding of risks to their system as well as a detailed list of recommended remediation measures that were merged into a 5-year improvement plan. (author)

  18. Identification and characterization of microbial biofilm communities associated with corroded oil pipeline surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Tiffany R; Duncan, Kathleen E; Beech, Iwona B; Sunner, Jan A; Smith, Whitney; Bonifay, Vincent; Biri, Bernadette; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has long been implicated in the deterioration of carbon steel in oil and gas pipeline systems. The authors sought to identify and characterize sessile biofilm communities within a high-temperature oil production pipeline, and to compare the profiles of the biofilm community with those of the previously analyzed planktonic communities. Eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA sequences of DNA recovered from extracted pipeline pieces, termed 'cookies,' revealed the presence of thermophilic sulfidogenic anaerobes, as well as mesophilic aerobes. Electron microscopy and elemental analysis of cookies confirmed the presence of sessile cells and chemical constituents consistent with corrosive biofilms. Mass spectrometry of cookie acid washes identified putative hydrocarbon metabolites, while surface profiling revealed pitting and general corrosion damage. The results suggest that in an established closed system, the biofilm taxa are representative of the planktonic eubacterial and archaeal community, and that sampling and monitoring of the planktonic bacterial population can offer insight into biocorrosion activity. Additionally, hydrocarbon biodegradation is likely to sustain these communities. The importance of appropriate sample handling and storage procedures to oilfield MIC diagnostics is highlighted.

  19. A fast-track preliminary thermo-mechanical design of oil export pipelines from P-56 platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Rafael F.; Mendonca, Salete M. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franco, Luciano D.; Walker, Alastair; El-Gebaly, Sherif H. [INTECSEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The oil export pipelines of Marlim Sul field Module 3, Campus Basin, offshore Brazil, will operate in high pressure and temperature conditions, and will be laid on seabed crossing ten previously laid pipelines along the routes. In terms of thermo-mechanical design, these conditions turn out to be great challenges. In order to obtain initial results and recommendations for detail design, a preliminary thermo-mechanical design of pipelines was carried out as a fast-track design before the bid. This way, PETROBRAS can assess and emphasize the susceptibility of these lines to lateral buckling and pipeline walking behavior. Therefore, PETROBRAS can present a preliminary mitigation strategy for lateral buckling showing solutions based on displacement controlled criteria and by introducing buckle initiation along the pipeline using distribution buoyancy. Besides that, axial displacements and loads at the pipeline ends can be furnished also in order to provide a basis for the detailed design. The work reported in this paper follows the SAFEBUCK JIP methodology and recommendation, which were used to determine the allowable strain and maximum allowable VAS (Virtual Anchor Spacing) considered in the buckling mitigation strategy. The paper presents also the formation of uncontrolled buckles on the seabed and the propensity for pipeline walking in its sections between buckles. The buckling mitigation strategy established in this preliminary design confirms that the oil pipeline specifications are adequate to maintain integrity during design life. (author)

  20. Economics of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the North Slope of Alaska: Economic Update and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published assessments by geologists of undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations in the North Slope of Alaska; these assessments contain a set of scientifically based estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable quantities of oil and gas in discrete oil and gas accumulations that can be produced with conventional recovery technology. The assessments do not incorporate economic factors such as recovery costs and product prices. The assessors considered undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in four areas of the North Slope: (1) the central North Slope, (2) the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), (3) the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), and (4) the area west of the NPRA, called in this report the 'western North Slope'. These analyses were prepared at different times with various minimum assessed oil and gas accumulation sizes and with slightly different assumptions. Results of these past studies were recently supplemented with information by the assessment geologists that allowed adjustments for uniform minimum assessed accumulation sizes and a consistent set of assumptions. The effort permitted the statistical aggregation of the assessments of the four areas composing the study area. This economic analysis is based on undiscovered assessed accumulation distributions represented by the four-area aggregation and incorporates updates of costs and technological and fiscal assumptions used in the initial economic analysis that accompanied the geologic assessment of each study area.

  1. Use of Polyurethane Coating to Prevent Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Samimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Polyurethane is a thermoses polymer with various applications. Using form this polymer has spread for military applications by Otto Bayer in 1930. In one general look polyurethane is product of Iso Syanate and ploy with each other, So that: Iso + ploy = polyurethane. Spend large cost for application and launching oil and gas transitions, has cleared the necessity protection from them agonist corrosion. In this direction protection coating with specific properties such as high electricity resistance presented to market by various companies that each of them has special advantage and disadvantages. In this research has tried while analysis coatings specifications of gas and oil transitional pipelines, has compared properties and common qualities of them with each other.

  2. Business process modeling applied to oil pipeline and terminal processes: a proposal for TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Adilson da Silva [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Caulliraux, Heitor Mansur [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ/GPI), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia. Grupo de Producao Integrada; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Felippe, Adriana Vieira de Oliveira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Business process modeling (BPM) using event driven process chain diagrams (EPCs) to lay out business process work flows is now widely adopted around the world. The EPC method was developed within the framework of the ARIS Toolset developed by Prof. Wilhelm-August Scheer at the Institut fur Wirtschaftsinformatik at the Universitat des Saarlandes, in the early 1990s. It is used by many companies to model, analyze and redesign business processes. As such it forms the core technique for modeling in ARIS, which serves to link the different aspects of the so-called control view, which is discussed in the section on ARIS business process modeling. This paper describes a proposal made to TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, which will be jointly developed by specialists and managers from TRANSPETRO and from COPPETEC, the collaborative research arm of Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ). The proposal is based on ARIS business process modeling and is presented here according to its seven phases, as follows: information survey and definition of the project structure; mapping and analysis of Campos Eliseos Terminal (TECAM) processes; validation of TECAM process maps; mapping and analysis of the remaining organizational units' processes; validation of the remaining organizational units' process maps; proposal of a business process model for all organizational units of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais; critical analysis of the process itself and the results and potential benefits of BPM. (author)

  3. Culture, cash and communication: the Inupiat encounter with oil development in Northern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaogak, G. [North Slope Borough, Barrow, AK (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Oil and gas development in Alaska coincided with the political awakening of the Inupiat Eskimo people of Alaska. In this presentation, the author detailed some of the characteristics and challenges facing the Alaska Natives as they strive to protect their heritage and gain experience in government. The socio-economic conditions that existed prior to oil and gas development in Alaska were briefly reviewed, as was the situation that led to the formation of the North Slope Borough, which was established in 1972 and effectively created regional government in the area. The first few tentative steps in forming a relationship with industry were described, as industry saw the borough as just an additional level of taxation and government interference. The benefits resulting from the borough materialized in the form of vastly improved living conditions, at the expense of enormous socio-cultural challenges. The resource taxes were discussed, along with community infrastructure development that took place during the most productive years of Prudhoe Bay. Land use management was examined. In the next section, cooperative relationships were reviewed from three perspectives: engagement with industry, agency cooperation, and the role of native corporations. Some of the current challenges are onshore versus offshore development, risks and responses. A quick outline about the North Slope oil and gas outlook was provided. The author concluded the presentation with two major points: (1) assertive Native participation during all phases of development, and (2) a real commitment by government and industry to understand and respond to the social and cultural impacts on Native residents, as being the driving factors for the successful coexistence of Native people and resource industries.

  4. Effectiveness and regulatory issues in oil spill bioremediation: Experiences with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of bioremediation as a supplemental cleanup technology in the Exxon Valdez oil spill, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, has proven to be a good example of the problems and successes associated with the practical application of this technology. Field studies conducted by scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency have demonstrated that oil degradation by indigenous microflora on the beaches of Prince William Sound could be significantly accelerated by adding fertilizer directly to the surfaces of oil-contaminated beaches. The author's results from the application of an oleophilic fertilizer are presented as exemplary field and laboratory information. The fertilizer enhanced biodegradation of the oil, as measured by changes in oil composition and bulk oil weight per unit of beach material, by approximately twofold relative to untreated controls. The emphasis of this chapter will be on some of the difficulties and problems associated with the fertilizer application and its effect on oil degradation. The author will concentrate primarily on the separate application of an oleophilic fertilizer which occurred at a site called Snug Harbor on Knight Island in Prince William Sound, and on the application of slow-release fertilizer granules which occurred on Disk Island in Prince William Sound

  5. Alaska North Slope crude oil price and the behavior of diesel prices in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyze the price dynamics of Alaska North Slope crude oil and L.A. diesel fuel prices. We employ VAR methodology and bivariate GARCH model to show that there is a strong evidence of a uni-directional causal relationship between the two prices. The L.A. diesel market is found to bear the majority of the burden of convergence when there is a price spread. This finding may be seen as being consistent with the general consensus that price discovery emanates from the larger, more liquid market where trading volume is concentrated. The contestability of the West Coast crude oil market tends to cause it to react relatively competitively, while the lack of contestability for the West Coast diesel market tends to limit its competitiveness, causing price adjustment to be slow but to follow the price signals of crude oil. Our findings also suggest that the derived demand theory of input pricing may not hold in this case. The Alaska North Slope crude oil price is the driving force in changes of L.A. diesel price

  6. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J. Karchesy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2, and eremophil-1(10,11-dien-13-ol (3. The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3 was established by synthesis from valencene (6. Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5 and valencene-13-aldehyde (4, respectively.

  7. Biologically important eremophilane sesquiterpenes from alaska cedar heartwood essential oil and their semi-synthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2), and eremophil-1(10),11-dien-13-ol (3). The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S) configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3) was established by synthesis from valencene (6). Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5) and valencene-13-aldehyde (4), respectively. PMID:21654582

  8. Coefficients de-noising with wavelet transform for magnetic flux leakage data obtained from oil pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Wenhua; Que Peiwen

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of noise cancellation for the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) data obtained from the inspection of oil pipelines. MFL data is contaminated by various sources of noise, and the noise can considerably reduce the detectability of flaw signals in MFL data. This paper presents a new de-noising approach for removing the system noise contained in the MFL data by using the coefficients de-noising with wavelet transform. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the advantages of this de-noising approach over the conventional wavelet de-noising method.

  9. Standardization process for pipeline right-of-way activities: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipeline and Terminals Business Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra de Morais M.; Goncalves, Bruno Martins [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. concerning the standardization process for its pipeline right-of-way (ROW) activities. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, standardization and implementation of all norms and corporate procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's right-of-way activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, a sense of unity and the creation of a learning network consisting of 60 employees. This paper presents the last phase's results concerning implementation of corporate standards, based upon achievements of previous phases. It covers the following topics: a general view of the whole process by way of introduction; the potential of integration of recent standardization results with TRANSPETRO's corporate management tools and information systems; definition of four performance indicators and their metrics related to pipeline right-of-way management, as well as a corporate standard for the requirements for contracting services related to rights-of-way inspection, maintenance and communication; challenges, barriers and benefits perceived by the team responsible for formulating and implementing standards and procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. (author)

  10. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in six oil-pipeline pumping stations in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-06-01

    Mexico has a very important oil industry, comprehending the exploration, production, transformation, storage and distribution of crude oil and its fractions. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a state-owned monopoly in charge of these activities. Oil and oil-products transport is an extremely crucial operation for the cycle production-transformation-distribution. Pipeline system transport crude oil and sub-products along the country (including liquids, gases and mixtures). It has been reported that more than 30% of the oil ducts in Mexico have been operating for over 30 years, although their lifetime has been calculated in 25-30 years. This work is aimed at characterizing a zone around six oil-pipeline pumping stations located at northern Mexico. The specific places to evaluate soil contamination were (1) the distribution head of the Gomez Palacio (GOPA) pumping station; (2) the north side of the old ditch, the API oil separator and the wastewater zones of the Jimenez (JIM) pumping station; (3) the pumping stations of Ceballos (CE), Peronal (PER), Simon Bolivar (SIBO), and Mayran (MAY). The study comprehended sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils, regarding TPH and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as a priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to the Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the encountered contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. In general, TPHs were found in all the pumping stations analyzed in this study. Regarding maximal TPHs concentrations at the stations, their order of contamination was as follows: SIBO>CE>PER>MAY>JIM>GOPA. PAHs were found only in a few points at concentrations above the detection limit. At the Jimenez, Gomez Palacio, Peronal, and Ceballos stations, only one point, with PAHs values over the

  11. Physical and biological remediation of oil-polluted river bed and hillside sediments resulting from a ruptured oil pipeline in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oil spill of several tens of thousands of liters ocurred when an underground pipeline ruptured next to the Rio Barca, a torrential mountain stream in Italy. The spill ocurred during a time when the Rio Barca was almost totally dry, therefore allowing the fuel-oil to saturate the sediments which form the bed of the watercourse. This paper describes the feasibility study performed to determine the possibility of conducting in situ remediation. In addition, a two-step strategy was developed to remove the hydrocarbons in the stream: (1) Mechanical liberation and recovery of the free-phase hydrocarbon trapped in the sediments; (2) In situ treatment via an Enhanced Natural Bioremediation program. The residual hydrocarbon contamination in the hillside soils were addressed by in situ remediation incorporating air sparging below the water table, soil vapor extraction of the vadose zone and nutrient addition to the soils via infiltration trenches

  12. Leakage location system for oil pipeline on basis of stress wave detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangfeng WANG; Renwen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    An online monitoring system was developed for rapidly determining the exact location of the holing position in an oil pipeline by monitoring and analyzing the characteristics of the strain wave caused by the hole. The system has a master-slaver computer structure based on a remote wireless network. The master system takes charge of managing and controlling the whole system, identifying the holing stress wave, and calculating the holing position. The slaver system is responsible for sampling the strain wave signal from the pipeline. The characteristics of the strain wave signal are extracted by a Hilbert-Huang trans-form based on a signal processing approach. The exact holing position can be obtained by a time delay locating method with stress wave characteristics. The experimental results of the in-service pipeline show that the average locating error of the system is less than 10 m, the accuracy ratio for the holing alarm is more than 90%, and the time that the system takes to respond to the leakage is less than 10 s.

  13. Visual operations management tools applied to the oil pipelines and terminals standardization process: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the process by which visual operations management (VOM) tools were implemented, concerning standards and operational procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. It provides: a brief literature review of visual operations management tools applied to total quality management and the standardization processes; a discussion of the assumptions from the second level of VOM (visual standards) upon which TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals business processes and operational procedures are based; and a description of the VOM implementation process involving more than 100 employees and one illustrative example of 'Quick Guides' for right-of- way management activities. Finally, it discusses the potential impacts and benefits of using VOM tools in the current practices in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit, reinforcing the importance of such visual guides as vital to implement regional and corporate procedures, focusing on the main operational processes. (author)

  14. Response, remediation and risk management of a crude oil pipeline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A light crude oil spill occurred along a section of pipeline near the bank of a major river of a southern Alberta community in December of 1995. Crude oil was observed at ground surface over an area of 2,000 sq m at the top of the river slope. It had also migrated down slope through the subgrade soils and along the groundwater table toward the river. The initial emergency response measures included removing and disposing of oil-stained vegetation and snow, and the containment and recovery of free oil pooled on the ground surface. Other measures included the drilling of test holes and boreholes and the installation of groundwater monitoring and recovery wells. It was determined that phase-separated crude oil had accumulated at the water table within the flood plain sediments near the river. The water was remediated on-site to Canadian drinking water quality standards. The zone of impacted water was effectively captured, and ground water quality steadily improved

  15. Technical forums as an instrument for knowledge management in oil pipelines and terminals companies: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit regarding an institutionalized knowledge management (KM) process of systematically promoting technical forums focused on: pipeline and terminal operations; industrial maintenance; and right-of-way activities management. This empirical work adds evidence that in the model of cooperative and communicative knowledge management it is necessary to motivate staff to provide the company with their tacit knowledge and to take a proactive part in knowledge management processes, particularly in technical forums. Within this KM perspective, technical forums have been held by TRANSPETRO for the following purposes: to discuss the main barriers and challenges the oil pipelines and terminals unit has to face in the coming years; to share and disseminate good practices concerning oil pipeline and terminal activities; to discuss new processes, methods and equipment developments with potential application in business and operational processes; to establish action plans concerning the main challenges, barriers and opportunities; to disseminate Research and Development (R and D) projects in course, new procedures, methods and equipment and to promote integration among forum attendees. The two year-experience in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit revealed that technical forums have been an important instrument for cooperative and communicative knowledge management, according to evaluations from 173 attendees. (author)

  16. Implementation of Optimal Pacing Scheme in Xinjiang's Oil and Gas Pipeline Leak Monitoring Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow against Xingjian’s oil and gas pipeline leakage and the pipe network sudden burst pipe to pipeline leakage flow for the application objects, Optimal pacing scheme is designed in pipeline leak monitoring. Based on the property of Markov chain for network data, a new estimator with particle filter is proposed for congestion control in this paper. In the context of a reconfigurable transport protocol framework, we propose a QoS aware Transport Protocol (QSTP, specifically designed to operate over QoS (Quality of Service enabled networks with bandwidth guarantee. The proposed scheme can adaptively adjust the network rate in real -time, so that it can efficiently avoid the traffic congestion. It proposes a Link Layer Adaptive Pacing (LLAP scheme that adaptively controls the offered load into the network. The algorithms actively probe the underlay network and compute virtual multicast trees by dynamically selecting the least loaded available paths on the overlay network. The low computational complexity of the proposed algorithms leads to time and resource saving, as shown through extensive experiments. The Simulation results show that Network congestion avoidance strategy with optimal pacing scheme can efficiently improve the bandwidth utilization, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP friendliness and reduce the packet drop rate in Pipeline Flux Leak Monitoring networks. Flood flow identified by the National Centre for testing: discussion group first proposed the use of particle filters to solve the new model can estimate the network congestion control problem. The results are sound, stable performance, efficiency 29%. Adaptive algorithm using the model proposed optimization scheme, to achieve accurate positioning of the leak, 0.05% measurement accuracy, positioning accuracy is improved 32%, more than 17% of the nodes in a more reliable routing path, reliable routing path of increase of 40%.

  17. Cold-region environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline and their management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The cold-region eco-environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) in northern Northeast China are in disequilibrium due to the combined influences of pronounced climate warming and intensive anthropogenic activities.This is evidenced by the sharp areal reduction and northward shifting of the boreal forests,shrinking of wetlands,enhancing of soil erosion,accelerating degradation of permafrost and deteriorating of cold-region eco-environments.The degradation of permafrost plays an important role as an internal drive in the eco-environmental changes.Many components of the cold-region eco-environments,including frozen ground,forests,wetlands and peatlands,forest fires and "heating island effect" of rapid urbanization,are interdependent,interactive,and integrated in the boreal ecosystems.The construction and long-term operation of the CRCOP system will inevitably disturb the cold-region environments along the pipeline.Therefore,a mandatory and carefully-elaborated environ-mental impact statement is indispensable for the proper mitigation of the ensued adverse impacts.Proper management,effective protection and practical rehabilitation of the damaged cold-region environments are a daunting,costly and long-term commitment.The recommended measures for protection and restoration of permafrost eco-environments along the pipeline route include adequate investigation,assessment and monitoring of permafrost and cold-region environments,compliance of pipeline construction and operation codes for environmental management,proper and timely re-vegetation,returning the cultivated lands to forests and grasslands,and effective mitigation of forest fire hazards.

  18. Oil pipeline corridor through an intact forest alters ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in southeastern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Bareena; Horn, David J; Purrington, Foster F; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were monitored 1 yr after the construction of a corridor for installation of an oil pipeline along a xeric ridge-top forest in southeastern Ohio. After the creation of the corridor, three distinct habitats were evident in these sites: open corridor, ecotone areas around the corridor, and undisturbed forest interior. Carabidae were collected using directional pitfall traps that were placed parallel and perpendicular to the corridor in each of the three habitats. Results indicate that more carabids were present in the ecotone than in the other two habitats. Carabid diversity as estimated by rarefaction was highest in the corridor followed by ecotone and forest interior. Generalist and forest specialists such as Synuchus impunctatus (Say), Carabus goryi Dejean, and Pterostichus trinarius (Casey) were present in greater numbers in the forest interior and ecotone assemblages. In contrast, open-habitat specialists such as Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Selenophorus opalinus (LeConte) were present in greater numbers in the corridor assemblages. Carabid assemblages of the corridor were distinct from those of the ecotone and forest interior, whereas the latter two habitats had very similar assemblages. The successional pathway of the corridor carabid assemblage will therefore be likely different from that of the forest interior and ecotone. Overall, results indicate that construction of the oil pipeline corridor had significant short-term effects on the carabid numbers, diversity, and species composition because of ensuing habitat changes and fragmentation of the forest. PMID:18559178

  19. The side effects of the THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) treatment in oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de A.; Lopes, Eduardo Gullo M.; Paiva, Eva M.de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais e Controle de Corrosao; Penna, Monica de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been using THPS biocide since 2000 to control sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and H{sub 2}S generation in FPSO's tanks, storage tanks, seawater injection systems, produced water systems and hydrostatic testings. The advantage of this product over other biocides is to be effective against sessile SRB and to have low environmental impact and low risk to operators' health. Since 2005 the use of THPS was also extended to oil pipelines and has being demonstrating high efficacy in controlling sessile SRB and sulfide formation, even in fluids with very low water cut (BSW < 1%). However, some deleterious effects were observed when THPS (formulated with 75% of active ingredient) was dosed continuously in the produced fluids, in high concentration and/or for long periods. This paper presents the results of THPS treatment in two PETROBRAS' oil pipelines and describes the side effects that were detected during the biocide injection. The actions taken to minimize these harmful effects, without losing the good biocide efficiency were also presented. (author)

  20. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aouadj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA system is a telemetry and control system adapted for particular requirements of an oilfield management. Thanks to its different functions, we take advantage of this system to solve production problems especially those related to oil collecting pipeline network. In fact this network is confronted to some problems, in particular pressure losses which has significant effect on the production. This problem can be taken under control by the awareness of pipeline network operation and all its process data (especially junctions in real time. This will allow online creation of representative and accurate computerized models for the oil collecting pipeline network including producing wells, collecting pipelines, manifolds and others facilities.

  1. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with hydraulic pipeline transport of fossil fuels. A general analysis of coal and heavy viscous oil pipelining systems is introduced and pipeline transport of concentrated coal-water slurry, coal-water fuel, coal pipelining in other than water carrier liquid (e.g. methanol) and capsule pipeline transport (coal-log pipelining) is described.

  2. Influence of the key parameters of suspended structures on the inherent frequency of oil and gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S. Y.; Liu, Q. Y.; Wang, G. R.; Jiang, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Inherent frequency is an important parameter that reflects the dynamic stability of fluid-conveying pipelines. In engineering applications, the inherent frequency of pipelines is usually increased to improve their dynamic stability. The flow velocity and pressure of oil and gas pipelines cannot be altered freely. Among all of the parameters that affect the inherent frequency of suspended pipelines, the flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder, the tensile force of the cable system, and the pipe-axial precompression force are the most important. Revealing the influence laws of these three parameters could provide theoretical support for engineering designs. In this paper, a suspended crossing pipeline project was simplified as a Hetenyi's elastic foundation model. The flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder and the tensile force of the cable system were simplified as the foundation parameters G and K, respectively. The influence regularities of G, K, and the pipe-axial precompression force T on the pipeline inherent frequency were analyzed. According to the numerical simulation results, the ranks of these three parameters in descending order of importance were G, T, and K. During construction, G should be increased as much as possible. If the inherent frequency needs to be improved while pipelines have already been built up, it should be firstly considered to increase T, to values higher than zero if possible. On this basis, the further improvement of K could achieve a better result.

  3. Alternatives for operational cost reduction in oil pipelines; Alternativas para reducao de custos energeticos operacionais em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Philipe Barroso; Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Pires, Luis Fernando Goncalves [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (SIMDUT/DEM/ PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecancia. Nucleo de Simulacao Termo-Hidraulica de Dutos

    2012-07-01

    This paper intends to give a brief overview of some cost reduction alternatives in oil pipelines, to optimize the pipeline operation. Four different alternatives are presented, based on previous studies made on existing pipelines, to demonstrate the response obtained with these solutions. Pipeline operation, especially on mature ones, tends to have a high operational cost, be by tradition, the aging of the installation, change of operational characteristics - such as nominal flow, product, or even flow direction - for which the pipeline wasn't originally designed. The alternatives showed allow for an increase survival time of the pipeline, without resorting to major changes, such as replacement of pipes or adding pumping stations to the system. The alternative studied varies from no implementation cost to high installation cost or operational cost increase, depending on the system and the alternative chosen. From changing the pump arrays during operation or changing the products viscosity with different blends, that represent virtually no cost to the pipeline operation, to the use of VFDs, with a high installation cost or DRA, which increase the operational cost. (author)

  4. Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

  5. Development of the Write Process for Pipeline-Ready Heavy Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones; Frank Guffey

    2009-03-07

    Work completed under this program advances the goal of demonstrating Western Research Institute's (WRI's) WRITE{trademark} process for upgrading heavy oil at field scale. MEG Energy Corporation (MEG) located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada supported efforts at WRI to develop the WRITE{trademark} process as an oil sands, field-upgrading technology through this Task 51 Jointly Sponsored Research project. The project consisted of 6 tasks: (1) optimization of the distillate recovery unit (DRU), (2) demonstration and design of a continuous coker, (3) conceptual design and cost estimate for a commercial facility, (4) design of a WRITE{trademark} pilot plant, (5) hydrotreating studies, and (6) establish a petroleum analysis laboratory. WRITE{trademark} is a heavy oil and bitumen upgrading process that produces residuum-free, pipeline ready oil from heavy material with undiluted density and viscosity that exceed prevailing pipeline specifications. WRITE{trademark} uses two processing stages to achieve low and high temperature conversion of heavy oil or bitumen. The first stage DRU operates at mild thermal cracking conditions, yielding a light overhead product and a heavy residuum or bottoms material. These bottoms flow to the second stage continuous coker that operates at severe pyrolysis conditions, yielding light pyrolyzate and coke. The combined pyrolyzate and mildly cracked overhead streams form WRITE{trademark}'s synthetic crude oil (SCO) production. The main objectives of this project were to (1) complete testing and analysis at bench scale with the DRU and continuous coker reactors and provide results to MEG for process evaluation and scale-up determinations and (2) complete a technical and economic assessment of WRITE{trademark} technology to determine its viability. The DRU test program was completed and a processing envelope developed. These results were used for process assessment and for scaleup. Tests in the continuous coker were intended to

  6. 75 FR 29526 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 61,161; Docket No. RM93-11-000] Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for...

  7. Ecological building measures while oil pollution of soils along Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline corridor in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to fulfil recultivation during the soils pollution by oil along the corridor of BTC pipeline. The soils recultivation is carried out in a technical and biological stage. The biological recultivation depends on defenition of the phytoindicator plants and the proper organization of their sowing form

  8. Optimization of operational flow rates of an oil pipeline on the basis of a linear regression model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smati, A.; Djelloul, A. (Institut National des Hydrocarbures et de la Chimie, Boumerdes (Algeria))

    Many uncontrollable factors cause random fluctuations in the properties of an oil pipeline. After a brief statistical analysis of the leading parameters used to identify the phenomenon, this article describes an optimization algorithm for minimizing energy consumption in pumping stations. The proposed algorithm is based on a linear regression model. Several very flexible approaches to multivariable identification are examined.

  9. Energy Equation Derivation of the Oil-Gas Flow in Pipelines Dérivation de l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans des pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Duan J.M; Wang W; Zhang Y; Zheng L.J.; Liu H.S.; Gong J

    2012-01-01

    In the simulation of oil-gas pipeline multiphase flow, thermodynamic computation is an important process interacting with the hydraulic calculation and it influences the convergence of the program and the accuracy of the results. The form of the energy equation is the key to the thermodynamic computation. Based on the energy equation of oil-gas flow in pipeline, the Explicit Temperature Drop Formula (ETDF) is derived for oilgas steady state temperature calculation. This new energy equation ha...

  10. Implementation of an integrity management program in a crude oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria; Tomasella, Marcelo [Oleoductos del Valle, General Roca (Argentina); Rossi, Juan; Pellicano, Adolfo [SINTEC S.A. , Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    The implementation of an Integrity Management Program (IMP) in a crude oil pipeline system is focused on the accomplishment of two primary corporative objectives: to increase safety operation margins and to optimize available resources. A proactive work philosophy ensures the safe and reliable operation of the pipeline in accordance with current legislation. The Integrity Management Program is accomplished by means of an interdisciplinary team that defines the strategic objectives that complement and are compatible with the corporative strategic business plan. The implementation of the program is based on the analysis of the risks due to external corrosion, third party damage, design and operations, and the definition of appropriate mitigation, inspection and monitoring actions, which will ensure long-term integrity of the assets. By means of a statistical propagation model of the external defects, reported by high-resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), together with the information provided by corrosion sensors, field repair interventions, close internal surveys and operation data, projected defect depth; remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established, including the inspection and repair plan, the internal inspection program and both corrosion monitoring and mitigation programs. (author)

  11. Hybrid heuristic and mathematical programming in oil pipelines networks: Use of immigrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DE LA CRUZ J.M.; HERR(A)N-GONZ(A)LEZ A.; RISCO-MART(I)N J.L.; ANDR(E)S-TORO B.

    2005-01-01

    We solve the problem of petroleum products distribution through oil pipelines networks. This problem is modelled and solved using two techniques: A heuristic method like a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm and Mathematical Programming. In the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm, several objective functions are defined to express the goals of the solutions as well as the preferences among them. Some constraints are included as hard objective functions and some are evaluated through a repairing function to avoid infeasible solutions. In the Mathematical Programming approach the multiobjective optimization is solved using the Constraint Method in Mixed Integer Linear Programming. Some constraints of the mathematical model are nonlinear, so they are linearized. The results obtained with both methods for one concrete network are presented. They are compared with a hybrid solution, where we use the results obtained by Mathematical Programming as the seed of the evolutionary algorithm.

  12. Noise impact assessment methodology for a crude oil pipeline's facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: pascal.everton@hfpacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    The paper focuses on the construction of a crude oil pipeline from Alberta, Canada, to Illinois, USA, and reviews the methodology used to quickly and easily assess the noise emission of each of the 47 pump stations relative to topography, weather, and local regulations, and to predict mitigation costs for each pump. Instead of creating a time-consuming and non-versatile computer noise model for each pump, a spreadsheet tool with graphic user interface was designed, incorporating source noise levels and sound propagation calculations. An order-ranked list of noise sources for each station and noise mitigation corrections were applied, resulting in an easy-to-use, versatile tool, capable of predicting rapidly what noise control corrections are needed for each site. The spreadsheet results were validated by comparing the results with noise model predictions for specific locations. Use of this tool increased flexibility and cost-efficiency and it can be easily reconfigured for similar projects.

  13. 75 FR 38093 - ConocoPhillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... will not jeopardize service to the local markets into which this natural gas might otherwise be sold... critical back-up natural gas supply service for the local market in times of peak needs on the coldest days...Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket Authorization...

  14. The effectiveness of dispersants on Alaska North Slope crude oil under various temperature and salinity regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

    2006-07-01

    The results of a study investigating the influence of salinity and temperature interactions on dispersants were presented. Experiments were conducted on Alaska North Slope oil at lower temperatures and lower salinity in order to determine optimal dispersant application measurements. Dispersant was pre-mixed with oil and placed on water in a test vessel. The test vessel was agitated on a moving table shaker. At the end of the shaking period, a settling period was allowed and a sample of water was taken. The oil in the water column was extracted from the water using a pentane/dichloromethane mixture and analyzed using gas chromatography. A set of calibration samples was run concurrently with the test samples to establish a calibration curve. ASMB standard oil premixed with Corexit 9500 was tested for effectiveness at 3 temperatures and 8 salinities, including fresh water. Results indicated that the maximum effectiveness was obtained at a temperature of 10 degrees C and at a salinity of 25 per mil. It was noted that temperature and salinity effects are interrelated, with the salinity effect peaking at a select value depending on specific surfactant content. It was suggested that the match between ionic strength and its relation to the surfactant polarity may be the factor that causes the reversal of results. It was concluded that there is an interrelationship between temperature, salinity and the effectiveness of dispersants, indicating that a 3-way correlation may yield a predictive model with good reliability. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Application of Golay codes to distributed optical fiber sensor for long-distance oil pipeline leakage and external damage detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yannian Wang; Zhuangde Jiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ A new distributed optical fiber sensor system for long-distance oil pipeline leakage and external damage detection is presented. A smart and sensitive optical fiber cable is buried beneath the soil running along the oil pipeline, which is sensitive to soakage of oil products and mechanical deformation and vibration caused by leaking, tampering, and mechanical impacting. The region of additional attenuation can be located based on the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR), and the types of external disturbances can be identified according to the characteristics of transmitted optical power. The Golay codes are utilized to improve the range-resolution performance of the OTDR sub-system and offer a method to characterize the transmitted optical power in a wide range of frequency spectrum. Theoretic analysis and simulation experiment have shown that the application of Golay codes can overcome the shortcomings of the prototype based on the conventional single-pulse OTDR.

  16. What happened to Fairbanks: the effects of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline on the community of Fairbanks, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, M.

    1978-01-01

    Fairbanks failed to prepare for the deluge of construction-related equipment and personnel and its consequences. This book includes many effects, including prostitution, and rent gouging. The author presents community alternatives that were ignored. The author attempts to evaluate the impact of rapid growth and suggests that industry pay the social cost of disruption to the community. (DP)

  17. Oil and gas pipelines with hydrophobic surfaces better equipped to deal with gas hydrate flow assurance issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfeldt, Christine Malmos; Sharifi, Hassan; von Solms, Nicolas;

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate deposition can cause plugging in oil and gas pipelines with resultant flow assurance challenges. Presently, the energy industry uses chemical additives in order to manage hydrate formation, however these chemicals are expensive and may be associated with safety and environmental...... crystallizer. This indicates that 10 to 14 times less KHI is needed in the presence of a hydrophobically coated surface. These experimental studies suggest that the use of hydrophobic surfaces or pipelines could serve as an alternative or additional flow assurance approach for gas hydration mitigation...

  18. Progress in Spiral Saw Steel Pipe Manufacturing Technology Promotes Construction of Oil/Gas Long-Distance Pipelines in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction Since the tremendous development of oil and gas exploration achieved in West China at the beginning of 1990's, it is demanded to build several long-distance oil/gas pipelines to transmit the crude oil and natural gas from Tarimu Basin, Tuha Basin, Junggar Basin as well as Shaan-Gan-Ning Basin to the cities of Urumuqi,Klamayi, Xi'an and Beijing (details see Table 1). The total length of pipelines is more than 3 200 km, and the natural conditions along the pipelines are very harsh. This raises a challenge to the Chinese pipe manufacturing industry.

  19. Treatment screening for internal corrosion control of PETROBRAS oil pipelines; Selecao de tratamento para controle da corrosao interna de oleodutos da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de Azevedo; Muller, Eduardo Gullo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Antunes, Warlley Ligorio; Shioya, Nilce Hiromi; Salvador, Angelica Dias [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2005-07-01

    The use of corrosion inhibitors is spread out in oil and gas industry and is the most common methodology to control pipeline internal corrosion. However, their effectiveness depends on the pipeline material, inhibitor composition, flow type and scale characteristics. When a pipeline has heavy scale deposits, thick bacterial biofilm, or oxygen contamination, the corrosion control via filmic inhibitors is not effective. So, the only way to control internal corrosion of an oil pipeline is to primary identifies the corrosive agent and the main corrosion mechanism. The monitoring of the inhibitor efficiency and the determination of minimal residual concentration to prevent corrosion, are also fundamental. In this paper, is presented the criteria used to identify the main corrosion mechanism of oil pipelines, the treatment proposed in each case and the techniques employed in real time corrosion monitoring. (author)

  20. Using finite element method in the processof strength calculation for the pipeline supports in above-groundarea of "Zapolyar'e — NPS "PUR-PE" oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies a procedure of calculating the strength of pipeline support constructions of the above-ground oil trunk pipeline system «Zapolyar'e — oil pumping station «Pur-pe». The calculations of the supports stress-strain state are performed with the use of computer complex Ansys v13, which applies the finite element method. The article provides a short description of the construction of fixed, linear-sliding and free-sliding supports of the oil pipeline of above-ground routing, developed for the installation in complex climatic and geologic conditions of the far north. According to the operation specification for design — the support constructions have to maintain the resistance power and bearing capacity under the influence of the pipeline stress without sagging and considering the possible sagging of the neighboring support. The support constructions represent space structures with a complex geometry. Together with the complex geometry, contacting elements are present in the construction of the supports. There is also an interaction of the pile foundation and the nonhomogeneous foundation. The enumerated peculiarities of the construction and operating conditions of the supports considerably complicate the strength calculations by engineering methods. The method of numerical modeling (finite element method used in the article for the analysis of the supports’ operation under the stress is widely applied at the present time for calculations of space structures with a complex geometry. For the first time, while performing the supports’ strength calculations, the article considers the mutual deformation of the support, foundation grill and pile foundation in the ground, thus making it possible to consider real operation of the construction altogether. The main development stages of the calculation model “support — pile foundation — ground” in ANSYS, calculation and testing of the static strength of the support

  1. Criterions and Measures of Route Selection of Shallowly Embedded Long-Distance Oil and Gas Pipeline in Mountain Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghua; MA Qingwen; KONG Jiming; CHEN Zefu; LI Xiuzhen

    2006-01-01

    According to the engineering investigation of long-distance oil and gas pipelines, the criterions and measures of route selection are drawn as follows: the flat landform is the first choice in route alignment. The foot of mountain is the first choice when the route passes by the valley. The route should pass by but the shady and deposited slope and not in sunny and erosive slope as possible as it can. The pipeline should be vertical to contour climbing and descending the mountain except steep slope. Tunnel can be used in crossing foothill. Perpendicularly traversing the river is better than beveling; the worst choice is to put the pipeline along the river. Bypass is the best choice in karsts area. The order of route selection should be pre-choosing, investigation, optimization and adjustment.

  2. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced...

  3. Cleanup and biodegradation of a crude-oil spill at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crude oil spill occurred at an exploratory well site near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska during drilling in the winter of 1969-70. The oil infiltrated a portion of the gravel pad and flowed onto the adjacent tundra. Although some attempts were made to clean up the site at the time, a large area of contaminated gravel and tundra remained in 1990. Based on a detailed site assessment, 2.2 hectares had such high total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations that excavation and incineration were selected as the most appropriate remedial actions. In the remaining less-contaminated areas that were not excavated and in subsurface soil horizons, bioremediation was selected. During the winter of 1991, an estimated 19,000 m3 of soil was excavated and incinerated in a rotary kiln. During summer 1991, biodegradation of the TPH in the remaining soil was promoted by tilling, watering and draining, and fertilizing. Excavation of the heavily contaminated soil reduced mean TPH concentrations by 89% at the tundra surface. Bioremediation for 53 days reduced mean TPH concentrations by 74%. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and soil and groundwater properties important to microbial growth were also monitored. Two strains of Pseudomonas species showed a good ability to degrade crude oil and probably were responsible for the large reduction in TPH concentrations observed after one summer. 5 refs., 5 figs

  4. The effect of bioremediation on the microbial populations of oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation, the stimulation of the natural process of biodegradation, played an important role in the cleanup of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Since there were already substantial indigenous populations of oil-degrading microbes in the area, it was apparent that degradation was likely to be nutrient - not microbial - limited. Bioremediation therefore involved the application of carefully selected fertilizers to provide assimilable nitrogen and phosphorus to the indigenous organisms, with the intent to stimulate their activity and enhance their numbers. The authors show here that the indigenous microbial populations were indeed substantially increased, throughout the sound, approximately one month after wide-spread fertilizer applications in both 1989 and 1990. Furthermore, while oil-degrading bacteria made up a significant fraction of the microbial populations on contaminated beaches in September and October 1989, they had declined to less than 1 percent by the summer of 1990, suggesting that the microbial populations on the shorelines were returning to their prespill conditions

  5. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  6. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Renxing; Grizzle, Robert S; Duncan, Kathleen E; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55°C. Most-probable number (MPN) analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy) was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy), while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm(2), while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens.

  7. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxing eLiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55 oC. Most-probable number (MPN analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy, while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm2, while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens.

  8. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  9. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no

  10. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  11. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larive, J.F. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006.

  12. Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines. Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2006 and since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1971 CONCAWE has been collecting data on spillages from cross-country oil pipelines in Europe. The information is collated in an annual report which includes an analysis of the human and environmental consequences and of the underlying causes of such incidents. CONCAWE report 7/08 covers the results for the year 2006 and includes an analysis of the accumulated data for the whole 36-year period from 1971 to 2006

  13. Ocean Observing System Demonstrated in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, G. Carl; Chao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the utility of an ocean observing and forecasting system with diverse practical applications—such as search and rescue, oil spill response (perhaps relevent to the current Gulf of Mexico oil spill), fisheries, and risk management—a unique field experiment was conducted in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in July and August 2009. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the performance of numerical models developed for the sound with an array of fixed and mobile observation platforms (Figure 1). Prince William Sound was chosen for the demonstration because of historical efforts to monitor ocean circulation following the 1989 oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker. The sound, a highly crenulated embayment of about 10,000 square kilometers at approximately 60°N latitude along the northern coast of the Gulf of Alaska, includes about 6900 kilometers of shoreline, numerous islands and fjords, and an extensive system of tidewater glaciers descending from the highest coastal mountain range in North America. Hinchinbrook Entrance and Montague Strait are the two main deep water connections with the Gulf of Alaska. The economic base of communities in the region is almost entirely resource-dependent. For example, Cordova's economy is based on commercial fishing and Valdez's economy is supported primarily by the trans-Alaska oil pipeline terminal.

  14. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, G.V. [United States Geological Survey , Anchorage, AK (United States); Mann, D.H. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Institute of Arctic Biology; Short, J.W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Fisheries Laboratory

    2006-09-15

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by 'oil mousse', which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulder. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. (author)

  15. Detection of Oil and Gas Pipeline Leak%油气管道泄漏检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许旺松

    2011-01-01

    Pipeline transport was a rapidly developing field in oil and natural gas transmission because of its economical and convenient,but the leakage problem became a hazard to safe operation of pipelines,and was the main factor causing a variety of accidents.The pipeline leak detection technology was an important pipeline management techniques to prevent the leakage occurred(or after the timely detection of the leak).Therefore,the research pipeline leak detection technology for the safe operation of the pipeline was important.A systematic description of this technology,classification and comparison,and its development prospects were predicted.%管道输送因其经济方便,正在石油天然气等输送领域迅速发展,但泄漏问题已经成为危害管道安全运行、造成各种事故的主要因素。借助管道泄漏检测技术防止泄漏发生(或在泄漏发生后及时发现)是管道管理采取的重要技术手段。因此,研究管道泄漏检测技术对管道安全运行具有重要意义,本文对油气管道泄露技术进行了系统性介绍、分类和比较,并对其发展前景进行了预测。

  16. Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Crude Oil Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex W. Dawotola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is constructed for risk management of crude pipeline subject to rupture on the basis of a methodology that incorporates structured expert judgment and analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The risk model calculates frequency of failure and their probable consequences for different segments of crude pipeline, considering various failure mechanisms. Specifically, structured expert judgment is used to provide frequency of failure assessments for identified failure mechanisms of the pipeline. In addition, AHP approach is utilized to obtain relative failure likelihood for attributes of failure mechanisms with very low probability of occurrence. Finally, the expected cost of failure for a given pipeline segment is estimated by combining its frequency of failure and the consequences of failure, estimated in terms of historical costs of failure from the pipeline operator’s database. A real-world case study of a crude pipeline is used to demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology.

  17. Ultra-sonic PIG inspection in crude oil pipeline on deep waters; Inspecao com PIG ultra-sonico em oleodutos de aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Aldo Renato; Melo, Francimario da Silva Vieira; Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Morais, Ricardo Pereira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Nowadays, Marlin field is one of the biggest oil production fields in Campos Basin. This field is compound by platforms that produce, storage and export natural gas and crude oil through sub sea pipelines. The pipeline integrity must be assured for operation continuity and safety of the people and environment. The use of smart pigs is a technique applied to verify corrosion and wall thickness loss in PETROBRAS' sub sea pipelines. The crude oil pipelines inspection from a platform to a FPSO was a big challenge due to the high wall thickness, high export temperature, high BSW (Basic Sediments and Water) and wax. This paper presents solutions for the success of this inspection using smart pigs (author)

  18. Evolutionary algorithm for the problem of oil products distributions on oil pipeline network; Algoritmo evolucionario para distribuicao de produtos de petroleo por redes de polidutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, Eduardo; Goldbarg, Elizabeth; Goldbarg, Marco; Cunha, Thatiana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A major problem about the planning of production in refinery is the determination of what should be done in each stage of production as a horizon of time. Among such problems, distribution of oil products through networks of pipelines is a very significant problem because of its economic importance. In this work, a problem of distribution of oil through a network of pipelines is modeled. The network studied is a simplification of a real network. There are several restrictions to be met, such as limits of storage, transmission or receipt of limits and limitations of transport. The model is adopted bi-goal where you want to minimize the fragmentation and the time of transmission, given the restrictions of demand and storage capacity. Whereas the occupancy rate of networks is increasingly high, is of great importance optimize its use. In this work, the technique of optimization by Cloud of particles is applied to the problem of distribution of oil products by networks of pipelines. (author)

  19. Safety enhancement of oil trunk pipeline crossing active faults on Sakhalin Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkina, E.; Antropova, N.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    The article explores the issues concerning safety enhancement of pipeline active fault crossing on Sakhalin Island. Based on the complexity and analysis results, all the faults crossed by pipeline system are classified into five categories - from very simple faults to extremely complex ones. The pipeline fault crossing design is developed in accordance with the fault category. To enhance pipeline safety at fault crossing, a set of methods should be applied: use of pipes of different safety classes and special trench design in accordance with soil permeability characteristics.

  20. Oil pollution issues: an overview of U.S. law under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, and Alaska State law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part One of this paper presents details of the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA). The Act defines the responsible party for a vessel or facility from which oil is spilled, or which poses a threat of a spill into US waters, assigns liability for removal costs and damages, defines limitations of liability, outlines financial responsibility and contingency plan requirements, and describes civil and criminal penalties for violations. Part Two of the paper discusses the corresponding Alaska statutes and regulations which are essentially similar to the OPA. It also provides details of the Alaska requirement of certificates of financial responsibility and contingency plans which are separate from those required under federal law

  1. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizhong Yang

    Full Text Available The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  2. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the Arctic slope of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial surveys were conducted annually in June 1978-87 near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to determine changes in the distribution of calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that accompanied petroleum-related development. With construction of an oil field access road through a calving concentration area, mean caribou density (no./km2) decreased from 1.41 to 0.31 within 1 km and increased from 1.41 to 4.53, 5-6 km from the road. Concurrently, relative caribou use of the adjacent area declined apparently in response to increasing surface development. It is suggested that perturbed distribution associated with roads reduced the capacity of the nearby area to sustain parturient females and that insufficient spacing of roads may have depressed overall calving activity. Use of traditional calving grounds and of certain areas therein appears to favor calf survival, principally through lower predation risk and improved foraging conditions. Given the possible loss of those habitats through displacement and the crucial importance of the reproductive process, a cautious approach to petroleum development on the Arctic Slope is warranted. 37 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Intelligent leak detection system for oil pipelines; Sistema inteligente para deteccao de vazamentos em dutos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Dantas Gadelha de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in an oil field is implementation of a software-based leak detection system on a multi-phase flow pipeline. This paper will discuss implementation of a leak detection system in a particular oil field using state-of-the-art signal processing techniques to apply to the data collected in a oil pipeline. This leak detection system is still in development and uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system. Windowing, joint time-frequency analysis and wavelets were considered to develop methods of detecting leaks by watching for the wavefront. The idea behind these techniques is to cut the signal of interest into several parts and then analyze the parts separately. It is impossible to know the exact frequency and the exact time of occurrence of the leak frequency in a signal. In other words, a leak signal can simply not be represented as a point in the time-frequency space. It is very important how one cuts the signal to implement the analysis. The wavelet transform or wavelet analysis is probably the most recent solution to overcome the shortcomings of the Fourier transform. So, this paper shows some tests and how these techniques are being implementing during the development of the system. (author)

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Northern Alaska Gas Hydrate Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  5. Methanol incorporation in clathrate hydrates and the implications for oil and gas pipeline flow assurance and icy planetary bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kyuchul; Udachin, Konstantin A.; Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Leek, Donald M.; Alavi, Saman; Ratcliffe, Christopher I.; Ripmeester, John A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the best-known uses of methanol is as antifreeze. Methanol is used in large quantities in industrial applications to prevent methane clathrate hydrate blockages from forming in oil and gas pipelines. Methanol is also assigned a major role as antifreeze in giving icy planetary bodies (e.g., Titan) a liquid subsurface ocean and/or an atmosphere containing significant quantities of methane. In this work, we reveal a previously unverified role for methanol as a guest in clathrate hydrate c...

  6. Modeling Hydrodynamic State of Oil and Gas Condensate Mixture in a Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Based on the developed model a calculation method was obtained which is used to analyze hydrodynamic state and composition of hydrocarbon mixture in each ith section of the pipeline when temperature-pressure and hydraulic conditions change.

  7. Fitness for service assessment of defects in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutonico, Jose Mauricio; Souza, Gerardo; Manfredi, Carlos [GIE A.S. (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    During normal operation a pipeline generates a series of defects that can affect its integrity. At some stage during the pipeline life will require an assessment of these defects in order to determine their ability to maintain safe operation. Defects can be classified as geometric defects (gouges, plain dents, dents containing other defects), volumetric defects (external or internal corrosion) or planar defects (cracks, SCC). In this work a methodology to the characterization and determination of the severity of defects detected by an ILI inspection in pipelines is presented. A series of practical procedures and instructive has been developed based on international codes, national regulations and industry best practices. The repair approaches were defined from the risk level that the company it is disposed to assume. The contributed examples were collected in high pressure pipelines of different ages, located on diverse geographical locations and over different operation conditions. (author)

  8. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix A: BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Final project description - Revision 1, March 27, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendix A of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. This document is the Northstar Development Project, Final Project Description, Revision 1 for BPXA Northstar Project

  9. A drift experiment to assess the influence of wind on recovery of oiled seabirds on St Paul Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, P.L.; Fowler, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    We used wooden blocks to estimate the proportion of oiled seabird carcasses that were likely to be recovered on beaches of St Paul Island, Alaska following a near-shore oil spill. We released a total of 302 blocks 6 km north of the island in 1997 at the site of a 17 II 1996 oil spill. We used a paired design and released half the blocks when the winds were onshore and released the second half when the winds were offshore. We systematically searched beaches after the second release to recover blocks. We recovered 93 of 152 (61%) blocks released when winds were onshore but only 1 of 150 (0.7%) blocks released when winds were offshore. Given that winds following the 1996 spill were offshore, we conclude that most birds killed at sea following the 1996 spill were likely not recovered on beaches.

  10. Shoreline type and subsurface oil persistence in the Exon Valdez spill zone of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D. [Exponent Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Neff and Associates, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The grounding of the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska in the spring of 1989 resulted in the release of 258,000 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil into the marine environment. Nearly 800 km of shoreline were oiled to some degree. There was an unprecedented oil spill cleanup effort following the spill. The shoreline surveys of the spill zone were synthesized in this paper in an effort to demonstrate the relationship between shoreline type and persistence of subsurface oil (SSO) residues. Shoreline surveys of surface and SSO indicate rapid initial oil loss with a decline from about 800 linear km of PWS shoreline in 1989 to about 10 km of oiled shoreline in 1992. The period of rapid loss was attributed to natural physical process, biodegradation and cleanup activities that removed accessible spill remnants from shorelines. This was followed by a slower natural average loss rate for less accessible surface and SSO deposits of about 22 per cent per year for the period 1992-2001. This paper emphasized that shoreline type plays a key role in determining SSO persistence. The geology of PWS is complex. Many of the shorelines where SSO persists have armouring layers composed of hard, dense clasts, such as the quartzite boulders and cobblestones that can protect SSO deposits. Eighteen years after the spill, persistent SSO deposits in PWS shorelines remain protected from tidal water-washing and biodegradation by a surface boulder/cobble armour and low sediment porosity. The SSO deposits are in a physical/chemical form and location where they do not pose a health risk to intertidal biological communities and animals. The surveys continue to substantiate that remaining SSO deposits in PWS continue to degrade and go away slowly. 37 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

  12. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Yun Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  13. Pipeline coatings keep getting more sophisticated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2004-08-01

    Bredero Shaw is the world's largest pipeline company. It's Canadian division, Shaw Pipe Protection Limited (SPPL), has a technology development laboratory in Calgary where a pipe coating line is being developed along with a deepwater program which tests the performance of sub-sea insulation coatings. Tests are performed at simulated service conditions of temperature, pressure and sea water environment. Research efforts have also focused on oilsands development and the challenge of keeping bitumen hot inside pipes while reducing wear caused by entrained sand. Shaw's high performance composite coating (HPCC) is a high-tech multiple component coating that is applied as a powder spray. It can withstand temperatures of -40 to -50 degrees C and is therefore particularly suited for providing mechanical, corrosion protection in large diameter transmission pipelines such as the Mackenzie Valley Gas Pipeline and the Alaska Pipeline. It is also compatible with cathodic protection. The coating consists of fusion bonded epoxy, polyolefin adhesive and a polyethylene. It has already been used for the Athabasca Pipeline which transports crude oil from Fort McMurray through Cold Lake to Hardisty, Alberta. Other developments include the Dual Powder Abrasion Coating system which consists of two fusion layers that provide damage resistance to pipelines in rocky mountainous terrain. The Yellow Jacket is a two layer coating used for oil and gas gathering systems to resist corrosion, moisture and soil stress. This paper also described other popular coatings such as the polyurethane foam coating called Insul-8 Systems; a sprayed epoxy polymer coating called Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating; the Cement Mortar Lining; the Flow Efficiency Coating; the Concrete Weight Coating; and, the Rock Jacket corrosion coating. 1 fig.

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector arcs in this data set represent species...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector...

  18. 稠油管道输送技术概述%Overview of Heavy Oil Pipeline Transportation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于欢; 姜亚杰; 吴玉国

    2016-01-01

    由于人口的快速增长和经济的快速发展,原油的需求日益增加,然而轻质原油的可开采量逐渐减少,稠油的开采和输送变得尤为重要。文中对各种稠油管道输送技术进行了概述,以及其各自的优缺点。并提出了主辅型降粘输送方法,为以后的稠油管道输送技术研究提供了一个方向。%Due to the rapid development of the economy and the rapid growth of population, the demand for crude oil is increasing. The amount of recoverable light crude oil is decreasing, so extraction and transport of heavy oil have become particularly important. In this paper, a variety of heavy oil pipeline technologies were introduced as well as their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  19. A hybrid Delphi-SWOT paradigm for oil and gas pipeline strategic planning in Caspian Sea basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caspian Sea basin holds large quantities of both oil and natural gas that could help meet the increasing global demand for energy resources. Consequently, the oil and gas potential of the region has attracted the attention of the international oil and gas industry. The key to realizing the energy producing potential of the region is the development of transnational export routes to take oil and gas from the landlocked Caspian Sea basin to world markets. The evaluation and selection of alternative transnational export routes is a complex multi-criteria problem with conflicting objectives. The decision makers (DMs) are required to consider a vast amount of information concerning internal strengths and weaknesses of the alternative routes as well as external opportunities and threats to them. This paper presents a hybrid model that combines strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) analysis with the Delphi method. - Highlights: ► The evaluation and selection of the pipeline routes is a multi-criteria problem. ► A hybrid SWOT-Delphi method is proposed to evaluate five potential routes. ► The Southern and Northern routes are chosen as the best and second-best options. ► The second best option is identified to provide some degree of diversification.

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: geologic assessment of undiscovered gas hydrate resources on the North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    USGS AK Gas Hydrate Assessment Team: Collett, Timothy S.; Agena, Warren F.; Lee, Myung Woong; Lewis, Kristen A.; Zyrianova, Margarita; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have completed the first assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable gas hydrate resources beneath the North Slope of Alaska. This assessment indicates the existence of technically recoverable gas hydrate resources—that is, resources that can be discovered, developed, and produced using current technology. The approach used in this assessment followed standard geology-based USGS methodologies developed to assess conventional oil and gas resources. In order to use the USGS conventional assessment approach on gas hydrate resources, three-dimensional industry-acquired seismic data were analyzed. The analyses indicated that the gas hydrates on the North Slope occupy limited, discrete volumes of rock bounded by faults and downdip water contacts. This assessment approach also assumes that the resource can be produced by existing conventional technology, on the basis of limited field testing and numerical production models of gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. The area assessed in northern Alaska extends from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska on the west through the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on the east and from the Brooks Range northward to the State-Federal offshore boundary (located 3 miles north of the coastline). This area consists mostly of Federal, State, and Native lands covering 55,894 square miles. Using the standard geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated that the total undiscovered technically recoverable natural-gas resources in gas hydrates in northern Alaska range between 25.2 and 157.8 trillion cubic feet, representing 95 percent and 5 percent probabilities of greater than these amounts, respectively, with a mean estimate of 85.4 trillion cubic feet.

  1. 中俄原油管道增输方案研究%Research on Expansion Program of China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树人; 张梦如; 徐迪

    2014-01-01

    旨在提高中俄原油管道输量,扩大俄油进口量。对我国可持续发展和进口多元化具有重要的战略意义。采用SPS(Stoner Pipeline Simulator)管道模拟软件,对该管线进行离线实时模拟计算。分析管道2200×104t/a输油技术方案,对2500×104t/a、3000×104t/a工艺方案进行研究,确定最佳增输方案。%In order to improve the throughput of China-Russia crude oil pipeline, off-line calculation of the pipeline was simulated by using SPS (Stoner Pipeline Simulator) pipeline simulation software. 2 200×104t/a Crude oil transportation technical scheme was analyzed, 2 500×104t/a and 3 000×104t/a crude oil transportation technical schemes were studied, and the optimal transmission scheme was determined.

  2. Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Crude Oil Pipeline System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawotola, A.W.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A model is constructed for risk management of crude pipeline subject to rupture on the basis of a methodology that incorporates structured expert judgment and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The risk model calculates frequency of failure and their probable consequences for different segments of cr

  3. 77 FR 65513 - Filing, Indexing and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... statement that the previous tariff publication remains in effect.'' \\16\\ 18 CFR 341.4(f) (2012). 17. This... pipeline to make non-ministerial tariff changes without filing to withdraw any pending proposal and making... adopted Order No. 714, which required that all tariffs and tariff revisions and rate change...

  4. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  5. Alaska-US gas line - design considerations for the Alaska segment of ANGTS (Alaska natural gas transportation system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, N.

    1982-01-01

    In 1968, the largest single discovery of oil and natural gas ever found on the North American continent was made at Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope of Alaska. The Prudhoe Bay field contains over 26 tcf of recoverable natural gas, or ca 13% of the proven domestic gas reserves. To bring this natural gas to the market in the Lower 48 states, filings were made with the Federal Power Commission, the predecessor to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, to construct a pipeline transportation system. The gas pipeline project will initially transport ca 2 billion cu ft of gas daily, expandable to 3.2 billion cu ft/day with additional compressor stations. The total ANGTS comprises nearly 4,800 miles of pipeline with diameters ranging from 36 to 56 in., and initially ca 1.4 million hp will be installed to transport 2.0 billion cu ft/day. This presentation concentrates on the Alaska segment of the ANGTS.

  6. 原油管道YOYO系统流动安全性%Flow safety of crude oil pipeline YOYO system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛珊; 王欣然; 宇波; 周建; 王乾坤; 雷飞

    2012-01-01

    When crude oil pipelines shut down for some reason, a YOYO system can be used between non-accident stations to make crude oil flow in round trips between stations to avoid coagulation accidents. The YOYO system consists of storage tanks and screw pumps respectively set up in two adjacent pumping stations. Its operation process is similar to forward and backward transmission technology, but the purposes are different. Workflow of the YOYO system is detailed, heat transfer mathematical models of its operation process are built and the initial conditions and height differences of forward and backward transmission are discussed. Based on a calculation case of pipe section, the temperature drop law of YOYO system during its running is discussed. The flow safety of oil pipeline with YOYO system is analyzed, and results indicate that the method is a potential safety measures for accidental pipeline.%原油管道因故停输时,在非事故站间采用YOYO系统可以使原油在站间往返流动,避免凝管事故发生.YOYO系统由分别设置在两个相邻泵站的储罐和螺杆泵组成,其运行过程与正反输工艺相似,但两者使用目的不同.详细说明了YOYO系统的工作流程,建立了其运行过程的传热数学模型,讨论了正反向输送时的初始条件和高程差.基于算例管段,计算讨论了YOYO系统运行过程中的温降规律,分析了采用YOYO系统后管输原油的流动安全性,结果表明:该方法对于事故停输管道是一种潜在可行的安全措施.

  7. Experimental study of oil-water with paraffin precipitation in submarine pipelines; Estudo experimental do escoamento oleo-agua com precipitacao de parafinas em dutos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Sergio N.; Oliveira, Rafael de Castro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo], e-mail: bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: rafael@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The deposition of paraffins in submarine pipelines poses a serious problem for the offshore petroleum production. Paraffins precipitate off oily solutions due to a temperature decrease according to the phase equilibrium conditions of the liquid-solid system. After some time, the continuous precipitation leads to deposits in the internal walls of the pipe, clogging the lines and promoting an increase in the head loss of the flow. Consequently, there is an increase in the pressure gradient required to maintain the flow, and the flow rate is reduced. A complete obstruction of the pipeline may occur. In the present work, this phenomenon was studied in a simulation of the subsea operational conditions, where the oil pipelines laying on the seabed are subjected to low temperatures, just a little above the freezing point of water. The pipeline behaves as a heat exchanger and the hot oil from the underground reservoir emerging from the wellhead is effectively cooled down to the point where paraffin precipitation occurs somewhere along the line. An experimental apparatus was built for a 25.4 mm (1 in) diameter pipe-flow model with 13 m of length, submerged in a chilling bath of near frozen water. Stream wise pressure and temperature gradients were measured, in order to evaluate the differences in the behavior of paraffin deposition between one-phase oil flow and two-phase oil-water flow. (author)

  8. Paraffin sediment distribution pattern of Tieling-Dalian Crude Oil Pipeline%铁大原油管道石蜡沉积物的分布规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巨洪; 冯庆善; 兰浩; 范立志; 刘罡

    2012-01-01

    Take Tieling-Dalian Crude Oil Pipeline as a research object, through statistics and analysis of actual paraffin precipitation conditions of field pipeline transformed by fire work and based on changes of transportation process and medium in recent 10 years, the distribution law of paraffin sediments in the pipeline is determined preliminarily. Heat exchange between the crude oil in the pipeline and ambient environment is an important factor to decide thickness, distribution and intensity of pipeline paraffin precipitation. Differences in oil temperature, environment, insulation effect, etc. of the pipeline are an important reason for uneven paraffin precipitation distribution in the pipeline. Random drift and accumulation of shedding paraffin blocks enhance irregularity of pipeline paraffin sediment distribution pattern. Serious paraffin blocking in local pipe sections causes a significant increase of average paraffin thickness. For the pipe section subject to serious paraffin precipitation, pipe cutting observations, dense opening for pressure measurement and other traditional means are still needed to determine actual paraffin precipitation conditions of the pipeline, and roughly, current paraffin sediment amount within the pipeline can be calculated.%以铁大原油管道为研究对象,通过对动火改造现场管道的实际结蜡情况进行统计和分析,结合10年来输送工艺和输送介质的变化,初步确定了管内石蜡沉积物的分布规律.管内原油与周围环境间的热量交换是决定管道结蜡厚度、分布和强度的重要因素.管道沿线油温、环境、保温效果等差异是造成管内结蜡分布不均匀的重要原因,脱落蜡块的随机漂移与堆积增强了管内石蜡沉积物分布规律的不规则性.局部管段严重蜡堵导致管道平均蜡厚显著增加,对于局部结蜡严重的管段,仍需借助割管观测、加密开孔测压等传统手段确定管道的实际结蜡情况.此外,大致推

  9. Energy Equation Derivation of the Oil-Gas Flow in Pipelines Dérivation de l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans des pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan J.M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the simulation of oil-gas pipeline multiphase flow, thermodynamic computation is an important process interacting with the hydraulic calculation and it influences the convergence of the program and the accuracy of the results. The form of the energy equation is the key to the thermodynamic computation. Based on the energy equation of oil-gas flow in pipeline, the Explicit Temperature Drop Formula (ETDF is derived for oilgas steady state temperature calculation. This new energy equation has considered many factors, such as Joule-Thomson effect, pressure work, friction work and impact of terrain undulation and heat transfer Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Rev. IFP Energies nouvelles with the surroundings along the line. So it is an overall form of energy equation, which could describe the actual fact of multiphase pipeline accurately. Therefore, some standpoints in literatures on the temperature calculation of oil-gas two-phase flow in pipelines are reviewed. Elimination of temperature iteration loop and integration of the explicit temperature equation, instead of enthalpy energy equation, into the conjugated hydraulic and thermal computation have been found to improve the efficiency of algorithm. The calculation applied to both the component model, also applied to the black-oil model. This model is incorporated into the component model and black-oil model, respectively, and two simulations are carried out with two practical pipeline Yingmai-Yaha and Lufeng multiphase pipeline and the temperature results are compared with the simulation calculated by the OLGA and the measured. It is shown that this model has simulated the temperature distribution very well. Finally, we analyzed the influence of the specific heat capacity of oil and gas on the temperature of the mixture of fluids and the influence of the Joule-Thomson effect on the temperature distribution on the pipeline. It is shown that the Joule-Thomson coefficient is a key factor to

  10. Surveys of murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field surveys were conducted in July and August 1991 on 32 of the 36 murre (Uria spp.) colonies in the northern Gulf of Alaska to assess colony attendance (number of birds present at a colony) two years after the exxon Valdez oil spill. The surveys focused on murre colonies because murres represented 74% of the recovered seabird carcasses and because it had claimed that there was large-scale mortality of murres, leading to 60% to 70% decreases at some large colonies and population recovery periods of 20 to 70 years. Murres were present at all 32 colonies, and colony attendance estimates were generally similar to those from historical (prespill) surveys, particularly for those colonies in the direct path of the spill, i.e., the Barren Islands and Chiswell islands. Colony attendance levels in 1991 do not support the contention that murre colony attendance in the study area was drastically lower than historical levels. When colonies were grouped according to risk of oil exposure, the mean changes in attendance between 1991 and historical murre surveys did not differ significantly among the groups. Factors that could account for the observed similarity of 1991 and historical murre counts despite the high estimated mortality are (1) overestimation of mortality or (2) replacement of lost breeders through either recruitment of formerly nonbreeding individuals into the breeding population at spill-affected colonies or immigration of murres form nonaffected colonies. The findings of this study suggest that impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on murre colony attendance in the northern Gulf of alaska were relatively short-term. 118 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Countermeasures and Suggestions of Environmental Management of oil and gas Pipeline Disposal%油气管道弃置环境管理对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爽

    2014-01-01

    在对我国油气废弃管道进行潜在环境影响分析的基础上,借鉴欧美发达国家油气废弃管道环境管理经验,指出了我国老旧管道环境管理存在的老旧管道现状不清、环境风险隐患大,管道弃置环境管理缺失,管道弃置技术薄弱、基础研究不足等问题,提出了开展现状调查、摸清底数、评估风险,明确主体责任、建立管道环境管理机制,开展相关试点研究、建立弃置管理技术规范,开展管道规划,优化新线路由等对策建议。%On the basis of potential environmental impact analysis of waste oil and gas pipeline in our country,Learning from the developed countries in Europe and America oil and gas waste pipeline environment management experience, the Article point out the existing problerm that environmental situation of the old pipeline is not clear, the hidden environmental risks is bigger, environmental management of disposed pipeline is deficiencied, disposal technology of pipeline is weak, basic research is lack. So the Article proposes countermeasures and suggestions that the development present situation investigation, find out the real situation, assess the risk, define the main body of responsibility, establish the pipeline environment management mechanism and Pilot study, establish related disposal management technical specification, developing the pipeline planning, new routing optimization and so on.

  12. The Struggle for Caspian Sea Oil-Gas Resources and Export Pipelines%里海油气资源与输出管道之争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张从容

    2012-01-01

    The article expounds on the abundant oil-gas resources potential possessed by Caspian Sea Region,analyzes the struggle tactics of Europe,USA,Russia and other parties being aimed at Caspian Sea oil-gas resources and emphatically concludes the distribution and setup of Caspian Sea oil-gas export pipelines.%里海地区具有丰富油气资源潜力,分析了欧美俄多方针对里海油气资源的争夺策略,重点归纳了里海油气外输管道的分布与格局。

  13. Crossing conflict: The in-service lowering of a 34-in. crude oil pipeline for the construction of the Owen flood diversion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, C.A.; Fridel, T.W. [Lakehead Pipe Line Co., Inc., Duluth, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Lakehead Pipe Line Company, Inc. (LPL) was involved in a collaborative effort with State, local, and private agencies to solve a major crossing conflict in Owen, Wisconsin. This report describes the analysis and design of an in-service lowering of a 34-in. crude oil pipeline. An integrity assessment was performed using internal smart pig data and magnetic particle and ultrasonic inspections. The pipeline lowering design was based on maximum allowable pipe bending moments and included a coating replacement program and river weight installation. The paper describes design options, right-of-way agreement, contracts, pipe repair techniques and construction.

  14. Phase Behavior, Solid Organic Precipitation, and Mobility Characterization Studies in Support of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery on the Alaska North Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    The medium-heavy oil (viscous oil) resources in the Alaska North Slope are estimated at 20 to 25 billion barrels. These oils are viscous, flow sluggishly in the formations, and are difficult to recover. Recovery of this viscous oil requires carefully designed enhanced oil recovery processes. Success of these recovery processes is critically dependent on accurate knowledge of the phase behavior and fluid properties, especially viscosity, of these oils under variety of pressure and temperature conditions. This project focused on predicting phase behavior and viscosity of viscous oils using equations of state and semi-empirical correlations. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the phase behavior and physical properties of viscous oils from the Alaska North Slope oil field. The oil samples were compositionally characterized by the simulated distillation technique. Constant composition expansion and differential liberation tests were conducted on viscous oil samples. Experiment results for phase behavior and reservoir fluid properties were used to tune the Peng-Robinson equation of state and predict the phase behavior accurately. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to compile available compositional viscosity models and their modifications, for application to heavy or viscous oils. With the help of meticulously amassed new medium-heavy oil viscosity data from experiments, a comparative study was conducted to evaluate the potential of various models. The widely used corresponding state viscosity model predictions deteriorate when applied to heavy oil systems. Hence, a semi-empirical approach (the Lindeloff model) was adopted for modeling the viscosity behavior. Based on the analysis, appropriate adjustments have been suggested: the major one is the division of the pressure-viscosity profile into three distinct regions. New modifications have improved the overall fit, including the saturated viscosities at low pressures. However, with the limited

  15. A progress report on fishery surveys along the route of the proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline between the Yukon River and Atigun Pass during 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report represents a summary of findings of the field work conducted by USFWS during the summer of 1971 along the route of the proposed Trans-Alaska...

  16. Efficacy of natural biocide on control of microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines mediated by Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, Meeta; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Mandal, Ajoy K; Cheema, Simrita; Lal, Banwari

    2011-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of a natural biocide with four chemical tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate, benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, and formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, to control microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines. The efficacy of biocides were monitored against Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in experimental pipes by measuring cell counts, H2S production, Fe(II) production, production of extracellular polymeric substances and structure of biofilm. The treatment with cow urine had minimum planktonic cell counts of 3 x 10(2) CFU/mL as well as biofilm cell counts of 9 x 10(1) CFU/mL as compared with tetrakishydroxyl methyl phosphonium sulfonate, benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. Sulfide production was the lowest with cow urine (0.08 mmol/L), followed by tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate 0.72 mmol/L. On day 90 of treatment, Fe(II) production was also found to be the lowest with cow urine. The scanning electron microscopic studies indicated that the biofilm bacteria were killed by cow urine. These results demonstrate the cow urine mediated control of microbially induced corrosion, and this is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of toxic biocides. To the best of our knowledge, this seems to be the first report which screens possible biocidal activity by cow urine as compared to the most common biocides which oil industry is currently using. PMID:22128548

  17. Efficacy of natural biocide on control of microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines mediated by Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meeta Lavania; Priyangshu M. Sarma; Ajoy K. Mandal; Simrita Cheema; Banwari Lal

    2011-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of a natural biocide with four chemical tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate,benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride,and formaldehyde,glutaraldehyde,to control microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines.The efficacy of biocides were monitored against Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in experimental pipes by measuring cell counts,H2S production,Fe(II) production,production of extracellular polymeric substances and structure of biofilm.The treatment with cow urine had minimum planktonic cell counts of 3 × 102 CFU/mL as well as biofiim cell counts of 9 × 101 CFU/mL as compared with tetrakishydroxyl methyl phosphonium sulfonate,benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride,formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde.Sulfide production was the lowest with cow urine (0.08 mmol/L),followed by tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate 0.72 mmoi/L.On day 90 of treatment,Fe(II) production was also found to be the lowest with cow urine.The scanning electron microscopic studies indicated that the biofilm bacteria were killed by cow urine.These results demonstrate the cow urine mediated control of microbially induced corrosion,and this is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of toxic biocides.To the best of our knowledge,this seems to be the first report which screens possible biocidal activity by cow urine as compared to the most common biocides which oil industry is currently using.

  18. Oceanographic studies in Harrison Bay and the Colville River Delta, Alaska, to support the development of oil spill response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of an oil spill resulting from the development of the Alpine oil field is considered to be low. The field is located on the North Slope of Alaska adjacent to the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and reaches coastal waters from the distributary channels of the Colville River Delta. The physical environmental (hydrodynamic) conditions that would affect the transport and fate of spilled oil was investigated to further reduce the risk. During the open-water season of 2001 in Harrison Bay, near shore current meters were deployed and data on weather and surface currents was analyzed. Ocean current and wind measurements were examined to evaluate the relationship between meteorology and water levels during the open-water season. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the near shore hydrodynamic processes at play in Harrison Bay, in order to plan the most appropriate spill response strategies. The results obtained indicate that surface currents within the bay adjacent to the Colville Delta are variable. They respond to wind forces as well as other possible mechanisms like estuarine circulation. The surface currents reach maximum speeds of 0.26 metre per second. For the late July-September deployment, the calculated net surface drift was a 0.02 metre per second current to the east southeast. In both Harrison Bay and Colville Delta, prevailing southwest and northeast winds, respectively, induced water level changes of more than 0.5 metre above and below the average. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  19. GIS在油气长输管道完整性管理中的应用%Application of GIS in the Oil and Gas Pipeline Integrity Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿作孝; 林渊; 李晓宁

    2011-01-01

    传统油气长输管道完整性管理模式和手段在管道突发事故的应变能力、分析处理效率等方面已难以适应当今管道安全管理与监督的需要.为提高管道完整性管理业务综合分析与信息深层次集成的能力,结合油气长输管道距离长、空间跨度大、途径地理情况复杂、运行中发生的事件带有显著空间特征等特点,开发基于GIS的完整性管理系统,旨在以空间特征作为整合管道各种信息的纽带,充分发挥地理信息系统强大的空间数据处理和分析能力,提高长输管道风险识别、高后果区分析、完整性评价和决策支持的水平,以达到管道始终处于受控状态,持续改善管道安全性、可靠性和公众置信度的目的.%Nowadays, safety and environmental concerns from the public have emphasized the requirement for pipeline owners to demonstrate the safe operation of their facilities. Traditional oil & gas transmission Pipeline Integrity Management mode cannot meet the requirements of pipeline safety supervising in terms of dealing with an emergency, analysis and disposal efficiency. To improve the Pipeline Integrity Management business comprehensive analysis ability and information deep - level integration ability, combine with the characteristics that oil & gas transmission pipeline has a long distance and a big spatial span, by way of complex geographical situation, events happening in running have remarkable spatial feature, develop Pipeline Integrity Management System bases onGIS, aimed at using spatial feature as a link to integrate all pipeline information, make GIS spatial data treatment & analysis ability into full play, raise the level of oil & gas transmission Pipeline ability in risk identify, high consequence area analysis, integrity evaluation and decision supporting,to achieve the goal that pipeline always in controlled state, continuously improve pipeline security, reliability and public confidence

  20. A semi-quantitative risk assessment method for analyzing the level of risk associated with parameters in design of thermal heavy oil Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhzad, M.A. [IMV Projects Inc., Alberta (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    During the design stage of a thermal heavy oil pipeline, the design engineer should include the consideration of more factors than what is normally used for the design of a conventional pipeline. In the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) production, for the extraction of bitumen from oily soil, it is required that a stream of hot and pressurized steam (over 300 deg C) to be injected into the oil reservoir. The steam reaches the oily soil reservoir from a steam sour such as boilers by traveling through above-ground pipeline arrangements. As a result of the steam injection into the well site, bitumen oil is released from the oily soil. The produced bitumen also consists of high pressure and temperature (over 200 deg C) and requires a gathering pipeline arrangement for traveling to the processing plant. During the layout design, both steam injection and hot production lines are usually designed parallel with each other by using a series of anchor-loop-anchor supported by steel structures and pilings. The coexistence of two extremely hot pipelines (Injecting Steam and Production pipelines) on the aboveground pipe rack should be designed with extreme care. The higher than normal design temperature of these lines creates considerable lateral and longitudinal movements and heavy loads on the supporting structure and piling. In addition, since both lines contain high pressure mediums, the design engineer shall include a few more parameters than what is normally considered for conventional pipelines. These parameters include; sustain loads, slug forces, natural frequency, mechanical interactions, frictional forces on anchors and guides, and mechanical engagement of supporting components, as well as the effects of these loads on the steel structure-piling and their reaction with the surrounding soil. In addition the design engineer shall be aware of any potential failures associated with these physical and mechanical parameters, the impact and probability rationales and

  1. Corrosion Detection and Protection Technology Analysis of Buried Pipeline in Oil Field%油田埋地管线腐蚀检测与防护技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平申

    2016-01-01

    oil, as the important energy in the production and life of human beings, plays a very important role in the national development and social progress. The normal use of oil relates to the normal and stable operation of the buried pipeline in the oil ifeld. The important issues that need to be paid attention to in the construction of the buried pipeline in oil ifeld are the promotion of the anticorrosion ability of the buried pipeline, and the service life of the buried pipeline at the bottom of the underground pipeline is increased, and the normal operation of the buried pipeline of the oil field is ensured. This article will start with the current situation of buried pipeline in oil ifeld, to understand the corrosion of buried pipelines, and to analyze the corrosion protection technology of buried pipeline in oil ifeld.%石油作为人类生产生活活动的重要性能源,在国家发展和社会进步中发挥着极其重要的作用。石油的正常使用涉及到油田埋地管线的高效能正常稳定运行。在油田埋地管线的建设中需要注重的重要问题,是对埋地管线防腐蚀能力的提升,提高埋地管线在地底的使用寿命,确保油田埋地管线的正常运行。本文将从油田埋地管线的现状入手,了解埋地管线的腐蚀检测,并对油田埋地管线的防腐蚀技术进行分析。

  2. New test for oil soluble/water dispersible gas pipeline inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmann, D.W.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The wheel test provides good mixing of the condensate and water phases, the coupons are exposed to both phases. Therefore, the wheel test cannot distinguish between inhibitors that need continuous mixing of the these phases to maintain a water dispersion of the inhibitor and inhibitors that will self disperse into the water. This concept becomes important for pipelines in stratified flow where the water can settle out. In these cases with low turbulence, the inhibitor must self disperse into the water to be effective. The paper describes a test method to measure the effectiveness of an inhibitor and its ability to self disperse. The effectiveness of several inhibitors as predicted by the new test method is discussed relative to data from the wheel test and breaker tests. Field performance of these inhibitors in a gas gathering line, with liquids in stratified flow, are cities and compared with the results of the various laboratory tests.

  3. 油气管道机器人技术研发进展%Research and development progress in oil and gas pipeline robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建树; 林立; 李杨; 李魁龙

    2013-01-01

    Pipeline robots integrated with smart mobile carrier and pipeline defect nondestructive testing technology are mainly used for detection, coating spraying, joint welding, foreign material removal and other maintenances of industrial pipelines such as oil and gas pipelines. Mode of motion is core technology of the pipeline robots, including active and passive modes. This paper elaborates technical features and difficulties of the pipeline robots using active motion modes such as bionic type, crawler type, screw driven type, vehicle type and supporting wheel type and those using passive motion mode are elaborated and enumerates products and technologies at home and overseas. Based on the above technology, a comparative analysis is carried out for overall performance of various technologies and key technical problems required to resolve for R&D of pipeline robots are proposed.%管道机器人综合了智能移动载体技术和管道缺陷无损检测技术,主要用于输油气管道的检测、喷涂、接口焊接、异物清理等检修维护作业.运动方式是管道机器人的技术核心,包括主动运动方式和被动运动方式两大类.系统阐述了仿生式、履带式、螺旋驱动式、车型式和支撑轮式等5种主动运动方式管道机器人及被动运动方式管道机器人PIG的技术特点和难点,例举了国内外现有产品和技术.对比分析了各种技术的综合性能,提出了管道机器人研发需要重点解决的技术问题.

  4. Pumping propagation and influence of oil derivatives transport in a pipeline network; Propagacao e influencia de bombeamento no transporte de derivados de petroleo em uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Camila Baldissera de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kluppel, Liege Bauer; Neves Junior, Flavio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the work developed on a pipeline network that transports oil derivatives. The transport occurs in batches of a specific product, each one having a defined route: the pumping origin, a destination for its receipt and the pipelines which the product is moved through. The network studied has a total of thirty pipelines connected by fourteen possible areas of pumping and/or receiving, this makes it not trivial to obtain the batches order in the pipeline. In order to obtain the passage of batches ordered list in the pipeline network, was developed an algorithm capable of propagating a batches list that only have route, start time and end time of pumping in the origin. This algorithm is part of a larger project whose goal is to obtain a tool to aid the process of operational decision making in a real pipeline network. The developed module can also generate the entry and exit times of each batch for each pipe through which it passes. With this information, analysis and/or validations can be made. At the end of the process, the result is a list of all the pumped batches in all pipes where it must go by. Thus, it is made a small pos-processing where the list is sorted, first by pipeline and then by start time of entry into the duct, which naturally causes the passage of the batches list in the ducts to be obtained. This work is based on the development presented by Czaikowski et al (2008). (author)

  5. The effect of a Louisiana crude oil discharge from a pipeline break on the vegetation of a southeast Louisiana brackish marsh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelssohn, I.A.; Hester, M.W.; Sasser, C. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (USA). Center for Wetland Resources); Fischel, M. (Shell Oil Co., Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-01-01

    A pipeline break on 23 April 1985 near Nairn, Louisiana, resulted in the release of approximately 300 barrels of Louisiana crude oil into a brackish marsh dominated by a vegetative mixture of Spartina patens, S. alterniflora and Distichlis spicata. Since the impact of oil spills on brackish marshes has received little attention, we initiated this investigation to assess the post-spill status of the vegetation. Sixty-eight randomly selected plots located on 15 transects which traverse the complete study area were sampled for various vegetative cover parameters. The major impact of the spill was confined to the 50-acre (20-ha) marsh located immediately around the pipeline rupture. The oil caused a 64% reduction in live vegetative cover (adjusted for differences in total percentage cover among plots) in this marsh 3 months after the spill. This high plant mortality from a relatively low oil dosage (estimated at 0.28 liters/m{sup 2}) was probably due to the contact of the oil with a large percentage (about 30-70%) of the photosynthetic leaf surfaces of the vegetation and the penetration of the oil into the marsh substrate. (author).

  6. Engineering Calculation Method of Electromagnetic Effect on Oil/Gas Pipelines from 1 000 kV AC Transmission Line Having Single-phase Ground Fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenliang; JIANG Jun; GUO Jian; LU Jiayu

    2012-01-01

    There will be more and more AC transmission lines near oil/gas pipelines in the future.So in order to determine the safe distance between them,simple and effective methods are required for engineers to efficiently evaluate the electromagnetic effect on oil/gas pipelines due to faults of AC transmission lines.In this paper,an easily handled fitting formula is obtained based on multiple calculation results,which is the maximum voltage on the pipeline anticorrosive coating produced by 1 000 kV AC transmission line under single phase ground fault.Although the calculation results obtained from the fitting formula differ from those gained by precise calculation with softwares,the verification of the formula shows that it is applicable for engineering calculation.This research could be applied to evaluate the electromagnetic effect of 1 000 kV AC transmission line under single-phase ground fault on nearby pipelines,as well as to determine the safe distance or the maximum parallel length.

  7. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  8. Introduction and development of soil thermal stabilization technologies at the objects of oil pumping station-2 (OPS-2 of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapsay Aleksey Nikolaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the questions of designing the foundations for the Oil Pumping Station-2 site of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline. The problems of choice and grounds for technical solutions are considered basing on the results of complex thermotechnical calculations. The construction territory of OPS-2 site of "Kuyumba - Tayshet" trunk oil pipeline is characterized by complex engineering and geocryological conditions: 1 presence of permafrost soil on 80 % of the site area; 2 absence of sufficiently widespread rocky soils under designed buildings and constructions; 3 transition of loamy grounds into yield during thawing. The buildings and facilities are designed on the basis of pile foundation type with high rigid foundation grill. The piles’ diameter is 325 mm and 426 mm, the total length of piles is 9-12 m. The full designed vertical loading, transferred to the pile, is ranging from 10.6 to 50.4 tf. According to the results of the calculations, in order to provide the necessary bearing capacity of piles, securing the perception of transmitted designed loadings, the equivalent temperature of the soil along the side surface of piles ( e should not be higher than -0,5 °C. Taking into account that the soil temperatures on the projected site mainly range from -0.1 to -0.3 °C, in order to lower their temperatures to the calculated values ventilated underground areas are arranged under the buildings and facilities and seasonally active cooling devices (soil thermal stabilizers are installed. Assembly technique and construction of ventilated underground areas with application of soil thermal stabilizers were developed earlier while designing the pipeline system "Zapolyarye - Oil Pumping Station Purpe". For confirmation of the accepted decisions forecasting thermotechnical calculations were performed with the use of a special computer program TermoStab 67-87, which allows simulating the changes of temperature regimes of the permafrost

  9. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., receiverships, and similar actions which affect the identity or organization of the company Permanently or at... cancellation. (c) Copies of formal orders of regulatory bodies served upon the company 1 year after expiration... reading of oil and other products received into the delivered from company's lines 3 years. (c)...

  10. Air-cushion tankers for Alaskan North Slope oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for transporting oil from the Arctic to southern markets in 10,000-ton, chemically fueled air-cushion vehicles (ACV's) configured as tankers. Based on preliminary cost estimates the conceptual ACV tanker system as tailored to the transportation of Alaskan North Slope oil could deliver the oil for about the same price per barrel as the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline with only one-third of the capital investment. The report includes the description of the conceptual system and its operation; preliminary cost estimates; an appraisal of ACV tanker development; and a comparison of system costs, versatility, vulnerability, and ecological effect with those of the trans-Alaska pipeline.

  11. Predictive modeling of subsurface shoreline oil encounter probability from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the distribution of remaining lingering subsurface oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) along the shorelines of Prince William Sound (PWS), AK, we revised previous modeling efforts to allow spatially explicit predictions of the distribution of subsurface oil. We used a set of pooled field data and predictor variables stored as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data to generate calibrated boosted tree models predicting the encounter probability of different categories of subsurface oil. The models demonstrated excellent predictive performance as evaluated by cross-validated performance statistics. While the average encounter probabilities at most shoreline locations are low across western PWS, clusters of shoreline locations with elevated encounter probabilities remain in the northern parts of the PWS, as well as more isolated locations. These results can be applied to estimate the location and amount of remaining oil, evaluate potential ongoing impacts, and guide remediation. This is the first application of quantitative machine-learning based modeling techniques in estimating the likelihood of ongoing, long-term shoreline oil persistence after a major oil spill.

  12. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... further NEPA analysis in accordance with its order. The District Court amended this order in August 2010... Center, Kotzebue, Alaska. ] Wednesday June 22, 2011 City Qalgi Center, Point Hope, Alaska. Thursday...

  13. 水下输油管道泄漏数值研究%Numerical Study on Crude Oil Leakage of Underwater Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫强; 李朝阳; 马贵阳; 刘亮; 王浩丽

    2011-01-01

    Leakage of oil conveying pipeline not only causes huge economic loss, but also bring serious environmental pollution, even poses potential threat to life. Up till now, there have been many pipeline leakage diffusion model research about buried and aerial gas pipes but rare ones on underwater pipeline leakage diffusion issues. Adopting the finite volume method to establish the underwater pipeline leak diffusion multi -phase ( VOF) model, using CFD software to simulate the influencing factors of crude oil diffusion , by comparing we found: with leakage at the same rate, water to oil phase movement is gradually strengthenning, but buoyancy effect on the oil droplets is abating, the movement distance of spilling oil increases; when the leakage velocity increases, the movement distance of spilling oil decreases, horizontal distance on hydrosphere interface to the oil leakage point decreases; when leakage velocity decreases, because of its underwater extended range, the surface oil film area is relatively larger.%输油管道泄漏后不仅造成巨大的经济损失,还会带来严重的环境污染,对生命造成潜在的威胁.目前关于管道泄漏扩散模型的研究多适用于埋地管道及架空输气管道,对于水下管道泄漏扩散问题的研究还很少.基于有限容积法建立水下输油管道泄漏扩散多相流(VOF)模型,借助CFD软件数值计算了影响原油扩散的因素,通过对比发现:当泄漏速度相同,水流对油相运动影响逐渐增强,而浮力对油滴作用减弱,溢油将在河底运动距离变大;随着泄漏速度增大,溢油在水下水平移动距离变小,在水气界面位置距离漏油点的水平距离变小;当泄漏速度较小时,由于其水下扩展范围广,形成水面油膜面积相对变大.

  14. Four years of oil-free full-metal shut-off slides for gas pipelines; Vier Jahre oelfreie rein metallisch dichtende Gasabsperrschieber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linstedt, Holger; Seewald, Gerhard; Fugmann, Kay [TEC artec valves GmbH und Co. KG, Oranienburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    After several years of operation, oil-filled shut-off slides will slowly have soiled gas pipelines. Oil-free full-metal shut-off slides are advantageous both from an ecological and technical view. Serial production will reduce the cost and shorten delivery times. The slide presented in this contribution also enables double block and bleed testing after installation. Horizontal slides open up new fields of application. Complete cross-joint slides have a particularly high cost reduction effect. Radio monitoring and control is possible in remote areas. (orig.)

  15. ROLE OF MICROORGANISMS IN THE BIOREMEDIATION OF THE OIL SPILL INPRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Alaskan BioremediationProject was initiated in the aftermath of the March 24, 1989, EXXONVALDEZ oil Spill. he objective of the project was to demonstratean alternative cleanup method for oil-contaminated shorelines basedon enhancing natu...

  16. Detection of impurities in fluid flowing in refinery pipeline or oil production operations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus were developed for determining chlorine in fluids such as crude oil at wellheads or loading docks, refined product, or refinery feedstock or waste water. The fluid is bombarded with fast neutrons giving rise to thermal neutron capture gamma rays. The chlorine content is determined from the energy spectra of the thermal neutron caputre gamma rays. If the salinity of the salt water is known, and all the chlorine in the fluid is present as sodium chloride, then the salt water content in the fluid can also be determined. The sulfur content is determined from the gamma ray spectra simultaneously with the chlorine content. If the fluid contains a gas homogeneously mixed, then the percentage of gas or gas/oil ratio can be determined. The measurements are unaffected by the velocity and volume flow rate of the crude oil stream. The chemical source for the thermal neutrons is less expenisve and requires less maintenance than evacuated-envelope accelerator-type neutron generators. (DN)

  17. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population "sink" for sea otters in Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, D.H.; Doak, D.F.; Ballachey, B.E.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 42 million L of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. At the time of the spill, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population inhabiting the spill area suffered substantial acute injuries and loss. Subsequent research has resulted in one of the best-studied species responses to an oil spill in history. However, the question remains: Is the spill still influencing the Prince William Sound sea otter population? Here we fit time-varying population models to data for the sea otter population of western Prince William Sound to quantify the duration and extent of mortality effects from the spill. We hypothesize that the patchy nature of residual oil left in the environment has created a source-sink population dynamic. We fit models using the age distributions of both living and dying animals and estimates of sea otter population size to predict the number of sea otters in the hypothesized sink population and the number lost to this sink due to chronic exposure to residual oil. Our results suggest that the sink population has remained at just over 900 individuals (95% CI: 606-960) between 1990 and 2009, during which time prime-age survival remained 2-6% below pre-spill levels. This reduced survival led to chronic losses of ???900 animals over the past two decades, which is similar in magnitude to the number of sea otter deaths documented in western Prince William Sound during the acute phase of the spill. However, the unaffected source population appears to be counterbalancing these losses, with the model indicating that the sea otter population increased from ???2150 individuals in 1990 to nearly 3000 in 2009. The most optimistic interpretation of our results suggests that mortality effects dissipated between 2005 and 2007. Our results suggest that residual oil can affect wildlife populations on time scales much longer than previously believed and that cumulative chronic effects can be as

  18. 美国与加拿大油气管道的安全保护%Safety protection of oil and gas pipelines in US and Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢海军; 赵勇昌; 冯治中; 戴联双; 高丽

    2013-01-01

    基于我国油气管道安全保护的多维防护体系存在的诸多不足和薄弱环节,分析了美国和加拿大在油气管道安全保护方面的法规制度、标准规范及两国石油企业在管道安全保护的相关规定.指出我国标准在规范人防、物防、技防等方面存在较大差距,介绍了美国和加拿大管道安全保护的实例和先进理念,结合国内当前在油气管道安全保卫的通常做法,对改进和加强我国油气管道安全保护工作提出了建议,即从建立监管机构、明确分工职责、建设安全防护技术体系等方面进行完善.%Since the multidimensional protection system of oil and gas pipelines in China has many shortages and weak links,this paper analyzes American and Canadian laws and standards on safety protection of oil and gas pipelines and relevant regulations on safety protections of pipelines in the petroleum enterprises in both countries.The paper points out that China's standards lag way behind in normal manual protection,physical protection,technical protection,etc,introduces examples and advanced ideas of safety protection of pipelines in US and Canada,in view of common practices in safety protection of oil and gas pipelines in China,puts forward suggestions on improving and strengthening safety protection of oil and gas pipelines,which include establishing supervision institution,making responsibility clear-cut and constructing safety protection technical system.

  19. Last 20 years of gas hydrates in the oil industry : challenges and achievements in predicting pipeline blockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanga, D.A.; Creek, J.; Subramanian, S.; Kini, R.A. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed how the successes of the past 20 years have shaped the new hydrate focus. It also outlined innovative tools for hydrate plugging prediction. Tools such as CSMHyK-OLGA were developed to address the design and operational challenges associated with offshore production regarding flow assurance in the area of gas hydrates. The effort to understand the complex behavior of gas hydrates in multiphase flow has resulted in new hydrate blockage models. Although the hydrate community continues to debate the impact of kinetics, agglomeration, and oil chemistry effects on hydrate blockage formation in pipelines and wellbores, the petroleum industry still relies on thermodynamic strategies that completely prevent hydrates in production systems. However, these complex strategies such as thermal insulation, electric heating, dead oil displacement, and methanol injection are costly, particularly for marginal fields. As such, research continues in developing a comprehensive multiphase flow simulator capable of handling the transient aspects of production operations, notably shut-in, restart, blowdown and blockage prediction. Model predictions are leading to new operating strategies based on risk management approach. This paper discussed the challenges and opportunities that have shifted the focus from prevention of hydrates to prevention of blockage. Some initial successes in the development of a first generation empirical tool for the prediction of hydrate blockages in flow lines were also presented along with new experimental data that explained how hydrate blockages can manifest in the field. It was concluded that additional research is needed to solve the problem of hydrate plugging mechanism. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  1. Avaliação do processamento a baixas temperaturas do óleo de fígado de Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma Evaluation of low temperature rendering of Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma liver oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Amaral Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pela produção de óleo de pescado para consumo humano é crescente. No Alasca, EUA, uma grande quantidade de subprodutos tem sido usada como matéria-prima. Entre os subprodutos, o fígado de Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma apresenta interesse particular em razão de seu alto teor de lipídios. Normalmente, a temperatura usada para extração do óleo de pescado é elevada e potencialmente incompatível com a estabilidade lipídica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o processamento do óleo de fígado de Alaska pollock, extraído a baixas temperaturas. Como confirmado, a matéria-prima obtida na primavera (40% apresentou um conteúdo lipídico menor que a de outono (50%. A extração foi realizada cinco vezes para quatro combinações de tempo (15 e 30 minutos e temperatura (50 e 60 ºC. Foram analisadas duas bateladas de óleo de fígado e vísceras de pollock, produzido em navio processador. O rendimento do processo foi semelhante (aproximadamente 52%, os óleos de fígado produzidos se apresentaram mais claros, com coloração amarela, comparados aos de vísceras de pollock produzidos no outono. Os ácidos graxos livres foram similares para óleos de fígado e de vísceras nas duas estações, atingindo, no máximo, 0,4%; o índice de peróxidos, o valor de anisidina e o valor de ácido tiobarbitúrico determinados nos óleos apresentaram 2-14 meq.kg-1, 20-26 e 0,4-0,6 mg dialdeído malônico.kg-1, respectivamente. Todos os óleos investigados foram compostos principalmente por triacilgliceróis (88-100%, com o conteúdo de fósforo não excedendo, em média, 15 ppm.The demand for edible fish oils is growing. In Alaska, USA, large quantities of fishery byproducts are being used as raw materials, amongst which, Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma livers are of particular interest due to their high lipid contents. The temperature normally used for the extraction of fish oils is high and potentially incompatible with

  2. Northern entanglement : Arctic gas pipeline plans caught in web of competing interests, but dire supply-demand forecasts indicate line will be built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discussed land access and regulatory issues surrounding decisions to stop field work of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline in the spring of 2005. Although current supply and demand balances in natural gas markets argue that the pipeline will be beneficial, Imperial Oil and its partners have halted activities such as geotechnical data-gathering programs and preparatory work on contracting construction. The project's future depends on the successful resolution of First Nations land claims, governmental disputes and various activist groups protesting the pipeline's construction. Imperial Oil has suggested that the pipeline presents a significant opportunity for the people of the North to reduce their reliance on government and will create jobs and business opportunities for Aboriginal people. In the aftermath of work stoppage, Alberta's former Energy Minister stated that imports of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Alaska gas from the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project may arrive on the market in advance of the Mackenzie Valley project, which would affect the project's financial future. It was noted that access and benefits agreements with First Nations stakeholders have yet to be reached. Lawsuits involving the Deh Cho First Nations were examined. It was also suggested that Imperial Oil has not included information on the Alberta portion of the project in its environmental impact assessment. It was concluded that if the Mackenzie Delta line isn't in service by 2010, North American consumers can expect to spend an extra $190 billion on gas from 2011 to 2020. 3 figs

  3. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Alaska Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Surface Locations of Boreholes drilled for exploration or oil and gas production. Dataset is maintained by Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. Please note: older...

  4. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  5. Product through pipelines : transportation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballyntyne, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided a brief overview of the corporate structure of Terasen Pipelines along with a map displaying the locations of the pipelines it operates and new directions for growth. It also presented a proposal to deliver petroleum products from Alberta's oilsand fields to markets via the Corridor and Express pipeline systems, and evaluated the issue of transporting petrochemicals via rail transport rather than pipeline. Industry is also examining the option of shipping refined products through a trans mountain system from Alberta to British Columbia and California. A chart highlighting Canadian crude oil production was presented along with an oil sands pipeline capacity chart. It was noted that significant investment in refining capacity is needed and that new pipeline facilities will be required to meet the needs of oil sands developments. tabs., figs.

  6. An examination of additive-mediated wax nucleation in oil pipeline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, A. J.; Neville, A.; Roberts, K. J.

    1999-03-01

    As part of a wider study probing the molecular-scale factors important in controlling wax crystallisation processes, the effect of additives on the surface and bulk nucleation of wax crystals from hydrocarbon solution phases was examined. Bulk nucleation data obtained in the absence and presence of two growth inhibiting additives indicated an increase in the meta-stable zone width (MSZW) on addition of both inhibitors, and differences in their kinetics of inhibition. Complementary studies of surface nucleation using a pipe blocking apparatus revealed a lowering in the temperature at which blockage occurred on addition of inhibitor to the model oil, and existence of fractional crystallisation observed in the bulk phase was confirmed. The hydrodynamic dependence of the nucleation process provided added information on how the inhibitors and wax would perform in a field situation, with a strong dependence on shear rate.

  7. Machine Design of Robot for Detecting In-use Oil Pipeline%在役石油管道检测机器人机械设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敬德; 周明; 应金贵; 曾俊冬

    2001-01-01

    When in-use oil pipelines are corroded their walls becoming thin,resulting in cracks and oil leak. Therefore detection of oil pipe faults is an important research topic. This paper presents a general design scheme of robot for checking in-use oil pipeline, and focuses on design of main component such as selection of electric motor and design of searching unit dish, slip-rings, high-pressure sealing ring and universal joints. Calculation results are provided. Successful development of the mechanical parts establishes a firm base for the development of robot.%在役石油输油管道受蚀后,管壁变薄,甚至产生裂缝,造成漏油,如何检测管道缺陷已成为一个重要的研究课题.现提出了检测机器人总体设计方案,叙述了主要零部件的设计,提供了计算结果.重点说明了电动机的选择、探头盘的设计、滑环的研制、高压密封件与万向节的设计与制造等.机械部分的试制成功为整台检测机器人的研制打下了坚实的基础.

  8. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  9. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF

  10. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halambage Upul Deepthike; Robin Tecon; Gerry van Kooten; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Hauke Harms; Mona Wells; Jeffrey Short [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2009-08-15

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content, technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluid and Rock Property Controls On Production And Seismic Monitoring Alaska Heavy Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Herring, Andy [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Prasad, Manika [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Dorgan, John [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Batzle, Mike [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-10-30

    The goal of this project is to improve recovery of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) heavy oil resources in the Ugnu formation by improving our understanding of the formation's vertical and lateral heterogeneities via core evaluation, evaluating possible recovery processes, and employing geophysical monitoring to assess production and modify production operations.

  13. Crude Oil Pipeline Integrity Management System and Its Application%输油管道完整性管理体系及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福众; 帅健

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the integrity management system was constructed for crude oil pipeline. Management model was presented, based on plan-do-check-action cycle. The implementation essentials of the pipeline integrity management system were outlined. A pipeline integrity management information platform was developed and its functions with data management, high consequence identification, risk assessment, integrity evaluation and activity planning. Integrity management activities, such as data integration, hazard identification, risk assessment, internal inspection, external corrosion direct assessment and maintenance, were conducted. Simultaneously, the problems in pipeline integrity management system construction and application were pointed out, and the suggestion of improving pipeline integrity management system was raised.%构建了输油管道完整性管理体系,提出了基于“计划-实施-检查-改进”循环的管理模式,总结了管道完整性管理体系的实施要点,研制开发了具有数据管理、高后果区识别、风险评价、完整性评价及活动管理的输油管道完整性管理信息平台。开展了数据收集与整合、危害因素识别与风险评价、管道内检测、外腐蚀直接评价以及维修维护等完整性管理活动。同时,指出管道完整性管理体系构建与应用中的问题,提出了进一步改进和完善管道完整性管理体系的建议。

  14. Modeling of the re-starting of waxy crude oil flows in pipelines; Modelisation du redemarrage des ecoulements de bruts paraffiniques dans les conduites petrolieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinay, G.

    2005-11-15

    Pipelining crude oils that contain large proportions of paraffins can cause many specific difficulties. These oils, known as waxy crude oils, usually exhibit high 'pour point', where this temperature is higher than the external temperature conditions surrounding the pipeline. During the shutdown, since the temperature decreases in the pipeline, the gel-like structure builds up and the main difficulty concerns the issue of restarting. This PhD attempts to improve waxy crude oil behaviour understanding thanks to experiment, modelling and numerical simulation in order to predict more accurately time and pressure required to restart the flow. Using various contributions to the literature, waxy crude oils are described as viscoplastic, thixotropic and compressible fluid. Strong temperature history dependence plays a prevailing role in the whole shutdown and restart process. Thus, waxy crude oils under flowing conditions correspond to the non-isothermal flow of a viscoplastic material with temperature-dependent rheological properties. Besides, the restart of a waxy crude oil is simulated by the isothermal transient flow of a weakly compressible thixotropic fluid in axisymmetric pipe geometry. We retain the Houska model to describe the thixotropic/viscoplastic feature of the fluid and compressibility is introduced in the continuity equation. The viscoplastic constitutive equation is involved using an augmented Lagrangian method and the resulting equivalent saddle-point problem is solved thanks to an Uzawa-like algorithm. Governing equations are discretized using a Finite Volume method and the convection terms are treated thanks to a TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) scheme. The Lagrangian functional technique usually used for incompressible viscoplastic flows, is adapted to compressible situations. Several numerical results attest the good convergence properties of the proposed transient algorithm. The non-isothermal results highlight the strong sensitivity of

  15. Real-time monitoring and control of the oil pipeline networks; Monitoramento e controle inteligentes e em tempo real de redes de escoamento de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, F.; Galvao, C.; Brasileiro, E.; Catao, B.; Souto, C.; Machado, E.; Muniz, M.; Souza, A.; Gomes, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)]. E-mail: fubica@dsc.ufcg.edu.br; Aloise, D. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Oliveira, A.; Gomes, C.; Rolim, T.; Boquimpani, C. [PETROBRAS S.A. (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Real-time monitoring and control of complex and large-scale oil pipeline networks is complicated by several requirements, among them: reliability of data acquisition and communication systems; strict time limits between data acquisition and decision of control action; operational constraints of a large number of pipeline devices and multi-objective control, involving economic, operational, environmental and institutional objectives and constraints. The MDTP system was designed for meeting such requirements. A simulation-optimization approach is the strategy adopted for the network state prediction and control. The simulation module is based on the quasi-steady state hydraulics of oil-water flow. The control is centered on the pumping systems, respecting operational constraints of tanks and pipes, without reducing the oil production targets. For real-time control, an optimization scheme generates multiple operational scenarios, the optimum of them being selected by means of a meta-heuristics approach. To meet the strict time limits for deciding the control strategy, a grid computing architecture was adopted, instead of conventional dedicated high-performance computers. (author)

  16. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  17. Numerical Simulation of Oil-Gas Separation in Tee Pipeline%异径T型管道内油气分离过程数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凤利; 范开峰; 王卫强; 赵鹏; 张源李

    2011-01-01

    When the gas-liquid two-phase flows through tee pipeline, the distribution of two phase in two branch pipes is always uneven. There may be only gas branch in pipelines when it is serious, while the other export tube may be full of liquid. The numerical simulation on oil - gas two phase fluxion in different time by CFD was made and the oil and gas separation characteristics in branch pipes were get. The results show that there will be gas- liquid separation phenomenon in branch pipe when the oil and gas flow through branch pipe of tee pipeline, and close to the mouth branch the separation phenomenon is obvious. There is almost no separation phenomenon in certain distance of the branch mouth.%气液两相流经T型管后,两相介质在各自分支管内相态分布不均,严重时支管内可能只有气体,而主管内为气液混合物.借助CFD软件数值模拟了不同时刻分支处的流动情况,得到了分支管内油气分离特性.结果表明:油气流经T型分支管时,会在支管处出现气液分离现象,离分支口越近,分离现象越明显;当距分支口一定距离时,几乎没有分离现象.

  18. 75 FR 2126 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre... season for an Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being hosted by the Alaska... capacity on Alaskan natural gas transportation projects. Both Denali--The Alaska Gas Pipeline LLC and...

  19. Numerical Simulation for Temperature Drop of the Waxy Oil Submarine Pipeline during Shutdown%海底含蜡原油管道停输降温过程的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳波; 马贵阳; 曹先慧; 齐浩; 杜义朋

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the temperature drop process of submarine waxy oil pipeline is researched. It is of great significance to avoid the accident of solidifing pipeline. According to the characteristics of service environments of submarine waxy oil pipeline, unsteady - state heat transfer model is established for sub marine pipeline during shutdown. Regularity of change of waxy oil temperature is simulated in submarine pipeline during shutdown with time by the CFD software. The factors of effecting, such as diameter of pipeline and temperature of mud around the pipeline and so on, are analyzed, which decide a optimum time for shutdown and provides a theoretical guidance for safe submarine waxy oil pipeline startup.%研究海底含蜡原油管道的停输降温过程,对避免“凝管”事故的发生起着重要的作用.针对海底含蜡原油管道运行环境的特点,建立海底管道停输时的非稳态传热模型,利用CFD软件模拟海底管道停输过程中温度随时间的变化规律,分析管径、管道周围海泥温度等因素对停输温降的影响,从而确定最佳停输时间,为海底含蜡原油管道制定再启动方案提供理论依据.

  20. Evaluation of the biodegradation of Alaska North Slope oil in microcosms using the biodegradation model BIOB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish eTorlapati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the details of a numerical model, BIOB that is capable of simulating the biodegradation of oil entrapped in the sediment. The model uses Monod kinetics to simulate the growth of bacteria in the presence of nutrients and the subsequent consumption of hydrocarbons. The model was used to simulate experimental results of Exxon Valdez oil biodegradation in laboratory columns (Venosa et al. (2010. In that study, samples were collected from three different islands: Eleanor Island (EL107, Knight Island (KN114A, and Smith Island (SM006B, and placed in laboratory microcosms for a duration of 168 days to investigate oil bioremediation through natural attenuation and nutrient amendment. The kinetic parameters of the BIOB model were estimated by fitting to the experimental data using a parameter estimation tool based on Genetic Algorithms (GA. The parameter values of EL107 and KN114A were similar whereas those of SM006B were different from the two other sites; in particular biomass growth at SM006B was four times slower than at the other two islands. Grain size analysis from each site revealed that the specific surface area per unit mass of sediment was considerably lower at SM006B, which suggest that the surface area of sediments is a key control parameter for microbial growth in sediments. Comparison of the BIOB results with exponential decay curves fitted to the data indicated that BIOB provided better fit for KN114A and SM006B in nutrient amended treatments, and for EL107 and KN114A in natural attenuation. In particular, BIOB was able to capture the initial slow biodegradation due to the lag phase in microbial growth. Sensitivity analyses revealed that oil biodegradation at all three locations were sensitive to nutrient concentration whereas SM006B was sensitive to initial biomass concentration due to its slow growth rate. Analyses were also performed to compare the half-lives of individual compounds with the decay rate of the overall PAH.

  1. Application of Pipeline Helium Nitrogen Test in Offshore Oil Engineering%管线氦氮试验在海洋石油工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海萍

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline helium nitrogen test is a kind of high sensitivity leak test method. At present, it has been widely used in offshore oil engineering at home and abroad. In this paper, the general practice of pipeline helium nitrogen test was introduced and described, including determination of the test pressure, division of the test pack, and determination of the pressure relief path. At the same time, the implementation steps of helium nitrogen test in pipeline were introduced.%管线氦氮试验是一种高灵敏度测漏试验,目前在国内外海洋石油工程中得到了广泛的应用。对管线氦氮试验的通用做法进行了介绍和阐述,包括试验压力的确定、试验包的划分、超压泄压路径的确定等,同时详细介绍了管线氦氮试验的实施步骤,对现场施工起到了指导性作用。

  2. 加油站新旧输油管线碰头焊接方法探讨%Discussion on the method of joint welding between the new and old oil supply pipeline in the automobile gasoline filling station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丽; 卢烨强

    2012-01-01

    Mentioned in (Code for design and construction of automobile gasoline filling station} ( GB50156-2002) , it is the basic requirements of oil supply pipeline laying that oil supply pipeline should adopt die seamless steel pipe, connected by welding in the automobile gasoline filling station. It has several advantages, first is less weld, second is relatively close and reliable, third is the fast construction speed, fourth is saving material and labor, fifth is easy to corrosion, sixth is not prone to leakage risk that oil supply pipeline should adopt the seamless steel pipe, connected by welding in the automobile gasoline filling station. However,when the oil supply pipeline transformated in the automobile gasoline filling station , it is easy to to cause fire and explosion by the sparks produced in the process of joint welding between the new and old oil supply pipeline ignite oil gas. Therefore, how to construction safety in jiont welding between the new and old oil supply pipeline has become the issue that needs to be discussednow. Combining with the actual situation of the oil supply pipeline transformation in Dandong Taiping Bay automobile gasoline filling station, several methods of the oil and gas pipeline joint welding in this article.%《汽车加油加气站设计与施工规范》( GB50156 - 2002)中提到加油站输油管道宜采用无缝钢管、连接方式采用焊接是输油管道敷设的基本要求,其优点是焊缝少、比较严密可靠、施工速度快、省材省工、便于防腐、不容易出现渗漏隐患.但加油站在改造输油管线时,新旧管线碰头焊接过程中产生的火花易点燃管线中的油气引发火灾及爆炸.因此,如何在新旧输油管线碰头焊接时安全施工就成为了需要我们探讨的问题.本文结合丹东太平湾加油站输油管线改造的实际情况,简要的阐述了加油站含油气管线碰头焊接的几种方法.

  3. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Sahli; Naser El-Sheimy

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected p...

  4. 75 FR 36773 - Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... drilling unit, approximately 40 miles offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, led to a massive release of crude oil from a well on the sea floor. The oil spill is estimated to be the largest offshore spill in United... a massive release of crude oil from a well on the sea floor. The oil spill has proven to be...

  5. Research on Design Coefficient of Oil and Gas Pipeline Based on Reliability%基于可靠性的油气管道设计系数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏; 顾晓婷; 赵丽恒

    2011-01-01

    Determination of oil and gas pipeline design coefficient based on experience was conservative in the previous strength design. Most studies at home and abroad demonstrated the feasibility of improving oil and gas pipeline design coefficient in theory, but it didn't give calculation method of design coefficient based on reliability. In this paper, stresssirength interference theory was introduced to the research on design coefficient of oil and gas pipeline. Taking the West to East Gas Pipeline Project and its second project for example, the reliability of pipeline without defect or with volume defect was calculated quantitatively under design coefficient of 0. 72 and 0. 8, practical measures were proposed, and the theories were provided to reduce the oil and gas pipeline wall thickness increase the transportation pressure and save the pipeline cost.%以往的油气管道强度设计中,设计系数的确定常常以经验为依据,比较保守.国内外大多数研究均是从理论上论证了提高油气管道设计系数的可行性,并没有给出基于可靠性的设计系数的计算方法.将应力-强度干涉理论引入油气管道设计系数的研究中,以西气东输一线及二线为例,定量计算了0.72和0.8两种设计系数下无缺陷管道和含体积型缺陷管道的可靠度,并提出了切实可行的措施,为油气管道降低壁厚,提高输送压力,节约管道成本提供了理论支持.

  6. Research on Paraffin Removal and Control Techniques for Oil Pipelines%输油管道清防蜡技术研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官琳悦; 王卫强

    2014-01-01

    产自我国的原油大多属于石蜡基原油,在输送过程中,原油中的蜡不断结晶析出,沉积在管道内壁上,结蜡层厚度逐渐增加,导致管道内的有效通流截面减小,使输油过程变得困难,这不仅会降低输量,而且严重时还会堵塞管道,存在一定的安全隐患。在本文中,根据影响蜡沉积的因素,并结合油田清防蜡措施,总结了几种有关输油管道的清、防蜡技术。%Most of the crude oil produced in China is paraffin-base d oil. In its transportation process, wax in the crude oil crystallizes and separates out from the crude oil continuously, and deposits on the pipe wall, the wax layer thickness is increasing gradually, which reduce the pipe effective flowing cross-section, so that the oil transportation process becomes difficult, which will not only reduce the transportation quantity, but also stop up the pipe when it’s serious, so there are some security risks. In this paper, based on the factors affecting the wax deposition, combined with measures of paraffin removal and control in the oil field, several techniques of paraffin removal and control for the crude oil pipeline were summed up.

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points and lines representing human-use resource data for airports, marinas, and mining sites in Northwest Arctic, Alaska....

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, walruses, polar bears, and Steller sea lions in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent muskoxen...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions and polar bears in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set...

  11. Preliminary stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation, including a brief summary of newly discovered oil stain, upper Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, Marwan A.; Decker, Paul L.; Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys has an ongoing program aimed at evaluating the Mesozoic forearc stratigraphy, structure, and petroleum systems of lower Cook Inlet. Most of our field studies have focused on the Jurassic component of the petroleum system (this report). However, in late July and early August of 2012, we initiated a study of the stratigraphy and reservoir potential of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation. The Kaguyak Formation is locally well exposed on the upper Alaska Peninsula (fig. 25) and was named by Keller and Reiser (1959) for a sequence of interbedded siltstone and sandstone of upper Campanian to Maastrichtian age that they estimated to be 1,450 m thick.Subsequent work by Detterman and Miller (1985) examined 900 m of section and interpreted the unit as the record of a prograding submarine fan.This interpretation of deep-water deposition contrasts with other Upper Cretaceous rocks exposed along the Alaska Peninsula and lower Cook Inlet that are generally described as nonmarine to shallow marine (Detterman and others, 1996; LePain and others, 2012).Based on foraminifera and palynomorphs from the COST No. 1 well, Magoon (1986) concluded that the Upper Cretaceous rocks were deposited in a variety of water depths and environments ranging from upper bathyal to nonmarine. During our recent fieldwork west and south of Fourpeaked Mountain, we similarly encountered markedly varying lithofacies in the Kaguyak Formation (fig. 25), and we also found oil-stained rocks that are consistent with the existence of an active petroleum system in Upper Cretaceous rocks on the upper Alaska Peninsula and in lower Cook Inlet. These field observations are summarized below.

  12. Optical Fiber Pipeline Security Forewarning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qishan; Ren Ruijun; Ren Peikui

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of China's economy,such incidents occurring to oil & gas pipelines as industrial and agricultural production,natural disasters,oil stealing,etc.have been prevailing and brought negative influences to the normal operation of pipelines.On account of all such destructive activities,firstly the soil around the pipeline should be vibrated,and then the cable laid in the pipe trench could respond to the vibration.Using this technology,the Department of Science & Technology of CNPC has embarked on the research of relevant equipment to monitor pipeline activities along the pipeline since 2001.

  13. Sinopec: Pipeline Goes Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ye

    2002-01-01

    @@ Asia's largest refinery, Sinopec Corp, will proceed with a 1,600-kilometre oil pipeline across southern provinces of China, although speculation continues to linger that the company will scrap the plan due to a postponement of the multi-million-dollar project.

  14. Fatty acid signatures of stomach oil and adipose tissue of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in Alaska: Implications for diet analysis of Procellariiform birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.W.; Iverson, S.J.; Springer, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.

    2007-01-01

    Procellariiforms are unique among seabirds in storing dietary lipids in both adipose tissue and stomach oil. Thus, both lipid sources are potentially useful for trophic studies using fatty acid (FA) signatures. However, little is known about the relationship between FA signatures in stomach oil and adipose tissue of individuals or whether these signatures provide similar information about diet and physiology. We compared the FA composition of stomach oil and adipose tissue biopsies of individual northern fulmars (N = 101) breeding at three major colonies in Alaska. Fatty acid signatures differed significantly between the two lipid sources, reflecting differences in dietary time scales, metabolic processing, or both. However, these signatures exhibited a relatively consistent relationship between individuals, such that the two lipid sources provided a similar ability to distinguish foraging differences among individuals and colonies. Our results, including the exclusive presence of dietary wax esters in stomach oil but not adipose tissue, are consistent with the notion that stomach oil FA signatures represent lipids retained from prey consumed during recent foraging and reflect little metabolic processing, whereas adipose tissue FA signatures represent a longer-term integration of dietary intake. Our study illustrates the potential for elucidating short- versus longer-term diet information in Procellariiform birds using different lipid sources. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Alaska Highway bibliography, 3rd edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    Since the early 20th century various schemes were considered for the construction of roads, trails or railways 71 to link the Yukon, northern British Columbia and Alaska to the “outside.” These schemes were motivated by economic interests, including mining, lumber and tourism concerns. During....... The military need for the Alaska Highway and Canol pipeline declined at the end of World War II. In 1946, Canada officially accepted responsibility for maintaining and developing the Yukon portion of the Alaska Highway. The Alaska Highway affected both First Nations and non-First Nations peoples immediately...

  16. Use of novel compounds for pest control: insecticidal and acaricidal activity of essential oil components from heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella, Nicholas A; Dolan, Marc C; Karchesy, Joseph J; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Montenieri, John A; Maupin, Gary O

    2005-05-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the activity of 15 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., against Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild), and Aedes aegypti (L.) adults. Four of the compounds from the essential oil have been identified as monoterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpene derivatives from valencene and nootkatone, and one as a sesquiterpene outside the eremophilane parent group. Carvacrol was the only monoterpene that demonstrated biocidal activity against ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes with LC50 values after 24 h of 0.0068, 0.0059, and 0.0051% (wt:vol), respectively. Nootkatone from Alaska yellow cedar was the most effective of the eremophilane sesquiterpenes against ticks (LC50 = 0.0029%), whereas the nootkatone grapefruit extract exhibited the greatest biocidal activity against fleas (LC50 = 0.0029%). Mosquitoes were most susceptible to one of the derivatives of valencene, valencene-13-aldehyde (LC50 = 0.0024%), after 24 h. Bioassays to determine residual activity of the most effective products were conducted at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after initial treatment. Residual LC50 values for nootkatone did not differ significantly at 4 wk posttreatment from the observations made at the initial 24-h treatment. The ability of these natural products to kill arthropods at relatively low concentrations represents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of disease vectors. PMID:15962787

  17. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  18. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the

  19. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  20. The Alaskan gas pipeline conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savich, P.; Fraser, N.M.; Hippel, K.W.

    1983-03-01

    A new conflict analysis technique is employed to study the dispute surrounding the selection of a natural gas pipeline route to transport gas from the American state of Alaska and also northern Canada to southern markets in the United States and Canada. The improved metagame analysis algorithm is the type of conflict analysis method that is used for providing a framework to study systematically the Alaskan gas pipeline controversy and to put the historical information into proper perspective. In addition, the methodology is utilized for predicting the possible feasible political solutions to the conflict.

  1. Pipeline Protection Has Its Own Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines (hereinafter called "the Law") will be implemented officially on October 1 this year.This is the first time that oil and natural gas pipelines were protected and managed on legal basis.

  2. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  3. 长输成品油管道外腐蚀直接评价实践及对策%The Practice and Analyze of External Corrosion Direct Assessment on Product Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 奚旺; 王勇; 钱玉华; 叶远锡

    2015-01-01

    外腐蚀直接评价(ECDA)是油气管道完整性管理的重要手段,其通过各类检测技术对管道防腐系统及外部腐蚀进行科学检测与评价,确定经济合理的维修方案和预防措施.如何将ECDA技术合理高效地应用于国内长输管道是当前管道保护的重要任务.开展了长输成品油管道ECDA实践研究,结果表明:ECDA应用于长输成品油管道外腐蚀检测评价效果良好,检测管道外腐蚀危害轻;提出管道外腐蚀防护维修维护方案,为管道的维修维护与监控提供数据支持.提出应加强管道完整性管理中的数据完整性管理,综合运用外检测技术与其他检测技术,重点解决外检测技术应用中出现的特殊问题,积极探索检测评价的信息化技术,有效提高ECDA工作的效率和信息化水平.%External corrosion direct assessment (ECDA) was an important means of oil and gas pipeline integrity management, it made the economic and reasonable maintenance plan and preventive measures through scientific testing and evaluation by all kinds of testing technology for pipeline corrosion protection system and external corrosion, so how to apply ECDA technology reasonably and efficiently to the domestic products oil pipeline was an important task of pipeline protection. ECDA application research on products oil pipeline was carried out. The results show that application effect of ECDA to products oil pipeline corrosion testing evaluation was good, and the pipeline external corrosion was light. The research provided the data support for pipeline mitigations and monitoring. Repair and maintenance of pipeline external corrosion protection scheme was further put forward. Data integrity management and the integrated using of all kinds of detection technology should be strengthened. Most attention should be focused on the special problems in detection and information technology to effectively improve the efficiency of ECDA.

  4. 油气长输管道风险管理技术探讨%Discussion on risk management technology of oil and gas long pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翔宇; 董兰凤; 王生新

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the necessity of oil and gas long pipeline risk management, introduced the basic concepts and method steps of risk management, focus described the indicator grading method widely used in current risk evaluation method, and pointed out the deficiencies in the current risk management methods, proposed the applied GIS technology and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to long pipeline risk management.%阐述了油气长输管道风险管理的必要性,介绍了风险管理的基本概念和方法步骤,重点描述了现行风险评价方法中应用较广的指标评分法,并指出了现行风险管理方法中的不足,提出了将GIS技术和模糊综合评判法应用于长输管道风险管理之中。

  5. Seismic hazard along a crude oil pipeline in the event of an 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H.H.M.; Chen, C.H.S.

    1990-04-16

    An assessment of the seismic hazard that exists along the major crude oil pipeline running through the New Madrid seismic zone from southeastern Louisiana to Patoka, Illinois is examined in the report. An 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake with moment magnitude 8.2 is assumed to occur at three locations where large historical earthquakes have occurred. Six pipeline crossings of the major rivers in West Tennessee are chosen as the sites for hazard evaluation because of the liquefaction potential at these sites. A seismologically-based model is used to predict the bedrock accelerations. Uncertainties in three model parameters, i.e., stress parameter, cutoff frequency, and strong-motion duration are included in the analysis. Each parameter is represented by three typical values. From the combination of these typical values, a total of 27 earthquake time histories can be generated for each selected site due to an 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake occurring at a postulated seismic source.

  6. Environmental management of the OSBAT 24'' oil pipeline: methodological and conceptual innovations; Gestao ambiental do Oleoduto OSBAT 24{sup :} inovacoes metodologicas e conceituais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Martiniano, Flavio [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil); Masumoto, Cinthia; Frazao, Luciana Rocha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present considerations about the design, systematic and methodology used for conducting the environmental management of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, what is located in the stretch between Sao Sebastiao City (center) and Camburi district, in Sao Paulo State. It presents a set of criteria, concepts, techniques, ideas and practices that stand out for its innovative character, and contribute effectively to the challenge of sustainable development, and new techniques of conciliation between environmental responsibility and investment in oil sector and gas. The general direction of the article is to reflect on the experience, seeking to broadcast both conceptual and methodological aspects responsible for the successes of OSBAT 24'' environmental management, and point out obstacles found in it's implementation. (author)

  7. Decommissioning end of life oilfield facilities and pipelines : the first step to the safe and efficient remediation of oil and gas sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, J.; Thygesen, S. [JSK Consulting Ltd., Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2005-06-30

    Environmentally sound decommissioning practices in the remediation and reclamation process were reviewed, with reference to abandoned oil and gas facilities and pipelines. There are inherent dangers associated with aged infrastructure, and decommissioning companies should be the first service on site to ensure that all facilities have been located, removed and cleaned. All licensed, unlicensed and on-lease pipelines are required to be properly abandoned. Site research is needed to identify any industry or government regulated requirements that may impact the decommissioning process. Decommissioning companies are also responsible for recording all relevant site information so that it can be conveyed to remediation and reclamation companies. A knowledge of landowner sensitivities, weather affected access, unlicensed facilities and locations of historic contamination are crucial to all parties involved. Additional documentation, such as photographs and survey drawings, can assist remediation and reclamation companies in locating areas of concern. Once a well has been abandoned in Alberta, surface equipment, cement pads, debris and produced liquids associated with the well license must be removed within 12 months of the cutting and capping operation. Records of the removal and cleanup activities must be retained by the licensee. Many sites have been sitting dormant for several years and can be harboring dangerous production fluids, asbestos, Hantavirus and other hazardous materials. All equipment must be steam-cleaned by qualified personnel and all production fluids and contaminated water from the cleaning process must be captured and transported to a waste facility. All equipment that is deemed re-usable can be returned to inventory or re-used. Equipment that can not be salvaged is sold for recycling at a steel mill. All pipelines are required to be cleaned of hydrocarbons, purged and left with a medium of inert gas or atmospheric air. Residual fluids left in a

  8. Analysis on the External Corrosion for an Oil Pipeline in Southwest China%西南地区某输油管道外腐蚀分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊娟; 郑兴文; 张文艳; 范金龙; 黄恩龙

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the external corrosion for two excavation points of an oil pipeline in southwest China. Methods Through the on-site testing and laboratory analysis on phys-chemical properties of soil and composition of corrosion prod-uct. Results The soil is slightly basic for the excavation point A, and its corrosivity is weak, as a result, where the pipeline suffer weakly uniform corrosion, and the corrosion products are mainly iron oxides, including FeO(OH), Fe(OH) 3 and Fe3 O4 , also the cathodic reaction is reduction of dissolved oxygen. While for excavation point B, because of the strong acidity and high content of sulfate ion, the soil is highly corrosive and makes the pipeline suffer serious pitting corrosion, and corrosion products are mainly composed by FeSO4 ·7H2 O, also contains a small amount of basic ferric sulfate, moreover the cathodic process is mainly the re-duction of hydrogen ions. Conclusion Due to the significant difference of the phys-chemical properties of soil, there are notably dif-ferent on the corrosion morphology, products and mechanism of pipeline between two excavation points.%目的:研究西南地区某输油管道外腐蚀行为。方法现场检测,对土壤理化性质及腐蚀产物成分进行室内分析。结果开挖点 A 的土壤呈弱碱性,土壤腐蚀性弱,管道发生轻微均匀腐蚀,腐蚀产物主要为 FeO(OH),Fe(OH)3和 Fe3 O4等铁的氧化物,对应的阴极反应为吸氧反应;开挖点 B 的土壤酸性强,硫酸根离子浓度高,土壤腐蚀性强,管道发生严重坑蚀,腐蚀产物主要成分为 FeSO4·7H2 O 及少量碱式硫酸铁,对应的阴极反应以析氢反应为主。结论开挖点土壤的理化性质差异,导致管道的腐蚀形态、腐蚀产物和腐蚀机理显著不同。

  9. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ..., Alaska 99503-5823. Requests for proposed exclusion areas or general proposed inclusion areas (absent a... inclusion or exclusion of acreage, temporal deferrals, and/or mitigation from the Five Year Program stage... inclusion in the sale must provide a detailed explanation of the basis for classifying each nominated...

  10. 78 FR 59715 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... for Exclusion Areas, and Other Comments Interested parties who are requesting area(s) for inclusion in..., Anchorage, Alaska 99503-5823. Requests for proposed exclusion areas or general proposed inclusion areas... inclusion or exclusion of acreage, temporal deferrals, and/or mitigation from the Five Year Program...

  11. Distributed fiber oil and gas pipeline leak detection and warning technology%分布式光纤油气长输管道泄漏检测及预警技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富斌

    2015-01-01

    管道用于油气运输有着独特的优势,因此成为了运输油气的主要手段。在实际油气的运输过程中因为人为因素和自然因素等原因,经常会导致运输油气的管道发生泄漏事故,这不仅造成环境污染,而且会威胁到人们的生命财产安全。本文介绍了分布式光纤油气长输管道泄漏检测及预警技术在油田的应用。%For oil and gas transportation pipeline has a unique advantage, it became the primary means of transportation of oil and gas. In the actual transportation of oil and gas, man-made and natural factors and other reasons often resulted the transport of oil and gas pipeline leak accident, which not only affected environmental pollution, but also threatened people’s life and property safety.This article introduced distributed fiber oil and gas pipeline leak detection and warning technology.

  12. 分布式光纤油气长输管道泄漏检测及预警技术%Distributed fiber oil and gas pipeline leak detection and warning technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富斌

    2015-01-01

    管道用于油气运输有着独特的优势,因此成为了运输油气的主要手段。在实际油气的运输过程中因为人为因素和自然因素等原因,经常会导致运输油气的管道发生泄漏事故,这不仅造成环境污染,而且会威胁到人们的生命财产安全。本文介绍了分布式光纤油气长输管道泄漏检测及预警技术在油田的应用。%For oil and gas transportation pipeline has a unique advantage, it became the primary means of transportation of oil and gas. In the actual transportation of oil and gas, man-made and natural factors and other reasons often resulted the transport of oil and gas pipeline leak accident, which not only affected environmental pollution, but also threatened people’s life and property safety.This article introduced distributed fiber oil and gas pipeline leak detection and warning technology.

  13. ERP系统对提升石油管道企业管理水平的作用探析%The Role Analysis of ERP System to Enhance the Level of the Oil Pipeline Business Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱尚杰; 李慧

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development process of the oil pipeline company, illustrates the importance of establishing a good management platform,also explained ERP and ERP systems knowledge,and cited the ERP system to enhance the level of the oil pipeline business management role,and in recent years,the ERP system to build an oil pipeline company, for example,summarizes the company's ERP project in the pipeline to promote the implementation of the results achieved and areas for improvement and enhancement.%本文简述了石油管道企业的发展历程,说明了建立好的管理平台的重要性,同时阐述了ERP和ERP系统的相关知识,并列举了ERP系统对提升石油管道企业管理水平的重要作用,而且以近几年来建立ERP系统的石油管道企业为例,总结了ERP项目在管道公司推广实施取得的效果和需要改进的地方以及改进方法。

  14. 海底热油管道悬空段停输温降过程的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation for Temperature Drop of the Suspended Sector of Submarine Oil Pipeline during Shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳波; 马贵阳; 姚尧; 曹先慧; 王雷

    2012-01-01

    海底热油管道的悬空段由于没有周围泥沙的保温蓄热作用,停输之后管内温降比埋入海底泥沙中的管段快得多,故而其温降成为停输过程的关键.针对海底管线悬空段的热力特性,考虑原油凝固潜热对停输温降的影响,利用CFD软件,对其停输温降过程进行数值模拟.分析温降变化规律、不同海水温度对温降的影响,从而确定最佳停输时间,为海底热油管道制定再启动方案提供理论依据.%With no heat preservation effect of the sediment around the oil pipeline, temperature drop of the suspended sector of submarine oil pipeline is faster than the temperature of the sector embedded in the submarine sediment. So the temperature drop process becomes the key of stopping transportation. According to the thermal characteristics of the suspended sector of submarine oil pipeline, considering the impact of solidified the latent heat, temperature drop is simulated in submarine pipeline during shutdown with time by the CFD software. Change rule of temperature drop and the influence of the temperature of seawater are analyzed, which decide optimum time for shutdown and provides a theoretical guidance for safe submarine oil pipeline startup.

  15. (Northern Pipeline Agency) annual report, 1987-1988. (Administration du pipe-line du Nord) rapport annuel, 1987-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interest of Canada. This report reviews the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included. Major revisions in the second-stage pipeline design and substantially reduced cost estimates are outlined, which, combined with the improved market for natural gas, improve the chances for completion of the pipeline in the 1990s.

  16. 77 FR 18260 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Cook Inlet Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Sale 244 in 2013 in the Cook Inlet Planning Area, whether focused on a few blocks or prospects, or on a... Area, Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 244 for OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau... Proposed OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 (Proposed Program) identifies Sale 244 as...

  17. Batch sequencing of oil derivates in pipeline networks; Sequenciamento de bateladas de derivados leves de petroleo numa rede dutoviaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacin, Mario Vicente; Oliveira, Daniel Rossato de; Czaikowski, Daniel Irineu; Polli, Helton Luis; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio Leandro; Neves Junior, Flavio [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a computational tool to assist the operational scheduling of a pipeline network. In this network, transfer of products is carried out by batches, from a source to a destination. This tool implements a proposal to determine priorities of the outgoing batches as well as alternatives for sequencing them fulfilling the stated periods stipulated. This proposal uses an analysis of production and demand plans, stockage, products draining in terminals, as well as operational restrictions of the pipeline network, looking for optimizing the use of resources such as pipes, bombs and tanks. The scenario in study is composed by 14 areas (4 refineries, 2 harbours, 6 distribution centres and 2 costumers) and 29 pipes. Prioritizing the attendance to the areas of source or demand, the algorithm carries choices between routes and possible batches volumes, considering calculations of time windows, that determine the limited interval when transference operations must occur. Moreover, operations called 'lung' are also treated, which involve flow changes during the movement. (author)

  18. 深挖沟铺管技术在渤西南联网供气项目上的应用%Application of the Pipeline-Laying Technology for Deep Trenching on the Gas Pipeline Network System of Boxi & Bonan Oil/Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲玉成

    2012-01-01

    There is a great deal of methods in the submarine pipeline-laying, methods adopted are different from each other due to the various situations of seawater depth, geological conditions and so on. In order to avoid the damage by any kind of vessel anchoring at anchorage, and to ensure the safety of submarine pipelines, The project of the Gas Pipeline Network System of Boxi & Bonan Oil/gas Fields is carried out by Offshore Oil Engineering Co., Ltd. (COOEC) and Tianjin Junhao Offshore Engineering Co., Ltd. (JHHG) by the use of the contact type submersible jet flow spray gas lift type trenching machine (it's the patent facility), the submarine pipeline-laying and post-trenching works are first successfully completed with burial depth up to 4m for domestic deep trenching operation pipeline with. It is shown that the initiate procedure could be applied to more deep trenching works of the submarine pipeline in the future through this methodological description of the deep trenching, as well as could be recommended to that the submarine pipeline crossing sea-routes or the anchorage and the similar pipeline constructions which not only be able to protect pipelines but also have to ensure the sea-route unobstructed.%海底管道的铺设有很多种挖沟方法,因海水深度,地质条件等情况的不同,采用的方法也不相同.渤西南联网供气项目为避免锚地的各类船只抛描破坏,保证海管的安全,海洋石油工程股份有限公司和天津俊昊海洋工程有限公司在海底管道铺设和后挖沟施工中进行合作,采用接触武潜水射流喷冲气举式挖沟机(此系专利设备),首次成功完成了国内海管埋深达到4米的深挖沟作业.通过这次深挖沟埋管的实施,证明这种新的工艺,可以应用到更多的海底管道深挖沟埋管工程中,也可以应用到海管穿越航道、锚地等类似的既要保护管道又要保证通航安全的管道施工工程中.

  19. Challenges for the heavy oil exportation though pipelines in deep waters; Desafios da exportacao de oleos pesados atraves de oleodutos em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreolli, Ivanilto; Borges Filho, Jonas P.; Gaspari, Eduardo F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the high pressures, low temperatures, and high viscosities involved, the heavy oil exportation in deep waters through pipelines imposes a number of challenges to be feasible. The viscosities involved in such scenarios are usually very high, which brings most of the system to a laminar flow even for the higher flow rates. In a laminar flow the viscosity is linearly and directly related to the frictional pressure drop and so its precise determination is crucial for the correct results from simulations in transient or in steady state, including the modeling thermal. This work presents some results in steady state and transient simulations of heavy oil of deg API around 16 and pipe length of approximately 20km. For the analyses in the steady state was concluded that in low outflows the required pressures can surpass the pressures in high outflows. In the transient regimen was concluded that in case of long stop, the return to the full outflow surpasses 6 days and the replacement of the fluids from the pipe by diesel is a solution to reduce significantly this time. (author)

  20. The history and future of thermal sprayed galvanically active metallic anticorrosion coatings used on pipelines and steel structures in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodijnen, Fred van [Sulzer Metco, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Since its invention by M. U. Schoop in the beginning of the 20th century, thermal spray has been used for corrosion protection applications in naval, on-shore, submerged and atmospheric environments. Thermally sprayed coatings of zinc, zinc alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys are currently the most popular materials used for active corrosion protection of steel and concrete, which can be applied using either of the widely known thermal spray processes of combustion wire or electric arc wire. In the oil and gas exploration and production industry, corrosion protection applications using these technologies have evolved since the early sixties. Thermal spray technology has successfully been used to protect steel-based materials from corrosion in many different fields of application like platforms and pipelines. The most used material in the oil and gas industry is TSA (Thermally Sprayed Aluminum) coating. TSA coatings, with a lifetime of 25 to 30 years, require no maintenance except for cosmetic reasons when painted. The surface temperature of a TSA can go as high as 480 deg C. Although TS (Thermal Spray) is an older process, the number of applications and the number of m{sup 2} it is applied to is still increasing resulting from its maintenance-free and reliable active corrosion-protection features. (author)

  1. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  2. (Northern Pipeline Agency) annual report, 1986-1987. (Administration du pipe-line du Nord) rapport annuel, 1986-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interests of Canada. This report reviews the annual progress of this process. It gives an overview of the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included.

  3. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 μSv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  4. Science and common sense in Port Valdez, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, Alaska achieved worldwide attention with the Exxon Valdez oil spill. This exacerbated an already polarized situation (industry, government, citizens, environmental groups) regarding the Valdez Terminal of the Trans Alaska Pipeline System. Other than spills, the major focus of environmental concern was and remains the Terminal's Ballast Water Treatment Plant (BWTP) which discharges into Port Valdez. The previous NPDES wastewater discharge permits for this facility have been contentious for almost the entire period of pipeline operation. The draft NPDES permit is scheduled to be proposed for reissuance this year. However, a significant change has been initiated which so far is resulting in cooperation rather than confrontation between the various primary stakeholders. This presentation will explain how this change was initiated, how it is being maintained, and how what is happening could be a model for progress through cooperation. Although EPA and the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) remain the final decision makers, key ingredients to this change and to the resulting progress include: (1) EPA opening up public discussion on the permit early in the permit development process; (2) willingness of involved parties to listen and explore non-traditional approaches; (3) a subsequent non-binding Scientific Meeting to discuss the permit, attended only by scientific representatives, with set Ground-Rules and Agenda and a nonstakeholder moderator, which resulted in eight general points of agreement; (4) use of these points of agreement to discuss what environmental monitoring should be in the permit, what should comprise separate studies, and what should not be done; (5) continuing cross-stakeholder communication and discussion; (6) an open and highly visible process

  5. Analysis of rockfall impact on buried oil pipeline at Yangba%阳坝落石对输油管道的冲击分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东源; 赵宇; 王成华

    2013-01-01

    Lanzhou-Chengdu-Chongqing end product oil pipeline suffered serious rockfall disaster in the section of Kangxian County,Gansu Province.Yangba rockfall triggered in 2008 Wenchuan earthquake seriously damaged the pipeline and brought about enormous property loss.Based on the investigation of rockfalls,this study provided an analysis method and theoretical basis for the prevention of rockfall disasters.In this paper,five calculation methods of rock fall impact force commonly used at home and abroad were systematically compared and analyzed,and the most realistic algorithms were recommended.Through field investigation and laboratory experiments,the mechanical strength parameters of the soil were obtained.Then the experimental data and empirical data recommend in engineering geological manuals were compared,and the most suitable parameters were selected to calculate.The trench pipe vertical sold pressure calculation model proposed by Marston was used to analyze pipeline's stress and deformation.Results show that:first,the pipe strength and deformation are not enough to resist the intensive impact of falling rocks,which would cause the stress and deformation failure and pipeline damage; second,the method recommended by the Japanese Road Association is advised to calculate the maximum rock fall impact force in collapse zone; third,collapse hazard of the pipeline is likely to occur again in Kangxian County,and investigation of collapse hazard points in the region is necessary for take effective protection measures in advance.%兰成渝成品油管道在甘肃康县段遭受了严重的落石灾害,其中08年汶川地震触发的阳坝落石造成管道破坏和巨大经济损失.根据对阳坝落石现场的调查和管道遭受落石冲击的分析,为管道在康线段的减灾防灾提供理论依据和分析方法.系统对比分析了国内外普遍采用的5种落石冲击力算法,并推荐了最出符合实际的算法.通过现场取样和室内实验获取土

  6. Development of hot-pressed plugging T-joint for oil and gas pipelines%油气管道热压封堵三通的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞利; 勾冬梅; 夏国发; 陶伟莉; 贾世民

    2013-01-01

    管道封堵三通是对管道进行开孔封堵作业必备的维修机具,其承压安全性直接关系主管道的运行安全.为了满足高压大口径油气管道维抢修的需要,结合有限元分析方法,开发了一种新型φ1 016大口径X70管线钢热压封堵三通.选定X70高强度材质作为三通护板,相比Q345R材质减轻了三通质量,提高了焊接效率,降低了焊接应力.管道封堵三通消除了相贯线焊缝,解决了传统焊接式封堵三通相贯线焊缝无法检测的技术难题,提高了封堵三通的使用安全,并首次利用应力应变测试仪器进行了三通带压模拟应用监测,采集数据具有较好的重复性和规律性,为今后同类产品的设计、制造、质量监控工作积累了宝贵经验.(图5,参4)%Plugging T-joint is a maintenance tool required for hole plugging operations on pipeline,and its safety under pressure directly determines operational safety of the main pipeline.To meet the needs for maintenance and emergency repair of high-pressure large-diameter oil and gas pipelines,a new type of φ 1016 large-diameter X70 pipeline hotpressed plugging steel T-joint is developed using the finite element analysis method.The X70 high-strength material is used as the T-joint back plate,so that the T-joint weight is reduced,welding efficiency is improved and welding stress is decreased in contrast to Q345R.Eliminating intersecting welding seams,such pipeline plugging T-joint has overcome the technical challenge in traditional welded plugging T-joints that intersecting welding seams can not be detected,improved the operational safety of plugging T-joints,and utilized the stress/strain testing instrument for the first time to conduct pressurized T-joint simulated application monitoring.Valuable experiences have been gathered for future design,manufacture and quality control of similar products,because the data collected offer good reproducibility and regularity.(5 Figures,4 References)

  7. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    and minority students into the geosciences. View them as they explore the permafrost tunnel in Fairbanks, sand dunes in Anchorage, Portage Glacier, Matanuska-Susitna Glacier, and the Trans-Alaska pipeline damage from the earthquake of 2002.

  8. Magnetic Memory Testing for Plastic Deformation of Oil and Gas Pipeline%油气管道塑性变形的磁记忆检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨理践; 王国庆; 刘斌; 高松巍

    2016-01-01

    利用金属磁记忆检测技术对油气管道塑性变形进行检测。通过位错理论分析了铁磁材料塑性变形时的能量变化,用铁磁材料能量平衡理论分析了材料塑性变形过程中磁场信号的变化特征。通过对管道进行打压试验,用磁记忆检测设备对磁信号进行检测,研究了磁记忆信号与应力的对应关系,得出磁记忆信号随应力的变化特征。结果表明:铁磁材料在塑性变形时,其表面弱磁场发生突变,应力-磁感应强度曲线斜率增大;多次塑性变形导致磁场变化率降低。%The plastic deformation of oil and gas pipeline was tested by magnetic memory testing.The energy balance under plastic deformation of ferromagnetic material was analyzed through dislocation theory.The change characteristic of magnetic signal was analyzed by ferromagnetic material energy balance theory.The bulge test was applied to pipeline.The magnetic signal was tested by magnetic memory testing equipment.The correspondence between magnetic memory signal and stress was studied.The change characteristic of magnetic signal along with stress change was obtained.The results show that surface weak magnetic signal will sudden change when plastic deformation emerges in ferromagnetic material.Moreover,the slope of stress-magnetic field curve rises.The repeated plastic deformation shall reduce magnetic field change rate.

  9. Improvement of Industrial Radiography for Defect Detection of Oil and Gas Pipelines in Weld Regions by Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Karimian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Radiography is one of the oldest and most usable of non-destructive methods for studying the defects inside the weld regions of pipelines. It sounds, to increase the quality of radiographic images inside the film and to decrease the weld commentary errors. It is necessary to have a system or method to improve the accuracy of recognition and detection of defects in the weld regions. In this research work, by using digital image processing methods, a new method has been proposed to improve the quality of the images on radiographic films of weld regions. The proposed method has been tested by 60 pieces of radiographic films of weld regions with different quality. The results showed the proposed algorithm and method has the ability to detect the defects inside the weld regions with 100% precision for the films with high and normal quality and with 87% and 47% precisions for the films with low and very low qualities respectively.

  10. Analysis of corrosion conditions and residual strength of oil pipeline%输油管道腐蚀状况与剩余强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亮亮; 孟惠民; 陈建民; 李秋阳; 王育青; 陈明忠

    2012-01-01

    In the light of some oil pipeline sections being subject to bursting by corrosion, size of corrosion burst area as well as size and distribution of corrosion pits are measured, ingredients of the corrosion products are analyzed by SEM and XRD, and the residual strength of corroded pipeline is calculated and analyzed. The results show that the pipe coating was peeled basically," arid the most serious corrosion thinning at the cracking opening could be seen with the maximum corrosion depth of 6.03 mm, corrosion pits appeared a discontinuous distribution, a major component of the corrosion products was Fe3O4, the corrosion product layer was relatively dense with many micro-cracks subject to maximum width of 8 urn, and corrosion residual strength at the cracking opening was the lowest, only 2.07 MPa. Based on the above analysis, overall corrosion conditions of the pipeline are basically revealed, and the analysis results can be taken as a reference basis for the development of a safe operation program.%针对发生了腐蚀爆管的某输油管段,测量其腐蚀爆裂区域面积、腐蚀坑尺寸以及分布情况,运用SEM和XRD方式分析了腐蚀产物的成分,并对管道腐蚀剩余强度进行计算.结果表明:该管道防腐层基本脱落,爆裂口处腐蚀减薄最为严重,最大腐蚀深度6.03 mm,腐蚀坑呈不连续分布;腐蚀产物主要成分为Fe3O4,腐蚀产物层相对致密,且存在许多微裂纹,微裂纹最大宽度为8 μm;管道爆裂口处的腐蚀剩余强度最低,仅为2.07 MPa.基于上述分析,基本掌握了该管道的整体腐蚀状况,可为制定安全运行方案提供参考依据.

  11. Trends in sea otter population abundance in western Prince William Sound, Alaska: Progress toward recovery following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Esslinger, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea otters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS) and elsewhere in the Gulf of Alaska suffered widespread mortality as a result of oiling following the 1989 T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill. Following the spill, extensive efforts have been directed toward identifying and understanding long-term consequences of the spill and the process of recovery. We conducted annual aerial surveys of sea otter abundance from 1993 to 2009 (except for 2001 and 2006) in WPWS. We observed an increasing trend in population abundance at the scale of WPWS through 2000 at an average annual rate of 4 percent: however, at northern Knight Island where oiling was heaviest and sea otter mortality highest, no increase in abundance was evident by 2000. We continued to see significant increase in abundance at the scale of WPWS between 2001 and 2009, with an average annual rate of increase from 1993 to 2009 of 2.6 percent. We estimated the 2009 population size of WPWS to be 3,958 animals (standard error=653), nearly 2,000 animals more than the first post-spill estimate in 1993. Surveys since 2003 also have identified a significant increasing trend at the heavily oiled site in northern Knight Island, averaging about 25 percent annually and resulting in a 2009 estimated population size of 116 animals (standard error=19). Although the 2009 estimate for northern Knight Island remains about 30 percent less than the pre-spill estimate of 165 animals, we interpret this trend as strong evidence of a trajectory toward recovery of spill-affected sea otter populations in WPWS.

  12. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  13. Density and productivity of bald eagles in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicopter surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) to assess the effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the reproductive success and densities of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) one and two years after the spill (1990 and 1991). Densities of bald eagles were compared between an oiled area in southwestern PWS and an unoiled area in northern PWS. In all surveys (four in 1990, one in 1991) densities of eagles in the oiled areas generally were similar to or higher than those in the unoiled area. Reproductive success was compared between nesting territories that were oiled within 1 km of nests and nesting territories that were unoiled. In 1990, all measures of nest productivity, nest occupancy, and nesting success were similar between oiled and unoiled territories. In 1991, however, the number of young per successful nest was lower in oiled territories. The number of successful nests was slightly lower in 1991 than in 1990 in oiled territories but was significantly lower in 1991 in unoiled territories. Comparisons of nest occupancy and nesting success could not be made in 1991 because early surveys were not conducted. Differences between areas, territories, and years could not be attributed to oil, but rather appeared to be related to natural annual variability. Overall, no demonstrable effects of the oil spill on eagle density or reproduction could be detected in PWS one and two years after the spill. 70 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Mussels document loss of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the return to baseline conditions for oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D.; Brown, J.S. [Exponent, Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Battelle, MA (United States); Burns, W.A. [W.A. Burns Consulting Services, Houston, TX (United States); Bence, A.E. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co. Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected between 1990 and 2002 from 11 sites on the shores of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, that were heavily oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). This study, utilizing the methods of the NOAA Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program, found that concentrations of PAH released from spill remnants have decreased dramatically with time and by 2002 were at or near the range of total PAH (TPAH) of 3-355 ng/g dry weight obtained for mussels from unoiled reference sites in PWS. Time-series TPAH data indicate a mean TPAH half-life in mussel tissues of 2.4 years with a range from 1.4 to 5.3, yielding an annual mean loss of bioaccumulated TPAH of 25%. The petroleum-derived TPAH fraction in mussel tissues has decreased with time, reflecting the decreasing release of EVOS residues in shoreline sediments. These results show that PAH from EVOS residues that remain buried in shoreline sediments after the early 1990s are in a form and at locations that have a low accessibility to mussels living in the intertidal zone. (author)

  15. The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

  16. Reliability Research of Underwater Wire Saw Cutting Single Oil and Gas Pipelines%水下绳锯机切割单层油气管道的可靠性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 张岚; 孟庆鑫; 王

    2013-01-01

      海底油气管道在维修过程中可以采用水下金刚石绳锯机割断。介绍水下绳锯机的基本组成,对绳锯机切割管道过程中的切割可靠性进行了理论上的分析,并且提出了串珠绳锯在给定允许磨损量及可靠度条件下耐磨时间的计算方法。进行了绳锯机对单层油气管道的切割试验,根据获得的试验数据,采用理论方法计算可知,某种直径下的油气管道需要一定长度的串珠绳才能完成切割。该结果为水下金刚石绳锯机切割单层油气管道绳锯长度的选择提供了一定的理论依据。%Underwater diamond wire saw can be used to cut undersea oil and gas pipelines in the repair process. The basic com-ponents of underwater wire saw were introduced. Cutting reliability of wire saw was analyzed in theory. Wear time calculating ways were proposed on the conditions of a given amount of wear and reliability. Wire saw cutting single oil and gas pipelines test was carried out. According to obtaining experimental data,theoretical calculation shows some kind diameter oil and gas pipeline needs a certain length of beads to complete the cutting. The results provide a theoretical basis for diamond wire saw length choice when underwater di-amond wire saw cuts single oil and gas pipeline.

  17. 油气管道CO2/H2 S腐蚀及防护技术研究进展%Research Progress of CO2/H2 S Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines and the Protection Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 袁世娇; 吴小卫; 谢飞; 赵启慧; 杨帆; 程贵鑫

    2016-01-01

    CO2和H2 S是油气管道中主要的腐蚀介质,两者往往同时存在于原油和天然气之中,是造成油气输送管道内腐蚀发生的主要原因之一,甚至会导致管道失效、穿孔、泄漏、开裂等现象,严重威胁了管网的安全运行及正常生产。因此CO2和H2 S引起的管道腐蚀问题,已成为当前研究的热点问题。针对油气管道日益严重的CO2和H2 S腐蚀问题,综述了CO2单独存在、H2 S单独存在以及CO2和H2 S共同存在三种体系中油气管道的腐蚀过程,得出了在这三种腐蚀体系下油气管道出现的主要腐蚀行为规律以及腐蚀机理。阐述了CO2和H2 S共同存在体系下,缓蚀剂、耐蚀性管材、电化学防腐技术、管道内涂层技术等先进的油气管道腐蚀防护技术,并剖析了这些防护措施各自的特点及在实际工程使用中的优势和局限性。最后,展望了CO2和H2 S共存体系的进一步研究方向以及更经济、更有效的防腐措施发展前景。%ABSTRACT:CO2 and H2 S are the major corrosion media in oil and gas pipeline, often existing in both crude oil and natural gas. Their presence is one of the main causes for internal corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and even leads to pipeline failure, perfora-tions, leaks and cracks. It′s a serious threat to the safe operation of the pipeline network and normal production. So pipeline corro-sion problems caused by CO2 and H2 S have become a hot issue of current research. For the growing oil and gas pipeline corrosion problems caused by CO2 and H2 S, the corrosion behaviors of oil and gas pipelines in CO2 alone, H2 S alone and the co-existence of CO2 and H2 S system were systematically compared in this paper. The law and mechanism of pipeline corrosion behavior in these three corrosion systems were obtained. And the protection techniques against oil and gas pipeline corrosion were listed, such as cor-rosion inhibitors, corrosion resistant pipes

  18. The application of HAZOP analysis technology in pump stations of oil pipeline%HAZOP分析技术在输油管道站场的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文兴; 贾光明; 谷雨雷; 姜征锋; 戴联双; 程万洲; 杨晓铮; 李敬

    2012-01-01

    Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) technology is a structured analysis method for the identification of design imperfection, risk of process and operational problems, including processes, such as division of nodes, and explanation of design intent, process indicators and operation procedure, determination of meaningful deviation and analysis of the deviation, and the analysis of results and records, and submission of analytical reports, etc. Its actual guiding significance for production mainly lies in the determination of the deviation, and the analysis of causes of the deviation and consequences, the summary of the existing protection measures, as well as submission of risk control recommended measures. This technology is used for hazard identification and risk assessment for a pump station in the Western Refined Oil Pipeline, and the management level of pipeline operation company has strengthened the control on medium and high-risk deviation based on the analysis report, and implemented the proposed recommendations and measures on risk control in daily management of the corresponding departments and pump stations, and the recommendation adoption rate has reached at 70%. Finally, the author discuss the application significance and precautions of HAZOP technology in the pump stations of oil and gas pipelines.%危险与可操作性(HAZOP)技术是一种用于辨识设计缺陷、工艺过程危险及操作性问题的结构化分析方法,包括划分节点,解释设计意图、工艺指标和操作步骤,确定有意义的偏差,分析偏差,分析结果记录,提交分析报告等基本过程,其对于生产实际的指导意义主要在于偏差的确定,对偏差产生原因、造成后果的分析,对已有保护措施的总结以及新的风险控制建议措施的提出等.运用该技术,对西部成品油管道某站场进行危害辨识和风险评价,管道运营公司管理层根据分析报告对中、高风险偏差加强了控制,并将风险控制建

  19. (Northern Pipeline Agency) annual report, 1988-1989. (Administration du pipe-line du Nord) rapport annuel, 1988-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interest of Canada. This report reviews the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included. During 1988-89, proposals were made to expand substantially the capacity of the prebuilt eastern and western legs to export additional supplies of Canadian gas to markets in the USA. While plans for the second stage are still on hold, 3 owners of reserves in the Mackenzie Delta region sought authorization to export 260 billion cubic meters of gas over a 20-year period beginning in 1996. Plans were developed by Foothills Pipelines to transport the gas southward along the Mackenzie Valley to connect with the Alaska Highway Pipeline.

  20. China Pins Hopes on Pipeline with Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China still has faith in the gigantic Sino-Russia oil pipeline, despite reports which said that Russia is inclined to build a competing pipeline in favor of Japan. CNPC, the company representing China to negotiate with Russia on the project, is reported to continue its preparation work to receive Russian crude.

  1. Battle over proposed Keystone pipeline continues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    Opposing sides in the battle over the proposed construction of the controversial Keystone XL pipeline continue to push their messages on the issue. The American Petroleum Institute (API) announced on 9 July that it has launched a new advertising campaign in support of the pipeline, which, if built, will ship oil from Canadian tar sands to refineries in the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Pipeline clean-up : speed, environment drive pipelining equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2004-08-01

    Horizontal drilling technology is the single most important enhanced oil recovery technology which has resulted in a significant increase in pipeline utilization. Pipeline operators such as Calgary-based Denim Pipeline Construction Ltd. are responding by using the latest equipment, including excavation equipment, to avoid maintenance delays and downtime. The sales of Denim's horizontal pipe bending equipment have increased due to their attention to worker safety. Denim's horizontal bending machine does not require as much technical support, plus it is faster to install and speeds up production. The machine consists of 3 hydraulic jacks that move on a horizontal plate. Curved dies can be modified to accommodate various diameters of pipe. The bending operation is performed very near to the ground, thereby significantly reducing the risk of pipe injury. Environmental damage is minimized through the use of mechanized mulching which has replaced burning of unwanted trees and brush to clean for pipelines. 1 fig.

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Brookian Coalbed Gas Composite Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  4. Experimental Study on Deposition Regulation in Oil Gathering Pipeline by ASP Flooding Process%三元复合驱集油管道淤积规律试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏立新; 庞仁山; 诸葛祥龙; 王志华

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of produced liquid by ASP flooding process include high wax content, high viscosity, serious emulsification and great amount of mechanical admixtures and clay particles. With temperature decreasing during the transportation process in oil gather- ing pipeline, these materials may be continuously precipitated, thus causing serious deposition problem to surface oil gathering system. In this paper, the composition and deposition regulation of precipitated materials in oil gathering pipelines of Daqing oilfield are studied by lab experiments. The results show that the precipitated material is black and viscous mixture mainly composed of wax. And the influencing factors are polymer concentration, oil gathering temperature, water cut and flow velocity, etc. The precipitating velocity increases with the increasing of polymer concentration and decreases with the increasing of oil gathering temperature, water cut and flow velocity. This study provides the theoretical foundations to take preventive and control measures for forming precipitated materials in oil gathering pipeline by ASP flooding process. It is of important significance for insuring the safe production and operation in oil gathering pipeline.%三元复合驱采出液蜡质含量高、黏度大、乳化严重、机械杂质及黏土颗粒含量多,在集油管道输送过程中,随着温度的降低,这些物质不断析出,从而给地面集油管道带来严重的淤积问题。通过室内试验研究大庆油田三元复合驱典型区块集油管道淤积物组成及淤积规律,明确了淤积物为黑色黏稠状的混合物,主要由蜡组成;集油管道淤积主要受所含聚合物浓度、集油温度、含水率、流速等因素的影响,且淤积速率随着含聚浓度的增大而增大;随着集油温度、含水率、流速的增大而减小。该研究结果为制定三元复合驱集油管道内形成淤积物的预防和控制措施提供了理论基

  5. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  6. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  7. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the

  8. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  9. An analysis of the potential for oil spill effects on the herring population of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.H.; Elston, R.A.; Bienert, R.W.; Drum, A.S.; Antrim, L.D. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the herring population in Prince William Sound, was studied. Following the incident in 1989, there was no commercial harvest of herring. However, 1990 through 1992 proved to have above average, record harvests. This was followed by a dramatic decline in 1993 which was generally attributed to the oil spill. An examination of the scientific data was conducted. The main hypotheses for the decline were tested. These hypotheses attributed the decline to: (1) the oil spill itself, (2) a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply, (3) disease, and (4) other natural stochastic processes. Based on the review of the data and the analysis of the four alternative hypotheses, it was concluded that the population decline of 1993 was the result of a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply. No connection to the Exxon Valdez incident was evident. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  10. In Fair Weather Prepare for Foul ---In-service integrity inspection of oil/gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangZhaotian; XiongXiaoyun

    2003-01-01

    Pipeline transportation is one of the major ways for the oil/gas transmission. To ensure the safety of oil/gas transmission pipeline is very important because of its primary role in national economic development and people' s life quality improvement. In China, 20 000km of oil/gas pipelines are at work and 10 000km pipelines are being or will be constructed.

  11. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 3: Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the biological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program designed to assess ecological recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill on march 24, 1989. The program is an application of the ''Sediment Quality Triad'' approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in Prince William Sound. The spill affected four major shoreline habitat types in Prince William Sound: pebble/gravel, boulder/cobble, sheltered bedrock, and exposed bedrock. The study design had two components: (1) one-time stratified random sampling at 64 sites representing four habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites) and (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites that included some of the most heavily oiled locations in the sound. Biological communities on rock surfaces and in intertidal and shallow subtidal sediments were analyzed for differences resulting from to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Statistical methods included univariate analyses of individual species abundances and community parameter variables (total abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity), and multivariate correspondence analysis of community structure. 58 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs

  12. Development of high productivity pipeline girth welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend for increased oil and gas consumption implies a growth of long-distance pipeline installations. Welding is a critical factor in the installation of pipelines, both onshore and offshore, and the rate at which the pipeline can be laid is generally determined by the speed of welding. This has resulted in substantial developments in pipeline welding techniques. Arc welding is still the dominant process used in practice, and forge welding processes have had limited successful application to date, in spite of large investments in process development. Power beam processes have also been investigated in detail and the latest laser systems now show promise for practical application. In recent years the use of high strength steels has substantially reduced the cost of pipeline installation, with X70 and X80 being commonly used. This use of high strength pipeline produced by thermomechanical processing has also been researched. They must all meet three requirments, high productivity, satisfactory weld properties, and weld quality

  13. Responding to a northern pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klatt, T.J. [Alaska North Slope LNG Project, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The challenges regarding the construction of a pipeline to transport LNG from the Alaska North Slope Liquefied Natural Gas Project were discussed. The LNG will be transported by an 800 mile buried pipeline from the Prudhoe Bay area to a liquefaction plant at an ice-free port in southern Alaska. The project is expected to begin in 2008. The isolated arctic region and permafrost add to the challenges of this project. The first challenge of synchronizing the pipeline's operating pressure with the LNG plant's inlet pressure to achieve maximum efficiencies has been addressed. Secondly, an advanced method to designing and operating a gas pipeline in discontinuous permafrost was evaluated and new construction methods were developed for trenching areas and winter construction. Stage one of the conceptual study which defines the project and minimizes costs has also been completed. More work, however, is still needed to transform the project from concept to reality. Alternative methods are still needed to construct a safe, environmentally sound and economically viable arctic gas pipeline system. 4 figs.

  14. 新建油气管道的检测及验收评价技术%The Technology of Inspection and Acceptance Evaluation in New Oil Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵希华; 饶心

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the existing defects,acceptance criteria and feasible detection technology of the new oil gas pipeline are analyzed.The method of detection and evaluation named 221 12 is proposed.A series of standards for checking the quality of the pipeline are established by the varying diameter before and after applying pressure to the pipe,the weak magnetism and magnetic flux leakage test.In order to improve safety of the pipeline,it is necessary to investigate and discover defects of pipeline timely and eliminate the potential and unacceptable risk or danger before running,meanwhile the handover of quality and construction of pipeline must be ensured.%针对目前新建油气管道可能存在的缺陷类型,根据验收标准及可行的检测技术的分析,提出了“22112”检测及评价方法。采用试压前后变径、弱磁、漏磁检测等多种技术,建立了管道本体质量验收的系列标准。通过及时排查和发现管道的缺陷,消除管道投产运行前潜在的危险,做好管道建设与运行的质量交接,为提高管道质量安全打下基础。

  15. China Shows Concerns Over Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Russia's news media reported on September 3 that the Russian Natural Resources would finally give up the plan raised by Yugos,Russia's private oil producer, to construct the crude oil pipeline from Russia's Angarsk to China's Daqing. The Russian segment of the pipeline is about 1450 kilometers while the Chinese segment is 795 kilometers.

  16. Observations of the vegetation of the Atigun River floodplain as affected by the crude oil spill from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of botanical investigation conducted along the Atigun River, associated side channels and tributaries during the period 26 –...

  17. SCADA系统远程维护技术在临濮管线的应用%Application of Remote Maintenance Technology of SCADA System in Lin-Pu Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤养浩; 张权; 胡勇

    2011-01-01

    SCADA系统远程维护技术的应用可以缩短维修时间,降低维护成本,提高SCADA系统的利用率,同时解决企业维护人员匮乏问题。介绍了临濮线SCADA系统的构成及在使用过程中出现问题的处理方式,重点阐述了临濮线SCADA系统远程维护技术的设置过程、方法及处理效果。通过SCADA系统远程维护技术的应用,有效保证了输油生产的安全运行。%Remote maintenance technology of SCADA system can reduce maintenance time and costs,and improve the utilization of SCADA systems,while addressing the business problem of lack of maintenance personnel.The composition of SCADA system of the LinPu oil pipeline and the treatment mode for the problems occurred during application are described,and the setup,methods,and treatment effects of remote maintenance technology of SCADA system in LinPu oil pipeline are stressed.Safe operation of oil transportation can be effectively ensured by the application of remote maintenance technology of SCADA system.

  18. Pipeline network and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio de Janeiro is one of 27 units of Brazil. It is located in the eastern portion of the Southeast and occupies an area of 43 696.054 km², being effectively the 3rd smallest state in Brazil. This state in recent years has suffered from erosion problems caused by the deployment of the network pipeline. The deployment pipeline is part of the activities related to the oil industry has caused a more intense conflict between the environment and economic activities, modifying the soil structure and distribution of surface and subsurface flows. This study aimed to analyze the erosion caused by the removal of soil for the deployment of pipeline transportation, with the consequences of the emergence of numerous gullies, landslides and silting of rivers. For the development of this study were performed bibliographic research, field work, mapping and digital preparation of the initial diagnosis of active processes and what the consequent environmental impacts. For these reasons, we conclude that the problems could be avoided or mitigated if there was a prior geological risk management. (author)

  19. Pipeline Power

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert, Franz; Cobanli, Onur

    2012-01-01

    We use cooperative game theory to analyze the impact of three controversial pipeline projects on the power structure in the Eurasian trade of natural gas. Two of them, Nord Stream and South Stream, allow Russian gas to bypass transit countries, Ukraine and Belarus. Nord Stream's strategic value turns out to be huge, justifying the high investment cost for Germany and Russia. The additional leverage obtained through South Stream, in contrast, appears small. The third project, Nabucco, aims at ...

  20. Notice of availability, final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) is proposing to develop the Northstar Unit, located approximately 6 miles offshore of Point Storkensen in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. BPXA's proposed action is a self-contained development/production facility located on a reconstructed gravel island in 39 feet of water. Also proposed is construction of two buried subsea pipelines between the island and shoreline to transport oil and gas. The pipelines would connect with onshore facilities and the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). In response to BPXA's submittal of a permit application under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, and Section 103 of the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act, the US Army Corps of engineers, Alaska District (Corps) determined that issuance of a permit for BPXA's proposed project constituted a major federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), determined under provisions of the Clean Water Act and 40 CFR Part 6 Subpart F that permitting by the EPA for BPXA's proposed project also constituted a major federal action that my significantly affect the quality of the human environment. As a result, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under NEPA was undertaken to identify and evaluate a range of reasonable alternatives and evaluate the potential effects the alternates, including BPXA's proposed project, may have on the human environment

  1. Jockeying for position : how the proposed pipeline projects and route-on-route competition are shaping up in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation included a brief historical look at pipeline proposals submitted over the years to bring Alaska and Northwest Territories gas to market. The challenges facing the early proponents of a pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to the Mackenzie Delta, such as cost, environmental impact and socio-economic impact on Aboriginals living in the Mackenzie Valley, have now been removed. Lobbying efforts by politicians in Alaska nearly succeeded in forcing an Alaska Highway gas pipeline, instead of letting market economics dictate the route. The author indicated that an Alaska pipeline would not benefit the Canadian natural gas industry, rather it would force production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) to be slashed, resulting in reduced drilling and lower royalties to government. The author suggested that Canada should not grant any permit to construct a pipeline in Canada that is destined for markets in the contiguous United States if the pipeline was in any way subsidized to disadvantage Canadian producers. The author explained why the proposal to build a standalone pipeline in the Mackenzie Valley before the Alaska Highway pipeline is not a good idea. Gas prices and pipeline tolls are the most important economic elements. The author expressed the opinion that the over the top route combined with the Mackenzie Valley route would be beneficial to both Canada and the United States for a host of reasons. figs

  2. Comparative analysis on emergency management for leakage explosion accidents of urban oil and gas pipeline%城市油气管道泄漏爆炸重大案例应急管理对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 朱渊; 陈国明; 李修峰

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary serious accident of Dongying-Huangdao oil pipeline leakage explosion in Qingdao , Shandong, has aroused public concern nationwide about urban oil and gas pipeline safety .In recent years, acci-dents in urban oil and gas pipeline frequently occurred , which seriously indicate the major problems existed in se-curity management .Comparative analysis was carried out based on similar accident investigation , between sewer network explosion in Guadalajara Mexico and Dongying-Huangdao oil pipeline leakage explosion in Qingdao Shang-dong .According to the accident-causing theory , the developing trend of accident was explored and chain model was established .Combined the concept of emergency management , common issues were analyzed during the process from pre-warning and pre-control , emergency disposal , assessment and recovery .Control measures were proposed in each stage of emergency management , by learning from the lessons of accidents , in order to reduce the probabili-ty of accidents and enhance the capability of emergency manage .%青岛东黄输油管道泄漏爆炸特别重大事故,引起公众对城市油气管道安全的普遍关注。近年来,城市油气管道事故频繁发生,反映出我国在城市地下管道安全管理方面存在较大问题。基于国内外管道相似事故调研,选取墨西哥瓜达拉哈拉管道泄漏爆炸事故和青岛东黄输油管道泄漏爆炸事故进行对比分析。基于事故致因理论,探究事故发展模式,建立事故链模型。结合应急管理思想,从预警预控、应急处置、评估恢复角度分析事故应急管理过程的共性失误。最后,针对应急管理各阶段共性失误提出防范措施,对提高类似事故的应急管理能力具有一定的参考意义。

  3. 油气管道全尺寸气体爆破试验场方案探讨%Discussion on Full-size Gas Burst Test Field Used for Oil and Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国丽; 庞艳风; 谭建辉; 赵俊; 王齐

    2015-01-01

    目前具有独立进行油气管道全尺寸气体爆破试验能力的只有英国、意大利等几个国家,我国尚未建立独立的全尺寸爆破试验场。通过分析国外油气管道全尺寸气体爆破试验场的建设应用情况,结合我国油气管道建设技术的迫切需求,提出了我国建设全尺寸爆破试验场的必要性。包括试验场主要功能、场址选择、断裂控制试验原理与试验流程、爆炸影响范围、试验场布置、供气方案、自控与数据采集系统等,为我国建设油气管道全尺寸气体爆破试验场的建设方案奠定了基础。%At present in the world, the full-size gas burst tests of oil and gas pipeline can be carried out only in a few countries, such as Britain, Italy, and etc. It has not yet set up independent full-size burst test field in China. In this article, through analysis on the construction and application status of overseas oil and gas pipeline full-size burst test field, combined with the urgent demand of China oil and gas pipeline construction technology, it put forward the necessity of constructing full-size burst test field in China, including main function of test field, site selection, the test principle and test process of fracture control, explosion scope, test site layout, gas supply plan, automatic control and data acquisition system and etc., it laid a foundation for China oil and gas pipeline full-size gas burst test field construction scheme.

  4. 用改进ECT技术测定油气两相流中空泡分数的测量研究%Void Fraction Measurement in Oil-Gas Transportation Pipeline Using an Improved Electrical Capacitance Tomography System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛刚; 贾志海; 王经

    2004-01-01

    To measure the void fraction online in oil-gas pipeline, an improved electrical capacitance tomography(ECT) system has been designed. The capacitance sensor with new structure has twelve internal electrodes and overcomes the influence of the pipe wall. The data collection system is improved by using high performance IC(integrated circuit). Static tests of bubble flow, stratified flow and annular flow regime are carried out. Measurements are taken on bubble flow, stratified flow and slug flow. Results show that the new ECT system performs well on void fraction measurement of bubble flow and stratified flow, but the error of measurement for slug flow is more than 10%.

  5. P208泵预热油浆管线泄漏原因与对策%The leakage reason and countermeasure of P208 pump oil warm-up pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元华; 王家祥; 奚蔚; 秦玉尧; 萧前

    2001-01-01

    The “L”“T” type joints of P208 pump oil warm-up pipeline were scoured by the vortexing,and the evorsion led to crack in weld.The leakage reason and countermeasure were discussed.%分析了炼油装置P208泵预热油浆管线L、T型接头的涡流冲蚀导致焊缝开裂泄漏的原因,提出了工艺结构改进措施。

  6. Architecture of a corporate system to aid the scheduling of a oil derivatives transport in a pipeline network; Arquitetura de um sistema corporativo para auxilio a programacao do transporte de derivados de petroleo em redes dutoviarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Guilherme R.; Polli, Helton L.; Esser, Eduardo M.; Lueders, Ricardo; Neves Junior, Flavio; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This paper addresses the development and the architecture of a corporative package to aid the operational decision-making of the scheduling activities in a real-world pipeline network for oil derivatives. The system was developed based on a service-oriented architecture, allowing the development of Web applications to define the network scheduling, as well as graphic display of the movements. The solution of the scheduling is generated by an optimization block as a service of this application. However, this paper emphasizes the description of the architecture and its functionalities, which was defined with the help of experienced programmers. (author)

  7. Turbulent Flow of Saudi Non-Newtonian Crude Oils in a Pipeline Écoulement turbulent de bruts non-newtoniens séoudiens dans une canalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemeidia A. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of Saudi Arab-Light, Arab-Berri and Arab-Heavy crude oils were measured with Brookfield Viscometer (LVT Model at temperatures 10, 15, 20, 25, 38, 55 and 70°C. Saudi Arab-Light and Arab-Heavy exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at temperature less than or equal to 20°C, while Saudi Arab-Berri behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid at all temperatures. The main reason for this rheological behavior can be attributed to the thermal and shear histories; the relative amounts of wax and asphaltene content in Saudi crude oils as well. Therefore, Statistical Analysis (t-test was used to check the variability of the change in rheological behavior of Saudi non-Newtonian crude oils at a confidence level of 95%. The evaluation ensured that, all non-Newtonian data were statistically not different and were correlated with power-law model. Under turbulent flow conditions the pipeline design calculations were carried out through a computer program. Les propriétés rhéologiques des bruts séoudiens Arab-Light, Arab-Berri et Arab-Heavy ont été mesurées à l'aide d'un viscomètre Brookfield (modèle LVT à des températures de 10, 15, 20, 25, 38, 55 et 70°C. Les Saudi Arab-Light et Arab-Heavy présentent un comportement non newtonien à des températures égales ou inférieures à 20°C, tandis que le Saudi Arab-Berri se comporte comme un fluide non newtonien à toutes les températures. Ce comportement rhéologique est principalement dû aux historiques thermiques et de cisaillement, de même qu'aux quantités relatives de paraffine et à la teneur en asphaltène des bruts séoudiens. Une analyse statistique (essai t a donc été menée pour vérifier la variabilité des changements de comportement rhéologique des bruts séoudiens non newtoniens à un degré de fiabilité de 95%. Il en est ressorti que toutes les données non newtoniennes étaient statistiquement non différentes et étaient en corrélation avec le modèle de la loi des

  8. Temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and photoenhanced toxicity risks of spilled oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G; Vivian, Deborah; Yee, Susan H; Diamond, Steve A

    2008-03-01

    Solar irradiance (W/m2) and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd; 1/m) were determined in several locations in Prince William Sound (AK, USA) between April 2003 and December 2005 to assess temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and the risks of photo-enhanced toxicity from spilled oil. Weekly irradiance measurements of surface visible light, ultraviolet B (UVB), and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation in Valdez (AK, USA) followed expected trends of maximum solar irradiance at each summer solstice and minimum values at each winter solstice. Variation from weekly maximum expected surface irradiances was attributed to large variations in environmental conditions over the 142-week monitoring period. Season and proximity to glacial meltwater were significant determinants of Kd, with 1% attenuation depths ranging from 0.4 to 15 m (UVB and UVA) and from 0.5 to 28 m (visible light). The probability of photo-enhanced toxicity risks estimated from UVA dosimetry decreased with increasing water depth, with higher risks during spring and summer and lower risks during fall and winter. These results demonstrate substantial temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation in Prince William Sound and the potential for significant season- and location-specific photo-enhanced toxicity risks from spilled oil. PMID:17983275

  9. Temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and photoenhanced toxicity risks of spilled oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G; Vivian, Deborah; Yee, Susan H; Diamond, Steve A

    2008-03-01

    Solar irradiance (W/m2) and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd; 1/m) were determined in several locations in Prince William Sound (AK, USA) between April 2003 and December 2005 to assess temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and the risks of photo-enhanced toxicity from spilled oil. Weekly irradiance measurements of surface visible light, ultraviolet B (UVB), and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation in Valdez (AK, USA) followed expected trends of maximum solar irradiance at each summer solstice and minimum values at each winter solstice. Variation from weekly maximum expected surface irradiances was attributed to large variations in environmental conditions over the 142-week monitoring period. Season and proximity to glacial meltwater were significant determinants of Kd, with 1% attenuation depths ranging from 0.4 to 15 m (UVB and UVA) and from 0.5 to 28 m (visible light). The probability of photo-enhanced toxicity risks estimated from UVA dosimetry decreased with increasing water depth, with higher risks during spring and summer and lower risks during fall and winter. These results demonstrate substantial temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation in Prince William Sound and the potential for significant season- and location-specific photo-enhanced toxicity risks from spilled oil.

  10. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline-soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West-East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements.

  11. Network Vulnerability Assessment of the U.S. Crude Pipeline Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Larranaga, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The potential for cascade failure of the U.S. crude oil pipeline infrastructure is analyzed using Model Based Risk Assessment software. The pipeline system that distributes crude oil to refineries across the United States has gained much media attention with President Obamas denial of a permit to complete a key portion the Keystone-XL pipeline that will carry oil from Alberta, Canada to the Cushing Oil Trading Hub (COTH) in Cushing, OK...

  12. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  13. Game Analysis of the Co-construction and Sharing of Oil and Gas Pipeline%石油天然气管道共建共享博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏勋; 丁鹏; 张涛

    2014-01-01

    The pricing model of oil and gas is the chief influence factor of oil and gas industry and the change of pricing model will ob-servably change the profit of oil and gas companies. Using game model, under the condition that the government chooses three kinds of pricing model, that is marketing price, absolutely fixed price and relatively fixed price, this article analyzes the new and mature oil and gas market about sharing pipeline, finding that under the condition of marketing price, companies will co-construct and share pipeline both in the new and the mature market;under the condition of absolutely fixed price, companies will co-construct and share pipeline in the new market while the entrant should weight the costs and the benefits in the mature market;under the condition of relatively fixed price, companies will construct pipeline independently both in the new and mature market. Therefore, to promote the market-oriented reforms of oil and gas prices and to support the market playing the basic role in oil and gas resource allocation are an important ways to solve the problems of pipeline duplication.%油气定价方式是油气行业竞争环境的主要影响因素,定价方式的改变将显著改变油气企业的收益。假设政府通过选择三种油气定价方式(市场竞争形成价格、价格绝对固定、价格相对固定)改变油气行业竞争环境,对双寡头企业在每种价格条件下的新市场和成熟市场进行管道共建共享博弈分析,结果表明:市场竞争形成价格条件下的新市场和成熟市场,企业之间均能够实现管道共建共享;价格绝对固定条件下的新市场,企业之间能够实现管道共建共享,成熟市场则需要进一步考虑企业进入市场的成本和收益;价格相对固定条件下的新市场和成熟市场,企业之间均不能够实现管道共建共享。因此,推进油气价格的市场化改革,发挥市场在油气资源配置中的基础

  14. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  15. 油区地热资源用于管道伴热系统的技术研究%Technical Research on Application of Oil Region Geothermal Resources in Pipeline Heat Tracing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓姝; 秦威; 姚尧; 王雷; 贾冯睿

    2013-01-01

      针对油田油区大量地热低温资源问题,提出了油区地热资源用于油田集输系统伴热管道输送的工艺,建立了原油管道伴热系统能量平衡分析模型,运用CFD软件对该工艺管道伴热系统进行了数值模拟,分析了该工艺带来的社会效益。研究结果表明,利用油田丰富的地热资源代替部分燃油节能降耗,是完全可行的。在大排量提液后,开采的地热水经换热后能满足油田集输系统加热要求,可以利用地热伴热完全替代加热炉。在此基础上,所建立的系统模型每年可有效减少因加热炉伴热而排放的污染物。%2. College of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Liaoning Fushun 113001, China) According to the problem of a large number of low temperature terrestrial heat resources in the oil field, the technology of applying terrestrial heat of the oil field in heavy oil heat tracing pipelines was put forward. The model of energy balance analysis about crude oil pipeline heat tracing system was established. The technology of pipeline heat tracing system was simulated by CFD software, and social benefits of this technology were analyzed. The results show that using geothermal resources of oil field to replace part of the fuel can realize energy saving and consumption reduction, is completely feasible. In large displacement solution, the exploitation of the geothermal water after heat exchange can satisfy the requirement of oilfield gathering system heating, can make use of geothermal heating entirely replace heating furnace. On this basis, the model of the system can effectively reduce pollutants from heating furnace emissions so the system has large economic and environmental benefits.

  16. X80长输油气管道闪光对接焊技术研究%Research on Flash Butt Welding Process of X80 Long-distance Oil and Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建文; 胡建春; 宋晞明; 李洁; 傅建楠

    2015-01-01

    According to the welding quality requirements of long-distance oil and gas pipeline construction, the flash butt welding process of X80 pipeline steel was studied. Through analyzing the chemical composition and mechanical properties, combined with the selected welding process and welding method, the welding was carried out for X80 pipeline steel, and the mechanical properties of its welded joints were tested. The results showed that the flash butt welding performance of X80 steel is very good, and the strength, hardness and low temperature toughness can meet the safety requirement of X80 grade pipeline steel. The welding method and the technological parameters can be used for site welding.%针对长输油气管道建设对焊接质量的要求,对X80管线钢的闪光对接焊工艺进行了研究。通过对长输管道用X80管线钢化学成分及力学性能进行分析,结合选定的焊接方法和焊接工艺,对该管线钢进行了焊接,并对其焊接接头的力学性能进行了测试。结果表明,闪光对接焊得到的焊接接头性能良好,接头的强度、硬度、韧性等性能均满足X80管线钢管的安全要求。所选用的焊接方法和工艺参数可用于该管材的现场焊接。

  17. X80长输油气管道闪光对接焊技术研究%Research on Flash Butt Welding Process of X80 Long-distance Oil and Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建文; 胡建春; 宋晞明; 李洁; 傅建楠

    2015-01-01

    针对长输油气管道建设对焊接质量的要求,对X80管线钢的闪光对接焊工艺进行了研究。通过对长输管道用X80管线钢化学成分及力学性能进行分析,结合选定的焊接方法和焊接工艺,对该管线钢进行了焊接,并对其焊接接头的力学性能进行了测试。结果表明,闪光对接焊得到的焊接接头性能良好,接头的强度、硬度、韧性等性能均满足X80管线钢管的安全要求。所选用的焊接方法和工艺参数可用于该管材的现场焊接。%According to the welding quality requirements of long-distance oil and gas pipeline construction, the flash butt welding process of X80 pipeline steel was studied. Through analyzing the chemical composition and mechanical properties, combined with the selected welding process and welding method, the welding was carried out for X80 pipeline steel, and the mechanical properties of its welded joints were tested. The results showed that the flash butt welding performance of X80 steel is very good, and the strength, hardness and low temperature toughness can meet the safety requirement of X80 grade pipeline steel. The welding method and the technological parameters can be used for site welding.

  18. 俄罗斯干线油气管道焊接加热方法探讨%Discussion on Welding Heating Method for Russia Trunk Oil & Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许贵芝

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the advantage and necessity of welding heating for trunk oil & gas pipeline were put forward, the Russia technical specifications of welding heating were introduced, and the technical specifications of Russia, America and England were compared. The welding heating method of Russia trunk oil & gas pipeline, the analysis and discussion from experts to the said method were expatiated . Aiming at Russia technical documents, some supplements and amendment advice were put forward. In the end, constructive suggestion for China welding heating mode was brought forward.%提出了干线油气管道焊接加热的优点和必要性;介绍了俄罗斯焊接加热的技术规范,并与美、英两国的焊接加热方式进行比较.阐述了俄罗斯干线油气管道焊接加热的方法及专家对这些方法的分析和探讨,并针对俄罗斯焊接加热的相关技术文件提出了补充和修改建议.最后,对我国管道焊接加热方式提出了建设性意见.

  19. Pipeline Bending Strain Measurement and Compensation Technology Based on Wavelet Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan; Feng, Qingshan; Liu, Shucong; ZHAO, XIAOMING

    2016-01-01

    The bending strain of long distance oil and gas pipelines may lead to instability of the pipeline and failure of materials, which seriously deteriorates the transportation security of oil and gas. To locate the position of the bending strain for maintenance, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is usually adopted in a Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG). The attitude data of the IMU is usually acquired to calculate the bending strain in the pipe. However, because of the vibrations in the pipeline a...

  20. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Paraffin Wax in Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Stubsjøen, Marte

    2013-01-01

    Paraffin wax deposition, or the settling of solid wax particles on pipelines and equipment, is an extensive problem encountered in oil production and transportation. Flowing through subsea pipelines, oil and condensate are subject to cooling. If the temperature of a supersaturated crude oil mixture drops below the solubility limit of wax, known as the wax appearance temperature (WAT), solid paraffin start to appear in solution. Assuming temperatures below the WAT and a radial heat flux from t...

  1. Oil transport scheduling in a pipeline with a characteristic operation; Otimizacao das operacoes de transporte de derivados em um poliduto com multiplas sangrias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Guilherme; Magatao, Leandro; Arruda, Lucia Valeria Ramos; Silva, Marcos Henrique da [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lara, Lucas El Ghoz [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This work presents an optimization structure to support the operational decision making of scheduling activities in a multi product pipeline with multiple deliveries. This pipeline connects, in sequence, 6 operational areas: one is the main refinery, and the 5 remaining are distribution centers, each one with specific capacity of storage. Basically, the refinery pumps derivatives, such as diesel and gasoline, in a unidirectional flow to distribution centers, in a way to supply their demands. The solution kernel is underlined in a hybrid structure, using heuristics and Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) modeling, executed iteratively. Details of storage curves and flow rate of pipelines are obtained in the proposed approach, expanding the results of Kira et al. (2010). Additionally, the proposed approach is able to deal with discrete demands along the scheduling horizon. Thus, this hybrid structure makes possible to obtain operational scheduling solutions at a low CPU times (few minutes), using real data scenarios, whose horizon length has at least 30 days. (author)

  2. Pitting growth modelling in buried oil and gas pipelines using statistical techniques; Modelado del crecimiento de picaduras en tuberias enterradas que transportan hidrocarburos utilizando tecnicas estadisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, J. C.; Caleyo, F.; Valorm, A.; Hallen, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    New deterministic and stochastic predictive models are proposed for external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The deterministic model takes into consideration the local chemical and physical properties of the soil as well as the pipeline coating to predict the time dependence of pitting depth and rate in a range of soils. This model, based on results from a field study, was used to conduct Monte Carlo simulations that established the probability distribution of pitting depth and growth rate in the studied soils and their evolution over the life of the pipeline. In the last stage of the study, an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model was developed for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Developing Pipeline Transportation in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chenghan; Wang Wei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the late 1980s, focus of exploration and development for oil & gas has been diverted to thewest of China, resulting in the discovery and development of Shaanbei gas field followed by large-scale exploration and development of Tarim,Turpan and Hami basins. Responding to this situation, pipeline construction focus has also been transferred to west China where large-scale development of pipeline transportation, an opportunity as well as a challenge, is expected.

  4. Future impact on natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croom, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The future for natural gas pipelines is forecast by examining the sources and uses of energy today and projecting respective changes. No significant changes are expected over the next 20 yr in natural gas usage, but regionally, some demand shift could impact certain gas transmission facilities. The conclusion is that natural gas will continue to displace oil in some stationary uses, while coal will displace natural gas in some power plant and feedstock applications. Although these shifts will result in some regional construction activity, they will probably not necessitate major arterial increases to the pipeline network. However, significant changes in supply sources may have a major impact on pipeline planning and construction.

  5. [Northern Pipeline Agency] annual report, 1990-1991. [Administration du pipe-line du Nord] rapport annuel, 1990-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interest of Canada. This report reviews the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included. During 1990-91, plans for completing the second stage continued to remain on hold. Representatives of a consortium of three owners of Canadian gas reserves in the Mackenzie Delta and three pipeline companies that originally planned to begin shipping gas to southern markets as early as 1996 have indicated that the project is unlikely to be operational at least before the turn of the century because of unfavourable market conditions. Foothills Pipelines was authorized to build a pipeline from the Delta along the Mackenzie Valley to Boundary Lake in the vicinity of northern British Columbia and Alberta, which it plans to link with the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline through a 656 km extension from the present terminus of the pre-built segment of the system at Caroline, Alberta. The design and route of the delivery system are yet to be decided. 1 fig.

  6. The commercial and water-law approval procedure for mineral-oil transmission pipelines with integrated environmental impact assessment; Das gewerbe- und wasserrechtliche Zulassungsverfahren fuer Mineraloelfernleitungen mit integrierter Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Familie, Frauen und Gesundheit, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    Mineral-oil transmission pipelines are an important component in the Federal Republic of Germany`s energy supply infrastructure. The pipeline system was largely planned and constructed in the 1960s. Approval permits were generally issued for a specified time, these times differing in the various federal states. The expiry of such a permit, significant modifications to a system, or the intended construction of a new pipeline all make it necessary to devote attention to the approval and permitting procedures incorporated in present-day legislation. The most important legal bases continue to be the permit issued in accordance with the Combustible Liquids Ordinance and approval in accordance with the Water Management Act. There are, however, other laws and regulations which are applicable to approval and have been enacted, in particular, to protect nature and the environment. Since the Act Regarding Environmental Impact Assesments (UVPG) came into effect on August 1, 1991, projects with an environmental significance may only be approved in the context of a procedure which includes an integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This provision applies equally to approval for construction and operation of new systems and to the extension of permits for operation of existing mineral-oil transmission pipelines. This article describes the way the ``UVP`` affects the approval procedure. The author`s experience is used to illustrate the basic requirements for the environmental impact assessment; the organizational and chronological aspects of the approval procedure are also described. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mineraloelfernleitungen sind ein wichtiger Bestandteil der Energieversorgung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Das Fernleitungsnetz wurde zum groessten Teil in den 60er Jahren projektiert und gebaut. Die Zulassungen wurden in der Regel befristet erteilt, wobei die Fristen in den Bundeslaendern unterschiedlich bemessen sind. Der Ablauf einer befristeten Zulassung, die

  7. 基于 Bow-tie模型的城镇输油管道风险评价方法研究%Study on risk assessment method of urban oil pipeline based on Bow-tie model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉超; 蒋宏业; 吴瑶晗; 姚安林; 韩晓瑜

    2016-01-01

    According to the leakage and explosion accidents of urban oil pipeline frequently occurred in recent years, it was proposed to introduce Bow-tie model into risk evaluation.Through the combination of Bow-tie model with the improved ana-lytic hierarchy process method, the weights of each influence factor were obtained and sorted.Then the risk evaluation was conducted on pipeline so as to put forward reasonable safety management schemes and reduce the occurrence of accidents. The calculation results showed that the third party factor dominates in the influence factors of pipeline failure, while in the a-nalysis of accident consequence, the safety consequence and environment consequence factors have the largest influence, which basically accord with the actual situation of accident.It has certain guiding significance and practical value for the risk analysis of urban oil pipeline.%根据近年来不断发生的城镇输油管道泄漏爆炸事故,提出将Bow-tie模型引入到风险评价中,将Bow-tie模型和改进的层次分析法相结合得出各影响因素的权重并排序,对管道进行风险评价,便于提出合理的安全管理方案,减少事故的发生。通过计算得到第三方因素在管道失效影响因素中占主导,而在事故后果分析中安全后果和环境后果因素影响较大,基本符合事故实际状况,说明该方法对于城镇输油管道风险分析有一定的指导意义和实用价值。

  8. 移动式输油管线选线及工艺设计辅助设计系统的研究%Study on Reconnaissance and Technological Design CAD System of mobile oil pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖微; 徐小明; 戴健; 彭向军; 杨廷欣

    2011-01-01

    Mobile oil pipeline,which has many excellent characteristics including mobility,flexibility,and high delivery capacity,has been one of the important equipments of petroleum support in special districts.At present,the design of movable pipeline route and design depends only on pure manual operations,so that it needs two or three months and a lot of money and manpower to develop a complete mobile pipeline program.The research program aims to use the technologies of GPS,geographic information,fluid mechanics,operational research and mathematical modeling to establish a set of systematic,reliable route survey and pipeline design models.It aims to put forward a complete automation and intelligent design solution for the design of equipments structure and delivery power.And the final goal of the program is to improve the efficiency of route survey and pipeline design in the future to meet the petroleum support requirements in special environments.%移动式管线油料保障因其机动、灵活、输送流量大等特性成为特殊环境下油料保障的重要组成部分。现阶段,特殊环境的输油管线选线及工艺设计方案的制定采用纯手工作业的方式,制定一套完整的方案需要两至三个月的时间,同时消耗了大量的人力物力。通过利用GPS全球定位、地理信息、流体力学、运筹学、数学建模等技术,构建一套完整、可靠、符合实际需要的移动式管线选线及设计模型,提出整套自动化解决方案,实现快捷高效的输油管线工艺、装备的智能化设计,从而提高输油管线选线设计与展开铺设的效率,适应特殊环境下输油管线选线设计与展开的要求。

  9. Sino-Kazakh Crude Pipeline Starts Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Sino-Kazakh Crude Oil Pipeline financed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and KazMunaiGaz, the state oil company of Kazakhstan,was launched on December 15, 2005, thanks to the commitments and endeavors of governments and constructors of both countries. The pipeline, with diameter of 813 mm, the total length of 962.2 km running from the Kazakhstan Atasu in the west to China's Alashankou in the east, with the phase I designed annual capacity up to 10 million tons. The launch of the pipeline is a milestone of the China-Kazakhstan energy cooperation, having great importance to the countries' economic growths, China's energy security strategy and the diversification of Kazakh oil exports.

  10. Infrared evaluation of insulated pipelines to detect water that could cause Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Douglas; Sanders, H. Allen

    2012-06-01

    IR (infrared) inspection is being used to inspect oil pipelines on the North Slope of Alaska. The object of this inspection is to detect water trapped in the foam insulation around the steel pipes before it can cause corrosion that could result in a pipeline leak. This is referred to as Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI). The same method can be used to inspect insulated pipelines containing LNG (liquid natural gas), steam, heated chemicals, cryogenic fluids, etc. As long as the temperature in the pipe is substantially different (+ or -) than the ambient temperature, the IR evaluation method can work. Analysis can predict whether it will work for a specific application and operating conditions. IR can scan multiple pipes quickly and is a good qualitative screening method for detecting water trapped in insulation. Anomalies found by IR are evaluated further using RT ("C-Arm" or other RT technique) or other NDT methods. RT is a relatively slow technique compared to IR, but it is capable of detecting both water and pipe wall thinning. When the water level is high enough to reach the steel pipeline, corrosion of the pipe can occur. In this case, the corrosion is from the outside of the pipe inward. Other corrosion and erosion may take place from the inside out. Corrosion and erosion can eventually result in a hole in the pipe, which results in a leak. Thermal modeling has been performed to predict the environmental conditions under which IR testing will be successful. IR test procedures have been written and a personnel certification program has been implemented.

  11. [Northern Pipeline Agency] annual report, 1992-1993. [Administration du pipe-line du Nord] rapport annuel, 1992-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interest of Canada. This report reviews the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included. During 1992-93, plans for substantially expanding the capacity of the western and eastern legs of the pipeline to transport increased exports of Canadian natural gas to western and mid-western US markets continued to move forward. During the calendar year 1992, Canadian gas exports to the USA increased by more than 20% to 58.02 billion cubic metres. Pacific Gas Transmission Co. proposed expansion of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System such that capacity to deliver gas to California and the Pacific Northwest would be increased 8.5 million m[sup 3]/d. A new compressor unit was announced for the eastern leg of the pre-built system of the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline to provide back-up capacity. 1 fig.

  12. 成品油管道混油量计算方法及减少混油量措施探讨%Study on Calculating Methods of Mixed Oil Quantity in the Product Pipeline and Measures to Reduce Mixed Oil Quantity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓刚

    2012-01-01

    Combined with production practice, calculating methods of mixed oil quantity in the batch transportation product pipeline were mainly introduced as well as theoretical formula, corrected theoretical formula and empirical formula. Through example calculation, different formulae were compared. Then, factors to influence mixed oil quantity were analyzed, and measures to reduce mixed oil quantity were put forward.%结合生产实际,重点介绍了成品油顺序输送管道混油量的计算方法,包括理论公式、修正的理论公式以及经验公式,并进行了相应的实例计算,对各种计算公式进行的比较,分析了混油量的影响因素,提出了减少混油量的措施.

  13. Correlation of tertiary formations of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, F.S.; Wolfe, J.A.; Miller, D.J.; Hopkins, D.M.

    1961-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic and paleontologic studies have resulted in substantial revision of the age assignments and inter-basin correlations of the Tertiary formations of Alaska as given in both an earlier compilation by P. S. Smith (1939) and a tentative chart prepared for distribution at the First International Symposium on Arctic Geology at Calgary, Alberta (Miller, MacNeil, and Wahrhaftig, 1960). Current work in Alaska by the U. S. Geological Survey and several oil companies is furnishing new information at a rapid rate and further revisions may be expected. The correlation chart (Fig. 1), the first published chart to deal exclusively with the Tertiary of Alaska, had the benefit of a considerable amount of stratigraphic data and fossil collections from some oil companies, but recent surface mapping and drilling by other oil companies in several Tertiary basins undoubtedly must have produced much more information. Nevertheless, the extent of available data justifies the publication of a revised correlation chart at this time.

  14. 77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  15. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under the Federal... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  16. Oil Pipeline Security System Based on Fiber-optic Vibration Sensor and FPGA%基于光纤振动传感器与FPGA的石油管道安防系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晖; 吕宏伟; 冯进良; 才存良

    2016-01-01

    针对石油管道铺设于土壤中发生泄漏难以检测的问题,结合光纤振动传感器高灵敏度与FPGA高扫描速度的特点,设计了基于FPGA和光纤振动传感器的石油管道安防系统。首先采用光纤传感器检测故障点振动,再通过计算由振动调制的信号传到两端基站的时间差确定管道泄漏点。系统采用雷达辐射信号分选算法在FPGA中实现信号的筛选,采用授时精度高达15ns的U-blox授时芯片保证不同基站的时间一致,采用“双基站源-双向定位”方式有效平均定位误差。结果表明,系统可对5.5km范围内管道的泄漏事件进行有效报警定位,定位误差在30mm范围内。%According to the fact that it’s hard to detect the oil spill if the pipeline is laid in the soil. Combined with the high sensitivity of fiber-optic vibration sensor and high scanning speed of FPGA,this paper designs the oil pipeline security system based on FPGA and fiber-optic vibration sensor. Firstly, fiber-optic sensor is adopted to detect spill point. Then the oil spill point is determined by calculating the time difference of the vibratory modulation signals be-tween base station at both ends. The system adopts the algorithm of radar radiation signal sorting to filter signal in the FPGA,uses 15ns U-blox timing chips to ensure timing accuracy of different base stations and “source of twin-sta-tion-bi-directional positioning” mode to average location error effectively. The results indicate that the system can ef-fectively alert the position of pipeline spill in 5.5km,and the position error range is in 30mm.

  17. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  18. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sahli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less. This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs. The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  19. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  20. Study on Defect Detect of Oil and Gas Pipeline by Metal Magnetic Memory Testing Technology Based on Wavelet Analysis%基于小波分析的油气管道缺陷磁记忆检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书俊; 李著信; 龚利红; 郭联欢

    2011-01-01

    金属磁记忆检测技术是目前唯一能对铁磁性构件早期损伤进行诊断的无损检测手段,能检测识别油气管道早期损伤以及以应力集中为特征的裂纹缺陷.小波分析由于具有良好的时频局部性,能很好地克服傅里叶变换的不足,得到广泛的应用.针对目前金属磁记忆检测技术以过零点作为缺陷判定准则存在的不足,利用小波尺度谱和再分配的尺度谱对磁记忆信号进行分析.试验结果表明,小波再分配尺度谱能有效应用于管道缺陷的磁记忆检测之中.%Metal magnetic memory testing (MMMT) technology is the only feasible NDT method in the aspect of early diagnosis till now, which can detect and recognize the early damnification and oil and gas pipeline crack in the character of stress concentration. Wavelet is widely applied for it has good time-frequency location character and can get over the deficiency of Fourier transform. Aiming at the deficiency of using MMMT to recognize pipeline defect, the reassigned wavelet scalogram analysis method was put forward to analyze the MMMT signal. The experimental result proves that the reassigned wavelet scalogram is effective in pipeline defect recognition by MMMT.

  1. 连续管线管在青海油田地面集输管线的应用%Coiled Tubing Application in Qinghai Oil Field Ground Gathering Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏强; 王琪; 秦跃平; 张阿军

    2013-01-01

    针对目前油田地面集输管线采用无缝管单根焊接方式造成的焊口多、空气污染严重、劳动强度高等问题,使用连续管线管替代无缝管进行地面集输管线项目试验.介绍了试验用连续管线管的拉伸性能,以及试验现场布管、焊接、焊后水压试验、防腐层补伤等工艺过程.试验结果表明,与无缝管相比,连续管线管用作地面集输管线具有施工效率高、安全性及质量可靠等优点.%Aiming at some problems occurred in adopting seamless steel pipe to conduct each single pipe welding in oil field ground gathering pipeline, such as many welded junction, serious air pollution, high labour intensity and so on. It adopted coiled tubing to replace seamless steel pipe to carry out ground gathering pipeline trial project, introduced the tensile performance of coiled tubing used in experiment, layout pipe in field, welding, hydrostatic test after welding, coating repaire and other process. The test results indicated that compared with seamless steel pipe, coiled tubing used for ground gathering pipeline is with high construction efficiency, high safety, reliable quality and etc.

  2. 沙漠地区输油管道内腐蚀开挖检测与评价%Inner Corrosion Detection and Evaluation of Oil Pipeline in Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珂; 罗金恒; 赵雄; 袁柱; 熊林; 丁科艳

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the characteristics of oil pipeline in desert, designed a special testing program, selected excavation points based on the accurate measurement of pipeline height and buried depth, carried out the pipe body inner corrosion detection by a method of combining magnetic flux leakage inspection, ultrasonic guided wave inspection, ultrasonic thickness measurement and ultrasonic C-scan imaging, And, solved many problems encountered in construction process to provide a reference for similar projects . At last, defects evaluation result showed that the pipeline is safe in the design pressure . It gave the detection cycle, suggested the pipe sections with serious defects should be monitored, and reinforce or replace them as soon as possible .%针对沙漠地区输油管道的特点,设计了专门的管道检测方案,通过对管道高程和埋深的精确测量,选取管道低点开挖,采用漏磁检测、超声导波检测、超声测厚和超声C扫描成像等相结合的检测方法,开展管体内腐蚀检测,并解决了检测施工过程中遇到的诸多问题,为同类工程提供了参考借鉴.对检测出的缺陷进行了安全评价,结果表明,管线在设计压力下能够安全运行,给出了检测周期,并建议对存在严重缺陷管段重点监测,尽快进行补强或更换.

  3. Oil pipeline leakage detection and positioning system based on PC104%基于PC104的输油管道泄漏检测定位系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓士伟; 李一博; 李健

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the shortage of large power consumption, unreliable network communication and different system time on pipeline online monitoring, a new oil pipeline leakage detection and positioning system based on embedded PC104 is designed. Use the GPS time service technology and LAN between central PC and remote terminal unit. The detection principle, hardware structure and software design of the system are introduced in detail. The test and actual application show that the system operates stably,and its power consumption is low and integrity, reliability and real-time performance of remote data transmission is guaranteed. It is able to correctly identify the pipeline leakage, and make accurate positioning.%针对目前管道在线监测用电功率大、网络通信不稳定和系统时间不同一的缺陷,设计了一种基于嵌入式PC104的管道泄漏检测定位系统.应用GPS授时技术和局域网连接中心PC与远程监测终端,详细分析了其系统检测原理、硬件结构和软件设计方案.通过实际测试和应用表明:该系统运行稳定,低功耗,且保证了远距离数据传输的完整性、可靠性和实时性,能够对管道泄漏进行正确的识别,并做出准确的定位.

  4. 政府宏观调控对油气管道共建共享影响的博弈研究%Game Theory on the Influence of Governmental Macroeconomic Regulations and Controls on Joint Construction and Sharing of Oil and Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚建岗

    2016-01-01

    An analysis on feasibility of solving repeated construction issues of pipelines by taking govern-mental macroeconomic regulations and controls is conducted based on building two-stage dynamic game model between government and oil and gas company.The research indicates that if government lists the de-gree of joint construction and sharing of company pipelines into the calculation scope of corporate income tax rate which is regarded as rewards and punishments to stimulate oil and gas company to conduct joint construction and sharing of pipelines,there is a negative correlation between the degree of joint construc-tion and sharing of pipelines of oil and gas company and basic tax rate of corporate income tax collected by government,a positive correlation between the degree of joint construction and sharing of pipelines of oil and gas company and the degree of joint construction and sharing of pipelines formulated by the govern-ment,a negative correlation between the degree of joint construction and sharing of pipelines of oil and gas company and cost coefficient of joint construction and sharing of pipelines of the company,and a positive correlation between the degree of joint construction and sharing of pipelines of oil and gas company and cost coefficient of joint construction and sharing of pipelines of the other companies.Therefore,governmen-tal macroeconomic regulations and controls are effective in the process of solving repeated construction is-sues of pipelines of oil and gas industry.Besides,an effective and macroeconomic regulation and control pol-icies has to consider the opportunity cost of different companies participating in the joint construction and sharing of pipelines.The"one size fits all"policies of regulation and control shall not be adopted.%通过建立政府-油气企业两阶段动态博弈模型,对政府采用宏观调控手段解决管道重复建设问题的可行性进行分析.研究表明:如果政府将企业管道共建共享程度

  5. 分布式光纤油气管道监测系统研究%Study on Distributed Optical Fiber Monitoring System for Oil and Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红娜

    2013-01-01

      提出一种基于混沌理论的监测分布式光纤管道泄漏监测系统的方法,采用Duffing相轨迹法和Lyapu-nov指数法检测微弱的正弦信号,建立了基于混沌理论的分布式光纤管道泄漏检测系统的数学模型,并且进行了实例验证。%This put forward a method of monitoring distributed fiber-optic pipeline leak monitoring the system with cha-os theory. By using the method of Duffing phase trajectory and Lyapunov exponent to detect the weak sinusoidal signal, we establish a model of pipeline leakage detection system of distributed optical fiber based on chaos theory, and veri-fied by experiment.

  6. 油气混输管道工艺计算软件研制%The Software Development on the Process Calculation of Oil and Gas Mixed Transmission Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广诗; 张婷婷

    2012-01-01

    采用软件工程学的理论,结合国内外多相流研究成果,研制出了广泛适用于各种油气混输管道的工艺计算软件.该软件能够实现管道图形建模、物性参数计算、水力热力计算、修正计算、误差分析等功能.实例分析表明,该软件操作方便,功能完善,能够有效地对管道的生产运行进行模拟计算和分析.%Using the theory of software engineering, with the combination of domestic and foreign research results of multiphase flow, a oil and gas mixed transmission pipeline process calculation software has been developed which is widely applicable. The software can realize the functions such as pipeline graphical modeling, physical parameter calculation, hydraulic and thermodynamic calculation, correction calculation, error analysis and so on. Example analysis shows that, the software is easy to operate, has perfect function and can make effectively simulating calculation and analysis to pipe production and operation.

  7. 次声波油气管道泄漏检测技术研究%Research of oil-gas pipeline leak detection technology based on infrasound wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎宏; 韦南; 王涛

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of leakage detection based on infrasound wave,infrasound signal's propagation mechanism in the oil-gas pipeline as well as feature analysis of acoustic leakage. The leakage signal received by infrasound sensor is analyzed according to properties of pipeline and waves,and the infrasound signal's noise is removed by wavelet analysis. The technology is evaluated in view of its accuracy,practicability and effectiveness.%本文研究了次声波油气管道泄漏检测原理,次声波信号在油气管道中的传播机理以及发生泄漏时泄漏声波的特点分析.根据管道及泄漏声波的特点,分析次声波传感器接收到的泄漏信号,并运用小波分析去除次声波信号中夹杂的噪声.最后对次声波油气管道泄漏检测技术的准确性、实用性和有效性进行评价.

  8. 长输油气管道焊缝无损检测标准分析%Analysis of NDT Standard for Long Distance Oil and Gas Pipeline Weld Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景人; 王晓桥; 夏锋社

    2014-01-01

    通过对现行的长输管道无损检测验收标准对比分析,认为 SY/T 4109比 JB/T 4730在射线检测验收时,未熔合、未焊透和条形缺陷级别评定上要求宽松;而在超声波检测时灵敏度要求过低,且缺陷等级评定时也明显低于 JB/T 4730的要求,不利于提高长输管道的本质安全,并提出相应的建议。%The level of radiographic testing evaluation about the incomplete fusion, lack of penetration and bar defects of the weld joint in the SY/T 4109 is not as strict as that in the JB/T 4730,through comparison of the current long distance pipeline analysis of NDT methods and acceptance standard. The sensitivity requirement and defect rating are improper comparing to the JB/T 4730.This is not conducive to improve the security of long distance oil and gas pipeline, and the corresponding suggestion is put forward.

  9. 槽式太阳能热发电工程导热油管道连接件选型分析%Heat Oil Pipeline Connecting Pieces Selection Analysis in Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕娜; 寇建玉

    2014-01-01

    Parabolic trough solar thermal power engineering mainly adopts two types of heat oil pipeline connecting pieces(rotary joints and metal hoses), this paper introduced the type, structure and characteristics of two types of heat transfer fluid pipeline connector pieces in parabolic trough solar thermal power project. Took a 50 MW trough solar thermal power project as an example, by technology and economy comparison, thought that if each metal hose+slipnot investment is less than 7625 yuan, this mode of metal hose is suitble; otherwise, rotary joints mode is suitble.%分别介绍了目前槽式太阳能热发电工程主要采用的2种型式导热油管道连接件(旋转接头和金属软管)的类型、结构、性能及特点;以某50 MW槽式太阳能热发电工程为例,通过技术经济比较后认为:如果“金属软管+活节”每个套组的投资成本小于0.7625万元,则采用此方式合适;若投资成本大于0.7625万元,则采用“旋转接头+焊接钢管”方式较合适。

  10. July 1, 2007: electricity and gas markets open to competition. Oil and gas pipelines, vital energy arteries. Warming of the Earth's northern latitudes: what are the consequences? Nuclear power, an alternative to costly fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - July 1, 2007 - electricity and gas markets open to competition: first telecommunications, now energy. Starting July 1, 2007, every one of the European Union's 500 million consumers is free to chose a supplier for electricity and natural gas. How will this work? A road map. 2 - Oil and gas pipelines, vital energy arteries: they criss-cross the planet over land and under sea, offering an alternative to sea lanes. How do these strategically placed pipelines work to transport fossil fuels? 3 - Warming of the Earth's northern latitudes: what are the consequences?: Dr. Oleg Anisimov, one of the experts on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that met in April 2007, reviews the consequences of human activity on permafrost, that huge expense of ice covering almost 20% of the Earth's surface. 4 - Nuclear power, an alternative to costly fossil fuels: part two of a report on the World energy outlook. This publication of the International Energy agency predicts that nuclear power will continue to be one of the main sources of energy supply for the next 25 years

  11. Internal corrosion of transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elm, T. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Jack, T. [Nova Chemicals Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Boivin, J. [Cormetrics Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The presentations by Working Group 13 focused on the factors influencing internal pipeline corrosion failures as well as the challenges facing both oil and gas operators to mitigate and monitor internal corrosion. Some of the tools needed to effectively treat the internal corrosion life cycle were also discussed. It was noted that upstream pipelines face many of the same issues as transmission lines, but under different operating conditions. It was emphasized that the overall risk of corrosion is high, but the probability is often under-appreciated even in light of the consequences to public safety, environmental damage and loss of income. The root cause of internal corrosion is water. Areas where water collects are subject to ongoing attack by dissolved corrosive gases, dissolved salts, and corrosive bacteria. Risk assessment is useful in identifying critical points, determining mitigation requirements, and choosing an inspection method. Monitoring with fibre optic sensor technology is useful because it helps identify the source of the problem and helps regulate mitigation activities. It was emphasized that it is equally important to monitor the growth of corrosion features. In the United States, recent failures of gas transmission pipelines due to internal corrosion have resulted in more stringent regulations. Many failures have been prevented because of in-line inspection and pigging. The effect of transporting other substances, such as hydrogen or ethanol, in pipelines was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  12. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption

  13. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  14. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN SOLAR RADIATION AND PHOTO-ENHANCED TOXICITY RISKS OF SPILLED OIL IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar irradiance (W/m2) and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd; m-1) were determined in several locations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, between April 2003 and December 2005 to assess temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and the risks of photoenh...

  15. 水下石油管道漏油检测定位的粒子滤波SLAM算法%Particle filter SLAM algorithm for underwater oil pipeline leakage detection and positioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁赣南; 王丹丹; 魏延辉; 洪伟

    2013-01-01

    In view of the problem of oil pipe leakage detection positioning under the sea, an integrated navigation positioning method was put forward, which combined the strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) with the simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) algorithm. The feature position information of oil pipeline was collected by sonar sensor, and under the action of SLAM algorithm, the pipeline map was built and high precision positioning information was obtained. Then the position error accumulation was compensated by using the particle filter algorithm to combine the obtained location information with SINS. The simulation experiment results show that the positioning precision is increased to about 0.1% of the total voyage.%  针对海底石油管道漏油位置检测定位这一问题,提出了捷联惯性导航系统与同时构图定位算法相组合的水下导航定位方法。利用声纳传感器采集石油管道的特征位置信息,在同时构图定位算法的作用下构建管道地图并获得高精度定位信息。然后利用粒子滤波算法将上述获得的定位信息与捷联惯性导航系统相结合,以补偿其位置误差积累。仿真实验结果显示所述组合方法的定位精度较高,达到总航程的0.1%。

  16. Comparative analysis of domestic and foreign labor protection standards for oil and gas pipeline%国内外油气管道劳动防护标准对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云峰; 刘冰; 马伟平; 税碧垣

    2013-01-01

    从头部防护、眼面部防护、身体防护、足部防护、手部防护、听觉器官防护、呼吸器官防护、防坠落保护8个方面对比分析了国内外油气管道领域劳动防护标准.剖析了我国标准的现状及与国外标准的差异,比如我国目前在听觉器官防护方面尚无相关标准,有待及早制定;指出了国外相关标准值得借鉴学习的内容,比如在防坠落保护方面,国外企业要求同时采取两种独立的防坠落保护措施,进行双重防坠落保护.研究成果对于完善我国油气管道劳动防护标准体系具有重要意义.%Comparative analysis of domestic and foreign labor protection standards for oil and gas pipeline is conducted from 8 aspects such as head protection, eye and face protection, body protection, foot protection, hand protection, hearing protection, respiratory organ protection and fall prevention. Status of Chinese standards and difference from foreign standards are analyzed. For example, China provides no relevant standard for hearing protection, so the standard shall be formulated as soon as possible. In addition, foreign standard contents worthy of learning are pointed out. For example, foreign enterprises are required to take two separate fall prevention measures to achieve dual protection. Research results are of great importance in improving China's labor protection standards for oil and gas pipeline.

  17. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  18. Study on the Influence of Slotting and Stealing Branch Pipe on the Pressure Field Distribution in Oil Product Transportation Pipeline%打孔盗油支管对输送成品油管内压力分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙天宇

    2012-01-01

    分析打孔盗油支管的成品油输送管道泄漏过程.建立带有打孔盗油支管的成品油输送管道物理模型.通过简化该物理模型建立了带有打孔盗油支管的成品油输送管道的三维压力场数学模型.利用Fluent软件模拟管道出口和支管的出流量比对带有打孔盗油支管的管道的压力场影响,确定其压力场特征,得到了带有打孔盗油支管的管道的压差二次曲线方程.%The physical model of oil product transportation pipeline with slotting and stealing branch pipe, whose leakage process is analyzed, is established. By simplifying the physical model, the mathematical model of 3d-pressure field is established in Oil Product Transportation Pipeline with Stealing Branch Pipe. The effect of pressure field of pipeline with slotting and stealing branch pipe is simulated with different lateral-flow ratio of pipeline export and branch pipe by using Fluent software, whose features of pressure field are determined. The quadratic curve equation of pressure field of pipeline with slotting and stealing branch pipe is obtained.

  19. 75 FR 36677 - Notice of Relocation/Change of Address for the Bureau of Land Management, Office of Pipeline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation/Change of Address for the Bureau of Land Management, Office of Pipeline Monitoring, Alaska State Office AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Office of Pipeline Monitoring, located at 411...

  20. Numerical Simulation of Oil-Water Tow Phase Flow Pressure Changes in Gathering Pipeline Bending Section%集输管道弯管内油水两相流压力变化数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙皓; 马贵阳; 汪笑楠; 李丹; 孙蕾; 王会香

    2013-01-01

    油水两相混合流动是集输管路中经常遇到的现象,研究压力变化规律对集输管道的设计和运行有重要意义。采用VOF模型,在不同含水率和流动速度条件下对油田地面集输管道弯管处的油水两相流进行了数值模拟。对计算结果进行分析的结果可知,两相流的含水率和流动速度对弯管处的压降有很大影响;弯管内两相流的压降随含水率的增大而增大;在弯管内壁压力减小的同时速度增大,在外壁压力增大的同时速度减小;增大流速时,高含水率的油水两相流的压降先减小后增大。%The phenomenon of the oil-water two phase mixed flow is often encountered in the gathering and transportation pipeline ,and the study of its pressure variation is important for the gathering pipeline design and operation .Using VOF model to simulate numerically the oil-water two phase flow in bend duct of oilfield surface gathering pipe under different moisture content of crude oil and fluid velocity .Through the analysis of the calculation results ,it was known that the moisture content of two phase flow and flow velocity has great influence on the pressure drop in bend duct .With the increase of moisture content ,the two phase flow pressure in bend duct increases .The elbow inner wall pressure is reduced while the speed increases ,the outer wall of the pressure increases while the rate decreases .While increasing the flow rate ,the high moisture content of the oil-water two phase pressure drop first decreases and then increases .

  1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON DRAG REDUCTION OF OIL-PIPELINE WITH EPOXY COATINGS%环氧涂层对成品油输送管道减阻作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任远; 柏子龙; 马宏燎; 顾涛

    2011-01-01

    采用添加低表面能填料的方法制备出不同表面性质的环氧涂层,在循环管道试验装置上评价环氧清漆、环氧色漆对3种不同黏度油品的减阻效果.结果表明:环氧清漆、环氧色漆对测试油品均有明显的减阻效果,其中添加低表面能填料的环氧色漆减阻效果较好;在雷诺数为3475时,3%PTFE环氧色漆涂层对3号油品的最大减阻率达到23.1%;涂层对油品的减阻效果与油品黏度和涂层表面性能有关,油品的黏度越大,涂层的表面张力越小,涂层对油品的减阻效果越明显.%Pipeline wall with resin coating can significantly reduce the resistance of its delivery. Epoxy coatings with various surface properties were prepared by adding different amounts of low surface energy filler. The drag reduction effect of epoxy varnish and epoxy color paints was evaluated in a circulation pipeline testing equipment in the laboratory using three oil samples having various viscosities. Results show that all the prepared coatings exhibit drag reduction function on the samples tested,and coatings containing low surface energy filler have better drag reduction effect,in which epoxy color paint with 3% PTFE shows the maximum drag reduction rate of 23.1% at a Reynolds number of 3 475. However,the drag reduction effect of epoxy coatings on oil samples is related to the oil viscosity and the surface property of coating,with the increase of oil viscosity and the decrease of coating surface tension, the drag reduction rate of coating increases.

  2. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... criteria and procedures for determining the adequacy of state pipeline excavation damage prevention...

  3. China-Russia Crude Pipeline Test Run Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Airu

    2010-01-01

    @@ PetroChina has recently operated a 65-kilometer crossborder pipeline on a trial basis and described the test run as successful.It is a step away from formally launching the much more efficient and cost-saving crude oil pipeline from Russia to China.The first shipment, after traveling 13 hours over swaths of virgin forests and frigid soil from Russia's Dzhalinda, entered the oil storage in Mohe,northeast China's Heilongjiang Province, on November 2010.

  4. How vulnerable is Indian coast to oil spills? Impact of MV Ocean Seraya oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; George, A.; Ingole, B.S.

    Segitega Biru Aug ’03 300/crude oil ONGC rig (BHN), Maharashtra URAN pipeline Feb ’04 01/crude oil ONGC pipeline at MPT oil jetty Crude oil transfer Oct ’04 0.56 Berthed-MPT–8, Goa Mar ’05 110 Off Aguada Lighthouse, Goa MV Maritime Wisdom (Contd...

  5. A New Opportunity Facing the Pipeline Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Changpu

    2001-01-01

    @@ According to the State and CNPC programs for development,the nation's oil/gas pipeline sector is faced with an unprecedented historic opportunity, about to enter its golden period of development.The three major pipelines () SeNing-Lan (from Sebei of Qinghai Province to Lanzhou by way of Xining) for natural gas, LanCheng-Yu (from Lanzhou to Chengdu extending to Chongqing) for finished oils, and Zhong-Wu (from Zhongxian County of Chongqing to Wuhan)for natural gas, either under construction or planned to be constructed, have all been listed as the national priority projects of infrastructure construction. And the double-line project of the existing Shaan-Jing (Shaanxi Province to Beijing) gas pipeline has finished the procedure for establishment.

  6. A comparison of natural gas pipeline options for the North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High prices and high demand for natural gas in the North American market, combined with a more positive investment climate, have renewed interest in the development of natural gas reserves in the Mackenzie Delta region of the Northwest Territories and Prudhoe Bay in Alaska. A prerequisite to developing these resources is construction of a pipeline. This report describes the results of an analysis of five of the six pipeline options which have been considered in recent years. The options considered are: (1) Mackenzie Valley Stand Alone, (2) a combination onshore Alaska North Slope with Mackenzie Valley, (3) a combination offshore Alaska North Slope with Mackenzie Valley, (4) the Alaska Natural Gas Transmission System (ANGTS) and (5) a combination of ANGTS and Dempster Lateral. The Mackenzie Valley with the Prudhoe Bay Onshore route was not included because benefits and costs are considered to be very similar to those of the Mackenzie Valley with Prudhoe Bay Offshore route. Both these would connect Alaska gas with gas from the Mackenzie Delta and ship both down the Mackenzie Valley. The report presents results of an analysis which focused on capital costs, employment and fiscal benefits to the Northwest Territories, employment and fiscal benefits to Canada, pipeline tolls and producer revenues. Results show that both the Northwest Territories and Canada as a whole would benefit most from a Mackenzie Valley and Offshore Prudhoe Bay Pipeline route because economic, employment and fiscal impacts are the highest. Tolls are also projected to be the lowest with this option; this would result in higher revenues to producers. Although all routes have the potential to affect the geology, hydrology, climate and biological aspects of the areas surrounding them, the environmental impacts for all routes appear to be moderate for the construction phase and low to negligible for the operation. Environmental implications are discussed in detail in Appendix B. 25 refs., 43 tabs., 9

  7. Pipeline transportation of emerging partially upgraded bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoverable reserves of Canada's vast oil deposits is estimated to be 335 billion barrels (bbl), most of which are in the Alberta oil sands. Canada was the largest import supplier of crude oil to the United States in 2001, followed by Saudi Arabia. By 2011, the production of oil sands is expected to increase to 50 per cent of Canada's oil, and conventional oil production will decline as more production will be provided by synthetic light oil and bitumen. This paper lists the announced oil sands projects. If all are to proceed, production would reach 3,445,000 bbl per day by 2011. The three main challenges regarding the transportation and marketing of this new production were described. The first is to expand the physical capacity of existing pipelines. The second is the supply of low viscosity diluent (such as natural gas condensate or synthetic diluent) to reduce the viscosity and density of the bitumen as it passes through the pipelines. The current pipeline specifications and procedures to transport partially upgraded products are presented. The final challenge is the projected refinery market constraint to process the bitumen and synthetic light oil into consumer fuel products. These challenges can be addressed by modifying refineries and increasing Canadian access in Petroleum Administration Defense District (PADD) II and IV. The technology for partial upgrading of bitumen to produce pipeline specification oil, reduce diluent requirements and add sales value, is currently under development. The number of existing refineries to potentially accept partially upgraded product is listed. The partially upgraded bitumen will be in demand for additional upgrading to end user products, and new opportunities will be presented as additional pipeline capacity is made available to transport crude to U.S. markets and overseas. The paper describes the following emerging partial upgrading methods: the OrCrude upgrading process, rapid thermal processing, CPJ process for

  8. Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) uses wheeled capsules (vehicles) to carry cargoes through a pipeline filled with air. Modern large diameter PCP systems utilize through flow booster pumps, also known as jet pump injectors. These create the pressure differentials required to propel multiple capsules through a pipeline, while allowing both terminals at atmospheric pressure. This is done by placing a booster pump midway along the pipeline, and designing it in such a way that capsules can bypass ...

  9. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  10. Foreign Giants Take Gas Pipeline Stake Equally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ye

    2002-01-01

    @@ Oil giants Royal/Dutch, ExxonMobil and Russia's Gazprom have agreed to take 15 percent stakes each in China's US$5.6 billion natural gas pipeline project,clearing away the final obstacles blocking the kickoff of the repeatedly delayed project, according to the latest reports from news media in early July.

  11. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  12. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables

  13. The kinematic viscosity influence on energetic cost of oil pipeline flow; Influencia da viscosidade cinematica sobre o custo energetico no escoamento de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Kennedy F.M. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Paraiba (CEFET-PB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Torres, Euriclides G.; Lacerda, Ivonaldo de S.; Machado, Erica C.M.N. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the petroleum pipelines flow the objective of the maximum production with the minor cost is desired, considering the techniques, operational and administrative restrictions. One of the biggest difficulties in the pipelines flow is related to increase of viscosity that the fluids produced can present and to the variations during the transport. In this study had been analyzed through computational simulations, using Smart Pumping software, the hydraulic behavior of the network and the operational cost with energy consumption, in function of the variation of the viscosity. Two scenes had been simulated, using a initial kinematic viscosity of 3,029x10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/s, that it was reduced gradually until the minimum limit of 10% of initial viscosity, remaining the too much constant the fluid properties. In scene 1 it was verified that the reduction of viscosity implied in the reduction of the energy cost in up to 14,53%, increase of the daily production in up to 3,88% and the reduction in the cost for m3 flowed off in up to 17,73%, without alterations in the operations. Scene 2 presented similar behavior to scene 1, however, had been necessary interventions to get operations that did not violate the restrictions. The results had ratified the interference of viscosity in the operations and the system petroleum flow costs. (author)

  14. An Overall Evaluation of Crude Oil in North Xinjiang on Urumchi-Lanzhou Pipeline%乌兰管道首站北疆原油综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远欣; 娄雅琪; 魏爱萍; 吕维华; 杨辉

    2012-01-01

    Overall evaluation of crude oil in North Xinjiang on Urumchi-Lanzhou Pipeline shows that the crude oil is of high density(867.3 kg/m3) with low sulfur and high wax,which is 0.1% and 11.46% respectively,so it is a middle quality crude oil.The reforming materials and gasoline distillation fractions are good cracking materials owing to their high alkane content,while kerosene and diesel distillation fractions need to be intensified refined because of their high sulfur and nitrogen contents,The decompressed wax oil is unsuitable for manufacture high viscosity index lubricant because the oleic acid content is high while the viscosity index is low.However,with high Cp(56.34%),low CA(7.69%),low carbon residue(0.013%) and less heavy metals,it is fine material for catalytic cracking.Residual oil is an ideal catalytic cracking and coking material,owing to small proportion of sulfur(0.26%) and asphalt(1.5%) belong to the second category in residual oil.%对乌兰管道首站北疆原油进行了综合评价。结果表明,该原油密度大(867.3 kg/m3),硫含量低(0.1%),蜡含量高(11.46%),属于中质低硫高蜡原油。重整原料和汽油馏分烷烃含量较高,适宜做乙烯裂解料。煤油馏分硫含量高,柴油馏分氮含量高,均需加强精制效果。减压蜡油酸值高、黏度指数低,不适合生产高黏度指数润滑油,Cp较高(56.34%),CA低(7.69%),残炭值低(0.013%),重金属含量较小,是催化裂解的优良原料。渣油较轻,属于第二类渣油,硫含量较小(0.26%),沥青质含量较低(1.5%),是理想的催化裂化原料的掺料或焦化原料。

  15. Diluent evaluation for bitumen pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, P.; Cooper, S.; Alem, T. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands crudes are expected to represent over 75 per cent of the crude produced in Western Canada. Since bitumen is too viscous to be shipped in pipelines, it must be diluted with a lighter hydrocarbon. Although thermal processing could be used together with a smaller quantity of diluent, the resulting fuel would be less stable. This presentation reported on a study that examined the compatibility and stability of virgin and cracked bitumen in natural diluents and synthetic diluents. Diluent ranking for asphaltene stability in virgin bitumen and cracked bitumen was also examined. Four heavy oils and bitumens were used in this study, notably Athabasca bitumen (AB), cracked Athabasca bitumen, heavy oil B and a light crude C. Natural gas condensate and oil sand derived liquids were the 2 diluents used to investigate the insolubility number and solubility blending number of different crudes, diluents and their blends. It was concluded that the stability of different heavy oils can be determined accurately by observing flocculation of asphaltenes. The study also evaluated and ranked the strength of different diluents for keeping asphaltenes soluble in the oil matrix. Although synthetic diluents were found to be better solvents than natural gas condensates for bitumen, the order of the solvent strength was reversed when bitumen was processed. tabs., figs.

  16. Prediction of response and damaged length of a subsea pipeline after a full bore rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Mashayekh, Kourosh

    2012-01-01

    The combination of oil and gas reservoirs in sea areas with high shipping traffic brings some challenges for engineers. One of these challenges is related to subsea pipeline systems specially where water depth is classified as shallow or intermediate. Due to large number of vessels passing the area with shallow water depth, interaction between anchors of these vessels and the offshore pipeline can occur. If a dragging anchor hits and subsequently hooks the pipeline, the pipeline could be rupt...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

  18. Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents

  19. Study on oil pipeline scaling of ASP flooding and descaling effect of Daqing No.6 Oil Production Plant%大庆采油六厂三元复合驱油井输油管道结垢原因及除垢效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜伟; 苑丹丹; 董晶; 朱丽娜; 邵海倩

    2013-01-01

    随着采油技术的发展,尤其是三元复合驱采油技术在油田开发过程中的应用,由于温度、压力和油气水平衡状态的变化,会导致在采油井井筒、套管、生产油管发生无机盐类的沉积,生成垢.结垢不仅对产层造成伤害、降低原油采收率,还导致原油成本上升,使产能降低,能耗增大,不能正常连续操作,甚至停产[1].本文以大庆采油六厂输油管道垢样及水样为研究对象,对垢样进行成分分析,对水样进行离子组成分析,并根据分析结果,提出结垢机理.结果表明:输油管道严重结垢被堵塞,垢的主要成分是有机物、碳酸盐和硅酸盐.%With the development of production technology, especially the ASP flooding oil production technology was used in oil field development , scale generating come out because of inorganic salts depositing in production shaft, casing, production tubing,which is the result of the temperature, pressure and oil and gas water balance changing . Scaling not only damaged the reservoir and reduced the oil recovery, but also lead to a rise in the cost of crude oil and reduced energy consumption, which increased productivity, the operation can't continue and even make production suspended .Basing on the Daqing six oil pipeline plant scale samples and water sample. This paper analyzed the component of scale sample and the ionic composition of water sample, then put forward the scaling mechanism by the analysis results. The results showed that oil pipeline serious scaling is congested, and the main components of the scale are organic, carbonate and silicate.

  20. Trace Software Pipelining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; AndreasKrall; 等

    1995-01-01

    Global software pipelining is a complex but efficient compilation technique to exploit instruction-level parallelism for loops with branches.This paper presents a novel global software pipelining technique,called Trace Software Pipelining,targeted to the instruction-level parallel processors such as Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) and superscalar machines.Trace software pipelining applies a global code scheduling technique to compact the original loop body.The resulting loop is called a trace software pipelined (TSP) code.The trace softwrae pipelined code can be directly executed with special architectural support or can be transformed into a globally software pipelined loop for the current VLIW and superscalar processors.Thus,exploiting parallelism across all iterations of a loop can be completed through compacting the original loop body with any global code scheduling technique.This makes our new technique very promising in practical compilers.Finally,we also present the preliminary experimental results to support our new approach.

  1. 东辛输油管道总传热系数测试与分析%Test and Analysis of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient of Dongxin Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安家荣; 刘绍亮

    2000-01-01

    介绍了东辛输油管道总传热系数的测试情况。根据运行参数测试结果计算了东辛管道沿线一年中不同月份的总传热系数,分析了各种因素对总传热系数测试结果的影响,指出管道运行工况的稳定程度、站间温降的大小以及进出站温度和地温的测量精度是影响总传热系数测试结果的主要因素,摩擦热对总传热系数计算结果具有显著影响,不可忽略。根据输油管道目前存在的问题,提出了如何提高管道总传热系数测试精度的建议。%This article covers a brief introduction about the test of overall heat transfer coefficient of Dongxin oil pipeline.Based on the pipeline operation parameters measured from the test,the overall heat transfer coefficients in each month of a year are calculated.The influences of various factors upon test results of overall heat transfer coefficient are analyzed.It is pointed out that the stability of pipeline operation conditions,temperature drops between heater stations,and measuring accuracy of temperatures are main factors affecting the test results,and frictional heat can significantly influnce calculation results of the overall heat transfer coefficient and can not be neglected.Some proposals for improving the test precision are put forward.

  2. Research on Improving Corrosion Resistance Property of Welded Joints of 13XΦA Steel Oil Pipeline%13XΦA钢石油管道焊接接头耐蚀性能改善的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许贵芝

    2013-01-01

    In this article, it introduced a kind of method to produce 13XΦA steel oil pipeline by high frequency welding and tempering treatment after 720 ℃. The results showed that welded joint possess ferrite-pearlite structure, the met allograph ic structure and mechanical performance are close to base metal, and is with high anti-corrosion stability. Based on a lot of tests, combined with the highest corrosion resistance property and the metallographic structure of mechanical performance specimen, the structure standard sample of 13XΦA steel pipeline welded joint was developed, which can quickly assess whether the corrosion resistance is reliable, and this kind of assessment method is quick and simple.%介绍了一种采用高频焊接、焊后720℃回火热处理工艺生产13XΦA钢石油管道的方法.研究结果表明,焊接接头具有铁素体-珠光体组织,其金相组织、力学性能与母材接近,并具有较高的耐蚀稳定性.在大量试验研究的基础上,综合最高耐蚀性能和力学性能试样的金相组织,研制出能迅速评估焊接接头耐蚀性是否可靠的13XΦA钢管道焊接接头组织标样,为石油管道的安全使用提供了一种快速简便的对照评估方法.

  3. A Cheap Levitating Gas/Load Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel) gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. The main component of the natural gas is methane which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound). The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, does not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This aerial pipeline dramatically decreases the cost and the time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saves energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. The article contains a computed project for delivery 24 billion cubic meters of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year.

  4. Validation of pig operations through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, pigging operations in pipelines have been largely applied for different purposes: pipe cleaning, inspection, liquid removal and product separation, among others. An efficient and safe pigging operation requires that a number of operational parameters, such as maximum and minimum pressures in the pipeline and pig velocity, to be well evaluated during the planning stage and maintained within stipulated limits while the operation is accomplished. With the objective of providing an efficient tool to assist in the control and design of pig operations through pipelines, a numerical code was developed, based on a finite difference scheme, which allows the simulation of two fluid transient flow, like liquid-liquid, gas-gas or liquid-gas products in the pipeline. Modules to automatically control process variables were included to employ different strategies to reach an efficient operation. Different test cases were investigated, to corroborate the robustness of the methodology. To validate the methodology, the results obtained with the code were compared with a real liquid displacement operation of a section of the OSPAR oil pipeline, belonging to PETROBRAS, with 30'' diameter and 60 km length, presenting good agreement. (author)

  5. Expert systems for integrity management in a crude oil pipeline; Sistemas expertos para gestion de integridad en sistemas de transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.P.; Pini, J. [Oldelval S.A., General Roca RN (Argentina)]. E-mail: mmartine@oldelval.com.ar; jpini@oldelval.com.ar; Rossi, J.P.; Pellicano, A. [Sintec S.A., Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: icesing@infovia.com.ar

    2003-07-01

    The study and modeling of corrosion processes aim at the accomplishment of three primary objectives: to increase safety operation margins, to reduce maintenance costs and to optimize available resources. The Integrity Expert System is based on a statistical propagation model of defects reported by high resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), fed with the information provided by corrosion sensors, repair interventions, field surveys and future inspections. As model results, defect depth, remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established: a medium term repair plan, an internal inspection program and both monitoring and mitigation technologies. System implementation in OLDELVAL was translated into two major effects of importance for the company integrity program: reduction in the pipeline probability of failure by corrosion by means of programmed repairs and optimization of the internal inspection investment plan by mans of an alternative programming. (author)

  6. [Northern Pipeline Agency] annual report, 1991-1992. [Administration du pipe-line du Nord] rapport annuel, 1991-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Northern Pipeline Agency was established to facilitate the efficient and expeditious planning and construction of the Alaska Highway Gas pipeline in a manner consistent with the best interest of Canada. This report reviews the project and outlines developments that will affect operations of the pre-build and planning for second-stage construction of the pipeline. Financial statements for the Agency are also included. During 1991-92, plans for substantially expanding the capacity of the western and eastern legs of the pipeline to transport increased exports of Canadian natural gas to western and mid-western US markets continued to move forward. Plans for providing market access to US reserves at Prudhoe bay in Alaska, Canadian reserves in the Mackenzie Delta, and the reserves of both countries offshore in the Beaufort Sea remained in abeyance pending a strengthening in total US demand and a significant increase in prices. Final approval was given to a proposed expansion of the western leg to accomodate an increase in design capacity to more than 25.9 million cubic meters per day by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The issue of procurement for the pipeline remained a matter of controversy between Canadian and US authorities. 1 fig.

  7. Innovative Techniques of Multiphase Flow in Pipeline System for Oil-Gas Gathering and Transportation with Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bofeng; Guo, Liejin; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhang, Ximin; Gu, Hanyang

    2010-03-01

    Multiphase flow measurement, desanding, dehumidification and heat furnace are critical techniques for the oil and gas gathering and transportation, which influnce intensively the energy-saving and emission-reduction in the petroleum industry. Some innovative techniques were developed for the first time by the present research team, including an online recognation instrument of multiphase flow regime, a water fraction instrument for multuphase flow, a coiled tube desanding separator with low pressure loss and high efficiency, a supersonic swirling natural gas dehumifier, and a vacuum phase-change boiler. With an integration of the above techniques, a new oil gas gathering and transpotation system was proposed, which reduced the establishment of one metering station and several transfer stations compared with the tranditional system. The oil and gas mixture transpotation in single pipes was realized. The improved techniques were applied in the oilfields in China and promoted the productivity of the oilfields by low energy consumption, low emissions, high efficiency and great security.

  8. 顺序输送混油回掺的质量控制%The Quality Control in Back Mixing Treatment of Contaminated Oil from Batch Transportation Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向阳; 武士坤

    2011-01-01

    The production of contaminated oil during batch transportation operation and the data variation characteristic of main quality specifications during back mixing treatment were analyzed, and the quantity of oil back mixing was determined scientifically and reasonably to ensure the quality of oil up to grade.%介绍了管输油顺序输送混油的产生和处理方法,并以-10号、0号柴油和93号、95号汽油顺序输送为例,阐述了在保证油品质量的前提下,经实验室调和实验,根据有关规定测定混油性能,确定满足质量要求的最大允许混油浓度的质量控制方法。

  9. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  10. 改进GA-BP算法的油气管道腐蚀剩余强度预测*%Prediction of Remaining Strength of Corroded Oil and Gas Pipeline Based on Improved GA-BP Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝财; 武建文; 李雷; 佘志刚

    2013-01-01

      利用人工神经网络能够逼近任意复杂函数的特性,可对在役油气管道的腐蚀剩余强度进行预测,但其缺点在于人工神经网络的权值和阈值的初始化分配具有随机性且只是一种局部优化算法,收敛过程中容易出现局部极小解。引入遗传算法的全局搜索特性和不依赖于梯度信息特性,对采用Levenberg-Marquardt(L-M)算法的BP神经网络的权值和阈值进行优化,并结合由敏感性分析确定的油气管道失效压力的影响因素,建立GA-BP(L-M)网络预测模型。采用Modified ASME B31G计算出的样本数据训练网络并进行预测。预测结果表明,GA-BP(L-M)网络预测模型可以相对更好地预测油气管道的失效压力,在满足工程需要的前提下,是一种更加科学、准确的预测模型。%  The remaining strength of the in-service corrode d oil and gas pipeline was predicted based on artificial neural net-work’s ability to approximate complex function. But artificial neural network has drawbacks as follows:the initial distribution of weight and threshold value is a stochastic process and it was the local optimization algorithm,and that the local minimum solution tends to appear in the convergence process. Therefore,the weight and threshold value of BP neural network using L-M algorithm were optimized based on the global search ability and independence of the gradient information of genetic algorithm, and with consideration of the influencing factors of failure pressure of oil and gas pipeline determined by sensitivity analysis, the GA-BP(L-M)network model was built. The network was trained using sample of Modified ASME B31G and predictions were made. The results show that the GA-BP(L-M)network model can better predict failure pressure of oil and gas pipeline, which proves to be a more scientific and accurate model.

  11. Alaska Radiometric Ages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Radiometric Age file is a database of radiometric ages of rocks or minerals sampled from Alaska. The data was collected from professional publications...

  12. Pipelines on irregular seabed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, S.; Gjertveit, E.

    1985-01-01

    From the Statpipe project in the North Sea a unique experience has been gained on the design and construction of pipelines on seabed with large irregularities of different types. The Statpipe pipeline system consists of 4 pipeline legs and totals 842 km subsea and 40 km onshore lines. Two pipelines are crossing the Norwegian Trench at about 300 m water depth. In the Statpipe project pre-lay intervention to prepare the seabed for pipelaying was only required for less than a 1 km rock outcrop section in the landfall area. The offshore pipelines cross large areas of pockmarks and iceberg ploughmarks. However, after an extensive design effort a routing was found which avoided pre-lay intervention and limited the post-lay intervention work. Grout bag supports were installed underneath the most severe pipeline spans as a temporary measure, while permanent span correction was performed by trenching and gravel dumping. The above methods proved adequate for the largest ploughmark spans with height under the pipeline up to 3.3 m (moranic material) and pockmark spans in soft soil with height up to 6 m (trenching only). For pipelines in landfall areas, where the seabed is highly irregular due to rock outcrops, various construction methods are at disposal. The Statpipe project used a subsea bridge to span the irregularities, while another pipeline project (Oseberg) is constructing a subsea floor tunnel for later pull-in of the pipeline through a sealing plug at an offshore point.

  13. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  14. Multinational Gas Pipeline Hopeful on Schedule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Kovykta project, which will transport natural gas from Russia's Eastern Siberia to China and Republic of Korea, might come out ahead over the Sino-Russian oil pipeline project. China and Russia are negotiating the price of the piped gas and the result of negotiations will likely be seen in three to four months, TNK-BP President and Chief Executive Officer Robert Dudley recently said,adding that he is confident that natural gas from Kovykta will start flowing through the pipeline by the end of 2008 as planned.

  15. Understanding the Impact of Open-Framework Conglomerates on Water-Oil Displacements: Victor Interval of the Ivishak Reservoir, Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Ritzi, Robert W; Dominic, David F

    2014-01-01

    The Victor Unit of the Ivishak Formation in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield is characterized by high net-to-gross fluvial sandstones and conglomerates. The highest permeability is found within sets of cross-strata of open-framework conglomerate (OFC). They are preserved within unit bar deposits and assemblages of unit bar deposits within compound (braid) bar deposits. They are thief zones limiting enhanced oil recovery. We incorporate recent research that has quantified important attributes of their sedimentary architecture within preserved deposits. We use high-resolution models to demonstrate the fundamental aspects of their control on oil production rate, water breakthrough time, and spatial and temporal distribution of residual oil saturation. We found that when the pressure gradient is oriented perpendicular to the paleoflow direction, the total oil production and the water breakthrough time are larger, and remaining oil saturation is smaller, than when it is oriented parallel to paleoflow. The pressure differe...

  16. AN ECONOMIC ESTIMATION OF DAMAGE TO RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINE PROJECTS ——TAKING SHAN-GAN GAS PIPELINES AS A CASE%输油气管道工程对资源与环境损害的经济评估 ——以陕-甘天然气输气管道为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁春霞; 贾慧兰; 于云江

    2000-01-01

    Pipeline engineering of natural gas and oil can influence natural resources and environment such as biological and land resources, atmospheric environment, hydrological and geological environment. Based on the case of Shan-Gan (Shaanxi-Gansu) Gas Pipeline, this paper discusses the adverse effect of pipeline engineering on the Loess Plateau and estimated economic loss by valuation methods such as market approach and rehabilitation approach. Four aspects are analysed which include the loss of crop yield, the damage of woodland and grassland, soil erosion and desertification. The results showed that construction of pipelines has more seriously destroyed land and forest resources. These activities have not only caused decrease in crop yield, carrying capacity of grassland and growth of trees but also loss of land fertility, damage of surface stable structure, the higher risk of geological disasters and other hazards. So the economic loss assessment should take external cost into account. But the conventional approaches of environmental effect assessment readily neglected these potential factors and their persistent effects and underestimated the economic loss. Thus, two main problems were caused: 1) the estimate of resources and environmental loss was incorrect and 2) the economic responsibility was unclear. It was disadvantage for conservation and rehabilitation of eco-environment.%长输油气管线的修建对于沿线地区的资源及其环境具有一定的破坏作用。本文应用环境经济学的方法如市场价值法、恢复和防护费用法等方法,评价修建油气管道对环境资源影响的经济损害程度。以陕-甘天然气输气管道为例,从农作物产量损失、林地和草地资源的损害、水土流失损失以及沙漠化对土地资源的损害4个方面评估了修建该管道对资源的经济损害。结果表明,管道施工对林业资源和土地资源的危害程度最大,影响力也比较长久。同时也表

  17. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    loss exceedance probability curve used by insurers to address their solvency and manage their portfolio risk. We analyze risk profile changes in areas with large population density and for structures of economic and financial importance: the Trans-Alaska pipeline, industrial facilities in Valdez, and typical residential wood buildings in Anchorage, Fairbanks and Juneau.

  18. Environmental management of the OSBAT 24'' oil pipeline: reached practical results; Gestao ambiental do Oleoduto OSBAT 24{sup :} resultados praticos alcancados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Ricardo N.; Garibaldi, Celia M.; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Maira B.; Oliveira, Flavio M. de; Perim, Leandro A. [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil); Baptista, Sidney L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of this article is to present considerations about the practical results obtained over the implementation of specialized technical services for environmental monitoring and control of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' pipeline, located in a stretch of about 32 km from the Aquatic Terminal of Sao Sebastiao - SP (TASSE) to the district Camburi. This area is characterized by intense environmental complexity by the presence of the Serra do Mar State Park, under enormous natural diversity of preserved Mata Atlantica forest, contrasting with a considerable pole of urban sprawl whose population growth rates (4.66% pa) and economic they are above the average for the Sao Paulo State. The presentation of results considers the practical implementation of the package of environmental management tools used and seek verification of the scope and quality of the following items: general Review of care as environmental registers occurred at different periods (eg monthly, bimonthly, half, etc.); survey of the nature of environmental registers; environmental registers recovered; cases of non-compliance and the main control measures implemented; evaluation of environmental performance; recommendations and learning. (author)

  19. 长输油气管道工程建设项目的PMC管理模式%PMC management model of construction project for long-distance oil and gas pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈庚民

    2013-01-01

    中国石油所辖多条管道建设项目采用“PMT+ PMC+ EPC”项目管理模式,效果良好.介绍了PMC项目管理的主要特征、适用范围及其在长输油气管道工程建设项目中的应用.PMC承包商受业主委托对项目进行管理和有效控制,实现对工程项目质量、成本、进度和HSE的综合管理,在保证项目质量的基础上实现项目整体目标系统最优.其职责包括:项目组织与计划管理、项目设计管理、项目物资采购管理、项目施工管理、项目试运行与验收管理、项目评价管理.其重要作用在于:优化资源配置、利于业主精简机构、提高项目管理水平、节约项目投资、提高项目总体经济效益、畅通项目参与方的信息沟通.同时指出当前长输油气管道工程建设项目推行PMC管理存在的问题,并提出相关建议.%Pipelines under the control of CNPC use "PMT + PMC + EPC" project management mode with good effects. Main features and application range of the PMC project management and its applications in the long-distance oil and gas pipeline construction project are introduced. PMC contractor is commissioned by the owner for management and effective control of the project to achieve comprehensive management of project quality, cost, schedule and HSE, thus reaching the optimum project overall target system on the basis of ensuring project quality. Its responsibilities include project organization and program management, project design management, project supplies purchasing management, project construction management, project commissioning and acceptance management and project evaluation management. It's vital functions lie in optimizing allocation of resources, facilitating streamline department by the owner, improving project management level, saving project investment, improving overall economic benefits of the project and smoothing information communication between project participants. Existing problems of the PMC

  20. Pipelines : one size fits all : Statoil pig inspects 42-inch and 28-inch diameter pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2006-12-15

    This article provided details of a new multi-diameter pigging tool used to detect faulty pipelines at the Asgard oil and gas field off the Norwegian coast. The Asgard pipeline risers rest on an export riser base (ERB) which sits on the seabed and uses several valves to seal off the risers in case of leaks. Pigging of the pipelines presented a problem at the Asgard site as the first 200 metres of pipeline are 28 inches in diameter, while the remaining 707 km is 42 inches. Opting for 28 inch valves meant that the ERB could be smaller, lighter and cheaper. However, no inspection tool could cope with the huge change in diameter. A multi-diameter pig was deployed at the site in 2004. The pig was mounted on a specially designed suspension system supported by wheels. In order to find pipeline defects, the pig uses magnetic flux leakage, which magnetizes the pipe wall and magnetic field changes according to variations in wall thickness. Designed by Statoil, the tool was loaded onshore into a pig launcher, which was deployed from a sub-sea construction vessel via guide wires attached to the ERB. Using remotely controlled vehicles, the pig was launched into the pipeline as the system continued to transport gas. The operation was completed without creating hydrates in the pipeline, and no corrosion was detected during the inspection. Reductions in gas through-put were minimal during the deployment. The Asgard pigging operation involved 350 valve operations and 700 procedure steps. Besides having minimal impact on pipeline operations, the Statoil pig performed well and sustained minimal wear and tear due to its design. The multi-diameter tool has made it possible for other operators to inspect pipelines that have never been inspected before. It was concluded that Statoil is now looking for a collaborating partner that will provide the service to industry while continuing development of the technology. 6 figs.

  1. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded

  2. Proliferating pipelines: next growth wave gathering force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2001-11-05

    The fresh burst of activity in pipeline planning and construction following the buyout of Vancouver--based Westcoast Energy by Duke Energy of Charlotte, North Carolina is discussed. Although construction tapered off over the past year after the completion of the Maritime and Northern Pipeline (M and NP) and Alliance pipelines, the expansion of pipeline construction has not yet reached its peak. The scale of the Westcoast-Duke deal ($8.5 billion) underlines the extent of changes in the pipeline industry, much of which is yet to be realized. New developments described are such as Enbridge Inc's second stage in a long-range extension of the Interprovincial Pipe Line for oil from the West to Central Canada and the US Midwest to carry the projected 38 per cent increase in western oil production by 2010. In the north-eastern section of Alberta Trans Mountain Pipe Line is putting the finishing touches to its $700 million Corridor Pipeline to provide 400,000 barrels/day of additional capacity. On the Atlantic coast four new pipeline projects are lined up and a fifth is waiting in line, only two years after gas production started offshore of Nova Scotia. This includes the last missing link in the cross-Canada pipeline link. Enbridge and Montreal-based Gaz Metropolitain set a target of late 2004 for putting in service their proposed 262 km-long line to draw gas off the M and NP in New Brunswick and move its west to Quebec City for Gaz Metropolitain and to Toronto-based Enbridge Consumer Gas. In another development PanCanadian Energy signed a 10-year transportation deal with M and NP to ship 400,000 million cu ft per day from its one billion dollar Deep Panuke production development offshore of Nova Scotia. There are other developments waiting in the wings such as Houston-based Tatham Inc with its North Atlantic Pipeline Project calling a $3.2 billion, 2,200 km seafloor gas line grid to be built in stages reaching northward from the US to the Sable area and eventually to

  3. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI...

  4. 油气输送管道止裂器的开发%Development of Crack Arrestors for Oil and Gas Transportation Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宏(编译); 刘会利(编译)

    2014-01-01

    对管线钢管的全尺寸和小尺寸试验均证明了纤维增强材料可以用于X100等超高强度管道止裂器的制作。在所有情况下止裂器都能够吸收断裂能量,阻止、延迟断裂并使断裂扩展停止。为了检查纤维包裹增强止裂器的力学性能和复合构件的服役行为,开展了进一步的试验。附加的试验将有助于纤维增强止裂器的优化。欧洲钢管公司已经计划在其钢管生产中加入纤维增强止裂器。%Full-and small-scale tests have demonstrated the usability of fibre reinforcements as crack arrestors for steel pipelines of higher-strength grades such as X100. In all cases the crack arrestors were able to absorb the energy of the crack to such an extent that the crack was stopped at the crack arrestor or retarded and arrested behind the crack arrestor. Further experiments have been carried out in order to examine the mechanical characteristics of fibre-wrapped reinforcements of the crack arrestor and the behaviour of such composite components during service. Additional experiments will help to optimise the application of fibre reinforcements. Europipe is now ready to include fibre reinforced crack arrestors in its production program.

  5. Moose movement and distribution in response to winter seismological exploration on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Although oil and gas development first occurred in Alaska on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR) in 1957, impacts on wildlife from oil exploration and...

  6. Turbulent Flow of Saudi Non-Newtonian Crude Oils in a Pipeline Écoulement turbulent de bruts non-newtoniens séoudiens dans une canalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Hemeidia A. M.; Desouky S. E. M.

    2006-01-01

    Rheological properties of Saudi Arab-Light, Arab-Berri and Arab-Heavy crude oils were measured with Brookfield Viscometer (LVT Model) at temperatures 10, 15, 20, 25, 38, 55 and 70°C. Saudi Arab-Light and Arab-Heavy exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at temperature less than or equal to 20°C, while Saudi Arab-Berri behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid at all temperatures. The main reason for this rheological behavior can be attributed to the thermal and shear histories; the relative amounts of wax and...

  7. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  8. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  9. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures

  10. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  11. Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

  12. 基于遗传算法的成品油树状管网优化布置%Product Oil Pipeline Network Optimum Layout Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岳; 付晓东

    2011-01-01

    考虑到成品油管网各参数的波动,采用多目标加权法,以生命周期内管道与罐区的投资与维护费用现值、能耗费用现值及混油处理费用现值之和为目标函数,管网布置情况为决策变量,建立了成品油树状管网优化布置的数学模型,并采用遗传算法进行求解.该算法原理清晰,能快速搜索到令人满意的有效解.计算结果表明:利用遗传算法所得的最优解比Kruskal或Prim算法更经济.成品油管网各参数的设定要严格准确,若参数波动范围较大,则可通过变换权重系数的方法生成多种设计方案以供选择.MATLAB提供的遗传算法工具箱界面友好、设置简便,适于工程应用.%Considering the parameter fluctuations, using multi -objective weighting method, the present value sum of pipe and tank investment and maintenance, energy costs and mixed oil processing costs in life-cycle as the objective function, network layout situation as the decision variables, a product pipeline network optimal layout model was established. Use the genetic algorithm to solve it. This method is clear, fast and effective which leads to a satisfactory solution. Calculation results show that the optimal solution calculated by GA is more economic than the Kruskal or Prim algorithm, and product pipeline network parameter must be strictly set. If the parameters have a larger range, change the weight coefficients can generates a variety of designs for choosing. MATLAB genetic algorithm toolbox provides a friendly interface and easy to set which is convenient for engineering applications.

  13. Optimization of infrasound wave-based leak detection and positioning system for oil pipeline%次声波输油管道泄漏检测与定位系统优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武伟强; 赵会军; 江光世; 王小兵; 周宁; 王树立

    2012-01-01

    Due to interference from ambient noise, signals acquired by infrasound wave sensors of oil pipeline leak detection and positioning systems are subject to large errors. To this end, hardware based dual-sensor detection methods are used to filter noises of detection signals. It is the specific method that two identical sensors are respectively installed at both ends of the detection pipeline, including one measuring sensor and one compensation sensor, and the output results of the compensation sensor and disturbance variable of the measuring sensor are used to make output results of the detection system not affected by the disturbance variables except for detected parameters so as to achieve signal compensation. Experimental application is made after system optimization, and the error between calculated leak point and set leak point is 123 m and positioning accuracy is relatively high, indicating feasibility of the method.%因受环境噪声干扰,输油管道泄漏检测与定位系统次声波传感器采集到的信号误差较大.为此,采用基于硬件的双传感器检测方法,对检测信号进行滤噪处理.具体方法是:在检测管道的两端分别安装两个同型传感器,一个作为测量传感器,一个作为补偿传感器,利用补偿传感器的输出结果和测量传感器的干扰量作用,使检测系统的输出结果不受被检测参数以外的干扰量影响,实现信号的补偿.系统优化后进行实验应用,计算泄漏点与设定泄漏点的误差为123m,定位精度相对较高,验证了该方法的可行性.

  14. Coal database for Cook Inlet and North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Gary D.; Spear, Brianne D.; Sprowl, Jennifer M.; Dietrich, John D.; McCauley, Michael I.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This database is a compilation of published and nonconfidential unpublished coal data from Alaska. Although coal occurs in isolated areas throughout Alaska, this study includes data only from the Cook Inlet and North Slope areas. The data include entries from and interpretations of oil and gas well logs, coal-core geophysical logs (such as density, gamma, and resistivity), seismic shot hole lithology descriptions, measured coal sections, and isolated coal outcrops.

  15. Design and Experimental Analysis of Steam Jet Nozzle in Cleaning Heavy Oil Pipeline%蒸汽射流喷嘴设计与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆伟

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at tubing for heavy grease accumulation,being difficult to clean and other is-sues,combining theoretical studies,numerical simulation and field trials,a steam jet nozzle is de-signed.Simulation results show that the temperature and pressure inside the steam jet nozzle gra-dient distribution in the tube.It can increase the release of latent heat of condensation of steam jet efficiency in the heavy tube and effectively clean heavy grease attached to the wall,which can play a good cleaning effect.Field tests show that the cleaning nozzle can effectively improve the quality of heavy oil pipe,which can achieve,better cleaning effect compared to a straight nozzle.The de-vice can significantly increase the area of heavy oil recovery of heavy oil pipe cleaning repair work efficiency and economic benefits.%针对稠油油管油垢堆积、清洗难等问题,结合理论研究、数值模拟及现场试验,设计出一种蒸汽射流清洗喷嘴。数值模拟结果表明,蒸汽射流喷嘴内的温度和压力在管内呈梯度分布,可提高蒸汽射流在稠油管内的凝结潜热释放效率,有效清洗附着于管壁的稠油油垢;现场试验表明,该喷嘴可有效提高稠油油管的清洗质量,相比直喷嘴能达到更好的清洗效果。稠油油管蒸汽射流清洗喷嘴及其装置,可大幅提高我国稠油开采区内稠油油管清洗修复工作的效率。

  16. Meteorological aspects of benzene transport, dispersion and personal exposure in Valdez, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, D.R.; Ball, R.J. [TRC Environmental Corp., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Valdez Air Health Study (VAHS) was conducted in Valdez, Alaska to determine the personal exposure of the residential population of Valdez to certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The VAHS used the EPA`s Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) with continuous meteorology, air quality and intense tracer measurements to monitor personal and indoor/outdoor concentrations of VOCs in the community. The Valdez fjord is the site of the Alyeska Marine Terminal, the largest crude oil loading terminal in the United States, with a maximum capacity of 2.2 million barrels per day. The Alyeska Marine Terminal is the transfer point for Prudhoe Bay crude oil from the pipeline to marine tankers. During 1990, the terminal and marine tankers were estimated to emit approximately 450 metric tonnes/year of benzene to the air at an average throughput of 1.8 million barrels/day while benzene emissions from other sources in the basin were estimated to be approximately 3 tonnes/year.

  17. An oilspill risk analysis for the Beaufort Sea, Alaska (proposed sale 71)outer continental shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, W.B.; Hopkins, Dorothy; Lanfear, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine the relative environmental hazards of developing oil in different regions of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, (Proposed Sale 71) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease area. The probability of spill occurrences, likely movement of oil slicks, and locations of resources vulnerable to spilled oil were analyzed. The model predicted movement of the center of spill mass and estimated the times between spill occurrence and contact with various resources, to allow a qualitative assessment of oil characteristics at the time of contact; no direct computation was made of weathering and cleanup. The model also assumed that any oil spilled under ice would remain in place, unchanged, until spring breakup. Ice movements, or travel of oil under ice, if occurring, would affect the results in a manner not directly predictable at this time. The combined results of spill occurrence and spill movement predictions yielded estimates of the overall risks associated with development of the proposed lease area. Assuming that oil exists in the lease area (a 99.3-percent chance) it is estimated that the leasing of the tracts proposed for OCS Sale 71 will result in an expected 9.2 oilspills (of 1,000 barrels or larger) over the lease lifetime of 25 years. This estimate is based on historic oilspill accident data for platforms and pipelines on the U.S. OCS (Gulf of Mexico and California). The estimated probability that land will be contacted by one or more oilspills (of 1,000 barrels or larger) that have been at sea less than 30 days (not counting any time trapped under ice) is greater than 99.5 percent. If oilspill accident data for Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, is used in the analysis, it is estimated that 5.6 oilspills (1,000 barrels or larger) will occur over the lease lifetime. The estimated probability that one or more oilspills (1,000 barrels or larger)will occur and contact land is99 percent. The results of a recent experimental cleanup operation for

  18. West-East Gas Pipeline Starts Trial Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The eastern section of the West-East gas pipeline, which is from Jingbian County in Shaanxi Province to Shanghai, started trial operation on October 1, warming up for the commercial operation of the pipeline slated on January 1, 2004. PetroChina held a grand ceremony to celebrate the trial operation in Jingbian, a major gas production base of PetroChina Changqing Oil Field Company.

  19. Automated Monitoring of Pipeline Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Chard Ritchie

    2010-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the Pipeline Research Council International, Inc. have partnered in the formation of a research program to identify and develop the key technologies required to enable automated detection of threats to gas and oil transmission and distribution pipelines. This presentation describes the Right-of-way Automated Monitoring (RAM) program and highlights research successes to date, continuing challenges to implementing the RAM objectives, and the program's ongoing work and plans.

  20. Flags pipeline - first phase of UK gas gathering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The Far North Liquids and Associated Gas System (FLAGS pipeline) is described. The building specifications for the pipeline are reviewed, and the end use of the pipeline to transport oil, natural gas liquids, and natural gas from the Brent field in the North Sea is discussed. Other fields now on the FLAGS include the Cormorant, Ninian, and North West Hutton fields, and the Magnus, Murchison, and Thistle fields will be added during 1983. The refinery and gas processing facilities on shore in Scotland also are described. Both building and operating problems are mentioned.

  1. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  2. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Reliability of pipelines. Innovations in technical regulatory guides; Sicherheit von Pipelines. Neuerungen im technischen Regelwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, Christiane [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Risikomanagement'

    2010-03-15

    Gas and oil pipelines are important elements of assured energy supply. There are laws, ordinances, technical and organisational rules to ensure high safety and protection of humans and environment. These legal specifications must be amended from time to time because of new EU regulations involving legal amendments, because of experience gained in incidents and accidents, and also because the state of the art has changed. The contribution describes the amendments of the pipeline regulation (TRFL) of 2003, which are soon to be published. (orig.)

  4. The North Slope of Alaska and Tourism: Potential Impacts on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, L. R.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrocarbon industry of Alaska is currently the leading producer of revenue for the Alaskan state economy. Second only to hydrocarbons is the tourism industry. Tourism has been a viable industry since the 1890's when cruises touted the beauty of glaciers and icebergs along the Alaskan coastline. This industry has seen a steady growth for the past few decades throughout the state. The North Slope of Alaska, particularly Prudhoe Bay and the National Petroleum Reserve, has long been associated with hydrocarbon development and today displays a landscape dotted with gravel drill pads, gas and oil pipelines and housing for the oil workers. While tourism is not usually considered hand in hand with the hydrocarbon industry, it has mimicked the development of hydrocarbons almost since the beginning. Today one not only sees the effects of the oil industry on the North Slope, but also the tourist industry as planes unload dozens of tourists, or tour buses and private vehicles arrive daily via the Dalton Highway. In Deadhorse, hotels that once only housed the oil workers now welcome the tourist, offering tours of the oil fields and adjacent areas and have become jumping off sites for wilderness trips. Tourism will create jobs as well as revenue. However, at present, there are few restrictions or guidelines in place that will deal with the potential impacts of increased tourism. Because of this there are many concerns about the possible impacts tourism and the infrastructure development will have on the North Slope. To list several concerns: (1) What are the impacts of increased tourism and the infrastructure development? (2) What will the impacts be on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), which sits a mere 60 miles to the east of Deadhorse? (3) Will hydrocarbon development in ANWR and the associated infrastructure exacerbate potential impact by encouraging greater use of the Refuge by tourists? (4) Will tourism itself have a negative impact on this fragile

  5. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  6. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Pipelines-This data set represents the oil and gas transmission pipelines in Utah and portions of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada and New Mexico that appear on the 1:100,000 scale topographical map series from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS)., Published in 2001, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described as...

  7. Defect Detection of Oil and Gas Pipelines by Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing%漏磁探伤规律用于油气管道的缺陷检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕建伟

    2016-01-01

    油气管道在服役过程中会产生某些类型的缺陷,根据缺陷性质和产生的部位,采用超声、磁粉、涡流、漏磁等无损检测方法对管道缺陷进行检测,其中漏磁检测是比较好的检测方法,可检测管体的裂纹、孔洞、磨损等缺陷.通过探测漏磁场来获取缺陷漏磁场的量值,从而可对缺陷进行量化,实现缺陷识别智能化.漏磁探伤有以下规律性:同等大小的缺陷,上端距工件表面距离越近,产生的漏磁场越大;缺陷方向越接近垂直于磁场方向,漏磁场越大;同样宽度的缺陷,如果深度不同,产生的漏磁场不同.对检测波形进行分析,验证了漏磁检测的规律性,为实施油气管道整体评价提供了依据.%Some types of defects will be produced in the service of oil and gas pipelines. Defects are detected by ultrasonic, magnetic powder, eddy current, magnetic flux leakage and other non destructive testing methods according to the nature of the defects and the parts produced. The magnetic flux leakage detection method can detect the crack, hole, wear and other defects of the pipe body. By detecting the leakage magnetic field, the value of the magnetic flux leakage field can be obtained, and the defects can be quantified,and the intelli-gent of the defect identification can be realized.Magnetic flux leakage testing has the follow-ing rules:The same size of the defect, the upper end of the distance from the surface of the work piece closer, resulting in leakage of magnetic field, the more close to the direction of the defect perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, the larger the leakage field;The same width of the defect, if the depth of the different, resulting from the leakage of magnetic field is different. Through the analysis of the test waveform, the three rules of the magnetic flux leakage detection are verified, which provides a basis for the implementation of the overall evaluation of the oil and gas pipeline.

  8. Pipeline to connect Bratislava and Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A connection will be built to connect pipeline Druzba and OMV refinery in Schwechat close to Vienna. This is the conclusion of a Memorandum of Understanding signed by Chairman of Board of Directors of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer and the First Vice-President for Marketing in Jukos, Michail Brudno in Vienna last week. The sixty-kilometres long pipeline should be completed in 2005. First oil from western Siberia should flow into Austria in 2006. OMV signed a ten-years contract for 2 million tons of oil per year. This volume represents about 20 percent of the total capacity of the refinery in Schwechat. 'For us this is a price-effective solution. The transport will be cheaper,' said Vice-Chairman of Board of Directors of OMV, Gerhard Roiss. OMV plans to expand in the central-European region and to increase its current number of petrol-stations from the current 1.600 to 2.000 by 2008. Starting capacity of the pipeline will be 3.6 million tons that can be increased to 5 million tons. In Austria the pipeline will be operated by a new joint company where 26 percent will be controlled by OMV and 74 by Jukos or 'structures connected to Jukos'. The total investment related to connection of Druzba and the Austrian refinery should be about 28 million Euro (1.2 billion Slovak crowns). Investments in Slovakia should reach about 7.5 million Euro (314 million Slovak crowns). A major part of these cost should be covered by Jukos. The Slovak part will owned and operated by Transpetrol, a.s., Bratislava that operates and owns all the pipelines in Slovakia

  9. The Best of Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑钧

    2011-01-01

    Nothing awakes Alaska like a whale exploding out of the water or an eagle (鹰) pulling a silver fish from the river. Combine these images with high mountains, brilliant icebergs and wonderful meals and you really do have the best of Alaska!

  10. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  11. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J. (comps.)

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  12. Decision and report to Congress on the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System. [Selection of Alcan project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The selection of the Alcan project was made after an exhaustive review required by the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Act of 1976 determined that the Alcan Pipeline System will deliver more natural gas at less cost to a greater number of Americans than any other proposed transportation system.

  13. Pipeline coating comparison methods for northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection, Calgary, AB (Canada); Purves, G.A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Two high-quality pipe coatings designed for northern environments were compared for their relative costs and suitability for the conditions that will be encountered in the field. Coating selection should consider local conditions to achieve the optimum life-cycle costs for the system. Some of the key factors affecting the integrity of the protective coating on a pipe include the effects of cold temperature and soil types. In this study, both Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) and High Performance Composite Coatings (HPCC) were evaluated for an entire pipeline installation in a northern environment, from the coating plant to the pipe trench. The evaluation focused on the advantages of better abrasion resistance of the HPCC coating. This was compared against the incremental cost of HPCC coating over FBE on large diameter NPS 30 to NPS 48 pipelines. The following parameters influenced the choice of coating: storage, transportation and handling; bending ability under cold weather conditions; pipe installation and backfilling; weld joint coatings; coating repair and cathodic protection and pipeline integrity. Some of the construction costs that are indirectly affected by the choice of pipe coating include right-of-way preparation and restoration; trenching; supervision, service and downtime and specialist crossings. It was concluded that HPCC has better resistance to abrasion than FBE and is more flexible in extremely cold temperatures. Standard FBE is about 10 per cent less expensive than HPCC. In general HPCC will require less coating protection than FBE, depending on site conditions. 3 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

    2013-07-01

    Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

  15. Pargo/Garoupa 22'' crude oil pipeline from reconstruction to inspection: stages of the pipeline rehabilitation into the standard of guarantee of structural integrity; Oleoduto Pargo/Garoupa 22'' da reconstrucao a inspecao: etapas de re-habilitacao de um duto ao padrao de garantia de integridade estrutural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzoi, Aldo Renato; Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Medeiros, Carlos Eduardo Amosso; Mori, Eduardo Teruo; Melo, Francimario da Silva Vieira de; Ribeiro, Jussara Carvalho; Moura Neto, Rodolfo Jose de [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos

    2003-07-01

    The Pipeline Pargo/Garoupa 22'' is 17 km long transfers the production of six platforms of the Northeast Pole for the Garoupa Central platform in Campos' Basin. This pipeline works with a flowrate of 450 m{sup 3}/h and it began to operate in 1987. The existence of a non-piggable sub sea manifold 500 meters down stream PGP-1 allied with receiver's absence impeded the passage of any type of pigs. The strategic importance of the pipeline allied with the need of operational safety assurance took PETROBRAS/UN-BC to the decision of building a pigs receiver in PGP-1 and to reestablish pig ability assembling a new riser and a new sub sea pipeline covering 500 meters, both in the diameter of 22 inches. After the conclusion, it was carried out a long campaign of cleaning, with emphasis in the development new drawings of specific pigs for the removal of the internal debris accumulated since the beginning of the operation. Several accessories were developed in order to improve the removal and arresting of wax and barium sulfate scale. Finally, the pipeline was inspected with a high resolution MFL pig. The present work describes all the stages of this pipeline rehabilitation, from the adaptation of the submarine facilities and of surface, going by the extensive campaign of cleaning and culminated with the inspection and the evaluation of the integrity. (author)

  16. Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

  17. A raptor survey of the Canning and Kongakut Rivers, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) directs the Department of the Interior to assess the potential for oil and natural gas resources of the...

  18. Improved, Low-Stress Economical Submerged Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study has shown that the use of a high-strength composite fiber cloth material may greatly reduce fabrication and deployment costs of a subsea offshore pipeline. The problem is to develop an inexpensive submerged pipeline that can safely and economically transport large quantities of fresh water, oil, and natural gas underwater for long distances. Above-water pipelines are often not feasible due to safety, cost, and environmental problems, and present, fixed-wall, submerged pipelines are often very expensive. The solution is to have a submerged, compliant-walled tube that when filled, is lighter than the surrounding medium. Some examples include compliant tubes for transporting fresh water under the ocean, for transporting crude oil underneath salt or fresh water, and for transporting high-pressure natural gas from offshore to onshore. In each case, the fluid transported is lighter than its surrounding fluid, and thus the flexible tube will tend to float. The tube should be ballasted to the ocean floor so as to limit the motion of the tube in the horizontal and vertical directions. The tube should be placed below 100-m depth to minimize biofouling and turbulence from surface storms. The tube may also have periodic pumps to maintain flow without over-pressurizing, or it can have a single pump at the beginning. The tube may have periodic valves that allow sections of the tube to be repaired or maintained. Some examples of tube materials that may be particularly suited for these applications are non-porous composite tubes made of high-performance fibers such as Kevlar, Spectra, PBO, Aramid, carbon fibers, or high-strength glass. Above-ground pipes for transporting water, oil, and natural gas have typically been fabricated from fiber-reinforced plastic or from more costly high-strength steel. Also, previous suggested subsea pipeline designs have only included heavy fixed-wall pipes that can be very expensive initially, and can be difficult and expensive

  19. Thermohydraulics analysis for pipeline increase capacity; Estudo termohidraulico para ampliacao de capacidade de oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Krause, Philipe Barroso; Pires, Luis Fernando G. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos - SIMDUT; Souza, Antonio Geraldo de [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper intent to assist the development of a oil pipeline expansion study. It will show that each pipeline has its own solution, because it has several variables of technical, economical and environmental order, as well as several ones of political nature. (author)

  20. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson...