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Sample records for alargado thinopyrum ponticum

  1. Molecular cytogenetic characterization and stem rust resistance of five wheat-thinopyrum ponticum partial amphiploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partial amphiploids created by crossing common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.), Barkworth & D. R. Dewey may be resistant to major wheat diseases and are an important intermediate material in wheat breeding. In this study, we examined chromosome composition of five Xiaoy...

  2. Development of Thinopyrum ponticum-specific molecular markers and FISH probes based on SLAF-seq technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqin; Luo, Qiaoling; Teng, Wan; Li, Bin; Li, Hongwei; Li, Yiwen; Li, Zhensheng; Zheng, Qi

    2018-05-01

    Based on SLAF-seq, 67 Thinopyrum ponticum-specific markers and eight Th. ponticum-specific FISH probes were developed, and these markers and probes could be used for detection of alien chromatin in a wheat background. Decaploid Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 10x = 70) is a valuable gene reservoir for wheat improvement. Identification of Th. ponticum introgression would facilitate its transfer into diverse wheat genetic backgrounds and its practical utilization in wheat improvement. Based on specific-locus-amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology, 67 new Th. ponticum-specific molecular markers and eight Th. ponticum-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes have been developed from a tiny wheat-Th. ponticum translocation line. These newly developed molecular markers allowed the detection of Th. ponticum DNA in a variety of materials specifically and steadily at high throughput. According to the hybridization signal pattern, the eight Th. ponticum-specific probes could be divided into two groups. The first group including five dispersed repetitive sequence probes could identify Th. ponticum chromatin more sensitively and accurately than genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Whereas the second group having three tandem repetitive sequence probes enabled the discrimination of Th. ponticum chromosomes together with another clone pAs1 in wheat-Th. ponticum partial amphiploid Xiaoyan 68.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat– Thinopyrum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 70) serves as a valuable gene pool for wheat improvement. Line SN0224, derived from crosses between Th. ponticum and the common wheat cultivar Yannong15, was identified in the present study. Cytogenetic observations showed that SN0224 contains 42 chromosomes in the root-tip cells ...

  4. Molecular and Cytological Comparisons of Chromosomes 7el₁, 7el₂, 7E(e), and 7E ⁱ Derived from Thinopyrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; He, Fang; Cai, Jin-Jin; Wang, Hong-Wei; Li, An-Fei; Wang, Hong-Gang; Kong, Ling-Rang

    2015-01-01

    Thinopyrum chromosomes 7el1, 7el2, 7E(e), and 7E(i), homoeologous to group 7 chromosomes of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), were determined to have many useful agronomical traits for wheat improvement. To analyze the genetic relationships among the 4 Thinopyrum 7E chromosomes, the conserved orthologous set markers, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), and meiotic chromosome pairing were used in this study. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetical averages (UPGMA) analysis indicated that 7el1, derived from T. ponticum, and 7E(i), derived from T. intermedium, were the most closely related. 7el2, derived from T. ponticum, was relatively distant from the 7el1-7E(i) complex. While 7E(e), derived from T. elongatum, was more distantly related to 7el1, 7el2, and 7E(i). This is the first report showing that 7el1 and 7E(i) may be similar, which could be explained by the similar chromosome signal distribution revealed by GISH as well as UPGMA analysis revealed by both molecular markers and the highest frequency of meiotic pairing. The newly developed genome-specific molecular markers may be useful for marker-assisted selection of Lr19, Bdv3, and Fhblop. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. McGISH identification and phenotypic description of leaf rust and yellow rust resistant partial amphiploids originating from a wheat × Thinopyrum synthetic hybrid cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Klaudia; Türkösi, Edina; Mayer, Marianna; Tóth, Viola; Vida, Gyula; Szakács, Éva; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2016-11-01

    A Thinopyrum intermedium × Thinopyrum ponticum synthetic hybrid wheatgrass is an excellent source of leaf and stem rust resistance produced by N.V.Tsitsin. Wheat line Mv9kr1 was crossed with this hybrid (Agropyron glael) in Hungary in order to transfer its advantageous agronomic traits into wheat. As the wheat parent was susceptible to leaf rust, the transfer of resistance was easily recognizable in the progenies. Three different partial amphiploid lines with leaf rust resistance were selected from the wheat/Thinopyrum hybrid derivatives by multicolour genomic in situ hybridization. Chromosome counting on the partial amphiploids revealed 58 chromosomes (18 wheatgrass) in line 194, 56 (14 wheatgrass) in line 195 and 54 (12 wheatgrass) in line 196. The wheat chromosomes present in these lines were identified and the wheatgrass chromosomes were characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the repetitive DNA probes Afa-family, pSc119.2 and pTa71. The 3D wheat chromosome was missing from the lines. Molecular marker analysis showed the presence of the Lr24 leaf rust resistance gene in lines 195 and 196. The morphological traits were evaluated in the field during two consecutive seasons in two different locations.

  6. Rhododendron gone wild: conservation implications of Rhododendron ponticum in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotherham , I D

    2001-02-01

    Wild rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum) is widely regarded by conservationists as a scourge of the British countryside. However, in its native haunts such as Turkey, it is also one of Europe's most threatened species, with ancient rhododendron forests now reduced to only a few hectares.

  7. Chemical effects on controlling of Rhododendron ponticum L. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... ponticum L. in western black sea forest region of. Turkey ... Each study area was selected from natural mixed stands of beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and each one contained ... brings about concerns for long-term soil productivity ...

  8. Dehydrins from wheat x Thinopyrum ponticum amphiploid increase salinity and drought tolerance under their own inducible promoters without growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu-Xiang; Qin, Fangyuan

    2016-02-01

    Dehydrins confer abiotic stress tolerance in seedlings, but few dehydrins have been studied by transgenic analysis under their own promoters in relation to abiotic stress tolerance. Also the inducible promoters for transgenic engineering are limited. In this study, we isolated from wheat three salt-induced YSK2 dehydrin genes and their promoters. The cDNA sequences were 711, 785, and 932 bp in length, encoding proteins containing 133, 166 and 231 amino acids, respectively, and were named TaDHN1, TaDHN2, and TaDHN3. TaDHN2 doesn't contain introns, while the other two genes each contain one. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed all three dehydrin genes are substantially induced by ABA and NaCl, but only TaDHN2 is induced in seedlings by PEG and by cold (4 °C). Regulatory sequences upstream of the first translation codon (775, 1615 and 889 bp) of the three dehydrin genes were also cloned. Cis-element prediction indicated the presence of ABRE and other abiotic-stress-related elements. Histochemical analysis using GUS expression demonstrated that all three promoters were induced by ABA, cold or NaCl. Ectopic over-expression of TaDHN1 or TaDHN3 in Arabidopsis under their own inducible promoters enhanced NaCl- and drought-stress tolerance without growth retardation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Marker-assisted pyramiding of Thinopyrum-derived leaf rust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 6. Marker-assisted pyramiding of Thinopyrum-derived leaf rust resistance genes Lr19 and Lr24 in bread wheat variety ...

  10. Insect-flower interaction network structure is resilient to a temporary pulse of floral resources from invasive Rhododendron ponticum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jo Tiedeken

    Full Text Available Invasive alien plants can compete with native plants for resources, and may ultimately decrease native plant diversity and/or abundance in invaded sites. This could have consequences for native mutualistic interactions, such as pollination. Although invasive plants often become highly connected in plant-pollinator interaction networks, in temperate climates they usually only flower for part of the season. Unless sufficient alternative plants flower outside this period, whole-season floral resources may be reduced by invasion. We hypothesized that the cessation of flowering of a dominant invasive plant would lead to dramatic, seasonal compositional changes in plant-pollinator communities, and subsequent changes in network structure. We investigated variation in floral resources, flower-visiting insect communities, and interaction networks during and after the flowering of invasive Rhododendron ponticum in four invaded Irish woodland sites. Floral resources decreased significantly after R. ponticum flowering, but the magnitude of the decrease varied among sites. Neither insect abundance nor richness varied between the two periods (during and after R. ponticum flowering, yet insect community composition was distinct, mostly due to a significant reduction in Bombus abundance after flowering. During flowering R. ponticum was frequently visited by Bombus; after flowering, these highly mobile pollinators presumably left to find alternative floral resources. Despite compositional changes, however, network structural properties remained stable after R. ponticum flowering ceased: generality increased, but quantitative connectance, interaction evenness, vulnerability, H'2 and network size did not change. This is likely because after R. ponticum flowering, two to three alternative plant species became prominent in networks and insects increased their diet breadth, as indicated by the increase in network-level generality. We conclude that network structure

  11. Detection of alien chromatin introgression from Thinopyrum into wheat using S genomic DNA as a probe--a landmark approach for Thinopyrum genome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of alien genetic variation from the genus Thinopyrum through chromosome engineering into wheat is a valuable and proven technique for wheat improvement. A number of economically important traits have been transferred into wheat as single genes, chromosome arms or entire chromosomes. Successful transfers can be greatly assisted by the precise identification of alien chromatin in the recipient progenies. Chromosome identification and characterization are useful for genetic manipulation and transfer in wheat breeding following chromosome engineering. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using an S genomic DNA probe from the diploid species Pseudoroegneria has proven to be a powerful diagnostic cytogenetic tool for monitoring the transfer of many promising agronomic traits from Thinopyrum. This specific S genomic probe not only allows the direct determination of the chromosome composition in wheat-Thinopyrum hybrids, but also can separate the Th. intermedium chromosomes into the J, J(S) and S genomes. The J(S) genome, which consists of a modified J genome chromosome distinguished by S genomic sequences of Pseudoroegneria near the centromere and telomere, carries many disease and mite resistance genes. Utilization of this S genomic probe leads to a better understanding of genomic affinities between Thinopyrum and wheat, and provides a molecular cytogenetic marker for monitoring the transfer of alien Thinopyrum agronomic traits into wheat recipient lines. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Implante coclear e síndrome do aqueduto vestibular alargado em crianças Cochlear implant and large vestibular aqueduct syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trissia Maria Farah Vassoler

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Crianças com SAVA podem ter deficiências auditivas moderadas a severas durante fases precoces da infância, porém sua audição residual permite que elas desenvolvam linguagem oral com aparelhos auditivos convencionais e possam estar completamente integradas a condições escolares regulares. Contudo, estas crianças apresentam uma deterioração de sua habilidade auditiva com o decorrer do tempo e o implante coclear está sendo utilizado como uma opção para manter a habilidade auditiva. OBJETIVO: Avaliação da habilidade auditiva de 3 crianças com SAVA submetidas a implante coclear. MATERIAIS: Estudo retrospectivo baseado em revisão de prontuários. RESULTADOS: Em reconhecimento de palavras em campo aberto paciente 1, 80%, paciente 2, 87,5%, paciente 3, 4%. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com aqueduto vestibular alargado são considerados bons candidatos para implante coclear pelos principais centros de implante coclear do mundo, por desenvolverem, em sua maioria, bons resultados de percepção de fala, o que leva estes pacientes a uma boa inserção social.Children with LVAS can develop a severe sensorineural hearing loss early in childhood, but they can be rehabilitated with hearing aids to continue their regular studies and to have a normal life. The problem is that they can deteriorate their hearing capacity, and at this point a cochlear implant can be used to preserve their hearing skills and vocalization. AIM: to evaluate the hearing skills of 3 children with LVAS referred to cochlear implants. MATERIAL: retrospective study based on medical charts' review. RESULTS: Speech recognition in open field: patient 1, 80%; patient 2, 87.5%; patient 3, 4 %. CONCLUSION: Children with LVAS are considered good candidates for Cochlear implant surgery by the most important centers of the world because most of them can develop good speech recognition, providing them a good social life.

  13. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat– Thinopyrum ponticum translocation line resistant to powdery mildew · FANG HE YINGUANG BAO XIAOLEI QI YINGXUE MA XINGFENG LI HONGGANG WANG · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 70) serves as a valuable gene pool for wheat ...

  14. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. However, plant chromosome painting is relatively underdeveloped. In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and chromosomes of...

  15. New molecular markers and cytogenetic probes enable chromosome identification of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium introgression lines for improving protein and gluten contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangrong; Wang, Hongjin; Lang, Tao; Li, Jianbo; La, Shixiao; Yang, Ennian; Yang, Zujun

    2016-10-01

    New molecular markers were developed for targeting Thinopyrum intermedium 1St#2 chromosome, and novel FISH probe representing the terminal repeats was produced for identification of Thinopyrum chromosomes. Thinopyrum intermedium has been used as a valuable resource for improving the disease resistance and yield potential of wheat. A wheat-Th. intermedium ssp. trichophorum chromosome 1St#2 substitution and translocation has displayed superior grain protein and wet gluten content. With the aim to develop a number of chromosome 1St#2 specific molecular and cytogenetic markers, a high throughput, low-cost specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology was used to compare the sequences between a wheat-Thinopyrum 1St#2 (1D) substitution and the related species Pseudoroegneria spicata (St genome, 2n = 14). A total of 5142 polymorphic fragments were analyzed and 359 different SLAF markers for 1St#2 were predicted. Thirty-seven specific molecular markers were validated by PCR from 50 randomly selected SLAFs. Meanwhile, the distribution of transposable elements (TEs) at the family level between wheat and St genomes was compared using the SLAFs. A new oligo-nucleotide probe named Oligo-pSt122 from high SLAF reads was produced for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and was observed to hybridize to the terminal region of 1St#L and also onto the terminal heterochromatic region of Th. intermedium genomes. The genome-wide markers and repetitive based probe Oligo-pSt122 will be valuable for identifying Thinopyrum chromosome segments in wheat backgrounds.

  16. Microdissection and Chromosome Painting of the Alien Chromosome in an Addition Line of Wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weibo; Zhang, Yingxin; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Richard R.-C.; Zhang, Xiangqi; Han, Fangpu; Hu, Zanmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th . intermedium . Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th . intermedium , 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th . intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneria spicata (St genome) and pDbH12 (a Js genome specific probe) as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (Js, J and St) in Th . intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th . bessarabicum . Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the Js genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th . intermedium . Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of different

  17. Cytogenetics and stripe rust resistance of wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum hybrid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiyan; Long, Dan; Li, Tinghui; Wu, Yanli; Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong; Kang, Houyang

    2018-01-01

    Amphidiploids generated by distant hybridization are commonly used as genetic bridge to transfer desirable genes from wild wheat species into cultivated wheat. This method is typically used to enhance the resistance of wheat to biotic or abiotic stresses, and to increase crop yield and quality. Tetraploid Thinopyrum elongatum exhibits strong adaptability, resistance to stripe rust and Fusarium head blight, and tolerance to salt, drought, and cold. In the present study, we produced hybrid derivatives by crossing and backcrossing the Triticum durum-Th. elongatum partial amphidiploid ( Trititrigia 8801, 2 n  = 6 ×  = 42, AABBEE) with wheat cultivars common to the Sichuan Basin. By means of cytogenetic and disease resistance analyses, we identified progeny harboring alien chromosomes and measured their resistance to stripe rust. Hybrid progenies possessed chromosome numbers ranging from 40 to 47 (mean = 42.72), with 40.0% possessing 42 chromosomes. Genomic in situ hybridization revealed that the number of alien chromosomes ranged from 1 to 11. Out of the 50 of analyzed lines, five represented chromosome addition (2 n  = 44 = 42 W + 2E) and other five were chromosome substitution lines (2 n  = 42 = 40 W + 2E). Importantly, a single chromosome derived from wheat- Th. elongatum intergenomic Robertsonian translocations chromosome was occurred in 12 lines. Compared with the wheat parental cultivars ('CN16' and 'SM482'), the majority (70%) of the derivative lines were highly resistant to strains of stripe rust pathogen known to be prevalent in China. The findings suggest that these hybrid-derivative lines with stripe rust resistance could potentially be used as germplasm sources for further wheat improvement.

  18. Chromosome identification by new molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization in the Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Duan, Yamei; Chi, Dawn; Liu, Huiping; Huang, Shuai; Cao, Wenguang; Gao, Yong; Fedak, George; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-08-01

    It is very important to use chromosome-specific markers for identifying alien chromosomes in advanced generations of distant hybridization. The chromosome-specific markers of rye and Thinopyrum elongatum, as well as genomic in situ hybridization, were used to identify the alien chromosomes in eight lines that were derived from the crossing between Triticum trititrigia (AABBEE) and triticale (AABBRR). The results showed that four lines contained all rye chromosomes but no Th. elongatum chromosomes. The line RE36-1 contained all of the rye chromosomes except for chromosome 2R. The lines RE33-2 and RE62-1 contained all rye chromosomes and 1E and 5E translocated chromosome, respectively. The line RE24-4 contained 12 rye chromosomes plus a 7E chromosome or 12 rye chromosomes plus one R-E translocated chromosome. Chromosome identification in the above lines was consistent using chromosome-specific markers and genomic in situ hybridization. These chromosome-specific markers provide useful tools for detecting alien chromosomes in trigeneric hybrids, and these lines could be utilized as valuable germplasm in wheat improvement.

  19. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of two Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum Trigeneric Hybrids Exhibiting Superior Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight, Leaf Rust, and Stem Rust Race Ug99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Duan, Yamei; Liu, Huiping; Chi, Dawn; Cao, Wenguang; Xue, Allen; Gao, Yong; Fedak, George; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host) Dewey (2 n = 2 x = 14, EE) is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2 n = 6 x = 42, AABBRR) and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2 n = 6 x = 42, AABBEE), were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers. The results indicated that line RE21 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, three pairs of R-chromosomes (4R, 6R, and 7R), and four pairs of E-chromosomes (1E, 2E, 3E, and 5E) for a total chromosome number of 2 n = 42. Line RE62 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, six pairs of R-chromosomes, and one pair of translocation chromosomes between chromosome 5R and 5E, for a total chromosome number of 2 n = 42. At the seedling and adult growth stages under greenhouse conditions, line RE21 showed high levels of resistance to FHB, leaf rust, and stem rust race Ug99, and line RE62 was highly resistant to leaf rust and stem rust race Ug99. These two lines (RE21 and RE62) display superior disease resistance characteristics and have the potential to be utilized as valuable germplasm sources for future wheat improvement.

  20. Cloning of resistance gene analogs located on the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Mei; Hu, Jun; Yin, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2005-09-01

    Homology-based gene/gene-analog cloning method has been extensively applied in isolation of RGAs (resistance gene analogs) in various plant species. However, serious interference of sequences on homoeologous chromosomes in polyploidy species usually occurred when cloning RGAs in a specific chromosome. In this research, the techniques of chromosome microdissection combined with homology-based cloning were used to clone RGAs from a specific chromosome of Wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition line TAi-27, which was derived from common wheat and Thinopyrum intermedium with a pair of chromosomes from Th. intermedium. The alien chromosomes carry genes for resistance to BYDV. The alien chromosome in TAi-27 was isolated by a glass needle and digested with proteinase K. The DNA of the alien chromosome was amplified by two rounds of Sau3A linker adaptor-mediated PCR. RGAs were amplified by PCR with the degenerated primers designed based on conserved domains of published resistance genes (R genes) by using the alien chromosome DNA, genomic DNA and cDNA of Th. intermedium, TAi-27 and 3B-2 (a parent of TAi-27) as templates. A total of seven RGAs were obtained and sequenced. Of which, a constitutively expressed single-copy NBS-LRR type RGA ACR 3 was amplified from the dissected alien chromosome of TAi-27, TcDR 2 and TcDR 3 were from cDNA of Th. intermedium, AcDR 3 was from cDNA of TAi-27, FcDR 2 was from cDNA of 3B-2, AR 2 was from genomic DNA of TAi-27 and TR 2 was from genomic DNA of Th. intermedium. Sequence homology analyses showed that the above RGAs were highly homologous with known resistance genes or resistance gene analogs and belonged to NBS-LRR type of R genes. ACR 3 was recovered by PCR from genomic DNA and cDNA of Th. intermedium and TAi-27, but not from 3B-2. Southern hybridization using the digested genomic DNA of Th. intermedium, TAi-27 and 3B-2 as the template and ACR 3 as the probe showed that there is only one copy of ACR 3 in the genome of Th. intermedium and TAi

  1. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liyuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xin; Jia, Juqing; Yang, Huizhen; Zhan, Haixian; Qiao, Linyi; Guo, Huijuan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-07-28

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68-0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  2. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuanliang; Bai, Lili; Fu, Shulan; Yin, Weibo; Zhang, Yingxin; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Richard R-C; Zhang, Xiangqi; Han, Fangpu; Hu, Zanmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th. intermedium. Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th. intermedium, 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th. intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneria spicata (St genome) and pDbH12 (a J(s) genome specific probe) as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (J(s) , J and St) in Th. intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th. bessarabicum. Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the J(s) genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th. intermedium. Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of different

  3. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanliang Deng

    Full Text Available In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th. intermedium. Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th. intermedium, 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th. intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneria spicata (St genome and pDbH12 (a J(s genome specific probe as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (J(s , J and St in Th. intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th. bessarabicum. Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the J(s genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th. intermedium. Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of

  4. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt, is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68–0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  5. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of two Triticum–Secale–Thinopyrum Trigeneric Hybrids Exhibiting Superior Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight, Leaf Rust, and Stem Rust Race Ug99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host Dewey (2n = 2x = 14, EE is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum–Secale–Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2n = 6x = 42, AABBEE, were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers. The results indicated that line RE21 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, three pairs of R-chromosomes (4R, 6R, and 7R, and four pairs of E-chromosomes (1E, 2E, 3E, and 5E for a total chromosome number of 2n = 42. Line RE62 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, six pairs of R-chromosomes, and one pair of translocation chromosomes between chromosome 5R and 5E, for a total chromosome number of 2n = 42. At the seedling and adult growth stages under greenhouse conditions, line RE21 showed high levels of resistance to FHB, leaf rust, and stem rust race Ug99, and line RE62 was highly resistant to leaf rust and stem rust race Ug99. These two lines (RE21 and RE62 display superior disease resistance characteristics and have the potential to be utilized as valuable germplasm sources for future wheat improvement.

  6. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  7. Molecular cloning and variation of ω-gliadin genes from a somatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    repetitive domain, which hampers cloning. Further analysis of ω-gliadins at the DNA level would provide more informa- tion to define the evolution and function of this gene family. (Hassania et al. 2008). ∗For correspondence. E-mail: fanguo2002@sdu.edu.cn. Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nevishi (syn. Thinopyrum ponticum ...

  8. Variation in genome composition of blue-aleurone wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, Veronika; Kopecký, David; Bartoš, Jan; Martinek, P.; Watanabe, N.; Vyhnánek, T.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2015), s. 273-282 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : TRITICUM-AESTIVUM L * COMMON WHEAT * THINOPYRUM-PONTICUM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.900, year: 2015

  9. Transgenic wheat expressing Thinopyrum intermedium MYB transcription factor TiMYB2R-1 shows enhanced resistance to the take-all disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Lihua; Zhou, Xianyao; Zhou, Miaoping; Lu, Yan; Ma, Lingjian; Ma, Hongxiang; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-05-01

    The disease take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, is one of the most destructive root diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding resistant cultivars is an effective way to protect wheat from take-all. However, little progress has been made in improving the disease resistance level in commercial wheat cultivars. MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. In this study, an R2R3-MYB gene in Thinopyrum intermedium, TiMYB2R-1, was cloned and characterized. The gene sequence includes two exons and an intron. The expression of TiMYB2R-1 was significantly induced following G. graminis infection. An in vitro DNA binding assay proved that TiMYB2R-1 protein could bind to the MYB-binding site cis-element ACI. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was localized in the nucleus. TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat plants were generated, characterized molecularly, and evaluated for take-all resistance. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that TiMYB2R-1 was integrated into the genomes of three independent transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns and the transgene was heritable. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was highly expressed in the transgenic wheat lines. Based on disease response assessments for three successive generations, the significantly enhanced resistance to take-all was observed in the three TiMYB2R-1-overexpressing transgenic wheat lines. Furthermore, the transcript levels of at least six wheat defence-related genes were significantly elevated in the TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat lines. These results suggest that engineering and overexpression of TiMYB2R-1 may be used for improving take-all resistance of wheat and other cereal crops.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of genes related to resistance against powdery mildew in wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanquan; Niu, Zubiao; Bao, Yinguang; Tian, Qiuju; Wang, Honggang; Kong, Lingrang; Feng, Deshun

    2016-09-15

    Wheat powdery mildew, which is mainly caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), seriously damages wheat production. The wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306, being one of the important sources of genes for wheat resistance, is highly resistant to Bgt E09 and to many other powdery mildew physiological races. However, knowledge on the resistance mechanism of SN6306 remains limited. Our study employed high-throughput RNA sequencing based on next-generation sequencing technology (Illumina) to obtain an overview of the transcriptome characteristics of SN6306 and its parent wheat Yannong 15 (YN15) during Bgt infection. The sequencing generated 104,773 unigenes, 9909 of which showed varied expression levels. Among the 9909 unigenes, 1678 unigenes showed 0 reads in YN15. The expression levels in Bgt-inoculated SN6306 and YN15 of exactly 39 unigenes that showed 0 or considerably low reads in YN15 were validated to identify the genes involved in Bgt resistance. Among the 39 unigenes, 12 unigenes were upregulated in SN6306 by 3-45 times. These unigenes mainly encoded kinase, synthase, proteases, and signal transduction proteins, which may play an important role in the resistance against Bgt. To confirm whether the unigenes that showed 0 reads in YN15 are really unique to SN6306, 8 unigenes were cloned and sequenced. Results showed that the selected unigenes are more similar to SN6306 and Th. intermedium than to the wheat cultivar YN15. The sequencing results further confirmed that the unigenes showing 0 reads in YN15 are unique to SN6306 and are most likely derived from Th. intermedium (Host) Nevski. Thus, the genes from Th. intermedium most probably conferred the resistance of SN6306 to Bgt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrasting patterns of evolution of 45S and 5S rDNA families uncover new aspects in the genome constitution of the agronomically important grass Thinopyrum intermedium (Triticeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecky, David; Baum, Bernard R

    2013-09-01

    We employed sequencing of clones and in situ hybridization (genomic and fluorescent in situ hybridization [GISH and rDNA-FISH]) to characterize both the sequence variation and genomic organization of 45S (herein ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) and 5S (5S gene + nontranscribed spacer) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) families in the allohexaploid grass Thinopyrum intermedium. Both rDNA families are organized within several rDNA loci within all three subgenomes of the allohexaploid species. Both families have undergone different patterns of evolution. The 45S rDNA family has evolved in a concerted manner: internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences residing within the arrays of two subgenomes out of three got homogenized toward one major ribotype, whereas the third subgenome contained a minor proportion of distinct unhomogenized copies. Homogenization mechanisms such as unequal crossover and/or gene conversion were coupled with the loss of certain 45S rDNA loci. Unlike in the 45S family, the data suggest that neither interlocus homogenization among homeologous chromosomes nor locus loss occurred in 5S rDNA. Consistently with other Triticeae, the 5S rDNA family in intermediate wheatgrass comprised two distinct array types-the long- and short-spacer unit classes. Within the long and short units, we distinguished five and three different types, respectively, likely representing homeologous unit classes donated by putative parental species. Although the major ITS ribotype corresponds in our phylogenetic analysis to the E-genome species, the minor ribotype corresponds to Dasypyrum. 5S sequences suggested the contributions from Pseudoroegneria, Dasypyrum, and Aegilops. The contribution from Aegilops to the intermediate wheatgrass' genome is a new finding with implications in wheat improvement. We discuss rDNA evolution and potential origin of intermediate wheatgrass.

  12. Chemical effects on controlling of Rhododendron ponticum L. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and each one contained 30 sampling plots; roundup ® (glyphosate) and Arsenal ® (imazapyr) herbicides were used in different concentrations. Measurements were performed after the treatment on dead, dying and active stumps; average stump height and diameter, weak/very weak and active resprouts, average sprout's ...

  13. ThMYC4E, candidate Blue aleurone 1 gene controlling the associated trait in Triticum aestivum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Blue aleurone is a useful and interesting trait in common wheat that was derived from related species. Here, transcriptomes of blue and white aleurone were compared for isolating Blue aleurone 1 (Ba1 transferred from Thinopyrum ponticum. In the genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, only a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor, ThMYC4E, had a higher transcript level in blue aleurone phenotype, and was homologous to the genes on chromosome 4 of Triticum aestivum. ThMYC4E carried the characteristic domains (bHLH-MYC_N, HLH and ACT-like of a bHLH transcription factor, and clustered with genes regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis upon phylogenetic analysis. The over-expression of ThMYC4E regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis with the coexpression of the MYB transcription factor ZmC1 from maize. ThMYC4E existed in the genomes of the addition, substitution and near isogenic lines with the blue aleurone trait derived from Th. ponticum, and could not be detected in any germplasm of T. urartu, T. monococcum, T. turgidum, Aegilops tauschii or T. aestivum, with white aleurone. These results suggested that ThMYC4E was candidate Ba1 gene controlling the blue aleurone trait in T. aestivum genotypes carrying Th. ponticum introgression. The ThMYC4E isolation aids in better understanding the genetic mechanisms of the blue aleurone trait and in its more effective use during wheat breeding.

  14. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat–Thinopyrum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... ... have supported the development of several wheat germplasms that are in use ... Li, formerly of the Northwest Institute of Botany, Chinese. Academy of ... Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes maintained at 4. ◦. C for ∼24 h ...

  15. Marker-assisted pyramiding of Thinopyrum-derived leaf rust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mona Singh

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... Abstract. This study was undertaken to pyramid two effective leaf rust resistance genes (Lr19 and Lr24) derived from ... genes such as Lr9, Lr19, Lr26 and Lr28 became ineffective ..... Disease management recommendations.

  16. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat–Thinopyrum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FANG HE

    ... have supported the development of several wheat germplasms that are in use ... Li, formerly of the Northwest Institute of Botany, Chinese. Academy of Sciences ... Cytogenetic analysis. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes maintained at 4.

  17. Differential transferability of EST-SSR primers developed from diploid species Pseudoroegneria spicata, Thinopyrum bessarabicum, and Th. elongatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simple sequence repeat technology based on expressed sequence tag (EST-SSR) is a useful genomic tool for genome mapping, characterizing plant species relationships, elucidating genome evolution, and tracing genes on alien chromosome segments. EST-SSR primers developed from three perennial diploid T...

  18. The Performance of Early-Generation Perennial Winter Cereals at 21 Sites across Four Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Hayes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A network of 21 experiments was established across nine countries on four continents and spanning both hemispheres, to evaluate the relative performance of early generation perennial cereal material derived from wheat, rye, and barley and to inform future breeding strategies. The experimental lines were grown in replicated single rows, and first year production and phenology characteristics as well as yield and persistence for up to three years were monitored. The study showed that the existing experimental material is all relatively short-lived (≤3 years, with environments that are milder in summer and winter generally conferring greater longevity. No pedigree was superior across this diverse network of sites although better performing lines at the higher latitude sites were generally derived from Thinopyrum intermedium. By contrast, at lower latitudes the superior lines were generally derived from Th. ponticum and Th. elongatum parentage. The study observed a poor relationship between year 1 performance and productivity in later years, highlighting the need for perennial cereal material with greater longevity to underpin future experimental evaluation, and the importance for breeding programs to emphasize post-year 1 performance in their selections. Hybrid lines derived from the tetraploid durum wheat generally showed greater longevity than derivatives of hexaploid wheat, highlighting potential for greater use of Triticum turgidum in perennial wheat breeding. We advocate a model in future breeding initiatives that develops perennial cereal genotypes for specific target environments rather than a generic product for one global market. These products may include a diversity of cultivars derived from locally adapted annual and perennial parents. In this scenario the breeding program may have access to only a limited range of adapted perennial grass parents. In other situations, such as at very high latitude environments, perennial crops derived

  19. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel wheat-Agropyron elongatum chromosome translocation line with powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Xiangdong; Song, Jie; Ren, Cuicui; Xiao, Yajuan; Gao, Xiaohui; Ru, Zhengang

    2017-01-01

    Agropyron elongatum (Host.) Neviski (synonym, Thinopyrum ponticum Podp., 2n = 70) has been used extensively as a valuable source for wheat breeding. Numerous chromosome fragments containing valuable genes have been successfully translocated into wheat from A. elongatum. However, reports on the transfer of powdery mildew resistance from A. elongatum to wheat are rare. In this study, a novel wheat-A. elongatum translocation line, 11-20-1, developed and selected from the progenies of a sequential cross between wheat varieties (Lankaoaizaoba, Keyu 818 and BainongAK 58) and A. elongatum, was evaluated for disease resistance and characterized using molecular cytogenetic methods. Cytological observations indicated that 11-20-1 had 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis using whole genomic DNA from A. elongatum as a probe showed that the short arms of a pair of wheat chromosomes were replaced by a pair of A. elongatum chromosome arms. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, using wheat D chromosome specific sequence pAs1 as a probe, suggested that the replaced chromosome arms of 11-20-1 were 5DS. This was further confirmed by wheat SSR markers specific for 5DS. EST-SSR and EST-STS multiple loci markers confirmed that the introduced A. elongatum chromosome arms belonged to homoeologous group 5. Therefore, it was deduced that 11-20-1 was a wheat-A. elongatum T5DL∙5AgS translocation line. Both resistance observation and molecular marker analyses using two specific markers (BE443538 and CD452608) of A. elongatum in a F2 population from a cross between line 11-20-1 and a susceptible cultivar Yannong 19 verified that the A. elongatum chromosomes were responsible for the powdery mildew resistance. This work suggests that 11-20-1 likely contains a novel resistance gene against powdery mildew. We expect this line to be useful for the genetic improvement of wheat.

  20. Grazing as an alternative for utilization of saline-sodic soils in the San Joaquin Valley: Selenium accretion and performance of beef heifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchem, Sergio O., E-mail: sdjuchem@gmail.com [Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Plant Science, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740-8033 (United States); Benes, Sharon E. [Department of Plant Science, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740-8033 (United States); Robinson, P.H. [Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Grattan, Stephen R. [Department of Land and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Vasquez, Pablo [Department of Plant Science, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740-8033 (United States); Chilibroste, Pablo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria, Paysandu (Uruguay); Brito, Martin [Department of Plant Science, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740-8033 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate Se accumulation and health of non-pregnant, non-breeding beef cattle grazing on forages with a high Se content due to irrigation with saline drainage water. Heifers grazed experimental pastures of 'Jose' tall wheatgrass (TWG; Thinopyrum ponticum var. 'Jose') and creeping wildrye (CWR; Leymus triticoides var. 'Rio') for190 days in Experiment 1 (2007) and for 165 days in Experiment 2 (2008). In experiment 1, mean Se concentrations were similar in TWG and CWR herbage (4.0 versus 3.7 {+-} 0.26 mg/kg dry weight; p = 0.34) as was crude protein (113 versus 114 {+-} 7.9 g/kg dry weight; p = 0.94). Concentrations of Se in blood increased by 300% during the grazing period, and were similar for heifers grazing the TWG or CWR pastures (0.94 versus 0.87 {+-} 0.03 mg/kg; p = 0.89). Heifers grazing on TWG gained more body weight than did heifers grazing on CWR (0.59 versus 0.27 {+-} 0.07 kg/days; p < 0.01). In experiment 2, concentration of Se (4.0 versus 2.8 mg/kg {+-} 0.19 mg/kg dry weight; p < 0.01) and crude protein (79 versus 90 {+-} 5.6 g/kg dry weight; p < 0.01) differed, for TWG and CWR, respectively. Within 20 days, Se concentrations in blood had increased by 300% and by nearly 200% in heifers grazing on TWG or CWR. All data cited are least square means {+-} standard error of the mean. Data from our two grazing seasons are consistent in demonstrating the safety of grazing beef cattle for a period of up to 6 months on TWG and CWR forages having high levels of Se due to irrigation with saline drainage water. This suggests that forage production using saline drainage water is a viable alternative for saline soils with limited potential for producing high value, salt-sensitive, crops. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forages irrigated with saline drainage water may contain high levels of selenium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High concentration of selenium in forages can be toxic to grazing

  1. Grazing as an alternative for utilization of saline-sodic soils in the San Joaquin Valley: Selenium accretion and performance of beef heifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juchem, Sérgio O.; Benes, Sharon E.; Robinson, P.H.; Grattan, Stephen R.; Vasquez, Pablo; Chilibroste, Pablo; Brito, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate Se accumulation and health of non-pregnant, non-breeding beef cattle grazing on forages with a high Se content due to irrigation with saline drainage water. Heifers grazed experimental pastures of “Jose” tall wheatgrass (TWG; Thinopyrum ponticum var. “Jose”) and creeping wildrye (CWR; Leymus triticoides var. “Rio”) for190 days in Experiment 1 (2007) and for 165 days in Experiment 2 (2008). In experiment 1, mean Se concentrations were similar in TWG and CWR herbage (4.0 versus 3.7 ± 0.26 mg/kg dry weight; p = 0.34) as was crude protein (113 versus 114 ± 7.9 g/kg dry weight; p = 0.94). Concentrations of Se in blood increased by 300% during the grazing period, and were similar for heifers grazing the TWG or CWR pastures (0.94 versus 0.87 ± 0.03 mg/kg; p = 0.89). Heifers grazing on TWG gained more body weight than did heifers grazing on CWR (0.59 versus 0.27 ± 0.07 kg/days; p < 0.01). In experiment 2, concentration of Se (4.0 versus 2.8 mg/kg ± 0.19 mg/kg dry weight; p < 0.01) and crude protein (79 versus 90 ± 5.6 g/kg dry weight; p < 0.01) differed, for TWG and CWR, respectively. Within 20 days, Se concentrations in blood had increased by 300% and by nearly 200% in heifers grazing on TWG or CWR. All data cited are least square means ± standard error of the mean. Data from our two grazing seasons are consistent in demonstrating the safety of grazing beef cattle for a period of up to 6 months on TWG and CWR forages having high levels of Se due to irrigation with saline drainage water. This suggests that forage production using saline drainage water is a viable alternative for saline soils with limited potential for producing high value, salt-sensitive, crops. - Highlights: ► Forages irrigated with saline drainage water may contain high levels of selenium. ► High concentration of selenium in forages can be toxic to grazing cattle. ► Cattle accumulated high levels of selenium in blood, liver and muscle

  2. Resistance to Penicillium allii in accessions from a National Plant Germplasm System Allium collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accessions of Allium sativum (garlic), A. ampeloprasum (elephant garlic) and A. acuminatum, A. aflatunense, A. atroviolaceum, A. canadense, A. longicuspis, A. moly, A. ponticum, A. roseum, A. scorodoprasum, A. senescens, A. stipitatum, and Allium sp. (wild or ornamental species) were screened for re...

  3. Effects of temperature on germination of sporangia, infection and protein secretion by Phytophthora kernoviae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora kernoviae has been reported to cause bleeding stem lesions and foliar necrosis on a wide range of species, with little knowledge of the optimal conditions for infection. Detached Rhododendron ponticum leaves were inoculated with six different isolates of P. kernoviae sporangia and set ...

  4. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assisted pyramiding of Thinopyrum -derived leaf rust resistance genes Lr19 and Lr24 in bread wheat variety HD2733 · MONA SINGH N. MALLICK S. CHAND P. KUMARI J. B. SHARMA M. SIVASAMY P. JAYAPRAKASH K. V. PRABHU S. K. JHA ...

  5. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marker-assisted pyramiding of Thinopyrum -derived leaf rust resistance genes Lr19 and Lr24 in bread wheat variety HD2733 · MONA SINGH N. MALLICK S. CHAND P. KUMARI J. B. SHARMA M. SIVASAMY P. JAYAPRAKASH K. V. PRABHU S. K. JHA VINOD · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. This study was undertaken ...

  6. Uncovering the genetic architecture of seed weight and size in intermediate wheatgrass through linkage and association mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG); Thinopyrum intermedium) is being developed as a new perennial grain crop that has a large allohexaploid genome similar to that of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Breeding for increased seed weight is one of the primary goals for improving grain yield of IWG. As a new crop, ...

  7. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. P. JAYAPRAKASH. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 951-957 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Marker-assisted pyramiding of Thinopyrum -derived leaf rust resistance genes Lr19 and Lr24 in bread wheat variety HD2733 · MONA SINGH N. MALLICK ...

  8. Molecular cytogenetic (FISH and genome analysis of diploid wheatgrasses and their phylogenetic relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Linc

    Full Text Available This paper reports detailed FISH-based karyotypes for three diploid wheatgrass species Agropyron cristatum (L. Beauv., Thinopyrum bessarabicum (Savul.&Rayss A. Löve, Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh A. Löve, the supposed ancestors of hexaploid Thinopyrum intermedium (Host Barkworth & D.R.Dewey, compiled using DNA repeats and comparative genome analysis based on COS markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with repetitive DNA probes proved suitable for the identification of individual chromosomes in the diploid JJ, StSt and PP genomes. Of the seven microsatellite markers tested only the (GAAn trinucleotide sequence was appropriate for use as a single chromosome marker for the P. spicata AS chromosome. Based on COS marker analysis, the phylogenetic relationship between diploid wheatgrasses and the hexaploid bread wheat genomes was established. These findings confirmed that the J and E genomes are in neighbouring clusters.

  9. Síndrome de eagle: revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Lacet de LIMA JR, José; Ferreira ROCHA, Julierme; Dias RIBEIRO, Eduardo; Santos Costa, Vânio; Marques DE SOUSA, Eliane

    2007-01-01

    El síndrome de Eagle, también conocido como el síndrome estiloide, síndrome de la arteria carótida o síndrome del proceso estiloide alargado y huesificado, consiste en el alargamiento del proceso estiloide o en la hosificación del ligamento estilóideo, produciendo dolores estimulados por los nervios cranianos y sensoriales. El objetivo del presente estudio es realizar una revisión de literatura, enfatizando peculiaridades sobre la anatomía, embriología, etiología, diagnóstico diferencial, sin...

  10. Dos nuevas Bignoniáceas del Valle del Magdalena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1942-11-01

    Full Text Available Memora Romeroi: La especie aquí descrita pertenece a la sección Eumemora K. Schum. y es muy afín, según descripción, a M. caracasana K. Schum., de Venezuela, pero se distingue principalmente por tener racimos florales mucho más alargados, geminados y axilares, con 8, 12 a más flores opuestas, y por las brácteas infracalicinales de forma anchamente espatulada. Además, el cáliz y la corola son más cortos, particularmente el tubo basilar de esta última. EI raquis foliar y especialmente los peciolulos de M. Romeroi son diminutamente pubérulos, al menos durante mucho tiempo, y esta pubescencia menuda se presenta también en el raquis floral. / Tanaecium exitiosum: El doctor Rafael Mora, colector de esta muy interesante nueva especie, anota lo siguiente: "Arbusto que alcanza una altura de 2 metros; ocasionalmente crece más, arrollándose como bejuco a las otras plantas; las flores son de color blanco y de aspecto tubular alargado. La planta es abundante en las regiones secas de Barranca Bermeja y hay potreros que están completamente invadidos por ella".

  11. Overexpression of TiERF1 enhances resistance to sharp eyespot in transgenic wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, ZengYan; Liang, HongXia; Liu, HongXia; Du, LiPu; Xu, Huijun; Xin, Zhiyong

    2008-01-01

    Wheat sharp eyespot, primarily caused by a soil-borne fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, has become one of the most serious diseases of wheat in China. In this study, an ethylene response factor (ERF) gene from a wheat relative Thinopyrum intermedium, TiERF1, was characterized further, transgenic wheat lines expressing TiERF1 were developed, and the resistance of the transgenic wheat lines against R. cerealis was investigated. Southern blotting analysis indicated that at least two copies of the TiE...

  12. Application of DNA RFLP procedures in interspecific gene transfer: The Lr19 translocation of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, R.; Marais, G.F.; Marais, A.S.; Pretorius, Z.A.; Janse, B.J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-nine lines with deletions in the Lr19 ('Indis') translocated chromosome segment were used to physically map Thinopyrum Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) loci as well as the Sr25 and Sdl loci. The relative distances between marker loci on the translocation were then calculated. The information was then used as an aid to characterize several recombined forms of the translocation. The data confirmed the reported homoeology between the Lr19 segment and chromosome arm 7DL of wheat. Also, it seems that the Lr19 translocation in 'Indis' is very similar to the Lr19 segment in the T4 source and that the former may not derive from Thinopyrum distichum. Near-isogenic lines of the recombined segments were derived and used to study their expression of leaf rust resistance. It became evident that only one potentially useful recombinant was obtained in an earlier attempt to induce allosyndetic pairing between the Lr19 translocation and 7DL of wheat. (author)

  13. Caracterización de Tagetes filifolia del centro-sur de México por morfometría de los aquenios Characterization of Tagetes filifolia from central-south Mexico by morphometric achene traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Núñez-Colín

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tagetes filifolia Lag. es una especie ruderal ampliamente distribuida en México de la cual se empieza a conocer su variabilidad morfológica, como parte de una serie de estudios relacionados con su posible domesticación para obtener biopesticidas. Para ampliar el conocimiento sobre este recurso vegetal se definieron mediante 11 características del aquenio 104 recolecciones del centro-sur de México empleando una técnica digital de imágenes. Se identificaron 5 diferentes grupos morfológicos. El Grupo I presentó recolecciones con aquenios pequeños y anchos; el Grupo II, aquenios grandes y anchos; el Grupo III, aquenios pequeños y alargados; el Grupo IV, aquenios grandes y alargados, y el Grupo V, aquenios grandes pero más alargados que los del Grupo IV. Las variables más discriminantes fueron el índice de alargamiento, índice de compactación, índice de redondez, relación eje menor/ eje mayor para la raíz canónica 1, y perímetro longitudinal y longitud del eje mayor para la raíz canónica 2. La gran variabilidad de las características de la forma y tamaño de los aquenios de T. filifolia se pudo agrupar en 5 morfotipos, los cuales no estuvieron presentes en toda la región centro-sur de México.Tagetes filifolia Lag. is a ruderal species widely distributed in Mexico from which is starting to make knowledge about its morphological variability as a part of a study sequence related with its possible domestication to obtain biopesticides. For acquiring more knowledge on this plant resource, 104 accessions from central-south Mexico were morphologically characterized by 11 achene traits employing a digital images technique. Five different morphologic groups were identified. Group I had accessions with small and wide achenes, group II had big and wide achenes, group III had small and long achenes, group IV had big and long achenes, and group V had big achenes but longer than group IV. The most discriminant variables were elongation

  14. Papel do ultrassom 3D e 4D no diagnóstico pré-natal de síndrome de Apert

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    Rosilene Silveira Betat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gestante de 25 anos vem encaminhada à avaliação na medicina fetal por diagnóstico desde o seu nascimento de síndrome de Apert. Ela possui formato anormal do crânio com turricefalia, hipertelorismo (distâncias orbitais interna e externa aumentadas, fendas palpebrais oblíquas para baixo, maloclusões dentárias, fenda palatina, prognatismo, sindactilia/fusão de dedos das mãos e dos pés (na mão, sindactilia total do segundo ao quarto dedos e parcial entre quarto e quinto dedos, sendo que muitos dos dedos já foram separados cirurgicamente, e, no pé, sindactilia total entre segundo, terceiro, quarto e quinto pododáctilos e parcial entre primeiro e segundo bilateralmente, polegares largos e desviados lateralmente e háluces também alargados e desviados medialmente.

  15. Estrelas variáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Sérgio Manuel de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    A observação do céu nocturno é uma prática que vem da Antiguidade. Desde então e durante muito tempo pensou-se que as estrelas mantinham o brilho constante. Assim foi até ao século XVI, quando David Fabricius observou uma estrela cujo brilho variava periodicamente. Dois séculos mais tarde, Jonh Goodricke descobriu uma segunda estrela e com o desenvolvimento de instrumentos de observação este conjunto foi muito alargado e hoje inclui o Sol.A variação do brilho das estrelas variáveis permite d...

  16. Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerenquima Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerénquima

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    González Elena

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available An anatomy study was made of following wood easy-to-root species: Aucuba japonica Thunb., Buddleja  japonica Hemsley,  Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium.  L., Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil.,  Cvdonia oblonga Miller,  Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L., Populus nigra L.,  Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix  viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. and Symphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake.  It was observed the presence or absence of a discontinous sclerenchyma ring so the species studied had not a mechanical barrier to the emergence of adventitious roots. Se realizó un estudio histológico de las siguientes especies leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Aucuba japonica Thumb, Buddleja japonica Hemsley, Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon (L. Burm, fil., Cydonia oblonga Miller, Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L. Populus nigra L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. y Syrnphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake. Se observó la presencia o ausencia de un anillo discontinuo de esclerénquima, por lo tanto dichas especies no poseen ningún impedimento mecánico para la emergencia de las raíces adventicias.

  17. Drought and frost tolerance in rhododendron collection of the Mlyňany Arboretum (Slovakia: a screening for future climate

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    Ferus Peter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons are jewels of the Mlyňany Arboretum, Institute of Forest Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (IFE SAS. Blossoming in May, they attract thousands of visitors. But recently these woody plants have much suffered from climatic extremes such as summer droughts and winter frosts, associated with the advancing climate change. To assess the rhododendron collection’s stability, its drought and frost injury level were tested in field, in summer 2015 and winter 2017, respectively. The tested parameters were: leaf wilting and electrolyte leakage combined with shrub leaf area, insolation level and overall health state. We found that the drought effect was strong or very strong in only ca. 30% rhododendron species and ca. 10% rhododendron cultivars, and that around 60% shrubs showed no or only moderate symptoms of water deficit. The drought injury level was only associated with the genotype. The most tolerant / sensitive genotypes, commonly occurring in the park, were: R. catawbiense, R. ponticum, R. smirnowii, cv. ‘Boursault’, cv. ‘Cunningham’s White’ and cv. ‘Purpureum Elegans’ / R. fortunei and cv. ‘Tamarindos’. On the other hand, the most frequent response to frost in the observed rhododendron genotypes was moderate injury (28 and 37% for species and cultivars, respectively, nevertheless more than 18% species and almost 6% cultivars exhibited strong frost damage. Despite absence of significant differences in the factor-response between the species, we may suggest this decreasing sequence of the genotypes ordered according to their frost resistance: genotypes: cv. ‘Cunningham’s White’ > R. decorum > R. fortunei and cv. ‘Duke of York’ > R. smirnowii > cvs. ‘Purpureum Elegans’ and ‘Tamarindos’ > R. macrophyllum and cv. ‘Nova Zembla’ > R. catawbiense > R. ponticum. These results have been compared with similar works in rhododendron species/cultivars as well as suggested species drought

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11598-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EF534375 |pid:none) Thinopyrum intermedium SGT1 cDNA, ... 49 2e-04 AY365188_1( AY365188 |pid:none) Nicotiana...hqi*nn*lnn*fkkk--- ---skry**yapiyilqlhmvidh*h*n*ln*dqm*mlqqmmaqpplhiatdaedieick sliekgailkmdsdgltpl... Ear... 50 0.13 1 ( EK177296 ) 1095458104244 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1....7 (Q9D4H7) RecName: Full=LON peptidase N-terminal domain and RING ... 57 5e-07 AE014188_398( AE014188 |pid:n... homolog B; Short=... 53 1e-05 (Q496Y0) RecName: Full=LON peptidase N-terminal domain and RING ... 53 1e-05

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11104-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 29085_1( AF129085 |pid:none) Homo sapiens carboxy terminus of H... 52 3e-05 ( P53...ium erythraeum IMS101... 48 3e-04 EF534375_1( EF534375 |pid:none) Thinopyrum intermedium SGT1 cDNA, ... 48 3....004 4 ( EX867252 ) AUAO2324.fwd AUAO Karenia brevis Karbr Dark-phase... 44 0.007 2 ( ER272186 ) 1095527125230 Global-Ocean-Sampli...ng_GS-33-01-01-1... 44 0.008 2 ( EK698342 ) 1092403983752 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-33-...3e-08 AK291555_1( AK291555 |pid:none) Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ76863 complet... 62 3e-08 ( O54981 ) RecName: Full=Stress-induced

  20. PRINCIPALES ASPECTOS MORFOMÉTRICOS DE LA CIÉNAGA DE CACHIMBERO, SANTANDER – COLOMBIA.

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    BENJUMEA HOYOS CARLOS AUGUSTO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el mapa batimétrico y algunos aspectos morfométricos relevantes de la ciénaga de Cachimbero. Es un sistema tropical somero con profundidad media de 1,83 m. La forma de esta ciénaga, basados en la curva hipsográfica relativa del área frente a la profundidad es cóncava (C. La ciénaga posee altos valores de los parámetros índice de desarrollo del volumen (Vd y la relación de profundidad (cociente profundidad media / profundidad máxima, Dmed / Dmáx, esto refleja su morfometría con un fondo relativamente plano y pendientes pronunciadas desde las orillas hacia el fondo. La ciénaga es de tipo alargado, característica que es corroborada con el índice de desarrollo del perímetro o de la línea costera (F, el cual es superior a la unidad. El valor de este parámetro indica la gran influencia de los factores externos sobre la dinámica de la ciénaga.

  1. RELAÇÃO ENTRE O ESTADO PSICOSSOCIAL DO CUIDADOR INFORMAL E O TEMPO DE CUIDADO DOS IDOSOS DA REGIÃO CENTRO DE PORTUGAL

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    Ricardo Pocinho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O papel desempenhado pela família e cuidadores no tratamento dos idosos é essencial para a promoção e manutenção da sua qualidade de vida, garantindo a sua manutenção do domicílio por um período de tempo mais alargado. Objetivo: Compreender a existência da sobrecarga do cuidador informal e os fatores associados (apoio disponíveis e perfil, bem como estudar o estabelecimento relacional entre o tempo e a sobrecarga. Metodologia: Um questionário de dados sociodemográficos e QASCI (Questionário de Avaliação da Sobrecarga do Cuidador Informal aplicado a 30 cuidadores da região centro de Portuga. Resultados: São caraterísticas do perfil do cuidador, 45 anos, casado, existência de coabitação e razões relacionadas com o dever e a ligação emocional subjacente.

  2. OS DIREITOS HUMANOS E DO AMBIENTE NA ENCRUZILHADA DO NEOCONSTITUCIONALISMO COM O NOVO CONSTITUCIONALISMO LATINO-AMERICANO

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    Marco Anthony Steveson Villas Boas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A construção do sistema de proteção do ambiente como direito humano, integrante da terceira dimensão ou geração de direitos, alicerçado na responsabilidade solidária e no dever fundamental de o Estado protegê-lo, procurou garantir a qualidade de vida e a dignidade do homem, e bem assim a própria sobrevivência do ser humano no Planeta. No entanto, o antropocentrismo eurocêntrico, alargado pelo Direito Internacional e incorporado por diversas Constituições latino-americanas, não tem alcançado força normativa para proteger minorias étnicas, como indígenas e populações tradicionais. Essa baixa normatividade e as diferenças populacionais da América Latina trouxeram, para o plano do Direito Constitucional, novas propostas de proteção à natureza, conferindo-lhe direitos a partir de uma cosmovisão indígena biocêntrica, de matriz pluralista, a qual quer sobrepor-se ao monismo antropocêntrico. Todavia, deixam o constitucionalismo latino-americano em verdadeira encruzilhada.

  3. Anatomía visceral de Feylinia grandisquamis (Squamata: Scincidae. Comparaciones con otros escamados de patrón corporal semejante

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    Díaz Gómez, Juan Manuel

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Feylinia grandisquamis es un síncido africano caracterizado por contar con el cuerpo alargado y las extremidades ausentes. En el presente trabajo se describe en detalle la anatomía de las vísceras de Feylinia grandisquamis, y algunos aspectos de su variación intraespecífica. Los resultados se comparan con otro género de Scincidae (Anomalopus y representantes de grandes grupos de escamados que exhiben patrones corporales semejantes (Lialis burtonis, Amphisbaena darwinii, Boa constrictor, Ophiodes striatus, Anguis fragilis. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: a determinar la morfología de las vísceras de Feylinia; b los aspectos de su variación intraespecífica; c discutir convergencias y paralelismos con Saurios, Anfisbénidos y Ofidios. Feylinia grandisquamis is an African Scincid characterized for a snakeshaped body and total absence of limbs. In this work the visceral anatomy of Feylinia grandisquamis is described, as well as aspects of its intraspecific variation. The results are compared with another scincid (Anomalopus and representatives of other Squamate groups with similar body plans (Lialis burtonis, Amphisbaena darwinii, Boa constrictor, Ophiodes striatus, Anguis fragilis. The objectives were: a To determine the visceral anatomy of Feylinia; b The aspects of its intraespecific variation; and c Discuss convergences and parallelisms with possible occurrence in Lizards, Amphisbaenids and Ophidia.

  4. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A role of periaqueductal grey NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in mediating persistent inflammatory pain

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    Yang Qi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The present study was undertaken to investigate NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and their modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Noxious stimuli induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA caused up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG, while NR2A-containing NMDA receptors were not altered. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that NMDA receptor mediated mEPSCs were increased significantly in the PAG synapse during the chronic phases of inflammatory pain in mice. PAG local infusion of Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in rats. Hyperoside (Hyp, one of the flavonoids compound isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., significantly reversed up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and exhibited analgesic activities against persistent inflammatory stimuli in mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG involves in the modulation to the peripheral persistent inflammatory pain.

  6. Species distribution model transferability and model grain size - finer may not always be better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Syed Amir; Griffiths, Geoffrey; Lukac, Martin

    2018-05-08

    Species distribution models have been used to predict the distribution of invasive species for conservation planning. Understanding spatial transferability of niche predictions is critical to promote species-habitat conservation and forecasting areas vulnerable to invasion. Grain size of predictor variables is an important factor affecting the accuracy and transferability of species distribution models. Choice of grain size is often dependent on the type of predictor variables used and the selection of predictors sometimes rely on data availability. This study employed the MAXENT species distribution model to investigate the effect of the grain size on model transferability for an invasive plant species. We modelled the distribution of Rhododendron ponticum in Wales, U.K. and tested model performance and transferability by varying grain size (50 m, 300 m, and 1 km). MAXENT-based models are sensitive to grain size and selection of variables. We found that over-reliance on the commonly used bioclimatic variables may lead to less accurate models as it often compromises the finer grain size of biophysical variables which may be more important determinants of species distribution at small spatial scales. Model accuracy is likely to increase with decreasing grain size. However, successful model transferability may require optimization of model grain size.

  7. Larval development of Evermannia zosterura (Perciformes: Gobiidae

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    Enrique González-Navarro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La familia Gobiidae es la más diversa de los peces en el mundo con casi 2 000 especies, sin embargo solo el 11% de ellos han sido descritos en sus estadios larvarios. El conocimiento del ciclo de vida completo es esencial para entender la biología y ecología de este importante grupo de peces. Muestras de zooplancton obtenidas de la Ensenada de La Paz, México, mostraron la presencia de varias larvas y juveniles de Gobiidae, las cuales fueron identificadas como Evermania zosterura. El principal objetivo de este trabajo fue describir los estadios larvarios de esta especie ampliamente distribuida en el Pacífico tropical Oriental. Se describió el desarrollo larvario de E. zosterura con base en 66 especímenes recolectados en la Ensenada de La Paz, México. Sólo 53 especímenes se usaron para describir la morfometría y el patrón de pigmentación, mientras que 13 ejemplares transparentados y teñidos se utilizaron para obtener las características merísticas. Los especímenes transparentados tuvieron de 30 a 31 vertebras totales; los elementos de las aletas dorsales fueron IV; I, 13-14, los de la aleta anal I, 13-14 y la mayoría tuvo una formula pterigiofórica de 4-111100. La combinación de estas características, confirmó que pertenecen a E. zosterura. El patrón de pigmentación es muy similar a lo largo del desarrollo. Las larvas se caracterizan por tener de tres a cinco melanóforos de tipo dendrítico sobre el borde ventral post-anal, de cuatro a nueve melanóforos más pequeños sobre el borde ventral pre-anal, entre el istmo y el ano, otro melanóforo se presenta a la mitad del margen dorsal de la cola. Hay una pequeña mancha de pigmento en el ángulo de la maxila y otra en la punta del labio inferior. Hay un pigmento interno alargado por debajo de la notocorda, entre la cabeza y la vejiga natatoria. La flexión de la notocorda se inicia a los 3.5mm BL y termina a los 4.6mm BL; la transformación al estadio juvenil es cercana a

  8. Stabilization of MgCr2O4 spinel in slags of the
    SiO2-CaO-MgO-Cr2O3 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arredondo-Torres, V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el efecto del contenido de MgO y la basicidad de la escoria sobre la estabilidad de las especies mineralógicas del sistema de escoria SiO2-CaOMgO-
    Cr2O3. Se realizaron ensayos al equilibrio a 1600 °C bajo condiciones reductoras (pO2=10-9atm. El contenido de MgO fue de 0 a 12 % masa, el Cr2O3 de 10% y la basicidad de 1 y 1,5. También se realizó un análisis termodinámico para determinar las fases mineralógicas más estables en la escoria. Los resultados experimentales y calculados muestran que el Cr2O3 se encuentra principalmente ligado en una fase espinela MgCr2O4, incluso a bajos contenidos de MgO. Los resultados obtenidos por microscopia electrónica de barrido (MEB-EDS, muestran la evidencia de tres estructuras cristalinas: (A Octaedros, los cuales
    corresponden a la espinela MgCr2O4, (B Cristales alargados que corresponden a la formación de silicatos cálcicos y (C Matriz de silicatos cálcicos con impurezas de Mg y Cr que no cristalizaron por completo.

    El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el efecto del contenido de MgO y la basicidad de la escoria sobre la estabilidad de las especies mineralógicas del sistema de escoria SiO2-CaOMgO-Cr2O3. Se realizaron ensayos al equilibrio a 1600 °C bajo condiciones reductoras (pO2=10-9atm. El contenido de MgO fue de 0 a 12 % masa, el Cr2O3 de 10% y la basicidad de 1 y 1,5. También se realizó un análisis termodinámico para determinar las fases mineralógicas más estables en la escoria. Los resultados experimentales y calculados muestran que el Cr2O3 se encuentra principalmente ligado en una fase espinela MgCr2O4, incluso a bajos contenidos de MgO. Los resultados obtenidos por

  9. Aspectos ecológicos y distribución de Tropaeolum tuberosum ssp. silvestre (Tropaeolaceae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bulacio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz et Pav. ssp. silvestre Sparre es una hierba rizomatosa trepadora que en Argentina fue encontrada en las Sierras de Calilegua (Jujuy y en áreas montanas de Catamarca, aunque de esta última localidad sólo se conoce un único e incompleto ejemplar. Habita quebradas húmedas, entre los 2.100 y 2.650 m s.n.m., en el límite superior del bosque montano. El tallo es grácil de hasta 3 m de largo y la porción subterránea está constituida por rizomas alargados y de hasta 1 cm de diámetro. Estas son las principales diferencias con la ssp. tuberosum, en la cual el tallo es más corto, erguido y desarrolla tubérculos bien definidos.Ecological features and distribution of Tropaeolum tuberosum ssp. silvestre (Tropaeolaceae in Argentina. Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz et Pav. ssp. silvestre Sparre is a rhizomatous climbing herb that in Argentina was found in the Sierras of Calilegua (Jujuy and Catamarca mountains, yet of this last locality only is known an one and incomplete specimen. It inhabits humid gorges, between 2100-2650 masl, in the upper limit of the montane forest. The slender stem reaches 3 meters in lenght and the underground portion shows elongated rhizomes up to 1 cm in diameter. These are the main differences with the ssp. tuberosum, in which the stem is shorter, erect and develop well-defned tubers.

  10. Melhorar a atratividade da informação através do uso da realidade aumentada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fombona Cadavieco

    Full Text Available Propomo-nos neste trabalho abordar o conceito de realidade aumentada e as suas aplicações no contexto de aprendizagem, nomeadamente, para explicar um conceito através da incorporação de dados ao objecto captado por um dispositivo móvel. A técnica consiste em analisar imagens-chave na foto ou a própria posição geográfica do usuário e combiná-las, através de uma aplicação informática, com dados armazenados e que se sobrepõem à realidade. Esta técnica desafia a tarefa clássica no quadro tradicional. Com ela, pretende-se rendibilizar, do ponto de vista informacional e educativo, o fenómeno alargado do uso de dispositivos móveis pois, observamos que estas tecnologias avançadas motivam o utilizador a explorar determinadas áreas do conhecimento. Este tipo de trabalho aplica-se a etapas educativas indefinidas pois, actualmente, prolonga-se, ao longo da vida, os momentos em que se adquire formação. Os âmbitos de utilização também não são específicos e dissipam-se, dado que a referência espacial está se deslocando para um campo virtual de indefinição física e num contexto dominado pelo próprio usuário.

  11. Description of a Neotropical New Species of OxysarcodexiaTownsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Souza

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. Uma nova espécie de Oxysarcodexia Townsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae é descrita com base em espécimes machos. As espécies deste gênero de sarcofagídeos apresentam distribuição majoritariamente Neotropical, com algumas espécies ocorrendo também nas regiões Neártica, Australásia e Oceânica. As espécies deste gênero podem ser encontradas associadas à matéria orgânica em decomposição (fezes de mamíferos ou aves – espécies coprófilas e podem apresentar importância forense quando associadas a carcaças (fauna atraída e, em alguns casos, espécies que se criam. Fotografias digitais do hábito em vista lateral e da terminália em vistas lateral, posterior e ventral são apresentadas. Oxysarcodexia mineirensis sp. n. pertence ao “grupo Xarcophaga” (i.e. possui o falo alargado postero-distalmente e contém similaridades com Oxysarcodexia favorabilis (Lopes, 1935 devido à conformação da terminália, especialmente o formato do falo, semelhante a uma flor.

  12. Avaliação funcional do músculo trapézio e nervo espinhal pós-esvaziamento cervical através da eletroneuromiografia: estudo de 25 pacientes

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    José Carlos de Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Foram estudados 25 pacientes portadores de neoplasias malignas da cabeça e pescoço (20 de vias aerodigestivas superiores e cinco da glândula tireóide, submetidos a esvaziamentos cervicais uni ou bilaterais (33 procedimentos, sendo 15 supra-omohióideos, 11 funcionais e sete em campos alargados. MÉTODO: Através da eletroneuromiografia (ENM, foram avaliados funcionalmente o músculo trapézio e o nervo espinhal após os diferentes procedimentos, aos 30 e 180 dias. RESULTADOS: Foram aferidos para as três formas de linfadenectomia 94% de desnervação do músculo trapézio, severa em 68% e moderada 32% (p = 0,001, portanto valores significativos. Quanto à avaliação do tipo de lesão do nervo espinhal, após 30 dias observou-se lesão de axônio (axonotmese em 31 dos 33 procedimentos. Com relação à reinervação, esta foi detectada após 180 dias, sendo boa (21%, moderada (72% e ruim (7% para valores de p = 0,001 de significância estatística. CONCLUSÕES: A eletroneuromiografia foi um método efetivo na avaliação da unidade neuromuscular e o tipo de esvaziamento cervical conservador não foi determinante de alterações destas estruturas.

  13. Retrospectiva do conceito de segurança: alargamento e aprofundamento da agenda securitária no pós guerra fria 10.5102/uri.v9i2.1448

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    Vanda Amaro Dias

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o fim da Guerra Fria emergiu uma nova tendência a favor do alargamento e aprofundamento da agenda securitária. O desfecho pacífico do confronto entre superpotências, levou vozes críticas a reclamar que o entendimento de segurança fosse alargado a novos domínios e a objectos referenciais para além do Estado. Subjacente está um descrédito face às capacidades dos Estados nacionais para responderem às exigências políticas e securitárias do mundo pós-Guerra Fria. As diferentes interpretações de quais deveriam ser os domínios e objectos referenciais da segurança estão na origem das variadas abordagens que marcaram os estudos de Segurança no pós-Guerra Fria, desde a Segurança Cooperativa, ao Construtivismo e à Segurança Humana, passando pelas Escolas de Aberystwyth, Copenhaga e Paris, sem descurar as evoluções decorrentes dos ataques terroristas de 11 de Setembro de 2001. Concomitantemente, o conceito de segurança, e a percepção que lhe é inerente, tem conhecido uma considerável evolução histórica que lhe permitiu passar de uma concepção mais estreita, ligada ao Estado e ao domínio político-militar, para um entendimento mais amplo que engloba múltiplos actores e planos de actuação. Não obstante, o seu significado nuclear – ausência de ameaça – manteve-se inalterado durante o debate que marcou a agenda securitária no pós-Guerra Fria.

  14. Tuberculose multirresistente – um problema ignorado em Portugal

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    H. Peres

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O número crescente do doentes seropositivos (HIV+ com tuberculose, a forte suspeita clínica de resistências à terapêutica antibacilar e a alta taxa de mortalidade destes doentes, levaram a que o Serviço de Patologia Clínica do Hospital de Curry Cabral iniciasse em 1995 o estudo sistemático da fármaco-resistência das estirpes de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolado em doentes seropositivos. Posteriormeote o estudo foi alargado a todos os doentos em que o bacilo da tuberculose foi isolado, incluindo doentes provenients de outros hospitals, sobretudo da área de Lisboa. Pretendeu-se avaliar a incidência de Tuberculose multirresistente particularmente em doentes seropositivos, conhecer os padrões de resistênocia mais frequentes e alertar para a necessidade urgente de medidas adequadas para o seu control, com especial ênfase para a transmissão nosocomial. SUMMARY: In 1995 the Microbiology Department of Hospital de Curry Cabral started systematic drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis strains isolated in HIV seropositive patients, due to the increasing number of HIV associated tuberculosis, the clinical suspicion of drug resistance and the high mortality rate. Subsequently, the study included every patient with tuberculosis from this hospital and a few patients from other hospitals in Lisbon. The purpose of this study was to know the incidence of multidrug- resistant tuberculosis in HIV patients, the patterns of drug resistance and emphasize the urgent need for approprite infection control measures to prevent spread of MDR-tb. Palavras-chave: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Tuberculose multliresistente, SIDA, Tuberculose nosocomial, Key-words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mutidrug-resistant tuberculosis, MDR-TB, AIDS, Nocomial tuberculosis

  15. CONTRIBUIÇÃO PARA O CONHECIMENTO DA GEOMORFOLOGIA DA CADEIA DA ARRÁBIDA (PORTUGAL: CARTOGRAFIA GEOMORFOLÓGICA E GEOMORFOMETRIA

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    André Filipe Fonseca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cadeia da Arrábida resulta da interação de processos tectónicos e erosivos ao longo de um período de tempo alargado, situado entre o Miocénico médio e a atualidade. O desmantelamento da cadeia processou-se em função da componente de movimentação tectónica, da posição da linha de costa e dos processos erosivos a ela associados, desempenhando a rede hidrográfica um papel fundamental no restabelecimento do equilíbrio dinâmico entre processos endógenos e exógenos. Esta relação está expressa no escalonamento altitudinal de formas erosivas aplanadas e suspensas sobre a rede de drenagem atual, evidenciando uma evolução policíclica do relevo controlada pelo levantamento da Serra da Arrábida, pela subsidência do Sinclinal de Albufeira e pelas oscilações do nível do mar no decorrer do período plio-quaternário. Sobrepõe-se a este processo o rejogo vertical de falhas de orientação NNE-SSW a NE-SW evidenciando um aumento progressivo da deformação de oeste para leste. O presente trabalho pretende contribuir para o conhecimento da geomorfologia da cadeia da Arrábida recorrendo a técnicas de geomorfometria para a extração semiautomática e análise de formas de relevo. Dado o contexto morfotectónico, é dada particular atenção à interferência da tectónica na evolução do relevo.

  16. Ultraestructura de bambúes del género Dendrocalamus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae cultivados en Costa Rica II: Dendrocalamus latiflorus var. latiflorus

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    Mayra Montiel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el microscopio electrónico de barrido se analizaron muestras de lámina foliar, culmo y rama, así como las brácteas del culmo y yemas de las ramas de Dendrocalamus latiflorus var. latiflorus. Se determinó la presencia en la epidermis abaxial de la lámina foliar de dos tipos de papilas céricas, esféricas y alargadas; éstas últimas rodeando los estomas de bajo domo. Sólo en la superficie adaxial de la nervadura central de la lámina foliar aparecen grandes tricomas en forma de gancho. En la zona abaxial de las brácteas del culmo, hay tricomas alargados y delgados similares a los de las brácteas de D. giganteus y las yemas de las ramas están cubiertas por tricomas bicelulares.We used a scanning electron microscope to observe leaf laminae, culms, branches, culm bracts and branch buds of Dendrocalamus latiflorus var. latiflorus grown in Costa Rica. In the abaxial epidermis of the leaf lamina we found two types of ceric papillae, rounded and elongated, the latter surrounding the low dome stomata. Only the adaxial surface of the central nervature (leaf lamina has big hook-sshaped trichomes. In the abaxial zone of the culm bract there are thin elongated trichomes, similar to those from the bract of Dendrocalamus giganteus. The branch buds are covered by bicelular trichomes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(Suppl. 2: 51-57. Epub 2006 Dec. 01.

  17. Atomic layer deposition of metal oxide by non-aqueous sol-gel chemistry =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichy, Catherine

    O trabalho apresentado neste manuscrito foi desenvolvido no ambito do programa doutoral intitulado “Deposicao de Camadas Atomicas (ALD) de oxido de metais por sol-gel nao-aquoso”. O objectivo deste trabalho foi a preparacao de hetero-estruturas funcionais por ALD e a sua caracterizacao. Foi desenvolvido um novo processo de deposicao de oxido de estanho a temperatura baixa-moderada, utilizando um metodo ALD nao-aquoso, o qual foi aplicado com sucesso ao revestimento controlado das paredes internas e externas de nanotubos de carbono. Uma vez que a preparacao de nanomateriais funcionais requer uma elevada exatidao do processo de deposicao, foi demonstrada a deposicao precisa de filmes que se adaptem a forma do substrato ou de filmes nano-estruturados constituidos por particulas em varios substratos. Alem disso, foram depositados com grande exatidao varios oxidos de metal em nanotubos de carbono e demonstrou-se a possibilidade de ajustar o revestimento feito por ALD atraves do controlo da funcionalizacao da superficie do substrato nano-estruturado de carbono. As hetero-estruturas obtidas foram posteriormente aplicadas como sensores de gases. O melhoramento verificado na sensibilidade foi atribuido a formacao de heterojuncoes p-n entre o filme de oxido de metais e o suporte. O trabalho desenvolvido tendo como objetivo o controlo do revestimento por ALD atraves da funcionalizacao da superficie do suporte e certamente de interesse para o design de hetero-estruturas funcionais baseadas em substratos de carbono. De facto, durante o ultimo periodo do programa de doutoramento, este conceito foi alargado a funcionalizacao e revestimento com oxidos de metal de fibras de carbono preparadas por “electrospinning”, de forma a melhorar a estabilidade e a atividade eletrocatalitica de catalisadores a base de Pt. Este trabalho foi realizado maioritariamente na Universidade de Aveiro mas tambem na Universidade Nacional de Seul e beneficiou de varias colaboracoes internacionais

  18. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  19. Caracterización microestructural y estabilidad térmica de la aleación Mg-23 %wt Zr sintetizada mediante Deposición Física en Fase Vapor (PVDW

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    Garcés, G.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work has been the study of the microstructure and the thermal stability of the alloy Mg-2.3 %Zr grown by Physical Vapour Deposition. This study has been carried out by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The alloy in the "as-deposited" condition consists of a solid solution of zirconium atoms in the magnesium matrix. The microstructure of the alloy is characterised by elongated grains oriented in the growth direction. These grains grow with the [0001] direction parallel to the deposit growth direction. During a continuous heating, the deposit shows three exothermal transformations which have been associated with a recovery process, the zirconium precipitation in the magnesium matrix and oxidation at high temperatures. The activation energy for the precipitation reaction calculated from Kissinger analysis is 139 kjmol-1.

    El objetivo del trabajo es estudiar la microestructura y estabilidad térmica de la aleación Mg-2,3 %wt Zr, crecida mediante deposición física en fase vapor. Las principales técnicas experimentales empleadas en este estudio son la calorimetría diferencial de barrido y la microscopía electrónica de transmisión. La aleación, en la condición estado de depósito (as-depositedy es una solución sólida de átomos de circonio en magnesio. La microestructura de la aleación está caracterizada por granos alargados en la dirección de crecimiento. Los granos crecen con la dirección [0001] paralela a la dirección de crecimiento del depósito. Durante un calentamiento continuo del depósito, se observan tres transformaciones exotérmicas que se han asociado a restauración, precipitación del circonio en la matriz de magnesio y oxidación. Se calculó, mediante el análisis de Kissinger, que la energía de activación para el proceso de precipitación es de 138 kjmol-1.

  20. Sabedoria e ética para "salvar a própria pele" Wisdom and ethics to "save our own skin"

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    Maria da Conceição Silva Soares

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O texto busca argumentar que as pesquisas no/do/com o cotidiano escolar implicam decisões epistemológicas e políticas, constituem um movimento antidisplinador dos saberesfazeres e caracterizam uma atitude em favor do pensamento alargado e da vida ativa. A partir de uma provocação de Ferry (2007, "filosofamos para salvar a nossa pele", o texto defende a existência de um enredamento entre produção de conhecimentos, negociação de posturas éticas e atribuição de sentidos para a existência humana. Situa a produção científica entre as práticas sociais e propõe que as maneiras de fazer ciência se inscrevem em territórios movediços, nos quais solidariedades e lutas organizam os espaçostempos que constituem os lugares de saber/poder. Aponta para as narrativas do cotidiano como possibilidades para a criação de um tipo de sabedoria que nos leve a assumir que só o que é tecido junto pode salvar nossa pele.This paper argues that research in/on/with school daily life implicates epistemological and political decisions, constitutes a movement against the discipline of know-how and characterizes an attitude favoring enlarged thought and active live. Based on a provocation by Ferry (2007, "we philosophize to save our own skin", it advocates that knowledge production, ethic posture negotiation and the attribution of meanings to human existence are intertwined. It locates scientific production among social practices and proposes that the ways of doing science fit into unsteady territories in which solidarity and struggles organize the spacetimes that constitute knowledge/power places. The text thus points out daily life narratives as possibilities to create a kind of knowledge that leads us to assume that only what is weaved together can save our skin.

  1. Salón social del club natación Metropole Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, España

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    López Díaz, Luis

    1978-02-01

    Full Text Available This hall is the first stage of an ambitious programme of reforms and extensions to the Metropole Swimming Club which, apart from increasing and diversifying the number of the sports installations, includes others of an eminently social nature. The numerous conditioning factors which limited the construction of the hall from the beginning, both regarding the surface —rectangular and extremely elongated, messuring 13 x 13 m, and height— about 3 m, and regarding its situation within the whole, lead to the arrangement of three articulated atmospheres within a single space, covered with thin reinforced concrete warped membranes, as the only solution capable, on the one hand, of reducing the coldness and stiffness of the structure imposed, and on the other, of satisfactorily answering the design bases which prefixed multifunctionality, transparency and representativity of the building. A final premiss which called for the integration of the work in a surrounding gardaned environment was solved by the complete glazing of the frontages and the light tones of the finishing materials.

    Este salón es la primera fase de un ambicioso programa de reformas y ampliaciones para el Club Natación Metropole que, además de aumentar y diversificar el número de las instalaciones deportivas, incluye otras de carácter eminentemente social. Los numerosos condicionantes que desde un principio limitaron la construcción del salón, tanto en cuanto a superficie —rectángulo sumamente alargado de 13 x 33 m— y altura —unos 3 m—, como a su situación dentro del conjunto, condujeron a la organización de tres ambientes articulados dentro de un espacio único, cubiertos con sendas membranas delgadas de hormigón armado, de formas alabeadas, como única solución capaz, por una parte, de reducir la frialdad y rigidez de la conformación impuesta, y por otra, de responder satisfactoriamente a las bases de diseño que prefijaban la multifuncionalidad

  2. Aplicaciones del SiC biomórfico como reforzante estructural en hormigones refractarios

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    Sepúlveda, R.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of the time and temperature dependence of the static grain growth in YTZP 4 mol %, with an average grain size within the submicrometric range (> 0.1 μm. Also, the mechanical response in the temperature interval between 1200 ºC and 1500 ºC is analysed. The grain growth is controlled by the yttria segregation at the grain boundaries, which plays a key role in the cationic diffusion processes. Microstructural characterization of both as-received and deformed samples allows to conclude that plastic deformation is due to grain boundary sliding (GBS, with stress exponents increasing with the flow stress, but in all cases they are lower than n = 2.

    Una posible aplicación del SiC biomórfico (bioSiC son los reforzante estructural en hormigones refractarios. En este caso se han fabricado piezas de bioSiC con forma de cilindros alargados, 3-4 mm de diámetro y 30-35 mm de longitud, mediante infiltración reactiva de Si líquido en piezas de carbón obtenidas por pirolización de madera de haya de calidad comercial. Hemos estudiado las características microestructurales y las propiedades mecánicas de los reforzantes, como paso previo al estudio de la aplicación mencionada, de la que se ofrece un avance en este trabajo. Para caracterizar la calidad del material y del proceso de fabricación, la microestructura de las piezas se ha estudiado mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los reforzantes de bioSiC fueron ensayados a compresión uniaxial y flexión en cuatro puntos a temperatura ambiente y a alta temperatura (1250-1400ºC para la determinación de sus propiedades mecánicas, y se realizaron estudios fractográficos en el segundo tipo de ensayos. Subsecuentemente, se prepararon ladrillos refractarios con un 3% en peso de reforzantes de bioSiC, que fueron curados a diferentes temperaturas (máx. 1600ºC. Estos ladrillos se han ensayado en compresión y flexión en tres puntos, a temperatura ambiente

  3. A tomada de decisão no desporto: o papel da atenção, da antecipação e da memória

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    José Afonso

    2012-08-01

    A perícia é uma importante meta a alcançar na busca de elevadas performances. No caso dos jogos desportivos, a perícia está profundamente associada à capacidade de tomar decisões. Neste contexto, a decisão assume contornos de elevada complexidade, derivada dum conjunto alargado de indicadores e de interações a atender às múltiplas e não-lineares relações entre ação e efeito e à pressão temporal envolvente. Neste artigo, investigaram-se três componentes nucleares subjacentes à tomada de decisões: a atenção, a antecipação e a memória. Percorreram-se as suas características em contextos de alta complexidade e de forte imponderabilidade. Os objetivos do presente artigo consistiram em: (i aprofundar e contextualizar os conceitos de atenção, antecipação e memória no âmbito da tomada de decisão nos jogos desportivos; e (ii analisar se os efeitos destas com­ponentes dependerão de constrangimentos situacionais. Da revisão de literatura efetuada, salienta-se que, nos jogos desportivos, a atenção deverá ser essencialmente guiada por objetivos, seletiva, de foco externo e banda larga. A antecipação, potenciadora de elevadas performances desportivas, justifica-se no caso de não aumentar exageradamente a taxa de erros cometidos e é sensível a estratégias de contra-comunicação dos oponentes, pelo que determinados contextos convidam à adoção de estratégias de espera, nomeadamente quando o risco assumido pela antecipação se traduz numa redução da eficácia. A me­mória, informando quer a atenção, quer a antecipação, origina e suporta o pensamento intuitivo e alicerça o pensamento estratégico. Os conhecimentos obtidos permitem uma melhor perceção calibrada das variáveis especificadoras, potenciando os contributos da investigação científica para a prática.

  4. The ambivalent relation between state and illegal actors: piracy retail in Mexico A relação ambígua entre o Estado e os atores ilegais: o mercado da pirataria no México

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    José Carlos G. Aguiar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the rise of democratic governments across Latin America, the neoliberal law-and-order perspective has been the most influential model of security in the region. This approach is based on the opposition between state and illegal agents, as if they were two different sets of actors. Influenced by this model, Mexican president Vicente Fox launched an extensive anti-piracy programme to eradicate retail of counterfeit. Based on ethnographic material gathered in the San Juan de Dios market in Guadalajara, I discuss on the exchanges between piracy sellers and police officers. My argument is that law enforcement programmes have not affected the political economy of corruption, they overlook the net of ambiguous loyalties where state and illegal actors are entrenched. The anthropology of the state provides the rationale for a critique on neoliberal security policies.Quando surgiram os governos democráticos na América Latina, a perspetiva neoliberal da lei e da ordem constituiu-se como o modelo de segurança dominante na região. Esta abordagem baseia-se na oposição entre o Estado e os agentes da ilegalidade, como se fossem dois conjuntos de atores distintos. Influenciado por este modelo, o presidente mexicano Vicente Fox lançou um programa alargado contra a pirataria, pretendendo erradicar a venda da contrafação. A partir de material etnográfico recolhido no mercado de San Juan de Dios, em Guadalajara, examino as interações entre vendedores de mercadoria pirata e agentes da polícia. Argumento que os programas para a aplicação da lei não afetaram a economia política da corrupção e que ignoram a rede de lealdades ambíguas que envolvem o Estado e os atores ilegais. A antropologia do Estado oferece os princípios para uma crítica sobre as políticas de segurança neoliberais.

  5. Algunos aspectos bioecológicos de la Trucha arcoiris en el embalse Pantano Redondo Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Ángel Miguel Castro

    2004-07-01

    Pantano Redondo se encuentra ubicado a 6 km de Zipaquirá en la vía a Pacho, Cundinamarca. Coordenadas geográficas 5° 02’N 74° 02’O, a una altitud de 3.160 msnm., la vegetación circundante de coníferas y parches de vegetación nativa. La trucha arcoiris (Onchorhynchus mikiss es un salmonido que presenta cuerpo alargado, fusiforme y cabeza que termina en una boca grande puntiaguda, hendida hacia el nivel de los ojos y con una fila de dientes fuertes en cada una de las mandíbulas que le permiten aprisionar las presas. Onchorhynchus significa nariz ganchuda, característica que se manifiesta con mayor énfasis en los machos en la época de reproducción. Este estudio pretende ofrecer criterios para un adecuado manejo piscícola del embalse, conociendo cuantitativamente y cualitativamente el alimento natural ingerido por la trucha arcoiris. Teniendo en cuenta la inquietud de los pescadores en cuanto a la talla de las presas capturadas a través de todo el año, comparadas con las recolectadas en otros sitios del país. Los parámetros físico-químicos indican una gran uniformidad en cuanto a los componentes medidos y similares condiciones en todas las profundidades haciendo que los hábitats de las truchas sean similares, aunque los ambientes poco profundos originaran condiciones para que las macrófitas o plantas acuáticas originen un hábitat diferente y recurso alimentario para las truchas. La condición uniforme no es similar a las condiciones originarias de las truchas ya que la estacionalidad climática promueve una eutroficación de los hábitats mientras que la uniformidad de condiciones da como origen una disponibilidad de alimento semejante en todo el año. A través del desarrollo de este estudio se observó que la oferta  limenticia favorece los individuos de las tallas 23,2 cm a la 28,3 cm, además de que la zona litoral del embalse es la abastecedora del alimento y que son los insectos el ítem más importante dentro de su espectro

  6. Limpieza del vidrio por erosión iónica, previa a la deposición del recubrimiento decorativo

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    Vershinin, N.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Sputter cleaning is the most reliable way for the pre-treatment of substrates before the deposition of coatings with the aid of magnetron sputtering or vacuum arc deposition. In this work, a large-aperture Hall current accelerator was developed for the sputter cleaning of large-area glasses, metals and plastics sheets. The main advantage of the Hall current accelerator is the possibility to use reactive gases. The Hall accelerator developed is able to work with argon, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The accelerator has the form of a very elongated loop with a large aperture (1400 mm in the vertical direction. The maximum power of the Hall current accelerator is 10 kW. The current-voltage characteristic measured for argon is presented. It allows one to optimise the regime of sputter cleaning by finding the maximum power value at a stable discharge.

    La erosión iónica es el método más eficaz para la eliminación de la capa superficial de los substratos en su fase de preparación para la deposición de recubrimientos en vacío. En el presente trabajo se describe la construcción y características de un acelerador Hall de la corriente eléctrica de abertura larga, diseñado para la limpieza, mediante erosión iónica, de superficies de substratos de vidrio, metal y plástico en forma de láminas con área extensa. Una de las ventajas del acelerador Hall es la posibilidad de uso de gases reactivos. El acelerador aquí descrito es capaz de trabajar con argón, oxígeno, nitrógeno y dióxido de carbono. Este acelerador tiene una forma de bucle muy alargado y, por tanto, dispone de una abertura larga (1400 mm en vertical. La potencia máxima del acelerador es de 10 kW. Se presenta la característica corriente-tensión del acelerador en atmósfera de argón que permite optimizar el régimen de limpieza por erosión, encontrando el máximo de potencia para la descarga estable.

  7. Modelo arquitetônico de ninhos da formiga Ectatomma vizottoi Almeida (Hymenoptera, Formicidae Nest architecture of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi Almeida (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Alexsandro Santana Vieira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Para descrever o padrão de construção e ocupação dos ninhos de Ectatomma vizottoi, foram escavados oito ninhos durante o período de novembro de 2004 a agosto de 2006, em Dourados-MS. Os orifícios de entrada ou saída dos ninhos desta espécie possuem formato elipsóide, com acesso a um túnel alargado, similar a uma antecâmara, a qual é conectada a câmaras mais profundas do ninho. Os ninhos podem alcançar até 360,0 cm de profundidade, e apresentam de três a dez câmaras. São construídos independentemente de raízes de plantas, e o solo de seus túneis e câmaras é compactado, apresentando compartimentos específicos para depósitos de detritos da colônia. O aumento da densidade de formigas conduz a um aumento do número de câmaras, bem como da profundidade do ninho, mantendo, entretanto, um volume médio para o mesmo, evidenciando um padrão para o tamanho das câmaras dos ninhos.The construction pattern and occupancy of Ectatomma vizottoi was described, during November 2004-August 2006 period, in Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul by excavation of eight nests. The entrance openings, or exit, have an ellipsoid shape and lead to a wide tunnel, similar to a hall, which is connected to other deeper chambers in the nest. The nests reach up to 360 cm deep and contain three to ten chambers. Nests are constructed independently of plants and roots presence, and the soil of the tunnels and chambers are compacted, with specific compartments for colony deposit of detritus. The increase of the ant density led to an increase in nest depth and number of chambers, maintaining an average nest volume, which indicates a standard size for nest chambers.

  8. Evolução temporal de discos circunstelares em estrelas Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M. V. M.; Leister, N. V.; Levenhagen, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    A pesquisa do mecanismo que leva uma estrela do tipo Be a perder massa e formar um envelope circunstelar, nomeado como fenômeno Be, é uma questão em aberto, intrigante, e que adquire contornos interessantes em face às informações espectroscópicas de alta resolução. Nesta última década, consolida-se a idéia de que a forma destes envelopes é de tipo discóide, obedecendo a uma lei Kepleriana de velocidades, e mais ainda, recentemente há evidências de que a distribuição de matéria nestes discos pode assumir um caráter de anel. Medidas de algumas dimensões de discos circunstelares puderam ser obtidas pela análise de espectros de alta resolução e alta relação sinal-ruído para as estrelas Be: alpha Eri (HD 10144, B3Vpe), omicron And (HD 217675, B6IIIpe), e eta Cen (HD el972, B1.5Vne), no período dos anos de 1991 a 2001. Alguns modelos clássicos de envelope predizem uma distribuição de massa que decresce suavemente a partir da superfície estelar. Entretanto, considerando que a separação de picos de emissão em perfis de linhas do HeI e H-alpha, alargados por efeitos cinemáticos, é função do raio estelar e da velocidade rotacional projetada (vsini); nossos resultados sugerem a presença de um anel de matéria circunstelar, que aparece logo após a ejeção do material fotosférico, imediatamente acima da superfície estelar, e que se expande para raios maiores ao longo do tempo, eventualmente desconectando-se da superfície por uma região de densidade de matéria mínima. Tais interpretações revivem a idéia de que anéis de matéria circunstelar podem ser os responsáveis por algumas variabilidades em perfis de linhas de emissão, como as variações V/R.

  9. HD 208905: um sistema múltiplo de estrelas quentes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, J. P.; Daflon, S.; Cunha, K.

    2003-08-01

    Durante o survey de associações OB do disco Galáctico, foi constatada a multiplicidade do sistema HD 208905, pertencentes à associação de Cep OB2. Este objeto está classificado como uma estrela pertencente a um sistema múltiplo, com magnitude mv = 7.0 e tipo espectral B1V. De fato, os espectros de HD 208905 apresentam perfis de absorção triplicados. Dois dos perfis são bastante similares entre si, e são estreitos e bem definidos, sugerindo que as velocidades rotacionais projetadas (v sin i) das duas estrelas são baixas. Os espectros obtidos também apresentam perfis mais alargados que poderiam ser atribuídos a uma terceira componente estelar com v sin i mais alto. A análise de HD 208905 é baseada no estudo da variação da posição relativa dos perfis espectrais de acordo com a fase do sistema. Nossos dados observacionais são um conjunto de espectros de alta resolução obtidos no McDonald Observatory (Universidade do Texas, Austin), Kitt Peak National Observatory e Palomar Observatory, cobrindo o período de 10/91 até 12/95. Inicialmente, calculamos a velocidade radial de cada componente do sistema, considerando o desvio Doppler sofrido por cada estrela. As velocidades radiais medidas foram, em seguida, corrigidas para velocidades radiais heliocêntricas. O passo seguinte constituiu na determinação da periodicidade da série temporal definida pelas medidas das velocidades radiais heliocêntricas através da análise de Fourier. A nossa base de dados não permitiu definir uma solução única para o sistema HD 208905. As possíveis soluções encontradas têm períodos entre 1 e 27 dias e serão apresentadas e discutidas.

  10. Microestructura y comportamiento plástico de perovsquitas conductoras protónicas de alta temperatura

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    López-Robledo, M. J.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The creep behaviour of high temperature proton conducting perovskites SrCe0.9Y0.1O3-δ and Sr3Ca1.18Nb1.82O9-δ fabricated by laser fusion has been studied. Their microstructure has been studied both in the as-received and crept samples by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron BackScattering Diffraction (EBSD, to correlate plastic behaviour with the evolution of the microstructure. The materials show a cellular structure consisting of elongated grains embedded in an amorphous phase and a strong bi-axial crystallographic texture. Deformation tests at constant stress (creep tests have been performed both in Ar atmosphere and in air. Rigid grain rotation has been observed in the crept samples by EBSD. The amorphous phase flows outside the sample during creep. Plastic behaviour of these materials is independent of the environmental atmosphere and is consistent with a mechanism of viscous flow of the amorphous phase controlled by diffusion.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento en fluencia de perovsquitas conductoras protónicas de alta temperatura fabricadas por fusión láser, en particular los sistemas SrCe0.9Y0.1O3-δ y Sr3Ca1.18Nb1.82O9-δ. Se ha estudiado la microestructura antes y después de los ensayos mecánicos mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (MEB y Difracción de Electrones Retrodispersados (Electron BackScattering Diffraction, EBSD, con el objetivo de correlacionar el comportamiento plástico de estos materiales con su evolución microestructural. Los materiales analizados tienen una estructura celular de granos alargados, separados por una fase amorfa, y presentan una fuerte textura cristalográfica bi-axial. Se han realizado ensayos de deformación a carga constante (fluencia a diversas tensiones y temperaturas, en atmósfera inerte de Ar y en aire. Tras los ensayos, la fase intercelular fluye hacia el exterior de la muestra y se ha comprobado mediante EBSD que los granos rotan de forma rígida. El

  11. Edificio de viviendas en Madrid - España

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    González Cruz, J. Luis

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available An apartment block was built using only little more than 50% of the available irregular-shaped 1,773 m2 plot area, consisting on 12 storeys above grade, one semibasement floor for offices and two underground levels for carpark and mechanical installations. The remaining area was landscaped for public use. The elongated rectangular configuration of the typical floor plan and the multiple vertical traffic cores have permitted and optimal space organization of the housing units, opening to two opposite directions, thus using the maximum advantages for natural lighting and ventilation, sun exposure and views. The structure of the building is based on reinforced concrete shear walls, with ceramic prefab, one-way reinforced flooring units in the apartment storeys and cross-ribbed reinforced concrete slabs in the basement areas. The decorative features of the concrete used have been applied at their best to create an aesthetic appearance, combined with the treatment of the external walls.

    Ocupando poco más del 50% de una parcela irregular de 1.733 m2 de superficie se ha levantado este edificio de viviendas de 12 plantas sobre rasante, un semisótano destinado a oficinas y dos sótanos que albergan los aparcamientos y las instalaciones generales de la construcción. El resto del solar se dedica a jardines y a zona de uso público. La configuración de la planta tipo según un rectángulo muy alargado y la multiplicidad de los núcleos de comunicación vertical, ha posibilitado una óptima organización de las viviendas con dos orientaciones opuestas que permiten sacar el máximo partido de la iluminación, ventilación, soleamiento y vistas exteriores. El edificio se ha realizado con estructura vertical de vigas-muro de hormigón armado, con forjados unidireccionales cerámicos en las plantas de vivienda, y de losa armada birreticular en los sótanos. En el aspecto estético se han aprovechado las ventajas

  12. Fase gametofítica del helecho Microgramma nitida (Polypodiaceae

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    Ma. del Rosario Ramírez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la fase gametofítica del helecho Microgramma nitid con esporas de Veracruz, México (siembra promedio 40 esporas/ cm². La morfogénesis se caracteriza por: germinación tipo Vittaria, un filamento inicial de seis células protálicas; gametofitos jóvenes espatulados que se transforman en gametofitos adultos cordiformes-alargados, con márgenes ondulados y tricomas unicelulares-capitados en los margenes y en las superficies; aparición de una célula meristemática obcónica apical, que es reemplazada rápidamente por un meristemo pluricelular. Los anteridios y arquegonios son del tipo usual de las Polypodiaceae s.str. El desarrollo protálico es del tipo Drynaria. Ocho meses después de la siembra apareció la primera hoja del esporofito; ésta es espatulada, con márgenes lisos y una hilera de células aclorofílicas, tricomas pluricelulares, bifurcados y estomas anomocíticos. Las células epidérmicas de la hoja del esporofito tienen paredes laterales onduladas en las superficies dorsal y ventral.The development of the gametophytic phase of Microgramma nitida is described based on spore samples that was obtained of fertil specimens gathered on Veracruz State, Mexico. The spore sowing density was 40 spores/cm2 ; it is characterized by Vittaria-type germination of the spore, a germinal filament of six cells; young gametophytes are naked, spathulated and later are transformed in cordate-elongated adult gametophytes with wavy borders; marginal, superficial capitated, unicellular hairs; the meristematic cell is wedge-shaped and is quickly replaced by a pluricellular meristem. The antheridia and archegonia are of the usual Polypodiaceae s. str.type. Prothallial development is thus of the Drynaria-type. The first leaf of the sporophyte appeared eight months after spore sowing. The leaf is spathulated, with smooth borders and the margin has a row of cells without chlorophyll; bifurcated and pluricellular hairs; anomocytic stomata; the

  13. The use of sustainable 'biochar compost' for remediation of contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aoife; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Eastwood, Daniel; Brackenbury, Sion

    2014-05-01

    South Wales (UK) has a long industrial history which, since the collapse of the coal-mining industry, has left a large number of contaminated former colliery sites. Bio-remediation of these areas by re-vegetation with native grasses aims to prevent erosion and leaching of pollutants into drainage waters. However, acid pH, low organic-matter content and unsuitable soil structure have limited the success of re-vegetation and prompted research into the development of artificial soils. This study aims to assess the value of creating an artificial soil cover by adding "biochar compost" to the top 10cm of a large volume of contaminated colliery spoil (high in As and Cu) to be moved during construction of a flood-alleviation barrage in Cwm Dulais (Swansea). It is proposed to use biochar, manufactured from chipped biomass sourced from a local stand of invasive Rhododendron ponticum using a BiGchar 1000 fast pyrolysis-gasification unit, in combination with locally produced BSI PAS100-certified Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) compost, to remediate a large area (2.3ha) of landscaped colliery waste and re-establish a cover of native grasses suitable for sheep grazing. Pot and field trials are being used to determine the most appropriate biochar:compost mix. In a 90-day outdoor pot trial, a commercial acid-grassland seed mix was grown in screened (remediation trial at Ffos-y-Frân (Jarvis & Walton, WRAP Report, 2011). Varying application rates of biochar (0%, 2%, 5%, 10% or 20%v/v) were employed. Additional benefits of adding mycorrhizal inoculant or Trifolium repens (white clover) seed were also tested. Six-fold replication was used, with appropriate controls. The performance of each treatment was assessed from its maximum sward height and final above-ground dry phytomass. To evaluate the quality of the resulting grassland for sheep grazing, grass samples are being analysed for nutrients, heavy metals and metalloids by elemental analysis (EA) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

  14. Proteome dynamics of cold-acclimating Rhododendron species contrasting in their freezing tolerance and thermonasty behavior.

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    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available To gain a better understanding of cold acclimation in rhododendron and in woody perennials in general, we used the 2D-DIGE technique to analyze the rhododendron proteome during the seasonal development of freezing tolerance. We selected two species varying in their cold acclimation ability as well as their thermonasty response (folding of leaves in response to low temperature. Proteins were extracted from leaves of non-acclimated (NA and cold acclimated (CA plants of the hardier thermonastic species, R. catawbiense (Cata., and from leaves of cold acclimated plants of the less hardy, non-thermonastic R. ponticum (Pont.. All three protein samples (Cata.NA, Cata.CA, and Pont.CA were labeled with different CyDyes and separated together on a single gel. Triplicate gels were run and protein profiles were compared resulting in the identification of 72 protein spots that consistently had different abundances in at least one pair-wise comparison. From the 72 differential spots, we chose 56 spots to excise and characterize further by mass spectrometry (MS. Changes in the proteome associated with the seasonal development of cold acclimation were identified from the Cata.CA-Cata.NA comparisons. Differentially abundant proteins associated with the acquisition of superior freezing tolerance and with the thermonastic response were identified from the Cata.CA-Pont.CA comparisons. Our results indicate that cold acclimation in rhododendron involves increases in abundance of several proteins related to stress (freezing/desiccation tolerance, energy and carbohydrate metabolism, regulation/signaling, secondary metabolism (possibly involving cell wall remodeling, and permeability of the cell membrane. Cold acclimation also involves decreases in abundance of several proteins involved in photosynthesis. Differences in freezing tolerance between genotypes can probably be attributed to observed differences in levels of proteins involved in these functions. Also

  15. STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGIC AND MORPHOMETRIC PATTERNS OF TALAR ARTICULAR FACETS ON DRY ADULT CALCANEAL BONES IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIAN POPULATION. Estudio de los patrones morfológicos y morfométricos de las facetas articulares talares en huesos calcaneos a

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    Ukoha Ukoha

    2017-08-01

    humanos adultos en la población noreste de Sudeste. Material y métodos: El estudio se llevó a cabo en 220 calcanei secos no patológicos adultos de sexo desconocido de bancos de huesos de varios colegios médicos en el sureste de Nigeria. Resultados: El patrón 1 fue el más frecuente en el presente estudio (55,4%. La forma ovalada era común en las facetas articulares anterior y media del talar (52,86% y 64,39%, oval y convexa en la faceta posterior (70% y la forma alargada era común entre las facetas fusionada anterior y media (63,12% Con ovalo alargado común en el subtipo 2 (27,87% y constreñido alargado común en el subtipo 1 (35,25%. La longitud del calcáneo se registró con una media ± DP de 7,10 ± 0,70 cm (lado izquierdo y 7,01 ± 0,72 cm (lado derecho y la anchura se registró a 2,77 ± 0,38 cm (lado izquierdo y 2,77 ± 0,37 Cm (lado derecho. La distancia entre las facetas anterior y media fue de media ± DP de 0,50 ± 0,15cm (lado izquierdo y 0,48 ± 0,15cm (lado derecho, las facetas Posterior y Media a 0,59 ± 0,20cm (lado izquierdo y 0,56 ± 0,17cm (Lado derecho y entre las facetas anterior y posterior a 1,43 ± 0,27 cm (lado izquierdo y 1,42 ± 0,29 cm (lado derecho. Conclusión: Un buen conocimiento del patrón y forma de la faceta del calcáneo ayudaría a mejores opciones de tratamiento y manejo de las fracturas del calcáneo. También requiere una modificación de las técnicas quirúrgicas occidentales para adaptarse al escenario nigeriano para la osteotomía calcánea.

  16. Effect ofthydiazuron and choline chloride bioregulators on yield and fruit quality ofthree apple (Malus domestica Borkh. varieties Efecto de Thidiazuron y cloruro de colina como biorreguladores sobre el rendimiento y la calidad del fruto en tres variedades de manzano (Malus domestica borkh.

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    Benincore Mauricio

    2000-12-01

    coloración mientras que disminuyó la concentración de sólidos solubles (SS. En la variedad 'Princesa', TDZ solamente incrementó el contenido de sólidos solubles. Por otra parte, en 'Gala', CC disminuyó el número de frutos por árbol, aumentando el peso, el volumen y el contenido de SS de los mismos, especialmente a 500
    mg-L"; igualmente, en 'Golden Delicious' produjo frutos 'más alargados con mayores contenidos de SS y una menor consistencia.

  17. Programas de saúde materno-infantil em Moçambique: marcos evolutivos e a inserção da enfermagem Programas de atención de salud materno-infantil en Mozambique: marcos evolutivos e inserción de la enfermería Programs of maternal and infant health in Mozambique: gradual landmarks and the insertion of nursing

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    Maria Acácia Ernesto Lourenço

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa centrada nas políticas públicas do governo moçambicano para o setor da saúde, com foco voltado para programas de assistência à saúde materno-infantil. Tem o propósito de apresentar contextos básicos para a reflexão sobre a filosofia da implantação e implementação dos programas e a inserção da Enfermagem, mostrando seus marcos evolutivos. Constatou-se que, na década 70, o Sistema Nacional de Saúde adotou o Programa de Proteção Materno-Infantil, que na década de 80 ficou concebido como Programa de Saúde Materno-Infantil e, posteriormente, na década 90, ficou inserido no Programa Nacional Integrado de Saúde Materno-Infantil e Planejamento Familiar, Programa Alargado de Vacinação, Saúde Escolar e do Adolescente, incluindo Saúde Sexual e Reprodutiva. A inserção da Enfermagem foi evidenciada na implementação das ações assistenciais. Os marcos evolutivos foram: a introdução dos cursos específicos de Enfermagem em saúde materno-infantil do nível básico ao superior e abrangência dos serviços do Programa Nacional Integrado.Pesquisa Centrada en las políticas públicas del gobierno Mozambicano para el setor salud, con foco en los Programas de Asistencia en Salud Materno-infantil, con el propósito de presentar contextos básicos para la reflexión acerca de la filosofia de implantación e implementación de los programas mostrando sus marcos evolutivos e de la inserción de la Enfermería. Se constató que en la década 70, el Sistema Nacional de Salud adoptó el Programa de Protección Materno Infantil, que en la década de 80 se transformó en Programa de Salud Materno-infantil y posteriormente en la década de 90 fue inserido en el Programa Nacional Integrado de Salud Materno- Infantil y Planificación Familia, Programas Ampliado de Vacunación, Salud Escolar y del Adolescente incluyendo la salud Sexual y Reproductiva. La inserción de la Enfermería fue evidenciada en la implantación por medio de

  18. Analisa, Explora & Cria

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    José Alberto Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O projeto “Analisa, Explora & Cria” surge da constatação de uma quase perturbante ausência de publicações na área da educação artística e tecnológica destinada a professores, educadores, famílias e crianças de uma faixa etária compreendida entre os 6 e os 12 anos de idade. A proposta que apresentamos fundamenta-se numa perspetiva de construção de um recurso didático e pedagógico que, ao mesmo tempo, assumisse a abordagem aos conceitos da educação artística e tecnológica com caráter lúdico. Depois de um período inicial em que se estabeleceu o conceito e filosofia do projeto, o mesmo foi desenvolvido numa investigação realizada no Centro de Investigação da Escola Superior de Educação do Porto – InED, aplicada a uma turma de mestrado e ainda numa ação de formação para professores promovida pela APEVT, contando com a sua colaboração e participação neste projeto. A proposta final, concretizada no livro “Analisa, Explora & Cria” reúne um conjunto de sugestões de atividades de educação artística e de expressão plástica e tecnológica, que podem facilmente ser desenvolvidas quer no primeiro ou segundo ciclo do ensino básico, ou mesmo nas atividades de enriquecimento curricular, constituindo assim um recurso passível de ser explorado em diferentes contextos de sala de aula. A partir do projeto do livro, programaram-se, e têm vindo a ser dinamizados, cursos de formação que pretendem explorar situações que engendrem novas práticas, que instiguem o olhar e que desestabilizem o estabelecido, ampliando, deste modo, a formação dos professores, na construção de sentidos e significados, e contribuindo para a diversidade no processo de ensino e aprendizagem da expressão plástica. Apresentam-se novas abordagens de apropriação das linguagens artísticas, através de um conjunto de recursos educativos, a explorar dentro e fora do livro, e um conjunto alargado de referências a artistas, às suas

  19. Editorial e Prefácio

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    Alberto Simões

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Editorial Neste oitavo ano de vida a Linguamática teve, como é seu hábito, duas edições. A primeira, em Julho, apenas com três artigos, e esta edição, de Dezembro, com artigos alargados correspondentes a uma workshop realizada com conjunto sim a conferência PROPOR'2016, a ASSIN: Avaliação de Similaridade Semântica e de Inferência Textual. Se por um lado o número de artigos publicado é pequeno, por outro, o número de artigos recebidos para avaliação não o foi, estando dentro da média habitual da Linguamática. Mas o ano de 2016, embora mau, como sabemos, para muitas personalidades do mundo da música, não o foi para a Linguamática, que continua a ser indexada pela Scopus (embora o site da Scopus ainda não inclua todas as edições recentes, e passou a ser incluída na Web of Science da Thomson Reuters, no índice ESCI (Emerging Sources Citation Index, um índice de revistas selecionadas para avaliação e possível integração nos índices de topo. São, sem dúvidas, duas notícias que nos fazem muito orgulhosos dos nossos autores.   Prefácio A Avaliação de Similaridade Semântica e de Inferência Textual (ASSIN foi proposta como um Workshop em paralelo com o PROPOR 2016 para apresentação dos resultados da avaliação conjunta de duas subtarefas relacionadas, tratando da língua portuguesa, especificamente do Português do Brasil (PB e Europeu (PE. Ambas as subtarefas dizem respeito ao entendimento de um par de sentenças: a similaridade semântica (STS, Semantic Textual Similarity é uma medida numérica de 1 a 5 do quão similar é o conteúdo das duas sentenças; e a inferência textual (RTE, Recognizing Textual Entailment consiste em classificar o par como tendo uma relação de implicação, paráfrase, ou nenhuma das duas. A avaliação conjunta deixou como legado o córpus ASSIN de 10.000 pares de sentenças (5.000 em PB e 5.000 em PE usado pelos participantes e que está publicamente disponível em http

  20. ODAM – A CONSTRUÇÃO DO MODERNO EM PORTUGAL: ENTRE O UNIVERSAL E O SINGULAR / ODAM – The construction of the modern in Portugal: between universal and singular

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    Edite Maria Figueiredo e Rosa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN A ODAM explicita a inserção no espirito moderno de vertente universal e associativo, não apenas pela criação de um coletivo mas, pelo carácter abrangente do seu espaço de intervenção enquanto defensor de uma arquitetura moderna em Portugal. Desde o âmbito associativo, ao ensino, à prática profissional, até ao seu intercâmbio internacional, como testemunha a participação dos seus membros nos congressos CIAM a partir de 1951, o grupo ODAM afirma–se no debate à reivindicação dos ideais modernos em Portugal. Mas o mais significativo da produção moderna do grupo (manifestos, projetos, exposições coletivas e obras paradigmáticas situa–se mais que no seu ideal, conforme aos grandes grupos de referência, à consciência do necessário ajuste à circunstância específica local, pobre e periférico, o que se traduziu em ensaios compartilhados, de mais–valia diferenciadora. Esta análise retrospetiva e crítica da ODAM enquanto parte do quadro mais alargado que caracteriza as “Arquitecturas em común” do moderno, para além de (reafirmar o seu carácter universal, compreendido atualmente cada vez mais pelos seus discursos diversos, atesta a revisão crítica dos dogmas arquitetónicos modernos, presentes à data, nas arquiteturas do pós–guerra, emergentes no contexto europeu. De uma leitura, mais implícita que explicita, ressalta ainda a importância do debate, pensamentos e sobretudo da produção arquitetónica do grupo ODAM como génese da atual arquitetura portuense. SUMMARY ODAM makes clear the insertion in a modern spirit with a universal and associative face, not only by creating a collective, but for the wide character of its intervention space while advocate of a modern architecture in Portugal. From the associative scope, the teaching, the professional practice to its international exchange, as witnesses the participation of its members in CIAM congresses since 1951, ODAM group makes its statement

  1. Hematological and hemostaseological alterations after warm and cold limb ischemia-reperfusion in a canine model Alterações hematológicas e hemostaseológicas após isquemia-reperfusão morna e fria de membro inferior em modelo canino

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    Miklos Szokoly

    2009-10-01

    e sem resfriamento foram realizados. Antes das operações, do membro excluído ao final da isquemia, durante a reperfusão e por 5 dias de pós-operatório, amostras sanguíneas foram colhidas para exames hematológicos e parâmetros de coagulação. RESULTADOS: Após I/R, o tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada foi alargado no 2º.-4º. dias de pós-operatório. Os valores mais altos foram no 2º.dia no grupo deI/R fria, acompanhada pelo aumento dos valores do tempo de protrombina. Os parâmetros hematológicos e o nível de fibrinogênio mostraram mudanças não específicas. No membro isquêmico excluído a composição sanguínea mostrou dados controversos. A isquemia fria induziu maiores alterações, entretanto, a contagem de plaquetas e o hematócrito mudaram mais expressivamente na isquemia morna. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados indicam risco de coagulopatia após I/R de membros nos dias mais precoces após o evento, sendo mais elevado no caso da I/R fria.

  2. Morfohistología testicular de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell (Amphibia, Anura, Ceratophryidae

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    Fernando Carezzano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describen las características morfohistológicas del testículo de individuos adultos (n=5 de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell, 1843 provenientes de humedales del centro de Argentina. Los mismos se procesaron mediante técnicas histológicas de rutina, se cortaron a 8 µm y las láminas obtenidas se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Las gónadas son órganos pares, amarillentos, alargados y contorneados de 18,58 ± 0,23 mm de largo por 1,51 ± 0,13 mm de ancho. Histológicamente se observa una delgada túnica albugínea (6,29 ± 0,83 µm rodeando a los testículos. En su interior se hallan lóculos seminíferos que miden 240,64 ± 38,52 µm de diámetro, en ellos se distinguen cistos con células espermatogénicas en distintas etapas de desarrollo. El tejido intersticial es escaso y en él se destacan las células de Leydig y vasos sanguíneos. Las espermatogonias I son las células más grandes de la serie germinal (20,03 ± 2,27 µm; poseen la cromatina granular y de aspecto multilobular, hallándose comúnmente una por cisto, estas originan a las espermatogonias II, más pequeñas (12,06 ± 1,14 µm. Los espermatocitos I presentan la cromatina levemente condensada y son un poco más chicos que sus precedentes (11,64 ± 0,36 µm. Los espermatocitos II miden 8,85 ± 0,54 µm. Las espermátidas I son esféricas, miden 5,95 ± 0,42 µm y se agrupan en cistos redondeados. Las espermátidas II, en cambio son alargadas y no se hallan dentro de cistos, pero siguen organizadas en paquetes asociadas a células de Sertoli. Los espermatozoides son células libres hacia el centro del lóculo, alargadas, flageladas y con una notable compactación nuclear. La morfohistología de los testículos analizados muestran características macroscópicas e histológicas similares a las observadas en otras especies de anfibios anuros neotropicales, presentando todas las células del linaje espermatogénico en un mismo l

  3. Testicular Morphohistology of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Amphibia, Hylidae During the Breeding Season

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    Fernando José CAREZZANO

    2015-01-01

    énicas asociadas a células de Sertoli. Existe escaso tejido intersticial. Las espermatogonias I son las células más grandes de la serie germinal (14,34 ± 1,74 µm, estas originan a las espermatogonias II (10,14 ± 1,33 µm. Los espermatocitos I presentan la cromatina levemente condensada midiendo 9,34 ± 0,32 µm. Los espermatocitos II miden 8,12 ± 1,07 µm. Las espermátidas I son esféricas, miden 7,61 ± 1,45 µm, agrupándose en cistos redondeados. Las espermátidas II, en cambio, son alargadas, no hallándoselas dentro de cistos (4,09 ± 0,51 µm. Los espermatozoides, alargados y flagelados, se hallan libres en el centro del lóculo. La morfohistología de los testículos analizados muestra características similares a las observadas en otros anfibios neotropicales, presentando todas las células del linaje espermatogénico en un mismo lóculo. Se propone profundizar y extender los análisis para determinar el tipo de ciclo gametogénico de estas poblaciones, los que serían, en principio, potencialmente continuos o discontinuos.

  4. New information on Riograndia guaibensis Bonaparte, Ferigolo & Ribeiro, 2001 (Eucynodontia, Tritheledontidae from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil: anatomical and biostratigraphic implications

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    Marina B. Soares

    2011-03-01

    apresenta um conjunto de importantes aspectos anatômicos derivados dentre os eucinodontes não-mammaliaformes, tais como fechamento parcial da parede orbital medial e da caixa craniana, extenso palato ósseo secundário, palato primário alargado, basicrânio com separação do forame jugular e da fenestra rotunda, arco zigomático estreito e ossos pós-dentários extremamente reduzidos. Muitas destas feições constituem sinapomorfias compartilhadas somente com os demais membros do clado Mammaliamorpha. Assim, as praticamente completas informações crânio-mandibulares e dentárias de Riograndia trazem uma significante contribuição ao conhecimento da anatomia dos triteledontídeos e suas relações filogenéticas e auxiliam na elucidação sobre os passos transformacionais envolvidos na transição cinodonte-mamífero. Adicionalmente, Riograndia figura como um táxon-chave no refinamento bioestratigráfico da "Formação Caturrita", através da integração de vários afloramentos fossilíferos os quais apresentam uma rica fauna de tetrápodes que pode ser correlacionada com outras faunas triássicas do Gondwana e da Laurásia.

  5. Industrial Network Membership: reducing psychic distance hazards in internationalization of firmsPertencer a Redes Industriais: reduzindo os efeitos da distância psíquica na internacionalização da empresaPertenencia a la red Industrial: reduciendo los riesgos de la distancia psíquica en la internacionalización de la empresa

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    SANTOS, João Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe network approach to internationalization of firms has been the research focus of many international business scholars. Firms are increasingly involved in international business ventures and arguably need to learn to adapt to the idiosyncratic milieus of foreign markets. This paper proposes a conceptual model suggesting that integration in industrial networks strengthens corporate competitiveness in international markets. Network membership provides access to knowledge and a wider array of physical, technical, reputational and financial resources that facilitate adaptation to the various dimensions – economic, political, legal, cultural – of international business environments. Membership in social and business networks is likely to ease internationalization by reducing the psychic distance perceived by firms.RESUMOA perspectiva da teoria de redes sobre a internacionalização das empresas foi escolhida por diversos autores de negócios internacionais para sua pesquisa. As empresas estão cada vez mais envolvidas em operações internacionais e precisam aprender a se adaptar aos meios idiossincráticos que encontram nos mercados internacionais. Este artigo propõe um modelo conceptual que sugere que a integração em redes industriais aumenta a competitividade nos mercados internacionais. A integração em uma rede permite aceder a conhecimento e a um conjunto alargado de recursos físicos, técnicos, financeiros e de reputação que facilitam a adaptação às várias dimensões – econômica, política, legal, cultural – dos ambientes internacionais de negócios. A integração em redes sociais e de negócios pode facilitar a internacionalização ao reduzir a distância psíquica percebida das empresas.RESUMENLa aproximación de la red hacia la internacionalización de las empresas ha sido el eje de la investigación de muchos académicos de negocios internacionales. Las empresas están cada vez más involucradas en los

  6. El deslizamiento de Palo Alto, Turrialba, Costa Rica : apuntes para su estudio

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    Peraldo Huertas, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    álisis de las morfologías del terreno se determinó que, dentro la forma típica en herradura que muestra este deslizamiento, se pueden distinguir 4 unidades: 1. Escarpes internos, 2. Bloques basculados, 3. Coronas laterales del deslizamiento y 4. Áreas de depósito de los materiales deslizados. El deslizamiento posee una serie de escarpes alargados, algunos llegan a medir aproximadamente 10 a 15 metros de altura. Al noroeste de Peralta se observan una serie de bloques, algunos alargados y otros con una forma más ovalada, los cuales se encuentran basculados en dirección NW, así como algunas zonas planas que, mediante comprobación de campo se determinó que corresponden en su mayoría con zonas anegadas. Se observan también colinas redondeadas, algunas alargadas, aisladas y en medio de ellas áreas deprimidas. Las morfologías de depositación presentan pendientes suaves, no mayores a los 10°, y onduladas. Entre los efectos que se generan por el movimiento en bloques en el área del deslizamiento, se encuentran repeticiones en la secuencia litológica y alteraciones en el patrón de drenaje existente. El hecho de que el río Guaitil discurra dentro del área del deslizamiento Palo Alto, hace un llamado de atención, ya que se observó la presencia de fisuras abiertas en su cauce que permiten la filtración de agua, lo que lleva a suponer que el deslizamiento esté en proceso de reactivación. Además, ante la posible reactivación económica que el proyecto Reventazón causará en el área, es importante generar más investigación para efectos de ordenamiento territorial y de gestión del riesgo This paper seeks to characterize Palo Alto landslide, from a geological and geomorphological point of view, in the context of mega-slope instability processes present along the Reventazón River. The Reventazón River corridor, between Turrialba and Siquirres, shows a series of complex mass movement processes, which generate continuous landslide related morphologies, giving

  7. ¿El Hombre del Siglo XXI será más Miope?

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    Eduardo Arenas Archila

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se hace una revisión de lo que ha sido la evolución del sistema ocular en la especie humana desde las formas más primitivas de visión. Se observa que los ojos han venido sufriendo un proceso de maduración y excelencia, en gran parte ligado a las necesidades de cada especie. La percepción de colores y ondas electromagnéticas, por ejemplo, varía en ciertos animales según los propósitos alimenticios.

    El tamaño del ojo parece ir ligado al desarrollo del cerebro. La miopía que consiste en la presencia de un ojo más alargado, ha venido incrementándose en el último siglo. Aparentemente hay una asociación muy fuerte entre la presencia de miopía y el grado de culturización e inteligencia. Los pueblos más desarrollados presentan mayor incidencia de miopía, y ésta a su vez se incrementa con la escolaridad. Basados en estudios filogenéticos y epidemiológicos se esboza la hipótesis: «que el hombre del futuro será cada vez más miope y a su vez más inteligente».

    EVOLUCIÓN DEL SISTEMA OCULAR.

    El primer ser multicelular con «ojos» rudimentarios aparece en la mitad de la era proterozoica, es decir, hace 1500 millones de años y sólo hasta el mesozoico, hace apenas 248 millones de años, se desarrollan los primeros animales con cerebro y ojos**. En los últimos 40 millones emergen los primates predecesores de los humanoides

    Al igual que para muchas especies animales, a lo largo de la historia de la evolución, la exposición a la luz marcó un cambio dramático en el ciclo vital. El hombre salió de las cavernas, para acostumbrarse a la luz: sin luz no hay visión. La tierra ha sido bombardeada por ondas electromagnéticas desde su creación.

    La luz, entre otros fenómenos, es la responsable de uno de las manifestaciones más primitivas de vida y se traduce en las escalas inferiores como un simple fototropismo. El anterior mecanismo da origen a los primeros esbozos

  8. Existencia de estructuras nodulosas de celestina afectadas por silicificación en el Valle de Losa (N. de Burgos

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    Elorza, J.

    1984-04-01

    (length-slow chalcedony. Estos nódulos, no mencionados hasta ahora en los trabajos realizados en la Cuenca Vasco-Cantábrica, se caracterizan por su aspecto alargado, a veces subesférico, Interiormente presentan una estructura radial constituida por pirámides apretadas entre sí, de sección rómbíca, que parten de un núcleo compacto. Su formación es claramente diagenética, con crecimiento expansivo desde el núcleo hacia el exterior. En este crecimiento son englobadas espinas de equínidos, restos de lamelibranquios, briozoos, etc., que existían en el sedimento y que conservan sus características morfológicas y mineralógicas. La pureza de la celestina es muy alta y no aparecen trazas de barita. Para los iones de la celestina se sugiere el siguiente origen. El aporte de sulfato parece estar conectado a la migración lateral de fluidos ricos en sulfatos procedentes de los yesos del Trías (Keuper. Esta hipótesis está apoyada en datos regionales. Admitimos como fuente principal del Sr la aportada por la liberación de éste durante la transformación del sedimento aragonítico a calcita, sin despreciar el Sr suministrado por el proceso de dolomitización parcial que sufre la serie sedimentaria. En el mismo nivel, asociadas a los nódulos de celestina, aparecen formas irregulares de sílex que encierran restos de espículas de esponjas silíceas (¿litisteidas? reemplazadas por carbonato espático. Esto nos indica una fuente biogénica para la sílice de los nódulos. El proceso de silicificación ha permitido testimoniar la existencia de los nódulos de celestina, puesto que la solubilización posterior de ésta ha sido muy fuerte, perdiéndose casi completamente.

  9. Estenosis Hipertrófica del Píloro

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    Hernando Forero Caballero

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Consiste en engrosamiento de la musculatura del píloro, el cual produce disminución de la luz del conducto pilórico que impide el paso del alimento y causa vómito en el primer mes de edad.

    Patología
    Las fibras musculares del píloro especialmente las circulares se encuentran hipertrofiadas lo mismo que el tejido elástico, con compresión de la mucosa, sin inflamación en un principio. El extremo distal del píloro se proyecta como un cérvix hacia el duodeno, mientras que el engrosamiento del antro gástrico es progresivo y gradual. El canal pilórico es estrecho y alargado.

    El peritoneo que cubre el píloro se observa tenso, blando y con cierta palidez. La musculatura está engrosada especialmente en la parte anterior y superior. La mucosa es moderadamente engrosada y con el tiempo edematoso, lo cual reduce la luz del canal pilórico.

    El estómago está dilatado y la musculatura del antro hipertrofiada, con peristaltismo vigoroso e irregular. La mucosa gástrica inflamada y hasta ulcerada en los casos de prolongado efecto de los ácidos gástricos. Los estudios con microscopio electrónico de luz han demostrado reducción de los neurofilamentos, degeneración del axón y neuronal inervación pobre en el músculo pilórico hipertrofiado.

    Se ha encontrado ausencia o notoria reducción de las fibras nerviosas positivas y de las fibras inmunorreactivas, que actúan como factores neurotróficos, en las capas musculares del músculo pilórico hipertrofiado. También se ha observado ausencia de las células ganglionares de los nervios peptidérgicos, de los nervios que contienen la sintasa del óxido nítrico y de las células intersticiales de cajal.

    Etiología
    La etiología de la estenosis hipertrófica del píloro no está completamente definida, aunque existen varias teorías que contribuyen a su explicación.

    Se ha expuesto que la hipertrofia del m

  10. Memorizing circuit for long pulses; Circuit de memoire pour impulsions longues; Zapominayushchee ustrojstvo dlya dlitel'nykh impul'sov; Circuito memorizador para impulsos de larga duracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coli, M; Horn, G [Sorin Centro Ricerche Nucleari di Saluggia (Italy)

    1962-04-15

    t + {tau}. Se suman los impulsos alargados de fase opuesta y se obtiene asi en la salida un impulso de amplitud A y de anchura t. El retardo {tau} es controlado por dos univibradores disparados a una distancia t (circuito de control del retardo) por un amplificador saturado que transforma en rectangular al impulso de entrada y da dos impulsos por medio de un circuito diferenciador (circuito medidor del retardo). El impulso de salida se pasa de nuevo a la entrada a traves de un atenuador y de una linea de retardo, El ciclo se repite con una frecuencia de {approx} 1/{tau}. El impulso memorizado tiene un ancho de 50 {mu}s a 10 ms y hasta mas. La frecuencia de repeticion puede variar desde 10{sup 4} Hz hasta 30 Hz e incluso menos. Se describe otro circuito basado en el mismo principio y que es capaz de memorizar la configuracion del impulso de entrada ademas de su amplitud y de su anchura. (author) [Russian] Blok-skhema predostavlyaet vozmozhnost' neogranichennogo zapominaniya polozhitel'nykh impul'sov lyuboj formy s sokhraneniem kak ikh amplitudy, tak i ikh shiriny. Teoreticheski pryamougol'nyj impul's s amplitudoj A i shirinoj t, proizvodimyj v kachestve odnokratnogo impul'sa v moment t = 0 mozhet byt' vosproizveden v svoej sobstvennoj zone cherez lyuboj promezhutok vremeni t, tak chto on mozhet byt' zaderzhan na ostsilloskope, sinkhronizirovannom s chastotoj povtoreniya {approx_equal} 1/{tau}. Narastayushchaya forma impul'sa ne zapominaetsya, tak chto vremya narastaniya i spada uderzhannogo ostsilloskopom impul'sa svojstvenny lish' samomu zapominayushchemu ustrojstvu. Po sushchestvu blok-skhema mozhet rassmatrivat'sya kak sostoyashchaya iz dvukh rasshiryayushchikh konturov. EHti kontury prevrashchayut vkhodnuyu shirinu t v t + {tau}. Udlinennye impul'sy protivopolozhnykh faz skladyvayutsya i dayut vykhodnoj impul's s amplitudoj A i shirinoj t. Vremya zaderzhki {tau} reguliruetsya dvumya konturami, ustojchivymi tol'ko v odnom sostoyanii i privodimymi v dejstvie s

  11. A novel time-to-pulse height converter for fast-neutron time-of-flight techniques; Nouveau convertisseur temps-amplitude d'impulsions pour les mesures du temps de vol des neutrons rapides; Novyj vremya-amplitudnyj preobrazovatel' impul'sov dlya izmereniya vremeni proleta bystrykh nejtronov; Nuevo convertidor tiempo-altura de impulsos para tecnicas de tiempo de vuelo de neutrones rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J [Physikalisches Staatsinstitut, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1962-04-15

    temps entre le demarrage de chacune des deux impulsions. L'impulsion de la plaque est etalee et amplifiee; son amplitude represente la mesure de la difference de temps. Avec cette methode l'auteur a obtenu un temps de resolution de 2{tau} = 7 {center_dot} 10{sup -12} s avec des impulsions artificielles de 2{tau} = 3 {center_dot} 10{sup -10} s, avec des coincidences gamma du {sup 60}Co, en utilisant des cristaux en plastique NE 102, et de 2{tau} = 1,4 {center_dot} 10{sup -9} s avec des coincidences gamma de 511 keV, en utilisant des cristaux de Nal (Te). Cette methode a ete egalement utilisee avec des faisceaux puises. Dans ce cas l'auteur a obtenu, a partir de la radiofrequence de pulsation, une suite d'impulsions de 8 Mc en pointes aigues, qui ont ete envoyees sur les plaques E80T. Le temps de resolution a ete de 2{tau} = 1,1 {center_dot} 10{sup -9} s avec des neutrons de 4 MeV, en utilisant des cristaux de plastique de 36 mm de long. Normalement la reponse lineaire se situe dans une region de 30 ns mais il est possible qu'elle atteigne 120 ns. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se describe un convertidor electronico tiempo-altura de impulsos, en el que se aplica un metodo de multiplicacion, en vez del metodo habitual de suma de impulsos que se superponen. Esto se logra haciendo coincidir dos impulsos, uno lineal en diente de sierra y uno muy aguzado. El impulso en diente de sierra se transmite a la rejilla de una valvula de haz dirigido (E80T) y el impulso aguzado se aplica a las placas deflectoras, abriendo la valvula solo durante un intervalo de unos 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -9} s. La placa recibe una carga proporcional al periodo entre el comienzo del impulso en diente de sierra y el impulso aguzado. El impulso de la placa es alargado y amplificado y su altura representa una medicion de la diferencia de tiempos. Con este metodo se han obtenido tiempos de resolucion de 2{tau} = 7 {center_dot} 10{sup -12} s con impulsos artificiales, de 2{tau} = 3 {center_dot} 10{sup -10

  12. Reacções adversas aos antibacilares em doentes internados: Gravidade e factores de risco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Vilariça

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Introdução: Atendendo às características do Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT, o tratamento da tuberculose (TB é feito com uma associação de vários fármacos, por um período de tempo alargado (≥ a 6 meses, cada um com potencial para provocar reacções adversas (RA. Estas podem acompanhar-se de significativa morbilidade e comprometer o tratamento da TB.Objectivos: Determinar a incidência, a gravidade e os factores de risco das principais RA induzidas pelos antibacilares, em doentes internados com TB em tratamento.Material e métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos registos clínicos dos doentes internados no Serviço de Pneumologia III do Hospital de Pulido Valente com tuberculose activa, medicados com antibacilares, durante o período de Abril de 1999 a Julho de 2007. Foram registadas as RA que resultaram em modificação ou descontinuação do tratamento ou que foram a causa de internamento.As características demográficas e os dados clínicos dos doentes foram usados como variáveis independentes. A relação entre variáveis independentes e a frequência e gravidade das RA foi feita através de uma análise multivariada, utilizando um modelo de regressão logística. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t de Student, one-way ANOVA e regressão logística. A aplicação utilizada para a análise estatística foi o programa SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versão 15.0.Resultados: Dos 1400 doentes internados e tratados por TB activa entre 1999 e 2007, 175 doentes (12,5%, 118 homens e 57 mulheres, apresentaram pelo menos uma RA induzida pelos antibacilares, num total de 192 eventos. A hepatotoxicidade foi a RA mais prevalente (83/47,4%, seguindo-se a reacção cutânea (55/31,4% e a intolerância gastrintestinal (24/13,7%. Em 76 doentes (43,4% as RA causaram o prolongamento do internamento. Constatou-se que a demora m

  13. Reacções adversas aos antibacilares em doentes internados: Gravidade e factores de risco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Vilariça

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Introdução: Atendendo às características do Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT, o tratamento da tuberculose (TB é feito com uma associação de vários fármacos, por um período de tempo alargado (≥ a 6 meses, cada um com potencial para provocar reacções adversas (RA. Estas podem acompanhar-se de significativa morbilidade e comprometer o tratamento da TB. Objectivos: Determinar a incidência, a gravidade e os factores de risco das principais RA induzidas pelos antibacilares, em doentes internados com TB em tratamento. Material e métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos registos clínicos dos doentes internados no Serviço de Pneumologia III do Hospital de Pulido Valente com tuberculose activa, medicados com antibacilares, durante o período de Abril de 1999 a Julho de 2007. Foram registadas as RA que resultaram em modificação ou descontinuação do tratamento ou que foram a causa de internamento. As características demográficas e os dados clínicos dos doentes foram usados como variáveis independentes. A relação entre variáveis independentes e a frequência e gravidade das RA foi feita através de uma análise multivariada, utilizando um modelo de regressão logística. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t de Student, one-way ANOVA e regressão logística. A aplicação utilizada para a análise estatística foi o programa SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versão 15.0. Resultados: Dos 1400 doentes internados e tratados por TB activa entre 1999 e 2007, 175 doentes (12,5%, 118 homens e 57 mulheres, apresentaram pelo menos uma RA induzida pelos antibacilares, num total de 192 eventos. A hepatotoxicidade foi a RA mais prevalente (83/47,4%, seguindo-se a reacção cutânea (55/31,4% e a intolerância gastrintestinal (24/13,7%. Em 76 doen tes (43,4% as RA causaram o prolongamento do internamento. Constatou-se que a demora

  14. Effect of {alpha}-Particle and X-Ray Irradiation on DNA Synthesis in Tissue Cultures; Effet de l'Irradiation par les Particules a et par les Rayons X sur la Synthese de l'ADN dans des Cultures de Tissus; 0412 043b 0438 044f 0414 ; Efectos de la Irradiacion con Particulas Alfa y con Rayos X sobre la Sintesis de ADN en Cultivos de Tejidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C. L. [Department of Radiotherapeutics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    lesions subies par la structure type de l'ADN (ou du phosphate de l'ADN) pendant la phase exponentielle dela synthese, les observations formulees plus haut sous 1, 2 et 3 constituent les corollaires evidents de ce phenomene. (author) [Spanish] La memoria describe los efectos de las particulas {alpha} y de los rayos X sobre la velocidad de sintesis del ADN en cultivos de tejidos de fibroblastos y de celulas de HeLa del raton. Los autores emplearon el metodo de la microautorradiografia con timidina tritiada, que les permitio evaluar la velocidad de sintesis en los cultivos de una sola capa que utilizaron. Los resultados indican que: 1) La fraccion de celulas que sintetizan ADN en un cultivo no es alterada por las particulas a. ni por los rayos X en las dosis experimentales empleadas. 2) Ambos tipos de radiaciones reducen la velocidad de sintesis del ADN en las celulas irradiadas. 3) El efecto de una dosis determinada de cualquiera de las dos radiaciones es disminuir la velocidad de sintesis de todas las celulas hasta una fraccion constante de la velocidad correspondiente a las celulas no irradiadas. 4) En. el caso de los fibroblastos del raton, la velocidad de sintesis del ADN queda reducida en un 37 por ciento (1/e) por una dosis a del orden de 25 {alpha}/{mu}{sup 2} o por una dosis de rayos X de 14 000 rad( En el caso de las celulas de HeLa, se requiere una dosis de unos 90 000 rad para alcanzar el mismo efecto. 5) La disminucion de la velocidad de sintesis se produce menos de media hora despues de la irradiacion, por lo que podria tratarse de un efecto inmediato. El resultado 4) permite calcular aproximadamente la forma del blanco. Si seo supone que es cilindrico, enoel caso de los fibroblastos, tendria un diametro aproximado de 16 A y una longitud de 16 000 A, es decir, se trataria de un cilindro extremadamente alargado con un peso molecular del orden de 5 x 10{sup 7}. Para las celulas de HeLa se obtendria un peso molecular de 10{sup 7}. Los resultados concuerdan con la

  15. Джерела стійкості проти збудника бурої іржі та їх використання у процесі створення сортів пшениці м’якої

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. М. Ковалишина

    2017-12-01

    еному пшениці та її родичів ідентифіковано й охарактеризовано за хромосомною локалізацією та ефективністю понад 90 (Lr генів стійкості проти цього збудника. Виявлено, що майже всі ефективні на території України гени стійкості проти збудника бурої іржі, окрім Lr10 та Lr23, є чужорідними, перенесеними в Triticum aestivum від інших видів: Aegilops speltoides – гени Lr28, Lr35, Lr36, Lr47, Lr51, Lr66; Aegilops tauschii – Lr1, Lr21, Lr22а, Lr32, Lr39, Lr42; Triticum timopheevii – Lr18 та Lr50; Thinopyrum elongatum – Lr19, Lr29, Lr24; Secale cereale – Lr25, Lr26 та Lr45; Aegilops umbellulata – Lr9, Lr76; Triticum speltа – Lr44, Lr65, Lr71; Triticum dicoccoides – Lr53, Lr64; Aegilops triuncialis – Lr58, LrTr; Tr. timopheevii spp. viticulosum – LrTt1; Aegilops ventricosa – Lr37; Aegilops kotschyi – Lr54; Elymus trachycaulis – Lr55; Aegilops sharonensis – Lr56; Aegilops geniculate – Lr57; Aegilops peregrine – Lr59; Triticum turgidum – Lr61; Aegilops neglecta – Lr62; Triticum monococcum – Lr63. Висновки. Залучення до схрещувань культурних та диких видів родичів пшениці дасть змогу отримати неоднорідний за стійкістю проти збудника бурої іржі селекційний матеріал.